WorldWideScience

Sample records for profile showed differences

  1. Phenolic Acids from Wheat Show Different Absorption Profiles in Plasma: A Model Experiment with Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    , their concentrations in the plasma and the absorption profiles differed between cinnamic and benzoic acid derivatives. Cinnamic acids derivatives such as ferulic acid and caffeic acid had maximum plasma concentration of 82 ± 20 and 200 ± 7 nM, respectively, and their absorption profiles differed depending on the diet...... consumed. Benzoic acid derivatives showed low concentration in the plasma (acid, with a plasma concentration (4 ± 0.4 μM), much higher than the other plant phenolic acids, likely because it is an intermediate in the phenolic acid metabolism......The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study...

  2. Different methods to quantify Listeria monocytogenesbiofilms cells showed different profile in their viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizziane Kretli Winkelströter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen able to adhere and to form biofilms in several materials commonly present in food processing plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Listeria monocytogenes attached to abiotic surface, after treatment with sanitizers, by culture method, microscopy and Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR. Biofilms of L. monocytogenes were obtained in stainless steel coupons immersed in Brain Heart Infusion Broth, under agitation at 37 °C for 24 h. The methods selected for this study were based on plate count, microscopic count with the aid of viability dyes (CTC-DAPI, and qPCR. Results of culture method showed that peroxyacetic acid was efficient to kill sessile L. monocytogenes populations, while sodium hypochlorite was only partially effective to kill attached L. monocytogenes (p < 0.05. When, viability dyes (CTC/DAPI combined with fluorescence microscopy and qPCR were used and lower counts were found after treatments (p < 0.05. Selective quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes by qPCR using EMA revelead that the pre-treatment with EMA was not appropriate since it also inhibited amplification of DNA from live cells by ca. 2 log. Thus, the use of CTC counts was the best method to count viable cells in biofilms.

  3. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Contrasting Rice Genotypes Shows Expression Differences during Arsenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Rai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of arsenic (As in rice ( L. grain is a serious concern worldwide. Long-term exposure to As affects nutritional status in rice grain and is associated with higher rates of skin, bladder, and lung cancers, and heart disease. Genotypic variations in rice for As accumulation or tolerance are prevalent and are regulated by genetic and environmental factors. To understand molecular networks involved in As accumulation, genome-wide expression analysis was performed in roots of low- and high-As accumulating rice genotypes (LARGs and HARGs. Six rice genotypes with contrasting As accumulation potential and tolerance were used in this study. Genome-wide expression analysis suggested their differential response against As stress. This study suggests up- and downregulation of a number of unique genes involved in various pathways and biological processes in response to As stress in rice genotypes. A comparison of gene expression profiles, principal component analysis, and -means clustering suggests that an independent pathway is operating during As stress tolerance or accumulation in contrasting genotypes. It was also observed that the differential behavior of genotype, Nayanmoni, from other LARGs might be due to its different genetic background. -motif profiling of As-induced coexpressed genes in diverse rice genotypes led to the identification of unique -motifs present in differentially expressed genes. This study suggests that the genetic mechanism regulating the differential As accumulation in different genotypes may not be dependent on gene expression at the transcriptional level. However, many genes identified in this study can be analyzed and used for marker–trait associations related to As accumulation in diverse genotypes around the world.

  4. Progesterone profiles around the time of insemination do not show clear differences between of pregnant and not pregnant dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorzecka, Justyna; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Friggens, Nicolas C

    2011-01-01

    differences between the groups. However, the analysis correctly classified 75% of true pregnant cows. Conversely, only 60% of not pregnant animals were classified as such by the discriminate analysis. Individual analysis of progesterone profile features in pregnant and not pregnant groups of estrous cycles...

  5. Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum show sensory processing differences as measured by the sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Carly; Arroyo, Monica S; Dunn, Winnie; Strominger, Zoe; Sherr, Elliott H; Marco, Elysa

    2015-09-01

    Given reports of high pain thresholds and reduced auditory response in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), this study investigated whether affected participants report atypical experiences and behaviors on a well-established sensory processing measure. Fourteen participants with AgCC (ages 11-59) completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (Brown & Dunn, 2001). Sensory profile scales were classified as "Atypical" if they were more than 1 standard deviation from the mean. Fifty-seven percent of participants with AgCC reported reduced sensory registration as compared to an expected 16% of the normative sample. Similarly, 50% of the AgCC participants reported atypically increased auditory processing difficulties. Using a well-established sensory processing questionnaire, participants with AgCC reported measurable differences in multiple aspects of sensory processing. The most notable difference was in the quadrant of low sensory registration, suggesting that individuals with AgCC may require sensory information to be presented more slowly or at a higher intensity for adequate processing. The sensory modality that was most affected was the auditory system, which is consistent with increased rates of language disorders and autism spectrum disorders in this population. Understanding sensory processing in individuals with AgCC can both elucidate the role of interhemispheric transfer in the development of intact sensory processing as well as contribute to our knowledge of the role of the corpus callosum in a range of disorders in which sensory processes are impacted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated withgrowth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from mus-culus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected ...

  7. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    firmed difference in expression profiles of the identified genes in musculus longissimus muscle tissues between the two Lan- ..... Discussion. The EEF1A2, TSG101 and TTN identified as upregulated genes in high-growth group have been reported to be involved in myotube survival and .... cDNA probes and libraries. Proc.

  8. DNA Methylation Profiling of Human Prefrontal Cortex Neurons in Heroin Users Shows Significant Difference between Genomic Contexts of Hyper- and Hypomethylation and a Younger Epigenetic Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kozlenkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We employed Illumina 450 K Infinium microarrays to profile DNA methylation (DNAm in neuronal nuclei separated by fluorescence-activated sorting from the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC of heroin users who died from heroin overdose (N = 37, suicide completers (N = 22 with no evidence of heroin use and from control subjects who did not abuse illicit drugs and died of non-suicide causes (N = 28. We identified 1298 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs between heroin users and controls, and 454 DMSs between suicide completers and controls (p < 0.001. DMSs and corresponding genes (DMGs in heroin users showed significant differences in the preferential context of hyper and hypo DM. HyperDMSs were enriched in gene bodies and exons but depleted in promoters, whereas hypoDMSs were enriched in promoters and enhancers. In addition, hyperDMGs showed preference for genes expressed specifically by glutamatergic as opposed to GABAergic neurons and enrichment for axonogenesis- and synaptic-related gene ontology categories, whereas hypoDMGs were enriched for transcription factor activity- and gene expression regulation-related terms. Finally, we found that the DNAm-based “epigenetic age” of neurons from heroin users was younger than that in controls. Suicide-related results were more difficult to interpret. Collectively, these findings suggest that the observed DNAm differences could represent functionally significant marks of heroin-associated plasticity in the OFC.

  9. NMR metabolomics profiling of blood plasma mimics shows that medium- and long-chain fatty acids differently release metabolites from human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupin, M.; Michiels, P. J.; Girard, F. C.; Spraul, M.; Wijmenga, S. S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolite profiling by NMR of body fluids is increasingly used to successfully differentiate patients from healthy individuals. Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters of body biochemistry. However, in blood plasma the NMR-detected free-metabolite concentrations are also strongly affected by interactions with the abundant plasma proteins, which have as of yet not been considered much in metabolic profiling. We previously reported that many of the common NMR-detected metabolites in blood plasma bind to human serum albumin (HSA) and many are released by fatty acids present in fatted HSA. HSA is the most abundant plasma protein and main transporter of endogenous and exogenous metabolites. Here, we show by NMR how the two most common fatty acids (FAs) in blood plasma - the long-chain FA, stearate (C18:0) and medium-chain FA, myristate (C14:0) - affect metabolite-HSA interaction. Of the set of 18 common NMR-detected metabolites, many are released by stearate and/or myristate, lactate appearing the most strongly affected. Myristate, but not stearate, reduces HSA-binding of phenylalanine and pyruvate. Citrate signals were NMR invisible in the presence of HSA. Only at high myristate-HSA mole ratios 11:1, is citrate sufficiently released to be detected. Finally, we find that limited dilution of blood-plasma mimics releases HSA-bound metabolites, a finding confirmed in real blood plasma samples. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for NMR experiments for quantitative metabolite profiling.

  10. ASGR1 and ASGR2, the Genes that Encode the Asialoglycoprotein Receptor (Ashwell Receptor, Are Expressed in Peripheral Blood Monocytes and Show Interindividual Differences in Transcript Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Louise Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR is a hepatic receptor that mediates removal of potentially hazardous glycoconjugates from blood in health and disease. The receptor comprises two proteins, asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 and 2 (ASGR1 and ASGR2, encoded by the genes ASGR1 and ASGR2. Design and Methods. Using reverse transcription amplification (RT-PCR, expression of ASGR1 and ASGR2 was investigated in human peripheral blood monocytes. Results. Monocytes were found to express ASGR1 and ASGR2 transcripts. Correctly spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms of ASGR1 and ASGR2 were present in monocytes. The profile of transcript variants from both ASGR1 and ASGR2 differed among individuals. Transcript expression levels were compared with the hepatocyte cell line HepG2 which produces high levels of ASGPR. Monocyte transcripts were 4 to 6 orders of magnitude less than in HepG2 but nonetheless readily detectable using standard RT-PCR. The monocyte cell line THP1 gave similar results to monocytes harvested from peripheral blood, indicating it may provide a suitable model system for studying ASGPR function in this cell type. Conclusions. Monocytes transcribe and correctly process transcripts encoding the constituent proteins of the ASGPR. Monocytes may therefore represent a mobile pool of the receptor, capable of reaching sites remote from the liver.

  11. Guanine α-carboxy nucleoside phosphonate (G-α-CNP) shows a different inhibitory kinetic profile against the DNA polymerases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, Jan; Menni, Michael; Das, Kalyan; van Berckelaer, Lizette; Ford, Alan; Maguire, Nuala M; Liekens, Sandra; Boehmer, Paul E; Arnold, Eddy; Götte, Matthias; Maguire, Anita R

    2017-07-15

    α-Carboxy nucleoside phosphonates (α-CNPs) are modified nucleotides that represent a novel class of nucleotide-competing reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NcRTIs). They were designed to act directly against HIV-1 RT without the need for prior activation (phosphorylation). In this respect, they differ from the nucleoside or nucleotide RTIs [N(t)RTIs] that require conversion to their triphosphate forms before being inhibitory to HIV-1 RT. The guanine derivative (G-α-CNP) has now been synthesized and investigated for the first time. The (L)-(+)-enantiomer of G-α-CNP directly and competitively inhibits HIV-1 RT by interacting with the substrate active site of the enzyme. The (D)-(-)-enantiomer proved inactive against HIV-1 RT. In contrast, the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of G-α-CNP inhibited herpes (i.e. HSV-1, HCMV) DNA polymerases in a non- or uncompetitive manner, strongly indicating interaction of the (L)-(+)- and the (D)-(-)-G-α-CNPs at a location different from the polymerase substrate active site of the herpes enzymes. Such entirely different inhibition profile of viral polymerases is unprecedented for a single antiviral drug molecule. Moreover, within the class of α-CNPs, subtle differences in their sensitivity to mutant HIV-1 RT enzymes were observed depending on the nature of the nucleobase in the α-CNP molecules. The unique properties of the α-CNPs make this class of compounds, including G-α-CNP, direct acting inhibitors of multiple viral DNA polymerases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Giant cell glioblastoma and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma show different immunohistochemical profiles for neuronal antigens and p53 but share reactivity for class III beta-tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Diaz, Hilda; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B K; Powell, Suzanne Z; Yachnis, Anthony T

    2003-09-01

    Giant cell glioblastoma multiforme (GCGBM) and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) are clinically, radiographically, and histologically distinct tumors of the central nervous system. However, they share features of gross circumscription, reticulin deposition, lymphocytic infiltrates, and prominent populations of tumor giant cells. Neuronal antigens have been detected in the neoplastic cells of PXAs, but to our knowledge have not been studied previously in GCGBMs. While TP53 is mutated in most GCGBMs, a feature usually paralleled by strong immunostaining of the protein, the expression pattern of PXAs has not been extensively studied. To compare the immunoprofiles of GCGBM and PXA with regard to neuronal antigens and p53 and to evaluate the potential diagnostic utility of such a panel. Archival paraffin sections of 9 GCGBMs and 9 PXAs were immunostained for class III beta-tubulin, neuronal nuclear antigen, neurofilament protein, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and p53. Giant cell glioblastomas were strongly immunoreactive for class III beta-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein, but showed only rare staining for the other neuronal polypeptides. In contrast, PXAs usually showed at least focal staining of individual tumor cells for most of the neuronal antigens tested. Tubulin was strongly positive in tumor giant cells and in smaller neoplastic cells of both tumor types. Double-immunolabeling revealed distinct populations of tumor cells that expressed either glial fibrillary acidic protein or tubulin and dual-labeling of individual cells in GCGBM and PXA. Strong p53 staining was observed in many tumor cells in 5 of 8 GCGBMs tested, while staining for this antigen was negative or focally positive in 6 of 8 PXAs examined. Giant cell glioblastoma multiforme and PXA show distinct patterns of immunoreactivity for neuronal antigens and p53 that may be useful diagnostically in difficult cases or in limited samples. These results provide further evidence

  13. Fingerprinting using extrolite profiles and physiological data shows sub-specific groupings of Penicillium crustosum strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonjak, Silva; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2009-01-01

    if the strains investigated already showed slight adaptations to the selected external parameter. In contrast, PCA analyses of the extrolite data showed groupings of the strains according to their origins and known physiological differences. These groupings are in full agreement with the clustering obtained...... water activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using micromorphological data, temperature- and water-dependent growth rates, and extrolite profiles obtained by HPLC analysis. The micromorphological data were less informative, while the growth-rate data were informative only...

  14. Cognitive measure on different profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindola, Marilda; Carra, Giovani; Balbinot, Alexandre; Zaro, Milton A

    2010-01-01

    Based on neurology and cognitive science many studies are developed to understand the human model mental, getting to know how human cognition works, especially about learning processes that involve complex contents and spatial-logical reasoning. Event Related Potential - ERP - is a basic and non-invasive method of electrophysiological investigation. It can be used to assess aspects of human cognitive processing by changing the rhythm of the frequency bands brain indicate that some type of processing or neuronal behavior. This paper focuses on ERP technique to help understand cognitive pathway in subjects from different areas of knowledge when they are exposed to an external visual stimulus. In the experiment we used 2D and 3D visual stimulus in the same picture. The signals were captured using 10 (ten) Electroencephalogram - EEG - channel system developed for this project and interfaced in a ADC (Analogical Digital System) board with LabVIEW system - National Instruments. That research was performed using project of experiments technique - DOE. The signal processing were done (math and statistical techniques) showing the relationship between cognitive pathway by groups and intergroups.

  15. Do men and women show love differently in marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Bredow, Carrie A; Huston, Ted L

    2012-11-01

    In Western societies, women are considered more adept than men at expressing love in romantic relationships. Although scholars have argued that this view of love gives short shrift to men's ways of showing love (e.g., Cancian, 1986; Noller, 1996), the widely embraced premise that men and women "love differently" has rarely been examined empirically. Using data collected at four time points over 13 years of marriage, the authors examined whether love is associated with different behaviors for husbands and wives. Multilevel analyses revealed that, counter to theoretical expectations, both genders were equally likely to show love through affection. But whereas wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives. Overall, the findings indicate that men and women show their love in more nuanced ways than cultural stereotypes suggest.

  16. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Wierslnca-Post, J. Esther C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  17. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  18. Where is the science? What will it take to show that nutrient profiling systems work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Marilyn S

    2010-04-01

    Nutrient profiling is defined as the science of ranking or categorizing foods on the basis of their nutritional composition. Validity is a general term meaning accuracy. Nutrient profiling systems in the United States have not undergone any systematic validation effort to assess their accuracy against a comparison measure or group of measures. Different types of validation studies should be conducted: content, face, convergent, criterion, and predictive. This article provides a conceptual framework for establishing the validity of nutrient profiling systems with the desired objective of assisting US consumers with food selection to improve diet quality. For a profiling system to work successfully in the American marketplace, it must function well with consumers from most or all cultural groups, from all racial groups, and with low-literate as well as highly literate people. Emphasis should be placed on conducting different types of validation studies and multiple studies with different subpopulation groups. The use of consistent standards to assess the accuracy and usefulness of multiple profiling systems is imperative to successfully identify a nutrient profiling intervention that will have the potential to lead to improved diet quality and eventually to an improved health status in US consumers.

  19. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yohei; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Egashira, Toru; Seki, Tomohisa; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Tohyama, Shugo; Saito, Yuki; Kunitomi, Akira; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Onizuka, Takeshi; Kageyama, Toshimi; Yae, Kojiro; Tanaka, Tomofumi; Kaneda, Ruri; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Kimura, Kensuke; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1) the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2) the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  20. Different Achilles Tendon Pathologies Show Distinct Histological and Molecular Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Klatte-Schulz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasons for the development of chronic tendon pathologies are still under debate and more basic knowledge is needed about the different diseases. The aim of the present study was therefore to characterize different acute and chronic Achilles tendon disorders. Achilles tendon samples from patients with chronic tendinopathy (n = 7, chronic ruptures (n = 6, acute ruptures (n = 13, and intact tendons (n = 4 were analyzed. The histological score investigating pathological changes was significantly increased in tendinopathy and chronic ruptures compared to acute ruptures. Inflammatory infiltration was detected by immunohistochemistry in all tendon pathology groups, but was significantly lower in tendinopathy compared to chronic ruptures. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis revealed significantly altered expression of genes related to collagens and matrix modeling/remodeling (matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in tendinopathy and chronic ruptures compared to intact tendons and/or acute ruptures. In all three tendon pathology groups markers of inflammation (interleukin (IL 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, IL6, IL10, IL33, soluble ST2, transforming growth factor β1, cyclooxygenase 2, inflammatory cells (cluster of differentaition (CD 3, CD68, CD80, CD206, fat metabolism (fatty acid binding protein 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, adiponectin, and innervation (protein gene product 9.5, growth associated protein 43, macrophage migration inhibitory factor were detectable, but only in acute ruptures significantly regulated compared to intact tendons. The study gives an insight into structural and molecular changes of pathological processes in tendons and might be used to identify targets for future therapy of tendon pathologies.

  1. Optimizing the ATLAS code with different profilers

    CERN Document Server

    Kama, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    After the current maintenance period, the LHC will provide higher energy collisions with increased luminosity. In order to keep up with these higher rates, ATLAS software needs to speed up substantially. However, ATLAS code is composed of approximately 4M lines, written by many different programmers with different backgrounds, which makes code optimisation a challenge. To help with this effort different profiling tools and techniques are being used. These include well known tools, such as the Valgrind suite and Intel Amplifier; less common tools like PIN, PAPI, and GOODA; as well as techniques such as library interposing. In this talk we will mainly focus on PIN tools and GOODA. PIN is a dynamic binary instrumentation tool which can obtain statistics such as call counts, instruction counts and interrogate functions' arguments. It has been used to obtain CLHEP Matrix profiles, operations and vector sizes for linear algebra calculations which has provided the insight necessary to achieve significant performance...

  2. Optimizing ATLAS code with different profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, S.; Seuster, R.; Stewart, G. A.; Vitillo, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    After the current maintenance period, the LHC will provide higher energy collisions with increased luminosity. In order to keep up with these higher rates, ATLAS software needs to speed up substantially. However, ATLAS code is composed of approximately 6M lines, written by many different programmers with different backgrounds, which makes code optimisation a challenge. To help with this effort different profiling tools and techniques are being used. These include well known tools, such as the Valgrind suite and Intel Amplifier; less common tools like Pin, PAPI, and GOoDA; as well as techniques such as library interposing. In this paper we will mainly focus on Pin tools and GOoDA. Pin is a dynamic binary instrumentation tool which can obtain statistics such as call counts, instruction counts and interrogate functions' arguments. It has been used to obtain CLHEP Matrix profiles, operations and vector sizes for linear algebra calculations which has provided the insight necessary to achieve significant performance improvements. Complimenting this, GOoDA, an in-house performance tool built in collaboration with Google, which is based on hardware performance monitoring unit events, is used to identify hot-spots in the code for different types of hardware limitations, such as CPU resources, caches, or memory bandwidth. GOoDA has been used in improvement of the performance of new magnetic field code and identification of potential vectorization targets in several places, such as Runge-Kutta propagation code.

  3. Terpenic profile of different Rosmarinus officinalis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, Neli-Kinga; Benedec, Daniela; Socaci, Sonia; Toma, Claudia Crina; Filip, Lorena; Morgovan, Claudiu; Hanganu, Daniela

    2017-07-01

    The Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), a well-known medicinal and culinary herb, was studied to compare the terpenic profile of different extracts obtained from dry and fresh herb. There were studied the volatile oil extracted by hydro distillation from dry plant, the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from fresh respectively dry plant and the glycerol macerate obtained from fresh plant, by GC-MS using headspace injection. The separated compounds were identified using a MS spectra library. The quantitative determination was performed by normalization respectively by calibration curve method for 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene and D-limonene. The main separated compounds were alpha-pinene, 1,8-cineol, camphene, camphor, D-limonene and cymene. A significant difference was observed between the 4 samples volatile profiles. 1,8-cineole was found major component of the essential oil (VO-21.39%) and glycerol macerate (GM-35.60%), while and α-pinene was detected as the main constituent of the two tinctures (T-46.05%; MT-31.93%). The highest 1,8-cineol content, determined by calibration curve method, was found in the volatile oil, while the fresh plant hydroalcoholic extract was richer in α-pinene and D-limonene.

  4. Lipid Profiles of Persons With Paraplegia and Tetraplegia: Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas; Knöebber, Judith; Vogt, Stefan; König, Daniel; Deibert, Peter; Bültermann, Dirk; Heinrich, Lothar; Baumstark, Manfred W; Berg, Aloys; Storch, Max-Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: To examine the lipoprotein profiles of men and women with paraplegia and tetraplegia. Impairment of the sympathetic nervous system (dependent on the level of injury) and the extent of physical capacity and activity were correlated with the lipid profile in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Sex-related differences of the lipoprotein profiles could be found in nondisabled and premenopausal women with SCI mainly because of the different effects of sexual hormones. Methods: Lipoprotein profiles of 112 participants with SCI (32 premenopausal women, 80 men) were analyzed and correlated to sex, lesion level, and physical performance capacity. Results: Women with tetraplegia or paraplegia showed significantly higher levels of high-density lipoprotein and lower ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared with men with corresponding lesion levels, without a difference in peak oxygen consumption. Concentrations of very-low-density lipoproteins were lower in women with paraplegia than in men with paraplegia; no differences were found in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Sex-independent elevations in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were associated with paraplegia, and sex-independent elevations in triglyceride levels were associated with tetraplegia. Conclusions: Persons with SCI showed sex-related differences in their lipoprotein profiles. Independent of physical fitness, the lipoprotein profile of premenopausal women with SCI did not exhibit the adverse lipoprotein characteristics observed in men with SCI, probably because of the influence of sexual hormones independent of lesion level. PMID:18795478

  5. Embryonic carcinoma cells show specific dielectric resistance profiles during induced differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Öz

    Full Text Available Induction of differentiation in cancer stem cells by drug treatment represents an important approach for cancer therapy. The understanding of the mechanisms that regulate such a forced exit from malignant pluripotency is fundamental to enhance our knowledge of tumour stability. Certain nucleoside analogues, such as 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine and 1β-arabinofuranosylcytosine, can induce the differentiation of the embryonic cancer stem cell line NTERA 2 D1 (NT2. Such induced differentiation is associated with drug-dependent DNA-damage, cellular stress and the proteolytic depletion of stem cell factors. In order to further elucidate the mode of action of these nucleoside drugs, we monitored differentiation-specific changes of the dielectric properties of growing NT2 cultures using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS. We measured resistance values of untreated and retinoic acid treated NT2 cells in real-time and compared their impedance profiles to those of cell populations triggered to differentiate with several established substances, including nucleoside drugs. Here we show that treatment with retinoic acid and differentiation-inducing drugs can trigger specific, concentration-dependent changes in dielectric resistance of NT2 cultures, which can be observed as early as 24 hours after treatment. Further, low concentrations of nucleoside drugs induce differentiation-dependent impedance values comparable to those obtained after retinoic acid treatment, whereas higher concentrations induce proliferation defects. Finally, we show that impedance profiles of substance-induced NT2 cells and those triggered to differentiate by depletion of the stem cell factor OCT4 are very similar, suggesting that reduction of OCT4 levels has a dominant function for differentiation induced by nucleoside drugs and retinoic acid. The data presented show that NT2 cells have specific dielectric properties, which allow the early identification of differentiating

  6. Data showing phenotypic profile of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from sepsis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Verma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial virulence factors (VFs influence the site and severity of urinary tract infections (UTI and further leading to sepsis infection. Phenotypic characterisation of VFs specific to sepsis Escherichia coli strains has not been characterized in Indian population till date. In this data article, we have described important VFs of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC that is P fim, Type-1 fim, cell surface hydrophobicity, mannose resistant haemagglutination/mannose sensitive haemagglutination (MRHA/MSHA expression and α-haemolysin production. The data includes a profile of the five VFs investigated in E. coli isolates from sepsis patients (N=78 and control group (N=50 from non-sepsis subjects. We found that P fim phenotype was expressed in 25.3% of E. coli isolates from sepsis patients, whereas Type-1 fimbriae was detected in 30.5%. Cell surface hydrophobicity phenotype was present in 30.5%, α-haemolysin in 26.3% and MRHA/MSHA in 22.1% of sepsis E. coli isolates. None of the control E. coli isolates showed presence of these phenotypes. The combined phenotypic profile of all the five VFs was significantly higher in sepsis patients as compared to the control group.

  7. Rural and urban differences in metabolic profiles in a Cameroonian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural and urban differences in metabolic profiles in a Cameroonian population. ... to describe and compare the metabolic (fasting blood sugar and lipid profile) ... population, and study the association to anthropometric risk factors of obesity.

  8. Metabolic profiles show specific mitochondrial toxicities in vitro in myotube cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Qiuwei, E-mail: qiuwei_xu@merck.com; Vu, Heather; Liu Liping; Wang, Ting-Chuan; Schaefer, William H. [Merck Research Laboratories (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Mitochondrial toxicity has been a serious concern, not only in preclinical drug development but also in clinical trials. In mitochondria, there are several distinct metabolic processes including fatty acid {beta}-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and each process contains discrete but often intimately linked steps. Interruption in any one of those steps can cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Detection of inhibition to OXPHOS can be complicated in vivo because intermediate endogenous metabolites can be recycled in situ or circulated systemically for metabolism in other organs or tissues. Commonly used assays for evaluating mitochondrial function are often applied to ex vivo or in vitro samples; they include various enzymatic or protein assays, as well as functional assays such as measurement of oxygen consumption rate, membrane potential, or acidification rates. Metabolomics provides quantitative profiles of overall metabolic changes that can aid in the unraveling of explicit biochemical details of mitochondrial inhibition while providing a holistic view and heuristic understanding of cellular bioenergetics. In this paper, we showed the application of quantitative NMR metabolomics to in vitro myotube cells treated with mitochondrial toxicants, rotenone and antimycin A. The close coupling of the TCA cycle to the electron transfer chain (ETC) in OXPHOS enables specific diagnoses of inhibition to ETC complexes by discrete biochemical changes in the TCA cycle.

  9. Allergic asthmatics show divergent lipid mediator profiles from healthy controls both at baseline and following birch pollen provocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L Lundström

    Full Text Available Asthma is a respiratory tract disorder characterized by airway hyper-reactivity and chronic inflammation. Allergic asthma is associated with the production of allergen-specific IgE and expansion of allergen-specific T-cell populations. Progression of allergic inflammation is driven by T-helper type 2 (Th2 mediators and is associated with alterations in the levels of lipid mediators.Responses of the respiratory system to birch allergen provocation in allergic asthmatics were investigated. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the bronchoalveolar lumen to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators associated with allergen challenge in allergic asthmatics.Eighty-seven lipid mediators representing the cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LOX and cytochrome P450 (CYP metabolic pathways were screened via LC-MS/MS following off-line extraction of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Multivariate statistics using OPLS were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin data in combination with immunological markers.Thirty-two oxylipins were quantified, with baseline asthmatics possessing a different oxylipin profile relative to healthy individuals that became more distinct following allergen provocation. The most prominent differences included 15-LOX-derived ω-3 and ω-6 oxylipins. Shared-and-Unique-Structures (SUS-plot modeling showed a correlation (R(2 = 0.7 between OPLS models for baseline asthmatics (R(2Y[cum] = 0.87, Q(2[cum] = 0.51 and allergen-provoked asthmatics (R(2Y[cum] = 0.95, Q(2[cum] = 0.73, with the majority of quantified lipid mediators and cytokines contributing equally to both groups. Unique structures for allergen provocation included leukotrienes (LTB(4 and 6-trans-LTB(4, CYP-derivatives of linoleic acid (epoxides/diols, and IL-10.Differences in asthmatic relative to healthy profiles suggest a role for 15-LOX products of both ω-6 and ω-3 origin in allergic inflammation. Prominent differences at baseline levels indicate

  10. Skin melanocytes and fibroblasts show different changes in choline metabolism during cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windler, Cordula; Gey, Claudia; Seeger, Karsten

    2017-06-01

    Unmodified cells undergo only a limited number of cell divisions until they enter a state termed cellular senescence. Other triggers like cytotoxic compounds can also induce cell senescence. Since cell senescence represents a major mechanism of tumor suppression this cellular state has attracted increasing attention. Different markers like senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SAβGal), senescence-associated heterochromatic foci (SAHF) or certain metabolic changes have been identified to be characteristic for senescent cells; however, data is often limited to fibroblasts - the cardinal model system for cellular senescence. In order to investigate whether metabolic changes during senescence are cell type independent, skin fibroblasts and skin melanocytes have been examined. Expression of the senescence marker p16 could be detected in skin fibroblasts but not in melanocytes of this specific donor, rendering the senescent phenotype not fully ascertained for the melanocytes. Metabolic profiles of senescent cells and controls have been determined using NMR spectroscopy. Changes in metabolism are different for fibroblasts and melanocytes. Senescent melanocytes showed lower levels of phosphocholine whereas for fibroblasts in accordance with literature, levels of glycerophosphocholine were increased during senescence. Although no general metabolic marker for cellular senescence exists, the same metabolic pathway seems to be affected for both cell types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites

  12. Chronic myeloid leukemia patients sensitive and resistant to imatinib treatment show different metabolic responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiye A

    Full Text Available The BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib is highly effective for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. However, some patients gradually develop resistance to imatinib, resulting in therapeutic failure. Metabonomic and genomic profiling of patients' responses to drug interventions can provide novel information about the in vivo metabolism of low-molecular-weight compounds and extend our insight into the mechanism of drug resistance. Based on a multi-platform of high-throughput metabonomics, SNP array analysis, karyotype and mutation, the metabolic phenotypes and genomic polymorphisms of CML patients and their diverse responses to imatinib were characterized. The untreated CML patients (UCML showed different metabolic patterns from those of healthy controls, and the discriminatory metabolites suggested the perturbed metabolism of the urea cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, lipid metabolism, and amino acid turnover in UCML. After imatinib treatment, patients sensitive to imatinib (SCML and patients resistant to imatinib (RCML had similar metabolic phenotypes to those of healthy controls and UCML, respectively. SCML showed a significant metabolic response to imatinib, with marked restoration of the perturbed metabolism. Most of the metabolites characterizing CML were adjusted to normal levels, including the intermediates of the urea cycle and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA. In contrast, neither cytogenetic nor metabonomic analysis indicated any positive response to imatinib in RCML. We report for the first time the associated genetic and metabonomic responses of CML patients to imatinib and show that the perturbed in vivo metabolism of UCML is independent of imatinib treatment in resistant patients. Thus, metabonomics can potentially characterize patients' sensitivity or resistance to drug intervention.

  13. Urinary Metabolite Profiles in Premature Infants Show Early Postnatal Metabolic Adaptation and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel J. Moltu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early nutrition influences metabolic programming and long-term health. We explored the urinary metabolite profiles of 48 premature infants (birth weight < 1500 g randomized to an enhanced or a standard diet during neonatal hospitalization. Methods: Metabolomics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR was conducted on urine samples obtained during the first week of life and thereafter fortnightly. Results: The intervention group received significantly higher amounts of energy, protein, lipids, vitamin A, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as compared to the control group. Enhanced nutrition did not appear to affect the urine profiles to an extent exceeding individual variation. However, in all infants the glucogenic amino acids glycine, threonine, hydroxyproline and tyrosine increased substantially during the early postnatal period, along with metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (succinate, oxoglutarate, fumarate and citrate. The metabolite changes correlated with postmenstrual age. Moreover, we observed elevated threonine and glycine levels in first-week urine samples of the small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age as compared to the appropriate for gestational age infants. Conclusion: This first nutri-metabolomics study in premature infants demonstrates that the physiological adaptation during the fetal-postnatal transition as well as maturation influences metabolism during the breastfeeding period. Elevated glycine and threonine levels were found in the first week urine samples of the SGA infants and emerged as potential biomarkers of an altered metabolic phenotype.

  14. Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Cases with Different Deficit Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träff, Ulf; Olsson, Linda; Östergren, Rickard; Skagerlund, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) has long been thought to be a monolithic learning disorder that can be attributed to a specific neurocognitive dysfunction. However, recent research has increasingly recognized the heterogeneity of DD, where DD can be differentiated into subtypes in which the underlying cognitive deficits and neural dysfunctions may differ. The aim was to further understand the heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia (DD) from a cognitive psychological perspective. Utilizing four children (8-9 year-old) we administered a comprehensive cognitive test battery that shed light on the cognitive-behavioral profile of each child. The children were compared against norm groups of aged-matched peers. Performance was then contrasted against predominant hypotheses of DD, which would also give insight into candidate neurocognitive correlates. Despite showing similar mathematical deficits, these children showed remarkable interindividual variability regarding cognitive profile and deficits. Two cases were consistent with the approximate number system deficit account and also the general magnitude-processing deficit account. These cases showed indications of having domain-general deficits as well. One case had an access deficit in combination with a general cognitive deficit. One case suffered from general cognitive deficits only. The results showed that DD cannot be attributed to a single explanatory factor. These findings support a multiple deficits account of DD and suggest that some cases have multiple deficits, whereas other cases have a single deficit. We discuss a previously proposed distinction between primary DD and secondary DD, and suggest hypotheses of dysfunctional neurocognitive correlates responsible for the displayed deficits.

  15. Abused and Nonabused Women: MMPI Profile Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellen, Murray I.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared abused women (N=10) with nonabused women (N=10) by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Results showed that when compared to a matched group of nonabused women, a significantly greater proportion of abused women evidenced pathological conditions. (LLL)

  16. Cytokine profiles show heterogeneity of interferon-β response in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegen, Harald; Adrianto, Indra; Lessard, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum cytokine profiles for their utility to determine the heterogeneous responses to interferon (IFN)-β treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome receiving de novo IFN-β treatment...... were included in this prospective, observational study. Number of relapses and changes in disability were assessed 2 years prior to and 2 years after initiation of treatment. Sera were collected at baseline and after 3 months on therapy. Cytokine levels in sera were assessed by Luminex multiplex assays...... and no worsening of disability. Each subset also had differential changes in cytokine levels after 3 months of IFN-β treatment. CONCLUSIONS: There is heterogeneity in the immunologic pathways of the RRMS population, which correlates with IFN-β response....

  17. Signalling profile differences: paliperidone versus risperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, W P; Chavera, T A; Silva, M; Sullivan, L C; Berg, K A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Paliperidone is an active metabolite of the second-generation atypical antipsychotic, risperidone recently approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Because paliperidone differs from risperidone by only a single hydroxyl group, questions have been raised as to whether there are significant differences in the effects elicited between these two drugs. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We compared the relative efficacies of paliperidone versus risperidone to regulate several cellular signalling pathways coupled to four selected GPCR targets that are important for either therapeutic or adverse effects: human dopamine D2, human serotonin 2A receptor subtype (5-HT2A), human serotonin 2C receptor subtype and human histamine H1 receptors. KEY RESULTS Whereas the relative efficacies of paliperidone and risperidone were the same for some responses, significant differences were found for several receptor-signalling systems, with paliperidone having greater or less relative efficacy than risperidone depending upon the receptor–response pair. Interestingly, for 5-HT2A-mediated recruitment of β-arrestin, 5-HT2A-mediated sensitization of ERK, and dopamine D2-mediated sensitization of adenylyl cyclase signalling, both paliperidone and risperidone behaved as agonists. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that the single hydroxyl group of paliperidone promotes receptor conformations that can differ from those of risperidone leading to differences in the spectrum of regulation of cellular signal transduction cascades. Such differences in signalling at the cellular level could lead to differences between paliperidone and risperidone in therapeutic efficacy or in the generation of adverse effects. PMID:23826915

  18. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Samir Samman,1 Ben Crossett,2 Miles Somers,1 Kirstine J Bell,1 Nicole T Lai,1,3 David R Sullivan,3 Peter Petocz4 1Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2Discipline of Proteomics and Biotechnology, School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Amino acid (AA status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM or chicken (CM, and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014, with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001. Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the

  19. Evaluation of different column chemistries for fast urinary metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Dick-Paul; Lingeman, Henk; Niessen, Wilfried M A; Deelder, André M; Giera, Martin; Mayboroda, Oleg A

    2013-05-15

    Fast analytical methodologies are mandatory for large scale metabolic profiling. Here, we present a thorough evaluation of different column chemistries in combination with different mobile phases for fast LC-MS urinary metabolic profiling. Three porous HILIC materials were investigated, next to core-shell C18-, XB-C18- and PFP-RPLC material. The performance of the selected column chemistries was tested in a non-targeted manner with pooled urine samples and in a targeted manner with a set of 54 common urinary metabolites. In order to evaluate the differential behaviour of the tested columns in a targeted manner, we applied a peak scoring algorithm. This algorithm takes into account several quality criteria such as retention time, dead time, peak height and peak shape. In general, HILIC columns generate more retention for polar metabolites. Our results show that the diol-HILIC column outperforms the RPLC columns. However, because of their opposite nature, comprehensive behaviour is observed as well, which was shown by investigating gender differences in a small urinary sample set. All applied column chemistries enabled sufficient peak capacity within a short gradient time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Yuuta; Sukegawa, Shin; Yamashita, Mai; Katsuda, Naoki; Tong, Bin; Ohta, Takeshi; Kose, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takahisa

    2016-06-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from musculus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected breeding values at the age of 100 kg. Three upregulated genes (EEF1A2, TSG101 and TTN) and six downregulated genes (ATP5B, ATP5C1, COQ3, HADHA, MYH1 and MYH7) in pig with genetic propensity for higher growth rate were identified by sequence analysis of 12 differentially expressed clones selected by differential screening following the generation of the subtracted cDNA population. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed difference in expression profiles of the identified genes in musculus longissimus muscle tissues between the two Landrace weanling pig groups with divergent genetic propensity for growth rate. Further, differential expression of the identified genes except for the TTN was validated by Western blot analysis. Additionally, the eight genes other than the ATP5C1 colocalized with the same chromosomal positions as QTLs that have been previously identified for growth rate traits. Finally, the changes of expression predicted from gene function suggested association of upregulation of expression of the EEF1A2, TSG101 and TTN genes and downregulation of the ATP5B, ATP5C1, COQ3, HADHA, MYH1 and MYH7 gene expression with increased growth rate. The identified genes will provide an important insight in understanding the molecular mechanism underlying growth rate in Landrace pig breed.

  1. Detailed characterization of multiple myeloma circulating tumor cells shows unique phenotypic, cytogenetic, functional, and circadian distribution profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Bruno; Paino, Teresa; Sayagues, Jose-Maria; Garayoa, Mercedes; San-Segundo, Laura; Martín, Montserrat; Mota, Ines; Sanchez, María-Luz; Bárcena, Paloma; Aires-Mejia, Irene; Corchete, Luis; Jimenez, Cristina; Garcia-Sanz, Ramon; Gutierrez, Norma C; Ocio, Enrique M; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Vidriales, Maria-Belen; Orfao, Alberto; San Miguel, Jesús F

    2013-11-21

    Circulating myeloma tumor cells (CTCs) as defined by the presence of peripheral blood (PB) clonal plasma cells (PCs) are a powerful prognostic marker in multiple myeloma (MM). However, the biological features of CTCs and their pathophysiological role in MM remains unexplored. Here, we investigate the phenotypic, cytogenetic, and functional characteristics as well as the circadian distribution of CTCs vs paired bone marrow (BM) clonal PCs from MM patients. Our results show that CTCs typically represent a unique subpopulation of all BM clonal PCs, characterized by downregulation (P < .05) of integrins (CD11a/CD11c/CD29/CD49d/CD49e), adhesion (CD33/CD56/CD117/CD138), and activation molecules (CD28/CD38/CD81). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorter-sorted CTCs also unraveled different cytogenetic profiles vs paired BM clonal PCs. Moreover, CTCs were mostly quiescent and associated with higher clonogenic potential when cocultured with BM stromal cells. Most interestingly, CTCs showed a circadian distribution which fluctuates in a similar pattern to that of CD34(+) cells, and opposite to stromal cell-derived factor 1 plasma levels and corresponding surface expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 on clonal PCs, suggesting that in MM, CTCs may egress to PB to colonize/metastasize other sites in the BM during the patients' resting period.

  2. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers Mark H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. Method To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. Results We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P Conclusion These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk.

  3. Soybean roots grown under heat stress show global changes in their transcriptional and proteomic profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo eValdes-Lopez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is likely to be a key factor in the negative impact of climate change on crop production. Heat stress significantly influences the functions of roots, which provide support, water and nutrients to other plant organs. Likewise, roots play an important role in the establishment of symbiotic associations with different microorganisms. Despite the physiological relevance of roots, few studies have examined their response to heat stress. In this study, we performed genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses on isolated root hairs, which are a single, epidermal cell type, and compared their response to stripped roots. On average, we identified 1,849 and 3,091 genes differentially regulated in root hairs and stripped roots, respectively, in response to heat stress. Our gene regulatory module analysis identified ten key modules that might control the majority of the transcriptional response to heat stress. We also conducted proteomic analysis on membrane fractions isolated from root hairs and compared these responses to stripped roots. These experiments identified a variety of proteins whose expression changed within 3 hours of application of heat stress. Most of these proteins were predicted to play a significant role in thermo-tolerance, as well as in chromatin remodeling and post-transcriptional regulation. The data presented represent an in-depth analysis of the heat stress response of a single cell type in soybean.

  4. Soybean Roots Grown under Heat Stress Show Global Changes in Their Transcriptional and Proteomic Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Batek, Josef; Gomez-Hernandez, Nicolas; Nguyen, Cuong T.; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C.; Zhang, Ning; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Hixson, Kim K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Stacey, Gary

    2016-04-25

    Heat stress is likely to be a key factor in the negative impact of climate change on crop production. Roots provide support, water and nutrients to other plant organs. Likewise, roots play an important role in the establishment of symbiotic associations with different microorganisms. Despite the physiological relevance of roots, few studies have examined the response of these plant organs to heat stress. In this study, we performed genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses on isolated root hairs, which are a single, epidermal cell type, and compared their response to whole roots. We identified 2,013 genes differentially regulated in root hairs in response to heat stress. Our gene regulatory module analysis identified ten, key modules that controlled the majority of the transcriptional response to heat stress. We also conducted proteomic analysis on membrane fractions isolated from roots and root hairs. These experiments identified a variety of proteins whose expression changed within 3 hours of application of heat stress. Most of these proteins were predicted to play a role in thermotolerance, as well as in chromatin remodeling and post-transcriptional regulation. The data presented represent an in-depth analysis of the heat stress response of a single cell type in soybean.

  5. Efferent Vestibular Neurons Show Homogenous Discharge Output But Heterogeneous Synaptic Input Profile In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda A Mathews

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of our sense of balance we still know remarkably little about the central control of the peripheral balance system. While previous work has shown that activation of the efferent vestibular system results in modulation of afferent vestibular neuron discharge, the intrinsic and synaptic properties of efferent neurons themselves are largely unknown. Here we substantiate the location of the efferent vestibular nucleus (EVN in the mouse, before characterizing the input and output properties of EVN neurons in vitro. We made transverse serial sections through the brainstem of 4-week-old mice, and performed immunohistochemistry for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, both expressed in the EVN of other species. We also injected fluorogold into the posterior canal and retrogradely labelled neurons in the EVN of ChAT:: tdTomato mice expressing tdTomato in all cholinergic neurons. As expected the EVN lies dorsolateral to the genu of the facial nerve (CNVII. We then made whole-cell current-, and voltage-clamp recordings from visually identified EVN neurons. In current-clamp, EVN neurons display a homogeneous discharge pattern. This is characterized by a high frequency burst of action potentials at the onset of a depolarizing stimulus and the offset of a hyperpolarizing stimulus that is mediated by T-type calcium channels. In voltage-clamp, EVN neurons receive either exclusively excitatory or inhibitory inputs, or a combination of both. Despite this heterogeneous mixture of inputs, we show that synaptic inputs onto EVN neurons are predominantly excitatory. Together these findings suggest that the inputs onto EVN neurons, and more specifically the origin of these inputs may underlie EVN neuron function.

  6. Quantifying and Interpreting Group Differences in Interest Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Fouad, Nadya A.; Rounds, James; Hubert, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Research on group differences in interests has often focused on structural hypotheses and mean-score differences in Holland's (1997) theory, with comparatively little research on basic interest measures. Group differences in interest profiles were examined using statistical methods for matching individuals with occupations, the C-index, Q…

  7. Differences in the Oxylipid Profiles of Bovine Milk and Plasma at Different Stages of Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Matthew J; Mavangira, Vengai; Gandy, Jeffery C; Zhang, Chen; Jones, A Daniel; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2017-06-21

    Mastitis is caused by a bacterial infection of the mammary gland, which reduces both milk quality and quantity produced for human consumption. The incidence and severity of bovine mastitis are greatest during the periparturient period that results from dysfunctional inflammatory responses and causes damage to milk synthesizing tissues. Oxylipids are potent fatty acid-derived mediators that control the onset and resolution of the inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to investigate how oxylipid profiles change in bovine milk at different stages of the lactation cycle. Results showed significantly lower concentrations of both milk polyunsaturated fatty acid content and total oxylipid biosynthesis during early lactation when compared to mid- or late-lactation. The only oxylipid that was higher during early lactation was 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), which is often associated with inflammatory-based diseases. Milk oxylipid profiles during the different stages of lactation differed from plasma profiles. As such, plasma fatty acid and oxylipid concentrations are not a proxy for local changes in the mammary gland during the lactation cycle.

  8. Different Cognitive Profiles of Patients with Severe Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Valeria Marinelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction frequently occurs in aphasic patients and primarily compromises linguistic skills. However, patients suffering from severe aphasia show heterogeneous performance in basic cognition. Our aim was to characterize the cognitive profiles of patients with severe aphasia and to determine whether they also differ as to residual linguistic abilities. We examined 189 patients with severe aphasia with standard language tests and with the CoBaGA (Cognitive Test Battery for Global Aphasia, a battery of nonverbal tests that assesses a wide range of cognitive domains such as attention, executive functions, intelligence, memory, visual-auditory recognition, and visual-spatial abilities. Twenty patients were also followed longitudinally in order to assess their improvement in cognitive skills after speech therapy. Three different subgroups of patients with different types and severity of cognitive impairment were evidenced. Subgroups differed as to residual linguistic skills, in particular comprehension and reading-writing abilities. Attention, reasoning, and executive functions improved after language rehabilitation. This study highlights the importance of an extensive evaluation of cognitive functions in patients with severe aphasia.

  9. Training Second-Career Teachers: A Different Student Profile, A Different Training Approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies Baeten

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Second-career teachers are career changers who leave their current jobs to become teachers. This study conducts a narrative literature review which explores the student profiles of these teachers, asking how they differ from school leavers entering teacher education. The literature review also explores the characteristics of training approaches that are most suitable for second-career teachers based on their general student profile. Results show that second-career teachers are older, have strong intrinsic motivation, possess a wide range of knowledge and skills, have a self-directed and application-oriented approach to learning and teaching, and appreciate peer support. They benefit from teacher education programs that are flexible and include a preparatory period, that transfer their expertise into the teaching profession, provide opportunities for self-directed learning and peer support, integrate coursework and field experience, offer a significant amount of field experience and provide intensive mentoring support.

  10. Gender differences in genetic risk profiles for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silander, Kaisa; Alanne, Mervi; Kristiansson, Kati; Saarela, Olli; Ripatti, Samuli; Auro, Kirsi; Karvanen, Juha; Kulathinal, Sangita; Niemelä, Matti; Ellonen, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka; Saarela, Janna; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Evans, Alun; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Peltonen, Leena

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, complications and burden differ markedly between women and men. Although there is variation in the distribution of lifestyle factors between the genders, they do not fully explain the differences in CVD incidence and suggest the existence of gender-specific genetic risk factors. We aimed to estimate whether the genetic risk profiles of coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke and the composite end-point of CVD differ between the genders. We studied in two Finnish population cohorts, using the case-cohort design the association between common variation in 46 candidate genes and CHD, ischemic stroke, CVD, and CVD-related quantitative risk factors. We analyzed men and women jointly and also conducted genotype-gender interaction analysis. Several allelic variants conferred disease risk for men and women jointly, including rs1801020 in coagulation factor XII (HR = 1.31 (1.08-1.60) for CVD, uncorrected p = 0.006 multiplicative model). Variant rs11673407 in the fucosyltransferase 3 gene was strongly associated with waist/hip ratio (uncorrected p = 0.00005) in joint analysis. In interaction analysis we found statistical evidence of variant-gender interaction conferring risk of CHD and CVD: rs3742264 in the carboxypeptidase B2 gene, p(interaction) = 0.009 for CHD, and rs2774279 in the upstream stimulatory factor 1 gene, p(interaction) = 0.007 for CHD and CVD, showed strong association in women but not in men, while rs2069840 in interleukin 6 gene, p(interaction) = 0.004 for CVD, showed strong association in men but not in women (uncorrected p-values). Also, two variants in the selenoprotein S gene conferred risk for ischemic stroke in women, p(interaction) = 0.003 and 0.007. Importantly, we identified a larger number of gender-specific effects for women than for men. A false discovery rate analysis suggests that we may expect half of the reported findings for combined gender analysis to be true positives, while at least third of

  11. Exploring Different Types of Academic Delayers: A Latent Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunschel, Carola; Patrzek, Justine; Fries, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether there are different types of academic delayers (i.e., types of students who delay academic tasks). Latent profile analysis based on 554 university students' reasons for academic delay revealed four distinct types: inconspicuous, successful pressure-seeking, worried/anxious, and discontent with studies. The types…

  12. Using faecal profiling to assess the effects of different management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used faecal profiling to assess diet quality of animals under three different management types in a semi-arid savanna, northwest of Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. The levels of faecal crude protein (FCP) and faecal phosphorus (FP) of freeranging springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and blue wildebeest ...

  13. Leukocyte profile of different breeds of the Nigerian cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An examination of the leukocyte profile of different breeds of cattle was carried out to determine the effects of haemoparasites, sex aand breed on the leukoctes. The effects of haemoparasite, sex and breed on the leukocytes were determined using parasitological methods. A total of 452 cattle comprising of 174 cows and ...

  14. Lipid Profile in Different Parts of Edible Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Xu, Jilin; Guo, Chunyang; Zheng, Huakun; Hu, Jiabao; Chen, Juanjuan; Wang, Yajun; Xu, Shanliang; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-09-23

    Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum has been exploited commercially as a delicious food for a long time. Although the edible and medicinal values of R. esculentum have gained extensive attention, the effects of lipids on its nutritional value have rarely been reported. In the present of study, the lipid profile including lipid classes, fatty acyl compositions, and fatty acid (FA) positions in lipids from different parts (oral arms, umbrella, and mouth stalk) of R. esculentum was explored by ultraperformance liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization--quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS). More than 87 species from 10 major lipid classes including phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), phosphatidylserine (PS), ceramide (Cer), ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), and triacylglycerol (TAG) were separated and characterized. Semiquantification of individual lipid species in different parts of R. esculentum was also conducted. Results showed that glycerophospholipids (GPLs) enriched in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) were the major compenents in all parts of R. esculentum, which accounted for 54-63% of total lipids (TLs). Considering the high level of GPLs and the FA compositions in GPLs, jellyfish R. esculentum might have great potential as a health-promoting food for humans and as a growth-promoting diet for some commercial fish and crustaceans. Meanwhile, LPC, LPE, and LPI showed high levels in oral arms when compared with umbrella and mouth stalk, which may be due to the high proportion of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in oral arms. Moreover, a high CAEP level was detected in oral arms, which may render cell membranes with resistance to chemical hydrolysis by PLA2. The relatively low TAG content could be associated with specific functions of oral arms.

  15. Gut Transcriptome Analysis Shows Different Food Utilization Efficiency by the Grasshopper Oedaleous asiaticus (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; McNeill, Mark Richard; Ma, Jingchuan; Qin, Xinghu; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Oedaleus asiaticus B. Bienko is a persistent pest occurring in north Asian grasslands. We found that O. asiaticus feeding on Stipa krylovii Roshev. had higher approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), compared with cohorts feeding on Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel, Artemisia frigida Willd., or Cleistogenes squarrosa (Trin.) Keng. Although this indicated high food utilization efficiency for S. krylovii, the physiological processes and molecular mechanisms underlying these biological observations are not well understood. Transcriptome analysis was used to examine how gene expression levels in O. asiaticus gut are altered by feeding on the four plant species. Nymphs (fifth-instar female) that fed on S. krylovii had the largest variation in gene expression profiles, with a total of 88 genes significantly upregulated compared with those feeding on the other three plants, mainly including nutrition digestive genes of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid digestion. GO and KEGG enrichment also showed that feeding S. krylovii could upregulate the nutrition digestion-related molecular function, biological process, and pathways. These changes in transcripts levels indicate that the physiological processes of activating nutrition digestive enzymes and metabolism pathways can well explain the high food utilization of S. krylovii by O. asiaticus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Consumer profile analysis for different types of meat in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriba-Perez, Carmen; Baviera-Puig, Amparo; Buitrago-Vera, Juan; Montero-Vicente, Luis

    2017-07-01

    It is important to analyse the consumer profile of each type of meat to better adapt the marketing mix to each one. To this end, we examined the average consumption frequency of different types of meat based on two methodologies: consumer segmentation using the food-related lifestyle (FRL) framework, giving rise to 4 segments, and analysis of socio-demographic profiles. The variables used were: sex, age, educational level, social class, number of people in the household, presence of children younger than 18 in the home, geographical area and habitual residence. Beef was the only meat type significant in both analyses. Turkey meat only appeared as significant in the FRL analysis. The other meats (chicken, pork, rabbit and lamb) were only significant in the sociodemographic variables analysis. From the outcomes we may conclude that there is no single consumer profile, which rather depends on the type of meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary transgenic bovine cells and their rejuvenated cloned equivalents show transgene-specific epigenetic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-González, Lucia; Couldrey, Christine; Meinhardt, Marcus W; Cole, Sally A; Wells, David N; Laible, Götz

    2012-01-01

    Cell-mediated transgenesis, based on somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), provides the opportunity to shape the genetic make-up of cattle. Bovine primary fetal fibroblasts, commonly used cells for SCNT, have a limited lifespan, and complex genetic modifications that require sequential transfections can be challenging time and cost-wise. To overcome these limitations, SCNT is frequently used to rejuvenate the cell lines and restore exhausted growth potential. We have designed a construct to be used in a 2-step cassette exchange experiment. Our transgene contains a puromycin resistance marker gene and an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) expression cassette, both driven by a strong mammalian promoter, and flanked by loxP sites and sequences from the bovine β-casein locus. Several transgenic cell lines were generated by random insertion into primary bovine cell lines. Two of these original cell lines were rederived by SCNT and new primary cells, with the same genetic makeup as the original donors, were established. While the original cell lines were puromycin-resistant and had a characteristic EGFP expression profile, all rejuvenated cell lines were sensitive to puromycin, and displayed varied EGFP expression, indicative of various degrees of silencing. When the methylation states of individual CpG sites within the transgene were analyzed, a striking increase in transgene-specific methylation was observed in all rederived cell lines. The results indicate that original transgenic donor cells and their rejuvenated derivatives may not be equivalent and differ in the functionality of their transgene sequences.

  18. Gastric cancers of Western European and African patients show different patterns of genomic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulder Chris JJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H. pylori is important in the etiology of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is infrequent in Africa, despite high frequencies of H. pylori infection, referred to as the African enigma. Variation in environmental and host factors influencing gastric cancer risk between different populations have been reported but little is known about the biological differences between gastric cancers from different geographic locations. We aim to study genomic instability patterns of gastric cancers obtained from patients from United Kingdom (UK and South Africa (SA, in an attempt to support the African enigma hypothesis at the biological level. Methods DNA was isolated from 67 gastric adenocarcinomas, 33 UK patients, 9 Caucasian SA patients and 25 native SA patients. Microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability were analyzed by PCR and microarray comparative genomic hybridization, respectively. Data was analyzed by supervised univariate and multivariate analyses as well as unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Results Tumors from Caucasian and native SA patients showed significantly more microsatellite instable tumors (p Conclusions Gastric cancers from SA and UK patients show differences in genetic instability patterns, indicating possible different biological mechanisms in patients from different geographical origin. This is of future clinical relevance for stratification of gastric cancer therapy.

  19. Guppies Show Behavioural but Not Cognitive Sex Differences in a Novel Object Recognition Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Dadda, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition (NOR) test is a widely-used paradigm to study learning and memory in rodents. NOR performance is typically measured as the preference to interact with a novel object over a familiar object based on spontaneous exploratory behaviour. In rats and mice, females usually have greater NOR ability than males. The NOR test is now available for a large number of species, including fish, but sex differences have not been properly tested outside of rodents. We compared male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a NOR test to study whether sex differences exist also for fish. We focused on sex differences in both performance and behaviour of guppies during the test. In our experiment, adult guppies expressed a preference for the novel object as most rodents and other species do. When we looked at sex differences, we found the two sexes showed a similar preference for the novel object over the familiar object, suggesting that male and female guppies have similar NOR performances. Analysis of behaviour revealed that males were more inclined to swim in the proximity of the two objects than females. Further, males explored the novel object at the beginning of the experiment while females did so afterwards. These two behavioural differences are possibly due to sex differences in exploration. Even though NOR performance is not different between male and female guppies, the behavioural sex differences we found could affect the results of the experiments and should be carefully considered when assessing fish memory with the NOR test.

  20. Environmental profile of paddy rice cultivation with different straw management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Alessandra; Bacenetti, Jacopo; González-García, Sara; Vercesi, Annamaria; Bocchi, Stefano; Fiala, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Italy is the most important European country in terms of paddy rice production. North Italian districts such as Vercelli, Pavia, Novara, and Milano are known as some of the world's most advanced rice cultivation sites. In 2013 Italian rice cultivation represented about 50% of all European rice production by area, and paddy fields extended for over 216,000 ha. Cultivation of rice involves different agricultural activities which have environmental impacts mainly due to fossil fuels and agrochemical requirements as well as the methane emission associated with the fermentation of organic material in the flooded rice fields. In order to assess the environmental consequences of rice production in the District of Vercelli, the cultivation practices most frequently carried out were inventoried and evaluated. The general approach of this study was not only to gather the inventory data for rice production and quantify their environmental impacts, but also to identify the key environmental factors where special attention must be paid. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied in this study from a cradle-to-farm gate perspective. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of seven different impact categories: climate change, ozone depletion, human toxicity, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Regarding straw management, two different scenarios (burial into the soil of the straw versus harvesting) were compared. The analysis showed that the environmental impact was mainly due to field emissions, the fuel consumption needed for the mechanization of field operations, and the drying of the paddy rice. The comparison between the two scenarios highlighted that the collection of the straw improves the environmental performance of rice production except that for freshwater eutrophication. To improve the environmental performance of rice production, solutions to save fossil fuel and reduce the emissions from

  1. MILK FATTY ACID PROFILE IN DIFFERENT BREEDS OF DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to extend the knowledge about current fatty acids (FAs profile of cow milk fat at herds of cows held in dairy farms in Slovakia. 368 milk samples were taken in total from cows of 5 different breeds, namely Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120, Pinzgau (P, n = 74, Slovak Pied (S, n = 61, and Braunvieh (B, n = 8. Single milk samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose content, minerals and fatty acid composition of milk fat using gas chromatography, where 54 FAs were identified and expressed relatively in percentage of peak areas (% and evaluated in segments in accord with their biosynthetic origine. The combination of acids C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0, as expressed in the sum HCHFA (46.86% for S and 47.35% for P, and also the value of the so-calculated. atherogenic index (2.82 for S and 3.10 for P are the lowest, and thus the most favorable for human health at the breeds S and P. Medically desirable MUFA (27.11% for the S and 25.84% for P and PUFA (3.55% for S and 3.26% for P in these breeds are represented in the highest percentage shares. We conclude that among the observed breeds of dairy cows the Pinzgau and Simental breeds showed a better value of the composition of milk fat from a health perspective.

  2. PET and MRI show differences in cerebral asymmetry and functional connectivity between homo- and heterosexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka; Lindström, Per

    2008-07-08

    Cerebral responses to putative pheromones and objects of sexual attraction were recently found to differ between homo- and heterosexual subjects. Although this observation may merely mirror perceptional differences, it raises the intriguing question as to whether certain sexually dimorphic features in the brain may differ between individuals of the same sex but different sexual orientation. We addressed this issue by studying hemispheric asymmetry and functional connectivity, two parameters that in previous publications have shown specific sex differences. Ninety subjects [25 heterosexual men (HeM) and women (HeW), and 20 homosexual men (HoM) and women (HoW)] were investigated with magnetic resonance volumetry of cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. Fifty of them also participated in PET measurements of cerebral blood flow, used for analyses of functional connections from the right and left amygdalae. HeM and HoW showed a rightward cerebral asymmetry, whereas volumes of the cerebral hemispheres were symmetrical in HoM and HeW. No cerebellar asymmetries were found. Homosexual subjects also showed sex-atypical amygdala connections. In HoM, as in HeW, the connections were more widespread from the left amygdala; in HoW and HeM, on the other hand, from the right amygdala. Furthermore, in HoM and HeW the connections were primarily displayed with the contralateral amygdala and the anterior cingulate, in HeM and HoW with the caudate, putamen, and the prefrontal cortex. The present study shows sex-atypical cerebral asymmetry and functional connections in homosexual subjects. The results cannot be primarily ascribed to learned effects, and they suggest a linkage to neurobiological entities.

  3. These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnostic of physical phenomena The 7.85-micron image in the upper left shows stratospheric temperatures which are elevated in the region of the A fragment impact (to the left of bottom). Temperatures deeper in the atmosphere near 150-mbar are shown by the 17.2-micron image in the upper right. There is a small elevation of temperatures at this depth, indicated by the arrow, and confirmed by other measurements near this wavelength. This indicates that the influence of the impact of fragment A on the troposphere has been minimal. The two images in the bottom row show no readily apparent perturbation of the ammmonia condensate cloud field near 600 mbar, as diagnosed by 8.57-micron radiation, and deeper cloud layers which are diagnosed by 5-micron radiation.

  4. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  5. Characteristics between the meshing pairs with different envelope profile in single screw compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R.; Liu, F.; Li, T.; Feng, Q.

    2017-08-01

    Single screw compressors have been used in various industrial fields. However, because the star-wheel teeth are easy to wear, the market for the development of single screw compressors is limited. In order to extend the service life of the star-wheel, researchers have developed different kinds of star-wheel tooth profile, such as single line envelope profile, single column envelope profile, and multi-column envelope profile. These profiles greatly affect the lubrication characteristics between the star-wheel teeth and the screw grooves. In this article, the lubrication characteristics between the meshing pairs with different envelope profiles are analyzed. Results show that the pressure peak of the single line envelope profile, single column envelope profile, and multi-column envelope profile are 3.23×105Pa, 3.38×105Pa, and 4.31×105Pa, respectively. This means that the multi-column enveloped meshing pair can resist the biggest external impact load. The deviation angle (γ) of the single line envelope profile, single column envelope profile, and multi-column envelope profile are 0.0139°~0.0286°, 0.0225°~0.0306° and 0.0122°~0.0262°, respectively. Thus, the self-balancing ability of the multi-column enveloped meshing pair is the strongest, and the oil film thickness on both sides of the multi-column enveloped star-wheel tooth is the most reasonable, which indicates a good lubrication state during operation, that is, longer operation life of the star-wheel teeth.

  6. Primary transgenic bovine cells and their rejuvenated cloned equivalents show transgene-specific epigenetic differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Alonso-González

    Full Text Available Cell-mediated transgenesis, based on somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, provides the opportunity to shape the genetic make-up of cattle. Bovine primary fetal fibroblasts, commonly used cells for SCNT, have a limited lifespan, and complex genetic modifications that require sequential transfections can be challenging time and cost-wise. To overcome these limitations, SCNT is frequently used to rejuvenate the cell lines and restore exhausted growth potential. We have designed a construct to be used in a 2-step cassette exchange experiment. Our transgene contains a puromycin resistance marker gene and an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP expression cassette, both driven by a strong mammalian promoter, and flanked by loxP sites and sequences from the bovine β-casein locus. Several transgenic cell lines were generated by random insertion into primary bovine cell lines. Two of these original cell lines were rederived by SCNT and new primary cells, with the same genetic makeup as the original donors, were established. While the original cell lines were puromycin-resistant and had a characteristic EGFP expression profile, all rejuvenated cell lines were sensitive to puromycin, and displayed varied EGFP expression, indicative of various degrees of silencing. When the methylation states of individual CpG sites within the transgene were analyzed, a striking increase in transgene-specific methylation was observed in all rederived cell lines. The results indicate that original transgenic donor cells and their rejuvenated derivatives may not be equivalent and differ in the functionality of their transgene sequences.

  7. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions. PMID:28570611

  8. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions.

  9. Guppies Show Behavioural but Not Cognitive Sex Differences in a Novel Object Recognition Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato

    Full Text Available The novel object recognition (NOR test is a widely-used paradigm to study learning and memory in rodents. NOR performance is typically measured as the preference to interact with a novel object over a familiar object based on spontaneous exploratory behaviour. In rats and mice, females usually have greater NOR ability than males. The NOR test is now available for a large number of species, including fish, but sex differences have not been properly tested outside of rodents. We compared male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata in a NOR test to study whether sex differences exist also for fish. We focused on sex differences in both performance and behaviour of guppies during the test. In our experiment, adult guppies expressed a preference for the novel object as most rodents and other species do. When we looked at sex differences, we found the two sexes showed a similar preference for the novel object over the familiar object, suggesting that male and female guppies have similar NOR performances. Analysis of behaviour revealed that males were more inclined to swim in the proximity of the two objects than females. Further, males explored the novel object at the beginning of the experiment while females did so afterwards. These two behavioural differences are possibly due to sex differences in exploration. Even though NOR performance is not different between male and female guppies, the behavioural sex differences we found could affect the results of the experiments and should be carefully considered when assessing fish memory with the NOR test.

  10. Coronary collateralization shows sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive artery disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu

    Full Text Available Coronary collateral circulation protects cardiac tissues from myocardial infarction damage and decreases sudden cardiac death. So far, it is unclear how coronary collateralization varies by race-ethnicity groups and by sex.We assessed 868 patients with obstructive CAD. Patients were assessed for collateral grades based on Rentrop grading system, as well as other covariates. DNA samples were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 genotyping array. To evaluate genetic contributions to collaterals, we performed admixture mapping using logistic regression with estimated local and global ancestry.Overall, 53% of participants had collaterals. We found difference between sex and racial-ethnic groups. Men had higher rates of collaterals than women (P-value = 0.000175. White Hispanics/Latinos showed overall higher rates of collaterals than African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites (59%, 50% and 48%, respectively, P-value = 0.017, and especially higher rates in grade 1 and grade 3 collateralization than the other two populations (P-value = 0.0257. Admixture mapping showed Native American ancestry was associated with the presence of collaterals at a region on chromosome 17 (chr17:35,243,142-41,251,931, β = 0.55, P-value = 0.000127. African ancestry also showed association with collaterals at a different region on chromosome 17 (chr17: 32,266,966-34,463,323, β = 0.38, P-value = 0.00072.In our study, collateralization showed sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive CAD patients. We identified two regions on chromosome 17 that were likely to harbor genetic variations that influenced collateralization.

  11. Anthropometric Profile in Different Event Categories of Acrobatic Gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada-Iglesias, Yaiza; Santana, Mercedes Vernetta; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Águeda

    2017-06-01

    There is a specific anthropometric profile for each sport, which may be differentiated even in relation to the position, role or event category within each sport discipline. However, there are few studies on acrobatic gymnastics, and the goal of this work was to determine the anthropometric profile depending on the event category, as well as factors that predisposed to performance in these categories. The sample consisted of 150 gymnasts from Spain, divided into 8 groups according to the event category and the role played. The kinanthropometric measurements were taken through the procedures established by the International Society for the Advancement of Kineantropometry. The anthropometric characteristics, including body mass index, somatotype, body composition and proportionality using the Phantom stratagem were analyzed, and the results obtained from the different groups were compared. A regression analysis was performed with particular groups of gymnasts. No significant differences (p gymnast toward choosing one event category or another, except for female bases.

  12. Nonlinear Analysis of Motor Activity Shows Differences between Schizophrenia and Depression: A Study Using Fourier Analysis and Sample Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Erik R.; Berle, Jan Øystein; Oedegaard, Ketil J.; Holsten, Fred; Fasmer, Ole Bernt

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study has been to describe motor activity data obtained by using wrist-worn actigraphs in patients with schizophrenia and major depression by the use of linear and non-linear methods of analysis. Different time frames were investigated, i.e., activity counts measured every minute for up to five hours and activity counts made hourly for up to two weeks. The results show that motor activity was lower in the schizophrenic patients and in patients with major depression, compared to controls. Using one minute intervals the depressed patients had a higher standard deviation (SD) compared to both the schizophrenic patients and the controls. The ratio between the root mean square successive differences (RMSSD) and SD was higher in the schizophrenic patients compared to controls. The Fourier analysis of the activity counts measured every minute showed that the relation between variance in the low and the high frequency range was lower in the schizophrenic patients compared to the controls. The sample entropy was higher in the schizophrenic patients compared to controls in the time series from the activity counts made every minute. The main conclusions of the study are that schizophrenic and depressive patients have distinctly different profiles of motor activity and that the results differ according to period length analysed. PMID:21297977

  13. Cytogenetically Unrelated Clones in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Showing Different Responses to Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Kasahara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML with two cytogenetically unrelated clones. The patient was a 45-year-old male who was diagnosed with acute monoblastic leukemia (AMoL. Initial G-band analysis showed 51,XY,+6,+8,inv(9(p12q13c,+11,+13,+19[12]/52,idem,+Y[8], but G-band analysis after induction therapy showed 45,XY,-7,inv(9(p12q13c[19]/46,XY,inv(9(p12q13c[1]. Retrospective FISH analysis revealed a cryptic monosomy 7 clone in the initial AML sample. The clone with multiple trisomies was eliminated after induction therapy and never recurred, but a clone with monosomy 7 was still detected in myelodysplastic marrow with a normal blast percentage. Both clones were successfully eliminated after related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, but the patient died of relapsed AML with monosomy 7. We concluded that one clone was de novo AMoL with chromosome 6, 8, 11, 13, and 19 trisomy and that the other was acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC with chromosome 7 monosomy showing different responses to chemotherapy. Simultaneous onset of cytogenetically unrelated hematological malignancies that each have a different disease status is a rare phenomenon but is important to diagnose for a correct understanding of the disease status and for establishing an appropriate treatment strategy.

  14. Transfusional profile in different types of intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilusca Cardoso de Paula

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: anemia is a common clinical finding in intensive care units. The red blood cell transfusion is the main form of treatment, despite the associated risks. Thus, we proposed to evaluate the profile of transfusional patients in different intensive care units. Methods: prospective analysis of patients admitted in the intensive care units of a tertiary university hospital with an indication for transfusion of packed red blood cells. Demographic profile and transfusional profile were collected, a univariate analysis was done, and the results were considered significant at p = 0.05. Results: 408 transfusions were analyzed in 71 patients. The mean hemoglobin concentration on admission was 9.7 ± 2.3 g/dL and the pre-transfusional concentration was 6.9 ± 1.1 g/dL. The main indications for transfusion were hemoglobin concentration (49% and active bleeding (32%. The median number of units transfused per episode was 2 (1-2 and the median storage time was 14 (7-21 days. The number of patients transfused with hemoglobin levels greater than 7 g/dL and the number of bags transfused per episode were significantly different among intensive care units. Patients who received three or more transfusions had longer mechanical ventilation time and intensive care unit stay and higher mortality after 60 days. There was an association of mortality with disease severity but not with transfusional characteristics. Conclusions: the practice of blood products transfusion was partially in agreement with the guidelines recommended, although there are differences in behavior between the different profiles of intensive care units. Transfused patients evolved with unfavorable outcomes. Despite the scarcity of blood in blood banks, the mean storage time of the bags was high.

  15. Copperhead envenomations: clinical profiles of three different subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyler, D E; Vandevoort, J T

    1999-06-01

    Copperhead envenomation cases reported in the literature frequently lack identification of the subspecies of copperhead responsible for the envenomation. Whether subspecific identity would be useful in predicting possible different toxicity profiles may have clinical relevance. We report here the clinical profiles from envenomations involving 3 different subspecies of captive adult copperhead snakes--the southern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix), the northern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen), and the broad-banded copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus). The bites occurred in the north-central region of the US where none of these subspecies are endemic and involved a professional and 2 amateur herpetologists. The victims were adult males with no previous history of venomous snake bite, and all bites were evidenced by fang puncture marks to their index finger or thumb. Envenomations from the broad-banded and northern copperhead subspecies caused localized symptoms of pain, edema and ecchymosis. In addition to these symptoms, southern copperhead envenomation resulted in a more severe clinical toxicity profile as evidenced by propulsive emesis, diarrhea and hematuria. Whether these differences in observed clinical toxicity were the result of unique subspecific venom pharmacological actions is an interesting question. However, independent of the copperhead subspecies involved, conservative medical management was effective in each case.

  16. Ultrasonic Vocalizations of Male Mice Differ among Species and Females Show Assortative Preferences for Male Calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolf, Kerstin; Meindl, Stefanie; Larsen, Angela L.; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C.; Penn, Dustin J.

    2015-01-01

    Male house mice (Mus musculus) emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during courtship, which attract females, and we aimed to test whether females use these vocalizations for species or subspecies recognition of potential mates. We recorded courtship USVs of males from different Mus species, Mus musculus subspecies, and populations (F1 offspring of wild-caught Mus musculus musculus, Mus musculus domesticus (and F1 hybrid crosses), and Mus spicilegus), and we conducted playback experiments to measure female preferences for male USVs. Male vocalizations contained at least seven distinct syllable types, whose frequency of occurrence varied among species, subspecies, and populations. Detailed analyses of multiple common syllable types indicated that Mus musculus and Mus spicilegus could be discriminated based on spectral and temporal characteristics of their vocalizations, and populations of Mus musculus were also distinctive regardless of the classification model used. Females were able to discriminate USVs from different species, and showed assortative preferences for conspecific males. We found no evidence that females discriminate USVs of males from a different subspecies or separate populations of the same species, even though our spectral analyses identified acoustic features that differ between species, subspecies, and populations of the same species. Our results provide the first comparison of USVs between Mus species or between Mus musculus subspecies, and the first evidence that male USVs potentially facilitate species recognition. PMID:26309246

  17. Ultrasonic Vocalizations of Male Mice Differ among Species and Females Show Assortative Preferences for Male Calls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Musolf

    Full Text Available Male house mice (Mus musculus emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs during courtship, which attract females, and we aimed to test whether females use these vocalizations for species or subspecies recognition of potential mates. We recorded courtship USVs of males from different Mus species, Mus musculus subspecies, and populations (F1 offspring of wild-caught Mus musculus musculus, Mus musculus domesticus (and F1 hybrid crosses, and Mus spicilegus, and we conducted playback experiments to measure female preferences for male USVs. Male vocalizations contained at least seven distinct syllable types, whose frequency of occurrence varied among species, subspecies, and populations. Detailed analyses of multiple common syllable types indicated that Mus musculus and Mus spicilegus could be discriminated based on spectral and temporal characteristics of their vocalizations, and populations of Mus musculus were also distinctive regardless of the classification model used. Females were able to discriminate USVs from different species, and showed assortative preferences for conspecific males. We found no evidence that females discriminate USVs of males from a different subspecies or separate populations of the same species, even though our spectral analyses identified acoustic features that differ between species, subspecies, and populations of the same species. Our results provide the first comparison of USVs between Mus species or between Mus musculus subspecies, and the first evidence that male USVs potentially facilitate species recognition.

  18. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....... (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers...

  19. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers......Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....

  20. High yielding biomass genotypes of willow (Salix spp.) show differences in below ground biomass allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniff, Jennifer; Purdy, Sarah J; Barraclough, Tim J P; Castle, March; Maddison, Anne L; Jones, Laurence E; Shield, Ian F; Gregory, Andrew S; Karp, Angela

    2015-09-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) are viewed as a sustainable source of biomass with a positive greenhouse gas (GHG) balance due to their potential to fix and accumulate carbon (C) below ground. However, exploiting this potential has been limited by the paucity of data available on below ground biomass allocation and the extent to which it varies between genotypes. Furthermore, it is likely that allocation can be altered considerably by environment. To investigate the role of genotype and environment on allocation, four willow genotypes were grown at two replicated field sites in southeast England and west Wales, UK. Above and below ground biomass was intensively measured over two two-year rotations. Significant genotypic differences in biomass allocation were identified, with below ground allocation differing by up to 10% between genotypes. Importantly, the genotype with the highest below ground biomass also had the highest above ground yield. Furthermore, leaf area was found to be a good predictor of below ground biomass. Growth environment significantly impacted allocation; the willow genotypes grown in west Wales had up to 94% more biomass below ground by the end of the second rotation. A single investigation into fine roots showed the same pattern with double the volume of fine roots present. This greater below ground allocation may be attributed primarily to higher wind speeds, plus differences in humidity and soil characteristics. These results demonstrate that the capacity exists to breed plants with both high yields and high potential for C accumulation.

  1. Phylogenetically distinct equine influenza viruses show different tropism for the swine respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrono, Livia V; Bonfante, Francesco; Zanardello, Claudia; Terregino, Calogero; Capua, Ilaria; Murcia, Pablo R

    2015-05-01

    Influenza A viruses circulate in a wide range of animals. H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) is an avian-origin virus that has established in dogs as canine influenza virus (CIV) and has also been isolated from camels and pigs. Previous work suggests that mutations acquired during EIV evolution might have played a role in CIV emergence. Given the potential role of pigs as a source of human infections, we determined the ability of H3N8 EIVs to replicate in pig cell lines and in respiratory explants. We show that phylogenetically distinct EIVs display different infection phenotypes along the pig respiratory tract, but not in cell lines. Our results suggest that EIV displays a dynamic host range along its evolutionary history, supporting the view that evolutionary processes play important roles in host range and tropism and also underscoring the utility of using explant cultures to study influenza pathogenesis. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Rubber particle proteins, HbREF and HbSRPP, show different interactions with model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Zhendre, Vanessa; Henry, Sarah; Thévenot, Julie; Dufourc, Erick J; Alves, Isabel D; Peruch, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The biomembrane surrounding rubber particles from the hevea latex is well known for its content of numerous allergen proteins. HbREF (Hevb1) and HbSRPP (Hevb3) are major components, linked on rubber particles, and they have been shown to be involved in rubber synthesis or quality (mass regulation), but their exact function is still to be determined. In this study we highlighted the different modes of interactions of both recombinant proteins with various membrane models (lipid monolayers, liposomes or supported bilayers, and multilamellar vesicles) to mimic the latex particle membrane. We combined various biophysical methods (polarization-modulation-infrared reflection-adsorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS)/ellipsometry, attenuated-total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR), fluorescence spectroscopy) to elucidate their interactions. Small rubber particle protein (SRPP) shows less affinity than rubber elongation factor (REF) for the membranes but displays a kind of "covering" effect on the lipid headgroups without disturbing the membrane integrity. Its structure is conserved in the presence of lipids. Contrarily, REF demonstrates higher membrane affinity with changes in its aggregation properties, the amyloid nature of REF, which we previously reported, is not favored in the presence of lipids. REF binds and inserts into membranes. The membrane integrity is highly perturbed, and we suspect that REF is even able to remove lipids from the membrane leading to the formation of mixed micelles. These two homologous proteins show affinity to all membrane models tested but neatly differ in their interacting features. This could imply differential roles on the surface of rubber particles. © 2013.

  3. Psychoacoustic Tinnitus Loudness and Tinnitus-Related Distress Show Different Associations with Oscillatory Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenhol, Tobias; Wallhäusser-Franke, Elisabeth; Delb, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Background The phantom auditory perception of subjective tinnitus is associated with aberrant brain activity as evidenced by magneto- and electroencephalographic studies. We tested the hypotheses (1) that psychoacoustically measured tinnitus loudness is related to gamma oscillatory band power, and (2) that tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress are related to distinct brain activity patterns as suggested by the distinction between loudness and distress experienced by tinnitus patients. Furthermore, we explored (3) how hearing impairment, minimum masking level, and (4) psychological comorbidities are related to spontaneous oscillatory brain activity in tinnitus patients. Methods and Findings Resting state oscillatory brain activity recorded electroencephalographically from 46 male tinnitus patients showed a positive correlation between gamma band oscillations and psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness determined with the reconstructed tinnitus sound, but not with the other psychoacoustic loudness measures that were used. Tinnitus-related distress did also correlate with delta band activity, but at electrode positions different from those associated with tinnitus loudness. Furthermore, highly distressed tinnitus patients exhibited a higher level of theta band activity. Moreover, mean hearing loss between 0.125 kHz and 16 kHz was associated with a decrease in gamma activity, whereas minimum masking levels correlated positively with delta band power. In contrast, psychological comorbidities did not express significant correlations with oscillatory brain activity. Conclusion Different clinically relevant tinnitus characteristics show distinctive associations with spontaneous brain oscillatory power. Results support hypothesis (1), but exclusively for the tinnitus loudness derived from matching to the reconstructed tinnitus sound. This suggests to preferably use the reconstructed tinnitus spectrum to determine psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness. Results also support

  4. AβPP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Show Sex Differences in the Cerebellum Associated with Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez-Gutierrez, Lara; Fernandez-Perez, Ivan; Herrera, Jose Luis; Anton, Marta; Benito-Cuesta, Irene; Wandosell, Francisco

    2016-09-06

    Cerebellar pathology has been related to presenilin 1 mutations in certain pedigrees of familial Alzheimer's disease. However, cerebellum tissue has not been intensively analyzed in transgenic models of mutant presenilins. Furthermore, the effect of the sex of the mice was not systematically analyzed, despite the fact that important gender differences in the evolution of the disease in the human population have been described. We analyzed whether the progression of amyloidosis in a double transgenic mouse, AβPP/PS1, is susceptible to aging and differentially affects males and females. The accumulation of amyloid in the cerebellum differentially affects males and females of the AβPP/PS1 transgenic line, which was found to be ten-fold higher in 15-month-old females. Amyloid-β accumulation was more evident in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, but glia reaction was only observed in the granular layer of the older mice. The sex divergence was also observed in other neuronal, survival, and autophagic markers. The cerebellum plays an important role in the evolution of the pathology in this transgenic mouse model. Sex differences could be crucial for a complete understanding of this disease. We propose that the human population could be studied in this way. Sex-specific treatment strategies in human populations could show a differential response to the therapeutic approach.

  5. Dynamic DTI (dDTI) shows differing temporal activation patterns in post-exercise skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockel, Conrad; Akbari, Alireza; Kumbhare, Dinesh A; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2017-04-01

    To assess post-exercise recovery of human calf muscles using dynamic diffusion tensor imaging (dDTI). DTI data (6 directions, b = 0 and 400 s/mm(2)) were acquired every 35 s from seven healthy men using a 3T MRI, prior to (4 volumes) and immediately following exercise (13 volumes, ~7.5 min). Exercise consisted of 5-min in-bore repetitive dorsiflexion-eversion foot motion with 0.78 kg resistance. Diffusion tensors calculated at each time point produced maps of mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and signal at b = 0 s/mm(2) (S0). Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis was performed on five calf muscles: tibialis anterior (ATIB), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) peroneus longus (PER), soleus (SOL), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG). Active muscles (ATIB, EDL, PER) showed significantly elevated initial MD post-exercise, while predicted inactive muscles (SOL, LG) did not (p muscles across the majority of time points (p muscles. These differences are suggested to be related to differences in fiber composition.

  6. Do Step- and Biological Grandparents Show Differences in Investment and Emotional Closeness With Their Grandchildren?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Brogdon, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Human children are raised by a variety of caregivers including grandparents. A few studies have assessed potential differences in direct caregiving, financial expenditures, and emotional closeness between biological and step-grandparents. Drawing upon kin selection theory, we hypothesized that step-grandparents would provide less care and be less emotionally close to grandchildren than would biological grandparents. A sample of 341 heterosexual U.S. adults 25-35 years of age in a long-term partnership and with a biological child 5 years of age or younger were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Subjects provided sociodemographic information and answered questions about the dynamics between their own parent/stepparent and their own youngest biological child (hence, biological/step-grandparenting dynamics). Main analyses were restricted to within-subject comparisons. Results showed that biological grandmothers provided more direct childcare, financial expenditures, and had more emotionally close relationships with grandchildren than did step-grandmothers. Biological grandfathers provided less direct care and had less emotionally close relationships than step-grandfathers but did not exhibit differences in financial expenditures. Biological grandmothers provided more direct care, financial investment, and were more emotionally close to the referential grandchild than were biological grandfathers. Step-grandfathers were more emotionally close and more often played with grandchildren than step-grandmothers. These findings partially support kin selection theory. We discuss the relevance of factors such as competing demands on grandmothers' investment in biological and step-grandchildren and grandfathering serving in part as mating effort. Sex differences in biological grandparenting also mirror those in parenting. We suggest directions for future research, including on grandfathers, particularly in patrilineal societies.

  7. Do Step- and Biological Grandparents Show Differences in Investment and Emotional Closeness With Their Grandchildren?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B. Gray

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human children are raised by a variety of caregivers including grandparents. A few studies have assessed potential differences in direct caregiving, financial expenditures, and emotional closeness between biological and step-grandparents. Drawing upon kin selection theory, we hypothesized that step-grandparents would provide less care and be less emotionally close to grandchildren than would biological grandparents. A sample of 341 heterosexual U.S. adults 25–35 years of age in a long-term partnership and with a biological child 5 years of age or younger were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Subjects provided sociodemographic information and answered questions about the dynamics between their own parent/stepparent and their own youngest biological child (hence, biological/step-grandparenting dynamics. Main analyses were restricted to within-subject comparisons. Results showed that biological grandmothers provided more direct childcare, financial expenditures, and had more emotionally close relationships with grandchildren than did step-grandmothers. Biological grandfathers provided less direct care and had less emotionally close relationships than step-grandfathers but did not exhibit differences in financial expenditures. Biological grandmothers provided more direct care, financial investment, and were more emotionally close to the referential grandchild than were biological grandfathers. Step-grandfathers were more emotionally close and more often played with grandchildren than step-grandmothers. These findings partially support kin selection theory. We discuss the relevance of factors such as competing demands on grandmothers’ investment in biological and step-grandchildren and grandfathering serving in part as mating effort. Sex differences in biological grandparenting also mirror those in parenting. We suggest directions for future research, including on grandfathers, particularly in patrilineal societies.

  8. Axial Compressive Strength of Foamcrete with Different Profiles and Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight foamcrete is a versatile material; primarily consist of a cement based mortar mixed with at least 20% volume of air. High flow ability, lower self-weight, minimal requirement of aggregate, controlled low strength and good thermal insulation properties are a few characteristics of foamcrete. Its dry densities, typically, is below 1600kg/m3 with compressive strengths maximum of 15MPa. The ASTM standard provision specifies a correction factor for concrete strengths of between 14 and 42MPa to compensate for the reduced strength when the aspect height-to-diameter ratio of specimen is less than 2.0, while the CEB-FIP provision specifically mentions the ratio of 150 x 300mm cylinder strength to 150 mm cube strength. However, both provisions requirements do not specifically clarify the applicability and/or modification of the correction factors for the compressive strength of foamcrete. This proposed laboratory work is intended to study the effect of different dimensions and profiles on the axial compressive strength of concrete. Specimens of various dimensions and profiles are cast with square and circular cross-sections i.e., cubes, prisms and cylinders, and to investigate their behavior in compression strength at 7 and 28 days. Hypothetically, compressive strength will decrease with the increase of concrete specimen dimension and concrete specimen with cube profile would yield comparable compressive strength to cylinder (100 x 100 x 100mm cube to 100dia x 200mm cylinder.

  9. Missouri Marketing Education Competency Profile. Cross-Referenced to Marketing Education Resources and the Missouri Show-Me Standards. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This packet consists of explanatory materials on the Missouri Marketing Education Competency Profile and related information. Section 1 describes the mission of marketing education, marketing occupations, curriculum framework, and curriculum alignment for the 1996 profile. Section 2 addresses 1996 revisions to the Missouri Marketing Education Core…

  10. Transcription profiling data set of different states of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Semashko

    2017-03-01

    Here we present the data for transcription profiling of M. gallisepticum under different types of exposures: genetic knock-out mutants, cell culture exposed to sublethal concentrations of antibiotics and well-characterized heat stress effect. Mutants have transposon insertion to hypothetical membrane protein, lactate dehydrogenase, helicase with unknown function, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase or potential sigma factor. For inhibition of important cell systems, treatment with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP, novobiocin or tetracycline were chosen. Data are available via NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO with the accession number GSE85777 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE85777

  11. Anthropometric Profile in Different Event Categories of Acrobatic Gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada-Iglesias Yaiza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a specific anthropometric profile for each sport, which may be differentiated even in relation to the position, role or event category within each sport discipline. However, there are few studies on acrobatic gymnastics, and the goal of this work was to determine the anthropometric profile depending on the event category, as well as factors that predisposed to performance in these categories. The sample consisted of 150 gymnasts from Spain, divided into 8 groups according to the event category and the role played. The kinanthropometric measurements were taken through the procedures established by the International Society for the Advancement of Kineantropometry. The anthropometric characteristics, including body mass index, somatotype, body composition and proportionality using the Phantom stratagem were analyzed, and the results obtained from the different groups were compared. A regression analysis was performed with particular groups of gymnasts. No significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed between groups of female tops or male bases, although differences were found between female group bases and female pair bases. It could be suggested that higher values of body height, sitting height, the minimum abdominal circumference, percentage of fat and low biliocristal breadth predispose female bases to work in pairs rather than in groups. The conclusion is that the anthropometric measurements are not decisive when guiding a gymnast toward choosing one event category or another, except for female bases.

  12. Helicobacter pylori strains from a Nigerian cohort show divergent antibiotic resistance rates and a uniform pathogenicity profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Harrison

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori is a factor preventing its successful eradication. Particularly in developing countries, resistance against commonly used antibiotics is widespread. Here, we present an epidemiological study from Nigeria with 111 isolates. We analyzed the associated disease outcome, and performed a detailed characterization of these isolated strains with respect to their antibiotic susceptibility and their virulence characteristics. Furthermore, statistical analysis was performed on microbiological data as well as patient information and the results of the gastroenterological examination. We found that the variability concerning the production of virulence factors between strains was minimal, with 96.4% of isolates being CagA-positive and 92.8% producing detectable VacA levels. In addition, high frequency of bacterial resistance was observed for metronidazole (99.1%, followed by amoxicillin (33.3%, clarithromycin (14.4% and tetracycline (4.5%. In conclusion, this study indicated that the infection rate of H. pylori infection within the cohort in the present study was surprisingly low (36.6%. Furthermore, an average gastric pathology was observed by histological grading and bacterial isolates showed a uniform pathogenicity profile while indicating divergent antibiotic resistance rates.

  13. Speed and direction response profiles of neurons in macaque MT and MST show modest constraint line tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijnhouwer, Jacob; Noest, André J; Lankheet, Martin J M; van den Berg, Albert V; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2013-01-01

    Several models of heading detection during smooth pursuit rely on the assumption of local constraint line tuning to exist in large scale motion detection templates. A motion detector that exhibits pure constraint line tuning responds maximally to any 2D-velocity in the set of vectors that can be decomposed into the central, or classic, preferred velocity (the shortest vector that still yields the maximum response) and any vector orthogonal to that. To test this assumption, we measured the firing rates of isolated middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) neurons to random dot stimuli moving in a range of directions and speeds. We found that as a function of 2D velocity, the pooled responses were best fit with a 2D Gaussian profile with a factor of elongation, orthogonal to the central preferred velocity, of roughly 1.5 for MST and 1.7 for MT. This means that MT and MST cells are more sharply tuned for speed than they are for direction; and that they indeed show some level of constraint line tuning. However, we argue that the observed elongation is insufficient to achieve behavioral heading discrimination accuracy on the order of 1-2 degrees as reported before.

  14. Two Genetically Similar H9N2 Influenza A Viruses Show Different Pathogenicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingtao Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available H9N2 Avian influenza virus has repeatedly infected humans and other mammals, which highlights the need to determine the pathogenicity and the corresponding mechanism of this virus for mammals. In this study, we found two H9N2 viruses with similar genetic background but with different pathogenicity in mice. The A/duck/Nanjing/06/2003 (NJ06 virus was highly pathogenic for mice, with a 50% mouse lethal dose of 102.83 50% egg infectious dose, whereas the A/duck/Nanjing/01/1999 (NJ01 virus was low pathogenic for mice, with a 50% mouse lethal dose of >106.81 50% egg infectious dose. Further studies showed that the NJ06 virus grew faster and reached significantly higher titers than NJ01 in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, the NJ06 virus induced more severe lung lesions, and higher levels of inflammatory cellular infiltration and cytokine response in lungs than NJ01 did. However, only twelve different amino acid residues (HA-K157E, NA-A9T, NA-R435K, PB2-T149P, PB2-K627E, PB1-R187K, PA-L548M, PA-M550L, NP-G127E, NP-P277H, NP-D340N, NS1-D171N were found between the two viruses, and all these residues except for NA-R435K were located in the known functional regions involved in interaction of viral proteins or between the virus and host factors. Summary, our results suggest that multiple amino acid differences may be responsible for the higher pathogenicity of the NJ06 virus for mice, resulting in lethal infection, enhanced viral replication, severe lung lesions, and excessive inflammatory cellular infiltration and cytokine response in lungs. These observations will be helpful for better understanding the pathogenic potential and the corresponding molecular basis of H9N2 viruses that might pose threats to human health in the future.

  15. Pragmatic trial design elements showed a different impact on trial interpretation and feasibility than explanatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Joost B; Irving, Elaine; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Lloyd, Emily; Goetz, Iris; Grobbee, Diederick E; Stolk, Pieter; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Zuidgeest, Mira G P

    2016-09-01

    To illustrate how pragmatic trial design elements or inserting explanatory trial elements in pragmatic trials affect validity, generalizability, precision, and operational feasibility. From illustrative examples identified through the IMI Get Real Consortium, we selected randomized drug trials with a pragmatic design feature. We searched all publications on these trials for information on how pragmatic trial design features affect validity, generalizability, precision, or feasibility. We present examples from the Salford lung study, International Suicide Prevention Trial, Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression, and Cluster Randomized Usual care vs. Caduet Investigation Assessing Long-term-risk trial. These examples show that incorporating pragmatic trial design elements in trials may affect generalizability, precision and validity and may lead to operational challenges different from traditional explanatory trials. Inserting explanatory trial elements into pragmatic trials may also affect validity, generalizability, and operational feasibility, especially when these trial elements are incorporated in one arm of the trial only. Design choices that positively affect one of these domains (e.g., generalizability) may negatively affect others (e.g., feasibility). Consequences of incorporating pragmatic or explanatory trial design elements in pragmatic trials should be explicitly considered and balanced for all relevant domains, including validity, generalizability, precision, and operational feasibility. Tools are needed to make these consequences more transparent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Do patients with different mental disorders show specific aspects of shame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Corinna N; Bender, Caroline; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Brodführer, Anne; Matthies, Swantje; Hermann, Christiane; Geisse, Eva K; Svaldi, Jennifer; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Philipsen, Alexandra; Jacob, Gitta A

    2014-12-15

    Shame is related to several mental disorders. We assume that facets of shame, namely bodily, cognitive and existential shame, may occur in typical patterns in mental and personality disorders. An excessive level of shame may lead to psychopathological symptoms. However, a lack of shame may also lead to distress, for instance as it may facilitate violation of social norms and thus may promote interpersonal problems. In this study we investigated facets of shame in females suffering from various mental disorders and personality disorders presumably associated with specific aspects of shame. Women suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD, n=92), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n=86), major depressive disorder (MDD, n=17), social anxiety disorder (SAD, n=33), and a community sample (COM, n=290) completed the SHAME questionnaire, which is a newly developed instrument to assess adaptive and maladaptive aspects of shame. BPD patients reported the highest level of existential shame compared to all other groups. Compared to the controls, SAD patients displayed stronger bodily and cognitive shame, and ADHD showed lower bodily shame. As assumed, specific aspects of shame were found in different patient groups. It may be important to specifically address these specific aspects of shame in psychotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PET and MRI show differences in cerebral asymmetry and functional connectivity between homo- and heterosexual subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Savic, Ivanka; Lindström, Per

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral responses to putative pheromones and objects of sexual attraction were recently found to differ between homo- and heterosexual subjects. Although this observation may merely mirror perceptional differences, it raises the intriguing question as to whether certain sexually dimorphic features in the brain may differ between individuals of the same sex but different sexual orientation. We addressed this issue by studying hemispheric asymmetry and functional connectivity, two parameters t...

  18. ASD and schizophrenia show distinct developmental profiles in common genetic overlap with population-based social communication difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pourcain, B; Robinson, E B; Anttila, V; Sullivan, B B; Maller, J; Golding, J; Skuse, D; Ring, S; Evans, D M; Zammit, S; Fisher, S E; Neale, B M; Anney, R J L; Ripke, S; Hollegaard, M V; Werge, T; Ronald, A; Grove, J; Hougaard, D M; Børglum, A D; Mortensen, P B; Daly, M J; Davey Smith, G

    2017-01-03

    Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia do not appear before early adulthood. We investigated whether overlap in common genetic influences between these clinical conditions and impairments in social communication depends on the developmental stage of the assessed trait. Social communication difficulties were measured in typically-developing youth (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, N⩽5553, longitudinal assessments at 8, 11, 14 and 17 years) using the Social Communication Disorder Checklist. Data on clinical ASD (PGC-ASD: 5305 cases, 5305 pseudo-controls; iPSYCH-ASD: 7783 cases, 11 359 controls) and schizophrenia (PGC-SCZ2: 34 241 cases, 45 604 controls, 1235 trios) were either obtained through the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) or the Danish iPSYCH project. Overlap in genetic influences between ASD and social communication difficulties during development decreased with age, both in the PGC-ASD and the iPSYCH-ASD sample. Genetic overlap between schizophrenia and social communication difficulties, by contrast, persisted across age, as observed within two independent PGC-SCZ2 subsamples, and showed an increase in magnitude for traits assessed during later adolescence. ASD- and schizophrenia-related polygenic effects were unrelated to each other and changes in trait-disorder links reflect the heterogeneity of genetic factors influencing social communication difficulties during childhood versus later adolescence. Thus, both clinical ASD and schizophrenia share some genetic influences with impairments in social communication, but reveal distinct developmental profiles in their genetic links, consistent with the onset of clinical symptoms.Molecular Psychiatry advance online

  19. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassati, Davide; Faccoli, Massimo; Haack, Robert A.; Rabaglia, Robert J.; Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Battisti, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall), forest (cover area, composition), geographical (distance), and human-related (import) variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have on climate

  20. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Rassati

    Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall, forest (cover area, composition, geographical (distance, and human-related (import variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have

  1. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassati, Davide; Faccoli, Massimo; Haack, Robert A; Rabaglia, Robert J; Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Battisti, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall), forest (cover area, composition), geographical (distance), and human-related (import) variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have on climate

  2. Profiles of Motivated Self-Regulation in College Computer Science Courses: Differences in Major versus Required Non-Major Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Duane F.; Soh, Leen-Kiat

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to utilize a profiling approach to understand differences in motivation and strategic self-regulation among post-secondary STEM students in major versus required non-major computer science courses. Participants were 233 students from required introductory computer science courses (194 men; 35 women; 4 unknown) at a large Midwestern state university. Cluster analysis identified five profiles: (1) a strategic profile of a highly motivated by-any-means good strategy user; (2) a knowledge-building profile of an intrinsically motivated autonomous, mastery-oriented student; (3) a surface learning profile of a utility motivated minimally engaged student; (4) an apathetic profile of an amotivational disengaged student; and (5) a learned helpless profile of a motivated but unable to effectively self-regulate student. Among CS majors and students in courses in their major field, the strategic and knowledge-building profiles were the most prevalent. Among non-CS majors and students in required non-major courses, the learned helpless, surface learning, and apathetic profiles were the most prevalent. Students in the strategic and knowledge-building profiles had significantly higher retention of computational thinking knowledge than students in other profiles. Students in the apathetic and surface learning profiles saw little instrumentality of the course for their future academic and career objectives. Findings show that students in STEM fields taking required computer science courses exhibit the same constellation of motivated strategic self-regulation profiles found in other post-secondary and K-12 settings.

  3. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.

    2009-01-01

    ¿ Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found

  4. Driver behavior profiling: An investigation with different smartphone sensors and machine learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Ferreira

    Full Text Available Driver behavior impacts traffic safety, fuel/energy consumption and gas emissions. Driver behavior profiling tries to understand and positively impact driver behavior. Usually driver behavior profiling tasks involve automated collection of driving data and application of computer models to generate a classification that characterizes the driver aggressiveness profile. Different sensors and classification methods have been employed in this task, however, low-cost solutions and high performance are still research targets. This paper presents an investigation with different Android smartphone sensors, and classification algorithms in order to assess which sensor/method assembly enables classification with higher performance. The results show that specific combinations of sensors and intelligent methods allow classification performance improvement.

  5. Do interviewer-respondent interactions in CAPI and CATI-interviews show a difference in rapport?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, Yfke; Haan, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    Various studies have shown that social desirability bias and satisficing are more prevalent in CATI than in CAPI surveys. Although this difference has theoretically been explained in terms of rapport (Holbrook et al 2003), it has not systematically been studied whether interviewer-respondent

  6. Affiliation, joint venture or PSO? Case studies show why provider strategies differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Joint venture, affiliation or PSO? Here are three case studies of providers who chose different paths under Medicare risk, plus some key questions you'll want to ask of your own provider organization. Learn from these examples so you'll make the best contracting decisions.

  7. Phenotypic screening of cannabinoid receptor 2 ligands shows different sensitivity to genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillger, Julia M; le Roy, Beau; Wang, Zi; Mulder-Krieger, Thea; Boomsma, Dorret I; Slagboom, P. Eline; Danen, Erik H J; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2017-01-01

    The Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2R) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) investigated intensively as therapeutic target, however no drug has reached the market yet. We investigated personal differences in CB2R drug responses using a label-free whole-cell assay (xCELLigence) combined with cell lines

  8. Volumetric and two-dimensional image interpretation show different cognitive processes in learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, Anouk; Ravesloot, Cécile J.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; van der Schaaf, Irene C.; Huige, Josephine C B M; Vincken, Koen L.; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; van Schaik, Jan P J

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: In current practice, radiologists interpret digital images, including a substantial amount of volumetric images. We hypothesized that interpretation of a stack of a volumetric data set demands different skills than interpretation of two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional

  9. Volumetric and two-dimensional image interpretation show different cognitive processes in learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, Anouk|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413648907; Ravesloot, C.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/362749663; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; van der Schaaf, Irene C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29133489X; Huige, Josephine C B M; Vincken, Koen L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143101722; Ten Cate, Olle Th J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068931204; van Schaik, JPJ|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070114811

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In current practice, radiologists interpret digital images, including a substantial amount of volumetric images. We hypothesized that interpretation of a stack of a volumetric data set demands different skills than interpretation of two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional

  10. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwense, S.A.; Olesen, S.S.; Drewes, A.M.; Goor, H. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain control in chronic pancreatitis is a major challenge; the mechanisms behind analgesic treatment are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the differences in pain sensitivity and modulation in chronic pancreatitis patients, based on their clinical response (responders vs

  11. Do Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Show Different Daily Physical Activity Patterns From Healthy Individuals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietberg, Marc B.; van Wegen, Erwin E. H.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Kwakkel, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Background. Reduced physical activity is an important consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, little is known about the real quantity and type of daily activities that people with MS perform in their own home environment. Objective. To gain insight into differences in the amount and

  12. Can DNA sequencing show differences between microbial communities in Polish and Danish wastewater treatment plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłobędzka, A; Muszyński, A

    2017-03-01

    The microbial populations in the activated sludge of two Polish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were identified and quantified using Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons over a 2-year period. Their dynamics over time were compared to Danish WWTPs (data collected in previous studies by Center for Microbial Communities, Aalborg University). The bacterial communities in Polish and Danish WWTPs were similar to each other, but the microbial diversity in Polish WWTPs was lower. The dominant genera in Polish WWTPs were more abundant than in Danish WWTPs; 30 of them constituted more than half the of activated sludge community. Polish WWTPs showed a higher abundance of bacteria involved in nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand removal (Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes), while polyphosphate-acculumating bacteria were the dominant bacterial group in Danish plants. The microbial community structures in the examined Polish WWTPs were relatively similar to each other and showed strong seasonal variations which are not normally observed in Danish WWTPs.

  13. A Case of Porokeratosis Showing Different Clinical Patterns of the Disease with Anogenital Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Karabudak

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratosis (PK is a group of cutaneous entities characterized by marginate scaling lesions, histologically showing a column of parakeratotic keratinocytes (cornoid lamella. Various forms are recognized such as porokeratosis of Mibelli (PM, linear porokeratosis, disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, punctate parakeratosis. PM should be treated because of the possibility of developing malignant epithelial tumors. We are presenting a 21 year old male patient suffering from PM on the back of the hands, foot, scrotum, oral mucosa and anal region. The histological biopsy specimens showed the characteristic features of porokeratosis. We destroyed the lesions by cryotherapy sessions. Here, we present a case of PM since it is rarely seen as multiple lesions with oral, anal and scrotal involvements altogether. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 97-9

  14. Motivational profiles in high school students: Differences in behavioural and emotional homework engagement and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro, Bibiana; Núñez, José C; Valle, Antonio; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rodríguez, Susana; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-12-12

    This work examined whether combinations of academic and non-academic goals generated different motivational profiles in high school students. Besides, differences in homework behavioural engagement (i.e. amount of homework, time spent in homework, homework time management), homework emotional engagement (i.e. homework anxiety) and academic achievement were analysed. Participants were 714 high school students (43.4% boys and 56.6% girls). The study of potential motivational profiles was conducted by latent profile analysis, and the differences between the motivational profiles regarding homework variables and academic achievement were analysed using multivariate analysis. The results indicate the existence of five groups of motivational profiles: a group of students with multiple goals, a group of unmotivated students, two groups of students with a predominance of learning goals and, finally, a group comprising students with a high fear of failure. Both the group with multiple goals and the learning goals-oriented groups reported to do more homework, spending more time on homework, making better use of that time and having a higher academic achievement than counterparts. The avoidance-failure group and the group with multiple goals showed higher levels of homework anxiety. Globally, these results provide support for a person-centred approach. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Prelinguistic human infants and great apes show different communicative strategies in a triadic request situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretscher, Heinz; Tempelmann, Sebastian; Haun, Daniel B M; Liebal, Katja; Kaminski, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    In the present research, we investigate the communicative strategies of 20 month old human infants and great apes when requesting rewards from a human experimenter. Infants and apes both adapted their signals to the attentional state of the experimenter as well as to the location of the reward. Yet, while infants frequently positioned themselves in front of the experimenter and pointed towards a distant reward, apes either remained in the experimenter's line of sight and pointed towards him or moved out of sight and pointed towards the reward. Further, when pointing towards a reward that was placed at a distance from the experimenter, only the infants, and not the apes, took the experimenter's attentional state into account. These results demonstrate that prelinguistic human infants and nonhuman apes use different means when guiding others' attention to a location; indicating that differing cognitive mechanisms may underlie their pointing gestures.

  16. Prelinguistic human infants and great apes show different communicative strategies in a triadic request situation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Gretscher

    Full Text Available In the present research, we investigate the communicative strategies of 20 month old human infants and great apes when requesting rewards from a human experimenter. Infants and apes both adapted their signals to the attentional state of the experimenter as well as to the location of the reward. Yet, while infants frequently positioned themselves in front of the experimenter and pointed towards a distant reward, apes either remained in the experimenter's line of sight and pointed towards him or moved out of sight and pointed towards the reward. Further, when pointing towards a reward that was placed at a distance from the experimenter, only the infants, and not the apes, took the experimenter's attentional state into account. These results demonstrate that prelinguistic human infants and nonhuman apes use different means when guiding others' attention to a location; indicating that differing cognitive mechanisms may underlie their pointing gestures.

  17. A comparative analysis shows morphofunctional differences between the rat and mouse melanin-concentrating hormone systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Croizier

    Full Text Available Sub-populations of neurons producing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH are characterized by distinct projection patterns, birthdates and CART/NK3 expression in rat. Evidence for such sub-populations has not been reported in other species. However, given that genetically engineered mouse lines are now commonly used as experimental models, a better characterization of the anatomy and morphofunctionnal organization of MCH system in this species is then necessary. Combining multiple immunohistochemistry experiments with in situ hybridization, tract tracing or BrdU injections, evidence supporting the hypothesis that rat and mouse MCH systems are not identical was obtained: sub-populations of MCH neurons also exist in mouse, but their relative abundance is different. Furthermore, divergences in the distribution of MCH axons were observed, in particular in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These differences suggest that rat and mouse MCH neurons are differentially involved in anatomical networks that control feeding and the sleep/wake cycle.

  18. Finishing pigs that are divergent in feed efficiency show small differences in intestinal functionality and structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli

    Full Text Available Controversial information is available regarding the feed efficiency-related variation in intestinal size, structure and functionality in pigs. The present objective was therefore to investigate the differences in visceral organ size, intestinal morphology, mucosal enzyme activity, intestinal integrity and related gene expression in low and high RFI pigs which were reared at three different geographical locations (Austria, AT; Northern Ireland, NI; Republic of Ireland, ROI using similar protocols. Pigs (n = 369 were ranked for their RFI between days 42 and 91 postweaning and low and high RFI pigs (n = 16 from AT, n = 24 from NI, and n = 60 from ROI were selected. Pigs were sacrificed and sampled on ~day 110 of life. In general, RFI-related variation in intestinal size, structure and function was small. Some energy saving mechanisms and enhanced digestive and absorptive capacity were indicated in low versus high RFI pigs by shorter crypts, higher duodenal lactase and maltase activity and greater mucosal permeability (P < 0.05, but differences were mainly seen in pigs from AT and to a lesser degree in pigs from ROI. Additionally, low RFI pigs from AT had more goblet cells in duodenum but fewer in jejunum compared to high RFI pigs (P < 0.05. Together with the lower expression of TLR4 and TNFA in low versus high RFI pigs from AT and ROI (P < 0.05, these results might indicate differences in the innate immune response between low and high RFI pigs. Results demonstrated that the variation in the size of visceral organs and intestinal structure and functionality was greater between geographic location (local environmental factors than between RFI ranks of pigs. In conclusion, present results support previous findings that the intestinal size, structure and functionality do not significantly contribute to variation in RFI of pigs.

  19. Finishing pigs that are divergent in feed efficiency show small differences in intestinal functionality and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Magowan, Elizabeth; McCormack, Ursula M.; Curião, Tânia; Hollmann, Manfred; Ertl, Reinhard; Aschenbach, Jörg R.; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2017-01-01

    Controversial information is available regarding the feed efficiency-related variation in intestinal size, structure and functionality in pigs. The present objective was therefore to investigate the differences in visceral organ size, intestinal morphology, mucosal enzyme activity, intestinal integrity and related gene expression in low and high RFI pigs which were reared at three different geographical locations (Austria, AT; Northern Ireland, NI; Republic of Ireland, ROI) using similar protocols. Pigs (n = 369) were ranked for their RFI between days 42 and 91 postweaning and low and high RFI pigs (n = 16 from AT, n = 24 from NI, and n = 60 from ROI) were selected. Pigs were sacrificed and sampled on ~day 110 of life. In general, RFI-related variation in intestinal size, structure and function was small. Some energy saving mechanisms and enhanced digestive and absorptive capacity were indicated in low versus high RFI pigs by shorter crypts, higher duodenal lactase and maltase activity and greater mucosal permeability (P < 0.05), but differences were mainly seen in pigs from AT and to a lesser degree in pigs from ROI. Additionally, low RFI pigs from AT had more goblet cells in duodenum but fewer in jejunum compared to high RFI pigs (P < 0.05). Together with the lower expression of TLR4 and TNFA in low versus high RFI pigs from AT and ROI (P < 0.05), these results might indicate differences in the innate immune response between low and high RFI pigs. Results demonstrated that the variation in the size of visceral organs and intestinal structure and functionality was greater between geographic location (local environmental factors) than between RFI ranks of pigs. In conclusion, present results support previous findings that the intestinal size, structure and functionality do not significantly contribute to variation in RFI of pigs. PMID:28380012

  20. Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2013-01-01

    Microbial pesticide degradation studies have until now mainly focused on bacteria, although fungi have also been shown to degrade pesticides. In this study we clarify the background for the ability of the common soil fungus Mortierella to degrade the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Diuron degradation....... Degradation of diuron was fastest in carbon and nitrogen rich media while suboptimal nutrient levels restricted degradation, making it unlikely that Mortierella utilize diuron as carbon or nitrogen sources. Degradation kinetics showed that diuron degradation was followed by formation of the metabolites 1...

  1. Phytochelatin-metal(loid) transport into vacuoles shows different substrate preferences in barley and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Yong; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Lee, Youngsook; Schroeder, Julian I; Ahn, Sang-Nag; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Wicker, Thomas; Martinoia, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) are toxic to all living organisms, including plants and humans. In plants, Cd and As are detoxified by phytochelatins (PCs) and metal(loid)-chelating peptides and by sequestering PC-metal(loid) complexes in vacuoles. Consistent differences have been observed between As and Cd detoxification. Whereas chelation of Cd by PCs is largely sufficient to detoxify Cd, As-PC complexes must be sequestered into vacuoles to be fully detoxified. It is not clear whether this difference in detoxification pathways is ubiquitous among plants or varies across species. Here, we have conducted a PC transport study using vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis and barley. Arabidopsis vacuoles accumulated low levels of PC2 -Cd, and vesicles from yeast cells expressing either AtABCC1 or AtABCC2 exhibited negligible PC2 -Cd transport activity compared with PC2 -As. In contrast, barley vacuoles readily accumulated comparable levels of PC2 -Cd and PC2 -As. PC transport in barley vacuoles was inhibited by vanadate, but not by ammonium, suggesting the involvement of ABC-type transporters. Interestingly, barley vacuoles exhibited enhanced PC2 transport activity when essential metal ions, such as Zn(II), Cu(II) and Mn(II), were added to the transport assay, suggesting that PCs might contribute to the homeostasis of essential metals and detoxification of non-essential toxic metal(loid)s. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Video game players show higher performance but no difference in speed of attention shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, David J; Wiesmann, Helene; Ilg, Uwe J

    2016-09-01

    Video games have become both a widespread leisure activity and a substantial field of research. In a variety of tasks, video game players (VGPs) perform better than non-video game players (NVGPs). This difference is most likely explained by an alteration of the basic mechanisms underlying visuospatial attention. More specifically, the present study hypothesizes that VGPs are able to shift attention faster than NVGPs. Such alterations in attention cannot be disentangled from changes in stimulus-response mappings in reaction time based measurements. Therefore, we used a spatial cueing task with varying cue lead times (CLTs) to investigate the speed of covert attention shifts of 98 male participants divided into 36 NVGPs and 62 VGPs based on their weekly gaming time. VGPs exhibited higher peak and mean performance than NVGPs. However, we did not find any differences in the speed of covert attention shifts as measured by the CLT needed to achieve peak performance. Thus, our results clearly rule out faster stimulus-response mappings as an explanation for the higher performance of VGPs in line with previous studies. More importantly, our data do not support the notion of faster attention shifts in VGPs as another possible explanation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwense, Stefan AW; Olesen, Søren S; Drewes, Asbjørn M; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain control in chronic pancreatitis is a major challenge; the mechanisms behind analgesic treatment are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the differences in pain sensitivity and modulation in chronic pancreatitis patients, based on their clinical response (responders vs nonresponders) to placebo or pregabalin treatment. Methods This study was part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the analgesic effects of pregabalin and placebo in chronic pancreatitis. Post hoc, patients were assigned to one of four groups, ie, responders and nonresponders to pregabalin (n=16; n=15) or placebo (n=12; n=17) treatment. Responders were defined as patients with >30% pain reduction after 3 weeks of treatment. We measured change in pain sensitivity before and after the treatment using electric pain detection thresholds (ePDT) in dermatomes C5 (generalized effects) and Ventral T10 (segmental effects). Descending endogenous pain modulation was quantified via conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm. Results Sixty patients were analyzed in a per-protocol analysis. ePDT change in C5 was significant vs baseline and greater in pregabalin (1.3 mA) vs placebo responders (−0.1 mA; P=0.015). This was not so for ePDT in Ventral T10. CPM increased more in pregabalin (9%) vs placebo responders (−17%; P<0.001). CPM changed significantly vs baseline only for pregabalin responders (P=0.006). Conclusion This hypothesis-generating study provides the first evidence that pain relief with pregabalin is associated with anti-hyperalgesic effects and increased endogenous inhibitory modulation. No such effects were observed in patients experiencing pain relief with the placebo treatment. The mechanisms underlying analgesic response to placebo vs drug treatments are different and, together with their interactions, deserve further study. PMID:26203273

  4. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouwense SA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stefan AW Bouwense,1 Søren S Olesen,2 Asbjørn M Drewes,2 Harry van Goor,1 Oliver HG Wilder-Smith31Pain and Nociception Neuroscience Research Group, Department of Surgery, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Mech-Sense, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 3Pain and Nociception Neuroscience Research Group, Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain and Palliative Medicine, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsBackground: Pain control in chronic pancreatitis is a major challenge; the mechanisms behind analgesic treatment are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the differences in pain sensitivity and modulation in chronic pancreatitis patients, based on their clinical response (responders vs nonresponders to placebo or pregabalin treatment. Methods: This study was part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the analgesic effects of pregabalin and placebo in chronic pancreatitis. Post hoc, patients were assigned to one of four groups, ie, responders and nonresponders to pregabalin (n=16; n=15 or placebo (n=12; n=17 treatment. Responders were defined as patients with >30% pain reduction after 3 weeks of treatment. We measured change in pain sensitivity before and after the treatment using electric pain detection thresholds (ePDT in dermatomes C5 (generalized effects and Ventral T10 (segmental effects. Descending endogenous pain modulation was quantified via conditioned pain modulation (CPM paradigm. Results: Sixty patients were analyzed in a per-protocol analysis. ePDT change in C5 was significant vs baseline and greater in pregabalin (1.3 mA vs placebo responders (−0.1 mA; P=0.015. This was not so for ePDT in Ventral T10. CPM increased more in pregabalin (9% vs placebo responders (−17%; P<0.001. CPM changed significantly vs baseline only for pregabalin responders (P=0.006. Conclusion: This hypothesis

  5. Brains of verbal memory specialists show anatomical differences in language, memory and visual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, James F; Davis, Ben; Melcher, David; Miceli, Gabriele; Jovicich, Jorge; Nath, Tanmay; Singh, Nandini Chatterjee; Hasson, Uri

    2016-05-01

    We studied a group of verbal memory specialists to determine whether intensive oral text memory is associated with structural features of hippocampal and lateral-temporal regions implicated in language processing. Professional Vedic Sanskrit Pandits in India train from childhood for around 10years in an ancient, formalized tradition of oral Sanskrit text memorization and recitation, mastering the exact pronunciation and invariant content of multiple 40,000-100,000 word oral texts. We conducted structural analysis of gray matter density, cortical thickness, local gyrification, and white matter structure, relative to matched controls. We found massive gray matter density and cortical thickness increases in Pandit brains in language, memory and visual systems, including i) bilateral lateral temporal cortices and ii) the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus, regions associated with long and short-term memory. Differences in hippocampal morphometry matched those previously documented for expert spatial navigators and individuals with good verbal working memory. The findings provide unique insight into the brain organization implementing formalized oral knowledge systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Binary mixtures of neonicotinoids show different transcriptional changes than single neonicotinoids in honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Verena; Bachofer, Sara; Fent, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Among the many factors responsible for the decline of bee populations are plant protection products such as neonicotinoids. In general, bees are exposed to not only one but mixtures of such chemicals. At environmental realistic concentrations neonicotinoids may display negative effects on the immune system, foraging activity, learning and memory formation of bees. Neonicotinoids induce alterations of gene transcripts such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits, vitellogenin, genes of the immune system and genes linked to memory formation. While previous studies focused on individual compounds, the effect of neonicotinoid mixtures in bees is poorly known. Here we investigated the effects of neonicotinoids acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam as single compounds, and binary mixtures thereof in honeybees. We determined transcriptional changes of nAChR subunits and vitellogenin in the brain of experimentally exposed honeybees after exposure up to 72 h. Exposure concentrations were selected on the basis of lowest effect concentrations of the single compounds. Transcriptional induction of nAChRs and vitellogenin was strongest for thiamethoxam, and weakest for acetamiprid. To a large extent, binary mixtures did not show additive transcriptional inductions but they were less than additive. Our data suggest that the joint transcriptional activity of neonicotinoids cannot be explained by concentration addition. The in vivo effects are not only governed by agonistic interaction with nAChRs alone, but are more complex as a result of interactions with other pathways as well. Further studies are needed to investigate the physiological joint effects of mixtures of neonicotinoids and other plant protection products on bees to better understand their joint effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rural and urban differences in metabolic profiles in a Cameroonian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concerning resting heart rate, only the youngest women's age group showed a significant difference between urban and rural areas (79 ± 14 bpm vs 88 ± 12 bpm, p = 0.04) respectively. As opposed to the general tendency in our population, blood glucose was higher in rural men and women compared to their urban ...

  8. Onset of leptin resistance shows temporal differences related to dose or pulsed treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehler, Kevin Y.E.; Matheny, Michael; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Sakarya, Yasemin; Bruce, Erin; Toklu, Hale Zerrin; Carter, Christy S.; Morgan, Drake; Tümer, Nihal; Scarpace, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Leptin administration results in leptin resistance presenting a significant barrier to therapeutic use of leptin. Consequently, we examined two hypotheses. The first examined the relationship between leptin dose and development of physiological and biochemical signs of leptin resistance. We hypothesized lower doses of leptin would produce proportional reductions in body weight without the adverse leptin-induced leptin resistance. The second compared pulsed central leptin infusion to continuous leptin infusion. We hypothesized that pulsed infusion at specific times of the day would evoke favorable body weight reductions while tempering the development of leptin-induced leptin resistance. The first experiment examined leptin responsiveness, including food intake, body weight and hypothalamic STAT3 phosphorylation to increasing doses of viral gene delivery of leptin. Varying the dose proved inconsequential with respect to long-term therapy and demonstrated proportional development of leptin resistance. The second experiment examined leptin responsiveness to pulsed central leptin infusion, comparing pulsed versus constant infusion of 3 ug/day leptin or a 2 h morning versus a 2 h evening pulsed leptin infusion. Pulsed delivery of the supramaximal dose of 3 ug/day was not different than constant delivery. Morning pulsed infusion of the submaximal dose of 0.25 ug reduces food intake only over subsequent immediate meal period and was associated with body weight reductions, but results in cellular leptin resistance. Evening pulsed infusion did not decrease food intake but reduces body weight and maintains full leptin signaling. The positive benefit for pulsed delivery remains speculative, yet potentially may provide an alternative mode of leptin therapy. PMID:27012992

  9. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and histopathology scores. These data may also have implications on human pancreas procurement as use of an intraductal infusion is not common practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Different Cognitive Complaint Profiles in Memory Clinic and Depressive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miebach, Lisa; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Frommann, Ingo; Buckley, Rachel; Wagner, Michael

    2017-11-08

    Cognitive complaints are considered early indicators of incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD) but are very common in geriatric patients, especially in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The clinical assessment of cognitive complaints is still poorly operationalized. Recent qualitative research suggests that certain phenomenologic complaint themes may have some specificity for prodromal AD. The aim of the study was to replicate and explore their occurrence in a clinical setting. In a cross-sectional, case-control study using a mixed-methods approach, 23 memory clinic (cognitive complainers [CC]) patients, 21 psychiatric inpatients with MDD, and 21 healthy control subjects, aged 55-86 years, were assessed at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy and German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Bonn. A newly developed semistructured interview addressing 12 complaint themes was used, and transcribed open format responses were coded by qualitative expert rating (theme absent versus present) and compared between the groups. Seven complaint themes (e.g., sense of predomination, progression) were significantly more often endorsed by the CC group, together with a novel theme of "distractible speech." Complaint themes in those with depression aligned with the depressive symptoms and appeared to be partly different from the complaint pattern of the CC group. Previously established themes were found to be feasible for conversion into a semistructured interview. Several complaint phenotypes were confirmed and previous themes significantly expanded by providing first evidence for a qualitatively different complaint profile in MDD compared with CC. Future investigations may benefit from better characterizing the phenomenologic and qualitative characteristics of AD-related complaints. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anthropometric Profile in Different Event Categories of Acrobatic Gymnastics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yaiza Taboada-Iglesias; Mercedes Vernetta Santana; Águeda Gutiérrez-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    .... However, there are few studies on acrobatic gymnastics, and the goal of this work was to determine the anthropometric profile depending on the event category, as well as factors that predisposed...

  12. A Mouse Model of Hyperproliferative Human Epithelium Validated by Keratin Profiling Shows an Aberrant Cytoskeletal Response to Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samal Zhussupbekova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A validated animal model would assist with research on the immunological consequences of the chronic expression of stress keratins KRT6, KRT16, and KRT17, as observed in human pre-malignant hyperproliferative epithelium. Here we examine keratin gene expression profile in skin from mice expressing the E7 oncoprotein of HPV16 (K14E7 demonstrating persistently hyperproliferative epithelium, in nontransgenic mouse skin, and in hyperproliferative actinic keratosis lesions from human skin. We demonstrate that K14E7 mouse skin overexpresses stress keratins in a similar manner to human actinic keratoses, that overexpression is a consequence of epithelial hyperproliferation induced by E7, and that overexpression further increases in response to injury. As stress keratins modify local immunity and epithelial cell function and differentiation, the K14E7 mouse model should permit study of how continued overexpression of stress keratins impacts on epithelial tumor development and on local innate and adaptive immunity.

  13. Genome-wide expression profiling shows transcriptional reprogramming in Fusarium graminearum by Fusarium graminearum virus 1-DK21 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Won

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain-DK21 (FgV1-DK21 is a mycovirus that confers hypovirulence to F. graminearum, which is the primary phytopathogenic fungus that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB disease in many cereals. Understanding the interaction between mycoviruses and plant pathogenic fungi is necessary for preventing damage caused by F. graminearum. Therefore, we investigated important cellular regulatory processes in a host containing FgV1-DK21 as compared to an uninfected parent using a transcriptional approach. Results Using a 3′-tiling microarray covering all known F. graminearum genes, we carried out genome-wide expression analyses of F. graminearum at two different time points. At the early point of growth of an infected strain as compared to an uninfected strain, genes associated with protein synthesis, including ribosome assembly, nucleolus, and ribosomal RNA processing, were significantly up-regulated. In addition, genes required for transcription and signal transduction, including fungal-specific transcription factors and cAMP signaling, respectively, were actively up-regulated. In contrast, genes involved in various metabolic pathways, particularly in producing carboxylic acids, aromatic amino acids, nitrogen compounds, and polyamines, showed dramatic down-regulation at the early time point. Moreover, genes associated with transport systems localizing to transmembranes were down-regulated at both time points. Conclusion This is the first report of global change in the prominent cellular pathways in the Fusarium host containing FgV1-DK21. The significant increase in transcripts for transcription and translation machinery in fungal host cells seems to be related to virus replication. In addition, significant down-regulation of genes required for metabolism and transporting systems in a fungal host containing the virus appears to be related to the host defense mechanism and fungal virulence. Taken together

  14. Do students with dyslexia have a different personality profile as measured with the big five?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Tops

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies are available about the personality profile of higher education students with dyslexia and to which extent this could be any different from their non-dyslexic peers. AIMS AND SAMPLES: To obtain empirical evidence, we compared the personality profile of a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students with dyslexia with that of a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. METHODS: The NEO-PI-R based on the Big Five in personality research was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed no differences in the personality between both groups. This agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings (Swanson & Hsieh, 2009, suggesting that students with dyslexia do not perceive themselves differently than their non-dyslexic peers. Practical implications and directions for future research are considered.

  15. Differences in the cognitive profile of depression between racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Harries, Michael; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2018-02-01

    There is little research concerning whether race is associated with different clinical presentations of psychiatric disorders. Understanding the racial aspects of cognitive differences among depressed adults could help identify specific targets for depression treatment. We recruited 59 participants (52.5% white, 47.5% African American), age 18 to 60, with a current diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). All participants underwent a cognitive battery that included tasks assessing decision-making, response inhibition, working memory, and executive planning. Differences between white and African American groups were analyzed using analysis of variance or equivalent nonparametric tests. There were no differences in demographic variables of age, sex, and education, but white individuals reported a significantly earlier age of first depressive episode compared with African American individuals. The African American group, however, showed significantly lower quality of decision-making and less risk adjustment on the Cambridge Gambling Task, and made more errors on the Spatial Working Memory task. Our finding that specific cognitive domains differ as a function of racial differences in MDD might have differential prognostic and treatment implications.

  16. Psychopathological profile of patients with different forms of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Gurkan Rasit; Tutuncu, Recep; Acikel, Cengizhan

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prevalence of psychopathological symptoms in patients who self-reported different forms of bruxism by means of clinical and anamnestic diagnostic criteria. Eighty-five participants were divided into four groups as sleep bruxers (12), awake bruxers (24), sleep-awake bruxers (33), and non-bruxers (16). A self-report symptom inventory questionnaire (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)) was filled out by all groups to determine their psychopathological symptoms. As regards mean psychopathological scores, patients with sleep-awake bruxism endorsed the highest scores. In addition, patients with awake bruxism showed higher scores than patients with sleep bruxism and non-bruxism in most SCL-90-R subscales. Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between groups in any of the SCL-90-R subscales, except for the psychoticism subscale. Mann-Whitney test followed by Bonferroni's test correction between non-bruxer and sleep-awake bruxer groups revealed significant differences in depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, global severity index, positive symptom distress index, and positive symptom total in all SCL-90-R subscales. Statistical analysis of our study showed that differences between groups were significant in all SCL-90-R subscales except for the psychoticism subscale. Better distinction of bruxism forms may help to develop new treatment strategies for bruxism disorder.

  17. Transcriptome profiling of low temperature-treated cassava apical shoots showed dynamic responses of tropical plant to cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dong; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Peng

    2012-02-10

    Cassava is an important tropical root crop adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and acid soils. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Thus far, there is limited information about gene regulation and signalling pathways related to the cold stress response in cassava. The development of microarray technology has accelerated the study of global transcription profiling under certain conditions. A 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing 20,840 genes was used to perform transcriptome profiling in apical shoots of cassava subjected to cold at 7°C for 0, 4 and 9 h. A total of 508 transcripts were identified as early cold-responsive genes in which 319 sequences had functional descriptions when aligned with Arabidopsis proteins. Gene ontology annotation analysis identified many cold-relevant categories, including 'Response to abiotic and biotic stimulus', 'Response to stress', 'Transcription factor activity', and 'Chloroplast'. Various stress-associated genes with a wide range of biological functions were found, such as signal transduction components (e.g., MAP kinase 4), transcription factors (TFs, e.g., RAP2.11), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes (e.g., catalase 2), as well as photosynthesis-related genes (e.g., PsaL). Seventeen major TF families including many well-studied members (e.g., AP2-EREBP) were also involved in the early response to cold stress. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis uncovered many important pathways, such as 'Plant hormone signal transduction' and 'Starch and sucrose metabolism'. Furthermore, the expression changes of 32 genes under cold and other abiotic stress conditions were validated by real-time RT-PCR. Importantly, most of the tested stress-responsive genes were primarily expressed in mature leaves, stem cambia, and fibrous roots rather than apical buds and young leaves. As a response to cold stress in cassava, an increase in transcripts and enzyme activities of

  18. Transcriptome profiling of low temperature-treated cassava apical shoots showed dynamic responses of tropical plant to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Dong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava is an important tropical root crop adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and acid soils. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Thus far, there is limited information about gene regulation and signalling pathways related to the cold stress response in cassava. The development of microarray technology has accelerated the study of global transcription profiling under certain conditions. Results A 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing 20,840 genes was used to perform transcriptome profiling in apical shoots of cassava subjected to cold at 7°C for 0, 4 and 9 h. A total of 508 transcripts were identified as early cold-responsive genes in which 319 sequences had functional descriptions when aligned with Arabidopsis proteins. Gene ontology annotation analysis identified many cold-relevant categories, including 'Response to abiotic and biotic stimulus', 'Response to stress', 'Transcription factor activity', and 'Chloroplast'. Various stress-associated genes with a wide range of biological functions were found, such as signal transduction components (e.g., MAP kinase 4, transcription factors (TFs, e.g., RAP2.11, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging enzymes (e.g., catalase 2, as well as photosynthesis-related genes (e.g., PsaL. Seventeen major TF families including many well-studied members (e.g., AP2-EREBP were also involved in the early response to cold stress. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis uncovered many important pathways, such as 'Plant hormone signal transduction' and 'Starch and sucrose metabolism'. Furthermore, the expression changes of 32 genes under cold and other abiotic stress conditions were validated by real-time RT-PCR. Importantly, most of the tested stress-responsive genes were primarily expressed in mature leaves, stem cambia, and fibrous roots rather than apical buds and young leaves. As a response to cold stress in cassava, an increase

  19. The transcriptional profile of mesenchymal stem cell populations in primary osteoporosis is distinct and shows overexpression of osteogenic inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Benisch

    Full Text Available Primary osteoporosis is an age-related disease characterized by an imbalance in bone homeostasis. While the resorptive aspect of the disease has been studied intensely, less is known about the anabolic part of the syndrome or presumptive deficiencies in bone regeneration. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are the primary source of osteogenic regeneration. In the present study we aimed to unravel whether MSC biology is directly involved in the pathophysiology of the disease and therefore performed microarray analyses of hMSC of elderly patients (79-94 years old suffering from osteoporosis (hMSC-OP. In comparison to age-matched controls we detected profound changes in the transcriptome in hMSC-OP, e.g. enhanced mRNA expression of known osteoporosis-associated genes (LRP5, RUNX2, COL1A1 and of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis (CSF1, PTH1R, but most notably of genes coding for inhibitors of WNT and BMP signaling, such as Sclerostin and MAB21L2. These candidate genes indicate intrinsic deficiencies in self-renewal and differentiation potential in osteoporotic stem cells. We also compared both hMSC-OP and non-osteoporotic hMSC-old of elderly donors to hMSC of ∼30 years younger donors and found that the transcriptional changes acquired between the sixth and the ninth decade of life differed widely between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic stem cells. In addition, we compared the osteoporotic transcriptome to long term-cultivated, senescent hMSC and detected some signs for pre-senescence in hMSC-OP.Our results suggest that in primary osteoporosis the transcriptomes of hMSC populations show distinct signatures and little overlap with non-osteoporotic aging, although we detected some hints for senescence-associated changes. While there are remarkable inter-individual variations as expected for polygenetic diseases, we could identify many susceptibility genes for osteoporosis known from genetic studies. We also found new candidates, e.g. MAB21L

  20. A Mouse Model of Hyperproliferative Human Epithelium Validated by Keratin Profiling Shows an Aberrant Cytoskeletal Response to Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhussupbekova, Samal; Sinha, Rohit; Kuo, Paula; Lambert, Paul F; Frazer, Ian H; Tuong, Zewen K

    2016-07-01

    A validated animal model would assist with research on the immunological consequences of the chronic expression of stress keratins KRT6, KRT16, and KRT17, as observed in human pre-malignant hyperproliferative epithelium. Here we examine keratin gene expression profile in skin from mice expressing the E7 oncoprotein of HPV16 (K14E7) demonstrating persistently hyperproliferative epithelium, in nontransgenic mouse skin, and in hyperproliferative actinic keratosis lesions from human skin. We demonstrate that K14E7 mouse skin overexpresses stress keratins in a similar manner to human actinic keratoses, that overexpression is a consequence of epithelial hyperproliferation induced by E7, and that overexpression further increases in response to injury. As stress keratins modify local immunity and epithelial cell function and differentiation, the K14E7 mouse model should permit study of how continued overexpression of stress keratins impacts on epithelial tumor development and on local innate and adaptive immunity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene expression profiling gut microbiota in different races of humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-03-01

    The gut microbiome is shaped and modified by the polymorphisms of microorganisms in the intestinal tract. Its composition shows strong individual specificity and may play a crucial role in the human digestive system and metabolism. Several factors can affect the composition of the gut microbiome, such as eating habits, living environment, and antibiotic usage. Thus, various races are characterized by different gut microbiome characteristics. In this present study, we studied the gut microbiomes of three different races, including individuals of Asian, European and American races. The gut microbiome and the expression levels of gut microbiome genes were analyzed in these individuals. Advanced feature selection methods (minimum redundancy maximum relevance and incremental feature selection) and four machine-learning algorithms (random forest, nearest neighbor algorithm, sequential minimal optimization, Dagging) were employed to capture key differentially expressed genes. As a result, sequential minimal optimization was found to yield the best performance using the 454 genes, which could effectively distinguish the gut microbiomes of different races. Our analyses of extracted genes support the widely accepted hypotheses that eating habits, living environments and metabolic levels in different races can influence the characteristics of the gut microbiome.

  2. MOTIVATIONAL CLUSTER PROFILES OF ADOLESCENT ATHLETES: AN EXAMINATION OF DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL-SELF PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çağlar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to identify motivational profiles of adolescent athletes using cluster analysis in non-Western culture. A second purpose was to examine relationships between physical self-perception differences of adolescent athletes and motivational profiles. One hundred and thirty six male (Mage = 17.46, SD = 1.25 years and 80 female adolescent athletes (Mage = 17.61, SD = 1.19 years from a variety of team sports including basketball, soccer, volleyball, and handball volunteered to participate in this study. The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS and Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP were administered to all participants. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed a four-cluster solution for this sample: amotivated, low motivated, moderate motivated, and highly motivated. A 4 x 5 (Cluster x PSPP Subscales MANOVA revealed no significant main effect of motivational clusters on physical self-perception levels (p > 0.05. As a result, findings of the present study showed that motivational types of the adolescent athletes constituted four different motivational clusters. Highly and moderate motivated athletes consistently scored higher than amotivated athletes on the perceived sport competence, physical condition, and physical self-worth subscales of PSPP. This study identified motivational profiles of competitive youth-sport participants

  3. Differences in sheep and goats milk fatty acid profile between conventional and organic farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Kotrotsios, Vaios; Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis; Zervas, George

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in chemical composition and particularly in fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, of milk obtained from conventional and organic dairy sheep and goats farms under the farming conditions practiced in Greece. Four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, representing common conventional production systems and another four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, organically certified, representing organic production and feeding systems were selected from all over Greece. One hundred and sixty two individual milk samples were collected from those farms in January-February 2009, about three months after parturition. The milk samples were analyzed for their main chemical constituents and their FA profile. The results showed that the production system affected milk chemical composition: in particular fat content was lower in the organic sheep and goats milk compared with the corresponding conventional. Milk from organic sheep had higher content in MUFA, PUFA, alpha-LNA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and omega-3 FA, whereas in milk from organic goats alpha-LNA and omega-3 FA content was higher than that in conventional one. These differences are, mainly, attributed to different feeding practices used by the two production systems. The results of this study show that the organic milk produced under the farming conditions practiced in Greece has higher nutritional value, due to its FA profile, compared with the respective conventional milk.

  4. Chemical profiles of honeys originating from different floral sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical profiles of Tasmanian Leatherwood and Manuka honeys from Tasmania and New Zealand have been compared by a combination of GC-MS analysis of volatiles and semi-volatiles, RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolics and flavonoids and HPLC-DAD analysis of derivatised dihydroxyacetone, ...

  5. Biochemical and hematological profile of different breeds of goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to monitor the health and nutritional status of Kuwaiti's Aradi and exotic Damascus and Barbari goat breeds raised under an intensive system of production through the determination of biochemical parameters and hematology profiles. The study was conducted during the summer season and blood ...

  6. Different profiles of the aerial start phase in front crawl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, L.; Vantorre, J.; Lemaitre, F.; Chollet, D.; Toussaint, H.M.; Vilas-Boas, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the kinematics and kinetics (jumping ability) of the aerial start phase in 11 elite front crawl sprinters. The aim was to determine whether a particular start technique leads to a short 15 m start time or whether several start profiles contribute equally well. All swimmers

  7. Diagnostic criteria for CRPS I: differences between patient profiles using three different diagnostic sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Roberto S G M; Collins, Susan; Marinus, Johan; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; de Lange, Jaap J

    2007-11-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS I) is an illness which usually occurs due to major or minor tissue injury to the extremities. Because a unique pathophysiological mechanism for CRPS I has not yet been established, the diagnosis is based on observation and measurement of clinical symptoms and signs. In this study, a comparison was made between three sets of diagnostic criteria (the IASP, Bruehl et al. and Veldman et al.) based on patient reports and physicians' assessments of signs and symptoms associated with CRPS I, in 372 outpatients suspected of having CRPS I. Agreement between CRPS I diagnosis among the three sets was poor (kappa-range: 0.29-0.42), leading to positive CRPS I diagnoses according to Veldman et al.'s criteria in 218 cases (59%), according to the IASP in 268 cases (72%), and according to Bruehl et al. in 129 cases (35%). Significant differences in patient profiles were found between the diagnostic sets for the number of patients reporting continuing disproportionate pain, larger area affected than the initial trauma (both pCRPS I were found for reported hyperesthesia (SE+SP:165%), allodynia (160%), observed color asymmetry (162%), hyperesthesia (157%), temperature asymmetry (154%) and edema (152%). The lack of agreement between the different diagnostic sets for CRPS I and the different clinical profiles that result from it may lead to different therapeutic and study populations, hampering adequate treatment and scientific development for this illness. We propose explicit reference to diagnostic criteria used in studies, and registration in trials of a broad variety of CRPS I features, as used in this study, to make subgroup phenotyping and post hoc analyses based on different diagnostic criteria possible.

  8. Interindividual differences in attentional control profiles among younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvain-Roy, Stéphanie; Belleville, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the individual variability in three attentional control functions (shifting, inhibition, and updating), among 75 older and 75 younger adults. It also examined the intellectual and health variables associated with different cognitive profiles. Cluster analyses identified three separate attentional control profiles for both age groups, but the patterns of variability were strikingly different. Younger adults' profiles were characterized by homogeneous performance across domains and differed only in their overall level of performance. In contrast, older adults' profiles were characterized by uneven levels of performance across domains and inhibition stood out as critical in distinguishing between profiles. One subgroup of older adults had poor inhibition and more adverse lifestyle characteristics and appeared more cognitively vulnerable. In conclusion, subgroups of younger and older adults with different attentional control profiles can be identified, but the expression of variability changes with age as older adults' profiles become more heterogeneous.

  9. Genes Encoding Cucumber Full-Size ABCG Proteins Show Different Responses to Plant Growth Regulators and Sclareolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsz, Adam; Warzybok, Anna; Migocka, Magdalena

    Full-size members of the ABCG (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G) subfamily of ABC transporters have been found only in plants and fungi. The plant genes encoding full-size ABCGs identified so far appeared to be differentially regulated under various environmental constraints, plant growth regulators, and microbial elicitors, indicating a broad functional role of these proteins in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress. Nevertheless, the structure and physiological function of full-size ABCGs in many plant species are still unknown. We have recently identified 16 genes encoding full-size ABCG proteins in cucumber and found that the transcripts of two of them, CsABCG36 (CsPDR8) and CsABCG40 (CsPDR12), are most abundant in roots and are significantly affected by phytohormones and auxin herbicide. In this study, we analyzed the structure and phylogeny of all the full-size cucumber ABCG transporters and studied the organ expression profiles of the remaining 14 CsABCG genes. In addition, we investigated the effect of different plant growth regulators and the diterpene sclareolide on CsABCG expression in cucumber roots. Until now, the full-size plant ABCG transporters have been grouped into five different clusters. The new phylogenetic analysis of full-size ABCGs from model plants and cucumber clustered these proteins into six different subgroups. Interestingly, the expression profiles of cucumber ABCG genes assigned to the same clusters were not correlated, suggesting functional diversification or different regulatory mechanisms of the full-size cucumber ABCG proteins.

  10. Relation between polyphenol profile and antioxidant capacity of different Argentinean wheat varieties. A Boosted Regression Trees study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podio, Natalia S; Baroni, María V; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2017-10-01

    We report the polyphenol profile and antioxidant capacity (AC) of 12 Argentinean wheat varieties from different regions. The polyphenol profile was studied by HPLC-MS. The AC was measured by TEAC and FRAP. Twenty-five polyphenols were identified. ACA 315 and KLEIN GUERRERO varieties showed the highest content of polyphenols, whereas BIOINTA 3004, KLEIN CAPRICORNIO and LE 2330 showed the lowest one. ACA 315 presented the highest AC, while BIOINTA 3004 and KLEIN CAPRICORNIO showed the lowest one. Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) analyses helped finding significant correlations between AC and polyphenol profile, being hydroxybenzoic acid diglucoside, tryptophan, chrysoeriol-6,8-di-C-pentoside and isomers 4, 5, 9 and 12 of diferulic acids key compounds to explain the observed AC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the interaction between the environment and wheat genotypes evaluated by BRT, showing how the whole polyphenol profile can explain the AC in wheat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Colitic scid mice fed Lactobacillus spp. show an ameliorated gut histopathology and an altered cytokine profile by local T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Peter Lange; Paerregaard, Anders; Gad, Monika; Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2005-09-01

    Scid mice transplanted with CD4 T blast cells develop colitis. We investigated if the disease was influenced in colitic mice treated with antibiotic and fed Lactobacillus spp. Colitic scid mice were treated for 1 week with antibiotics (vancomycin/meropenem) followed or not followed by a 3-week administration of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM-12246 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2 at 2x10 live bacteria/mouse/24 hours. After 12 weeks, the rectums were removed for histology, and CD4 T cells from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were polyclonally activated for cytokine measurements. Irrespective of no treatment or treatments with antibiotics and probiotics, all mice transplanted with T cell blasts lost 10% of their body weight during the 12-week experimental period, whereas the nontransplanted mice had a 10% weight increase (Pprobiotics showed severe gut inflammation, whereas only 2 of the 7 mice fed probiotics showed signs of severe colitis (Pprobiotics. Our data suggest that probiotics added to the drinking water may ameliorate local histopathological changes and influence local cytokine levels in colitic mice but not alter the colitis-associated weight loss.

  12. Profiles of secreted neuropeptides and catecholamines illustrate similarities and differences in response to stimulation by distinct secretagogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvin, Sonia; Bundey, Richard; Toneff, Thomas; Ziegler, Michael; Hook, Vivian

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to define profiles of secreted neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters that undergo co-release from sympathoadrenal chromaffin cells upon stimulation by distinct secretagogues. Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla participate in the dynamic responses to stress, especially that of 'fight and flight', and, thus, analyses of the co-release of multiple neurotransmitters is necessary to gain knowledge of how the stress response regulates cell-cell communication among physiological systems. Results of this study demonstrated that six different secretagogues stimulated the co-release of the neuropeptides Met-enkephalin, galanin, NPY, and VIP with the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Importantly, the quantitative profiles of the secreted neurotransmitters showed similarities and differences upon stimulation by the different secretagogues evaluated, composed of KCl depolarization, nicotine, carbachol, PACAP, bradykinin, and histamine. The rank-orders of the secreted profiles of the neurotransmitters were generally similar among these secretagogues, but differences in the secreted amounts of each neurotransmitter occurred with different secretagogues. Epinephrine among the catecholamines showed the highest level of secretion. (Met)enkephalin showed the largest levels of secretion compared to the other neuropeptides examined. Levels of secreted catecholamines were greater than that of the neuropeptides. These data support the hypothesis that profiles of secreted neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters show similarities and differences upon stimulation by distinct secretagogues. These results illustrate the co-release of concerted neurotransmitter profiles that participate in the stress response of the sympathoadrenal nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution and transport of PAHs in soil profiles of different water irrigation areas in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Aifang; He, Jiangtao; Chen, Sunuan; Huang, Guoxin

    2014-05-01

    Vertical distribution characteristics and transport mechanisms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil profiles (0-5.5 m) of different water irrigation areas in the southeast suburb of Beijing were analyzed and compared. 16 priority PAHs on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) list were analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relationship between the properties of soil and PAHs was also studied by statistical analyses. The results showed that total PAH concentrations in the topsoils of the wastewater irrigation (WWI) area, reclaimed water irrigation (RWI) area, groundwater irrigation (GWI) area were much higher than those in the deep soils, with the concentrations of 726.0, 206.8 and 42.8 μg kg(-1) (dry wt), respectively. The low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (2-3 ring) including naphthalene (Nap), phenanthrene (Phe), fluorene (Fl) dominated the layers (0.5-5.5 m) underneath the surfaces. The migration of LMW PAHs was faster than that of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs and LMW PAHs were transported in dissolved matter. The different soil textures of three sites caused the differences in the variation ranges of PAHs in the profiles. The statistical analyses showed a significant linear positive correlation between PAHs and total organic carbon (TOC). The 2-4 ring PAHs were detected in the wastewater and reclaimed waters, which was consistent with those in the soil profiles. The presence of PAHs in the soil profiles was mainly due to the irrigation of wastewater. Wastewater reuse guidelines and standards for irrigation should be established urgently.

  14. Profile changes following lower incisor repositioning: a comparison between patients with different growth pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, E; Orthod, D; Campi, S; Caprioglio, A

    2015-04-01

    Individual growth changes might play a large role in the variability of treatment results for the soft-tissue profile. The aim of this study is to evaluate the real existence of the relationship between the repositioning of lower incisors, evaluated by Frankfort Mandibular Incisor Angle (FMIA), and the enhancement of profile, evaluated by the angle formed by its intersection with Frankfort plane (Z-angle). We finally compared this relationship in patients with different growth pattern. A sample of 81 subjects all treated with Merrifield Directional Force System was divided in two group on the basis of INDEX value (ratio between posterior and anterior facial height): Group 1 (INDEX value ≤0.65, non-favorable growth pattern) and Group 2 (INDEX value >0.65, favorable growth pattern). Differences between post-treatment and pre-treatment values of FMIA and Z-angle were calculated for each group and was named respectively ∆ FMIA and ∆ Z-angle. A ratio between ∆ Z-angle and ∆ FMIA was also calculated. The results of this study show a statistically significant correlation between lower incisors uprighting and profile outcome. A statistically significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2 was not found. These results underline the difficulty to quantify and separate the effects of growth and orthodontic treatment of growing patients in determining the final facial configuration.

  15. Three novel patient-derived BCR/ABL mutants show different sensitivity to second and third generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, Sara; Mologni, Luca; Rostagno, Roberta; Piazza, Rocco; Magistroni, Vera; Ceccon, Monica; Viltadi, Michela; Flynn, Daniel; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2012-11-01

    BCR/ABL (Breakpoint Cluster Region protein/Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 1) kinase domain (KD) mutations represent the most frequently described mechanism of resistance to the treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Mutations may impair TKI activity by directly or indirectly impairing the drug binding to the protein. We report the discovery of three new BCR/ABL mutations, L248R, T315V, and F317R identified in two patients with CML (L248R and T315V) and in one patient with Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (F317R). Mutations were screened against second-generation (bosutinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib), as well as third-generation TKIs (ponatinib/AP-24534 and DCC-2036). Furthermore, the activity profile of ponatinib and DCC-2036 against a panel of 24 clinically relevant BCR/ABL mutants is presented and compared to the other TKIs. The IC50 values for each TKI against the mutants and the IC50 increase over wild type BCR/ABL (relative resistance, RR) were calculated to define four resistance levels: sensitive (RR ≤ 2), moderately resistant (2 10). L248R and T315V showed high resistance to imatinib, bosutinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, intermediate resistance to ponatinib, but were sensitive to DCC-2036. Interestingly, F317R showed a moderate resistance to imatinib and nilotinib, but is resistant/highly resistant to dasatinib, bosutinib, ponatinib, and DCC-2036. The availability of drugs activity profiles may become a useful tool for clinicians dealing with the treatment of drug-resistant CML patients.

  16. Transcriptome profiling shows gene regulation patterns in a flavonoid pathway in response to exogenous phenylalanine in Boesenbergia rotunda cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md-Mustafa, Noor Diyana; Khalid, Norzulaani; Gao, Huan; Peng, Zhiyu; Alimin, Mohd Firdaus; Bujang, Noraini; Ming, Wong Sher; Mohd-Yusuf, Yusmin; Harikrishna, Jennifer A; Othman, Rofina Yasmin

    2014-11-18

    Panduratin A extracted from Boesenbergia rotunda is a flavonoid reported to possess a range of medicinal indications which include anti-dengue, anti-HIV, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Boesenbergia rotunda is a plant from the Zingiberaceae family commonly used as a food ingredient and traditional medicine in Southeast Asia and China. Reports on the health benefits of secondary metabolites extracted from Boesenbergia rotunda over the last few years has resulted in rising demands for panduratin A. However large scale extraction has been hindered by the naturally low abundance of the compound and limited knowledge of its biosynthetic pathway. Transcriptome sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) analysis of native and phenylalanine treated Boesenbergia rotunda cell suspension cultures were carried out to elucidate the key genes differentially expressed in the panduratin A biosynthetic pathway. Based on experiments that show increase in panduratin A production after 14 days post treatment with exogenous phenylalanine, an aromatic amino acid derived from the shikimic acid pathway, total RNA of untreated and 14 days post-phenylalanine treated cell suspension cultures were extracted and sequenced using next generation sequencing technology employing an Illumina-Solexa platform. The transcriptome data generated 101, 043 unigenes with 50, 932 (50.41%) successfully annotated in the public protein databases; including 49.93% (50, 447) in the non-redundant (NR) database, 34.63% (34, 989) in Swiss-Prot, 24,07% (24, 316) in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and 16.26% (16, 426) in Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG). Through DGE analysis, we found that 14, 644 unigenes were up-regulated and 14, 379 unigenes down-regulated in response to exogenous phenylalanine treatment. In the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to the proposed panduratin A production, 2 up-regulated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 3 up-regulated 4-coumaroyl

  17. Transcriptomic profiles of peripheral white blood cells in type II diabetes and racial differences in expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Jinghe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along with obesity, physical inactivity, and family history of metabolic disorders, African American ethnicity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D in the United States. However, little is known about the differences in gene expression and transcriptomic profiles of blood in T2D between African Americans (AA and Caucasians (CAU, and microarray analysis of peripheral white blood cells (WBCs from these two ethnic groups will facilitate our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism in T2D and identify genetic biomarkers responsible for the disparities. Results A whole human genome oligomicroarray of peripheral WBCs was performed on 144 samples obtained from 84 patients with T2D (44 AA and 40 CAU and 60 healthy controls (28 AA and 32 CAU. The results showed that 30 genes had significant difference in expression between patients and controls (a fold change of 1.4 with a P value Conclusions These newly identified genetic markers in WBCs provide valuable information about the pathophysiology of T2D and can be used for diagnosis and pharmaceutical drug design. Our results also found that AA and CAU patients with T2D express genes and pathways differently.

  18. Transcriptomic profiling of hemp bast fibres at different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Gea; Behr, Marc; Legay, Sylvain; Mangeot-Peter, Lauralie; Zorzan, Simone; Ghoniem, Mohammad; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2017-07-10

    Bast fibres are long extraxylary cells which mechanically support the phloem and they are divided into xylan- and gelatinous-type, depending on the composition of their secondary cell walls. The former, typical of jute/kenaf bast fibres, are characterized by the presence of xylan and a high degree of lignification, while the latter, found in tension wood, as well as flax, ramie and hemp bast fibres, have a high abundance of crystalline cellulose. During their differentiation, bast fibres undergo specific developmental stages: the cells initially elongate rapidly by intrusive growth, subsequently they cease elongation and start to thicken. The goal of the present study is to provide a transcriptomic close-up of the key events accompanying bast fibre development in textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), a fibre crop of great importance. Bast fibres have been sampled from different stem regions. The developmental stages corresponding to active elongation and cell wall thickening have been studied using RNA-Seq. The results show that the fibres sampled at each stem region are characterized by a specific transcriptomic signature and that the major changes in cell wall-related processes take place at the internode containing the snap point. The data generated also identify several interesting candidates for future functional analysis.

  19. Modeling of heat generations for different tool profiles in friction stir welding: study of tool geometry and contact conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akindoye Waheed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, improved heat generation models are developed for straight and tapered shoulder geometries with different tool pin profiles in friction stir welding. The models are developed considering the welding process as a combination of the pure sliding and the pure sticking conditions. From the results, the amount of heat generation is directly proportional to the number of edges in the pin profiles in such a way that the heat generated in the profiles increases from the triangular pin profile to hexagonal pin profile. Also, increase in the tool rotational speed under constant weld speed increases the heat input while increase in the weld speed under constant tool rotational speed decreases the heat input and the rate of heat generation at the shoulder in a flat shoulder tool is more than that of conical/tapered shoulder tool. The predicted results show good agreements with the experimental results in literature.

  20. Time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar (Eugenia uniflora L.) with different sweeteners: Sweetness and bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; de Lima Dutra, Mariana Borges; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-01-01

    Pitanga has been used by the Brazilian food industry mainly for juice production. This fruit shows good economic potential due to its high concentration of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the present work was to characterize the time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar sweetened with different sweeteners to verify differences on the perception of sweet and bitter tastes. The sweeteners used to replace sucrose were sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. Fifteen assessors were selected according to their discriminating capability and trained to participate in the time-intensity analysis for sweetness and bitterness. The samples prepared with sucralose and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend presented a similar sweetness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose, and the samples prepared with sucralose and aspartame presented a similar bitterness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose. Thus, sucralose would be the most suitable sweetener to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Proton Stopping Power of Different Density Profile Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Casas, David; Andreev, Alexander A; Schnürer, Matthias; Morales, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the stopping power of a partially ionized plasma is analyzed by means of free electron stopping and bound electron stopping. For the first one, the RPA dielectric function is used, and for the latter one, an interpolation of high and low projectile velocity formulas is used. The dynamical energy loss of an ion beam inside a plasma is estimated by using an iterative scheme of calculation. The Abel inversion is also applied when we have a plasma with radial symmetry. Finally, we compare our methods with two kind of plasmas. In the first one, we estimate the energy loss in a plasma created by a laser prepulse, whose density is approximated by a piecewise function. For the latter one, a radial electron density is supposed and the stopping is obtained as function of radius from the calculated lateral points. In both cases, the dependence with the density profile is observed.

  2. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Show Metabolomic Differences to Embryonic Stem Cells in Polyunsaturated Phosphatidylcholines and Primary Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissen, John K.; Yuen, Benjamin T. K.; Kind, Tobias; Riggs, John W.; Barupal, Dinesh K.; Knoepfler, Paul S.; Fiehn, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells are different from embryonic stem cells as shown by epigenetic and genomics analyses. Depending on cell types and culture conditions, such genetic alterations can lead to different metabolic phenotypes which may impact replication rates, membrane properties and cell differentiation. We here applied a comprehensive metabolomics strategy incorporating nanoelectrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (MS), gas chromatography-time of flight MS, and hydrophilic interaction- and reversed phase-liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight MS to examine the metabolome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) compared to parental fibroblasts as well as to reference embryonic stem cells (ESCs). With over 250 identified metabolites and a range of structurally unknown compounds, quantitative and statistical metabolome data were mapped onto a metabolite networks describing the metabolic state of iPSCs relative to other cell types. Overall iPSCs exhibited a striking shift metabolically away from parental fibroblasts and toward ESCs, suggestive of near complete metabolic reprogramming. Differences between pluripotent cell types were not observed in carbohydrate or hydroxyl acid metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway metabolites, or free fatty acids. However, significant differences between iPSCs and ESCs were evident in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid structures, essential and non-essential amino acids, and metabolites involved in polyamine biosynthesis. Together our findings demonstrate that during cellular reprogramming, the metabolome of fibroblasts is also reprogrammed to take on an ESC-like profile, but there are select unique differences apparent in iPSCs. The identified metabolomics signatures of iPSCs and ESCs may have important implications for functional regulation of maintenance and induction of pluripotency. PMID:23077522

  3. Induced pluripotent stem cells show metabolomic differences to embryonic stem cells in polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines and primary metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Meissen

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells are different from embryonic stem cells as shown by epigenetic and genomics analyses. Depending on cell types and culture conditions, such genetic alterations can lead to different metabolic phenotypes which may impact replication rates, membrane properties and cell differentiation. We here applied a comprehensive metabolomics strategy incorporating nanoelectrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (MS, gas chromatography-time of flight MS, and hydrophilic interaction- and reversed phase-liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight MS to examine the metabolome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs compared to parental fibroblasts as well as to reference embryonic stem cells (ESCs. With over 250 identified metabolites and a range of structurally unknown compounds, quantitative and statistical metabolome data were mapped onto a metabolite networks describing the metabolic state of iPSCs relative to other cell types. Overall iPSCs exhibited a striking shift metabolically away from parental fibroblasts and toward ESCs, suggestive of near complete metabolic reprogramming. Differences between pluripotent cell types were not observed in carbohydrate or hydroxyl acid metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway metabolites, or free fatty acids. However, significant differences between iPSCs and ESCs were evident in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid structures, essential and non-essential amino acids, and metabolites involved in polyamine biosynthesis. Together our findings demonstrate that during cellular reprogramming, the metabolome of fibroblasts is also reprogrammed to take on an ESC-like profile, but there are select unique differences apparent in iPSCs. The identified metabolomics signatures of iPSCs and ESCs may have important implications for functional regulation of maintenance and induction of pluripotency.

  4. Induced pluripotent stem cells show metabolomic differences to embryonic stem cells in polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines and primary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissen, John K; Yuen, Benjamin T K; Kind, Tobias; Riggs, John W; Barupal, Dinesh K; Knoepfler, Paul S; Fiehn, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells are different from embryonic stem cells as shown by epigenetic and genomics analyses. Depending on cell types and culture conditions, such genetic alterations can lead to different metabolic phenotypes which may impact replication rates, membrane properties and cell differentiation. We here applied a comprehensive metabolomics strategy incorporating nanoelectrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (MS), gas chromatography-time of flight MS, and hydrophilic interaction- and reversed phase-liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight MS to examine the metabolome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) compared to parental fibroblasts as well as to reference embryonic stem cells (ESCs). With over 250 identified metabolites and a range of structurally unknown compounds, quantitative and statistical metabolome data were mapped onto a metabolite networks describing the metabolic state of iPSCs relative to other cell types. Overall iPSCs exhibited a striking shift metabolically away from parental fibroblasts and toward ESCs, suggestive of near complete metabolic reprogramming. Differences between pluripotent cell types were not observed in carbohydrate or hydroxyl acid metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway metabolites, or free fatty acids. However, significant differences between iPSCs and ESCs were evident in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid structures, essential and non-essential amino acids, and metabolites involved in polyamine biosynthesis. Together our findings demonstrate that during cellular reprogramming, the metabolome of fibroblasts is also reprogrammed to take on an ESC-like profile, but there are select unique differences apparent in iPSCs. The identified metabolomics signatures of iPSCs and ESCs may have important implications for functional regulation of maintenance and induction of pluripotency.

  5. Transcriptomic profiles of peripheral white blood cells in type II diabetes and racial differences in expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jinghe; Ai, Junmei; Zhou, Xinchun; Shenwu, Ming; Ong, Manuel; Blue, Marketta; Washington, Jasmine T; Wang, Xiaonan; Deng, Youping

    2011-12-23

    Along with obesity, physical inactivity, and family history of metabolic disorders, African American ethnicity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the United States. However, little is known about the differences in gene expression and transcriptomic profiles of blood in T2D between African Americans (AA) and Caucasians (CAU), and microarray analysis of peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) from these two ethnic groups will facilitate our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism in T2D and identify genetic biomarkers responsible for the disparities. A whole human genome oligomicroarray of peripheral WBCs was performed on 144 samples obtained from 84 patients with T2D (44 AA and 40 CAU) and 60 healthy controls (28 AA and 32 CAU). The results showed that 30 genes had significant difference in expression between patients and controls (a fold change of 1.4 with a P value <0.05). These known genes were mainly clustered in three functional categories: immune responses, lipid metabolism, and organismal injury/abnormaly. Transcriptomic analysis also showed that 574 genes were differentially expressed in AA diseased versus AA control, compared to 200 genes in CAU subjects. Pathway study revealed that "Communication between innate and adaptive immune cells"/"Primary immunodeficiency signaling" are significantly down-regulated in AA patients and "Interferon signaling"/"Complement System" are significantly down-regulated in CAU patients. These newly identified genetic markers in WBCs provide valuable information about the pathophysiology of T2D and can be used for diagnosis and pharmaceutical drug design. Our results also found that AA and CAU patients with T2D express genes and pathways differently.

  6. Classification and fingerprinting of different berries based on biochemical profiling and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Milivojević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the biochemical composition of six berry types belonging to Fragaria, Rubus, Vaccinium and Ribes genus. Fruit samples were collected in triplicate (50 fruit each from 18 different species or cultivars of the mentioned genera, during three years (2008 to 2010. Content of individual sugars, organic acids, flavonols, and phenolic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, while total phenolics (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, by using spectrophotometry. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA were performed to evaluate the differences in fruit biochemical profile. The highest contents of bioactive components were found in Ribes nigrum and in Fragaria vesca, Rubus plicatus, and Vaccinium myrtillus. PCA and CA were able to partially discriminate between berries on the basis of their biochemical composition. Individual and total sugars, myricetin, ellagic acid, TPC and TAC showed the highest impact on biochemical composition of the berry fruits. CA separated blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry as isolate groups, while classification of strawberry, black and red currant in a specific group has not occurred. There is a large variability both between and within the different types of berries. Metabolite fingerprinting of the evaluated berries showed unique biochemical profiles and specific combination of bioactive compound contents.

  7. Dyslexia and dyscalculia: two learning disorders with different cognitive profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin; Fussenegger, Barbara; Moll, Kristina; Willburger, Edith

    2009-07-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that dyslexia and dyscalculia are associated with two largely independent cognitive deficits, namely a phonological deficit in the case of dyslexia and a deficit in the number module in the case of dyscalculia. In four groups of 8- to 10-year-olds (42 control, 21 dyslexic, 20 dyscalculic, and 26 dyslexic/dyscalculic), phonological awareness, phonological and visual-spatial short-term and working memory, naming speed, and basic number processing skills were assessed. A phonological deficit was found for both dyslexic groups, irrespective of additional arithmetic deficits, but not for the dyscalculia-only group. In contrast, deficits in processing of symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitudes were observed in both groups of dyscalculic children, irrespective of additional reading difficulties, but not in the dyslexia-only group. Cognitive deficits in the comorbid dyslexia/dyscalculia group were additive; that is, they resulted from the combination of two learning disorders. These findings suggest that dyslexia and dyscalculia have separable cognitive profiles, namely a phonological deficit in the case of dyslexia and a deficient number module in the case of dyscalculia.

  8. Adolescents with current major depressive disorder show dissimilar patterns of age-related differences in ACC and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Cindy C; Graham, Julia M E; Tait, Roger; Widmer, Barry; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O; Ooi, Cinly; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Simas, Tiago; Bullmore, Edward T; Lennox, Belinda R; Sahakian, Barbara J; Goodyer, Ian M; Suckling, John

    2015-01-01

    There is little understanding of the neural system abnormalities subserving adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD). In a cross-sectional study we compare currently unipolar depressed with healthy adolescents to determine if group differences in grey matter volume (GMV) were influenced by age and illness severity. Structural neuroimaging was performed on 109 adolescents with current MDD and 36 healthy controls, matched for age, gender, and handedness. GMV differences were examined within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and across the whole-brain. The effects of age and self-reported depressive symptoms were also examined in regions showing significant main or interaction effects. Whole-brain voxel based morphometry revealed no significant group differences. At the whole-brain level, both groups showed a main effect of age on GMV, although this effect was more pronounced in controls. Significant group-by-age interactions were noted: A significant regional group-by-age interaction was observed in the ACC. GMV in the ACC showed patterns of age-related differences that were dissimilar between adolescents with MDD and healthy controls. GMV in the thalamus showed an opposite pattern of age-related differences in adolescent patients compared to healthy controls. In patients, GMV in the thalamus, but not the ACC, was inversely related with self-reported depressive symptoms. The depressed adolescent brain shows dissimilar age-related and symptom-sensitive patterns of GMV differences compared with controls. The thalamus and ACC may comprise neural markers for detecting these effects in youth. Further investigations therefore need to take both age and level of current symptoms into account when disaggregating antecedent neural vulnerabilities for MDD from the effects of MDD on the developing brain.

  9. Different substrate regimes determine transcriptional profiles and gene co-expression in Methanosarcina barkeri (DSM 800).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Fang, Xiaoyu; Ho, Adrian; Li, Jiaying; Yan, Xuefeng; Tu, Bo; Li, Chaonan; Li, Jiabao; Yao, Minjie; Li, Xiangzhen

    2017-08-21

    Methanosarcina barkeri (DSM 800) is a metabolically versatile methanogen and shows distinct metabolic status under different substrate regimes. However, the mechanisms underlying distinct transcriptional profiles under different substrate regimes remain elusive. In this study, based on transcriptional analysis, the growth performances and gene expressions of M. barkeri fed on acetate, H2 + CO2, and methanol, respectively, were investigated. M. barkeri showed higher growth performances under methanol, followed by H2 + CO2 and acetate, which corresponded well with the variations of gene expressions. The α diversity (evenness) of gene expressions was highest under the acetate regime, followed by H2 + CO2 and methanol, and significantly and negatively correlated with growth performances. The gene co-expression analysis showed that "Energy production and conversion," "Coenzyme transport and metabolism," and "Translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis" showed deterministic cooperation patterns of intra- and inter-functional classes. However, "Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones" showed exclusion with other functional classes. The gene expressions and especially the relationships among them potentially drove the shifts of metabolic status under different substrate regimes. Consequently, this study revealed the diversity-related ecological strategies that a high α diversity probably provided more fitness and tolerance under natural environments and oppositely a low α diversity strengthened some specific physiological functions, as well as the co-responses of gene expressions to different substrate regimes.

  10. Chia Seed Shows Good Protein Quality, Hypoglycemic Effect and Improves the Lipid Profile and Liver and Intestinal Morphology of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Toledo, Renata Celi Lopes; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Lucia, Ceres Mattos Della; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-09-01

    Chia has been consumed by the world population due to its high fiber, lipids and proteins content. The objective was to evaluate the protein quality of chia untreated (seed and flour) and heat treated (90 °C/20 min), their influence on glucose and lipid homeostasis and integrity of liver and intestinal morphology of Wistar rats. 36 male rats, weanling, divided into six groups which received control diet (casein), free protein diet (aproteic) and four diet tests (chia seed; chia seed with heat treatment; chia flour and chia flour with heat treatment) for 14 days were used. The protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR) and true digestibility (TD) were evaluated. The biochemical variables and liver and intestinal morphologies of animals were determined. The values of PER, NPR and TD did not differ among the animals that were fed with chia and were lower than the control group. The animals that were fed with chia showed lower concentrations of glucose; triacylglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than the control group. The liver weight of animals that were fed with chia was lower than the control group. Crypt depth and thickness of intestinal muscle layers were higher in groups that were fed with chia. The consumption of chia has shown good digestibility, hypoglycemic effect, improved lipid and glycemic profiles and reduced fat deposition in liver of animals, and also promoted changes in intestinal tissue that enhanced its functionality.

  11. Gene expression profiling to study racial differences after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khush, Kiran K; Pham, Michael X; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J; Kfoury, Abdallah G; Deng, Mario C; Kao, Andrew; Anderson, Allen S; Cotts, William G; Ewald, Gregory A; Baran, David A; Hiller, David; Yee, James; Valantine, Hannah A

    2015-07-01

    The basis for increased mortality after heart transplantation in African Americans and other non-Caucasian racial groups is poorly defined. We hypothesized that increased risk of adverse events is driven by biologic factors. To test this hypothesis in the Invasive Monitoring Attenuation through Gene Expression (IMAGE) study, we determined whether the event rate of the primary outcome of acute rejection, graft dysfunction, death, or retransplantation varied by race as a function of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) levels and gene expression profile (GEP) scores. We determined the event rate of the primary outcome, comparing racial groups, stratified by time after transplant. Logistic regression was used to compute the relative risk across racial groups, and linear modeling was used to measure the dependence of CNI levels and GEP score on race. In 580 patients monitored for a median of 19 months, the incidence of the primary end point was 18.3% in African Americans, 22.2% in other non-Caucasians, and 8.5% in Caucasians (p racial groups. African American recipients demonstrated a unique decrease in expression of the FLT3 gene in response to higher tacrolimus levels. African Americans and other non-Caucasian heart transplant recipients were 2.5-times to 3-times more likely than Caucasians to experience outcome events in the Invasive Monitoring Attenuation through Gene Expression study. The increased risk of adverse outcomes may be partly due to the biology of the alloimmune response, which is less effectively inhibited at similar tacrolimus levels in minority racial groups. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile at age 5-6 years: the ABCD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke L A de Hoog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI or waist circumference (WC. METHOD: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample fasting blood were collected during a health check of 2,509 children aged 5-6 years. Four ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch (n=2,008; blood n=1,300, African descent (n=199; blood n=105, Turkish (n=108; blood n=57 and Moroccan (n=194; blood n=94. Ethnic differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP/SBP, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride levels were determined and the explanatory role of BMI and WC was examined with regression analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, African descent children showed higher DBP (β2.22 mmHg; 95%CI:1.09-3.36 and HDL levels (β:0.09 mmol/l; 95%CI:0.03-0.16 compared to Dutch children (reference group. Turkish children showed higher SBP (β:1.89 mmHg; 95%CI:0.25-3.54, DBP (β:2.62 mmHg; 95%CI:1.11-4.13, glucose (β:0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.00-0.25 and triglyceride levels (β:0.13 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.02-0.25. Higher BMI values were found in all non-Dutch groups (differences ranged from 0.53-1.03 kg/m(2 and higher WC in Turkish (β:1.68 cm; 95%CI:0.99-2.38 and Moroccan (β:1.65 cm; 95%CI:1.11-2.19 children. BMI and WC partly explained the higher SBP/DBP and triglyceride levels in Turkish children. CONCLUSION: Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic profile exist early in life and are partly explained by differences in BMI and WC. African children showed favourable HDL levels and Turkish children the most unfavourable overall profile, whereas their Moroccan peers have less increased cardiometabolic risk in spite of their high BMI and WC.

  13. Different people respond differently to therapy: A demonstration using patient profiling and risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Jaime; Moreea, Omar; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to identify patient characteristics associated with poor outcomes in psychological therapy, and to develop a patient profiling method. Clinical assessment data for 1347 outpatients was analysed. Final treatment outcome was based on reliable and clinically significant improvement (RCSI) in depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) measures. Thirteen patient characteristics were explored as potential outcome predictors using logistic regression in a cross-validation design. Disability, employment status, age, functional impairment, baseline depression and outcome expectancy predicted post-treatment RCSI. Regression coefficients for these factors were used to derive a weighting scheme called Leeds Risk Index (LRI), used to assign risk scores to individual cases. After stratifying cases into three levels of LRI scores, we found significant differences in RCSI and treatment completion rates. Furthermore, LRI scores were significantly correlated with the proportion of treatment sessions classified as 'not on track'. The LRI tool can identify cases at risk of poor progress to inform personalized treatment recommendations for low and high intensity psychological interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood-Based Bioenergetic Profiling Reflects Differences in Brain Bioenergetics and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Tyrrell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-based bioenergetic profiling provides a minimally invasive assessment of mitochondrial health shown to be related to key features of aging. Previous studies show that blood cells recapitulate mitochondrial alterations in the central nervous system under pathological conditions, including the development of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study of nonhuman primates, we focus on mitochondrial function and bioenergetic capacity assessed by the respirometric profiling of monocytes, platelets, and frontal cortex mitochondria. Our data indicate that differences in the maximal respiratory capacity of brain mitochondria are reflected by CD14+ monocyte maximal respiratory capacity and platelet and monocyte bioenergetic health index. A subset of nonhuman primates also underwent [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET imaging to assess brain glucose metabolism. Our results indicate that platelet respiratory capacity positively correlates to measures of glucose metabolism in multiple brain regions. Altogether, the results of this study provide early evidence that blood-based bioenergetic profiling is related to brain mitochondrial metabolism. While these measures cannot substitute for direct measures of brain metabolism, provided by measures such as FDG-PET, they may have utility as a metabolic biomarker and screening tool to identify individuals exhibiting systemic bioenergetic decline who may therefore be at risk for the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Different ERP profiles for learning rules over consonants and vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Ordoño, Júlia; Toro, Juan M

    2017-03-01

    The Consonant-Vowel hypothesis suggests that consonants and vowels tend to be used differently during language processing. In this study we explored whether these functional differences trigger different neural responses in a rule learning task. We recorded ERPs while nonsense words were presented in an Oddball paradigm. An ABB rule was implemented either over the consonants (Consonant condition) or over the vowels (Vowel condition) composing standard words. Deviant stimuli were composed by novel phonemes. Deviants could either implement the same ABB rule as standards (Phoneme deviants) or implement a different ABA rule (Rule deviants). We observed shared early components (P1 and MMN) for both types of deviants across both conditions. We also observed differences across conditions around 400ms. In the Consonant condition, Phoneme deviants triggered a posterior negativity. In the Vowel condition, Rule deviants triggered an anterior negativity. Such responses demonstrate different neural responses after the violation of abstract rules over distinct phonetic categories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. IgE Sensitization Profiles Differ between Adult Patients with Severe and Moderate Atopic Dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Mittermann

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a complex chronic inflammatory disease where allergens can act as specific triggering factors.To characterize the specificities of IgE-reactivity in patients with AD to a broad panel of exogenous allergens including microbial and human antigens.Adult patients with AD were grouped according to the SCORAD index, into severe (n = 53 and moderate AD (n = 126. As controls 43 patients were included with seborrhoeic eczema and 97 individuals without history of allergy or skin diseases. Specific IgE reactivity was assessed in plasma using Phadiatop®, ImmunoCap™, micro-arrayed allergens, dot-blotted recombinant Malassezia sympodialis allergens, and immune-blotted microbial and human proteins.IgE reactivity was detected in 92% of patients with severe and 83% of patients with moderate AD. Sensitization to cat allergens occurred most frequently, followed by sensitization to birch pollen, grass pollen, and to the skin commensal yeast M. sympodialis. Patients with severe AD showed a significantly higher frequency of IgE reactivity to allergens like cat (rFel d 1 and house dust mite (rDer p 4 and 10, to Staphylococcus aureus, M. sympodialis, and to human antigens. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of IgE reactivity to the grass pollen allergens rPhl p 1, 2, 5b, and 6 between the two AD groups. Furthermore the IgE reactivity profile of patients with severe AD was more spread towards several different allergen molecules as compared to patients with moderate AD.We have revealed a hitherto unknown difference regarding the molecular sensitization profile in patients with severe and moderate AD. Molecular profiling towards allergen components may provide a basis for future investigations aiming to explore the environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors which could be responsible for the different appearance and severity of disease phenotypes in AD.

  17. Biochemical and hematological profile of different breeds of goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shthomas

    Damascus and Barbari goats managed under an intensive production system in Kuwait. These data can ... index of transportation stress (Ambore et al., 2009). The biochemical .... (2009) showed that creatinine levels in male kids increased linearly when .... erythrocytic and leukocytic indices and serum proteins of female.

  18. Complement profile and activation mechanisms by different LDL apheresis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Anders; Hardersen, Randolf; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Enebakk, Terje; Christiansen, Dorte; Ludviksen, Judith Krey; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Lappegård, Knut Tore

    2012-07-01

    Extracorporeal removal of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by means of selective LDL apheresis is indicated in otherwise uncontrolled familial hypercholesterolemia. During blood-biomaterial interaction other constituents than the LDL particles are affected, including the complement system. We set up an ex vivo model in which human whole blood was passed through an LDL apheresis system with one of three different apheresis columns: whole blood adsorption, plasma adsorption and plasma filtration. The concentrations of complement activation products revealed distinctly different patterns of activation and adsorption by the different systems. Evaluated as the final common terminal complement complex (TCC) the whole blood system was inert, in contrast to the plasma systems, which generated substantial and equal amounts of TCC. Initial classical pathway activation was revealed equally for both plasma systems as increases in the C1rs-C1inh complex and C4d. Alternative pathway activation (Bb) was most pronounced for the plasma adsorption system. Although the anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) were equally generated by the two plasma separation systems, they were efficiently adsorbed to the plasma adsorption column before the "outlet", whereas they were left free in the plasma in the filtration system. Consequently, during blood-biomaterial interaction in LDL apheresis the complement system is modulated in different manners depending on the device composition. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identified ankle extensor and flexor motoneurons display different firing profiles in the neonatal rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotel, Florence; Antri, Myriam; Barthe, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    synaptically isolated and identified by antidromic stimulations of the central stump of flexor or extensor muscle nerves: tibialis anterior (ankle flexor) and gastrocnemius medialis or lateralis (ankle extensors). Two protocols were applied to establish the four firing profiles previously described (type I...... motoneurons; a linear F-I relationship (type I profile), a self-sustained discharge pattern together with a linear F-I relationship (type III profile) and a self-sustained firing pattern together with an F-I relationship showing a counter-clockwise hysteresis (type IV profile). Thus, during the early...

  20. Distribution of yeast complexes in the profiles of different soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Tiunov, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    The number and taxonomic structure of the yeast complexes were investigated in the full profiles of the soddy-podzolic soil (Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve), dark gray forest soil (Kaluzhskie Zaseki Reserve), and chernozem (Privolzhskaya Forest-Steppe Reserve). In all these soils, the number of yeasts was maximal (104 CFU/g) directly under the litter; it drastically decreased with the depth. However, at the depth of 120-160 cm, the number of yeasts significantly increased in all the soils; their maximum was found in the illuvial horizon of the soddy-podzolic soil. Such a statistically significant increase in the number of yeasts at a considerable depth was found for the first time. Different groups of yeasts were present in the yeast communities of different soils. The species structure of yeast communities changed little in each soil: the same species were isolated both from the soil surface and from the depth of more than 2 m. The results showed that yeasts could be used for soil bioindication on the basis of specific yeast complexes in the profiles of different soil types rather than individual indicative species.

  1. Adolescents with current major depressive disorder show dissimilar patterns of age-related differences in ACC and thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy C. Hagan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The depressed adolescent brain shows dissimilar age-related and symptom-sensitive patterns of GMV differences compared with controls. The thalamus and ACC may comprise neural markers for detecting these effects in youth. Further investigations therefore need to take both age and level of current symptoms into account when disaggregating antecedent neural vulnerabilities for MDD from the effects of MDD on the developing brain.

  2. Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Curcuma Species Grown at Different Locations Using GC/TOF and UPLC/Q-TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jueun Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma, a genus of rhizomatous herbaceous species, has been used as a spice, traditional medicine, and natural dye. In this study, the metabolite profile of Curcuma extracts was determined using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF MS and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS to characterize differences between Curcuma aromatica and Curcuma longa grown on the Jeju-do or Jin-do islands, South Korea. Previous studies have performed primary metabolite profiling of Curcuma species grown in different regions using NMR-based metabolomics. This study focused on profiling of secondary metabolites from the hexane extract of Curcuma species. Principal component analysis (PCA and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA plots showed significant differences between the C. aromatica and C. longa metabolite profiles, whereas geographical location had little effect. A t-test was performed to identify statistically significant metabolites, such as terpenoids. Additionally, targeted profiling using UPLC/Q-TOF MS showed that the concentration of curcuminoids differed depending on the plant origin. Based on these results, a combination of GC- and LC-MS allowed us to analyze curcuminoids and terpenoids, the typical bioactive compounds of Curcuma, which can be used to discriminate Curcuma samples according to species or geographical origin.

  3. Secondary metabolite profiling of Curcuma species grown at different locations using GC/TOF and UPLC/Q-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jueun; Jung, Youngae; Shin, Jeoung-Hwa; Kim, Ho Kyoung; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Ryu, Do Hyun; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2014-07-04

    Curcuma, a genus of rhizomatous herbaceous species, has been used as a spice, traditional medicine, and natural dye. In this study, the metabolite profile of Curcuma extracts was determined using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF MS) and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) to characterize differences between Curcuma aromatica and Curcuma longa grown on the Jeju-do or Jin-do islands, South Korea. Previous studies have performed primary metabolite profiling of Curcuma species grown in different regions using NMR-based metabolomics. This study focused on profiling of secondary metabolites from the hexane extract of Curcuma species. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) plots showed significant differences between the C. aromatica and C. longa metabolite profiles, whereas geographical location had little effect. A t-test was performed to identify statistically significant metabolites, such as terpenoids. Additionally, targeted profiling using UPLC/Q-TOF MS showed that the concentration of curcuminoids differed depending on the plant origin. Based on these results, a combination of GC- and LC-MS allowed us to analyze curcuminoids and terpenoids, the typical bioactive compounds of Curcuma, which can be used to discriminate Curcuma samples according to species or geographical origin.

  4. Differences between cultural and religious tourist profiles. The Lord of Earthquakes in Patate (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lavín

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The studies on cultural tourism have determinate a series of profiles for cultural tourism. However, in recent times, the specifications on variants existing within cultural tourism make these profiles may not be very useful when defining and conceptualize this type of tourism. To verify this emptiness, we have studied a religious festivity in Patate, central zone of the Ecuadorian sierra of the Andes, very popular in all the country, to measure the reliability of the standards of the tourist profiles. To this end, a survey was conducted among religious tourists who attended the Lord of Earthquake celebrations on the profile and patterns chosen for the study. The conclusions indicate that the profile of both types of tourist is different, and that measurements on the profile of the cultural tourist should be modified and expanded in this case.

  5. Sperm whales and killer whales with the largest brains of all toothed whales show extreme differences in cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Sam H; Hanson, Alicia C

    2014-01-01

    Among cetaceans, killer whales and sperm whales have the widest distribution in the world's oceans. Both species use echolocation, are long-lived, and have the longest periods of gestation among whales. Sperm whales dive much deeper and much longer than killer whales. It has long been thought that sperm whales have the largest brains of all living things, but our brain mass evidence, from published sources and our own specimens, shows that big males of these two species share this distinction. Despite this, we also find that cerebellum size is very different between killer whales and sperm whales. The sperm whale cerebellum is only about 7% of the total brain mass, while the killer whale cerebellum is almost 14%. These results are significant because they contradict claims that the cerebellum scales proportionally with the rest of the brain in all mammals. They also correct the generalization that all cetaceans have enlarged cerebella. We suggest possible reasons for the existence of such a large cerebellar size difference between these two species. Cerebellar function is not fully understood, and comparing the abilities of animals with differently sized cerebella can help uncover functional roles of the cerebellum in humans and animals. Here we show that the large cerebellar difference likely relates to evolutionary history, diving, sensory capability, and ecology. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Goal Orientation Profile Differences in Greek Physical Domain

    OpenAIRE

    IoannisProios; AthanasiosSiropoulos; MiltiadisProios

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the individual differences on goal perspectives in the sport domain. The participants in the study consisted of 360 athletes (football, handball, basketball, track and field, volleyball, rowing, gymnastics, etc), 147 referees, and 79 physical education and exercise (391 males and 185 females), ranging in age from 13 to 50 years (M = 22.54, SD = 7.70). Their experience varied from 1 to 32 years (M = 6.27, SD = 5.24). All subjects filled in two version...

  7. Metabolite Profiling of Italian Tomato Landraces with Different Fruit Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana eBaldina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest towards traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to understand the genetic basis of traits related to health and organoleptic aspects and improve them in modern varieties. To establish a framework for this approach, we studied the content of several metabolites in a panel of Italian tomato landraces categorized into three broad fruit type classes (flattened/ribbed, pear/oxheart, round/elongate. Three modern hybrids, corresponding to the three fruit shape typologies, were included as reference. Red ripe fruits were morphologically characterized and biochemically analyzed for their content in glycoalkaloids, phenols, amino acids and Amadori products. The round/elongate types showed a higher content in glycoalkaloids, whereas flattened types had higher levels of phenolic compounds. Flattened tomatoes were also rich in total amino acids and in particular in glutamic acid. Multivariate analysis of amino acid content clearly separated the three classes of fruit types. Making allowance of the very low number of genotypes, phenotype-marker relationships were analyzed after retrieving single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the landraces available in the literature. Sixty-six markers were significantly associated with the studied traits. The positions of several of these SNPs showed correspondence with already described genomic regions and QTLs supporting the reliability of the association. Overall the data indicated that significant changes in quality-related metabolites occur depending on the genetic background in traditional tomato germplasm, frequently according to specific fruit shape categories. Such a variability is suitable to harness association mapping for metabolic quality traits using this germplasm

  8. Are dangerous offenders different from other offenders? A clinical profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2014-07-01

    The Canadian dangerous offender (DO) statute requires the assistance of psychiatrists and psychologists in evaluating offenders' potential danger and risk of future offenses, without substantive supporting empirical clinical research on the topic. The present study compared 62 men facing Canadian DO applications to 2,414 non-DO sexual and violent offenders (ACs) and 62 non-DO offenders matched on offense type (MCs). DOs differed significantly from ACs on 30 of 45 variables and from MCs only on 6. More DOs than MCs had an extensive criminal history, were psychopaths, and had more school truancy. Compared with ACs, DOs had less education and more school adjustment problems, more disturbed childhoods, and more often were diagnosed with sadism, psychopathy, and substance abuse problems. Total sexual and violent offense convictions provided the best but weak distinction of DOs from ACs. The "three strikes" law is noted and early intervention in DOs' criminal careers is discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Mouse gastric tumor models with prostaglandin E2 pathway activation show similar gene expression profiles to intestinal-type human gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Masanobu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancers are generally classified into better differentiated intestinal-type tumor and poorly differentiated diffuse-type one according to Lauren's histological categorization. Although induction of prostaglandin E2 pathway promotes gastric tumors in mice in cooperation with deregulated Wnt or BMP signalings, it has remained unresolved whether the gastric tumor mouse models recapitulate either of human gastric cancer type. This study assessed the similarity in expression profiling between gastric tumors of transgenic mice and various tissues of human cancers to find best-fit human tumors for the transgenic mice models. Results Global expression profiling initially found gastric tumors from COX-2/mPGES-1 (C2mE-related transgenic mice (K19-C2mE, K19-Wnt1/C2mE, and K19-Nog/C2mE resembled gastric cancers among the several tissues of human cancers including colon, breast, lung and gastric tumors. Next, classification of the C2mE-related transgenic mice by a gene signature to distinguish human intestinal- and diffuse-type tumors showed C2mE-related transgenic mice were more similar to intestinal-type compared with diffuse one. We finally revealed that induction of Wnt pathway cooperating with the prostaglandin E2 pathway in mice (K19-Wnt1/C2mE mice further reproduce features of human gastric intestinal-type tumors. Conclusion We demonstrated that C2mE-related transgenic mice show significant similarity to intestinal-type gastric cancer when analyzed by global expression profiling. These results suggest that the C2mE-related transgenic mice, especially K19-Wnt1/C2mE mice, serve as a best-fit model to study molecular mechanism underlying the tumorigenesis of human gastric intestinal-type cancers.

  10. The different morphologies of urachal adenocarcinoma do not discriminate genomically by micro-RNA expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, Mei Lin Z; Kocherginsky, Masha; Tretiakova, Maria; Jimenez, Rafael E; Barkan, Güliz A; Mehta, Vikas; Sirintrapun, Sahussapont Joseph; Steinberg, Gary D; White, Kevin P; Stricker, Thomas; Paner, Gladell P

    2013-08-01

    Urachal adenocarcinoma has several morphologic presentations that include mucinous, enteric, signet ring cell, and not otherwise specified. Mixtures of these morphologies can occur, and percentage cut-offs are used for classification. The clinical significance of these morphologic types is currently unknown, and genetic analysis that could elucidate possible intertumoral differences has not been performed. In this study, we analyzed the micro-RNA expression profiles of 12 urachal adenocarcinomas classified using strict morphologic criteria (3 pure enteric, 3 pure mucinous, 2 signet ring cell [both 90% signet ring cell], 2 pure not otherwise specified, and 2 mixed cell types). Of 598 unique human micro-RNAs, 333 were expressed in more than 50% of the samples. Hierarchal clustering showed no distinct patterns in the genetic profiles of the morphologic types. However, there were individual micro-RNA differences when the different types were compared individually or grouped together, either by intracellular mucin production or by grouping enteric and signet ring cell together. In the later group, 13 messenger RNA species were differentially expressed (adjusted P value of ≤.05). However, these micro-RNA differences were small, suggesting more biologic similarity than differences among these entities. Thus, this study suggests that the different morphological subtypes may represent patterns of differentiation or a continuum of a single biological tumor type rather than several distinct types that arose from the urachal remnant epithelium. This finding, if further validated in larger studies, may have implications in future clinical therapeutic trials for urachal adenocarcinoma with regard to patient grouping and choice of therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rats in a levered T-maze task show evidence of time-place discriminations in two different measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, Scott H; Lehr, Andrew B; Maloney, Chelsea; Ingram, Matthew L; Lewis, Leanna M; Chaulk, Anne-Marie P; Chaulk, Pam D; Skinner, Darlene M; Thorpe, Christina M

    2017-06-01

    It is difficult for rats to learn to go to an arm of a T-maze to receive food that is dependent on the time of day, unless the amount of food in each daily session is different. In the same task, rats show evidence of time-place discriminations if they are required to press levers in the arms of the T-maze, but learning is only evident when the first lever press is considered, and not the first arm visited. These data suggest that rats struggle to use time as a discriminative stimulus unless the rewards/events differ in some dimension, or unless the goal locations can be visited prior to making a response. If both of these conditions are met in the same task, it might be possible to compare time-place learning in two different measures that essentially indicate performance before and after entering the arms of the T-maze. In the present study, we investigated time-place learning in rats with a levered T-maze task in which the amounts of food varied depending on the time of day. The first arm choices and first lever presses both indicated that the rats had acquired time-place discriminations, and both of these measures became significantly different from chance during the same block. However, there were subtle differences between the two measures, which suggest that time-place discrimination is aided by visiting the goal locations.

  12. Nutritional composition and fatty acids profile in cocoa beans and chocolates with different geographical origin and processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Moreno, M; Torrescasana, E; Salas-Salvadó, J; Blanch, C

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional composition and fatty acids (FA) profile were determined in cocoa and chocolates of different geographical origin and subject to different processing conditions. Cocoa butter was the major nutrient in cocoa beans and carbohydrates were the most important in chocolates. Cocoa composition and FA profile varied depending on geographical origin whilst in chocolates only carbohydrates and fat content varied significantly due to the effect of origin and no significant effect was observed for processing conditions. Both for cocoa and chocolates differences in FA profile were mainly explained as an effect of the geographical origin, and were not due to processing conditions in chocolate. For cocoa, differences in FA profile were found in C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1 and C18:0 whilst for chocolates only differences were found in C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2. For all samples, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2 were quantitatively the most important FA. Ecuadorian chocolate showed a healthier FA profile having higher amounts of unsaturated FA and lower amounts of saturated FA than Ghanaian chocolate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Storefront Cigarette Advertising Differs by Community Demographic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Caughey, Robert W.; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Tobacco manufacturers have targeted youth and ethnic/racial minorities with tailored advertising. Less is known about how characteristics of storefront tobacco advertisements, such as location, position, size, and content, are used to appeal to demographic subgroups. Design The occurrence and characteristics of storefront cigarette advertising were observed for all licensed tobacco retailers in two defined communities. Setting Measures were taken in two Boston, Massachusetts, area urban communities: a low-income, minority community and a high-income, nonminority community. Subjects No human subjects were involved in this study. Measures Advertisement position (attached or separated from storefront), size (small, medium, or large), mentholation, and price were recorded. Geographic coordinates of tobacco retailers and schools were mapped using ArcGIS 9.2. Analysis Differences between the communities in advertisement number and characteristics were assessed using bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to ascertain the odds of specific advertising features occurring in the low-income/minority community. Results The low-income/minority community had more tobacco retailers, and advertisements were more likely to be larger, promote menthol products, have a lower mean advertised price, and occur within 1000 feet of a school. Conclusion Storefront cigarette advertising characteristics that increase exposure and promote youth initiation were more prominent in a low-income/minority community. The findings emphasize the need for more effective regulation of storefront tobacco advertising. PMID:20594091

  14. Oxidative profiles of endurance horses racing different distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Siqueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress during prolonged endurance exercises may result in muscle damage, fatigue and decreased performance. An adequate stress response during training is critical to obtain improved results and high animal welfare standards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the red blood cell haemolysate concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, reduced glutathione (GSH and catalase (CAT and the plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA from endurance horses in different distances at high speed in a tropical climate. Fifteen horses were tested; five at 160km (18.54 - 17.16km/h race speed, five at 120km (21.53 - 17km/h race speed and five at 80km (20.06 - 18.01km/h race speed. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately after and three hours after the horses left the final vet check and three, seven and fourteen days after the race. No significant increases (P > 0.05 in the levels of SOD, GPx, GSH, CAT or MDA were observed for any of the times or distances examined. Based on these observations, we conclude that reactive oxygen species (ROS formation during exercise evokes specific adaptations, such as increased antioxidant/oxidative damage-repairing enzyme activity, increased resistance to oxidative stress and lower levels of oxidative damage.

  15. Storefront cigarette advertising differs by community demographic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Caughey, Robert W; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco manufacturers have targeted youth and ethnic/racial minorities with tailored advertising. Less is known about how characteristics of storefront tobacco advertisements, such as location, position, size, and content, are used to appeal to demographic subgroups. The occurrence and characteristics of storefront cigarette advertising were observed for all licensed tobacco retailers in two defined communities. Measures were taken in two Boston, Massachusetts, area urban communities: a low-income, minority community and a high-income, nonminority community. No human subjects were involved in this study. Advertisement position (attached or separated from storefront), size (small, medium, or large), mentholation, and price were recorded. Geographic coordinates of tobacco retailers and schools were mapped using ArcGIS 9.2. Differences between the communities in advertisement number and characteristics were assessed using bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to ascertain the odds of specific advertising features occurring in the low-income/minority community. The low-income/minority community had more tobacco retailers, and advertisements were more likely to be larger, promote menthol products, have a lower mean advertised price, and occur within 1000 feet of a school. Storefront cigarette advertising characteristics that increase exposure and promote youth initiation were more prominent in a low-income/minority community. The findings emphasize the need for more effective regulation of storefront tobacco advertising.

  16. CD-1 mice Show Individual Differences in Nicotine Preference in a Modified Two-Bottle Oral Self-Administration Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junran; Gautier, Nicole M; Li, Ming D

    2012-01-01

    Although both animal and human studies reveal significant contributions of genetics to smoking addiction, many human studies were underpowered or biased by potential confounding variables, and animal genetic studies are challenged by limited genetic variations and lack of convincing phenotypes. To address these concerns, we used non-sibling outbred CD-1 mice to evaluate individual differences in nicotine preference with a modified two-bottle oral self-administration model. Animals were first given free access to two bottles, one filled with nicotine dissolved in 2% saccharin and the other with saccharin only. Under this regular two-bottle choice condition, the majority of animals avoided the nicotine solution with limited individual differences. However, when we modified the model by introducing 4 days of exposure to 5% saccharin in the drinking water, the animals significantly increased nicotine consumption in the two-bottle choice test, with about 30% animals showing a nicotine preference. Nicotine preference after 5% saccharin treatment remained elevated throughout the 28 days of the experiment. Further, we found there existed striking individual differences in nicotine consumption after exposure to 5% saccharin, with a range of 0-100% of total liquid consumption. The enhanced individual differences and the ratio of nicotine consumption were observed at different concentrations of nicotine (10-80 μg/ml) and in both adolescents and adults. Further examination on the induction mechanism showed that the long-lasting nicotine preference was not correlated with nicotine consumption before the induction, 5% saccharin consumption, or weight gain during the induction. Although liquid consumption during the 4 days of 5% saccharin exposure was decreased by about 30%, comparable liquid restriction alone for 4 days did not induce nicotine preference. Together, this study showed a strong and stable nicotine preference in CD-1 mice, which was induced by a short

  17. Anthropometric profile of powerlifters: differences as a function of bodyweight class and competitive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera, M; Keogh, J

    2015-05-01

    This study sought to better understand the relationship between anthropometric profile and maximal strength, as assessed in the sport of powerlifting as relatively little research has examined how differences in anthropometry may contribute to bodyweight-related differences in performance or between more and less successful lifters in the same bodyweight class. To address this aim, 63 male powerlifters from an Argentine National Tournament were assessed for 31 anthropometric variables taken using ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry) protocols. Body fractionation (adipose, muscle, bone, residual and skin tissue masses) was determined using the validated Kerr & Ross five way fractionation model of body composition that has yet to be used with powerlifters. Results indicated that the powerlifters showed very elevated values of mesomorphy, muscle girths, muscle mass, bone breadths, and all this accompanied by a medium to low stature. Most of these characteristics were more pronounced in the heavier divisions. The winners had significantly larger proportional muscle mass (53.9 ± 2.2%), muscle to bone mass ratio (5.3 ± 1) and crural index (1.21 ± 0.12) than the non-winners. These comparisons reveal some potential key anthropometric determinants of high level powerlifting performance. These results further support the view that while powerlifters have unique anthropometric profiles, more successful powerlifters typically have higher degrees of muscle mass expressed per unit height and/or bone mass but similar segment lengths and segment length ratios to their less successful peers.

  18. An integrated approach shows different use of water resources from Mediterranean maquis species in a coastal dune ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Manes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach has been used to analyse the dependence of three Mediterranean species, A. unedo L., Q. ilex L., and P. latifolia L. co-occurring in a coastal dune ecosystem on two different water resources: groundwater and rainfed upper soil layers. The approach included leaf level gas exchanges, sap flow measurements and structural adaptations between 15 May and 31 July 2007. During this period it was possible to capture different species-specific response patterns to an environment characterized by a sandy soil, with a low water retention capacity, and the presence of a water table. The latter did not completely prevent the development of a drought response and, combined with previous studies in the same area, response differences between species have been partially attributed to different root distributions. Sap flow of A. unedo decreased rapidly with the decline of soil water content, while that of Q. ilex decreased only moderately. Midday leaf water potential of P. latifolia and A. unedo ranged between −2.2 and −2.7 MPa throughout the measuring period, while in Q. ilex it decreased down to −3.4 MPa at the end of the season. A. unedo was the only species that responded to drought with a decrease of its leaf area to sapwood area ratio from 23.9±1.2 (May to 15.2±1.5 (July. While A. unedo also underwent an almost stepwise loss on hydraulic conductivity, such a loss did not occur for Q. ilex, whereas P. latifolia was able to slightly increase its hydraulic conducitivity. These differences show how different plant compartments coordinate differently between species in their responses to drought. The different responses appear to be mediated by different root distributions of the species and their relative resistances to drought are likely to depend on the duration of the periods in which water remains extractable in the upper soil layers.

  19. Recombinant hybrid infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) carrying viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) G or NV genes show different virulence properities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Biacchesi, S.; Stegmann, Anders

    in host range (to include rainbow trout) likely have occurred several times. Virus from the marine environment therefore continues to represent a threat to the expanding trout aquaculture industry in the marine environment. Identification of potential virulence markers are therefore of great importance......Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is the economically most important viral disease in European rainbow trout farming. The virus was introduced to fresh water farms in the 1950ies from a reservoir of VHSV in the marine environment. Isolates from wild marine fish and fresh water farms...... are difficult to distinguish serologically but they show different virulence profiles: marine isolates typically cause little or no mortality in rainbow trout fry following experimental waterborne challenge, while freshwater isolates often kill the majority of the fish. Genetic analysis reveal that the change...

  20. Differences in the Socio-Emotional Competency Profile in University Students from different Disciplinary Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejon, Juan Luis; Cantero, Ma. Pilar; Perez, Nelida

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of this paper is to establish a profile of socio-emotional competencies characteristic of a sample of students from each of the big academic areas in higher education: legal sciences, social sciences, education, humanities, science and technology, and health. An additional objective was to analyse differences…

  1. Gastrointestinal Simulation Model TWIN-SHIME Shows Differences between Human Urolithin-Metabotypes in Gut Microbiota Composition, Pomegranate Polyphenol Metabolism, and Transport along the Intestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Vissenaekens, Hanne; Pitart, Judit; Romo-Vaquero, María; Espín, Juan C; Grootaert, Charlotte; Selma, María V; Raes, Katleen; Smagghe, Guy; Possemiers, Sam; Van Camp, John; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco A

    2017-07-12

    A TWIN-SHIME system was used to compare the metabolism of pomegranate polyphenols by the gut microbiota from two individuals with different urolithin metabotypes. Gut microbiota, ellagitannin metabolism, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), transport of metabolites, and phase II metabolism using Caco-2 cells were explored. The simulation reproduced the in vivo metabolic profiles for each metabotype. The study shows for the first time that microbial composition, metabolism of ellagitannins, and SCFA differ between metabotypes and along the large intestine. The assay also showed that pomegranate phenolics preserved intestinal cell integrity. Pomegranate polyphenols enhanced urolithin and propionate production, as well as Akkermansia and Gordonibacter prevalence with the highest effect in the descending colon. The system provides an insight into the mechanisms of pomegranate polyphenol gut microbiota metabolism and absorption through intestinal cells. The results obtained by the combined SHIME/Caco-2 cell system are consistent with previous human and animal studies and show that although urolithin metabolites are present along the gastrointestinal tract due to enterohepatic circulation, they are predominantly produced in the distal colon region.

  2. Housing conditions influence cortical and behavioural reactions of sheep in response to videos showing social interactions of different valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-05-01

    Mood, as a long-term affective state, is thought to modulate short-term emotional reactions in animals, but the details of this interplay have hardly been investigated experimentally. Apart from a basic interest in this affective system, mood is likely to have an important impact on animal welfare, as bad mood may taint all emotional experience. In the present study about mood - emotion interaction, 29 sheep were kept under predictable, stimulus-rich or unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, to induce different mood states. In an experiment, the animals were confronted with video sequences of social interactions of conspecifics showing agonistic interactions, ruminating or tolerantly co-feeding as stimuli of different valences. Emotional reactions were assessed by measuring frontal brain activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and by recording behavioral reactions. Attentiveness of the sheep decreased from videos showing agonistic interactions to ruminating sheep to those displaying co-feeding sheep. Seeing agonistic interactions was also associated with a deactivation of the frontal cortex, specifically in animals living under predictable, stimulus-rich housing conditions. These sheep generally showed less attentiveness and locomotor activity and they had their ears in a forward position less often and in a backward position more often than the sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions. Housing conditions influenced how the sheep behaved, which can either be thought to be mediated by mood or by the animals' previous experience with stimulus-richness in their housing conditions. Frontal cortical activity may not depend on valence only, but also on the perceptual channel through which the stimuli were perceived. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Species differences in brain gene expression profiles associated with adult behavioral maturation in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Gene E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Honey bees are known for several striking social behaviors, including a complex pattern of behavioral maturation that gives rise to an age-related colony division of labor and a symbolic dance language, by which successful foragers communicate the location of attractive food sources to their nestmates. Our understanding of honey bees is mostly based on studies of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, even though there are 9–10 other members of genus Apis, showing interesting variations in social behavior relative to A. mellifera. To facilitate future in-depth genomic and molecular level comparisons of behavior across the genus, we performed a microarray analysis of brain gene expression for A. mellifera and three key species found in Asia, A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata. Results For each species we compared brain gene expression patterns between foragers and adult one-day-old bees on an A. mellifera cDNA microarray and calculated within-species gene expression ratios to facilitate cross-species analysis. The number of cDNA spots showing hybridization fluorescence intensities above the experimental threshold was reduced by an average of 16% in the Asian species compared to A. mellifera, but an average of 71% of genes on the microarray were available for analysis. Brain gene expression profiles between foragers and one-day-olds showed differences that are consistent with a previous study on A. mellifera and were comparable across species. Although 1772 genes showed significant differences in expression between foragers and one-day-olds, only 218 genes showed differences in forager/one-day-old expression between species (p Conclusion We conclude that the A. mellifera cDNA microarray can be used effectively for cross-species comparisons within the genus. Our results indicate that there is a widespread conservation of the molecular processes in the honey bee brain underlying behavioral maturation. Species differences in

  4. Host plant secondary metabolite profiling shows a complex, strain-dependent response of maize to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria of the genus Azospirillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vincent; Bertrand, Cédric; Bellvert, Floriant; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Bally, René; Comte, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Most Azospirillum plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) benefit plant growth through source effects related to free nitrogen fixation and/or phytohormone production, but little is known about their potential effects on plant physiology. These effects were assessed by comparing the early impacts of three Azospirillum inoculant strains on secondary metabolite profiles of two different maize (Zea mays) cultivars. After 10d of growth in nonsterile soil, maize methanolic extracts were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and secondary metabolites identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Seed inoculation resulted in increased shoot biomass (and also root biomass with one strain) of hybrid PR37Y15 but had no stimulatory effect on hybrid DK315. In parallel, Azospirillum inoculation led to major qualitative and quantitative modifications of the contents of secondary metabolites, especially benzoxazinoids, in the maize plants. These modifications depended on the PGPR strain×plant cultivar combination. Thus, Azospirillum inoculation resulted in early, strain-dependent modifications in the biosynthetic pathways of benzoxazine derivatives in maize in compatible interactions. This is the first study documenting a PGPR effect on plant secondary metabolite profiles, and suggests the establishment of complex interactions between Azospirillum PGPR and maize. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  5. Differences in gene expression profiles between human preimplantation embryos cultured in two different IVF culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; Eijssen, Lars M T; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Mantikou, Eleni; Jonker, Martijs J; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Repping, Sjoerd; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A

    2015-10-01

    Is gene expression in human preimplantation embryos affected by the medium used for embryo culture in vitro during an IVF treatment? Six days of in vitro culture of human preimplantation embryos resulted in medium-dependent differences in expression level of genes involved in apoptosis, protein degradation, metabolism and cell-cycle regulation. Several human studies have shown an effect of culture medium on embryo development, pregnancy outcome and birthweight. However, the underlying mechanisms in human embryos are still unknown. In animal models of human development, it has been demonstrated that culture of preimplantation embryos in vitro affects gene expression. In humans, it has been found that culture medium affects gene expression of cryopreserved embryos that, after thawing, were cultured in two different media for 2 more days. In a multicenter trial, women were randomly assigned to two culture medium groups [G5 and human tubal fluid (HTF)]. Data on embryonic development were collected for all embryos. In one center, embryos originating from two pronuclei (2PN) zygotes that were not selected for transfer or cryopreservation on Day 2 or 3 because of lower morphological quality, were cultured until Day 6 and used in this study, if couples consented. Ten blastocysts each from the G5 and HTF study groups, matched for fertilization method, maternal age and blastocyst quality, were selected and their mRNA was isolated and amplified. Embryos were examined individually for genome-wide gene expression using Agilent microarrays and PathVisio was used to identify the pathways that showed a culture medium-dependent activity. Expression of 951 genes differed significantly (P differences observed between the study groups are caused by factors that we did not investigate. Extrapolation of these results to embryos used for transfer demands caution as in the present study embryos that were not selected for either embryo transfer or cryopreservation have been used for the

  6. Sensory profile and acceptability for pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) nectar with different sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; Dutra, Mariana Borges de Lima; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory properties and acceptability of pitanga nectar samples prepared with sucrose and different sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, stevia with 40% rebaudioside A, stevia with 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and a 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend). A total of 13 assessors participated in a quantitative descriptive analysis and evaluated the samples in relation to the descriptor terms. The acceptability test was carried out by 120 fruit juice consumers. The results of the quantitative descriptive analysis of pitanga nectar showed that samples prepared with sucralose, aspartame, and the 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend had sensory profiles similar to that of the sample prepared with sucrose. Consumers' most accepted samples were prepared with sucrose, sucralose, aspartame, and neotame. The sweeteners that have the greatest potential to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar are sucralose and aspartame. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Adolescents who assault their parents:a different family profile of young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Lourdes; Cano, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Some authors have proposed that the mechanisms underlying adolescent-to-parent abuse seem to be different from other forms of juvenile delinquency. Given that this aggression is exerted within the family setting, our study was aimed to explore if there was a differential family profile for those adolescents who commit a parent abuse offense compared to those who commit other types of offenses. Judicial files of 1,046 young offenders from the Juvenile Justice Service of Jaén (Spain) were examined. The final sample (654 young offenders) was divided into 2 groups: those who had committed offenses against a parent (parent abuse group) and those who had committed other types of offenses (other offenses group). Results showed that families with parent abuse have differential characteristics, especially regarding the family size, type of household, parenting styles, and the patterns of interactions between the family members.

  8. Number Processing and Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Subtypes with Different Cognitive Profiles and Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated if developmental dyscalculia (DD) in children with different profiles of mathematical deficits has the same or different cognitive origins. The defective approximate number system hypothesis and the access deficit hypothesis were tested using two different groups of children with DD (11-13 years old): a group with…

  9. Aflatoxin effect on erythrocyte profile and histopathology of broilers given different additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimy, M. F.; Sutrisno, B.; Agus, A.; Suryani, A. E.; Istiqomah, L.; Damayanti, E.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate erythrocyte profile and microscopic changes effect of AF induces by low level (57.18 ppb) and chronic exposure (34 days) with administration of additive (Lactobacillus plantarum G7 and methionine). Aflatoxin-contaminated corn was prepared by inoculate Aspergillus flavus FNCC 6002 on corn. Total number of 576 broiler Lohman strain (MB202) unsexed DOC were allocated completely randomized into four treatments and 12 replicates, with 12 broiler chicks each. The treatments as follows: T1 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet, T2 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 1% of LAB (w/w), T3 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 0.8% of methionine (w/w), and T4 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 1% of LAB + 0.8% of methionine (w/w). The effect of treatments was evaluated using ANOVA and the difference among mean treatments were analyzed using DMRT. The result showed that administration of additives had no significant effect (P>0.05) on erythrocyte profile, liver, and bursa of Fabricius. The dose of additive in each treatment (T2, T3, T4) were insufficient to reduce adverse effect of chronic aflatoxicosis. It was concluded that the LAB dose for binding AF (57.18%) should be evaluated and the dose for methionine should be reduced for chronic treatment of aflatoxicosis.

  10. [Sagittal photogrammetric evaluation of the soft tissue profile between two different racial groups: a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, J S; Ngom, P I; Fadiga, M S; Badiane, A; Diop-Ba, K; Ndiaye, M; Diagne, F

    2015-06-01

    Facial soft-tissue analyses made from photographic records (photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissues) showed interracial dimorphism. Standard of these facial analyses, originally obtained from Caucasian might not be appropriate for the diagnosis and treatment planning of other groups of orthodontic patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the sagittal photogrammetric soft tissue profile characteristics between Senegalese and Moroccan adults. A cross-sectional study was performed in a group of Senegalese and Moroccan students in the Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry of Dakar. Standardized facial-profile photographs were taken with each student in natural head position, centric relation, and relaxed lip posture. Twenty four linear parameters were measured on paper sheet using a graduated ruler. For each variable mean and SD were calculated. In addition independent samples t-test was performed to detect sexual and racial dimorphism. Results were regarded as significant at p = 0.05. Senegalese subjects had significantly more lips protrusion than Moroccan who had significantly a more elongated and more anterior positioned nose, a more chin prominence and a tendency to cutaneous class II than Senegalese. Further studies including different age groups subjects would allow having longitudinal data according to age.

  11. Volatile Profiling of Aromatic Traditional Medicinal Plant, Polygonum minus in Different Tissues and Its Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafidah Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify the volatile metabolites produced in different organs (leaves, stem and roots of Polygonum minus, an important essential oil producing crop in Malaysia. Two methods of extraction have been applied: Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME and hydrodistillation coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Approximately, 77 metabolites have been identified and aliphatic compounds contribute significantly towards the aroma and flavour of this plant. Two main aliphatic compounds: decanal and dodecanal were found to be the major contributor. Terpenoid metabolites were identified abundantly in leaves but not in the stem and root of this plant. Further studies on antioxidant, total phenolic content, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were determined in the essential oil and five different extracts. The plant showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity in polar (ethanol extract for all the tissues tested. For anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, leaf in aqueous extract and methanol extract showed the best acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. However, in microbial activity, the non-polar extracts (n-hexane showed high antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA compared to polar extracts. This study could provide the first step in the phytochemical profiles of volatile compounds and explore the additional value of pharmacology properties of this essential oil producing crop Polygonum minus.

  12. Minerals and antinutrients profile of rabadi after different traditional preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vineeta; Nagar, Ranjana

    2014-08-01

    Rabadi is a cereal and buttermilk based traditional fermented recipe of western region of India. There are many traditional preparation methods, which may alter biochemical composition of rabadi, therefore, in the present study, role of traditional processings (cooking, fermentation, dehulling, utensil, preparation methods and cereals) on minerals and antinutrients of pearl millet, wheat flour and refined wheat flour rabadi was investigated on fresh weight basis. Results showed that the process of cooking and fermentation enhanced minerals (Ca, Fe and P) in all types of rabadi samples at different levels of significance, while antinutrients (phytic acid, total phenols and oxalates) reflected a declining trend. Intercomparison of different types of rabadies exhibited that fermented- cooked -fermented samples were better than cooked -fermented rabadies. Dehulling caused a loss of minerals, but antinutrients were also degraded after dehulling; therefore dehulled sample showed very good nutritional profile after fermentation. Earthen pot rabadi samples presented better biochemical composition than rabadies prepared in steel pot. Intercomparison of different cereals based rabadies reflected superior position of fermented -cooked- fermented pearl millet flour rabadi than cooked- fermented pearl millet flour rabadi, wheat and refined wheat flour rabadi samples.

  13. Women show a higher level of anxiety during IVF treatment than men and hold different concerns: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Martin Alexander; Griesinger, Georg; Banz-Jansen, Constanze

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine levels of anxiety during the course of IVF treatment and gender differences in treatment anxiety. This was a prospective cohort study set in a university affiliated, tertiary care IVF program. 119 women and 82 men entering the clinic to undergo IVF treatment filled out questionnaires containing the Spielberger state-trait-anxiety-inventory (STAI) as well as further items on specific stress triggers. Women and men undergoing IVF have higher levels of anxiety than the average population in Germany. Overall, female patients show significantly higher values (mean ± SD) for state and trait anxiety (47.4 ± 11.0 and 40.1 ± 9.85) than their male partners (41.4 ± 9.66 and 35.3 ± 8.57, p anxiety the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy, scoring significantly higher on questions like 'obtaining a negative pregnancy test' (3.24 ± 0.82, p anxiety during IVF treatment and hold different concerns. Neither of the sexes appears to be familiar with the risks associated with multiple pregnancies, a matter that should better be addressed.

  14. Different types of nitrogen deposition show variable effects on the soil carbon cycle process of temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuhan; Guo, Peng; Liu, Jianqiu; Wang, Chunyu; Yang, Ning; Jiao, Zhenxia

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition significantly affects the soil carbon (C) cycle process of forests. However, the influence of different types of N on it still remained unclear. In this work, ammonium nitrate was selected as an inorganic N (IN) source, while urea and glycine were chosen as organic N (ON) sources. Different ratios of IN to ON (1 : 4, 2 : 3, 3 : 2, 4 : 1, and 5 : 0) were mixed with equal total amounts and then used to fertilize temperate forest soils for 2 years. Results showed that IN deposition inhibited soil C cycle processes, such as soil respiration, soil organic C decomposition, and enzymatic activities, and induced the accumulation of recalcitrant organic C. By contrast, ON deposition promoted these processes. Addition of ON also resulted in accelerated transformation of recalcitrant compounds into labile compounds and increased CO2 efflux. Meanwhile, greater ON deposition may convert C sequestration in forest soils into C source. These results indicated the importance of the IN to ON ratio in controlling the soil C cycle, which can consequently change the ecological effect of N deposition. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Akinetic-rigid and tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease patients show different patterns of intrinsic brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiuquan; Wei, Luqing; Hu, Xiaofei; Xie, Bing; Zhang, Yanling; Wu, Guo-Rong; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a surprisingly heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder. It is well established that different subtypes of PD present with different clinical courses and prognoses. However, the neural mechanism underlying these disparate presentations is uncertain. Here we used resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method to determine neural activity patterns in the two main clinical subgroups of PD (akinetic-rigid and tremor-dominant). Compared with healthy controls, akinetic-rigid (AR) subjects had increased ReHo mainly in right amygdala, left putamen, bilateral angular gyrus, bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and decreased ReHo in left post cingulate gyrus/precuneus (PCC/PCu) and bilateral thalamus. In contrast, tremor-dominant (TD) patients showed higher ReHo mostly in bilateral angular gyrus, left PCC, cerebellum_crus1, and cerebellum_6, while ReHo was decreased in right putamen, primary sensory cortex (S1), vermis_3, and cerebellum_4_5. These results indicate that AR and TD subgroups both represent altered spontaneous neural activity in default-mode regions and striatum, and AR subjects exhibit more changed neural activity in the mesolimbic cortex (amygdala) but TD in the cerebellar regions. Of note, direct comparison of the two subgroups revealed a distinct ReHo pattern primarily located in the striatal-thalamo-cortical (STC) and cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) loops. Overall, our findings highlight the involvement of default mode network (DMN) and STC circuit both in AR and TD subtypes, but also underscore the importance of integrating mesolimbic-striatal and CTC loops in understanding neural systems of akinesia and rigidity, as well as resting tremor in PD. This study provides improved understanding of the pathophysiological models of different subtypes of PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Different Salt Treatments on the Fermentation Metabolites and Bacterial Profiles of Kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Bo-Min; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Jang, Gwang-Ju; Song, Seong Hwa; Lee, Jae-In; Lee, Sang Bong; Shim, Jae Min; Lee, Kang Wook; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Chen, Feng; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2017-05-01

    The effects of purified salt (PS) and mineral-rich sea salt (MRS), both with different mineral profiles, on kimchi fermentation were studied using a culture-dependent 16S rRNA sequencing technique and mass-based metabolomic analysis. The different mineral profiles in the fermentation medium caused changes in the bacterial profiles of the 2 kimchi products. An increase of Leuconostoc species in MRS-kimchi decreased the Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc ratio, which led to changes in metabolites (including sugars, amino acids, organic acids, lipids, sulfur compounds, and terpenoids) associated with kimchi quality. Although further studies on the relationship between these salt types and kimchi fermentation are needed, these results suggested that the MRS treatment had positively affected the changes of the kimchi mineral contents, bacterial growth, and metabolite profiles, which are linked to kimchi quality. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Fagus sylvatica L. provenances maintain different leaf metabolic profiles and functional response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Ismael; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de Miguel, Marina; Mancha, Jose Antonio; Guevara, María Angeles; Cadahía, Estrella; Fernández de Simón, María Brígida

    2017-07-01

    Most temperate forest tree species will suffer important environmental changes as result of the climate change. Adaptiveness to local conditions could change at different sites in the future. In this context, the study of intra-specific variability is important to clarify the singularity of different local populations. Phenotypic differentiation between three beech provenances covering a wide latitudinal range (Spain/ES, Germany/DE and Sweden/SE), was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Non-target leaf metabolite profiles and ecophysiological response was analyzed in well-watered and water stressed seedlings. There was a provenance-specific pattern in the relative concentrations of some leaf metabolites regardless watering treatment. The DE and SE from the center and north of the distribution area of the species showed a clear differentiation from the ES provenance in the relative concentration of some metabolites. Thus the ES provenance from the south maintained larger relative concentration of some organic and amino acids (e.g. fumaric and succinic acids or valine and isoleucine), and in some secondary metabolites (e.g. kaempferol, caffeic and ferulic acids). The ecophysiological response to mild water stress was similar among the three provenances as a consequence of the moderate water stress applied to seedlings, although leaf N isotope composition (δ15N) and leaf C:N ratio were higher and lower respectively in DE than in the other two provenances. This would suggest potential differences in the capacity to uptake and post-process nitrogen according to provenance. An important focus of the study was to address for the first time inter-provenance leaf metabolic diversity in beech from a non-targeted metabolic profiling approach that allowed differentiation of the three studied provenances.

  18. Differences in sheep and goats milk microbiological profile between conventional and organic farming systems in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malissiova, Eleni; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Kyriazi, Aikaterini; Mparda, Maria; Sakorafa, Christina; Katsioulis, Antonios; Katsiaflaka, Anna; Kyritsi, Maria; Zdragas, Antonios; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the microbiological profile and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from milk from organic and conventional sheep and goat farms. Twenty-five organic and 25 conventional sheep and goat farms in the region of Thessaly, Greece participated in this study. A standardised detailed questionnaire was used to describe farming practices. A total of 50 samples were collected and analysed for total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC) and somatic cell count (SCC), while Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were isolated using standard methods. Isolates were identified at species level by Api-test and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Susceptibility to a panel of 20 for E. coli and 16 for S. aureus antimicrobials was determined by the agar dilution method. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for S. aureus and E. coli isolates to determine predominant clones. Lower counts of TVC, TCC and SCC were identified in milk from the organic farms, possibly due to differences in the hygienic farming practices found on those farms. API-tests and MALDI-TOF MS showed no significant differences in the S. aureus and E. coli isolates. Overall, antimicrobial resistance rates were low, while a statistically higher percentage was estimated among strains originating from conventional farms in comparison with organic farms, possibly due to the restriction of antibiotic use in organic farming. PFGE revealed diversity among S. aureus and E. coli populations in both organic and conventional farms indicating circulation of 2-3 main clones changing slightly during their evolution. Consequently, there is evidence that milk from the organic farms presents a better microbiological profile when compared with milk from conventional farms.

  19. Three representative UK moorland soils show differences in decadal release of dissolved organic carbon in response to environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Stutter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Moorland carbon reserves in organo-mineral soils may be crucial to predicting landscape-scale variability in soil carbon losses, an important component of which is dissolved organic carbon (DOC. Surface water DOC trends are subject to a range of scaling, transport and biotic processes that disconnect them from signals in the catchment's soils. Long-term soil datasets are vital to identify changes in DOC release at source and soil C depletion. Here we show, that moorland soil solution DOC concentrations at three key UK Environmental Change Network sites increased between 1993–2007 in both surface- and sub- soil of a freely-draining Podzol (48 % and 215 % increases in O and Bs horizons, respectively, declined in a gleyed Podzol and showed no change in a Peat. Our principal findings were that: (1 considerable heterogeneity in DOC response appears to exist between different soils that is not apparent from the more consistent observed trends for streamwaters, and (2 freely-draining organo-mineral Podzol showed increasing DOC concentrations, countering the current scientific focus on soil C destabilization in peats. We discuss how the key solubility controls on DOC associated with coupled physico-chemical factors of ionic strength, acid deposition recovery, soil hydrology and temperature cannot readily be separated. Yet, despite evidence that all sites are recovering from acidification the soil-specific responses to environmental change have caused divergence in soil DOC concentration trends. The study shows that the properties of soils govern their specific response to an approximately common set of broad environmental drivers. Key soil properties are indicated to be drainage, sulphate and DOC sorption capacity. Soil properties need representation in process-models to understand and predict the role of soils in catchment to global C budgets. Catchment hydrological (i.e. transport controls may, at present, be governing the more ubiquitous rises in

  20. Attractiveness of facial profiles as rated by individuals with different levels of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönn, Mirjam; Dietz, Klaus; Eiselt, Marie-Luise; Göz, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    The reasons people consult the orthodontist are functional, prophylactic and esthetic in nature, which is why it is important to know (in justifying an intervention for esthetic reasons) what patients themselves find attractive, and whether German university graduates and non-graduates would evaluate the attractiveness of profile views of Class-I, -II and -III patients differently. We also were interested in identifying per group the degree of deviation (from a "normal" skeletal profile) from which the appraisers would judge that profile to be unattractive. A total of five skeletal Class-I patients with straight-average faces (ideal biometric face as defined by A. M. Schwarz 1958) were transformed to reflect three Class-II profile variants and three Class-III profile variants with Onyx Ceph software. Out of the 35 profiles thus obtained we formed two groups of 20 each. Group 1 comprised the five straight-average (biometric) faces and six retrognathic and nine prognathic profile variants. Group 2 comprised the same five straight-average faces and the remaining retrognathic and prognathic profile variants. Both face groups were evaluated by 117 university graduates (65 men and 52 women) and 103 non-graduates (49 men and 54 women) between 23 and 41 years old. The participants were randomly assigned to the two groups. These volunteers were asked to rate the profiles along a scale of 0 (least attractive) to 10 (most attractive). The paper copies with the profiles were assessed in comparison to a single profile that had been classified with an average of 7.6 by ten orthodontists. Both groups of observers perceived the five straight-average faces similarly in the first and second scoring rounds. The straight-average face was perceived as the most attractive by both the university graduates (mean: 5.37; 95% CI: 5.15-5.59) and non-graduates (mean: 5.71; 95% CI: 5.48-5.95), followed immediately by mildly and moderately retrognathic, as well as mildly prognathic profile lines

  1. A real time chemotaxis assay unveils unique migratory profiles amongst different primary murine macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif J Iqbal

    Full Text Available Chemotaxis assays are an invaluable tool for studying the biological activity of inflammatory mediators such as CC chemokines, which have been implicated in a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases. Conventional chemotaxis systems such as the modified Boyden chamber are limited in terms of the data captured given that the assays are analysed at a single time-point. We report the optimisation and validation of a label-free, real-time cell migration assay based on electrical cell impedance to measure chemotaxis of different primary murine macrophage populations in response to a range of CC chemokines and other chemoattractant signalling molecules. We clearly demonstrate key differences in the migratory behavior of different murine macrophage populations and show that this dynamic system measures true macrophage chemotaxis rather than chemokinesis or fugetaxis. We highlight an absolute requirement for Gαi signaling and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement as demonstrated by Pertussis toxin and cytochalasin D inhibition. We also studied the chemotaxis of CD14(+ human monocytes and demonstrate distinct chemotactic profiles amongst different monocyte donors to CCL2. This real-time chemotaxis assay will allow a detailed analysis of factors that regulate macrophage responses to chemoattractant cytokines and inflammatory mediators.

  2. Gene expression profiles are different in venous and capillary blood: Implications for vaccine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, D F; O'Connor, D; Blohmke, C J; Sadarangani, M; Pollard, A J

    2016-10-17

    Detailed analysis of the immunological pathways leading to robust vaccine responses has become possible with the application of systems biology, including transcriptomic analysis. Venous blood is usually obtained for such studies but others have obtained capillary blood (e.g. finger-prick). Capillary samples are practically advantageous, especially in children. The aim of this study was to compare gene expression profiles in venous and capillary blood before, 12h and 24h after vaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide or trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines. Gene expression at baseline was markedly different between venous and capillary samples, with 4940 genes differentially expressed, and followed a different pattern of changes after vaccination. At baseline, multiple pathways were upregulated in venous compared to capillary blood, including transforming growth factor-beta receptor signalling and toll-like receptor cascades. After vaccination with the influenza vaccine, there was enrichment for T and NK cell related signatures in capillary blood, and monocyte signatures in venous blood. By contrast, after vaccination with the pneumococcal vaccination, there was enrichment of dendritic cells, monocytes and interferon related signatures in capillary blood, whilst at 24h there was enrichment for T and NK cell related signatures in venous blood. These data show differences between venous and capillary gene expression both at baseline, and post vaccination, which may impact on the conclusions regarding immunological mechanisms drawn from studies using these different sampling methodologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Extracts from Different Parts of Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Tanaka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  4. Stem profile description in plantations for different species using artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Pizziôlo Furtado Campos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the ability of an artificial neural network (ANN to describe the stem profile of trees of different genera and species in different growing conditions. For comparative purposes, equations were fit, using regression analysis to describe the stem profile. For neural network as well as for the regression equations, evaluation of accuracy was based on correlation coefficient between observed and estimated diameters along the stem, square root of the mean square percentage error (RMSE and graphical analysis. Artificial intelligence methods, especially ANN, can be effective in describing trees bole profile of different species in different growth conditions using only one ANN with similar efficiency as regression models traditionally employed by forestry companies.

  5. Online self-study of chest X-rays shows no difference between blocked and mixed practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rupal; Sibbald, Matthew; Jaffer, Nasir; Probyn, Linda; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2016-05-01

    Chest radiograph interpretation is a complex skill and learners may benefit from deliberate instructional design modalities, such as mixed practice. Proposed benefits of mixed over blocked practice include the elimination of cueing and the highlighting of contrasting features. However, current evidence for the superiority of mixed practice is conflicting. This study compares mixed versus blocked practice, after the initial teaching of concepts, among medical students using online self-study chest X-ray (CXR) modules. Two online CXR modules were developed that cover identical content but differ in the organisation of practice images. Blocked modules provided practice CXRs after each category, whereas mixed modules randomly ordered practice radiographs after all categories had been taught. Medical students in Years 1-3 were randomised to either module and were tested on 20 new CXRs immediately after completion and at 2 weeks. The primary outcome was immediate diagnostic accuracy. Secondary outcomes included diagnostic accuracy at 2 weeks, time per module and reported module difficulty. A total of 58 medical students participated (32 in the blocked and 26 in the mixed module). Level of training and previous CXR experience were similar across the groups. Totals of 1160 and 1120 answers were evaluated for immediate and 2 week post-test scores, respectively. There were no significant differences in mean diagnostic accuracy between the blocked (mean score: 11.7/20) and mixed (mean score: 11.0/20) practice groups on immediate testing (t = 0.83, d.f. = 56, p = 0.41) or at 2 weeks (mean score: 11.2/20 versus 10.9/20; t = 0.518, d.f. = 54, p = 0.61). Post-test scores showed no correlation with training level (R = 0.23, p = 0.09) or completion time (R = -0.09, p = 0.5). Reported module difficulty was similar between the mixed (3.22/5) and blocked (3.19/5) groups. On multivariable linear regression controlling for completion time, training level and CXR experience, between

  6. Transcriptome profiling in conifers and the PiceaGenExpress database show patterns of diversification within gene families and interspecific conservation in vascular gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raherison Elie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conifers have very large genomes (13 to 30 Gigabases that are mostly uncharacterized although extensive cDNA resources have recently become available. This report presents a global overview of transcriptome variation in a conifer tree and documents conservation and diversity of gene expression patterns among major vegetative tissues. Results An oligonucleotide microarray was developed from Picea glauca and P. sitchensis cDNA datasets. It represents 23,853 unique genes and was shown to be suitable for transcriptome profiling in several species. A comparison of secondary xylem and phelloderm tissues showed that preferential expression in these vascular tissues was highly conserved among Picea spp. RNA-Sequencing strongly confirmed tissue preferential expression and provided a robust validation of the microarray design. A small database of transcription profiles called PiceaGenExpress was developed from over 150 hybridizations spanning eight major tissue types. In total, transcripts were detected for 92% of the genes on the microarray, in at least one tissue. Non-annotated genes were predominantly expressed at low levels in fewer tissues than genes of known or predicted function. Diversity of expression within gene families may be rapidly assessed from PiceaGenExpress. In conifer trees, dehydrins and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA osmotic regulation proteins occur in large gene families compared to angiosperms. Strong contrasts and low diversity was observed in the dehydrin family, while diverse patterns suggested a greater degree of diversification among LEAs. Conclusion Together, the oligonucleotide microarray and the PiceaGenExpress database represent the first resource of this kind for gymnosperm plants. The spruce transcriptome analysis reported here is expected to accelerate genetic studies in the large and important group comprised of conifer trees.

  7. Acclimation to different depths by the marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica: transcriptomic and proteomic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattolo, Emanuela; Gu, Jenny; Bayer, Philipp E.; Mazzuca, Silvia; Serra, Ilia A.; Spadafora, Antonia; Bernardo, Letizia; Natali, Lucia; Cavallini, Andrea; Procaccini, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    For seagrasses, seasonal and daily variations in light and temperature represent the mains factors driving their distribution along the bathymetric cline. Changes in these environmental factors, due to climatic and anthropogenic effects, can compromise their survival. In a framework of conservation and restoration, it becomes crucial to improve our knowledge about the physiological plasticity of seagrass species along environmental gradients. Here, we aimed to identify differences in transcriptomic and proteomic profiles, involved in the acclimation along the depth gradient in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, and to improve the available molecular resources in this species, which is an important requisite for the application of eco-genomic approaches. To do that, from plant growing in shallow (−5 m) and deep (−25 m) portions of a single meadow, (i) we generated two reciprocal Expressed Sequences Tags (EST) libraries using a Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) approach, to obtain depth/specific transcriptional profiles, and (ii) we identified proteins differentially expressed, using the highly innovative USIS mass spectrometry methodology, coupled with 1D-SDS electrophoresis and labeling free approach. Mass spectra were searched in the open source Global Proteome Machine (GPM) engine against plant databases and with the X!Tandem algorithm against a local database. Transcriptional analysis showed both quantitative and qualitative differences between depths. EST libraries had only the 3% of transcripts in common. A total of 315 peptides belonging to 64 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. ATP synthase subunits were among the most abundant proteins in both conditions. Both approaches identified genes and proteins in pathways related to energy metabolism, transport and genetic information processing, that appear to be the most involved in depth acclimation in P. oceanica. Their putative rules in acclimation to depth were discussed. PMID:23785376

  8. Gene and protein expression profiles of Shewanella oneidensis during anaerobic growth with different electron acceptors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliaev, A. S.; Thompson, D. K.; Khare, T.; Lim, H.; Brandt, C. C.; Li, G.; Murray, A. E.; Heidelberg, J. F.; Giometti, C. S.; Yates, J., III; Nealson, K. H.; Tiedje, J. M.; Zhou, J.; Biosciences Division; ORNL; Scripps Research Inst.; Michigan State Univ.; The Inst. for Genomic Research; Jet Propulsion Laboratory; California Inst. of Tech.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in mRNA and protein expression profiles of Shewanella oneidenesis MR-1 during switch from aerobic to fumarate-, Fe(III)-, or nitrate-reducing conditions were examined using DNA microarrays and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). In response to changes in growth conditions, 121 of the 691 arrayed genes displayed at least a two-fold difference in transcript abundance as determined by microarray analysis. Genes involved in aerobic respiration encoding cytochrome c and d oxidases and TCA cycle enzymes were repressed under anaerobic conditions. Genes induced during anaerobic respiration included those involved in cofactor biosynthesis and assembly (moaACE, ccmHF, nosD, cysG), substrate transport (cysUP, cysTWA, dcuB), and anaerobic energy metabolism (dmsAB, psrC, pshA, hyaABC, hydA). Transcription of genes encoding a periplasmic nitrate reductase (napBHGA), cytochrome c{sub 552}, and prismane was elevated 8- to 56-fold in response to the presence of nitrate, while cymA, ifcA, and frdA were specifically induced three- to eightfold under fumarate-reducing conditions. The mRNA levels for two oxidoreductase-like genes of unknown function and several cell envelope genes involved in multidrug resistance increased two- to fivefold specifically under Fe(III)-reducing conditions. Analysis of protein expression profiles under aerobic and anaerobic conditions revealed 14 protein spots that showed significant differences in abundance on 2-D gels. Protein identification by mass spectrometry indicated that the expression of prismane, dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase, and alcaligin siderophore biosynthesis protein correlated with the microarray data.

  9. Acclimation to different depths by the marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica: transcriptomic and proteomic profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eDattolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For seagrasses, seasonal and daily variations in light and temperature represent the mains factors driving their distribution along the bathymetric cline. Changes in these environmental factors, due to climatic and anthropogenic effects, can compromise their survival. In a framework of conservation and restoration, it becomes crucial to improve our knowledge about the physiological plasticity of seagrass species along environmental gradients. Here, we aimed to identify differences in transcriptomic and proteomic profiles, involved in the acclimation along the depth gradient in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, and to improve the available molecular resources in this species, which is an important requisite for the application of eco-genomic approaches. To do that, from plant growing in the shallow (-5m and a deep (-25m portions of a single meadow, (i we generated two reciprocal EST (Expressed Sequences Tags libraries using a Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH approach, to obtain depth/specific transcriptional profiles, and (ii we identified proteins differentially expressed, using the highly innovative USIS mass spectrometry methodology, coupled with 1D-SDS electrophoresis and labeling free approach. Mass spectra were searched in the open source Global Proteome Machine (GPM engine against plant databases and with the X!Tandem algorithm against a local database. Transcriptional analysis showed both quantitative and qualitative differences between depths. EST libraries had only the 3% of transcripts in common. A total of 315 peptides belonging to 64 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. ATP synthase subunits were among the most abundant proteins in both conditions. Both approaches identified genes and proteins in pathways related to energy metabolism, transport and genetic information processing, that appear o be the most involved in depth acclimation in P. oceanica. Their putative rules in acclimation to depth were discussed.

  10. Pea fiber and wheat bran fiber show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as investigated by a 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmang Liu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of pea fiber (PF and wheat bran fiber (WF supplementation in rat metabolism. Rats were assigned randomly to one of three dietary groups and were given a basal diet containing 15% PF, 15% WF, or no supplemental fiber. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. PF significantly increased the plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and myo-inositol as well as the urine levels of alanine, hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetyglycine, and α-ketoglutarate. However, PF significantly decreased the plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, lactate, and pyruvate as well as the urine levels of allantoin, bile acids, and trigonelline. WF significantly increased the plasma levels of acetone, isobutyrate, lactate, myo-inositol, and lipids as well as the urine levels of alanine, lactate, dimethylglycine, N-methylniconamide, and α-ketoglutarate. However, WF significantly decreased the plasma levels of amino acids, and glucose as well as the urine levels of acetate, allantoin, citrate, creatine, hippurate, hydroxyphenylacetate, and trigonelline. Results suggest that PF and WF exposure can promote antioxidant activity and can exhibit common systemic metabolic changes, including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, glycogenolysis and glycolysis metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and gut microbiota metabolism. PF can also decrease bile acid metabolism. These findings indicate that different fiber diet may cause differences in the biofluid profile in rats.

  11. Clock gene expression in human and mouse hepatic models shows similar periodicity but different dynamics of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Rubino, Rosa; Tiberio, Cristiana; Giuliani, Francesco; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Oben, Jude; De Cata, Angelo; Tarquini, Roberto; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Liu, Shu; Cai, Yanning

    2016-01-01

    The biological hard-wiring of 24-hour rhythmicity relies on the circadian clock circuitry, made of peripheral oscillators operated by molecular clockworks and synchronized through humoral and neural outputs by central oscillators located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei. Metabolically active tissues, such as the liver, are entrained also by local cues represented by metabolic flux related to feeding. The mechanics of the molecular clockwork have been explored by studies using cell lines and wild type or genetically engineered mouse models. There is a compelling need to reduce the use of animals in experimental settings. The aim of our study was to evaluate the periodicity and dynamics of functioning of the hepatic clock gene machinery in human and mouse hepatic models. We compared the results obtained in human hepatoma cells (HepG2 cells) and in mouse liver, and a significant 24-hour rhythmic component was found for five clock genes in the HepG2 cells (Bmal1, Cry1, Per1, Per2, NR1D1) and for six clock genes in the mouse liver (Bmal1, Clock, Cry1, Per1, Per2, NR1D1). The amplitude of oscillation rendered by the cosine curve and the dynamics of expression rendered by the rate of change (the derivative of gene expression level with respect to time) were greater in the mouse liver than in the HepG2 cells for Bmal1, Per1, Per2 and NR1D1, and the cosine curve phase was different for many of them. In conclusion, the periodicity of expression of the clock genes showed similar patterns when the two experimental models were compared, whereas the dynamics of transcription in human hepatoma cells cultured in vitro were less vigorous and phased in a different way when compared to mouse hepatic tissue. The results support the reliability of the human hepatic in vitro model as an alternative to animal models only to study the periodicity of function of the molecular clockwork, but not to evaluate the dynamics of clock gene expression.

  12. Sex Differences in Nucleus Accumbens Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Susceptibility versus Resilience to Subchronic Variable Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Georgia E; Pfau, Madeline L; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Ahn, H Francisca; Golden, Sam A; Christoffel, Daniel J; Magida, Jane; Brancato, Anna; Takahashi, Aki; Flanigan, Meghan E; Ménard, Caroline; Aleyasin, Hossein; Koo, Ja Wook; Lorsch, Zachary S; Feng, Jian; Heshmati, Mitra; Wang, Minghui; Turecki, Gustavo; Neve, Rachel; Zhang, Bin; Shen, Li; Nestler, Eric J; Russo, Scott J

    2015-12-16

    Depression and anxiety disorders are more prevalent in females, but the majority of research in animal models, the first step in finding new treatments, has focused predominantly on males. Here we report that exposure to subchronic variable stress (SCVS) induces depression-associated behaviors in female mice, whereas males are resilient as they do not develop these behavioral abnormalities. In concert with these different behavioral responses, transcriptional analysis of nucleus accumbens (NAc), a major brain reward region, by use of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed markedly different patterns of stress regulation of gene expression between the sexes. Among the genes displaying sex differences was DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a), which shows a greater induction in females after SCVS. Interestingly, Dnmt3a expression levels were increased in the NAc of depressed humans, an effect seen in both males and females. Local overexpression of Dnmt3a in NAc rendered male mice more susceptible to SCVS, whereas Dnmt3a knock-out in this region rendered females more resilient, directly implicating this gene in stress responses. Associated with this enhanced resilience of female mice upon NAc knock-out of Dnmt3a was a partial shift of the NAc female transcriptome toward the male pattern after SCVS. These data indicate that males and females undergo different patterns of transcriptional regulation in response to stress and that a DNA methyltransferase in NAc contributes to sex differences in stress vulnerability. Women have a higher incidence of depression than men. However, preclinical models, the first step in developing new diagnostics and therapeutics, have been performed mainly on male subjects. Using a stress-based animal model of depression that causes behavioral effects in females but not males, we demonstrate a sex-specific transcriptional profile in brain reward circuitry. This transcriptional profile can be altered by removal of an epigenetic mechanism, which

  13. A Subgroup of First-Degree Relatives of Crohn's Disease Patients Shows a Profile of Inflammatory Markers in the Blood Which is More Typical of Crohn's Disease Patients Than of Normal Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family member with IBD is the greatest risk factor for developing the disease. The hematological profileof first-degree relatives (FDRs of Crohn's disease (CD patients was studied in order to identify healthy FDRs at risk to develop disease. Materials and methods. Thirty CD patients, 90 FDRs, and 28 non-related individuals (controls were enrolled. Hematological profile and C-reactive protein were determined. Results. All hematological parameters were significantly different in CD patients compared to controls, with significantly higher levels of CRP, WBC, PMN, MONO, and PLT and lower Hb and lymphocyte count. The hematological profile of FDRs showed values between the controls and CD patients with ten FDRs that their parameters matched those of CD patients and significantly different from other FDRs. This group was defined as high-risk relatives (HRRs. Conclusions. Analysis of the hematological profile and CRP level might be proven as a fast, reliable, and less money-consuming tool to identify FDRs with a probable increased risk to develop the disease.

  14. Influence of Different Fermentation Strategies on the Phenolic Profile of Bilberry Wine (Vaccinium myrtillus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Annika; Weber, Fabian

    2017-08-30

    Polyphenol rich and especially anthocyanin rich berries like bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and derived products such as wine have enjoyed increasing popularity. During winemaking and aging, the phenolic profile undergoes distinct changes, a phenomenon that has been well investigated in grape wine but not in bilberry wine. The present study determined the influence of different fermentation strategies including various pre- and postfermentative heating and cooling concepts on the phenolic profile of bilberry wine. Besides significant differences in total anthocyanin and tannin concentrations, the different fermentation strategies resulted in distinguishable anthocyanin profiles. A very fast aging manifested by a rapid decrease in monomeric anthocyanins of up to 98% during a 12 week storage and a coincident formation of polymeric pigments and pyranoanthocyanins was observed. Several well-known processes associated with production and aging of wine were much more pronounced in bilberry wine compared to grape wine.

  15. Motor units in vastus lateralis and in different vastus medialis regions show different firing properties during low-level, isometric knee extension contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Leonardo Mendes Leal; Cabral, Hélio Veiga; de Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes; Vieira, Taian Martins

    2017-12-28

    Architectural differences along vastus medialis (VM) and between VM and vastus lateralis (VL) are considered functionally important for the patellar tracking, knee joint stability and knee joint extension. Whether these functional differences are associated with a differential activity of motor units between VM and VL is however unknown. In the present study, we, therefore, investigate neuroanatomical differences in the activity of motor units detected proximo-distally from VM and from the VL muscle. Nine healthy volunteers performed low-level isometric knee extension contractions (20% of their maximum voluntary contraction) following a trapezoidal trajectory. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from VM proximal and distal regions and from VL using three linear adhesive arrays of eight electrodes. The firing rate and recruitment threshold of motor units decomposed from EMGs were then compared among muscle regions. Results show that VL motor units reached lower mean firing rates in comparison with VM motor units, regardless of their position within VM (P motor units (P = .997). Furthermore, no significant differences in the recruitment threshold were observed for all motor units analysed (P = .108). Our findings possibly suggest the greater potential of VL to generate force, due to its fibres arrangement, may account for the lower discharge rate observed for VL then either proximally or distally detected motor units in VM. Additionally, the present study opens new perspectives on the importance of considering muscle architecture in investigations of the neural aspects of motor behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The metabolites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed greater differences between patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls than those in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Han, Ji Yun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-03-01

    To determine differences between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the plasma metabolites in patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. In all, 65 nononobese patients (aged 30-70 years) with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and 65 nonobese sex-matched healthy controls were included, and fasting peripheral blood mononuclear cell and plasma metabolomes were profiled. The diabetic or impaired fasting glucose patients showed higher circulating and peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α than controls. Compared with controls, impaired fasting glucose or diabetic subjects showed increases in 11 peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolites: six amino acids (valine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan), l-pyroglutamic acid, two fatty acid amides containing palmitic amide and oleamide and two lysophosphatidylcholines. In impaired fasting glucose or diabetic patients, peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 positively associated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysophosphatidylcholines and circulating inflammatory markers, including tumour necrosis factor-α, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities. In plasma metabolites between patients and healthy controls, we observed significant increases in only three amino acids (proline, valine and leucine) and decreases in only five lysophosphatidylcholines. This study demonstrates significant differences in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolome in patients with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes compared with healthy controls. These differences were greater than those observed in the plasma metabolome. These data suggest peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a useful tool to better understand the inflammatory pathophysiology of diabetes.

  17. Different apathy clinical profile and neural correlates in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Matarrubia, Marta; Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Cabrera-Martín, María Nieves; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Valles-Salgado, María; Carreras, José Luis; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2017-02-27

    Apathy is one of the most common and disabling syndromes of dementia. Clinical apathy expression and neuroanatomical basis of apathy seem to differ between behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), although evidence is scarce and poorly understood. Our main purposes were to compare the clinical apathy profile from patients with bvFTD and AD and analyze the relationship between apathy and brain metabolism measured using positron emission tomography imaging with (18) F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET). Forty-two bvFTD, 42 AD, and 30 healthy volunteers without cognitive or behavioral complaints were included. Apathy was defined using Robert's 2009 diagnostic criteria, and specific apathy characteristics were assessed with the Lille Apathy Rating Scale. All participants underwent FDG-PET brain scan to provide data for voxel-based morphometric analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that subjects affected by bvFTD displayed greater impairment of emotional apathy and self-awareness in comparison with AD sample. Additionally, FDG-PET imaging analyses revealed that apathy was associated with different neuroanatomical substrates in each dementia group: left lateral prefrontal, medial frontal/anterior cingulate, lateral orbitofrontal and anterior insular cortices in bvFTD, and right anterior cingulate in AD. These results support that apathy is a complex syndrome, with different clinical expressions across different pathological conditions. Those differences in qualitative aspects of apathy seem to be associated with differences in the damage sites, as shown by our FDG-PET imaging analysis. Our findings provide a better knowledge about pathophysiology of apathy in dementia, which could have practical implications for therapeutic management. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. REAL-TIME STABILITY AND PROFILE COMPARISON MEASUREMENTS BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT LTPS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    QIAN, S.; WANG, D.J.

    2005-07-31

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is a precise angle measurement instrument, with a sensitivity and accuracy that can be in the sub-micron radian range. LTP characteristics depend on the particular LTP system schematic design, and the quality of components and assembly. The conditions of temperature, alignment, and mirror support during the measurement process vary between different laboratories, which influences significantly the test repeatability and accuracy. In this paper we introduce a direct comparison method to test the same object at the same point in the same environment at the same time by using two LTPs, which significantly increases the reliability of the comparison. A compact, portable LTP (PTLTP), which can be carried to different laboratories around the world, is used for comparison testing. Stability Comparison experiments between the LTP II at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), and the PTLTP of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) reveal significant differences in performance between the instruments. The experiment is set up so that each optical head simultaneously records both its own sample probe beam and also the probe beam from the other optical head. The two probe beams are reflected from same point on the mirror. Tests show that the stability of the PTLTP with a monolithic beam splitter is 10 times better than the stability of the LTP II which has a separated beam splitter unit. A scheme for comparing scanning measurements of a mirror is introduced. Experimental results show a significant difference between the two LTPs due mainly to distortions in the optical components inside the optical head. A new scheme is proposed for further mirror comparison scanning tests.

  19. Leaf metabolite profile of the Brazilian resurrection plant Barbacenia purpurea Hook. (Velloziaceae shows two time-dependent responses during desiccation and recovering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fuentes Suguiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Barbacenia purpurea is a resurrection species endemic to rock outcrops, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It tolerates great temperature variations, which are associated to periods of up to 30 days without precipitation. Using a metabolomic approach, we analyzed, under winter and summer conditions, changes in the leaf metabolite profile (MP of potted plants of B. purpurea submitted to daily watered and water deficit for at least 20 days and subsequent slow rehydration for 5 days. Leaves were collected at different time points and had their MP analyzed by GC/MS, HPAEC, and UHPLC techniques, allowing the identification of more than 60 different compounds, including organic and amino acids, sugars, and polyols, among others. In the winter experiment, results suggest the presence of two time-dependent responses in B. purpurea under water stress. The first one starts with the increase in the content of caffeoyl-quinic acids, substances with strong antioxidant activity, until the 16th day of water suppression. When RWC reached less than 80% and 70%, in winter and summer respectively, it was observed an increase in polyols and monosaccharides, followed by an increment in the content of RFO, suggesting osmotic adjustment. Amino acids, such as GABA and asparagine, also increased due to 16 days of water suppression. During rehydration, the levels of the mentioned compounds became similar to those found at the beginning of the experiment and when compared to daily watered plants. We conclude that the tolerance of B. purpurea to dehydration involves the perception of water deficit intensity, which seems to result in different strategies to overcome the gradient of water availability imposed along a certain period of stress mainly during winter. Data from summer experiment indicate that the metabolism of B. pupurea was already primed for drought stress. The accumulation of phenolics in summer seemed to be more temperature and irradiance-dependent than on the RWC.

  20. Effects of high-fat diets from different sources on serum and thymus lipid profile: study in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carolina; Perris, Paula D; Fernandez, Ines; Godoy, Maria F; Mambrin, Cecilia; Slobodianik, Nora H; Feliu, Maria S

    2014-01-01

    A balanced diet is important to maintain an optimal health status and to prevent noncommunicable chronic diseases. The principal objective of this study was to analyze the effect of diets containing high fat levels from different sources, on serum and thymus lipid profile, in adult rats. Experimental diets contained 50% kcal of fat, provided by butter (B) or sunflower oil (S); control diet (C) was isocaloric, with 15 kcal of fat per 100 total kcal, provided by soy oil. Diets were otherwise complete in all nutrients and were administered for 40 days. Group B had higher levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides than C; S serum lipid profile did not differ from C, despite the higher fat content. Regarding serum and thymus FA profile, B showed an increase of saturated fatty acids and lower levels of ω6 and ω3 FA, and S had lower levels of ω3 fatty acids. The administration of high-fat diets, during 40 days to adult rats, provoked specific variations on serum and thymus fatty acids, as a consequence of differences in FA profile of their lipid sources. These results reflect the impact that eating habits have on health status. It is important to put emphasis not only on the reduction of total fat intake, but also on choosing healthy sources of fat, replacing saturated fatty acids by polyunsaturated and including oils with higher content of ω3 to keep a balanced ω6/ω3 ratio.

  1. Differences in faecal profiles of porphyrins among river otters exposed to the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blajeski, A; Duffy, L K; Bowyer, R T

    1996-01-01

    Abstract River otters (Lutra canadensis) living in marine environments of Prince William Sound, Alaska, exposed to crude oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in March 1989, showed significantly elevated levels of faecal porphyrin over those of otters from non-oiled areas (oiled mean = 48.2, andnon-oiled mean = 34.5 nmol g(-1) dry faeces). Profiles of uro-, hepta-, hexa-, penta-, copro-, andprotoporphyrin profiles were qualitatively characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography. These findings suggest that river otters may serve as a suitable indicator species in which porphyrin profiles can be used to monitor the effects of marine andfreshwater crude oil exposure. Also, this is the first model showing the effects of an oil spill on porphyrins on a free-ranging mammal using a non-lethal methodology. These effects were detectable 1 year after the spill andfollowing a major effort to clean oil from the shorelines of Prince William Sound.

  2. Hormone and Metabolite Profiles in Nesting Green and Flatback Turtles: Turtle Species with Different Life Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Ikonomopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous turtle, Chelonia mydas, inhabiting the south China Sea and breeding in Peninsular Malaysia, and Natator depressus, a carnivorous turtle inhabiting the Great Barrier Reef and breeding at Curtis Island in Queensland, Australia, differ both in diet and life history. Analysis of plasma metabolites levels and six sex steroid hormones during the peak of their nesting season in both species showed hormonal and metabolite variations. When compared with results from other studies progesterone levels were the highest whereas dihydrotestosterone was the plasma steroid hormone present at the lowest concentration in both C. mydas and N. depressus plasma. Interestingly, oestrone was observed at relatively high concentrations in comparison to oestradiol levels recorded in previous studies suggesting that it plays a significant role in nesting turtles. Also, hormonal correlations between the studied species indicate unique physiological interactions during nesting. Pearson correlation analysis showed that in N. depressus the time of oviposition was associated with elevations in both plasma corticosterone and oestrone levels. Therefore, we conclude that corticosterone and oestrone may influence nesting behaviour and physiology in N. depressus. To summarise, these two nesting turtle species can be distinguished based on the hormonal profile of oestrone, progesterone, and testosterone using discriminant analysis.

  3. Investigation of Phenolic Profiles, Cytotoxic Potential and Phytochemical Screening of Different Extracts of Drynaria quercifolia J. Smith (Leaves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runa, Jannatul Ferdous; Hossain, Marjan; Hasanuzzaman, Md; Ali, Md Ramjan

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to evaluate phenolic profiles, cytotoxic activity and phytochemical screening of different extracts of Drynaria quercifolia leaves. The dried and powder leaves were extracted with methanol at room temperature and the concentrated methanolic extract was fractionated by the modified Kupchan partitioning method to provide pet-ether, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble fractions. Phenolic profiles were determined by using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, which results were expressed in gallic acid equivalent (mg of GAE/g of sample). Phytochemical properties of different extractives of plant materials were tested by the method of Trease and Evans. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic potential of D. quercifolia. The phytochemical screening revealed the potent source of different phytochemical constituents on different extractives including alkaloid, glycosides, tannin, saponins, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids, triterpenes, phenols, phytosterols and carbohydrate. In the determination of phenolic profiles, different extractives showed a significant content of phenolic compounds ranging from 103.43 -132.23 mg of GAE/g of extractive. Compared to vincristine sulfate different extractives of plant materials demonstrated moderate cytotoxic potential (having LC50 of 12.45 μg/ml, 13.02 μg/ml 15.83 μg/ml, 14.95 μg/ml and 7.612 μg/ml, respectively). It is concluded from this study that D. quercifolia is an excellent source of phenolic content and phytoconstitutes as well as possesses moderate cytotoxic activity.

  4. Metabolic profiling reveals metabolic shifts in Arabidopsis plants grown under different light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänkänpää, Hanna Johansson; Mishra, Yogesh; Schröder, Wolfgang P; Jansson, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    Plants have tremendous capacity to adjust their morphology, physiology and metabolism in response to changes in growing conditions. Thus, analysis solely of plants grown under constant conditions may give partial or misleading indications of their responses to the fluctuating natural conditions in which they evolved. To obtain data on growth condition-dependent differences in metabolite levels, we compared leaf metabolite profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana growing under three constant laboratory light conditions: 30 [low light (LL)], 300 [normal light (NL)] and 600 [high light (HL)]µmol photons m(-2) s(-1). We also shifted plants to the field and followed their metabolite composition for 3 d. Numerous compounds showed light intensity-dependent accumulation, including: many sugars and sugar derivatives (fructose, sucrose, glucose, galactose and raffinose); tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates; and amino acids (ca. 30% of which were more abundant under HL and 60% under LL). However, the patterns differed after shifting NL plants to field conditions. Levels of most identified metabolites (mainly amino acids, sugars and TCA cycle intermediates) rose after 2 h and peaked after 73 h, indicative of a 'biphasic response' and 'circadian' effects. The results provide new insight into metabolomic level mechanisms of plant acclimation, and highlight the role of known protectants under natural conditions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The meaning profiles of anxiety and depression: similarities and differences in two age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Shulamith

    2017-04-25

    The distinctiveness of anxiety and depression is discussed concerning their nature, definitions, uses, manifestations and determinants. The objective was to examine the difference and similarity of anxiety and depression by applying the psychosemantic approach, which is a theory and methodology based on analysing the cognitive processes applied in communicating meanings. In Study 1, there were 760 participants of both genders, 23-31 years old. They were administered the Meanings Test, which yields the respondent's meaning profile, and one of seven anxiety scales or one of three depression scales. Significant correlations between the meaning profiles and the anxiety or depression scales were summarised and compared. In Study 2, there were 78 individuals over 65 years old who were administered the Meanings Test plus an anxiety or depression scale. The findings for anxiety and depression were compared within and across age groups. The results yielded two distinct meaning profiles for anxiety and depression in the two age groups. The anxiety profile indicated more focusing on one's internal world. whereas the depression profile indicated focusing both on the personal and the interpersonally shared reality. The conclusion was that anxiety and depression are different constructs that need to be considered as separate theoretically and practically.

  6. Evaluation and comparison of in-vitro dissolution profiles for different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    However, the presences of generic products those are not interchangeable with that of the innovator and/or with each others have been reported. Objective: To evaluate and compare the in-vitro dissolution profiles of different generic brands of amoxicillin capsules with the innovator that are available in Ethiopian market.

  7. Police Attitudes toward Policing Partner Violence against Women: Do They Correspond to Different Psychosocial Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…

  8. Examining Early Literacy Skill Differences among Children in Head Start via Latent Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwalk, Kate E.; DiPerna, James C.; Lei, Pui-wa; Wu, Qiong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there are systematic differences in literacy skills among children from less-advantaged households, using latent profile analysis. Early reading skills were measured using the Early Arithmetic, Reading, and Learning Indicators (EARLI; DiPerna, Morgan, & Lei, 2007) literacy tasks.…

  9. Differences between Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of Education: Profiles to Describe Congruence and Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könings, Karen D.; Seidel, Tina; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and students have their own perceptions of education. Congruent perceptions contribute to optimal teaching-learning processes and help achieving best learning outcomes. This study investigated patterns in differences between students' and teachers' perceptions of their learning environment. Student profiles were identified taking into…

  10. Contrasting life history responses to fish released infochemicals of two co-occurring Daphnia species that show different migration behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, J.; Doksaeter, A.; Van Donk, E.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous field study (Flik & Vijverberg 2003) we showed that in an oligotrophic-mesotrophic lake in the Netherlands (L. Maarsseveen) two co-occurring Daphnia species, Daphnia pulicaria and Daphnia galeata × hyalina performed distinct vertical migration behaviour during summer which is induced

  11. Determination of rare earth elements concentration at different depth profile of Precambrian pegmatites using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq Aliyu, Abubakar; Musa, Yahaya; Liman, M S; Abba, Habu T; Chaanda, Mohammed S; Ngene, Nnamani C; Garba, N N

    2018-01-01

    The Keffi area hosts abundant pegmatite bodies as a result of the surrounding granitic intrusions. Keffi is part of areas that are geologically classified as North Central Basement Complex. Data on the mineralogy and mineralogical zonation of the Keffi pegmatite are scanty. Hence the need to understand the geology and mineralogical zonation of Keffi pegmatites especially at different depth profiles is relevant as a study of the elemental composition of the pegmatite is essential for the estimation of its economic viability. Here, the relative standardization method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used to investigate the vertical deviations of the elemental concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) at different depth profile of Keffi pegmatite. This study adopted the following metrics in investigating the vertical variations of REEs concentrations. Namely, the total contents of rare earth elements (∑REE); ratio of light to heavy rare earth elements (LREE/HREE), which defines the enrichment or depletion of REEs; europium anomaly (Eu/Sm); La/Lu ratio relative to chondritic meteorites. The study showed no significant variations in the total content of rare elements between the vertical depth profiles (100-250m). However, higher total concentrations of REEs (~ 92.65ppm) were recorded at the upper depth of the pegmatite and the europium anomaly was consistently negative at all the depth profiles suggesting that the Keffi pegmatite is enriched with light REEs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aqueous and lipid nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomic profiles of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa show potential as an indicator species for environmental metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey N; Samuelsson, Linda; Bernardi, Giuliana; Gooneratne, Ravi; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2014-10-01

    The common pasture earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa has often been neglected in environmental metabolomics in favor of species easily bred in the laboratory. The present study assigns aqueous metabolites in A. caliginosa using high-resolution 1- and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In total, 51 aqueous metabolites were identified, including typical amino acids (alanine, leucine, asparagine, phenylalanine), sugars (maltose, glucose), the dominant earthworm-specific 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-furansulfonate, and several previously unreported metabolites (oxoglutarate, putrescine). Examining the lesser-known earthworm lipid metabolome showed various lipid fatty acyl chains, cholesterol, and phosphatidylcholine. To briefly test if the NMR metabolomic techniques could differentiate A. caliginosa from different sites, earthworms were collected from 2 adjacent farms. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis detected metabolomic differences, suggesting the worms from the 2 sites differed in their energy metabolism, as indicated by altered levels of alanine, glutamine, glutamate, malate, fumarate, and lipids. Evidence of greater utilization of lipid energy reserves and onset of protein catabolism was also present. While the precise cause of the metabolomic differences could not be determined, the results show the potential of this species for further environmental metabolomic studies. © 2014 SETAC.

  13. Changes in ?B-crystallin, tubulin, and MHC isoforms by hindlimb unloading show different expression patterns in various hindlimb muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Jee, Hyunseok; Sakurai, Takashi; Lim, Jae-Young; Hatta, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] ?B-crystallin is a small heat shock protein that acts as a molecular chaperone under various stress conditions. Microtubules, which consist of tubulin, are related to maintain the intracellular organelles and cellular morphology. These two proteins have been shown to be related to the properties of different types of myofibers based on their contractile properties. The response of these proteins during muscular atrophy, which induces a myofibril component change, is not clearly unde...

  14. Motivational Profiles and Differences in Affective,Motivational and Achievement Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO ANTONIO GONZÁLEZ PIENDA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to identify whether there are combinations of multiple goals that lead to different motivational profiles. The sample is made up of 1924 university students. By means of cluster analysis, six motivational profiles were identified. The results indicate that the motivationalprofile that comprises students who are motivated to learn, but also to achieve better results that the rest and to avoid making a bad impression on them are the students who report better academic achievement and also the students who believe they have a higher level of knowledge in the academic subjects they are studying. However, students with a learning oriented motivational profile value the tasks more, have more control over their learning process, and have lower levels of anxiety.

  15. Distinct Coping Profiles Are Associated With Mental Health Differences in Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Rebecca; Ott, Miles Q; Rood, Brian A; Reisner, Sari L; Pantalone, David W

    2017-06-13

    This study assessed the unique coping strategies of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals in the United States used to manage gender-related stress, and examined associations between specific coping profiles and mental health. Data were from 316 participants in the 2014-2015 Transgender Stress and Health Study, an online study of TGNC mental and sexual health. A factor analysis of the coping measure (Brief COPE) was followed by a k-means cluster analysis to evaluate distinct profiles of coping with gender-related stress. Proportional odds models and logistic regression models indicated how coping profiles related to levels of self-reported depressive symptoms and suicidality. A 4-factor structure was identified with three distinct profiles of coping with gender-related stress, each representative of the frequency (high or low) in which participants used functional and dysfunctional coping strategies: (a) high-functional/low-dysfunctional, (b) high-functional/high-dysfunctional, and (c) low-functional/low-dysfunctional. There were significant differences in depressive symptoms and suicidality based on distinct gender-related coping profiles. The high-functional/high-dysfunctional group reported significantly poorer mental health compared with the high-functional/low-dysfunctional group. To improve mental health outcomes in TGNC individuals, health providers and researchers should strive to not only promote functional coping strategies for managing gender-related stress but also decrease dysfunctional coping strategies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis shows different epidemiology of chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-carrying Clostridium perfringens type A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Lahti

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens, one of the most common causes of food poisonings, can carry the enterotoxin gene, cpe, in its chromosome or on a plasmid. C. perfringens food poisonings are more frequently caused by the chromosomal cpe-carrying strains, while the plasmid-borne cpe-positive genotypes are more commonly found in the human feces and environmental samples. Different tolerance to food processing conditions by the plasmid-borne and chromosomal cpe-carrying strains has been reported, but the reservoirs and contamination routes of enterotoxin-producing C. perfringens remain unknown. A comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis with a DNA microarray based on three C. perfringens type A genomes was conducted to shed light on the epidemiology of C. perfringens food poisonings caused by plasmid-borne and chromosomal cpe-carrying strains by comparing chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-positive and cpe-negative C. perfringens isolates from human, animal, environmental, and food samples. The chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-positive C. perfringens genotypes formed two distinct clusters. Variable genes were involved with myo-inositol, ethanolamine and cellobiose metabolism, suggesting a new epidemiological model for C. perfringens food poisonings. The CGH results were complemented with growth studies, which demonstrated different myo-inositol, ethanolamine, and cellobiose metabolism between the chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-carrying strains. These findings support a ubiquitous occurrence of the plasmid-borne cpe-positive strains and their adaptation to the mammalian intestine, whereas the chromosomal cpe-positive strains appear to have a narrow niche in environments containing degrading plant material. Thus the epidemiology of the food poisonings caused by two populations appears different, the plasmid-borne cpe-positive strains probably contaminating foods via humans and the chromosomal strains being connected to plant material.

  17. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alzahrani, Dunia A; Alrabiah, Deema K; AlYahya, Sami A; Alfadda, Assim A

    2017-03-28

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different (p milk samples. Eighty protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C.

  18. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Alzahrani, Dunia A.; Alrabiah, Deema K.; AlYahya, Sami A.; Alfadda, Assim A.

    2017-01-01

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different (p milk samples. Eighty protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C. PMID:28350354

  19. [Case study shows that the case manager function for cancer patients is used unevenly across the different cancer forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Stein Finne; Bjerrum, Anne; Grønberg, Tanja Le; Thomsen, Pauline; Topp, Charlotte

    2015-06-08

    This case study of the obligatory case manager function for cancer patients explores by whom and for what the function is used. It draws on quantitative data from a database, focus group interviews with case managers at Rigshospitalet and telephone interviews with patients and relatives. The conclusion is that across the different cancer forms patients are using the function unevenly. This can probably be explained by the varying organizational set-ups for patient trajectories across departments. The individual patients and relatives express satisfaction with the information and assistance received from the case managers.

  20. The profile in polyphenols and volatile compounds in alcoholic beverages from different cultivars of mulberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Chen; Jianquan, Kan; Junni, Tang; Zijian, Cai; Ji, Liu

    2012-04-01

    Mulberry fruits have different chemical compositions because of cultivar variation. In this study, polyphenol profile and volatile composition of alcoholic beverages produced from different mulberries of Da 10, Hongguo 2 hao, and Hongguo 1 hao were investigated. Statistically significant differences were detected in the chemical composition of the analyzed alcoholic beverage samples. The beverage of Da 10 possessed the highest content of total phenols, total flavonoids, and total anthocyanins, which was determined by spectrophotometry analysis, contrarily Hongguo 1 hao beverage showing the lowest. Phenolic acids and flavonols were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Protocatechuic acid was the main phenolic acid in all analyzed alcoholic beverage samples, and its concentration ranged from 8.20 mg L⁻¹ (Hongguo 1 hao beverage) to 29.98 mg L⁻¹ (Da 10 beverage). High level of flavonols was found in both Da 10 and Hongguo 2 hao beverage samples, whereas Hongguo 1 hao beverage sample was characterized with lower level of flavonols. Furthermore, volatile compounds were analyzed by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. The amount of esters varied widely among the 3 alcoholic beverage samples. The concentration of aliphatic alcohols in Hongguo 2 hao and 1 hao beverage samples was higher than Da 10 sample, whereas Da 10 beverage sample contained more aromatic alcohols than the others. Hongguo 1 beverage sample showed the highest concentration of acetic acid. This study demonstrated that quantitative differences of phenolic compounds and volatile compounds among cultivars were significant, which highly affected the quality of alcoholic beverage from mulberry. Mulberry fruits had different chemical compositions because of cultivar variation. The analyzed Da 10 cultivar of mulberry appeared to be a good raw material for alcoholic beverage-making because of its high level of total sugar and acidity. This study

  1. Differences in the intellectual profile of children with intellectual vs. learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Giofrè, David; Orsini, Arturo; Pezzuti, Lina

    2014-09-01

    The WISC-IV was used to compare the intellectual profile of two groups of children, one with specific learning disorders (SLDs), the other with intellectual disabilities (ID), with a view to identifying which of the four main factor indexes and two additional indexes can distinguish between the groups. We collected information on WISC-IV scores for 267 children (Mage=10.61 [SD=2.51], range 6-16 years, females=99) with a diagnosis of either SLD or ID. Children with SLD performed better than those with ID in all measures. Only the SLD children, not the ID children, revealed significant differences in the four main factor indexes, and their scores for the additional General Ability Index (GAI) were higher than for the Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI). Children with a diagnosis of SLD whose Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) was <85 showed a similar pattern. Our findings confirm the hypothesis that children with SLD generally obtain high GAI scores, but have specific deficiencies relating to working memory and processing speed, whereas children with ID have a general intellectual impairment. These findings have important diagnostic and clinical implications and should be considered when making diagnostic decisions in borderline cognitive cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. GC-MS Profiling of Volatile Components in Different Fermentation Products of Cordyceps Sinensis Mycelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyang Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation products of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis mycelia are sustainable substitutes for natural C. sinensis. However, the volatile compositions of the commercial products are still unclear. In this paper, we have developed a simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS method for the profiling of volatile components in five fermentation products. A total of 64, 39, 56, 52, and 44 components were identified in the essential oils of Jinshuibao capsule (JSBC, Bailing capsule (BLC, Zhiling capsule (ZLC, Ningxinbao capsule (NXBC, and Xinganbao capsule (XGBC, respectively. 5,6-Dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (massoia lactone was first discovered as the dominant component in JSBC volatiles. Fatty acids including palmitic acid (C16:0 and linoleic acid (C18:2 were also found to be major volatile compositions of the fermentation products. The multivariate partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA showed a clear discrimination among the different commercial products as well as the counterfeits. This study may provide further chemical evidences for the quality evaluation of the fermentation products of C. sinensis mycelia.

  3. Comparison of different ridge formation models of Arctic sea ice with observations from laser profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Torge

    Sea ice deforms under convergent and shear motion, causing rafting and ridging. This results in thicker ice than could be formed by thermodynamic growth only. Three different approaches to simulating the formation of pressure ridges in a dynamic-thermodynamic continuum model are considered. They are compared with and evaluated by airborne laser profiles of the sea-ice surface roughness. The respective characteristic of each of the three ridging schemes is (1) a prognostic equation for deformation energy from which ridge parameters are derived; (2) a redistribution function, shifting ice between two categories, level and ridged, combined with a Monte Carlo simulation for ridge parameters; and (3) prognostic equations for ridge density and height, resulting in the formation of ridged-ice volume. The model results show that the ridge density is typically related to the state of ice motion, whereas the mean sail height is related to the parent ice thickness. In general, all of the three models produce realistic distributions of ridges. Finally, the second ridging scheme is regarded as the most appropriate for climate modelling, while the third scheme has advantages in short-term sea-ice forecasting.

  4. Healthy children show gender differences in correlations between nonverbal cognitive ability and brain activation during visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kohei; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-08-08

    Humans perceive textual and nontextual information in visual perception, and both depend on language. In childhood education, students exhibit diverse perceptual abilities, such that some students process textual information better and some process nontextual information better. These predispositions involve many factors, including cognitive ability and learning preference. However, the relationship between verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during visual perception has not yet been examined in children. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between nonverbal and verbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during nontextual visual perception in large numbers of children. A significant positive correlation was found between nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation in the right temporoparietal junction, which is thought to be related to attention reorienting. This significant positive correlation existed only in boys. These findings suggested that male brain activation differed from female brain activation, and that this depended on individual cognitive processes, even if there was no gender difference in behavioral performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ziploc-ing the structure 2.0: Endoplasmic reticulum-resident peptidyl prolyl isomerases show different activities toward hydroxyproline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Kazunori; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2017-06-02

    Extracellular matrix proteins are biosynthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and the triple-helical protein collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix component in the human body. Many enzymes, molecular chaperones, and post-translational modifiers facilitate collagen biosynthesis. Collagen contains a large number of proline residues, so the cis/trans isomerization of proline peptide bonds is the rate-limiting step during triple-helix formation. Accordingly, the rER-resident peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) play an important role in the zipper-like triple-helix formation in collagen. We previously described this process as "Ziploc-ing the structure" and now provide additional information on the activity of individual rER PPIases. We investigated the substrate preferences of these PPIases in vitro using type III collagen, the unhydroxylated quarter fragment of type III collagen, and synthetic peptides as substrates. We observed changes in activity of six rER-resident PPIases, cyclophilin B (encoded by the PPIB gene), FKBP13 (FKBP2), FKBP19 (FKBP11), FKBP22 (FKBP14), FKBP23 (FKBP7), and FKBP65 (FKBP10), due to posttranslational modifications of proline residues in the substrate. Cyclophilin B and FKBP13 exhibited much lower activity toward post-translationally modified substrates. In contrast, FKBP19, FKBP22, and FKBP65 showed increased activity toward hydroxyproline-containing peptide substrates. Moreover, FKBP22 showed a hydroxyproline-dependent effect by increasing the amount of refolded type III collagen in vitro and FKBP19 seems to interact with triple helical type I collagen. Therefore, we propose that hydroxyproline modulates the rate of Ziploc-ing of the triple helix of collagen in the rER. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Antigen-specific CD4 T cells are induced after intravesical BCG-instillation therapy in patients with bladder cancer and show similar cytokine profiles as in active tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Elsäßer

    Full Text Available Specific T cell immunity in patients with active tuberculosis is associated with a decrease in multifunctionality. However, it is unknown whether cytokine profiles differ in patients with primary infection and those with prior contact. We therefore used intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated live Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG in patients with urothelial carcinoma as a model to characterise the induction of systemic immunity towards purified protein derivate (PPD and to study whether cytokine profiles differ depending on pre-existing immunity. Eighteen patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer were recruited during the BCG-induction course. Fifty-four healthy individuals served as controls. Interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-2 producing PPD-specific CD4 T cells were analysed longitudinally before each instillation using a rapid flow-cytometric whole blood immunoassay. Baseline levels of IFN-γ producing PPD-specific T cells were comparable to controls. T cells showed a 5-fold increase to 0.23% by week 2/3, and further increased 8-fold by week 4/5 (to 0.42%, p=0.0007. Systemic immunity was induced in all patients, although the increase was less pronounced in patients with pre-existing immunity. As in active TB, cytokine profiling during therapy revealed a lower percentage of multifunctional IFN-γ/IL-2 double-positive T cells compared to controls (60.2% vs. 71.9%, p=0.0003. Of note, when comparing patients with and without pre-existing immunity, cytokine profiles in patients with primary immunity were shifted towards IL-2 single producing T cells (p=0.02, whereas those in patients with pre-existing immunity were shifted towards IFN-γ single-positivity (p=0.01. In conclusion, systemic T cell responses were induced after BCG-therapy, and their kinetics and cytokine profile depended on pre-existing immunity. Decreased functionality is a typical feature of specific immunity in both patients with active tuberculosis and BCG

  7. DJ Pairing during VDJ Recombination Shows Positional Biases That Vary among Individuals with Differing IGHD Locus Immunogenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Marie J; Jackson, Katherine J L; Boyd, Scott D; Collins, Andrew M

    2016-02-01

    Human IgH diversity is influenced by biases in the pairing of IGHD and IGHJ genes, but these biases have not been described in detail. We used high-throughput sequencing of VDJ rearrangements to explore DJ pairing biases in 29 individuals. It was possible to infer three contrasting IGHD-IGHJ haplotypes in nine of these individuals, and two of these haplotypes include deletion polymorphisms involving multiple contiguous IGHD genes. Therefore, we were able to explore how the underlying genetic makeup of the H chain locus influences the formation of particular DJ pairs. Analysis of nonproductive rearrangements demonstrates that 3' IGHD genes tend to pair preferentially with 5' IGHJ genes, whereas 5' IGHD genes pair preferentially with 3' IGHJ genes; the relationship between IGHD gene pairing frequencies and IGHD gene position is a near linear one for each IGHJ gene. However, striking differences are seen in individuals who carry deletion polymorphisms in the D locus. The absence of different blocks of IGHD genes leads to increases in the utilization frequencies of just a handful of genes, and these genes have no clear positional relationships to the deleted genes. This suggests that pairing frequencies may be influenced by additional complex positional relationships that perhaps arise from chromatin structure. In contrast to IGHD gene usage, IGHJ gene usage is unaffected by the IGHD gene-deletion polymorphisms. Such an outcome would be expected if the recombinase complex associates with an IGHJ gene before associating with an IGHD gene partner. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. DJ pairing during VDJ recombination shows positional biases that vary between individuals with differing IGHD locus immunogenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Marie J.; Jackson, Katherine J. L.; Boyd, Scott D.; Collins, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin heavy chain diversity is influenced by biases in the pairing of IGHD and IGHJ genes, but these biases have not been described in detail. We have used high throughput sequencing of VDJ rearrangements to explore DJ pairing biases in twenty-nine individuals. It was possible to infer three contrasting IGHD-IGHJ haplotypes in nine of these individuals, and two of these haplotypes include deletion polymorphisms involving multiple contiguous IGHD genes. We were therefore able to explore how the underlying genetic makeup of the heavy chain locus influences the formation of particular DJ pairs. Analysis of non-productive rearrangements demonstrates that 3′ IGHD genes tend to pair preferentially with 5′ IGHJ genes, while 5′ IGHD genes pair preferentially with 3′ IGHJ genes, and the relationship between IGHD gene pairing frequencies and IGHD gene position is a near linear one for each IGHJ gene. Striking differences are seen, however, in individuals who carry deletion polymorphisms in the D locus. The absence of different blocks of IGHD genes lead to increases in the utilization frequencies of just a handful of genes, and these genes have no clear positional relationships to the deleted genes. This suggests that pairing frequencies may be influenced by additional complex positional relationships that arise perhaps from chromatin structure. In contrast to IGHD gene usage, IGHJ gene usage is unaffected by the IGHD gene deletion polymorphisms. Such an outcome would be expected if the recombinase complex associates first with an IGHJ gene, before associating with an IGHD gene partner. PMID:26700767

  9. Taking individual scaling differences into account by analyzing profile data with the Mixed Assessor Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per Bruun; Schlich, Pascal; Skovgaard, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Scale range differences between individual assessors will often constitute a non-trivial part of the assessor-by-product interaction in sensory profile data (Brockhoff, 2003, 1998; Brockhoff and Skovgaard, 1994). We suggest a new mixed model ANOVA analysis approach, the Mixed Assessor Model (MAM......) that properly takes this into account by a simple inclusion of the product averages as a covariate in the modeling and allowing the covariate regression coefficients to depend on the assessor. This gives a more powerful analysis by removing the scaling difference from the error term and proper confidence limits...... are deduced that include scaling difference in the error term to the proper extent. A meta study of 8619 sensory attributes from 369 sensory profile data sets from SensoBase (www.sensobase.fr) is conducted. In 45.3% of all attributes scaling heterogeneity is present (P-value

  10. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazieli Maboni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented.

  11. Perfectionistic profiles among elite athletes and differences in their motivational orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Mahoney, John; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Donovan, Robert J; Parkes, Jarred

    2012-04-01

    Although there is an emerging body of research that has examined perfectionistic clusters in the general population, few studies have explored such profiles in athlete samples. The purposes of this research were to explore perfectionistic profiles within a sample of elite athletes and the differences between them on key motivational variables. A sample of 423 elite athletes (179 males, 244 females) aged between 14 and 66 years (M = 25.64; SD = 8.57) from a variety of team (e.g., rowing, hockey, baseball, rugby) and individual sports (e.g., cycling, athletics, triathlon, gymnastics) completed a multisection questionnaire including measures of sport perfectionism, motivation regulation, achievement goals, and fear of failure. Cluster analyses revealed the existence of three perfectionism profiles, namely, nonperfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and adaptive perfectionists. Subsequent analyses generally supported the robustness of these perfectionism profiles in terms of differential motivational orientations (achievement goals, fear of failure, and motivation regulation) in hypothesized directions. Overall, the differences in motivational orientations between the three clusters supported a categorical conceptualization of perfectionism.

  12. Differences in the metabolite profiles of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf in different concentrations of nitrate in the culture solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Keiki; Oka, Norikuni; Shinano, Takuro; Osaki, Mitsuru; Takebe, Masako

    2008-02-01

    The nitrogen (N) status of a plant determines the composition of its major components (amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates and organic acids) and, directly or indirectly, affects the quality of agricultural products in terms of their calorific value and taste. Although these effects are guided by changes in metabolic pathways, no overall metabolic analysis has previously been conducted to demonstrate such effects. Here, metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to evaluate the effect of N levels on spinach tissue, comparing two cultivars that differed in their ability to use N. Wide variation in N content was observed without any distinct inhibition of growth in either cultivar. Principal component analysis (PCA) and self-organizing mapping (SOM) were undertaken to describe changes in the metabolites of mature spinach leaves. In PCA, the first component accounted for 44.5% of the total variance, the scores of which was positively correlated with the plant's N content, and a close relationship between metabolite profiles and N status was observed. Both PCA and SOM revealed that metabolites could be broadly divided into two types, correlating either positively or negatively with plant N content. The simple and co-coordinated metabolic stream, containing both general and spinach-specific aspects of plant N content, will be useful in future research on such topics as the detection of environmental effects on spinach through comprehensive metabolic profiling.

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehghani Ashkezari, Atefeh; Oliaie Rezaie, Nooshin; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-01-01

    Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS). Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn), six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P), and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E). People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD) = −0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.16 to −0.09), Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43), and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84), while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28) and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57) were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33) and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69). Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS. PMID:28422987

  14. Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Saghazadeh

    Full Text Available Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS. Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn, six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P, and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E. People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD = -0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI: -1.16 to -0.09, Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43, and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84, while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28 and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57 were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33 and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69. Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS.

  15. Citizen science shows systematic changes in the temperature difference between air and inland waters with global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Mackay, Murray; Stockwell, Jason D; Thiery, Wim; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Augusto-Silva, Pétala B; Baulch, Helen M; de Eyto, Elvira; Hejzlar, Josef; Kangur, Külli; Kirillin, Georgiy; Pierson, Don C; Rusak, James A; Sadro, Steven; Woolway, R Iestyn

    2017-03-06

    Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high school students to examine the temperature difference between surface water and the overlying air (T w -T a ) as a proxy for sensible heat flux (Q H ). If Q H is directed upward, corresponding to positive T w -T a , it can enhance CO 2 and CH 4 emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The students found mostly negative T w -T a across small ponds, lakes, streams/rivers and the sea shore (i.e. downward Q H ), with T w -T a becoming increasingly negative with increasing T a . Further examination of T w -T a using high-frequency temperature data from inland waters across the globe confirmed that T w -T a is linearly related to T a . Using the longest available high-frequency temperature time series from Lake Erken, Sweden, we found a rapid increase in the occasions of negative T w -T a with increasing annual mean T a since 1989. From these results, we can expect that ongoing and projected global warming will result in increasingly negative T w -T a , thereby reducing CO 2 and CH 4 transfer velocities from inland waters into the atmosphere.

  16. FREE CHOICE PROFILING, ACCEPTANCE AND PURCHASE INTENTION IN THE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT BISCUIT FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Angélica Machado dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increased demand for differentiated and health-oriented food has driven the development of bakery products with specific nutritional and sensory characteristics. The aim of this study was to compare four different biscuits: two commercial (sugar-free and gluten-free and two experimental formulations (standard and source of extra fiber. The cookie with added fiber had passion fruit albedo and pumpkin peel added to its formulation, as well as reduced wheat flour content compared with the standard formulation. These alterations aimed to achieve both nutritional and economic benefits. The Free Choice Profiling methodology was used, and the data were subjected to Generalized Procrustes Analysis. The analysis was performed separately by attribute classes (appearance, aroma, flavor and texture. The percentage of variance explained in the first dimension was 87.6% for texture, and the sum of the first two dimensions was greater than 90% for all four attributes. Both experimental formulations were characterized as having a yellowish color, flattened appearance, passion fruit aroma, natural aroma, passion fruit flavor, passion fruit residual flavor, soft texture and compact texture. Therefore, the addition of byproducts in the standard formulation did not qualitatively change the characteristic attributes. The products were also evaluated on a 9-point hedonic scale, and the data were statistically evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA. When compared by affective analysis, the formulation with added fiber and the commercial biscuits showed no significant difference regarding flavor and intent to purchase. Thus, the cookie developed herein has promising market potential, and it presents additional benefits due to its economic and nutritional appeal.

  17. Metabolic profiles characterizing different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome: plasma metabolomics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder accompanied with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease; despite being a common condition, the pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the potential metabolic profiles for different phenotypes of PCOS, as well as for the early prognosis of complications. Methods A total of 217 women with PCOS and 48 healthy women as normal controls were studied. Plasma samples of subjects were tested using two different analytical platforms of metabolomics: 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). Results Our results showed that carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolisms were influenced in PCOS. The levels of lactate, long-chain fatty acids, triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein were elevated, while glucose, phosphatidylcholine and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations were reduced in PCOS patients as compared with controls. Additionally, the levels of alanine, valine, serine, threonine, ornithine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan were generally increased, whereas the levels of glycine and proline were significantly reduced in PCOS samples compared to controls. Furthermore, the ratio of branched-chain amino acid to aromatic amino acid concentrations (BCAA/AAA) in PCOS plasma was significantly reduced in PCOS patients and was insusceptible to obesity and insulin sensitivity. Conclusions Our results suggested that the enhanced glycolysis and inhibited tricarboxylic acid cycle (TAC) in women with PCOS. Decrease of BCAA/AAA ratio was directly correlated with the development of PCOS. Ovulatory dysfunction of PCOS patients was associated with raised production of serine, threonine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and ornithine. Elevated levels of valine and leucine, and decreased concentrations of glycine in PCOS plasma could contribute to insulin

  18. Metabolic profiles characterizing different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome: plasma metabolomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Fu, Li; Li, Rong; Wang, Li-Na; Yang, Yan; Liu, Na-Na; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Ping; Tu, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xue; Qiao, Jie

    2012-11-30

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder accompanied with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease; despite being a common condition, the pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the potential metabolic profiles for different phenotypes of PCOS, as well as for the early prognosis of complications. A total of 217 women with PCOS and 48 healthy women as normal controls were studied. Plasma samples of subjects were tested using two different analytical platforms of metabolomics: 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). Our results showed that carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolisms were influenced in PCOS. The levels of lactate, long-chain fatty acids, triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein were elevated, while glucose, phosphatidylcholine and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations were reduced in PCOS patients as compared with controls. Additionally, the levels of alanine, valine, serine, threonine, ornithine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan were generally increased, whereas the levels of glycine and proline were significantly reduced in PCOS samples compared to controls. Furthermore, the ratio of branched-chain amino acid to aromatic amino acid concentrations (BCAA/AAA) in PCOS plasma was significantly reduced in PCOS patients and was insusceptible to obesity and insulin sensitivity. Our results suggested that the enhanced glycolysis and inhibited tricarboxylic acid cycle (TAC) in women with PCOS. Decrease of BCAA/AAA ratio was directly correlated with the development of PCOS. Ovulatory dysfunction of PCOS patients was associated with raised production of serine, threonine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and ornithine. Elevated levels of valine and leucine, and decreased concentrations of glycine in PCOS plasma could contribute to insulin sensitivity and could be considered as the

  19. Five-Factor Model Personality Profiles: The Differences between Alcohol and Opiate Addiction among Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raketic, Diana; Barisic, Jasmina V; Svetozarevic, Snezana M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Tepavcevic, Darija Kisic; Milovanovic, Srdjan D

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of female alcohol and substance abusers has markedly increased. The main objective of this research was to explore personality profiles among females who had alcohol and opiate dependence. The aim of the study is to analyse if there is differences in personality profiles of females addicted to alcohol and opiates. We hypothesized that there might be significant differences in personality profiles among subgroups of women who present with alcohol and opiate use disorders. Of 157 consecutive women with diagnosis of alcohol/opiate addiction, 62 fulfilled following inclusion criteria: age 19-45 years, abstinence from alcohol and opiates for at least 10 days prior to enrollment. Alcohol-dependent group consisted of 30 females, while opiate-dependent group consisted of 32 females. The control group involved 30 age-matched randomly chosen healthy women. The data were collected using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). The multiple stepwise discriminant analysis was used to determine relations between personality traits and the probability of belonging to one of the study groups. Significant differences in the NEO-PI-R scores were observed between groups for all main personality traits except for Openness to Experience. Compared with controls, substance-dependent women scored significantly higher on Neuroticism and lower on Conscientiousness. Opiate-dependent females scored the highest on Neuroticism and on Extraversion and lowest on Agreeableness and on Conscientiousness. Alcohol-dependent females scored higher on Conscientiousness and lower on Neuroticism compared to opiate-dependent women. The results of our study confirmed significant characteristics in personality profiles among females with alcohol and opiate dependence, as well as the difference between these two groups of substance abusers and their healthy controls. The distinct personality characteristics among different groups of substance addicted women should be taken into account

  20. Stress amplifies sex differences in primate prefrontal profiles of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex G; Hagenauer, Megan; Absher, Devin; Morrison, Kathleen E; Bale, Tracy L; Myers, Richard M; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lyons, David M

    2017-11-02

    Stress is a recognized risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders that occur more often in women than men. Prefrontal brain regions mediate stress coping, cognitive control, and emotion. Here, we investigate sex differences and stress effects on prefrontal cortical profiles of gene expression in squirrel monkey adults. Dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and ventromedial prefrontal cortical regions from 18 females and 12 males were collected after stress or no-stress treatment conditions. Gene expression profiles were acquired using HumanHT-12v4.0 Expression BeadChip arrays adapted for squirrel monkeys. Extensive variation between prefrontal cortical regions was discerned in the expression of numerous autosomal and sex chromosome genes. Robust sex differences were also identified across prefrontal cortical regions in the expression of mostly autosomal genes. Genes with increased expression in females compared to males were overrepresented in mitogen-activated protein kinase and neurotrophin signaling pathways. Many fewer genes with increased expression in males compared to females were discerned, and no molecular pathways were identified. Effect sizes for sex differences were greater in stress compared to no-stress conditions for ventromedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortical regions but not dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Stress amplifies sex differences in gene expression profiles for prefrontal cortical regions involved in stress coping and emotion regulation. Results suggest molecular targets for new treatments of stress disorders in human mental health.

  1. Distribution of micromotion in implants and alveolar bone with different thread profiles in immediate loading: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Kun; Chen, Yung-Chuan; Huang, Ching-Chieh; Lu, Wei-Hua; Chen, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Hsun-Heng

    2012-01-01

    To detect the differences in the distribution of micromotion within implants and alveolar bone with different implant thread designs during immediate loading. A three-dimensional finite element model with contact elements was used to simulate the contact behavior between the implant and alveolar bone. Implants with four different thread designs were created: Acme (trapezoidal) thread (AT), buttress thread (BT), square thread (ST), and a standard V-thread (VT). To simulate immediate loading, the model was designed without osseointegration between the implant and alveolar bone. A load of 300 N was applied axially to the model, and the micromovements were measured. The maximum micromotion values of the ST, AT, VT, and BT models were 8.53, 9.57, 11.00, and 15.00 µm, respectively. All micromotion was located near the interface of cortical and cancellous bone. Different thread designs showed different distribution of micromotion during loading. This indicates that initial stability in immediate loading may be affected by thread design. The ST profile showed the most favorable result in the study. An implant with an ST profile might provide the best primary stability in an immediate loading situation.

  2. Aggression Profiles in the Spanish Child Population: Differences in Perfectionism, School Refusal and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicent, María; Inglés, Cándido J.; Sanmartín, Ricardo; Gonzálvez, Carolina; García-Fernández, José Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the existence of combinations of aggression components (Anger, Hostility, Physical Aggression and Verbal Aggression) that result in different profiles of aggressive behavior in children, as well as to test the differences between these profiles in scores of perfectionism, school refusal and affect. It is interesting to analyze these variables given: (a) their clinical relevance due to their close relationship with the overall psychopathology; and (b) the need for further evidence regarding how they are associated with aggressive behavior. The sample consisted of 1202 Spanish primary education students between the ages of 8 and 12. Three aggressive behavior profiles for children were identified using Latent Class Analysis (LCA): High Aggression (Z scores between 0.69 and 0.7), Moderate Aggression (Z scores between −0.39 and −0.47) and Low Aggression (Z scores between −1.36 and −1.58). These profiles were found for 49.08%, 38.46% and 12.48% of the sample, respectively. High Aggression scored significantly higher than Moderate Aggression and Low Aggression on Socially Prescribed Perfectionism (SPP), Self-Oriented Perfectionism (SOP), the first three factors of school refusal (i.e., FI. Negative Affective, FII. Social Aversion and/or Evaluation, FIII. To Pursue Attention), and Negative Affect (NA). In addition, Moderate Aggression also reported significantly higher scores than Low Aggression for the three first factors of school refusal and NA. Conversely, Low Aggression had significantly higher mean scores than High Aggression and Moderate Aggression on Positive Affect (PA). Results demonstrate that High Aggression was the most maladaptive profile having a high risk of psychological vulnerability. Aggression prevention programs should be sure to include strategies to overcome psychological problems that characterize children manifesting high levels of aggressive behavior. PMID:29441002

  3. Protein profiling and tps23 induction in different maize lines in response to methyl jasmonate treatment and Diabrotica virgifera infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Emanuele; Colombi, Cinzia; De Poli, Pamela; Nocito, Fabio Francesco; Cocucci, Maurizio; Vecchietti, Alberto; Marocco, Adriano; Stile, Maria Rosaria; Rossini, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Plant responses to herbivore insects involve direct and indirect defense with the production of signal molecules including jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives (e.g. methyl jasmonate, MeJA). In maize (Zea mays), root feeding by Diabrotica virgifera larvae activates an indirect defense mechanism, through enthomopathogenic nematodes that are recruited after Terpene Synthase 23 (tps23) upregulation and (E)-β-caryophyllene root emission. In order to gain insight into the correlation between JA signaling and response to Diabrotica attack, we analyzed tps23 expression and protein profiles in maize roots in response to MeJA treatment and insect infestation. Similar to herbivore feeding, MeJA treatment was found to increase tps23 transcript accumulation, with consistent variations for both treatments in maize lines differing in (E)-β-caryophyllene production. Analysis of root protein profiles showed specific alterations leading to the identification of three proteins that were induced by MeJA treatment. We focused on a peroxidase-like protein (Px-like) showing that the corresponding transcripts accumulated in all tested lines. Results show that exogenous application of MeJA upregulates tps23 expression and specifically alters protein patterns in maize roots. Parallel effects on tps23 transcript accumulation were observed upon hormone exposure and insect infestation in different maize lines. In contrast, Px-like transcript profiling showed differences between treatments. These results support the possible involvement of MeJA in mediating the upregulation of tps23 in response to Diabrotica attack. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Oligoclonal band phenotypes in MS differ in their HLA class II association, while specific KIR ligands at HLA class I show association to MS in general

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsen, Marte W; Viken, Marte K; Celius, Elisabeth G

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated...... the association of HLA alleles and KIR ligands according to OCB status in MS patients (n=3876). Specific KIR ligands were associated with patients when compared to controls (n=3148), supporting a role for NK cells in MS pathogenesis. HLA class I alleles and KIR ligands did not differ between OCB phenotypes......, but HLA class II associations were convincingly replicated....

  5. Metabolic profiles characterizing different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome: plasma metabolomics analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yue; Fu, Li; Li, Rong; Wang, Li-Na; Yang, Yan; Liu, Na-Na; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Ping; Tu, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xue; Qiao, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder accompanied with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease; despite being a common condition, the pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the potential metabolic profiles for different phenotypes of PCOS, as well as for the early prognosis of complications. Methods A total of 217 women with PCOS and 48 healthy women as normal controls were studie...

  6. Evaluation of ruminal degradation profiles of forages using bags made from different textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Neves Pereira Valente

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the in situ degradation profiles of dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of different forages using nylon (50 µm, F57 (Ankom® and non-woven textile (NWT - 100 g/m² bags. Eight forage samples were used: sugarcane, corn silage, elephant grass cut at 50 and 250 days of regrowth, corn straw, signal grass hay, coast cross hay, and fresh alfalfa. Samples were incubated for 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, and 312 hours. Two bags of each textile were used at each incubation time, totaling 768 bags, using two crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers fitted with ruminal canullae. There was difference in the common rate of lag and degradation (λ of DM for all forages, except for sugarcane. In general, higher λ estimates were obtained using nylon, followed by NWT and F57. Concerning NDF degradation profiles, differences in λ were observed for all forages. Greater estimates were obtained using nylon. Degradation profiles of DM and NDF must not be evaluated using F57 and NWT. These textiles underestimate the degradation rate due to constraints regarding exchange between bags' content and rumen environment.

  7. Homicide and domestic violence. Are there different psychological profiles mediated by previous exerted on the victim?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Yepes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 46 men was evaluated with the DAPP (Questionnaire of Domestic Aggressor Psychological Profile. All were inmates convicted for various degrees of violence against their wives in different prisons. The sample was divided into three groups: homicides without previous violence against their wives (H (n=11, homicides with previous violence (VH (n=9 and domestic batterers without previous homicide attempts against their partners (B (n=26. The aim of the study was to analyze the possible existence of three different kinds of profiles and more specifically if it’s possible to obtain an independent profile for domestic homicides with previous episodes of violence against their wives. The results neither confirm the hypothesis as whole nor for the violent homicides. However, differences between groups were obtained in the admission and description of the facts, in the risk of future violence, in some sociodemographical characteristics (i.e., level of education, social status, in the couple relationship, in the dissatisfaction concerning the unachieved ideal woman, in the use of extreme physical force during the aggression, the time of the first aggression, the use of verbal threats during the aggression, explanation of the events to the family and the period of time between the beginning of the romantic relationship and the manifestation of violence. The implications of the results for the theoretical frameworks proposed and future research are discussed.

  8. APPLICATION OF ALLOMETRY FOR DETERMINATION OF STRENGTH PROFILE IN YOUNG FEMALE ATHLETES FROM DIFFERENT SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gajewski

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to determine a strength profile in young female athletes practising different sports and to use allometry to evaluate muscular strength with respect to body mass. The study included 42 women who practised taekwondo (n = 10, weightlifting (n = 10, canoeing (n = 14 and speed skating (n = 8. Measurements of maximal muscle torques under static conditions in 10 groups of flexors and extensors of the elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and trunk were carried out. The MANCOVA procedure was employed to compare means between the groups. A logarithm of body mass was adopted as a covariate. Relationships between body mass and muscle torques in each muscle group were determined using a procedure of linear regression. The analysis of residuals was employed for the evaluation of maximal muscle torques. Mean values of logarithms of maximal muscle torques were significantly different for the representatives of individual sports and they depended on the logarithm of body mass. It was proposed to use a mean of residuals normalized for individual muscle groups as a synthetic strength index (mean of the strength profile. The women practising canoeing were characterized by the highest strength index. Its lowest values were obtained by weightlifting and taekwondo athletes. Differences in strength profiles in the tested athletes were attributed to the specific nature of their sports. It is suggested to use an allometric relationship scaled by body mass for strength assessment.

  9. Microbiomes structure and diversity in different horizons of full soil profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Timofey; Tkhakakhova, Azida; Zhelezova, Alena; Semenov, Mikhail; Kutovaya, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Topsoil is a most common object for soil metagenomic studies; sometimes soil profile is being formally split in layers by depth. However, Russian Soil Science School formulated the idea of soil profile as a complex of soil horizons, which can differ in their properties and genesis. In this research we analyzed 57 genetic soil horizons of 8 different soils from European part of Russia: Albeluvisol, Greyzemic Phaeozem, three Chermozems (different land use - till, fallow, wind-protecting tree line), Rhodic Cambisol, Haplic Kastanozem and Salic Solonetz (WRB classification). Sampling was performed from all genetic horizons in each soil profile starting from topsoil until subsoil. Total DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA sequencing was provided together with chemical analysis of soil (pH measurement, C and N contents, etc.). Structure and diversity of prokaryotic community are significantly different in those soil horizons, which chemical properties and processes of origin are contrasting with nearest horizons: Na-enriched horizon of Solonetz, eluvial horizon of Albeluvisol, plough pan of Agrochernozem. Actinobacteria were abundant in top horizons of soils in warm and dry climate, while Acidobacteria had the highest frequency in soils of moist and cold regions. Concerning Archaea, Thaumarchaeota prevailed in all studied soils. Their rate was higher in microbiomes of upper horizons of steppe soils and it was reducing with depth down the profile. Prokaryotic communities in Chernozems were clustered by soil horizons types: microbiomes of A (organic topsoil) and B (mineral) horizons formed non-overlapping clusters by principal component analysis, cluster formed by prokaryotic communities of transitional soil horizons (AB) take place between clusters of A and B horizons. Moreover, prokaryotic communities of A horizons differ from each other strongly, while microbiomes of B horizons formed a narrow small cluster. It must be explaned by more diverse conditions in upper A horizons

  10. Activating FLT3 mutants show distinct gain-of-function phenotypes in vitro and a characteristic signaling pathway profile associated with prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Janke

    Full Text Available About 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML harbour mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, mostly internal tandem duplications (ITD and point mutations of the second tyrosine kinase domain (TKD. It was the aim of this study to comprehensively analyze clinical and functional properties of various FLT3 mutants. In 672 normal karyotype AML patients FLT3-ITD, but not FLT3-TKD mutations were associated with a worse relapse free and overall survival in multivariate analysis. In paired diagnosis-relapse samples FLT3-ITD showed higher stability (70% compared to FLT3-TKD (30%. In vitro, FLT3-ITD induced a strong activating phenotype in Ba/F3 cells. In contrast, FLT3-TKD mutations and other point mutations--including two novel mutations--showed a weaker but clear gain-of-function phenotype with gradual increase in proliferation and protection from apoptosis. The pro-proliferative capacity of the investigated FLT3 mutants was associated with cell surface expression and tyrosine 591 phosphorylation of the FLT3 receptor. Western blot experiments revealed STAT5 activation only in FLT3-ITD positive cell lines, in contrast to FLT3-non-ITD mutants, which displayed an enhanced signal of AKT and MAPK activation. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct difference between FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD for STAT5 target gene expression as well as deregulation of SOCS2, ENPP2, PRUNE2 and ART3. FLT3-ITD and FLT3 point mutations show a gain-of-function phenotype with distinct signalling properties in vitro. Although poor prognosis in AML is only associated with FLT3-ITD, all activating FLT3 mutations can contribute to leukemogenesis and are thus potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

  11. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel.

  12. Differences between health-related physical fitness profiles of Croatian children in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujević, Tihana; Sporis, Goran; Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Sasa; Neljak, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Information about the regional distribution of health-related physical fitness status is necessary in order to tailor public health interventions, and due to a number of behavioral health risks caused by the increasing sedentary lifestyle. This study aimed to find differences between Croatian children's health-related physical fitness profiles in urban and rural areas. The sample for this study consisted of 2431 fifth-grade students (1248 boys and 1183 girls) from urban and rural areas of Croatia. The mean age of participants was 11.3 +/- 6.1 years. The differences between the health-related physical fitness of school children from urban and rural areas was computed using series of univariant analysis of variance and canonical discriminant analysis. The reliability of the tests was determined by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Urban boys and girls significantly differ in body height from rural boys and girls. Body mass index and body fat percentage are slightly higher in the urban boys and girls but they do not differ significantly. Urban children perform significantly better in the 20 m dash, standing long jump and timed sit-ups. Urban and rural boys and girls do not differ significantly in the flexibility. This study determined if selected levels of urbanization affected the physical fitness status of children in Croatia. The results suggest that the differences in children's health-related physical fitness profiles are due to the level of urbanization.

  13. Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in respiratory allergy are different depending on the profile of aeroallergen sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Ortega, J; Quirce, S; Delgado, J; Dávila, I; Martí-Guadaño, E; Valero, A

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies which analyse the characteristics of allergic respiratory disease according to profiles of sensitisation to different allergens. This study describes the clinical features and therapeutic approaches, according to the sensitisation profile to relevant aeroallergens, in a sample of adult patients with a first-time diagnosis of respiratory allergy (rhinitis and/or asthma). 1287 patients, enrolled consecutively in the spring of 2010 by 200 allergy specialists, were classified into four groups according to sensitisation to significant allergens in each geographical area (grass pollen, olive pollen, grass and olive pollen, house dust mites). Information was obtained on demographics, diagnostic procedures used, treatments prescribed, clinical characteristics of the rhinitis, and severity and control of asthma. Of the patients, 58.6% had rhinitis only and 38.7% had both rhinitis and asthma. Patients with more severe rhinitis had more severe and poorer controlled asthma. Sensitisation to different allergens was not associated with significant differences in severity and control of asthma, but patients with house dust mite allergy presented persistent rhinitis more frequently. Allergy to grass pollen was significantly associated with food allergies. Differences were observed in the frequency of prescription of immunotherapy and antileukotrienes in patients allergic to house dust mites and of topical corticosteroids in patients with pollen allergy. It was observed in this study that in respiratory allergy disease, there are clinical differences as well as differences in diagnostic procedure and therapeutic attitudes, depending on the clinically relevant allergen. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of the pylorus from the intraluminal pH profile. Validation of the method by comparing it with transpyloric potential difference and pressure profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde-Gram, B; Højgaard, L; Kraglund, K

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to the steady low intragastric pH, the pH in the proximal duodenum shows wide, rapid, and frequent fluctuations. This change in pH pattern may be used to localize the pylorus and thereby ensure reproducible measurements of duodenal pH at a known and reproducible distance from...... the pylorus. To validate this method of localizing the pylorus, simultaneous measurements were performed of the transpyloric pH and potential difference (PD) profile and of the pH and pressure profile in 10 normal subjects. pH-metry and PD-metry localized the pylorus within the same 1.5 cm in 82% of 104 5-min...... periods, and pH-metry and manometry localized the pylorus within the same 5 cm in 72% of 77 10-min periods. This agreement and accuracy seem satisfactory for most studies of intraluminal pH in the duodenum and make reliable long-term ambulatory recording of duodenal pH possible without serial...

  15. Metabolic profiling by (1)H NMR of ground beef irradiated at different irradiation doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Emanuela; Caligiani, Augusta; Palla, Luigi; Mariani, Mario; Ghidini, Sergio; Di Ciccio, Pierluigi Aldo; Palla, Gerardo; Ianieri, Adriana

    2015-05-01

    This work describes a metabolic profiling study of non-irradiated and irradiated beef (at 2.5, 4.5 and 8 kGy) using (1)H NMR and chemometrics. The assignment of all major NMR signals of the aqueous/methanolic extracts was performed. A comprehensive multivariate data analysis proved the ability to distinguish between the irradiated and non-irradiated beef. Classification trees revealed that three metabolites (glycerol, lactic acid esters and tyramine or a p-substituted phenolic compound) are important biomarkers for classification of the irradiated and non-irradiated beef samples. Overall, the achieved metabolomic results show that the changes in the metabolic profile of meat provide a valuable insight to be used in detecting irradiated beef. The use of the NMR-based approach simplifies sample preparation and decrease the time required for analysis, compared to available official analytical procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein profiles of field isolates ofBacillus anthracis from different endemic areas of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bhakti Poerwadikarta

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Sonicated cell-free extract proteins of 14 field isolates ofBacillus anthracis from six different endemic areas of Indonesia were analyzed by the use of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE methods . The protein profiles of each field isolate tested demonstrated slightly different at the protein bands with molecular weights of 18, 37, 52, 65 and 70 kDa, and varied between the field isolates and vaccine strains. The variation could provide clues to the source of anthrax transmission whether it was originated from similar strain or not.

  17. Comparison of the glucooligosaccharide profiles produced from maltose by two different transglucosidases from Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goffin, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotic isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO preparations contain α-D-glucooligosaccharides and their structure is the key factor for their prebiotic potential. The transglucosylation selectivity is known to depend on the enzyme specificity and moreover, maltose and α-glucooligosaccharides can actually act as both glucosyl donor and acceptor in the reaction. Thus, two commercial enzymes, a glucosyltransferase and an α-glucosidase, were tested alone and in combination on pure maltose to study their specificities and the IMO profile obtained. The reactions were monitored using a step-forward AEC-PAD analytical method which permitted to detect and resolve new unknown IMO. Structural determination of unknown IMO was attempted using their retention times and relative abundance. As a general rule, the α-glucosidase has a more expressed hydrolyzing activity leading to products containing less residual digestible α-(1-4 linkages such as isomaltose, isomaltotriose, isomaltotetraose, kojibiose and nigerose while the glucosyltransferase produces important amount of panose. Finally, the combination of the two enzymes leaded to an intermediate IMO profile. IMO syrups composition was thus proved to be dependant on the specificity of the transglucosylating enzyme so that products profiles can be designed using different enzymes and in different proportion.

  18. Prevalence of sleep bruxism and awake bruxism in different chronotype profiles: Hypothesis of an association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Negra, J M; Lobbezoo, F; Martins, C C; Stellini, E; Manfredini, D

    2017-04-01

    Sleep (SB) and awake bruxism (AB) recognize a multifactorial etiology and have a relationship with several psychological factors. Psychological disorders have recently been associated also with the chronotype, which is the propensity for an individual to be especially active at a particular time during a 24-h period. Based on the chronotype, the two extreme profiles are morningness and eveningness individuals. Due to the relationship that both the chronotype and bruxism have with psychological factors and the fact that performing tasks not compatible with chronotype can trigger stress, this review presents the hypothesis that the prevalence of SB and AB can differ with the various chronotype profiles. New perspectives for the study of bruxism etiology may emerge from investigations on the topic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Different organochlorine contaminant profiles in groups of flounders (Platichthys flesus) from sampling locations around Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Svendsen, Tore Christian; Rønsholdt, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Flounders (Platichthys flesus) from the waters around Denmark were analysed for their organochlorine (OC) profile to study whether fish from the same genetic population could be separated into characteristic subpopulations, based on their feeding grounds. The chemical analysis of fish liver...... provided a data set of 16 OC compounds in 94 samples from 2004 to 2006. Except for hexachlorocyclohexane, OC compounds were intercorrelated, indicating similar environmental fate and bioaccumulation. OC profiles are less affected than absolute concentrations by potentially confounding biological factors...... and thus more suitable for studies of intrapopulation differences in relation to feeding grounds. Principal component analysis grouped the samples according to locations. All but three of the 94 samples could be reclassified. Samples from the same and additional locations collected in 2003 provided...

  20. Absorption Profile of (Poly)Phenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Martini, Daniela; Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Calani, Luca; Brigati, Giacomo; Brighenti, Furio; Holasek, Sandra; Malliga, Daniela-Eugenia; Lamprecht, Manfred; Del Rio, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (poly)phenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (poly)phenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (poly)phenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs. PMID:28245627

  1. Absorption Profile of (Poly)Phenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Martini, Daniela; Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Calani, Luca; Brigati, Giacomo; Brighenti, Furio; Holasek, Sandra; Malliga, Daniela-Eugenia; Lamprecht, Manfred; Del Rio, Daniele

    2017-02-26

    The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (poly)phenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (poly)phenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (poly)phenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs.

  2. Comparative proteome analysis of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 grown with maltose or glucose shows minor differences for acarbose biosynthesis proteins but major differences for saccharide transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Sergej; Otto, Andreas; Ortseifen, Vera; Bonn, Florian; Neshat, Armin; Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne; Wolf, Timo; Zemke, Till; Wehmeier, Udo F; Hecker, Michael; Kalinowski, Jörn; Becher, Dörte; Pühler, Alfred

    2016-01-10

    Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 is known for the production of the α-glucosidase inhibitor and anti-diabetic drug acarbose. Acarbose (acarviosyl-maltose) is produced as the major product when the bacterium is grown in medium with maltose, while acarviosyl-glucose is the major product when glucose is the sole carbon source in the medium. In this study, a state-of-the-art proteomics approach was applied combining subcellular fractionation, in vivo metabolic labeling and shotgun mass spectrometry to analyze differences in the proteome of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 cultures grown in minimal medium containing either maltose or glucose as the sole carbon source. To study proteins in distinct subcellular locations, a cytosolic, an enriched membrane, a membrane shaving and an extracellular fraction were included in the analysis. Altogether, quantitative proteome data was obtained for 2497 proteins representing about 30% of the ca. 8270 predicted proteins of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110. When comparing protein quantities of maltose- to glucose-grown cultures, differences were observed for saccharide transport and metabolism proteins, whereas differences for acarbose biosynthesis gene cluster proteins were almost absent. The maltose-inducible α-glucosidase/maltase MalL as well as the ABC-type saccharide transporters AglEFG, MalEFG and MstEAF had significantly higher quantities in the maltose growth condition. The only highly abundant saccharide transporter in the glucose condition was the monosaccharide transporter MstEAF, which may indicate that MstEAF is the major glucose importer. Taken all findings together, the previously observed formation of acarviosyl-maltose and acarviosyl-glucose is more closely connected to the transport of saccharides than to a differential expression of the acarbose gene cluster. Diabetes is a global pandemic accounting for about 11% of the worldwide healthcare expenditures (>600 billion US dollars) and is projected to affect 592 million people by 2035

  3. Effect of different preservation processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerner, Marina; Agustinelli, Silvina P; Guccione, Silvana; Yeannes, María I

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salting-ripening, canning and marinating processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) were evaluated (p = 0.01), with emphasis on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fresh anchovy showed a high proportion of PUFAs (∼45 g/100 g total lipid) with an eicosapentaenoic (EPA) + docosahexaenoic (DHA) content of 27.08 g/100 g total lipid. The salting-ripening process led to the largest changes in the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile, which resulted in a reduction of ∼70% on the total EPA and DHA contents (g/100 g edible portion). Contrary, canned and marinated anchovy presented a fatty acid profile similar to that of fresh anchovy. The use of vegetable oil as covering liquid led to final products with increased ω-6 PUFAs content. Despite the modifications observed, the total amount of essential EPA and DHA fatty acids provided by these products remained high compared with values reported in literature for other foods.

  4. Lignin-derived phenolic compounds in different types of peat profiles in Hokkaido, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsuki, K.; Kondo, R. [Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    How is the composition of organic matter of peat related to the environment of the peatland? How does it change with the process of peat formation? How does it change when the peatland is affected by the lowering of the ground water table? What are the relationships between the organic matter composition of peat and peatland plants? These are problems which we attempted to address in this study. Peat samples were collected layer-wise from four different peat profiles formed under different environments in Hokkaido, Japan. The basic properties of the peat profiles, i.e. major peat-forming plants, contents of carbon and nitrogen, C/N ratio, pH, degree of humidification analyzed by several methods, are described and compared. As one of the keys to answering the above-mentioned questions, we selected lignin-derived phenolic compounds that are released by CuO-NaOH oxidation. The composition of the phenolic compounds varied remarkably among the peat layers differing in peat-forming plants and in the mode of accumulation. The classification into high-moor, transitional moor, and low-moor peat was not sufficient to explain the composition of the phenolic compounds of peat. Differences in major peat-forming plants, i.e. sphagnum moss or sedges in high-moor peat, and Phragmites or Alnus in low-moor peat exerted significant effects on the phenolic composition.

  5. Amino acids content and electrophoretic profile of camel milk casein from different camel breeds in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Salmen, Saleh H.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Al-Saleh, Abdulrahman A.; Metwalli, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate amino acids content and the electrophoretic profile of camel milk casein from different camel breeds. Milk from three different camel breeds (Majaheim, Wadah and Safrah) as well as cow milk were used in this study.

  6. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of Five Mouse Models Identifies Similarities and Differences with Human Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, William R.; Johnston, Andrew; Carbajal, Steve; Han, Gangwen; Wohn, Christian; Lu, Jun; Xing, Xianying; Nair, Rajan P.; Voorhees, John J.; Elder, James T.; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Sano, Shigetoshi; Prens, Errol P.; DiGiovanni, John; Pittelkow, Mark R.; Ward, Nicole L.; Gudjonsson, Johann E.

    2011-01-01

    Development of a suitable mouse model would facilitate the investigation of pathomechanisms underlying human psoriasis and would also assist in development of therapeutic treatments. However, while many psoriasis mouse models have been proposed, no single model recapitulates all features of the human disease, and standardized validation criteria for psoriasis mouse models have not been widely applied. In this study, whole-genome transcriptional profiling is used to compare gene expression patterns manifested by human psoriatic skin lesions with those that occur in five psoriasis mouse models (K5-Tie2, imiquimod, K14-AREG, K5-Stat3C and K5-TGFbeta1). While the cutaneous gene expression profiles associated with each mouse phenotype exhibited statistically significant similarity to the expression profile of psoriasis in humans, each model displayed distinctive sets of similarities and differences in comparison to human psoriasis. For all five models, correspondence to the human disease was strong with respect to genes involved in epidermal development and keratinization. Immune and inflammation-associated gene expression, in contrast, was more variable between models as compared to the human disease. These findings support the value of all five models as research tools, each with identifiable areas of convergence to and divergence from the human disease. Additionally, the approach used in this paper provides an objective and quantitative method for evaluation of proposed mouse models of psoriasis, which can be strategically applied in future studies to score strengths of mouse phenotypes relative to specific aspects of human psoriasis. PMID:21483750

  7. Quantitative electroencephalography reveals different physiological profiles between benign and remitting-relapsing multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duque Pablo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A possible method of finding physiological markers of multiple sclerosis (MS is the application of EEG quantification (QEEG of brain activity when the subject is stressed by the demands of a cognitive task. In particular, modulations of the spectral content that take place in the EEG of patients with multiple sclerosis remitting-relapsing (RRMS and benign multiple sclerosis (BMS during a visuo-spatial task need to be observed. Methods The sample consisted of 19 patients with RRMS, 10 with BMS, and 21 control subjects. All patients were free of medication and had not relapsed within the last month. The power spectral density (PSD of different EEG bands was calculated by Fast-Fourier-Transformation (FFT, those analysed being delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma. Z-transformation was performed to observe individual profiles in each experimental group for spectral modulations. Lastly, correlation analyses was performed between QEEG values and other variables from participants in the study (age, EDSS, years of evolution and cognitive performance. Results Nearly half (42% the RRMS patients showed a statistically significant increase of two or more standard deviations (SD compared to the control mean value for the beta-2 and gamma bands (F = 2.074, p = 0.004. These alterations were localized to the anterior regions of the right hemisphere, and bilaterally to the posterior areas of the scalp. None of the BMS patients or control subjects had values outside the range of ± 2 SD. There were no significant correlations between these values and the other variables analysed (age, EDSS, years of evolution or behavioural performance. Conclusion During the attentional processing, changes in the high EEG spectrum (beta-2 and gamma in MS patients exhibit physiological alterations that are not normally detected by spontaneous EEG analysis. The different spectral pattern between pathological and controls groups could represent specific changes for

  8. Influence of lactose hydrolysis on galacto-oligosaccharides, lactose, volatile profile and physicochemical parameters of different yogurt varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vénica, Claudia I; Wolf, Irma V; Bergamini, Carina V; Perotti, María C

    2016-12-01

    Different types of reduced-lactose yogurt, obtained by lactose hydrolysis using β-galactosidase enzyme, are commercially available. The breakdown of lactose modifies the carbohydrate profile, including the production of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), which could affect the survival and activity of starter and probiotic cultures and the parameters of yogurt quality. The extension of these changes is dependent on the yogurt matrix composition. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of lactose hydrolysis on GOS, lactose, volatile profile and physicochemical parameters of different yogurt varieties during storage. The presence of β-galactosidase enzyme did not affect either the global composition or the survival of cultures. Overall, the hydrolyzed products had lower acidity than traditional ones. GOS were found at similar levels in fresh hydrolyzed yogurts, whereas in traditional yogurts they were not detected. The proportion of ketones, acids and aldehydes seems to be more dependent on yogurt variety than on addition of the enzyme. Likewise, the storage period affected the volatile fraction to different degree; the increase in acid compounds was more pronounced in hydrolyzed than in traditional yogurts. This work shows that it is possible to obtain different varieties of reduced-lactose yogurt, some of them with additional benefits to health such as reduced fat, reduced calories, added with probiotic/inulin and enriched in GOS, with similar characteristics to traditional products. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effect of different drying techniques on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile of robusta coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjiang; Hu, Rongsuo; Chu, Zhong; Zhao, Jianping; Tan, Lehe

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different drying techniques, namely, room-temperature drying (RTD), solar drying (SD), heat-pump drying (HPD), hot-air drying (HAD), and freeze drying (FD), on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and the volatile compound profile of robusta coffee beans. The data showed that FD was an effective method to preserve fat, organic acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, HAD was ideal for retaining polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids. Sixty-two volatile compounds were identified in the differently dried coffee beans, representing 90% of the volatile compounds. HPD of the coffee beans produced the largest number of volatiles, whereas FD resulted in the highest volatile content. A principal component analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the HPD, SD, and RTD methods whereas the FD and HAD methods were significantly different. Overall, the results provide a basis for potential application to other similar thermal sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of ruminal degradation profiles of forages using bags made from different textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Neves Pereira Valente; Edenio Detmann; Augusto César de Queiroz; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Daiany Iris Gomes; Janderson Florêncio Figueiras

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in situ degradation profiles of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of different forages using nylon (50 µm), F57 (Ankom®) and non-woven textile (NWT - 100 g/m²) bags. Eight forage samples were used: sugarcane, corn silage, elephant grass cut at 50 and 250 days of regrowth, corn straw, signal grass hay, coast cross hay, and fresh alfalfa. Samples were incubated for 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, and ...

  11. Condition and biochemical profile of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured at different depths in a cold water coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardi, Daria; Mills, Terry; Donnet, Sebastien; Parrish, Christopher C.; Murray, Harry M.

    2017-08-01

    The growth and health of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are affected by environmental conditions. Typically, culture sites are situated in sheltered areas near shore (i.e., conflicts and environmental impact in coastal areas are concerns and interest in developing deep water (> 20 m depth) mussel culture has been growing. This study evaluated the effect of culture depth on blue mussels in a cold water coastal environment (Newfoundland, Canada). Culture depth was examined over two years from September 2012 to September 2014; mussels from three shallow water (5 m) and three deep water (15 m) sites were compared for growth and biochemical composition; culture depths were compared for temperature and chlorophyll a. Differences between the two years examined were noted, possibly due to harsh winter conditions in the second year of the experiment. In both years shallow and deep water mussels presented similar condition; in year 2 deep water mussels had a significantly better biochemical profile. Lipid and glycogen analyses showed seasonal variations, but no significant differences between shallow and deep water were noted. Fatty acid profiles showed a significantly higher content of omega-3 s (20:5ω3; EPA) and lower content of bacterial fatty acids in deep water sites in year 2. Everything considered, deep water appeared to provide a more favorable environment for mussel growth than shallow water under harsher weather conditions.

  12. Fatty acid profile and cholesterol and retinol contents in different locations of Celta pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez, R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profile (total, neutral and polar lipids and cholesterol and retinol contents of the intramuscular -Longissimus dorsi (LD and Psoas major (PM-, adipose -rump, covering Biceps femoris muscle, ventral and dorsal-, perirenal and hepatic fat of the Celta pig breed (Galicia, northwest Spain were evaluated. Oleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, except in the polar lipids of the intramuscular fat, where the most abundant fatty acid was linoleic acid. The fatty acid composition of total and neutral lipids was influenced more by the location than the fatty acids of polar lipids. There were some differences only in minor fatty acids of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat between castrated females and castrated males. The fatty acids of neutral lipids were also more influenced by sex than the fatty acids of polar lipids. The cholesterol and retinol contents showed no significant differences by sex. The LD muscle showed a higher content of intramuscular fat than the PM muscle. The greatest cholesterol values were described in the liver. Subcutaneous locations showed higher cholesterol levels than muscles.Se estudió el perfil de los ácidos grasos y los contenidos en colesterol y retinol en la grasa intramuscular - Longissimus dorsi (LD y Psoas mayor (PM -, subcutánea -grupa, ventral, dorsal y la grasa que rodea al músculo Bíceps femoris -, perirrenal y hepática de cerdos de raza Celta (Galicia, noroeste de España. El ácido oleico fue el ácido graso más importante, excepto en los lípidos polares de la grasa intramuscular, donde el ácido graso más abundante fue el ácido linoleico. La composición de ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales y neutros estuvo más influenciada por la localización grasa que los ácidos grasos de los lípidos polares. Se encontraron ligeras diferencias entre hembras y machos castrados en algunos ácidos grasos minoritarios en la grasa intramuscular y subcutánea. Los ácidos grasos de los l

  13. Body physique and dominant somatotype in elite and low-profile athletes with different specializations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutnik, Boris; Zuoza, Aurelijus; Zuozienė, Ilona; Alekrinskis, Aleksandras; Nash, Derek; Scherbina, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Somatotyping is helpful in sports in which the body shape could influence the resulting performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of high profile Lithuanian athletes in kayaking, basketball and football and to compare between disciplines and with low level sportsmen of the same age. A total of 72 young male sportsmen aged from 18 to 24 years were divided into three groups (kayakers, basketball and football players). Each group contained almost equal numbers of low level and elite, international level sportsmen. Anthropometric measurements of the players were used to establish somatotypes. The greatest difference was observed in the mesomorphic component of elite kayakers compared to the low profile sportsmen. Mesomorphy could also be used to predict sport ability. The range of mesomorphy for elite footballers was from 0 to 4.6, for basketball players from 4.6 to 5.9, and for kayaking, from 5.9 and higher. Individual groups of elite sportsmen displayed different modes of somatotype. The kayakers were predominantly endomorphic; the basketball players mostly endomorphic and the footballers most often ectomorphic. No distinguishable patterns of somatotype were displayed by the low level sportsmen. Morphometric characteristics of the athlete's body and the fractional somatotype can be used as guiders and markers of the chosen sport and method of training. The results emphasize the necessity for a specific somatotype to reach a high profile in the selected area of sport and thus support morphometric oriented studies. Further studies could elucidate differentiation by age and sex. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Compression dynamics of quasi-spherical wire arrays with different linear mass profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrofanov, K. N., E-mail: mitrofan@triniti.ru; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Grabovski, E. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Oleinik, G. M. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Thermonuclear Research (Russian Federation); Ol’khovskaya, O. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Results of experimental studies of the implosion of quasi-spherical wire (or metalized fiber) arrays are presented. The goal of the experiments was to achieve synchronous three-dimensional compression of the plasma produced in different regions of a quasi-spherical array into its geometrical center. To search for optimal synchronization conditions, quasi-spherical arrays with different initial profiles of the linear mass were used. The following dependences of the linear mass on the poloidal angle were used: m{sub l}(θ) ∝ sin{sup –1}θ and m{sub l}(θ) ∝ sin{sup –2}θ. The compression dynamics of such arrays was compared with that of quasi-spherical arrays without linear mass profiling, m{sub l}(θ) = const. To verify the experimental data, the spatiotemporal dynamics of plasma compression in quasi-spherical arrays was studied using various diagnostics. The experiments on three-dimensional implosion of quasi-spherical arrays made it possible to study how the frozen-in magnetic field of the discharge current penetrates into the array. By measuring the magnetic field in the plasma of a quasi-spherical array, information is obtained on the processes of plasma production and formation of plasma flows from the wire/fiber regions with and without an additionally deposited mass. It is found that penetration of the magnetic flux depends on the initial linear mass profile m{sub l}(θ) of the quasi-spherical array. From space-resolved spectral measurements and frame imaging of plasma X-ray emission, information is obtained on the dimensions and shape of the X-ray source formed during the implosion of a quasi-spherical array. The intensity of this source is estimated and compared with that of the Z-pinch formed during the implosion of a cylindrical array.

  15. PFAS profiles in three North Sea top predators: metabolic differences among species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatius, Anders; Bossi, Rossana; Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank Farsø; Kinze, Carl Christian; Lockyer, Christina; Teilmann, Jonas; Dietz, Rune

    2013-11-01

    Profiles of seven compounds of perfluoro-alkyl substances (PFASs) were compared among three species of top predators from the Danish North Sea: the white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), and the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). The seals had higher total burdens (757.8 ng g(-1) ww) than the dolphins (439.9 ng g(-1) ww) and the porpoises (355.8 ng g(-1) ww), probably a reflection of feeding closer to the shore and thus contamination sources. The most striking difference among the species was the relative contribution of perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) to the profiles; the seals (0.1%) had much lower levels than porpoises (8.3%) and dolphins (26.0%). In combination with the values obtained from the literature, this result indicates that Carnivora species including Pinnipedia have a much higher capacity of transforming PFOSA to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) than cetacean species. Another notable difference among the species was that the two smaller species (seals and porpoises) with supposedly higher metabolic rates had lower concentrations of the perfluorinated carboxylic acids, which are generally more easily excreted than perfluorinated sulfonamides. Species-specific characteristics should be recognized when PFAS contamination in marine mammals is investigated, for example, several previous studies of PFASs in cetaceans have not quantified PFOSA.

  16. Modification of egg yolk fatty acids profile by using different oil sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Mohsen; Rahimi, Shaban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary oil sources supplementation on laying hens' performance and fatty acids profile of egg yolks. Seventy-two 23-week-old laying hens (Tetra-SL) divided into six experimental diets (four replicates and three birds per replication) in a completely randomized design for nine weeks. Experimental diets were included: 1) control (no oil), 2) 3.00% fish oil, 3) 3.00% olive oil, 4) 3.00% grape seed oil, 5) 3.00% canola oil, and 6) 3.00% soybean oil. The diets were similar in terms of energy and protein. Egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and fatty acid composition of egg yolk were determined at the end of the trial. The results indicated that the performance parameters were not significantly different between treatments in the entire period (p > 0.05). However, fatty acids profiles of yolk were affected by experimental diets (p oil significantly reduced omega-6 fatty acids and increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in egg yolk. Also canola oil increased linolenic acid content in the egg yolk. In conclusion, fish oil increased omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and decreased omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in eggs which may have beneficial effects on human health.

  17. Individual Distinctive Features of Self-Regulation Processes Peculiar to Students of Different Profiles of Lateral Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneeva, Svetlana A.; Zherebnenko, Oksana A.; Mukhamedzyanova, Flera G.; Moskalenko, Svetlana V.; Gorelikova, Olga N.

    2016-01-01

    The research paper presents an analysis of the interrelation between the lateral organisation profiles' indicators and self-regulation features. The existence of significant distinctions in the processes of self-regulation among respondents with different variants of lateral profiles of the interhemispheric asymmetry is proved, as well as the…

  18. Measuring Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation: The Emotion Regulation Profile-Revised (ERP-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Nelis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to validate a new instrument aimed to assess emotion regulation: the Emotion Regulation Profile-Revised (ERP-R. Exploratory factor analyses yielded two theoretically meaningful factors: down-regulation of negative emotions and up-regulation of positive emotions. Internal reliability scores of the two factors were good. Findings showed evidence of convergent/discriminant validity, with ERP-R scores being independent of non verbal reasoning and verbal skills while positively related to emotional intelligence and to relevant personality dimensions. There was also preliminary evidence of criterion validity. ERP-R scores also demonstrated incremental validity to predict a number of criteria over and above emotional intelligence and emotional stability. Overall, the results show a clear 2 factors solution for the ERP-R and high correlations with convergent and divergent scales as well as good criterion and incremental validities.

  19. How Do Young Students with Different Profiles of Reading Skill Mastery, Perceived Ability, and Goal Orientation Respond to Holistic Diagnostic Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunice Eunhee; Dunlop, Maggie; Park, Gina; van der Boom, Edith H.

    2015-01-01

    One critical issue with cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) lies in its lack of research evidence that shows how diagnostic feedback from CDA is interpreted and used by young students. This mixed methods research examined how holistic diagnostic feedback (HDF) is processed by young learners with different profiles of reading skills, goal…

  20. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-15

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aerosol chemistry in Beijing, China: Different pollution regimes and diurnal profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pinxteren, D.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Iinuma, Y.; Müller, K.; Nowak, A.; Achtert, P.; Wiedensohler, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2009-04-01

    The rapid economic development during the last three decades in China has led to a severe decrease in air quality, especially in densely populated regions such as Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta. Although during last years a number of measures for air pollution control have been implemented especially in the capital Beijing, air pollution is still regarded to be one of the top environmental concerns in China during the next decade. To better characterize the processes leading to the frequently observed high concentrations of air pollutants on a regional scale, the international field campaign "Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2006" (CAREBEIJING2006) was conducted in summer 2006. Organized by the Peking University, project partners from Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Germany, and China studied the various aspects of gaseous and particulate air pollution in a megacity environment. In this contribution, we present chemical data of size-resolved particles, obtained by a 5-stage Berner impactor (0.05-10 μm) during 3 weeks at both an urban and a suburban site in the area of Beijing, China. The sampling time of the impactors was about 4-5 hours. This allowed for taking four size-resolved samples per day and obtaining rough diurnal profiles of particle components. The samples were analyzed for inorganic ions (Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+), carbon sum parameters (OC, EC, WSOC), and a variety of organic compounds such as dicarboxylic acids, alkanes, PAHs and, for the first time in China, nitrooxy-organosulfates. On average, the observed PM10 mass concentrations were 133 μg m-3 and 112 μg m-3 at the urban and suburban site, respectively. In general, the observed concentrations of particulate pollutants were similarly high as reported from previous studies in the Beijing summer atmosphere. A back trajectory analysis allowed the classification of the samples into different meteorological categories with different air mass origins. A high

  2. Bovine cytochrome c oxidases, purified from heart, skeletal muscle, liver and kidney, differ in the small subunits but show the same reaction kinetics with cytochrome c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinjorgo, K. M.; Durak, I.; Dekker, H. L.; Edel, C. M.; Hakvoort, T. B.; van Gelder, B. F.; Muijsers, A. O.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate of purified cytochrome c oxidase preparations revealed that bovine kidney, skeletal muscle and heart contain different cytochrome c oxidase isoenzymes, which show differences in mobility of the subunits encoded by the

  3. Sesquiterpene lactone containing extracts from two cultivars of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) show distinctive chemical profiles and in vitro activity against Ostertagia ostertagi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Boas, Ulrik; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    .01), while Puna II-extract had increased levels of 11, 13-dihydrolactucin (P EC50 (P ... interfered with the exsheathment of L3 (P > 0.05). In the AMIA, both SL-containing extracts induced a dose-dependent effect but Spadona-extract showed greater activity and exerted faster worm paralysis than Puna II-extract with significantly lower EC50 (P

  4. Distinct differences in global gene expression profiles in non-implanted blastocysts and blastocysts resulting in live birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Villesen, Palle; Jensen, Jacob Malte; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Kølvraa, Steen; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2015-10-25

    Results from animal models points towards the existence of a gene expression profile that is distinguishably different in viable embryos compared with non-viable embryos. Knowledge of human embryo transcripts is however limited, in particular with regard to how gene expression is related to clinical outcome. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the global gene expression profiles of human blastocysts. Next Generation Sequencing was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed in non-implanted embryos and embryos resulting in live birth. Three trophectoderm biopsies were obtained from morphologically high quality blastocysts resulting in live birth and three biopsies were obtained from non-implanting blastocysts of a comparable morphology. Total RNA was extracted from all samples followed by complete transcriptome sequencing. Using a set of filtering criteria, we obtained a list of 181 genes that were differentially expressed between trophectoderm biopsies from embryos resulting in either live birth or no implantation (negative hCG), respectively. We found that 37 of the 181 genes displayed significantly differential expression (plive birth and non-implanting, respectively. Out of the 181 genes, almost 80% (145 genes) were up-regulated in biopsies from un-implanted embryos, whereas only 20% (36 genes) showed an up-regulation in the samples from embryos resulting in live birth. Our findings suggest the presence of molecular differences visually undetectable between implanted and non-implanted embryos, and represent a proof of principle study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Font i Forcada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1 on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  6. Differences in shoot and root terpenoid profiles and plant responses to fertilisation in Tanacetum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Intraspecific chemical diversity is a common phenomenon especially found in shoots of essential oil-accumulating plant species. Abiotic factors can influence the concentration of essential oils, but the effects are inconsistent and little is known in how far these may vary within an individual and within species between chemotypes. Tanacetum vulgare L. occurs in various chemotypes that differ in the composition of mono- and sesquiterpenoids in their shoot tissues. We investigated how far shoot chemotype grouping is mirrored in root terpenoid profiles. Furthermore, we studied whether different fertilisation amounts influence the plant growth and morphological traits as well as the constitutive terpenoid concentration of leaves and roots of three chemotypes, trans-carvyl acetate, β-thujone, and camphor, to different degrees. Shoot terpenoids were dominated by monoterpenoids, while the roots contained mainly sesquiterpenoids. The clear grouping in three chemotypes based on leaf chemistry was weakly mirrored in the root terpenoid composition. Furthermore, the leaf C/N ratio and the stem height differed between chemotypes. All plants responded to increased nutrient availability with increased total biomass and specific leaf area but decreased C/N and root/shoot ratios. Leaf terpenoid concentrations decreased with increasing fertiliser supply, independent of chemotype. In contrast to the leaves, the terpenoid concentrations of the roots were unaffected by fertilisation. Our results demonstrate that aboveground and belowground organs within a species can be under different selection pressures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vertical photogrammetric evaluation of the soft tissue profiles of two different racial groups: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Joseph Samba; Ngom, Papa Ibrahima; Fadiga, Mohamed Siddick; Badiane, Alpha; Diop-Ba, Khady; Ndiaye, Marième; Diagne, Falou

    2014-12-01

    Facial soft-tissue analyses based on photographic records (photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissues) highlight interracial and interethnic dimorphism. The standards for facial analyses, originally obtained from Caucasian subjects, are not appropriate for the diagnosis and treatment planning of other groups of orthodontic patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the photogrammetric soft tissue profile characteristics in the vertical dimension of Senegalese and Moroccan adults. A cross-sectional study was performed on a group of Senegalese and Moroccan students in the Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry of Dakar. Standardized profile photographs were taken for each student in a natural head position, centric relation, and relaxed lip posture. Fourteen linear and ten angular parameters were measured on a paper print using a graduated ruler and a protractor. The mean and standard deviation (SD) were calculated for each variable. In addition an independent samples t-test was performed to detect sexual and racial dimorphism. Results were regarded as significant at P=0.05. Moroccan subjects had a less pronounced nasal bridge and a significantly more open nasolabial angle than the Senegalese, who had significantly greater lip height and a significantly less open inter-labial angle than the Moroccans. Further studies including different age groups would enable longitudinal data according to age to be obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptome profiling of the rumen epithelium of beef cattle differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Rebecca S G; Liang, Guanxiang; Chen, Yanhong; Stothard, Paul; Guan, Le Luo

    2016-08-09

    Feed efficient cattle consume less feed and produce less environmental waste than inefficient cattle. Many factors are known to contribute to differences in feed efficiency, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Our study aimed to understand how host gene expression in the rumen epithelium contributes to differences in residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, using a transcriptome profiling based approach. The rumen epithelial transcriptome from highly efficient (low (L-) RFI, n = 9) and inefficient (high (H-) RFI, n = 9) Hereford x Angus steers was obtained using RNA-sequencing. There were 122 genes differentially expressed between the rumen epithelial tissues of L- and H- RFI steers (p energy generating pathways such as glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Further qPCR analysis of steers with different RFI (L-RFI, n = 35; M-RFI, n = 34; H-RFI, n = 35) revealed that the relative mitochondrial genome copy number per cell of the epithelium was positively correlated with RFI (r = 0.21, p = 0.03). Our results suggest that the rumen epithelium of L-RFI (efficient) steers may have increased tissue morphogenesis that possibly increases paracellular permeability for the absorption of nutrients and increased energy production to support the energetic demands of increased tissue morphogenesis compared to those of H-RFI (inefficient) animals. Greater expression of mitochondrial genes and lower relative mitochondrial genome copy numbers suggest a greater rate of transcription in the rumen epithelial mitochondria of L-RFI steers. Understanding how host gene expression profiles are associated with RFI could potentially lead to identification of mechanisms behind this trait, which are vital to develop strategies for the improvement of cattle feed efficiency.

  9. Proteomic profiling differences in serum from silicosis and chronic bronchitis patients: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Rongming; Ding, Bangmei; Zhang, Yingyi; Xia, Qian; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Silicosis is a severe occupational disease characterized by pulmonary fibrosis, whereas chronic bronchitis (CB) is an acute inflammation of the airways. Differences in the mechanisms of pathogenesis of these diseases are not well understood, therefore we performed proteomic profiling of silicosis and CB patients and, compared the results. Methods Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry) were used to identify differentially accumulated proteins in stage I of silicosis (SI), stage II of silicosis (SII) and CB. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to validate protein expression data. Results A total of 28 and 10 proteins were up- and down-regulated in SI, and 21 and 9 proteins were up- and down-regulated SII, compared with CB. Transforming growth factor beta-1 precursor and interferon beta precursor were up-regulated in CB, while interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and a variant TNF receptor 13B were down-regulated in CB. Additionally, glycoprotein- and apolipoprotein-associated proteins including apolipoprotein A-IV and α-1-B-glycoprotein were up-regulated in CB, indicating an involvement in the pathogenesis of CB but not silicosis. By contrast, HLA-DRB1, medullasin and the proto-oncogene c-Fos were up-regulated in CB. Conclusions The immune, metabolism and apolipoprotein-related proteins were identified as playing specific and different roles in silicosis and CB. These proteomic profiling differences would facilitate further studies on the mechanisms underlying silicosis and CB, and may also prove useful to disease diagnosis and treatments. PMID:27076939

  10. Activity Profiles and the Associations With Weight Status in Population Studies of Young Children: Are There Gender Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Aoife; Dowd, Kieran; O'Gorman, Clodagh; Hannigan, Ailish; Walsh, Cathal; Purtill, Helen

    2017-02-01

    Profiling activity behaviors in young children is important to understand changes in weight status over time. The purpose of this study is to identify activity profiles from self- and parental-reported Physical Activity (PA) and Sedentary Behavior (SB) variables by gender, and determine if the identified profiles are predictive of weight change from age 9-13 years. Cluster analysis was used to generate activity profiles for the National Longitudinal Study of 8570 9-year-old children (Growing Up in Ireland). 5.4% of boys were found to be obese. Four cohesive activity profiles were identified for boys, with 7.3% of boys in the least active group identified as obese compared with 4.1% in the most active group. The odds of a normal weight 9-year-old boy in the least active profile becoming overweight or obese at age 13 were over twice those in most active profile (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.5). No coherent activity profiles were identified for girls. This study suggests that self- and parental-reported data can identify meaningful activity profiles for boys, which are predictive of weight changes over time. Future research should consider potential gender differences in self- and parental-reported PA and SB variables.

  11. Proteomic profiles reveal age-related changes in coelomic fluid of sea urchin species with different life spans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Sea urchins have a different life history from humans and traditional model organisms used to study the process of aging. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, reproduce throughout their life span and some species have been shown to exhibit negligible senescence with no increase in mortality rate at advanced ages. Despite these properties, different species of sea urchins are reported to have very different natural life spans providing a unique model to investigate cellular mechanisms underlying life span determination and negligible senescence. To gain insight into the biological changes that accompany aging in these animals, proteomic profiles were examined in coelomic fluid from young and old sea urchins of three species with different life spans: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate life span. The proteomic profiles of cell-free coelomic fluid were complex with many proteins exhibiting different forms and extensive post-translational modifications. Approximately 20% of the protein spots on 2-D gels showed more than two-fold change with age in each of the species. Changes that are consistent with age in all three species may prove to be useful biomarkers for age-determination for these commercially fished marine invertebrates and also may provide clues to mechanisms of negligible senescence. Among the proteins that change with age, the ectodomain of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) was significantly increased in the coelomic fluid of all three sea urchin species suggesting that the Wnt signaling pathway should be further investigated for its role in negligible senescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Different restriction profiles of kappa prophage in Serratia marcescens K and HY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, H; Kimpel, E; Mohasseb-Karimlou, B

    1996-01-01

    Temperate phage kappa originated from the defectively lysogenic Serratia marcescens strain K, from where it was liberated after uv irradiation with low efficiency. The phage is usually indicated on strain HY that can be easily lysogenized by it and rather efficiently uv-induced. Comparing the Eco RI restriction profiles of the kappa prophage in HY revealed a DNA rearrangement, by which the precursor structure in K is converted into the non-defective form. Apparently the fragment containing the pac sequence is concerned since a phage DNA probe prepared from the assumed initiation fragments of the first particles of the packaging series gave two signals instead of one with genomic K DNA. Since several independent new kappa isolates showed the same Eco RI restriction pattern as the original phage of ELLMAUER and KAPLAN (1959), the generation of kappa is a reproducible event.

  13. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptom Profile: Results from Nationwide General Population Surveys in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Maeng Je; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Lee, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated gender differences in symptom profiles of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Korean general population. Data were pooled from the series of nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001, 2006 and 2011, respectively. Of the 18,807 participants, 507 (397 women and 110 men) were diagnosed with MDD within the prior 12 months. In agreement with previous studies, women with MDD appeared to be more vulnerable to experiencing atypical depressive episodes defined as depression with two or more symptoms of fatigue, increased appetite and hypersomnia (P gender was significantly related with higher prevalence of fatigue (P = 0.008), hypersomnia (P = 0.001), noticeable psychomotor retardation (P = 0.029) and suicidal attempts (P = 0.016) with adjustment for birth cohort effect, partner status, and employment status. In the same analysis, men with MDD appeared more vulnerable to decreased libido than women (P = 0.009). This is the first report to demonstrate gender differences in symptomatology of MDD in the general Korean population, and the results are comparable to previous investigations from western societies. Assumingly, the intercultural similarity in female preponderance to atypical depression might reflect the common biological construct underlying the gender difference in mechanism of MDD. In clinical settings, gender differences of MDD should be carefully considered, because these features could be related with treatment response and drug side effects.

  14. Pain profiling of patients with temporomandibular joint arthralgia and osteoarthritis diagnosed with different imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Simple Futarmal; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Hansen, Lars Bolvig; Bang, Niels; Sørensen, Leif Hovgaard; Eskildsen, Helle Wulf; Svensson, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Clinical differentiation between pain mechanisms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia and osteoarthritis (OA) is challenging. The aims were to compare somatosensory function at the TMJs and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) effects between TMJ arthralgia and OA patients diagnosed clinically and based on different imaging techniques and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n = 41). Patients (n = 58) underwent standard clinical examination and three different TMJ imaging modalities. After each examination, they were classified into arthralgia or OA based on the findings. TMJ region somatosensory testing was performed in all participants. Z-scores were calculated for patients based on healthy reference data. CPM was tested by comparing pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at TMJ and thenar (control) before, during and after the application of painful and nonpainful cold stimuli. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance. Somatosensory abnormalities were commonly detected in both patient groups. Assessment of somatosensory function at the TMJ revealed that arthralgia patients were less sensitive to warmth, cold and tactile stimuli than OA patients (P painful cold application in all groups (P Pain profiles including somatosensory function differed between TMJ arthralgia and OA patients although CPM effects were similar in patients and controls. Thus, different TMJ pain conditions may share common pain mechanisms but the present study for the first time also indicated that differential pain mechanisms could be involved.

  15. Profiling of Junior College Football Players and Differences between Position Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Lockie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study profiled junior college football players. Sixty-two subjects completed vertical jump (VJ; height and peak power, standing broad jump (SBJ, 36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, three-cone drill, and maximal-repetition bench press and front squat. The sample included 2 quarterbacks (QB, 7 running backs (RB, 13 wide receivers (WR, 1 tight end (TE, 18 defensive backs (DB, 8 linebackers (LB, and 13 offensive and defensive linemen (LM. To investigate positional differences, subjects were split into skill (SK; WR, DB, big skill (BSK; QB, RB, TE, LB, and LM groups. A one-way ANOVA determined between-group differences. LM were taller and heavier than SK and BSK players. The SK and BSK groups were faster than LM in the 0–36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, and three-cone drill (p ≤ 0.009. The SK group had greater VJ height and SBJ distance; LM generated greater VJ peak power (p ≤ 0.022. There were no between-group differences in the strength endurance tests. Compared to Division I data, junior college players were smaller, slower, and performed worse in jump tests. Positional differences in junior college football are typical to that of established research. Junior college players should attempt to increase body mass, and improve speed and lower-body power.

  16. The Longissimus and Semimembranosus muscles display marked differences in their gene expression profiles in pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Herault

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Meat quality depends on skeletal muscle structure and metabolic properties. While most studies carried on pigs focus on the Longissimus muscle (LM for fresh meat consumption, Semimembranosus (SM is also of interest because of its importance for cooked ham production. Even if both muscles are classified as glycolytic muscles, they exhibit dissimilar myofiber composition and metabolic characteristics. The comparison of LM and SM transcriptome profiles undertaken in this study may thus clarify the biological events underlying their phenotypic differences which might influence several meat quality traits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Muscular transcriptome analyses were performed using a custom pig muscle microarray: the 15 K Genmascqchip. A total of 3823 genes were differentially expressed between the two muscles (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted P value ≤0.05, out of which 1690 and 2133 were overrepresented in LM and SM respectively. The microarray data were validated using the expression level of seven differentially expressed genes quantified by real-time RT-PCR. A set of 1047 differentially expressed genes with a muscle fold change ratio above 1.5 was used for functional characterization. Functional annotation emphasized five main clusters associated to transcriptome muscle differences. These five clusters were related to energy metabolism, cell cycle, gene expression, anatomical structure development and signal transduction/immune response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study revealed strong transcriptome differences between LM and SM. These results suggest that skeletal muscle discrepancies might arise essentially from different post-natal myogenic activities.

  17. Cognitive Profiles of Mathematical Problem Solving Learning Disability for Different Definitions of Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    Three cohorts of third-grade students (N = 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods from these two traditions to form math problem solving LD groups. To evaluate group differences, we used MANOVA-based profile and canonical analyses to control for relations among the outcomes and regression to control for group definition variables. Results suggest that basic arithmetic is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates low-achieving problem solvers (including LD, regardless of definition) from typically achieving students. Word problem solving is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates IQ-achievement-discrepant from strictly low-achieving LD students, favoring the IQ-achievement-discrepant students. PMID:24939971

  18. WHERE IS THE DIFFERENCE? THE PROFILE OF THE ROMANIAN CANDIDATES FOR THE 2009 EUROPEAN ELECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Gherghina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a complex dataset that includes the age, gender, education, public experience, party career, wealth, and the occupational background of all 215 candidates proposed by the five Romanian parties winning seats in the 2009 EP elections, this article devises an analytical framework for the candidates’ profiles. The study is valuable for those researching the professionalization of the EP along the convergence thesis, and for the legislative recruitment scholars interested in candidates’ qualities targeted by selectorates in a blocked-list PR setting, i.e., the significant differences between candidates receiving an eligible place and the rest. Our findings reflect the importance given by parties to previous experience in the EP and to wealth/capacity to contribute to the campaign costs and, at the same time, they emphasize the ambivalent educational trajectories of the candidates and the dominance on the lists of male politicians.

  19. Yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of Ziziphus jujube Mill. in response to different fertilization treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Sen; Gao, Qing-Han; Kjelgren, Roger Keith; Guo, Xu-Dan; Wang, Min

    2013-09-27

    Increasing demand for more jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) production requires understanding the specific fertilization needs of jujube trees. This study was conducted to compare fruit yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of jujube in response to different fertilizers. Application of organic fertilizer appeared to enhance the phenolics and antioxidant activity accumulation of jujubes, compared to conventional fertilized jujubes. Amongst inorganic fertilizers, supplemental potassium as an individual nutrient improved the accumulation of phenolics in jujubes. Our results demonstrate that phenolics levels and antioxidant activity of jujube can be manipulated through fertilizer management and tracked by following proanthocyanidin concentrations. In a practical production context, the combination of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers such as more supplemental individual potassium, and less supplemental individual nitrogen and phosphorus, might be the best management combination for achieving higher phenolic concentration, stronger antioxidant activity and a good harvest.

  20. Yields, Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Ziziphus jujube Mill. in Response to Different Fertilization Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for more jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill. production requires understanding the specific fertilization needs of jujube trees. This study was conducted to compare fruit yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of jujube in response to different fertilizers. Application of organic fertilizer appeared to enhance the phenolics and antioxidant activity accumulation of jujubes, compared to conventional fertilized jujubes. Amongst inorganic fertilizers, supplemental potassium as an individual nutrient improved the accumulation of phenolics in jujubes. Our results demonstrate that phenolics levels and antioxidant activity of jujube can be manipulated through fertilizer management and tracked by following proanthocyanidin concentrations. In a practical production context, the combination of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers such as more supplemental individual potassium, and less supplemental individual nitrogen and phosphorus, might be the best management combination for achieving higher phenolic concentration, stronger antioxidant activity and a good harvest.

  1. Cognitive Profiles of Mathematical Problem Solving Learning Disability for Different Definitions of Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Tammy D; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L

    2016-01-01

    Three cohorts of third-grade students (N= 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods from these two traditions to form math problem solving LD groups. To evaluate group differences, we used MANOVA-based profile and canonical analyses to control for relations among the outcomes and regression to control for group definition variables. Results suggest that basic arithmetic is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates low-achieving problem solvers (including LD, regardless of definition) from typically achieving students. Word problem solving is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates IQ-achievement-discrepant from strictly low-achieving LD students, favoring the IQ-achievement-discrepant students. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  2. Differences in the glucose and fructose consumption profiles in diverse Saccharomyces wine species and their hybrids during grape juice fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchoni, Jordi; Gamero, Amparo; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2009-09-15

    Yeasts with a high fructose consumption capability are very important for winemakers to solve problems associated with sluggish or stuck fermentations causing undesirable sweetness in wines. In the present study, we analyze the kinetics of glucose and fructose consumption during wine fermentations performed at low (12 degrees C) and high (28 degrees C) temperatures by twelve different yeast strains belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus var. uvarum, S. kudriavzevii as well as interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids. Different mathematical equations (sigmoid, exponential and linear decay functions) were used to fit, by means of linear and nonlinear regressions, the sugar degradation along the fermentative process. Temperature had an important influence on glucose and fructose consumption, and clearly different degradation profiles were observed at 12 and 28 degrees C. From the obtained equations, times to consume half and total of the initial glucose and fructose concentrations present in the must were calculated, allowing a quantitative comparison among yeasts in order to select the fastest fermentative yeast according to the fermentation temperature. In general, all yeasts assayed showed a slightly higher preference for glucose than fructose at both temperatures, confirming the glucophilic character of Saccharomyces wine yeasts. However, at low temperatures, some Saccharomyces yeasts showed a fructophilic character at the beginning of fermentation. This kind of studies can be very useful for the wine industry to select yeast strains with different glucose/fructose preferences.

  3. Evaluation and comparison of in-vitro dissolution profiles for different brands of amoxicillin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaye, L; Genete, G

    2013-06-01

    Amoxicillin is an oral semi-synthetic, β-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible micro organisms. It is usually prepared in capsule, tablet and powder for oral suspension form. Solid dosage forms for oral administration pose bioavailability problems related to the absorption process The World Health Organization (WHO) has promoted the use of generic brands in order to make the cost of medicines affordable. Generic substitution could be considered when a generic copy of a reference drug contains identical amounts of the same active ingredient in the same dose formulation and route of administration. However, the presences of generic products those are not interchangeable with that of the innovator and/or with each others have been reported. To evaluate and compare the in-vitro dissolution profiles of different generic brands of amoxicillin capsules with the innovator that are available in Ethiopian market. Dissolution profiles for nine brands of amoxicillin capsules contained amoxicillin 500 mg which are available in Ethiopian market were determined using a method from the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP, 2009). The obtained dissolution profile data of the eight brands were evaluated and compared with the innovator brand (Amoxil™) using two different statistical methods: the fit factors (f1 & f2) and the dissolution efficiency (D.E.) model. Most generic brands of amoxicillin capsules (62.5% of the tested brands) are not interchangeable with the innovator brand. The calculated f1 factor for Brand A and Brand G are 10.1 and 1.1 respectively. However, for the rest six brands the f1 factors are greater than 15. The f2 factor for Brand G is 74.1 and for Brand A is 48.5 which is near to 50. Similarly, the f2 factors for the six brands are less than 50 which support the result of the f1 factors for the dissimilarity of these brands with the innovator brand. The mean dissolution efficiencies as well as the 95% confidence intervals are

  4. Women with epilepsy and infertility have different reproductive hormone profile than others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev V Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: One-third of women with epilepsy (WWE may experience infertility (failure to conceive after 12 months of regular unprotected intercourse. We aimed to compare the hormone profile of WWE and infertility (WWE-I with that of WWE who had conceived earlier (WWE-F. Materials and Methods: In the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy, we compared the clinical and hormone profile of 50 WWE-I and 40 age-matched WWE-F. Subjects were examined and blood samples were drawn in follicular phase (1-14 days for 21 WWE-I and 18 WWE-F, in luteal phase (15-30 days for 23 WWE-I and 15 WWE-F and beyond 30 days for 6 WWE-I and WWE-F who had irregular cycles. Results: The two groups were comparable regarding physical, epilepsy syndrome, duration of epilepsy, body mass index, and serum cholesterol levels. Menstrual periods were irregular for 6 WWE-I and 5 WWE-F. The WWE-I group (compared to the WWE-F group had significantly (P < 0.01 higher levels of dehydroepiandrostenedione (2.0 ± 1.7 ug/mL vs. 1.0 ± 0.7 ug/mL and luteinizing hormone-LH (26.4 ± 37.3 mIU/mL vs. 9.9 ± 14.5 mIU/mL and lower levels of progesterone (5.2 ± 9.2 ng/mL vs. 10.4 ± 13.4 ng/mL. There was no significant difference in the levels of FT3, FT4, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, progesterone, testosterone, or androstenedione levels. The WWE-I had 8.5 times higher risk (95% confidence interval 1.2-59.9 of abnormal LH/FSH ratio. WWE who were on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs (compared to WWE who were not on AEDs had higher risk of elevated LH/FSH ratio. Conclusion: The hormone profile of WWE-I is significantly different from that of WWE-F. These variations need to be interpreted with caution as a causal relationship to epilepsy or use of antiepileptic drugs need to be established through further studies.

  5. Two different approaches to the affective profiles model: median splits (variable-oriented) and cluster analysis (person-oriented)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Shane; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. The notion of the affective system as being composed of two dimensions led Archer and colleagues to the development of the affective profiles model. The model consists of four different profiles based on combinations of individuals’ experience of high/low positive and negative affect: self-fulfilling, low affective, high affective, and self-destructive. During the past 10 years, an increasing number of studies have used this person-centered model as the backdrop for the investigation of between and within individual differences in ill-being and well-being. The most common approach to this profiling is by dividing individuals’ scores of self-reported affect using the median of the population as reference for high/low splits. However, scores just-above and just-below the median might become high and low by arbitrariness, not by reality. Thus, it is plausible to criticize the validity of this variable-oriented approach. Our aim was to compare the median splits approach with a person-oriented approach, namely, cluster analysis. Method. The participants (N = 2, 225) were recruited through Amazons’ Mechanical Turk and asked to self-report affect using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. We compared the profiles’ homogeneity and Silhouette coefficients to discern differences in homogeneity and heterogeneity between approaches. We also conducted exact cell-wise analyses matching the profiles from both approaches and matching profiles and gender to investigate profiling agreement with respect to affectivity levels and affectivity and gender. All analyses were conducted using the ROPstat software. Results. The cluster approach (weighted average of cluster homogeneity coefficients = 0.62, Silhouette coefficients = 0.68) generated profiles with greater homogeneity and more distinctive from each other compared to the median splits approach (weighted average of cluster homogeneity coefficients = 0.75, Silhouette coefficients = 0.59). Most of the

  6. Sesquiterpene lactone containing extracts from two cultivars of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) show distinctive chemical profiles and in vitro activity against Ostertagia ostertagi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Boas, Ulrik; Williams, Andrew R; Thamsborg, Stig M; Simonsen, Henrik T; Enemark, Heidi L

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated direct anthelmintic effects of sesquiterpene lactones (SL)-containing extracts from forage chicory against free-living and parasitic stages of Ostertagia ostertagi. Freeze-dried leaves from chicory cultivars 'Spadona' and 'Puna II' were extracted using methanol/water. Total SL were further fractionated by solid-phase extraction and resulting extracts were characterised by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). O. ostertagi eggs from faeces of mono-infected calves were hatched and L1 were used in a larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), while cultured L3 were used in a larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA). Adult worms were immediately recovered after slaughter and used for motility inhibition assays (AMIA). Electron microscopy (EM) was performed on adult O. ostertagi exposed to 1000 μg extract mL(-1) of both chicory cultivars. In all assays, decreasing concentrations of SL-containing extracts in PBS (1% DMSO) were tested in replicates with 1% DMSO in PBS as negative controls. HPLC demonstrated similar concentrations of most SL in both extracts. However, Spadona-extract contained significantly higher concentrations of 11, 13-dihydro-8-deoxylactucin (P = 0.01), while Puna II-extract had increased levels of 11, 13-dihydrolactucin (P LFIA, both extracts reduced larval feeding at increasing concentrations, but Spadona-extract showed higher potency confirmed by significantly lower EC50 (P  0.05). In the AMIA, both SL-containing extracts induced a dose-dependent effect but Spadona-extract showed greater activity and exerted faster worm paralysis than Puna II-extract with significantly lower EC50 (P < 0.0001). No cuticular damage was observed by EM in worms exposed to any of the extracts. We have demonstrated that SL-containing extracts from forage chicory can inhibit feeding of free-living larvae and exert direct effects against parasitic stages of O. ostertagi. Our results may contribute to the identification of natural

  7. Assessment of the haematological profile of children with malaria parasitaemia treated with three different artemisinin-based combination therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuocha Uchechukwu Madukaku

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the haematological profile of children with malaria, treated with three different artemisinin-based combination therapies in South Eastern Nigeria. Methods: Using a multistage sampling technique, blood samples were collected from 105 randomly selected malaria positive primary school children aged 6-13 years. Pre- and post-assessment of their haematological profiles were respectively done on intervention of three different artemisinin-based combination therapies. Results: Result showed a strong difference [(0.38 ± 0.31 g/dL] in haemoglobin levels with the artesunate-amodiaquine (t = 7.30, P < 0.05. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP and artemether-lumefantrine showed haemoglobin (t = 4.49, P < 0.05 with mean difference [(0.64 ± 0.85 g/dL] and (t = 6.09, P < 0.05 with mean difference [(0.80 ± 0.78 g/dL] respectively. The mean difference of white blood cell was found to be negative but significant with artesunate-amodiaquine (-1.07 ± 3.12 at 95% confidence intervel (CI (-2.14, 0.00 and artemether-lumefantrine (-0.36 ± 0.28 at 95% CI (-0.45, -0.26 interventions respectively. Significant mean difference of neutrophils was only found for the DP interventions (4.54 ± 8.30 at 95% CI (1.69, 7.40 while lymphocytes indicated a significant mean difference between the pre/post-interventions (-3.60 ± 9.34 at 95% CI (-6.81, -0.39 with DP only. Conclusions: Even though these findings do not indicate any life threatening events, they may have some useful implications for investigating future non-infectious diseases of blood origin. Further studies to determine the extent of involvement of malaria parasite as well as drug interactions in haematological alterations vis-a-vis its implication for noncommunicable disease are important.

  8. Glycemic control and lipid profile of children and adolescents undergoing two different dietetic treatments for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Haline; Saunders, Cláudia; Padilha, Patrícia de C; Luescher, Jorge Luiz; Szundy Berardo, Renata; Accioly, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    To compare the glycemic control and lipid profile of children and adolescents undergoing two different dietetic treatments for type 1 Diabetes Mellitus assisted at the Children and Adolescent's Diabetes Mellitus Health Center-UFRJ. A retrospective longitudinal study conducted between 2002 and 2006. We evaluated the same subjects in two different periods: after 1 year in TD and subsequently after 1 year in CCHO. The evolution of the nutritional status during the dietary treatments was evaluated using Body Mass Index (BMI) for age. The lipid panel was evaluated according to the 1st Guideline for Prevention of Atherosclerosis in Childhood and Adolescence, used in Brazil, and the glycemic control was evaluated by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). We evaluated 93 individuals, 38.7% children and 61.3% adolescents. The mean age at study entry was 11.1 (± 2.66) years and the mean disease duration was 6.1 (± 3.2) years. A significant difference in the percentage of adequacy of HbA1c (p = 0.000) and in the values of total plasma cholesterol (p = 0.043) was found after 1 year of CCHO diet, which did not happen during the observation time of TD. The evolution of anthropometric nutritional status showed no significant difference between the beginning and the end of both dietary treatments. The results of this study suggest that a more flexible food orientation program can contribute to the improvement of blood glucose levels without causing deterioration of the lipid profile when compared to TD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Personality Profiles, Values and Empathy: Differences between Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarians and Vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Christian S; Holler, Sophie; Joy, Sebastian; Dhruva, Anand; Michalsen, Andreas; Dobos, Gustav; Cramer, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Vegetarian nutrition is gaining increasing public attention worldwide. While some studies have examined differences in motivations and personality traits between vegetarians and omnivores, only few studies have considered differences in motivations and personality traits between the 2 largest vegetarian subgroups: lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans. To examine differences between lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans in the distribution patterns of motives, values, empathy, and personality profiles. An anonymous online survey was performed in January 2014. Group differences between vegetarians and vegans in their initial motives for the choice of nutritional approaches, health-related quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF)), personality traits (Big Five Inventory-SOEP (BFI-S)), values (Portraits Value Questionnaire (PVQ)), and empathy (Empathizing Scale) were analyzed by univariate analyses of covariance; P values were adjusted for multiple testing. 10,184 individuals completed the survey; 4,427 (43.5%) were vegetarians and 4,822 (47.3%) were vegans. Regarding the initial motives for the choice of nutritional approaches, vegans rated food taste, love of animals, and global/humanitarian reasons as more important, and the influence of their social environment as less important than did vegetarians. Compared to vegetarians, vegans had higher values on physical, psychological, and social quality of life on the WHOQOL-BREF, and scored lower on neuroticism and higher on openness on the BFI-S. In the PVQ, vegans scored lower than vegetarians on power/might, achievement, safety, conformity, and tradition and higher on self-determination and universalism. Vegans had higher empathy than vegetarians (all p vegetarians. Given the small absolute size of these differences, further research is needed to evaluate whether these group differences are relevant in everyday life and can be confirmed in other populations. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Pattern recognition of acorns from different Quercus species based on oil content and fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu, José M.F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was (i to characterize different species of Quercus genus and (ii to discriminate among them on the basis of the content and fatty acid composition of the oil in their fruits and/or their morphological aspects via pattern recognition techniques (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Cluster Analysis, CA, and Discriminant Analysis, DA. Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd., grown in the same stand in the centre of Portugal, were investigated. When oil content and respective fatty acid composition were used to characterize samples, well-separated groups corresponding to each of the species were observed by PCA and confirmed by CA and DA. The ‘‘width’’ and ‘‘length’’ of acorns exhibited a low discriminant power. Acorns from Q. rotundifolia showed the highest average oil content followed by Q. suber and Q. pyrenaica acorns (9.1, 5.2 and 3.8%, respectively. Fatty acid profiles of Q. rotundifolia and Q. suber oils are similar to olive oil while the oil from Q. pyrenaica acorns is more unsaturated.El objetivo de este estudio fué (i la caracterización de diferentes especies del género Quercus y (ii la clasificación de las mismas en base al contenido y composición de ácidos grasos del aceite de sus frutos y/o en sus caracteres morfológicos, via técnicas de patrón de reconocimiento (Análisis de Componentes Principales, ACP, Análisis de Cluster, AC, y Análisis Discriminante, AD. Se han estudiado Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. y Quercus pyrenaica Willd., pertenecientes a la misma zona del centro de Portugal. Al emplear el contenido de aceite y sus respectivas composiciones de ácidos grasos para caracterizar a las muestras, el ACP reveló grupos bien separados correspondientes a cada especie, los cuales, a su vez, se confirmarón con el AC y el AD. El ‘‘ancho’’ y ‘‘longitud’’ de las bellotas

  11. Sesquiterpene lactone containing extracts from two cultivars of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus show distinctive chemical profiles and in vitro activity against Ostertagia ostertagi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Peña-Espinoza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated direct anthelmintic effects of sesquiterpene lactones (SL-containing extracts from forage chicory against free-living and parasitic stages of Ostertagia ostertagi. Freeze-dried leaves from chicory cultivars ‘Spadona’ and ‘Puna II’ were extracted using methanol/water. Total SL were further fractionated by solid-phase extraction and resulting extracts were characterised by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. O. ostertagi eggs from faeces of mono-infected calves were hatched and L1 were used in a larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA, while cultured L3 were used in a larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA. Adult worms were immediately recovered after slaughter and used for motility inhibition assays (AMIA. Electron microscopy (EM was performed on adult O. ostertagi exposed to 1000 μg extract mL−1 of both chicory cultivars. In all assays, decreasing concentrations of SL-containing extracts in PBS (1% DMSO were tested in replicates with 1% DMSO in PBS as negative controls. HPLC demonstrated similar concentrations of most SL in both extracts. However, Spadona-extract contained significantly higher concentrations of 11, 13-dihydro-8-deoxylactucin (P = 0.01, while Puna II-extract had increased levels of 11, 13-dihydrolactucin (P  0.05. In the AMIA, both SL-containing extracts induced a dose-dependent effect but Spadona-extract showed greater activity and exerted faster worm paralysis than Puna II-extract with significantly lower EC50 (P < 0.0001. No cuticular damage was observed by EM in worms exposed to any of the extracts. We have demonstrated that SL-containing extracts from forage chicory can inhibit feeding of free-living larvae and exert direct effects against parasitic stages of O. ostertagi. Our results may contribute to the identification of natural anti-parasitic compounds and to interpret the in vivo anthelmintic effects of forage chicory.

  12. Chemical and Antimicrobial Profiling of Propolis from Different Regions within Libya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weam Siheri

    Full Text Available Extracts from twelve samples of propolis collected from different regions of Libya were tested for their activity against Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum, Crithidia fasciculata and Mycobacterium marinum and the cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested against mammalian cells. All the extracts were active to some degree against all of the protozoa and the mycobacterium, exhibiting a range of EC50 values between 1.65 and 53.6 μg/ml. The toxicity against mammalian cell lines was only moderate; the most active extract against the protozoan species, P2, displayed an IC50 value of 53.2 μg/ml. The extracts were profiled by using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. The data sets were extracted using m/z Mine and the accurate masses of the features extracted were searched against the Dictionary of Natural Products (DNP. A principal component analysis (PCA model was constructed which, in combination with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, divided the samples into five groups. The outlying groups had different sets of dominant compounds in the extracts, which could be characterised by their elemental composition. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS analysis was used to link the activity of each extract against the different micro-organisms to particular components in the extracts.

  13. Chemical and Antimicrobial Profiling of Propolis from Different Regions within Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siheri, Weam; Zhang, Tong; Ebiloma, Godwin Unekwuojo; Biddau, Marco; Woods, Nicola; Hussain, Muattaz Yassein; Clements, Carol J; Fearnley, James; Ebel, RuAngelie Edrada; Paget, Timothy; Muller, Sylke; Carter, Katharine C; Ferro, Valerie A; De Koning, Harry P; Watson, David G

    2016-01-01

    Extracts from twelve samples of propolis collected from different regions of Libya were tested for their activity against Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum, Crithidia fasciculata and Mycobacterium marinum and the cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested against mammalian cells. All the extracts were active to some degree against all of the protozoa and the mycobacterium, exhibiting a range of EC50 values between 1.65 and 53.6 μg/ml. The toxicity against mammalian cell lines was only moderate; the most active extract against the protozoan species, P2, displayed an IC50 value of 53.2 μg/ml. The extracts were profiled by using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. The data sets were extracted using m/z Mine and the accurate masses of the features extracted were searched against the Dictionary of Natural Products (DNP). A principal component analysis (PCA) model was constructed which, in combination with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), divided the samples into five groups. The outlying groups had different sets of dominant compounds in the extracts, which could be characterised by their elemental composition. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) analysis was used to link the activity of each extract against the different micro-organisms to particular components in the extracts.

  14. High-resolution hydrogen profiling in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by different epitaxial methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Posada Flores, F; Redondo-Cubero, A; Bengoechea, A; Brana, A F; Munoz, E [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia (ISOM) and Dpto. IngenierIa Electronica (DIE), ETSI de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Gago, R [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A [Dpto. Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, E-28805 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Grambole, D, E-mail: fposada@die.upm.e [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF 51019, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-03-07

    Hydrogen (H) incorporation into AlGaN/GaN heterostructures used in high electron mobility transistors, grown by different methods, is studied by high-resolution depth profiling. Samples grown on sapphire and Si(1 1 1) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy and metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy; involving H-free and H-containing precursors, were analysed to evaluate the eventual incorporation of H into the wafer. The amount of H was measured by means of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using the {sup 1}H({sup 15}N,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C reaction up to a depth of {approx}110 nm into the heterostructures. Interestingly, the H profiles are similar in all the samples analysed, with an increasing H content towards the surface and a negligible H incorporation into the GaN layer (0.24 {+-} 0.08 at%) or at the AlGaN/GaN interface. Therefore, NRA shows that H uptake is not related to the growth process or technique employed and that H contamination may be due to external sources after growth. The eventual correlation between topographical defects on the AlGaN surface and the H concentration are also discussed.

  15. Different gene expression profiles in normo- and dyslipidemic men after fish oil supplementation: results from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Simone

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have suggested the benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on cardiovascular health, but only limited data are available describing n-3 PUFA regulated pathways in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA administration on whole genome expression profiles in the blood of normo- and dyslipidemic subjects. Methods Differentially expressed genes were detected after four hours, one week and twelve weeks of supplementation with either fish oil (FO or corn oil in normo- and dyslipidemic men using whole genome microarrays. Results Independent of the oil, a significantly higher number of genes was regulated in dyslipidemic subjects compared to normolipidemic subjects. Pathway analyses discovered metabolisms dominantly affected by FO after twelve weeks of supplementation, including the lipid metabolism, immune system and cardiovascular diseases. Several pro-inflammatory genes, in particular, were down-regulated in dyslipidemic subjects, indicating the immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory capability of FO and its bioactive FAs, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Conclusions This is the first study showing significant differences in gene expression profiles between normo- and dyslipidemic men after FO supplementation. Further studies need to clarify the exact role of n-3 PUFAs in pathways and metabolisms which were identified as being regulated after FO supplementation in this study. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT01089231

  16. Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs in Solanum lycopersicum: Diversity, Evolutionary History and Expression Profiling during Different Developmental Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rosado

    Full Text Available Although the importance of light for tomato plant yield and edible fruit quality is well known, the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs, main components of phytochrome-mediated light signal transduction, have been studied almost exclusively in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, the diversity, evolution and expression profile of PIF gene subfamily in Solanum lycopersicum was characterized. Eight tomato PIF loci were identified, named SlPIF1a, SlPIF1b, SlPIF3, SlPIF4, SlPIF7a, SlPIF7b, SlPIF8a and SlPIF8b. The duplication of SlPIF1, SlPIF7 and SlPIF8 genes were dated and temporally coincided with the whole-genome triplication event that preceded tomato and potato divergence. Different patterns of mRNA accumulation in response to light treatments were observed during seedling deetiolation, dark-induced senescence, diel cycle and fruit ripening. SlPIF4 showed similar expression profile as that reported for A. thaliana homologs, indicating an evolutionary conserved function of PIF4 clade. A comprehensive analysis of the evolutionary and transcriptional data allowed proposing that duplicated SlPIFs have undergone sub- and neofunctionalization at mRNA level, pinpointing the importance of transcriptional regulation for the maintenance of duplicated genes. Altogether, the results indicate that genome polyploidization and functional divergence have played a major role in diversification of the Solanum PIF gene subfamily.

  17. Effects of Peptone Supplementation in Different Culture Media on Growth, Metabolic Pathway and Productivity of CHO DG44 Cells; a New Insight into Amino Acid Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davami, Fatemeh; Eghbalpour, Farnaz; Nematollahi, Leila; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of bioprocess conditions towards improved growth profile and productivity yield is considered of great importance in biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Peptones as efficient sources of nutrients have been studied for their effect on media development; however, their role on metabolic pathway is not well understood. In the present study, the effect of different concentration of peptones on a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line grown in three serum-free suspension cultures was determined. Six peptones of different origins and available amino acid profiles were investigated regarding their impact on cell growth, productivity, and metabolic pathways changes. In optimized feeding strategies, increases of 136% and 159% in volumetric productivity (for a low-nutrient culture media) and 55% (for a high-nutrient culture media) were achieved. Furthermore, particular sources of peptones with specific amino acid profile developed preferential results for each different culture medium. Two peptones, SoyA2SC and SoyE-110, were the only hydrolysates that showed production improvement in all three media. Casein Peptone plus Tryptone N1 and SoyA3SC showed different improved results based on their implemented concentration for each individual basal medium. The amino acid profile of peptones may provide clues to identify the most effective feeding strategies for recombinant CHO cells.

  18. Investigation of the Dissolution Profile of Gliclazide Modified-Release Tablets Using Different Apparatuses and Dissolution Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnik, K K S; Riekes, M K; Pezzini, B R; Cardoso, S G; Stulzer, H K

    2017-07-01

    In the absence of an official dissolution method for modified-release tablets of gliclazide, dissolution parameters, such as apparatuses (1, 2, and 3), rotation speeds, pH, and composition of the dissolution medium were investigated. The results show that although the drug presents a pH-mediated solubility (pH 7.0 > 6.8 > 6.4 > 6.0 > 5.5 > 4.5), the in vitro release of the studied tablets was not dependent on this parameter, despite of the apparatus tested. On the other hand, the rotation speed demonstrated a greater influence (100 rpm >50 rpm). Using similar hydrodynamic conditions, the three different apparatuses were compared in pH 6.8 and provided the following trend: apparatus 1 at 100 rpm >2 at 50 rpm ≈3 at 10 dpm. As a complete, but slow release is expected from modified-release formulations, apparatus 2, in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and 100 rpm, were selected as the optimized dissolution method. In comparison to apparatus 1 under the same conditions, the paddle avoids the stickiness of formulation excipients at the mesh of the basket, which could prejudice the release of gliclazide. Results obtained with biorelevant medium through the developed dissolution method were similar to the buffer solution pH 6.8. The application of the optimized method as a quality control test between two different brands of gliclazide modified-release tablets showed that both dissolution profiles were considered similar by the similarity factor (f2 = 51.8). The investigation of these dissolution profiles indicated a dissolution kinetic following first-order model.

  19. Gene Expression Differences in Peripheral Blood of Parkinson's Disease Patients with Distinct Progression Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pinho

    Full Text Available The prognosis of neurodegenerative disorders is clinically challenging due to the inexistence of established biomarkers for predicting disease progression. Here, we performed an exploratory cross-sectional, case-control study aimed at determining whether gene expression differences in peripheral blood may be used as a signature of Parkinson's disease (PD progression, thereby shedding light into potential molecular mechanisms underlying disease development. We compared transcriptional profiles in the blood from 34 PD patients who developed postural instability within ten years with those of 33 patients who did not develop postural instability within this time frame. Our study identified >200 differentially expressed genes between the two groups. The expression of several of the genes identified was previously found deregulated in animal models of PD and in PD patients. Relevant genes were selected for validation by real-time PCR in a subset of patients. The genes validated were linked to nucleic acid metabolism, mitochondria, immune response and intracellular-transport. Interestingly, we also found deregulation of these genes in a dopaminergic cell model of PD, a simple paradigm that can now be used to further dissect the role of these molecular players on dopaminergic cell loss. Altogether, our study provides preliminary evidence that expression changes in specific groups of genes and pathways, detected in peripheral blood samples, may be correlated with differential PD progression. Our exploratory study suggests that peripheral gene expression profiling may prove valuable for assisting in prediction of PD prognosis, and identifies novel culprits possibly involved in dopaminergic cell death. Given the exploratory nature of our study, further investigations using independent, well-characterized cohorts will be essential in order to validate our candidates as predictors of PD prognosis and to definitively confirm the value of gene expression

  20. The relationships between the achievement motivations and temperaments of psychology students with different lateral organization profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobyeva E.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the motivational potential of psychology students using an egoskopiya method. Heart rate and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed the Mehrabian achievement motivation test. Thirty students of the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 20 and 30 years participated. The psychodiagnostic study involved 136 students from the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 18 and 49 years. To determine the lateral organization profiles of sensory and motor functions, a computer-based testing program termed “Profile” was used. The Compact Russian Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ-77 was used to evaluate the features of temperament. The results revealed that people with a strong motivation to succeed exhibited a predominance of right features in their lateral organization profiles. Their cardiovascular systems were in more activated states than those of the people who were extremely motivated to avoid failure. The observed temperament features of psychology students with different levels of achievement motivation indicated that the level of achievement motivation is related to the properties of temperament such that students with lower levels of achievement motivation (i.e., motivation to avoid failure exhibited the temperament traits of Neuroticism and Impulsivity in addition to low values on the scales for the Sensitivity to Sensations, Intellectual Ergonicity, and Sensitivity to Probabilities. High levels of achievement motivation (i.e., motivation to strive toward success corresponded to the psychology students’ propensities for Sensitivity to Sensations, high levels of Intellectual Ergonicity, high levels of Sensitivity to Probabilities and low values on the scales of Impulsivity and Neuroticism.

  1. Differences in the clinical-epidemiological profile between new cases of tuberculosis and retreatment cases after default

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylana de Souza Belchior

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify the socioeconomic and clinical-epidemiological factors related to tuberculosis in new cases and retreatment cases. METHOD Comparative study with 126 patients, of which 42 were retreatment cases after default attended in a reference center, and 84 were new cases completing the first treatment and treated in Basic Health Units. The collection of primary data was through interview, and of secondary data by records of the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Comparative analysis between the two groups. RESULTS The new cases differ from retreatment cases regarding educational level. The clinical-epidemiological profile shows a significant difference in relation to performance of the tuberculin skin test, and the HIV test result (positive in favor of new cases. In relation to performance of sputum culture and the result (positive of the first sputum smear of the first and second samples, in favor of retreatment cases. CONCLUSION The two groups are significantly different in clinical and epidemiological characteristics that show the access to exams.

  2. Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) and its parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum show different gustatory and longevity responses to a range of nectar and honeydew sugars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, K.; Wackers, F.L.; Stingli, A.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Parasitoids as well as many of their herbivorous hosts, depend on carbohydrate-rich food during the adult stage. Different types of nectar and honeydew vary with regard to their sugar composition. In order to successfully exploit a food source, the insect must show a positive gustatory response to

  3. Different Apathy Profile in Behavioral Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Quaranta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is one of the most common behavioral symptoms of dementia; it is one of the salient features of behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD but is also very frequent in Alzheimer's disease. This preliminary investigation was aimed at assessing the type of apathy-related symptoms in a population of bvFTD and AD subjects showing comparable apathy severity. Each patient underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment; behavioral changes were investigated by the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI, using the NPI-apathy subscale to detect apathetic symptoms. At univariate analysis, bvFTD subjects showed lack of initiation (χ2=4.602, p=0.032, reduced emotional output (χ2=6.493, p=0.008, and reduced interest toward friends and family members (χ2=4.898, p=0.027, more frequently than AD subjects. BvFTD displayed higher scores than AD on NPI total score (p=0.005 and on subscales assessing agitation (p=0.004, disinhibition (p=0.007 and sleep disturbances (p=0.025; conversely, AD subjects were more impaired on memory, constructional abilities, and attention. On multivariate logistic regression, reduced emotional output was highly predictive of bvFTD (OR=18.266; p=0.008. Our preliminary findings support the hypothesis that apathy is a complex phenomenon, whose clinical expression is conditioned by the site of anatomical damage. Furthermore, apathy profile may help in differentiating bvFTD from AD.

  4. College Student Dating Partner Drinking Profiles: Differences in Relationship Functioning and Relationship-Specific Alcohol Expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Kelley, Michelle L

    2016-06-06

    Although the majority of research on partner drinking styles has examined married couples, dating partners may influence one another's problem behaviors including alcohol use. This study identified patterns of at-risk alcohol use in college women and their dating partners using a person-centered statistical approach (i.e., latent profile analysis). Participants were 286 college student women in dating relationships. They completed questionnaires regarding their own and their partners' drinking, alcohol use severity, intimate partner violence (IPV), relationship satisfaction, and relationship-specific alcohol expectancies. Data were collected in 2012 through 2013. Results revealed three distinct, latent classes based on both partners' alcohol outcomes. The "Low-Risk" group (58%) consisted of non-heavy drinking partners. In the "High-Risk - Higher Men" class (27%), men drank more than women; however, both men and women were high-risk drinkers. The "High-Risk - Higher Women" group (15%) consisted of high-risk drinking partners but women consumed more alcohol than men. Both high-risk couple groups were more dissatisfied in their relationships and experienced more IPV, but held stronger beliefs about how alcohol influenced their relationship. Findings indicate that there are several distinct classes of dating couples that differ in relationship problems and beliefs about alcohol's impact on their relationship. Riskier couples differ in behaviors and alcohol-related beliefs from low-risk couples. These findings may inform the development of more efficacious alcohol interventions tailored toward high-risk drinking dating couples.

  5. Metabolic profile in growing buffalo heifers fed diet with different energy content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to verify the relation among the mediators and indicators of nutritional status like insulin, glucagon, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins in growing buffalo heifers, fed diets with different energy density. 12 Murrah heifers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatments (High, Group H; Low, Group L that differed in energetic levels (Group H: 5.8 UFL/d; Group L: 3.6 UFL/d. Every 30 days, for a total of five times, blood samples were collected at 08.00 h, before feeding, from the jugular vein in vacutainer tubes and analysed to determine metabolic profile. Data on haematic constants were analysed by ANOVA for repeated measures with treatment as the main factor. Low energy availability and low NSC reduced the glucose and insulin and increased glucagone and urea blood levels. The increase of NSC in the diet of group H during the experiment may caused a reduction of the fibre digestibility after the period of adaptation of the rumen microflora and, as a paradox effect, suffered for an energetic lack with a subsequent activation of lipolysis and mobilization of their body reserves. Liver and muscular synthesis increase in group with a high energy availability.

  6. Differences between flocculating yeast and regular industrial yeast in transcription and metabolite profiling during ethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To improve ethanolic fermentation performance of self-flocculating yeast, difference between a flocculating yeast strain and a regular industrial yeast strain was analyzed by transcriptional and metabolic approaches. Results: The number of down-regulated (industrial yeast YIC10 vs. flocculating yeast GIM2.71 and up-regulated genes were 4503 and 228, respectively. It is the economic regulation for YIC10 that non-essential genes were down-regulated, and cells put more “energy” into growth and ethanol production. Hexose transport and phosphorylation were not the limiting-steps in ethanol fermentation for GIM2.71 compared to YIC10, whereas the reaction of 1,3-disphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate, the decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and its subsequent reduction to ethanol were the most limiting steps. GIM2.71 had stronger stress response than non-flocculating yeast and much more carbohydrate was distributed to other bypass, such as glycerol, acetate and trehalose synthesis. Conclusions: Differences between flocculating yeast and regular industrial yeast in transcription and metabolite profiling will provide clues for improving the fermentation performance of GIM2.71.

  7. Two different proteins that compete for binding to thrombin have opposite kinetic and thermodynamic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerga-Ortiz, Abel; Bergqvist, Simon; Mandell, Jeffrey G; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2004-01-01

    Thrombin binds thrombomodulin (TM) at anion binding exosite 1, an allosteric site far from the thrombin active site. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been isolated that competes with TM for binding to thrombin. Complete binding kinetic and thermodynamic profiles for these two protein-protein interactions have been generated. Binding kinetics were measured by Biacore. Although both interactions have similar K(D)s, TM binding is rapid and reversible while binding of the mAb is slow and nearly irreversible. The enthalpic contribution to the DeltaG(bind) was measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and van't Hoff analysis. The contribution to the DeltaG(bind) from electrostatic steering was assessed from the dependence of the k(a) on ionic strength. Release of solvent H(2)O molecules from the interface was assessed by monitoring the decrease in amide solvent accessibility at the interface upon protein-protein binding. The mAb binding is enthalpy driven and has a slow k(d). TM binding appears to be entropy driven and has a fast k(a). The favorable entropy of the thrombin-TM interaction seems to be derived from electrostatic steering and a contribution from solvent release. The two interactions have remarkably different thermodynamic driving forces for competing reactions. The possibility that optimization of binding kinetics for a particular function may be reflected in different thermodynamic driving forces is discussed.

  8. Paddling Force Profiles at Different Stroke Rates in Elite Sprint Kayaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Beatriz B; Ramos, Nuno V; Conceição F, A V; Sanders, Ross H; Vaz, Mário A; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2015-08-01

    In sprint kayaking the role that paddling technique plays in optimizing paddle forces and resultant kayak kinematics is still unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the magnitude and shape of the paddle force-time curve at different stroke rates, and their implications for kayak performance. Ten elite kayak paddlers (5 males and 5 females) were analyzed while performing 2000-m on-water trials, at 4 different paces (60, 80, and 100 strokes per minute, and race pace). The paddle and kayak were instrumented with strain gauges and accelerometers, respectively. For both sexes, the force-time curves were characterized at training pace by having a bell shape and at race pace by a first small peak, followed by a small decrease in force and then followed by a main plateau. The force profile, represented by the mean force/peak force ratio, became more rectangular with increasing stroke rate (F[3,40] = 7.87, P kayak paddlers should seek a stronger water phase with a rapid increase in force immediately after blade entry, and a quick exit before the force dropping far below the maximum force. This pattern should be sought when training at race pace and in competition.

  9. Aquaculture growth and Fatty acid profile of Hediste diversicolor fed with three different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776 or so called common ragworm, is an Annelida polychaeta is typically an inhabitant of shallow marine and brackish waters in different parts of Europe. This species has a high physiological tolerance to extreme environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen levels, which can be grown and reproduced in different types of sediment. In the field and also under laboratory conditions this worm can utilize different types of food. To improve the aquaculture of H. diversicolor we have determined the growth, survival rates and fatty acid profile of juvenile worms fed with three different diets for 2 months. This experiment was carried out with juvenile worms reared in aquaculture laboratory of Polytechnic Institute of Leiria and were fed with Aquagold (seabream dry food, moist sole (semi wet pellets for cultured sole and mackerel fillet. The temperature was maintained at 20 ± 1°C with 15 of salinity. H. diversicolor juveniles were placed in three replicates for each diet, with 30 worms per replicate. The higher growth rate was observed when the juveniles were fed with Aquagold (0,146 g d-1 for 10 individuals, and 100% survival rate was a result of moist sole diet, probably related to the immunostimulant included in this feed. The major fatty acids found in the juveniles fed with the three diets were palmitc acid (16:0, oleic acid (18:1n9; eicosapentanoic acid (20:5n3 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3. Although results shown that mackerel fillet was not the diet with the higher growth rate and final weight achieved, when compared to the other two diets, but it is proved that it can be suitable for H. diversicolor aquaculture.

  10. Dynamic profiling of different ready-to-drink fermented dairy products: A comparative study using Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA), Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and Progressive Profile (PP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmerino, Erick A; Castura, John C; Ferraz, Juliana P; Tavares Filho, Elson R; Silva, Ramon; Cruz, Adriano G; Freitas, Mônica Q; Bolini, Helena M A

    2017-11-01

    Despite the several differences in ingredients, processes and nutritional values, dairy foods as yogurts, fermented milks and milk beverages are widely accepted worldwide, and although they have their sensory profiling normally covered by descriptive analyses, the temporal perception involved during the consumption are rarely considered. In this sense, the present work aimed to assess the dynamic sensory profile of three categories of fermented dairy products using different temporal methodologies: Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS), Progressive Profiling (PP), Temporal CATA (TCATA), and compare the results obtained. The findings showed that the different sensory characteristics among the products are basically related to their commercial identity. Regarding the methods, all of them collected the variations between samples with great correlation between data. In addition, to detect differences in intensities, TCATA showed to be the most sensitive method in detecting textural changes. When using PP, a balanced experimental design considering the number of attributes, time intervals, and food matrix must be weighed. The findings are of interest to guide sensory and consumer practitioners involved in the dairy production to formulate/reformulate their products and help them choosing the most suitable dynamic method to temporally evaluate them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal differences in the vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties over rural Oklahoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Andrews

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A small airplane made 597 aerosol optical property (light absorption and light scattering vertical profile measurements over a rural Oklahoma site between March 2000 and December 2007. The aerosol profiles obtained during these 8 yr of measurements suggest significant seasonal differences in aerosol loading (scattering and absorption. The highest amounts of scattering and absorbing aerosol are observed during the summer and the lowest loading occurs during the winter. The relative contribution of aerosol absorption is highest in the winter (i.e., single scattering albedo is lowest in winter, particularly aloft. Aerosol absorption generally decreased with altitude below ~1.5 km and then was relatively constant or decreased more gradually above that. Aerosol scattering decreased sharply with altitude below ~1.5 km but, unlike absorption, also decreased at higher altitudes, albeit less sharply. Scattering Ångström exponents suggest that the aerosol was dominated by sub-micron aerosol during the summer at all altitudes, but that larger particles were present, especially in the spring and winter above 1 km. The seasonal variability observed for aerosol loading is consistent with AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD although the AOD values calculated from in situ adjusted to ambient conditions and matching wavelengths are up to a factor of two lower than AERONET AOD values depending on season. The column averaged single scattering albedo derived from in situ airplane measurements are similar in value to the AERONET single scattering albedo inversion product but the seasonal patterns are different – possibly a consequence of the strict constraints on obtaining single scattering albedo from AERONET data. A comparison of extinction Ångström exponent and asymmetry parameter from the airplane and AERONET platforms suggests similar seasonal variability with smaller particles observed in the summer and fall and larger particles observed in spring and

  12. WISC-IV Profiles Are Associated with Differences in Symptomatology and Outcome in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S.; Bello, Danielle T.; Etcoff, Lewis M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) cluster profiles of children with ADHD to examine the association between IQ profiles and diagnostic frequency, symptomatology, and outcome in this population. Method: Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on 189 children with a…

  13. The Different Facets of Work Stress: A Latent Profile Analysis of Nurses' Work Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenull, Brigitte B; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Work-related stress has been identified as a relevant problem leading to negative effects on health and quality of life. Using data from 844 nurses, latent profile analyses (LPA) were applied to identify distinct patterns of work stress. Several sociodemographic variables, including nurses' working and living conditions, as well as nurses' reactions to workload, were considered to predict respondents' profile membership. LPA revealed three distinct profiles that can be distinguished by a low, moderate, and higher stress level. Being financially secure is positively related to the low stress profile, whereas working in an urban area and having low job satisfaction increases the chance of belonging to the higher stress profile. Our results can be used as a basis to develop interventions to create a healthy nursing home environment by supporting the balance between family and work, providing access to job resources and optimizing recovery opportunities. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Different cytokine profiles of skin-derived T cell cultures from patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Britta Cathrina; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate differences in expression of surface markers, cytokine profiles, and presence of CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells in skin-derived T cell cultures from patients with extrinsic atopic dermatitis (AD), intrinsic AD, and psoriasis expanded in the presence of IL-2 and IL-4. MATERIAL: Skin...... biopsies from patients with extrinsic AD (n = 6), intrinsic AD (n = 9) and psoriasis (n = 9). METHODS: Skin-derived T cell cultures were analyzed for expression of six surface markers, 11 intracellular cytokines, and three T cell subtype signature transcription factors by flow cytometry, and secreted...... cytokines by multiplex. RESULTS: A different IFN-γ profile emerged between the extrinsic AD and psoriatic T cell cultures; however, there was no difference in IL-17 profile. No differences with regard to cytokine expression were found between extrinsic AD and intrinsic AD cultures; however, cutaneous...

  15. Voice activity and participation profile - VAPP administered in two different scales of response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Marcela Dutra Esteves; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two types of rating scales using the Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP) self-assessment questionnaire, in order to check their influence on the results obtained by the same instrument. Participants were 32 individuals with vocal complaints of both genders, with ages between 15 and 58 years. All subjects answered the vocal self-assessment questionnaire VAPP using with two different rating scales, randomly presented: an 11-point numerical scale (NS) and a 10-cm long (or 100 points) visual analogue scale (VAS). Response time was registered and there was a two-week interval between applications. At the end of the task, participants were asked about the difficulties found in the task to answer each rating scale version, and also to indicate their preference. The mean VAPP scores were similar in both scales. Differences were found only in partial scores, referring to Activity Limitation and Effects on Emotion, with higher mean score in the numerical scale (p=0.008), however with no clinical impact. The order in which the scales were answered did not affect the results obtained, except for the aspect Effects on Social Communication, which presented lower scores with the visual analogue scale in the group of subjects that answered the numeric scale first (p=0.049). Finally, most participants answered faster to the questionnaire when using the numerical scale (p=0.003). The scores obtained in the VAPP by the two different rating scales were similar. The questionnaire with the numeric scale takes less time to be answered, which may be useful for clinical practice.

  16. Transcriptome Characterization of Dendrolimus punctatus and Expression Profiles at Different Developmental Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Hui Yang

    Full Text Available The pine moth Dendrolimus punctatus (Walker is a common insect pest that confers serious damage to conifer forests in south of China. Extensive physiology and ecology studies on D. punctatus have been carried out, but the lack of genetic information has limited our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its development and resistance. Using RNA-seq approach, we characterized the transcriptome of this pine moth and investigated its developmental expression profiles during egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages. A total of 107.6 million raw reads were generated that were assembled into 70,664 unigenes. More than 30% unigenes were annotated by searching for homology in protein databases. To better understand the process of metamorphosis, we pairwise compared four developmental phases and obtained 17,624 differential expression genes. Functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes showed positive correlation with specific physiological activities of each stage, and these results were confirmed by qRT-PCR experiments. This study provides a valuable genomic resource of D. punctatus covering all its developmental stages, and will promote future studies on biological processes at the molecular level.

  17. Different miRNA expression profiles between human breast cancer turmors and serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eZhu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A bunch of miRNAs have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in cancer tumor tissue and serum. The miRNA signatures identified from the serum samples could serve as potential noninvasive diagnostic markers for breast cancer. The role of the miRNAs in cancerigenesis is unclear. In this study, we generated the expression profiles of miRNAs from the paired breast cancer tumors, normal, tissue, and serum samples from eight patients using small RNA-sequencing. Serum samples from eight healthy individuals were used as normal controls. We identified total 174 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs between tumors and the normal tissues, and 109 miRNAs between serum from patients and serum from healthy individuals. There are only 10 common miRNAs. This suggests that only a small portion of tumor miRNAs are released into serum selectively. Interestingly, the expression change pattern of 28 miRNAs is opposite between breast cancer tumors and serum. Functional analysis shows that the differentially expressed miRNAs and their target genes form a complex interaction network affecting many biological processes and involving in many types of cancer such as prostate cancer, basal cell carcinoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and more.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF THYROID FUNCTION AND BONE TURNOVER ON LIPOPROTEIN PROFILE IN YOUNG PHYSICALLY ACTIVE MEN WITH DIFFERENT INSULIN SENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kęska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity induces changes in the endocrine system. Previous data indicated that changes in insulin secretion and the tissue response to this hormone are very important for energy metabolism. It is believed that they are accompanied by changes in lipid metabolism, but factors contributing to this process are still disputed. The aim of this study was to assess interactions among insulin sensitivity, thyroid function, a bone turnover marker and serum lipid profile in young physically active men. Eighty-seven physical education students, aged 18-23 years, participated in the study. We measured serum levels of glucose, lipids, insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, osteocalcin and anthropometric parameters. Insulin sensitivity was determined using homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344 was used to divide the study population into Group A (above the median and Group B (below the median. Men from both groups did not differ in anthropometric parameters or in daily physical activity. Triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels were higher in Group A (P<0.05. TSH and osteocalcin levels were similar in males with different HOMA-IR. Multiple regression analysis for TSH and osteocalcin showed that in Group A these hormones had no effect on plasma lipoproteins. However, in Group B they significantly determined the variation of plasma TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels (in about 28% and 29%, respectively. We concluded that TSH and osteocalcin are involved in determination of a more healthy lipid profile at a certain level of insulin sensitivity.

  19. Differences in Microsatellite Instability Profiles between Endometrioid and Colorectal Cancers: A Potential Cause for False-Negative Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Shi, Chanjuan; Eisenberg, Rosana; Vnencak-Jones, Cindy L

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal (CRCs) and endometrioid (EMCs) cancers in patients with Lynch syndrome exhibit microsatellite instability (MSI) detected by PCR or immunohistochemistry (IHC). While both assays are equally sensitive for CRCs, some suggest that PCR has a higher false-negative rate than IHC in EMCs. We assessed the MSI profiles of 91 EMC and 311 CRC specimens using five mononucleotide repeat markers: BAT25, BAT26, NR21, NR24, and MONO27. EMCs with high MSI (MSI-H) showed a mean left shift of 3 nucleotides (nt), which was significantly different from 6 nt in CRCs. A shift of 1 nt was observed in multiple markers in 76% of MSI-H EMCs, whereas only 12% of MSI-H CRCs displayed a 1-nt shift in one of five markers. IHC against four mismatch repair proteins was performed in 78 EMCs. Loss of staining in one or more proteins was detected in 18 of 19 tumors that were MSI-H by PCR. When EMC tumor cell burden was diluted to <30%, MSI-H was no longer observed in two of three EMCs with a mean nucleotide shift of 1 nt. These results indicate that EMC and CRC MSI profiles are different and that caution should be exercised when interpreting the results, as subtle, 1-nt changes may be missed. These findings provide a potential cause of previously reported discordant MSI and IHC results in EMCs. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oligo-dT selected spermatozoal transcript profiles differ among higher and lower fertility dairy sires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, C J; Krieger, K E; Kaproth, M; Sartini, B L

    2017-02-01

    Spermatozoal messenger RNA (mRNA) has the potential as a molecular marker for sire fertility because this population can reflect gene expression that occurred during spermatogenesis and may have a functional role in early embryonic development. The goal of this study was to compare the oligo-dT selected spermatozoal transcript profiles of higher fertility (Conception Rate (CR) 1.8-3.5) and lower fertility (CR -2.9 to -0.4) sires using Ribonucleic Acid Sequencing (RNA-Seq). A total of 3227 transcripts and 5366 transcripts were identified in the higher and lower fertility populations, respectively. While common transcripts between the two populations were identified (2422 transcripts), several transcripts were also unique to the fertility populations including 805 transcripts that were unique to the higher fertility population and 2944 transcripts that were unique to the lower fertility population. From gene ontological analysis, the transcripts unique to each fertility population differed in Biological Processes (BP), including enrichment of regulatory transcripts for growth and protein kinase activity in the higher fertility bulls. Biological variation in transcript presence among individual sires was also found. Of the candidate fertility spermatozoal transcripts chosen from the RNA-Seq population analysis reported here and previous publications, COX7C was negatively correlated with sire fertility. Using high-throughput sequencing, candidate spermatozoal transcripts were identified for further study as potential markers for sire fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Volatile compounds profiles in unroasted Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora beans from different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel KNYSAK

    Full Text Available Abstract Aroma is the most important factor in assessing the quality of coffee. The volatile compounds profile could be very important to confirm the authenticity of Coffea arabica. The study was carried out on two species of unroasted coffee beans: Coffea arabica from Colombia and Nepal and Coffea robusta from Uganda and Vietnam. Both Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora were imported to the country of analysis approximately 5 months prior to the research. Before the analysis, the coffee beans were kept in a sealed, dark container, at 21 °C. The tests were performed using an electronic nose. Its functioning is based on gas chromatography with two columns of different polarities in parallel and with 2 ultra sensitive Flame Ionization Detectors (FID. With multivariate statistics – Principal Components Analysis – it was possible to reduce the number of links and present them in two dimensions, which allowed for the unambiguous identification and assignment of samples to a particular species of coffee. By using an electronic nose, one can distinguish and group unroasted coffee beans’ flavours depending on the country of origin and species.

  2. Determining the minimally important difference for the Oral Health Impact Profile-20.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allen, P Finbarr

    2009-04-01

    In the context of clinical trials, measurement of change is critical. The aim of this study was to determine the minimally important difference (MID) for the Oral Health Impact Profile-20 (OHIP-20) when used with partially dentate patients undergoing treatment that included the provision of removable partial dentures. In a prospective clinical trial, 51 consecutive patients were provided with removable partial dentures. In addition to demographic and dental status data, patients completed an OHIP-20 prior to treatment. One month postoperatively, patients completed a post-treatment OHIP-20 and a global transition scale. Domains assessed in the global transition scale were appearance, ability to chew food, oral comfort, and speech. The MID for the OHIP-20 was calculated using the anchor-based approach. From the initial sample of 51 patients, 44 completed post-treatment questionnaires and were included in the analysis. Change scores in the four transition domains indicated that new dentures had a positive impact in the majority of subjects, especially in perceived impact on chewing and appearance. The study provided a guideline as to what constitutes the MID for the OHIP-20. This benchmark can be used when interpreting the impact of clinical intervention for replacing missing teeth and for power calculation in statistical analyses.

  3. Lipid Profiles are Altered in Rats Fed with Different Garlic Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Yoshie Yosino da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic properties that are attributed to its organosulfur compounds being allicin, which is reported to be the most active of these compounds. We hypothesized that allicin content could reduce plasma concentrations of triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, HDL (high density lipoproteins, VLDL (very low density lipoproteins, and glucose. Two different cultivars of commercial garlic, Peruano and Jinxiang, were used. Thirty male Wistar rats were distributed into 6 groups and fed for 15 days with standard diet (Control, Control with Peruano garlic treatment (CGP, Control with Jinxiang garlic treatment (CGCH, cholesterol-added control diet (CholC, cholesterol-added diet with Peruano garlic treatment (CholGP, and cholesterol-added diet with Jinxiang garlic treatment (CholGCH. Garlic treatment consisted of a daily oral dose of 1ml of lyophilized garlic. We observed that garlic treatment in Control group significantly reduced plasma TG and VLDL concentrations. The CGCH group presented a significant increase in plasma TC levels (25.5% and glucose (11%. No significant changes in TC, HDL, TG and VLDL were observed in CholGP and CholGCH, but levels of fasting plasma glucose were increased: CholGP (23% and CholGCH (27.5%. Results suggested allicin treatments alter lipid profile in rats. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to address the increase in plasma glucose levels.

  4. Transcriptome profiling of the microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa in response to different carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Shen, Jia; Bai, Fengwei; Xu, Nianjun

    2016-10-01

    To enrich our knowledge of carbon dioxide (CO2)-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in eukaryotic algae, we used high-throughput sequencing to investigate the transcriptome profiling of the microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa (Chlorophyta) response to different CO2 levels. Altogether, 53.86 million (M) and 62.10M clean short reads of 100 nucleotides (nt) were generated from this microalga cultured at 4-fold air CO2 (control) and air CO2 concentrations by Illumina sequencing. A total of 32,662 unigenes were assembled from the two pooled samples. With an E-value cut-off of 1e-5, 9590, 6782, 5954, and 9092 unigenes were annotated in NR, Gene Ontology (GO), Eukaryotic Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, respectively. After screening, 51 differentially expressed unigenes were up-regulated and 8 were down-regulated in the air CO2 group, relative to the control. The transcript levels of eight differentially expressed unigenes were validated by real-time quantitative PCR, which manifested that thioredoxin-like protein, laminin subunit beta-1, and chlorophyll a/b binding protein might be associated with the utilization of inorganic carbon at low CO2 levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Speech fluency profile on different tasks for individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste, Fabiola Staróbole; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2017-07-20

    To characterize the speech fluency profile of patients with Parkinson's disease. Study participants were 40 individuals of both genders aged 40 to 80 years divided into 2 groups: Research Group - RG (20 individuals with diagnosis of Parkinson's disease) and Control Group - CG (20 individuals with no communication or neurological disorders). For all of the participants, three speech samples involving different tasks were collected: monologue, individual reading, and automatic speech. The RG presented a significant larger number of speech disruptions, both stuttering-like and typical dysfluencies, and higher percentage of speech discontinuity in the monologue and individual reading tasks compared with the CG. Both groups presented reduced number of speech disruptions (stuttering-like and typical dysfluencies) in the automatic speech task; the groups presented similar performance in this task. Regarding speech rate, individuals in the RG presented lower number of words and syllables per minute compared with those in the CG in all speech tasks. Participants of the RG presented altered parameters of speech fluency compared with those of the CG; however, this change in fluency cannot be considered a stuttering disorder.

  6. Effect of Different Management System on Haemato-biochemical profile in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A very little information is available in literature on management of Japanese quail (Couturnix Couturnix Japonica in different housing system (cage system and deep litter system of management. The average weekly body weight gain was significantly higher in deep litter system (34±0.43gm than cage (12.71±0.41gm system at the 3rd week of age. The average daily feed consumption by individual quails was higher in cage (12.71±2.10 than deep litter system (11.84±1.47 during 0-6 weeks of age. The haematobiochemical profile viz Hb (gm%,TEC (106/µl ,PCV(%,TLC(103/ µlalong with biochemical studies as blood sugar (mg/dl, total serum protein (gm/dl,serum calcium (mg/100ml and serum phosphorus (mg/dl were well within the normal health of quail under both cage and deep litter system of management. [Vet. World 2010; 3(6.000: 291-292

  7. Age-Related Differences of Risk Profile and Angiographic Findings in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Siddique

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD is a major health problem which imposes a significant burden on health caresystems because of high morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To compare the risk factors profile for coronary heartdisease in young and old subjects. Methods: Total 100 patients (50 subjects less than 40 years of age and 50 subjectsmore than 40 years of age with acute coronary syndrome or stable angina who were undergoing coronary angiogram inthe Department of Cardiology, University Cardiac Center, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Dhaka, fromJuly 2006 to June 2008 were evaluated for the presence coronary artery disease risk factors e.g. hypertension, dyslipidemiaand smoking. Results: The mean age of the study population in younger group was (33.0 ± 6.4 years and in older group(52.0±8.6. The male to female ratio in both groups was 4:1. Smokers were more in younger group (70.0% vs. 46.0% (p =0.032. Hypertension was less in the younger group (38.0% vs. 58.0% (p = 0.045. Presence of diabetes was higher in theolder age group (34.0% vs. 4.0% (p = 0.001. Higher incidence of family history of coronary heart disease was in theyounger age group. The total cholesterol was higher in older group (182.9 ± 33.1 vs. (171.1 ± 24.8 mg/dl (p = 0.047. 68%of patients of older group and 38% of younger group had stenosis in left anterior descending artery (p = 0.003. Theinvolvement of left circumflex and right coronary artery in older age group were higher (56% and 66% respectively thanthose in younger group (36% and 40% respectively (p = 0.045 and p = 0.009. Conclusion: Ischemic heart disease inyounger adults < 40 years had different risk profile characteristics than older patients.Key words: Coronary heart disease; acute coronary syndrome; stable angina; risk factors.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v3i1.5508BSMMU J 2010; 3(1: 13-17

  8. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  9. Multi-Chemotherapeutic Schedules Containing the pan-FGFR Inhibitor ARQ 087 are Safe and Show Antitumor Activity in Different Xenograft Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilà, Rosaria; Hall G, Terence; Abbadessa, Giovanni; Broggini, Massimo; Damia, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    ARQ 087 is a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent activity against the FGFR receptor family, currently in Phase I clinical studies for the treatment of advanced solid tumors. The compound has a very safe profile and induces tumor regressions in FGFR-driven models. The feasibility of combining ARQ 087 with chemotherapy was investigated in FGFR deregulated human xenografts. Nude mice were transplanted subcutaneously with H1581, and when tumor masses reached 150 mg, were randomized to receive vehicle, ARQ 087, paclitaxel, carboplatin as single agents or in combination. Similar experimental conditions were applied in nude mice bearing SNU16 and MFE296 xenografts, with the inclusion of capecitabine in the former xenograft model. In the different xenograft models, the drugs given as single agents ranged from very active to partially active. The double combinations were more active than the single ones, but the triple combinations were the most active. In particular, the combination of ARQ 087 + paclitaxel + carboplatin in H1581 bearing mice was able to induce tumor regression in all the mice, with 6/8 mice tumor free at day 140 after tumor transplant. Of note, no toxic deaths nor premature stopping or delaying of drug administration were observed. The data herein reported demonstrated the feasibility of using xenografts models for poli-chemotherapeutic trials mimicking the best standard of care in treatment of specific tumor type and that ARQ 087, a new pan-FGFR inhibitor, can be safely combined with standard cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs with apparently no sign of cumulative toxicity and an associated increased antitumor effect. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tannin profile of different Monastrell wines and its relation to projected market prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Olmos, Oscar; Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén

    2016-08-01

    This study focuses on the differences or similarities in tannin composition and concentration in Monastrell wines from different wineries from the same geographic area and, within each winery, from wines elaborated based on different projected market prices, to determine whether there is any relationship between the wine tannin composition and the projected price. The tannin composition of the different wines, all of them analyzed at the same point during winemaking, indicated that those elaborated as premium wines presented higher phenol and tannin contents. The mean degree of polymerization of these wines was also positively related with the projected price, which agreed with the results obtained by size exclusion chromatography, that showed that wines with high projected prices had a higher proportion of polymeric tannins, suggesting that techniques favoring the extraction of skin tannins were mostly used in those wines projected as premium wines, probably looking for greater mouthfeel complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lippia alba morphotypes cidreira and melissa exhibit significant differences in leaf characteristics and essential oil profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline N. Jezler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson, Verbenaceae, is widely used in traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of abdominal distress. The species exhibits considerable chemical and morphological diversity, and various chemotypes have been characterized. A comparative study of L. alba, has been carried out of the morphoanatomical characteristics of the leaves and the profiles of the essential oils of the morphotypes cidreira and melissa grown in the Medicinal Plant Garden of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The mean plant height of cidreira was 1.80 m and the stems and branches were fairly erect, while melissa plants were smaller (1.60 m and presented prostrate stems and branches. Although the leaf of the morphotypes look were similar, the mean values of length, width and area of the leaves of cidreira (respectively, 7.42 cm, 3.32 cm and 17.31 cm² differed significantly from those of melissa (4.68 cm, 2.35 cm and 7.32 cm2. The morphotypes presented amphistomatic leaves with uniseriate epidermis on both surfaces. The mesophyll was dorsiventral, but in cidreira the palisade parenchyma was biseriate while in melissa it was uniseriate. Simple tector and capitate glandular trichomes were present on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaf blades of both morphotypes. Six distinct types of glandular trichomes could be distinguished: types I and II were present in both morphotypes, while type III was detected only in cidreira, and types IV to VI were present only in melissa. The two morphotypes also differed with respect to the composition of the essential oil, cidreira produced oil composed mainly of citral, while the oil from melissa was rich in citral, limonene and carvone.

  12. Lippia alba morphotypes cidreira and melissa exhibit significant differences in leaf characteristics and essential oil profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline N. Jezler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson, Verbenaceae, is widely used in traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of abdominal distress. The species exhibits considerable chemical and morphological diversity, and various chemotypes have been characterized. A comparative study of L. alba, has been carried out of the morphoanatomical characteristics of the leaves and the profiles of the essential oils of the morphotypes cidreira and melissa grown in the Medicinal Plant Garden of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The mean plant height of cidreira was 1.80 m and the stems and branches were fairly erect, while melissa plants were smaller (1.60 m and presented prostrate stems and branches. Although the leaf of the morphotypes look were similar, the mean values of length, width and area of the leaves of cidreira (respectively, 7.42 cm, 3.32 cm and 17.31 cm² differed significantly from those of melissa (4.68 cm, 2.35 cm and 7.32 cm2. The morphotypes presented amphistomatic leaves with uniseriate epidermis on both surfaces. The mesophyll was dorsiventral, but in cidreira the palisade parenchyma was biseriate while in melissa it was uniseriate. Simple tector and capitate glandular trichomes were present on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaf blades of both morphotypes. Six distinct types of glandular trichomes could be distinguished: types I and II were present in both morphotypes, while type III was detected only in cidreira, and types IV to VI were present only in melissa. The two morphotypes also differed with respect to the composition of the essential oil, cidreira produced oil composed mainly of citral, while the oil from melissa was rich in citral, limonene and carvone.

  13. Landing biomechanics in participants with different static lower extremity alignment profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Shultz, Sandra J; Schmitz, Randy J

    2015-05-01

    Whereas static lower extremity alignment (LEA) has been identified as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury, little is known about its influence on joint motion and moments commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury. To cluster participants according to combinations of LEA variables and compare these clusters in hip- and knee-joint kinematics and kinetics during the landing phase of a drop-jump task. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. A total of 141 participants (50 men: age = 22.2 ± 2.8 years, height = 177.9 ± 9.3 cm, weight = 80.9 ± 13.3 kg; 91 women: age = 21.2 ± 2.6 years, height = 163.9 ± 6.6 cm, weight = 61.1 ± 8.7 kg). Static LEA included pelvic angle, femoral anteversion, quadriceps angle, tibiofemoral angle, genu recurvatum, tibial torsion, and navicular drop. Cluster analysis grouped participants according to their static LEA profiles, and these groups were compared on their hip- and knee-joint kinematics and external moments during the landing phase of a double-legged drop jump. Three distinct clusters (C1-C3) were identified based on their static LEAs. Participants in clusters characterized with static internally rotated hip and valgus knee posture (C1) and externally rotated knee and valgus knee posture (C3) alignments demonstrated greater knee-valgus motion and smaller hip-flexion moments than the cluster with more neutral static alignment (C2). Participants in C1 also experienced greater hip internal-rotation and knee external-rotation moments than those in C2 and C3. Static LEA clusters that are positioned anatomically with a more rotated and valgus knee posture experienced greater dynamic valgus along with hip and knee moments during landing. Whereas static LEA contributes to differences in hip and knee rotational moments, sex may influence the differences in frontal-plane knee kinematics and sagittal-plane hip moments.

  14. Racial differences in genome-wide methylation profiling and gene expression in breast tissues from healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Ae; Brasky, Theodore M; Marian, Catalin; Weng, Daniel Y; Taslim, Cenny; Dumitrescu, Ramona G; Llanos, Adana A; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is more common in European Americans (EAs) than in African Americans (AAs) but mortality from breast cancer is higher among AAs. While there are racial differences in DNA methylation and gene expression in breast tumors, little is known whether such racial differences exist in breast tissues of healthy women. Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression profiling was performed in histologically normal breast tissues of healthy women. Linear regression models were used to identify differentially-methylated CpG sites (CpGs) between EAs (n = 61) and AAs (n = 22). Correlations for methylation and expression were assessed. Biological functions of the differentially-methylated genes were assigned using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Among 485 differentially-methylated CpGs by race, 203 were hypermethylated in EAs, and 282 were hypermethylated in AAs. Promoter-related differentially-methylated CpGs were more frequently hypermethylated in EAs (52%) than AAs (27%) while gene body and intergenic CpGs were more frequently hypermethylated in AAs. The differentially-methylated CpGs were enriched for cancer-associated genes with roles in cell death and survival, cellular development, and cell-to-cell signaling. In a separate analysis for correlation in EAs and AAs, different patterns of correlation were found between EAs and AAs. The correlated genes showed different biological networks between EAs and AAs; networks were connected by Ubiquitin C. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive genome-wide study to identify differences in methylation and gene expression between EAs and AAs in breast tissues from healthy women. These findings may provide further insights regarding the contribution of epigenetic differences to racial disparities in breast cancer.

  15. Race and Sex Differences of Long-Term Blood Pressure Profiles From Childhood and Adult Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shengxu; Zhang, Huijie; Xi, Bo; Shen, Hongbing; Fernandez, Camilo; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to characterize longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood in black-white and sex groups and examine the association between childhood level-independent trajectories of BP and adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 2732 adults who had body mass index and BP measured 4 to 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years). Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BP and body mass index at childhood age points were calculated at 1-year intervals using the growth curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively. Linear and nonlinear curve parameters differed significantly between race-sex groups; BP levels showed race and sex differences 15 years of age onward. Hypertensives had higher long-term BP levels than normotensives in race-sex groups. Although linear and nonlinear slope parameters of BP were race and sex specific, they differed consistently, significantly between hypertension and normotension groups. BP trajectories during young adulthood (20-35 years) were significantly greater in hypertensives than in normotensives; however, the trajectories during middle-aged adulthood (36-51 years) were significantly smaller in hypertensives than in normotensives. Level-independent linear slopes of systolic BP showed significantly negative associations (odds ratio=0.50≈0.76; P hypertension, adjusting for covariates. These associations were consistent across race-sex groups. These observations indicate that adult hypertension originates in childhood, with different longitudinal BP trajectory profiles during young and middle-aged adulthood in black-white and sex groups. Puberty is a crucial period for the development of hypertension in later life. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Body physique and dominant somatotype in elite and low-profile athletes with different specializations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Gutnik

    2015-01-01

    The results emphasize the necessity for a specific somatotype to reach a high profile in the selected area of sport and thus support morphometric oriented studies. Further studies could elucidate differentiation by age and sex.

  17. Do Students with Dyslexia Have a Different Personality Profile as Measured with the Big Five?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tops, Wim; Verguts, Ellen; Callens, Maaike; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    ...(s): To obtain empirical evidence, we compared the personality profile of a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students with dyslexia with that of a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Methods...

  18. Cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 polymorphisms show significant differences in distribution between a laboratory maintained population and a field isolate of Cooperia oncophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, Margreet; Kanobana, Kirezi; Ploeger, Harm W; de Vries, Erik

    2003-10-20

    A 474 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (cox1) of Cooperia oncophora was cloned and sequenced. The overall nucleotide diversity of the cox1 fragment varied from 0.5 to 2.0% between individuals. Two nucleotide substitutions were found within two RsaI endonuclease restriction sites and were used in a PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay to asses the intra-population variation of C. oncophora. Testing 816 individuals revealed the existence of three different haplotypes, having either both (type I) or only one (types II and III) RsaI site. Laboratory maintained individuals obtained at different time points after infection showed no significant difference in the distribution of the three haplotypes. Neither was there a difference in the distribution between male and female worms, confirming that the mitochondrial genome of C. oncophora is also maternally inherited. Nevertheless, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of the RsaI point mutation in the cox1 gene between the laboratory maintained population of C. oncophora and a Dutch field isolate, indicating that these RFLPs can be used to study genetic variation within or among C. oncophora populations.

  19. Transcript analysis at DGAT1 reveals different mRNA profiles in river buffaloes with extreme phenotypes for milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, M; Cosenza, G; Nicolae, I; Bota, A; Guo, Y; Di Stasio, L; Pauciullo, A

    2017-10-01

    Buffalo DGAT1 (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1) was mainly investigated for the characterization of the gene itself and for the identification of the K232A polymorphism, similar to what has been accomplished in cattle, although no information has been reported so far at the mRNA level. The importance of DGAT1 for lipid metabolism led us to investigate the transcript profiles of lactating buffaloes characterized as high (9.13 ± 0.23) and low (7.94 ± 0.29) for milk fat percentage, and to explore the genetic diversity at the RNA and DNA level. A total of 336 positive clones for the DGAT1 cDNA were analyzed by PCR and chosen for sequencing according to the differences in length. The clone assembling revealed a very complex mRNA pattern with a total of 21 transcripts differently represented in the 2 groups of animals. Apart from the correct transcript (17 exons long), the skipping of exon 12 is the most significant in terms of distribution of clones with 11.6% difference between the 2 groups, whereas a totally different mRNA profile was found in approximately 12% of clones. The sequencing of genomic DNA allowed the identification of 10 polymorphic sites at the intron level, which clarify, at least partially, the genetic events behind the production of complex mRNA. Genetic diversity was found also at the exon level. The single nucleotide polymorphism c.1053C>T represents the first example of polymorphism in a coding region for the DGAT1 in the Italian Mediterranean breed. To establish whether this polymorphism is present in other buffalo breeds, a quick method based on PCR-RFLP was set up for allelic discrimination in the Italian Mediterranean and the Romanian Murrah (200 animals in total). The alleles were equally represented in the overall population, whereas the analysis of the 2 breeds showed different frequencies, likely indicating diverse genetic structure of the 2 breeds. The T allele might be considered as the ancestral condition of the DGAT1 gene, being

  20. Hormone and Metabolite Profiles in Nesting Green and Flatback Turtles: Turtle Species with Different Life Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Ikonomopoulou, Maria P.; Bradley, Adrian J.; Kammarudin Ibrahim; Limpus, Colin J.; Fernandez-Rojo, Manuel A.; Dimitrios Vagenas; Whittier, Joan M.

    2014-01-01

    Herbivorous turtle, Chelonia mydas, inhabiting the south China Sea and breeding in Peninsular Malaysia, and Natator depressus, a carnivorous turtle inhabiting the Great Barrier Reef and breeding at Curtis Island in Queensland, Australia, differ both in diet and life history. Analysis of plasma metabolites levels and six sex steroid hormones during the peak of their nesting season in both species showed hormonal and metabolite variations. When compared with results from other studies progester...

  1. Differences in pain intensity in anti- and pro-nociceptive pain profile subgroups in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossmann, Tanja; Brauner, Torsten; Horstmann, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Facilitated temporal summation is one component of central sensitization. The aim of this exploratory study was to classify pro-, eu- and antinociceptive subgroups based on wind-up ratio cut-off scores in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA).  A total of 56 patients with knee OA met the inclusion criteria. Temporal summation was measured and wind-up ratio was calculated. Reference values of 180 healthy subjects were used to define wind-up ratio cut-off scores. Twenty-seven percent of patients showed a pro-nociceptive pain profile. Sixteen percent of patients showed an anti-nociceptive pain profile. A eu-nociceptive pain profile was present in 57% of patients. Central pain sensitization was present in approximately a third of knee OA patients. The results should be confirmed in larger studies.

  2. Policy outcomes of applying different nutrient profiling systems in recreational sports settings: the case for national harmonization in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Poirier, Kelly; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Shearer, Cindy; Kirk, Sara F L

    2015-08-01

    To assess agreement among three nutrient profiling systems used to evaluate the healthfulness of vending machine products in recreation and sport settings in three Canadian provinces. We also assessed whether the nutritional profile of vending machine items in recreation and sport facilities that were adhering to nutrition guidelines (implementers) was superior to that of facilities that were not (non-implementers). Trained research assistants audited the contents of vending machines. Three provincial nutrient profiling systems were used to classify items into each province's most, moderately and least healthy categories. Agreement among systems was assessed using weighted κ statistics. ANOVA assessed whether the average nutritional profile of vending machine items differed according to province and guideline implementation status. Eighteen recreation and sport facilities in three Canadian provinces. One-half of facilities were implementing nutrition guidelines. Snacks (n 531) and beverages (n 618) within thirty-six vending machines were audited. Overall, the systems agreed that the majority of items belonged within their respective least healthy categories (66-69 %) and that few belonged within their most healthy categories (14-22 %). Agreement among profiling systems was moderate to good, with κ w values ranging from 0·49 to 0·69. Implementers offered fewer of the least healthy items (Ppolicy outcomes of the three systems are likely to be similar, suggesting there may be scope to harmonize nutrient profiling systems at a national level to avoid unnecessary duplication and support food reformulation by industry.

  3. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Rafiq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%, solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%, total solids (18.05%±0.05%, protein (5.15%±0.06% and casein (3.87%±0.04% contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%, buffalo (0.68%±0.02% and sheep (0.66%±0.02% milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82, cow (r = 0.88, sheep (r = 0.86 and goat milk (r = 0.98. The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g, camel (96±2.2 mg/g and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products.

  4. Plasma Biomarker Profiles Differ Depending on Breast Cancer Subtype but RANTES is Consistently Increased

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Rachel M.; Daly, Don S.; Tan, Ruimin; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2011-07-01

    Background: Current biomarkers for breast cancer have little potential for detection. We determined if breast cancer subtypes influence circulating protein biomarkers. Methods: A sandwich-ELISA microarray platform was used to evaluate 23 candidate biomarkers in plasma samples that were obtained from subjects with either benign breast disease or invasive breast cancer. All plasma samples were collected at the time of biopsy, after a referral due to a suspicious screen (e.g., mammography). Cancer samples were evaluated based on breast cancer subtypes, as defined by the HER2 and estrogen receptor statuses. Results: Ten proteins were statistically altered in at least one breast cancer subtype, including four epidermal growth factor receptor ligands, two matrix metalloproteases, two cytokines, and two angiogenic factors. Only one cytokine, RANTES, was significantly increased (P<0.01 for each analysis) in all four subtypes, with areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) that ranged from 0.76 to 0.82, depending on cancer subtype. The best AUC values were observed for analyses that combined data from multiple biomarkers, with values ranging from 0.70 to 0.99, depending on the cancer subtype. Although the results for RANTES are consistent with previous publications, the multi-assay results need to be validated in independent sample sets. Conclusions: Different breast cancer subtypes produce distinct biomarker profiles, and circulating protein biomarkers have potential to differentiate between true and false positive screens for breast cancer. Impact: Subtype-specific biomarker panels may be useful for detecting breast cancer or as an adjunct assay to improve the accuracy of current screening methods.

  5. Interactions of pharmacokinetic profile of different parts from Ginkgo biloba extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, HanLiang; Qian, Dawei; Ren, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Hui; Shang, Erxing; Duan, Jinao

    2014-08-08

    Extracts from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves confer their therapeutic effects through the synergistic actions of flavonoid and terpenoid components, but some non-flavonoid and non-terpenoid components also exist in this extract. In the study of this paper, an investigation was carried out to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of fourteen compounds to clarify the influences of non-flavonoid and non-terpenoid fraction (WEF) on the pharmacokinetics profile of the flavonoid fraction (FF) and the terpene lactone fraction (TLF) from Ginkgo biloba extracts. A selective and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was established to determine the plasma concentrations of the fourteen compounds to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters after orally administration of FF, TLF, FF-WEF, FF-TLF, TLF-WEF and FF-TLF-WEF with approximately the same dose. At different time points, the concentration of rutin (1), isoquercitrin (2), quercetin 3-O-[4-O-(-β-D-glucosyl)-α-L-rhamnoside] (3), ginkgolide C (4), bilobalide (5), quercitrin (6), ginkgolide B (7), ginkgolide A (8), luteolin (9), quercetin (10), apigenin (11), kaempferol (12), isorhamnetin (13), genkwanin (14) in rat plasma were determined and main pharmacokinetic parameters including T1/2, Tmax, Cmax and AUC were calculated using the DAS 3.2 software package. The statistical analysis was performed using the Student׳s t-test with PGinkgo biloba extracts could increase the absorption and improve the bioavailability of flavonoid glycosides but decrease the absorption and reduce the bioavailability of flavonoid aglycones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Function of Different Vegetative Tissues of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zou, Qiong; Wang, Jinxing; Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Zeping; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2016-12-01

    Moringa oleifera is a rich source of bioactive compounds and is widely used in traditional medicine and food for its nutritional value; however, the protein and peptide components of different tissues are rarely discussed. Here, we describe the first investigation of M. oleifera proteomes using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methods. We aimed to elucidate the protein profiles of M. oleifera leaves, stem, bark, and root. Totally 202 proteins were identified from four vegetative organs. We identified 101 proteins from leaves, 51 from stem, 94 from bark and 67 from root, finding that only five proteins existed in both four vegetative parts. The calculated pI of most of the proteins is distributed in 5-10 and the molecular weight distributed below 100 kDa. Functional classification analysis revealed that proteins which are involved in catalytic activities are the most abundant both in leaves, stem, bark and root. Identification of several heat shock proteins in four vegetative tissues might be adaptive for resistance to high temperature environmental stresses of tropical or subtropical areas. Some enzymes involved in antioxidant processes were also identified in M. oleifera leaves, stem, bark and root. Among the four tissues studies here, leaves protein content and molecular diversity were the highest. The identification of the flocculating protein MO2.1 and MO2.2 in the bark and root provides clue to clarify the antimicrobial molecular mechanisms of root and bark. This study provides information on the protein compositions of M. oleifera vegetative tissues that will be beneficial for potential drug and food supplement development and plant physiology research.

  8. How yeast re-programmes its transcriptional profile in response to different nutrient impulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pir Pınar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A microorganism is able to adapt to changes in its physicochemical or nutritional environment and this is crucial for its survival. The yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has developed mechanisms to respond to such environmental changes in a rapid and effective manner; such responses may demand a widespread re-programming of gene activity. The dynamics of the re-organization of the cellular activities of S. cerevisiae in response to the sudden and transient removal of either carbon or nitrogen limitation has been studied by following both the short- and long-term changes in yeast's transcriptomic profiles. Results The study, which spans timescales from seconds to hours, has revealed the hierarchy of metabolic and genetic regulatory switches that allow yeast to adapt to, and recover from, a pulse of a previously limiting nutrient. At the transcriptome level, a glucose impulse evoked significant changes in the expression of genes concerned with glycolysis, carboxylic acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and nucleic acid and sulphur metabolism. In ammonium-limited cultures, an ammonium impulse resulted in the significant changes in the expression of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and ion transport. Although both perturbations evoked significant changes in the expression of genes involved in the machinery and process of protein synthesis, the transcriptomic response was delayed and less complex in the case of an ammonium impulse. Analysis of the regulatory events by two different system-level, network-based approaches provided further information about dynamic organization of yeast cells as a response to a nutritional change. Conclusions The study provided important information on the temporal organization of transcriptomic organization and underlying regulatory events as a response to both carbon and nitrogen impulse. It has also revealed the importance of a long-term dynamic analysis of the response to the

  9. Different Duck Species Infected Intramuscularly with Duck-Origin Genotype IX APMV-1 Show Discrepant Mortality and Indicate Another Fatal Genotype APMV-1 to Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guanghua; Cheng, Longfei; Fu, Qiuling; Qi, Baomin; Chen, Cuiteng; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Wan, Chunhe; Liu, Rongchang; Huang, Yu

    2017-03-01

    Isolations of genotype IX (gIX) avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) from various bird species have been more common recently, with isolates showing variable pathogenicity in different species of poultry. Here we sequenced the genome of a Muscovy duck origin gIX virus strain XBT14 and characterized the virulence and pathogenicity of this isolate in chickens and ducks. The genome sequence of strain XBT14 is 15,192 nt in length, containing multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. The XBT14 strain shared 91.6%-91.9% nucleotide identities with early-genotype viruses (such as genotype III and IV) and shared 85.3%-85.9% nucleotide homologies with later genotype viruses (such as genotype VII). Pathogenicity tests showed that strain XBT14 could cause death in different duck breeds with a mortality rate of 44.4% in Muscovy duck, 25.9% in Sheldrake, and 11.1% in Cherry Valley duck, respectively. Similar mortality discrepancies were also observed in different ducks when infected with chicken-origin gIX virus strain F48E8. These results indicate that XBT14-like velogenic gIX APMV-1 (such as XBT14, F48E8, and GD09-2) could cause fatal infection in duck, and genotype IX is another genotype velogenic to duck as well as genotype VII. Accompanied by genetic differences in the vaccine strains or dominant strains prevailing in poultry, the virulent XBT14-like gIX viruses might become potentially endemic strains in poultry in the future.

  10. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Bailey, Drew H; Moore, Alex M; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls' STEM participation.

  11. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls’ STEM participation. PMID:27100631

  12. Mutations conferring resistance to viral DNA polymerase inhibitors in camelpox virus give different drug-susceptibility profiles in vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraffour, Sophie; Andrei, Graciela; Topalis, Dimitri; Krečmerová, Marcela; Crance, Jean-Marc; Garin, Daniel; Snoeck, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Cidofovir or (S)-HPMPC is one of the three antiviral drugs that might be used for the treatment of orthopoxvirus infections. (S)-HPMPC and its 2,6-diaminopurine counterpart, (S)-HPMPDAP, have been described to select, in vitro, for drug resistance mutations in the viral DNA polymerase (E9L) gene of vaccinia virus (VACV). Here, to extend our knowledge of drug resistance development among orthopoxviruses, we selected, in vitro, camelpox viruses (CMLV) resistant to (S)-HPMPDAP and identified a single amino acid change, T831I, and a double mutation, A314V+A684V, within E9L. The production of recombinant CMLV and VACV carrying these amino acid substitutions (T831I, A314V, or A314V+A684V) demonstrated clearly their involvement in conferring reduced sensitivity to viral DNA polymerase inhibitors, including (S)-HPMPDAP. Both CMLV and VACV harboring the A314V change showed comparable drug-susceptibility profiles to various antivirals and similar impairments in viral growth. In contrast, the single change T831I and the double change A314V+A684V in VACV were responsible for increased levels of drug resistance and for cross-resistance to viral DNA polymerase antivirals that were not observed with their CMLV counterparts. Each amino acid change accounted for an attenuated phenotype of VACV in vivo. Modeling of E9L suggested that the T→I change at position 831 might abolish hydrogen bonds between E9L and the DNA backbone and have a direct impact on the incorporation of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates. Our findings demonstrate that drug-resistance development in two related orthopoxvirus species may impact drug-susceptibility profiles and viral fitness differently.

  13. Influence of Different Drying Treatments and Extraction Solvents on the Metabolite Profile and Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Activity of Ajwa Dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hamid, Nur Ashikin; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Shaari, Khozirah; Lajis, Nordin H

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the variation in the metabolite profiles and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity of Ajwa dates that were subjected to 2 drying treatments and different extraction solvents. (1)H NMR coupled with multivariate data analysis was employed. A Griess assay was used to determine the inhibition of the production of NO in RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and interferon-γ. The oven dried (OD) samples demonstrated the absence of asparagine and ascorbic acid as compared to the freeze dried (FD) dates. The principal component analysis showed distinct clusters between the OD and FD dates by the second principal component. In respect of extraction solvents, chloroform extracts can be distinguished by the absence of arginine, glycine and asparagine compared to the methanol and 50% methanol extracts. The chloroform extracts can be clearly distinguished from the methanol and 50% methanol extracts by first principal component. Meanwhile, the loading score plot of partial least squares analysis suggested that beta glucose, alpha glucose, choline, ascorbic acid and glycine were among the metabolites that were contributing to higher biological activity displayed by FD and methanol extracts of Ajwa. The results highlight an alternative method of metabolomics approach for determination of the metabolites that contribute to NO inhibitory activity. The association between metabolite profiles and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity of the various extracts of Ajwa dates was evaluated by utilizing partial least squares (PLS) model. The validated PLS model can be employed to predict the NO inhibitory activity of new samples of date fruits based on their NMR spectra which was important for assessing fruit quality. The information gained might be used as guidance for quality control, nutritional values and as a basis for the preparation of any food supplements for human health that employs date palm fruit as the raw material. © 2015 Institute of Food

  14. Extracts of Canadian first nations medicinal plants, used as natural products, inhibit neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with different antibiotic resistance profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulska, Paulina; Thakur, Sidharath D; Foster, Brian C; Scott, Ian M; Leduc, Renée I; Arnason, John T; Dillon, Jo-Anne R

    2011-07-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) has developed resistance to most antimicrobial agents and the antibiotics recommended for therapy are restricted, for the most part, to third generation cephalosporins. In order to investigate new potential sources of antimicrobial agents, the antibacterial properties of 14 Canadian plants used in traditional First Nations' medicine were tested against Ng isolates having differing antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Ethanolic extracts of 14 Canadian botanicals, analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, were tested for their antimicrobial activity (disc diffusion and/or agar dilution assays) against susceptible Ng reference strains and a panel of 28 Ng isolates with various antimicrobial resistance profiles. Extracts of Arctostaphylos uva ursi (kinnikinnick or bearberry), Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), Prunus serotina (black cherry), and Rhodiola rosea (roseroot) inhibited the growth of all Ng isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 32 μg/mL, 4 to 32 μg/mL, 16 to >32 μg/mL, and 32 to 64 μg/mL, respectively. Extracts of Acorus americanus (sweet flag), Berberis vulgaris (barberry), Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh), Equisetum arvense (field horsetail), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), Ledum groenlandicum (Labrador tea), Ledum palustre (marsh Labrador tea), Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose), Sambucus nigra (elderberry), and Zanthoxylum americanum (prickly ash) had weak or no antimicrobial activity against the Ng isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations ≥256 μg/mL. The phytochemical berberine from H. canadensis inhibited the growth of all Ng isolates. The phytochemicals, salidroside and rosavin, present in R. rosea, also showed inhibitory activity against Ng strains. Canadian botanicals represent a potential source of novel compounds which inhibit Ng, including isolates resistant to antibiotics.

  15. Analysis of genes that influence sheep follicular development by different nutrition levels during the luteal phase using expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, F; Jia, R; Ying, S; Wang, Z; Wang, F

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition is an important factor that regulates reproductive performance of sheep and affects follicle development. However, the correlation between nutrition and follicle development is poorly understood at the molecular level. To study its possible molecular mechanisms, we performed expression profiling of granulosa cells isolated from sheep that were fed different levels of nutrition levels during the luteal phase. To do this, ewes received a maintenance diet (M), and their estrus was synchronized by intravaginal progestogen sponges for 12 days. Ewes were randomly divided into the short-term dietary-restricted group (R; 0.5 × M) and the nutrient-supplemented group (S; 1.5 × M). RNA samples were extracted from granulosa cells. Transcriptome libraries from each group were constructed by Illumina sequencing. Among 18 468 detected genes, 170 genes were significantly differentially expressed, of which 140 genes were upregulated and 30 genes were downregulated in group S relative to group R. These genes could be candidates regulating follicular development in sheep. Gene Ontology, KEGG and clustering analyses were performed. Genes related to oocyte meiosis, such as ADCY7, were upregulated. We identified two important groups of related genes that were upregulated with improved nutrition: one group comprising the genes PTGS2, UCP2 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the other group comprising interleukin-1A and interleukin-1B. The genes within each group showed similar expression patterns. Additionally, all five genes are involved in the reproduction process. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to validate the results of expression profiling. These data in our study are an abundant genomic resource to expand the understanding of the molecular and cellular events underlying follicle development. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Distinct differences in global gene expression profiles in non-implanted blastocysts and blastocysts resulting in live birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine Kjær; Fredsted, Palle Villesen; Jensen, Jacob Malte

    2015-01-01

    Results from animal models points towards the existence of a gene expression profile that is distinguishably different in viable embryos compared with non-viable embryos. Knowledge of human embryo transcripts is however limited, in particular with regard to how gene expression is related to clini......Results from animal models points towards the existence of a gene expression profile that is distinguishably different in viable embryos compared with non-viable embryos. Knowledge of human embryo transcripts is however limited, in particular with regard to how gene expression is related...... to clinical outcome. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the global gene expression profiles of human blastocysts. Next Generation Sequencing was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed in non-implanted embryos and embryos resulting in live birth. Three trophectoderm...

  17. Motivational component profiles in university students learning histology: a comparative study between genders and different health science curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The students’ motivation to learn basic sciences in health science curricula is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different components of motivation (intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy and extrinsic -career and grade- motivation) on learning human histology in health science curricula and their relationship with the final performance of the students in histology. Methods Glynn Science Motivation Questionnaire II was used to compare students’ motivation components to learn histology in 367 first-year male and female undergraduate students enrolled in medical, dentistry and pharmacy degree programs. Results For intrinsic motivation, career motivation and self-efficacy, the highest values corresponded to medical students, whereas dentistry students showed the highest values for self-determination and grade motivation. Genders differences were found for career motivation in medicine, self-efficacy in dentistry, and intrinsic motivation, self-determination and grade motivation in pharmacy. Career motivation and self-efficacy components correlated with final performance in histology of the students corresponding to the three curricula. Conclusions Our results show that the overall motivational profile for learning histology differs among medical, dentistry and pharmacy students. This finding is potentially useful to foster their learning process, because if they are metacognitively aware of their motivation they will be better equipped to self-regulate their science-learning behavior in histology. This information could be useful for instructors and education policy makers to enhance curricula not only on the cognitive component of learning but also to integrate students’ levels and types of motivation into the processes of planning, delivery and evaluation of medical education. PMID:24612878

  18. Seasonal differences of gene expression profiles in song sparrow (Melospiza melodia hypothalamus in relation to territorial aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Mukai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia are territorial year-round; however, neuroendocrine responses to simulated territorial intrusion (STI differ between breeding (spring and non-breeding seasons (autumn. In spring, exposure to STI leads to increases in luteinizing hormone and testosterone, but not in autumn. These observations suggest that there are fundamental differences in the mechanisms driving neuroendocrine responses to STI between seasons. Microarrays, spotted with EST cDNA clones of zebra finch, were used to explore gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus after territorial aggression in two different seasons.Free-living territorial male song sparrows were exposed to either conspecific or heterospecific (control males in an STI in spring and autumn. Behavioral data were recorded, whole hypothalami were collected, and microarray hybridizations were performed. Quantitative PCR was performed for validation. Our results show 262 cDNAs were differentially expressed between spring and autumn in the control birds. There were 173 cDNAs significantly affected by STI in autumn; however, only 67 were significantly affected by STI in spring. There were 88 cDNAs that showed significant interactions in both season and STI.Results suggest that STI drives differential genomic responses in the hypothalamus in the spring vs. autumn. The number of cDNAs differentially expressed in relation to season was greater than in relation to social interactions, suggesting major underlying seasonal effects in the hypothalamus which may determine the differential response upon social interaction. Functional pathway analyses implicated genes that regulate thyroid hormone action and neuroplasticity as targets of this neuroendocrine regulation.

  19. Motivational component profiles in university students learning histology: a comparative study between genders and different health science curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Sánchez, Antonio; López-Núñez, Juan Antonio; Carriel, Víctor; Martín-Piedra, Miguel-Ángel; Sola, Tomás; Alaminos, Miguel

    2014-03-10

    The students' motivation to learn basic sciences in health science curricula is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different components of motivation (intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy and extrinsic -career and grade- motivation) on learning human histology in health science curricula and their relationship with the final performance of the students in histology. Glynn Science Motivation Questionnaire II was used to compare students' motivation components to learn histology in 367 first-year male and female undergraduate students enrolled in medical, dentistry and pharmacy degree programs. For intrinsic motivation, career motivation and self-efficacy, the highest values corresponded to medical students, whereas dentistry students showed the highest values for self-determination and grade motivation. Genders differences were found for career motivation in medicine, self-efficacy in dentistry, and intrinsic motivation, self-determination and grade motivation in pharmacy. Career motivation and self-efficacy components correlated with final performance in histology of the students corresponding to the three curricula. Our results show that the overall motivational profile for learning histology differs among medical, dentistry and pharmacy students. This finding is potentially useful to foster their learning process, because if they are metacognitively aware of their motivation they will be better equipped to self-regulate their science-learning behavior in histology. This information could be useful for instructors and education policy makers to enhance curricula not only on the cognitive component of learning but also to integrate students' levels and types of motivation into the processes of planning, delivery and evaluation of medical education.

  20. Comparative expression profiling of Leishmania: modulation in gene expression between species and in different host genetic backgrounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Depledge

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing of Leishmania species that give rise to a range of disease phenotypes in the host has revealed highly conserved gene content and synteny across the genus. Only a small number of genes are differentially distributed between the three species sequenced to date, L. major, L. infantum and L. braziliensis. It is not yet known how many of these genes are expressed in the disease-promoting intracellular amastigotes of these species or whether genes conserved between the species are differentially expressed in the host.We have used customised oligonucleotide microarrays to confirm that all of the differentially distributed genes identified by genome comparisons are expressed in intracellular amastigotes, with only a few of these subject to regulation at the RNA level. In the first large-scale study of gene expression in L. braziliensis, we show that only approximately 9% of the genes analysed are regulated in their RNA expression during the L. braziliensis life cycle, a figure consistent with that observed in other Leishmania species. Comparing amastigote gene expression profiles between species confirms the proposal that Leishmania transcriptomes undergo little regulation but also identifies conserved genes that are regulated differently between species in the host. We have also investigated whether host immune competence influences parasite gene expression, by comparing RNA expression profiles in L. major amastigotes derived from either wild-type (BALB/c or immunologically compromised (Rag2(-/- gamma(c (-/- mice. While parasite dissemination from the site of infection is enhanced in the Rag2(-/- gamma(c (-/- genetic background, parasite RNA expression profiles are unperturbed.These findings support the hypothesis that Leishmania amastigotes are pre-adapted for intracellular survival and undergo little dynamic modulation of gene expression at the RNA level. Species-specific parasite factors contributing to virulence and pathogenicity

  1. Demonstrating the importance of phytochemical profile of different teas on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Min Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Indigenous or traditional aqueous plant extractsare commonly used by nearly80% of the world’s population for primary health needs.Accordingly,teas such as Camellia sinensisand herbal teaswere characterized fortheirphytochemical content and potential to offerspecific bioactivities that could benefit human health by mitigating oxidative stress andinflammation.Methods:In the present study, we comparedthe phytochemical profiles, antioxidant,and anti-inflammatory activities of four Camellia sinensisteas,including white, green, oolong, black, andtwo herbal teassuch as Rooibos and Yerba mate,which are producedand consumed by different populationsworldwide. We alsostudied the impact oftheRooibos tea on the production of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide(NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2,and different cytokinesin Raw 264.7 cells, bothwith or without interferon γ (IFN-γand lipopolysaccharide (LPSstimulation.Results:White tea hadthe highest total phenolic content(TPCand antioxidantactivity among the six teasthat wereexamined. In contrast, Rooibos tea hadthe lowest TPC,antioxidant,and anti-inflammatory activities. Yerba mate tea exhibitedthe greatest potential to inhibit NO production in IFN-γ and LPS-induced Raw 264.7 cells.The anti-inflammatory activity of teas was discoveredto be correlated withantioxidant activity and phytochemical composition.Among thesix teasexamined, only Rooibos tea was found to induce NO in unstimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Under basal conditions, Rooibos tea inducedinterleukin-1α (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF,tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α,iNOS,and COX-2 production. However, Rooibos tea alsodemonstrateda dose-dependent inhibition of IL-6, IL-10, iNOS,and COX-2 expression in stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Although a high concentration of Rooibos tea was effective in

  2. Performance of flash profile and napping with and without training for describing small sensory differences in a model wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing; Grønbeck, Marlene Schou; Di Monaco, Rosella

    2016-01-01

    characters and sensory intensities (weak to moderate). Some modifications to the classical Napping and Flash Profile protocols were employed in order to improve discriminability, repeatability and accuracy. The results showed that conducting Napping with a panel training on either the method (training on how...

  3. High and Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Induce Different Secretome Profiles in a Human Skin Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Matzke, Melissa M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Hu, Zeping; Monroe, Matthew E.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Morgan, William F.

    2014-03-18

    It is postulated that secreted soluble factors are important contributors of bystander effect and adaptive responses observed in low dose ionizing radiation. Using multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based proteomics, we quantified the changes of skin tissue secretome – the proteins secreted from a full thickness, reconstituted 3-dimensional skin tissue model 48 hr after exposure to 3, 10 and 200 cGy of X-rays. Overall, 135 proteins showed statistical significant difference between the sham (0 cGy) and any of the irradiated groups (3, 10 or 200 cGy) on the basis of Dunnett adjusted t-test; among these, 97 proteins showed a trend of downregulation and 9 proteins showed a trend of upregulation with increasing radiation dose. In addition, there were 21 and 8 proteins observed to have irregular trends with the 10 cGy irradiated group either having the highest or the lowest level among all three radiated doses. Moreover, two proteins, carboxypeptidase E and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 were sensitive to ionizing radiation, but relatively independent of radiation dose. Conversely, proteasome activator complex subunit 2 protein appeared to be sensitive to the dose of radiation, as rapid upregulation of this protein was observed when radiation doses were increased from 3, to 10 or 200 cGy. These results suggest that different mechanisms of action exist at the secretome level for low and high doses of ionizing radiation.

  4. Goal orientation profile differences on perceived motivational climate, perceived peer relationships, and motivation-related responses of youth athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan L; Balaguer, Isabel; Duda, Joan L

    2006-12-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to determine if dispositional achievement goal orientation profiles that are reported in the literature would be observed in a sample of youth athletes, and (b) to examine potential achievement goal orientation profile differences on perceptions of the motivational climate, perceptions of peer relationships, and motivation-related responses. Male soccer players (n=223) aged 9-12 years (mean=10.9, s=0.6) completed a multi-section questionnaire containing assessments of dispositional goal (task, ego) orientations, the perceived task- and ego-involving features of the motivational climate, perceived peer acceptance and friendship quality (positive friendship quality, conflict), perceived ability, soccer enjoyment, and satisfaction with one's performance and the team. Four profiles were observed that closely matched those observed by Hodge and Petlichkoff (2000), though in the present study a lower proportion of participants exhibited achievement goal profiles consisting of relatively high ego orientation. Achievement goal profile differences were found for all variables except positive friendship quality, with a general trend for those reporting relatively lower task goal orientation to exhibit less adaptive responses. Overall, the findings support achievement goal frameworks (e.g. Nicholls, 1989) and suggest that further examination of dispositional achievement goals may afford a deeper understanding of social relationships and motivational processes in youth sport.

  5. Different profiles of onion bulb in CIDP and CMT1A in relation to extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Teruaki; Unuma, Tsuneo; Shigematsu, Kazuo; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic neuropathy is usually intractable, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 1A (CMT1A) are the representative disorders. The two disorders are sometimes confused both clinically and pathologically. The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in the pathology of large onion bulbs, focusing on the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Nine patients with CIDP and 14 with CMT1A were included. The opened interspaces in OB were frequently shown in CMT1A patients. In CIDP, interspaces of OB packed with collagen fibers were prominent. The mean ratio of opened OB was significantly increased in CMT1A (37.9%) compared to CIDP patients (10.6%) (p = 0.003). Among the ECM examined, tenascin-C (TNC) showed a distinct difference in the pattern of immunoreactivity of OB. The mean ratio of OB showing TNC immunoreactivity was significantly larger in CIDP (29.7%, p = 0.005) than in CMT1A (5.0%). TNC immunoreactivity was confined to the area around myelin sheaths in CMT1A. The increased deposition of collagen fibers in CIDP suggests the activity of nerve regeneration. TNC expression in Schwann cell lamellae comprising OB may also suggest the activity of regeneration. Schwann cell phenotypes in CIDP may be different from CMT1A regarding the production of ECM proteins.

  6. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  7. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  8. Characterization of Pure Ductal Carcinoma In Situ on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging: Do Nonhigh Grade and High Grade Show Different Imaging Features?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwa Chan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To characterize imaging features of pure DCIS on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI, 31 consecutive patients (37-81 years old, mean 56, including 2 Grade I, 16 Grade II, and 13 Grade III, were studied. MR images were reviewed retrospectively and the morphological appearances and kinetic features of breast lesions were categorized according to the ACR BI-RADS breast MRI lexicon. DCE-MRI was a sensitive imaging modality in detecting pure DCIS. MR imaging showed enhancing lesions in 29/31 (94% cases. Pure DCIS appeared as mass type or non-mass lesions on MRI with nearly equal frequency. The 29 MR detected lesions include 15 mass lesions (52%, and 14 lesions showing non-mass-like lesions (48%. For the mass lesions, the most frequent presentations were irregular shape (50%, irregular margin (50% and heterogeneous enhancement (67%. For the non-mass-like lesions, the clumped internal enhancement pattern was the dominate feature, seen in 9/14 cases (64%. Regarding enhancement kinetic curve, 21/29 (78% lesions showed suspicious malignant type kinetics. No significant difference was found in morphology (>.05, tumor size (P = 0.21, and kinetic characteristics (=.38 between non-high grade (I+II and high-grade (III pure DCIS.

  9. Difference of the Nuclear Green Light Intensity between Papillary Carcinoma Cells Showing Clear Nuclei and Non-neoplastic Follicular Epithelia in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyekyung Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background There is subjective disagreement regarding nuclear clearing in papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this study, using digital instruments, we were able to quantify many ambiguous pathologic features and use numeric data to express our findings. Methods We examined 30 papillary thyroid carcinomas. For each case, we selected representative cancer cells showing clear nuclei and surrounding non-neoplastic follicular epithelial cells and evaluated objective values of green light intensity (GLI for quantitative analysis of nuclear clearing in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Results From 16,274 GLI values from 600 cancer cell nuclei and 13,752 GLI values from 596 non-neoplastic follicular epithelial nuclei, we found a high correlation of 94.9% between GLI and clear nuclei. GLI between the cancer group showing clear nuclei and non-neoplastic follicular epithelia was statistically significant. The overall average level of GLI in the cancer group was over two times higher than the non-neoplastic group despite a wide range of GLI. On a polygonal line graph, there was a fluctuating unique difference between both the cancer and non-neoplastic groups in each patient, which was comparable to the microscopic findings. Conclusions Nuclear GLI could be a useful factor for discriminating between carcinoma cells showing clear nuclei and non-neoplastic follicular epithelia in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  10. Differences in bacterial saliva profile between periodontitis patients and a control cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Nielsen, Claus H

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease in which subgingival bacteria play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine if periodontitis is associated with a characteristic salivary bacterial profile. This was accomplished by comparing...... the bacterial profile of saliva from subjects with chronic periodontitis with that of saliva from a control cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples from 139 chronic periodontitis patients and 447 samples from a control cohort were analysed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray...... component analysis was used to visualize bacterial community profiles obtained by the HOMIM. RESULTS: Eight bacterial taxa, including putative periodontal pathogens as Parvimonas micra and Filifactor alocis, and four bacterial clusters were identified statistically more frequently and at higher levels...

  11. Plasma lipid profiling of different types of hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride and lomustine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Saito, Kosuke; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Yoshiro

    2016-04-12

    Plasma lipid profiling has emerged as a useful tool for understanding the pathophysiology of hepatic injury and disease. Hepatic fibrosis results from chronic, progressive damage to the liver and can lead, in turn, to more serious conditions such as hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the plasma lipid profiles of two types of hepatic fibrosis in order to aid the understanding of the pathophysiology of hepatic fibrosis. A liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry platform was used to reveal and compare the plasma lipid profiles of two types of chemical-induced hepatic fibrosis. Rat models of centrilobular fibrosis and bile duct fibrosis were established via chronic exposure to the known fibrogenic hepatotoxins, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or lomustine (LS), respectively, over a 28-day period. To delineate the specific alterations in the lipid profiles as a result of the hepatic fibrosis, we also employed non-fibrogenic hepatotoxicants (2-acetamidofluorene, N-nitrosodiethylamine, and ethambutol) as well as 3-day treatment of CCl4 and LS, which did not induce fibrosis. Our assay platform identified 228 lipids in the rat plasma, and the global lipid profile clearly distinguished these models from the control via principal component analysis. In addition, the alteration of the plasma lipid profile caused by CCl4 and LS were clearly different. Furthermore, a number of lipids were identified as specific alterations caused by fibrosis induced only by CCl4 and LS, respectively. Three lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC[18:3], LPC[20:4], and LPC[22:6]), and three phosphatidylcholines (PC[18:2/20:4], PC[40:8], and PC[20:4/22:6]) are specific circulating lipids, the levels of which were altered by both CCl4 and LS treatment; however, their levels were decreased by chronic exposure to CCl4 and increased by chronic exposure to LS. These results suggest that different types of chemical-induced hepatic fibrosis demonstrate clear

  12. Behavioral Profiles of Children with Williams Syndrome from Spain and the United States: Cross-Cultural Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Débora; Brun-Gasca, Carme; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2017-01-01

    To identify similarities and differences in the behavioral profile of children with Williams syndrome from Spain (n = 53) and the United States (n = 145), we asked parents of 6- to 14-year-olds with Williams syndrome to complete the Child Behavior Checklist 6-18. The distribution of raw scores was significantly higher for the Spanish sample than…

  13. Different effects of night versus day high temperature on rice quality and accumulation profiling of rice grain proteins during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixia; Chen, Zhen; Hu, Meixia; Wang, Zhenmei; Hua, Hua; Yin, Changxi; Zeng, Hanlai

    2011-09-01

    High temperature has adverse effects on rice yield and quality. The different influences of night high temperature (NHT) and day high temperature (DHT) on rice quality and seed protein accumulation profiles during grain filling in indica rice '9311' were studied in this research. The treatment temperatures of the control, NHT, and DHT were 28°C/20°C, 27°C/35°C, and 35°C/27°C, respectively, and all the treatments were maintained for 20 days. The result of rice quality analysis indicated that compared with DHT, NHT exerted less effect on head rice rate and chalkiness, whereas greater effect on grain weight. Moreover, the dynamic accumulation change profiles of 61 protein spots, differentially accumulated and successfully identified under NHT and DHT conditions, were performed by proteomic approach. The results also showed that the different suppressed extent of accumulation amount of cyPPDKB might result in different grain chalkiness between NHT and DHT. Most identified isoforms of proteins, such as PPDK and pullulanase, displayed different accumulation change patterns between NHT and DHT. In addition, compared with DHT, NHT resulted in the unique accumulation patterns of stress and defense proteins. Taken together, the mechanisms of seed protein accumulation profiles induced by NHT and DHT during grain filling should be different in rice, and the potential molecular basis is discussed in this study.

  14. Multivariate clustering of progression profiles reveals different depression patterns in prodromal Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-in; Long, Jeffrey D; Mills, James A; McCusker, Elizabeth; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-11-01

    Although Huntington disease (HD) is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation, its phenotypic presentation differs widely. Variability in clinical phenotypes of HD may reflect the existence of disease subtypes. This hypothesis was tested in prodromal participants from the longitudinal Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington Disease (PREDICT-HD) study. We performed clustering using longitudinal data assessing motor, cognitive, and depression symptoms. Using data from 521 participants with 2,716 data points, we fit growth mixture models (GMM) that identify groups based on multivariate trajectories. In various GMM, different phases of disease progression were partitioned by progression trajectories of motor and cognitive signs, and by overall level of depression symptoms. More progressed motor signs were accompanied by more progressed cognitive signs, but not always by higher levels of depressive symptoms. In several models, there were at least 2 groups with similar trajectories for motor and cognitive signs that showed different levels for depression symptoms-one with a very low level of depression and the other with a higher level of depression. Findings indicate that at least intermediate HD progression might be associated with different levels of depression. Depression is one of the few symptoms that is treatable in HD and has implications for clinical care. Identification of potential depression subtypes may also help to select appropriate patients for clinical trials. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The brain-gut axis of fish: Rainbow trout with low and high cortisol response show innate differences in intestinal integrity and brain gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Malin; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Winberg, Svante; Sundell, Kristina

    2018-02-01

    In fish, the stress hormone cortisol is released through the action of the hypothalamic pituitary interrenal axis (HPI-axis). The reactivity of this axis differs between individuals and previous studies have linked this to different behavioural characteristics and stress coping styles. In the current study, low and high responding (LR and HR) rainbow trout in terms of cortisol release during stress were identified, using a repeated confinements stress test. The expression of stress related genes in the forebrain and the integrity of the stress sensitive primary barrier of the intestine was examined. The HR trout displayed higher expression levels of mineralocorticoid and serotonergic receptors and serotonergic re-uptake pumps in the telencephalon during both basal and stressed conditions. This confirms that HPI-axis reactivity is linked also to other neuronal behavioural modulators, as both the serotonergic and the corticoid system in the telencephalon are involved in behavioural reactivity and cognitive processes. Involvement of the HPI-axis in the brain-gut-axis was also found. LR trout displayed a lower integrity in the primary barrier of the intestine during basal conditions compared to the HR trout. However, following stress exposure, LR trout showed an unexpected increase in intestinal integrity whereas the HR trout instead suffered a reduction. This could make the LR individuals more susceptible to pathogens during basal conditions where instead HR individuals would be more vulnerable during stressed conditions. We hypothesize that these barrier differences are caused by regulation/effects on tight junction proteins possibly controlled by secondary effects of cortisol on the intestinal immune barrier or differences in parasympathetic reactivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differing Psychologically Derived Clusters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain are Associated With Different Multidimensional Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabey, Martin; Smith, Anne; Beales, Darren; Slater, Helen; O'Sullivan, Peter

    2016-12-01

    To explore the existence of subgroups in a cohort with chronic low back pain (n=294) based upon data from multiple psychological questionnaires, and profile subgroups on data from multiple dimensions. Psychological questionnaires considered as indicator variables entered into latent class analysis included: Depression, Anxiety, Stress scales, Thought Suppression and Behavioural Endurance subscales (Avoidance Endurance questionnaire), Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (short-form), Pain Catastrophising Scale, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire. Multidimensional profiling of derived clusters included: demographics, pain characteristics, pain responses to movement, behaviors associated with pain, body perception, pain sensitivity, and health and lifestyle factors. Three clusters were derived. Cluster 1 (23.5%) was characterized by low Cognitive and Affective Questionnaire scores, with the exception of fear-avoidance beliefs. Cluster 2 (58.8%) was characterized by relatively elevated thought suppression, catastrophizing, and fear-avoidance beliefs, but lower pain self-efficacy, depression, anxiety, and stress. Cluster 3 (17.7%) had the highest scores across cognitive and affective questionnaires.Cluster 1 reported significantly lower pain intensity and bothersomeness than other clusters. Disability, stressful life events, and low back region perceptual distortion increased progressively from cluster 1 to cluster 3, whereas mindfulness progressively decreased. Clusters 2 and 3 had more people with an increase in pain following repeated forward and backward spinal bending, and more people with increasing pain following bending, than cluster 1. Cluster 3 had significantly greater lumbar pressure pain sensitivity, more undiagnosed comorbid symptoms, and more widespread pain than other clusters. Clinical implications relating to presentations of each cluster are postulated.

  17. Milk fatty acids profiles and milk production from dairy cows fed different forage quality diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaiwang Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty lactating Holstein cows were used to investigate the effects of different forages quality on milk fatty acids (FA profiles and production. The cows were assigned to 3 dietary treatments (n = 10 per treatment in a randomized block design with 3 repeated measures. They were fed the experimental diets for 90 d with 3 days of collection of samples for analysis at about 27 d intervals (samples were collected on days 28, 29, 30, 58, 59, 60, 88, 89 and 90. The treatments were (DM basis: 1 mixed forages diet (MF consisting of 3.7% Chinese wild rye, 26.7% corn silage and 23.4% alfalfa hay; 2 corn stalk diet 1 (CS1 where corn stalk was used to formulate a similar chemical nutrient level to MF; 3 corn stalk diet 2 (CS2 which used corn stalk to formulate a similar forage level to MF for the diet. Dry matter intake and BW were similar between treatments, but daily milk yield, milk fat and protein yield decreased (P < 0.05 in CS1 and CS2 compared with MF, with CS2 being the lowest (P < 0.05. In total FA of milk, the compositions of C18:1c9, C18:3 and unsaturated FA increased (P < 0.05 in CS1 and CS2 compared with MF, and C18:0 and trans-C18:1 were trended to increase (P < 0.10, but C4:0-C16:0 were decreased (P < 0.05. Compared with cows fed CS2, cows receiving CS1 increased the compositions of C4:0 to C12:0 and C18:2 (P < 0.05. The results suggests feeding corn stalk could produce a greater proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA in milk fat without resulting in milk fat depression (MFD in mid lactation cows, but simply increasing the ratio of concentrate in low forages diets is not an effective way to increase milk fat synthesis and milk production.

  18. The calcineurin activity profiles of cyclosporin and tacrolimus are different in stable renal transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed-Nielsen, PB; Karamperis, N; Hojskov, C

    2006-01-01

    , CsA) was drawn. CaN activity was determined in whole blood as the release of 32P from a phosphorylated peptide. Activity of the 32P was quantitated by liquid scintillation and results converted to Units CaN, utilizing a calibration curve with CaN. We demonstrated that calcineurin activity profiles...

  19. Comparison of soil quality and productivity at two sites differing in profile structure and topsoil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study sought to assess soil quality (SQ) of two soils with similar taxonomy but dissimilar soil profile attributes, and compare SQ outcomes with aboveground biomass productivity of three crops: dry pea (Pisum sativum L.), spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.). Soils evalu...

  20. Tumour vasculature and angiogenic profile of paediatric pilocytic astrocytoma; is it much different from glioblastoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, M.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.; Scherpen, F. J. G.; Hoving, E. W.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Pilocytic astrocytomas are the most frequent brain tumours in children. Because of their high vascularity, this study aimed to obtain insights into potential angiogenic related therapeutic targets in these tumours by characterization of the vasculature and the angiogenic profile. In this study

  1. Difference in volatile profile between pericarp tissue and locular gel in tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroma, a complex mixture of volatile compounds, plays an important role in the perception and acceptability of tomato products by consumers. Numerous studies have reported volatile profiles in tomatoes based on measurement of the whole fruit or pericarp tissue, however, little is understood regardin...

  2. Physical Fitness Profile in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Differences between Levels of Sport Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Paz-Lourido, Berta; Rodriguez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Neuromuscular and aerobic capacity can be reduced in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous studies suggest these individuals might be particularly susceptible to losing basic functions because of poor physical fitness. The aim of this study is to describe the physical fitness profile of adult athletes with ID and identify whether…

  3. Oral microbial profiles of individuals with different levels of sugar intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette K; Kressirer, Christine A; Belstrøm, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to compare the oral microbial profiles in young adults with an intake of free sugars above or below the current recommendations by the WHO for sugar consumption. Seventy subjects completed a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to establish the proportion of free sugars in relation...

  4. Major differences between human atopic dermatitis and murine models as determined by global transcriptomic profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald, David Adrian; Noda, Shinji; Oliva, Margeaux

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is caused by a complex interplay between immune and barrier abnormalities. Murine models of AD are essential for preclinical assessments of new treatments. While many models have been used to simulate AD, their transcriptomic profiles are not fully understood, and a compari...

  5. Major differences between human atopic dermatitis and murine models, as determined by using global transcriptomic profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald, David A.; Noda, Shinji; Oliva, Margeaux

    2017-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is caused by a complex interplay between immune and barrier abnormalities. Murine models of AD are essential for preclinical assessments of new treatments. Although many models have been used to simulate AD, their transcriptomic profiles are not fully understood,...

  6. Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering profiles of air at different temperatures and pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Z.; Witschas, B.; van der Water, W.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) scattering profiles for air have been recorded for the temperature range from 255 to 340 K and the pressure range from 640 to 3300 mbar, covering the conditions relevant for the Earth's atmosphere and for planned atmospheric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) missions. The

  7. Gender Differences in Risk/Protection Profiles for Low Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Stephen D.; Renner, Lynette M.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2010-01-01

    Using holistic-interactionistic theory, the simultaneous nature of risk and protection factors for both males and females (age 6-11 in Wave 1) is examined using latent profile analysis (LPA). Risk/protection classes are estimated using multiple risk factor variables (e.g., physical child abuse) and multiple protective factors (e.g.,…

  8. H-Bonding Interactions Induced Two Isostructural Cd(II) Metal-Organic Frameworks Showing Different Selective Detection of Nitroaromatic Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Jie; Qin, Ling; Chen, Jin-Xi; Zheng, He-Gen

    2016-11-07

    Two luminescent Cd(II) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were prepared from electron-rich π-conjugated fluorescent ligands. They are isostructural with sql nets. Their strong luminescences can be quenched by a series of nitroaromatic explosives. Notably, MOF 1 shows highly selective and sensitive detection of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), while MOF 2 exhibits good responses toward picric acid (PA) compared with other nitroaromatic explosives. This different order of quenching efficiency is because there are H-bonding interactions between MOF 1 and 4-NP, while MOF 2 lacks these H-bonding interactions. MOF 1 displays highly selective and sensitive detection of 4-NP with the high quenching constant (6.74× 104 M-1) and low detection limit (34.48 ppb), which is better than those of known MOFs. MOF 1 and MOF 2 have highly sensitive and selective detection of 4-NP and PA in the practical application, respectively.

  9. Impact of obesity on glucose and lipid profiles in adolescents at different age groups in relation to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plourde Gilles

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As obesity is rapidly becoming a major medical and public health problem, the aim of our study was to determine: 1 if obesity in Caucasian adolescents at 5 different Tanner stages are associated with obesity in adulthood and its obesity-associated abnormal glucose and lipid profiles, 2 the type of fat distribution is associated with glucose and lipid profile abnormalities, and 3 the risk level and the age of appearance of these abnormalities. Methods For the first study, data analyses were from a case-control study of adolescents classified according to their BMI; a BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex as overweight, and those with a BMI ≥ 95th percentile as obese. Subjects with a BMI th percentile were classified as controls. WC:AC ratio of waist circumference to arm circumference was used as an indicator of a central pattern of adiposity. Two other indices of central adiposity were calculated from skinfolds: Central-peripheral (CPR as subscapular skinfold + suprailliac skinfold/ (triceps skinfold + thigh skinfold and ratio of subscapular to triceps skinfold (STR. The sum of the four skinfolds (SUM was calculated from triceps, subscapular, suprailliac and thigh skinfolds. SUM provides a single measure of subcutaneous adiposity. Representative adult subjects were used for comparison. Glucose and lipid profiles were also determined in these subjects. Abnormal glucose and lipid profiles were determined as being those with fasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/l and lipid values ≥ 85th percentile adjusted for age and sex, respectively. Prevalence and odds ratio analysis were used to determine the impact of obesity on glucose and lipid profiles at each Tanner stages for both sexes. Correlation coefficient analyses were used to determine the association between glucose and lipid profiles and anthropometric measurements for both sexes. The second study evaluated in a retrospective-prospective longitudinal way if: 1 obesity in

  10. Glycan analysis of Fonsecaea monophora from clinical and environmental origins reveals different structural profile and human antigenic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Reis Burjack

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dematiaceous fungi constitute a large and heterogeneous group, characterized by having a dark pigment, the dihydroxynaftalen melanin - DHN, inside their cell walls. In nature they are found mainly as soil microbiota or decomposing organic matter, and are spread in tropical and subtropical regions. The fungus Fonsecaea monophora causes chromoblastomycosis in humans, and possesses essential mechanisms that may enhance pathogenicity, proliferation and dissemination inside the host. Glycoconjugates confer important properties to these pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, structural characterization of glycan structures present in two different strains of F. monophora MMHC82 and FE5p4, from clinical and environmental origins, respectively, was performed. Each one were grown on Minimal Medium (MM and Czapeck-Dox (CD medium, and the water soluble cell wall glycoconjugates and exopolysaccharides (EPS were evaluated by NMR, methylation and principal component analysis (PCA. By combining the methylation and 2D NMR analyses, it was possible to visualize the glycosidic profiles of the complex carbohydrate mixtures. Significant differences were observed in β-D-Galf-(1→5 and (1→6 linkages, α- and β-D-Glcp-(1→3, (1→4 and (1→6 units, as well as in α-D-Manp. PCA from 1H-NMR data showed that MMHC82 from CD medium showed a higher variation in the cell wall carbohydrates, mainly related to O-2 substituted β-D-Galf (δ 106.0/5.23 and δ 105.3/5.23 units. In order to investigate the antigenic response of the glycoconjugates, these were screened against serum from chromoblastomycosis patients. The antigen which contained the cell wall of MMHC82 grown in MM had β-D-Manp units that promoted higher antigenic response. The distribution of these fungal species in nature and the knowledge of how cell wall polysaccharides and glycoconjugates structure vary, may contribute to the better understanding and the elucidation of the pathology caused by this

  11. Molecular and Cellular Profiling of Scalp Psoriasis Reveals Differences and Similarities Compared to Skin Psoriasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ruano

    Full Text Available Scalp psoriasis shows a variable clinical spectrum and in many cases poses a great therapeutic challenge. However, it remains unknown whether the immune response of scalp psoriasis differs from understood pathomechanisms of psoriasis in other skin areas. We sought to determine the cellular and molecular phenotype of scalp psoriasis by performing a comparative analysis of scalp and skin using lesional and nonlesional samples from 20 Caucasian subjects with untreated moderate to severe psoriasis and significant scalp involvement and 10 control subjects without psoriasis. Our results suggest that even in the scalp, psoriasis is a disease of the inter-follicular skin. The immune mechanisms that mediate scalp psoriasis were found to be similar to those involved in skin psoriasis. However, the magnitude of dysregulation, number of differentially expressed genes, and enrichment of the psoriatic genomic fingerprint were more prominent in skin lesions. Furthermore, the scalp transcriptome showed increased modulation of several gene-sets, particularly those induced by interferon-gamma, compared with that of skin psoriasis, which was mainly associated with activation of TNFα/L-17/IL-22-induced keratinocyte response genes. We also detected differences in expression of gene-sets involving negative regulation, epigenetic regulation, epidermal differentiation, and dendritic cell or Th1/Th17/Th22-related T-cell processes.

  12. Molecular and Cellular Profiling of Scalp Psoriasis Reveals Differences and Similarities Compared to Skin Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Juan; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Shemer, Avner; Oliva, Margeaux; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Krueger, James G

    2016-01-01

    Scalp psoriasis shows a variable clinical spectrum and in many cases poses a great therapeutic challenge. However, it remains unknown whether the immune response of scalp psoriasis differs from understood pathomechanisms of psoriasis in other skin areas. We sought to determine the cellular and molecular phenotype of scalp psoriasis by performing a comparative analysis of scalp and skin using lesional and nonlesional samples from 20 Caucasian subjects with untreated moderate to severe psoriasis and significant scalp involvement and 10 control subjects without psoriasis. Our results suggest that even in the scalp, psoriasis is a disease of the inter-follicular skin. The immune mechanisms that mediate scalp psoriasis were found to be similar to those involved in skin psoriasis. However, the magnitude of dysregulation, number of differentially expressed genes, and enrichment of the psoriatic genomic fingerprint were more prominent in skin lesions. Furthermore, the scalp transcriptome showed increased modulation of several gene-sets, particularly those induced by interferon-gamma, compared with that of skin psoriasis, which was mainly associated with activation of TNFα/L-17/IL-22-induced keratinocyte response genes. We also detected differences in expression of gene-sets involving negative regulation, epigenetic regulation, epidermal differentiation, and dendritic cell or Th1/Th17/Th22-related T-cell processes.

  13. Molecular and Cellular Profiling of Scalp Psoriasis Reveals Differences and Similarities Compared to Skin Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Juan; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Shemer, Avner; Oliva, Margeaux

    2016-01-01

    Scalp psoriasis shows a variable clinical spectrum and in many cases poses a great therapeutic challenge. However, it remains unknown whether the immune response of scalp psoriasis differs from understood pathomechanisms of psoriasis in other skin areas. We sought to determine the cellular and molecular phenotype of scalp psoriasis by performing a comparative analysis of scalp and skin using lesional and nonlesional samples from 20 Caucasian subjects with untreated moderate to severe psoriasis and significant scalp involvement and 10 control subjects without psoriasis. Our results suggest that even in the scalp, psoriasis is a disease of the inter-follicular skin. The immune mechanisms that mediate scalp psoriasis were found to be similar to those involved in skin psoriasis. However, the magnitude of dysregulation, number of differentially expressed genes, and enrichment of the psoriatic genomic fingerprint were more prominent in skin lesions. Furthermore, the scalp transcriptome showed increased modulation of several gene-sets, particularly those induced by interferon-gamma, compared with that of skin psoriasis, which was mainly associated with activation of TNFα/L-17/IL-22-induced keratinocyte response genes. We also detected differences in expression of gene-sets involving negative regulation, epigenetic regulation, epidermal differentiation, and dendritic cell or Th1/Th17/Th22-related T-cell processes. PMID:26849645

  14. Simultaneous and intercontinental tests show synchronism between the local gravimetric tide and the ultra-weak photon emission in seedlings of different plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallep, Cristiano M; Barlow, Peter W; Burgos, Rosilene C R; van Wijk, Eduard P A

    2017-01-01

    In order to corroborate the hypothesis that variations in the rate of spontaneous ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) from germinating seedlings are related to local variations of the lunisolar tidal force, a series of simultaneous tests was performed using the time courses of UPE collected from three plant species-corn, wheat and sunflower-and also from wheat samples whose grains were transported between continents, from Brazil to The Netherlands and vice versa. All tests which were run in parallel showed coincident inflections within the UPE time courses not only between seedlings of the same species but also between the different species. In most cases, the UPE inflections were synchronised with the turning points in the local gravimetric tidal variation. Statistical tests using the local Pearson correlation verified these coincidences in the two time series. The results therefore support the hypothesis of a relationship between UPE emissions and, in the oscillations, the local gravimetric tide. This applies to both the emissions from seedlings of different species and to the seedlings raised from transported grain samples of the same species.

  15. Individuals family history positive for alcoholism show functional magnetic resonance imaging differences in reward sensitivity that are related to impulsivity factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Melissa M; Meda, Shashwath A; Thomas, Andre D; Potenza, Marc N; Krystal, John H; Worhunsky, Patrick; Stevens, Michael C; O'Malley, Stephanie; Book, Gregory A; Reynolds, Brady; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2011-04-01

    Substance-abusing individuals tend to display abnormal reward processing and a vulnerability to being impulsive. Detoxified alcoholics show differences in regional brain activation during a monetary incentive delay task. However, there is limited information on whether this uncharacteristic behavior represents a biological predisposition toward alcohol abuse, a consequence of chronic alcohol use, or both. We investigated prop