Hansen, Henning Sten
information in environmental planning and gives an overview over the various approaches to public participation. The current advances in Web-based GIS in many countries contain great possibilities for supporting good governance based on information and knowledge on the one hand and active involvement...... of the citizens on the other hand. One important precondition for success in this field is a well-informed population with access to the Internet. The overall purpose of this paper is to give en overview of how to utilise geographic information and public participation as natural components in environmental...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public participation. 930.42 Section... Activities § 930.42 Public participation. (a) Management programs shall provide for public participation in the State agency's review of consistency determinations. Public participation, at a minimum, shall...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 801.8... PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.8 Public participation. (a) The Council encourages maximum public participation in the process established by these regulations...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public participation. 214.34 Section 214.34... Committees § 214.34 Public participation. (a) Each advisory committee meeting is to be open to the public... Federal Register. (e) To facilitate public participation in advisory committee meetings which are to be...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 21.11 Section 21.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL SMALL BUSINESS § 21.11 Public participation. (a) Applications shall not generally be subject to public notice, public comment, or public...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public participation. 1321.27 Section 1321.27 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.27 Public participation. The...
... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 775.11 Section 775.11... FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 775.11 Public participation. The importance of public participation (40 CFR 1501.4(b)) in preparing environmental assessments is clearly...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public participation. 923.134 Section... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Review of Performance § 923.134 Public participation... participation, including holding public meetings in the State being evaluated and providing opportunities for...
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 300.709 Section 300.709 Education... Interior § 300.709 Public participation. In fulfilling the requirements of § 300.708 the Secretary of the Interior must provide for public participation consistent with § 300.165. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1411(h)) ...
... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public participation. 1012.4 Section 1012.4... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS MEETINGS OF THE BOARD § 1012.4 Public participation... the public will be admitted as observers only. Active participation, as by asking questions or...
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 255.25 Section 255.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... § 255.25 Public participation. Public participation in the process of identifying regions and agencies...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 840.15 Section 840.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... ENFORCEMENT § 840.15 Public participation. Each State program shall provide for public participation in...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public participation. 426.22 Section 426... THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.22 Public participation. (a) Notification... participation. (1) Reclamation can provide, as appropriate: meetings, workshops, or hearings to provide local...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public participation. 930.61 Section... a Federal License or Permit § 930.61 Public participation. (a) Following receipt of the material... activity, as determined by the State agency. At the discretion of the State agency, public participation...
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 300.165 Section 300.165 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Additional Eligibility Requirements § 300.165 Public participation. (a) Prior to... under this part, a State must comply with the public participation requirements in paragraph (a) of this...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public participation. 1018.27 Section 1018... Operation of Advisory Committees § 1018.27 Public participation. (a) The Commission is committed to a policy of encouraging public participation in its activities and will hold all advisory committee meetings...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 6.203 Section 6... Environmental Review Procedures § 6.203 Public participation. (a) General requirements. (1) The procedures in... and 1506.6 and applicable EPA public participation regulations (e.g., 40 CFR Part 25). (3) EPA NEPA...
Damgaard, Bodil; Lewis, Jenny
In this chapter we offer an analytical framework sensitive to the quality of citizen participation, which is measured in terms of transferred power from the governors to the citizens, and in terms of the degree to which citizens have access to accountability measures. We do this by combining...... Arnstein’s (1969) classic ladder of participation with a focus on citizen participation in regard to bureaucratic accountability, centered on efficiency and learning (cf. Bovens et al. 2008)....
Sports participation has been adjudged to enhance healthy living. This study described anthropometric and physiological (A-P) profiles of university athletes based on types of sports (ToS) and duration (in years) of participation (DoP). One hundred and twenty-nine athletes (69 males, 60 females), aged l5-36, who had ...
Electronic democracy describes a wide range of interactive tools that embrace existing and emergent media sources as a forum for allowing members of the public to express opinions and seek to influence decision-making.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 91.66 Section 91.66 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental... participation. Environmental impact documents are public documents and the public should be provided an...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public participation. 50.23 Section 50.23 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Procedures § 50.23 Public participation. HUD shall inform the affected public about NEPA-related hearings...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public participation. 930.2 Section 930.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... participation. State management programs shall provide an opportunity for public participation in the State...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 35.3035 Section 35.3035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... participation. (a) Public participation during the development, review, approval, and substantial revision of...
... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public participation. 511.17 Section 511.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Documents § 511.17 Public participation. Participant Status. Any person interested in a proceeding commenced...
Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu
We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 280.67 Section 280.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Substances § 280.67 Public participation. (a) For each confirmed release that requires a corrective action...
... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public participation. 110.134 Section 110.134 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Rulemaking § 110.134 Public participation. (a) The Commission may hold an oral hearing on a proposed rule or permit...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public participation. 510.6 Section 510.6 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.6 Public participation. (a) All committee meetings, or portions of meetings, that are open to the...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Public participation. 2001.303 Section 2001.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL... participation. FAR 1.301 and section 22 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act, as amended (41 U.S.C...
Dalsgaard, Peter; Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva
We address the challenges facing designers of interactive technologies for public knowledge institutions such as museums, libraries and science centres. We argue that visitor participation is a key concern for these institutions and present a theoretical framework for understanding participation...... grounded in pragmatist philosophy. We then present design work carried out in three different settings, namely a museum, a combined aquarium and science centre, and a municipal library. Based on a discussion of these design cases, we offer six design considerations for designing for participation in public...... knowledge institutions....
While I strongly believe that the literature supports my contention that conflict resolution principles and practices are useful for fair and equitable public participation, I do not have authoritative empirical evidence to state this as fact. Nonetheless, I believe that the 'best practices' outlined in the paper are useful and valuable ...
and beneficiaries, aiding them in the use of negotiation, mediation, and generic conflict resolution approaches to ...... transformation. How can we assess each specific situation to determine the most relevant and potentially effective approach in which public participation could be oriented towards using one or more of the ...
It also puts forward some ideas on the relation between public participation and the fulfilment of environmental rights and how this may feed into good environmental governance. The article does not aim to contribute to the discourse on good governance or good environmental governance per se. Instead, it introduces the ...
... effects primarily of local concern, agencies shall consider the use of clearinghouses, newspapers and other public media likely to generate local participation in the agency process as ways of supplementing... solicited from appropriate Federal, State and local agencies, Indian tribes, and other persons or...
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the effects of the participation of health, education and religious professionals in public conversation groups with LGBT people. Participants were interviewed some weeks after the groups for feedback. Professionals declared that this dialogic method (known as Public Conversations Project allowed a qualification of their practices, awareness about the challenges of talking about gender and sexual diversity at their professional’s contexts, and a broader contact with narratives of violence and discrimination against LGBT people. The structure of dialogue allowed participants to talk and listen in a less evaluative context. Differences in the effects produced by each group are discussed in relation to the differences in the group composition and to the specificities of the health, educational and religious contexts.
Brovelli, Maria Antonia; Minghini, Marco; Zamboni, Giorgio
Driven by the recent trends in the GIS domain including Volunteered Geographic Information, geo-crowdsourcing and citizen science, and fostered by the constant technological advances, collection and dissemination of geospatial information by ordinary people has become commonplace. However, applications involving user-generated geospatial content show dramatically diversified patterns in terms of incentive, type and level of participation, purpose of the activity, data/metadata provided and data quality. This study contributes to this heterogeneous context by investigating public participation in GIS within the field of mobile-based applications. Results not only show examples of how to technically build GIS applications enabling user collection and interaction with geospatial data, but they also draw conclusions about the methods and needs of public participation. We describe three projects with different scales and purposes in the context of urban monitoring and planning, and tourism valorisation. In each case, an open source architecture is used, allowing users to exploit their mobile devices to collect georeferenced information. This data is then made publicly available on specific Web viewers. Analysis of user involvement in these projects provides insights related to participation patterns which suggests some generalized conclusions.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 1.05-15... GENERAL PROVISIONS Rulemaking § 1.05-15 Public participation. The Coast Guard considers public participation essential to effective rulemaking, and encourages the public to participate in its rulemaking...
Sakurai, Naoko; Tomoyama, Gyokuren; Watanabe, Tsukiko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Hoshi, Tanji
A new model for Health Promotion was proposed by WHO in 1986. The purpose of this paper is to review public participation and empowerment in Health Promotion by reviewing case reports and original papers. The main results can be divided into two categories, public participation, and empowerment, The main results are as follows; 1) Health promotion involves the population as a whole in their everyday lives, rather than focusing on people who are sick or at risk for specific diseases. 2) The use of participatory and empowering approaches in the evaluation process has the potential to strengthen the public's capacity for organizational learning and improve their own health status. 3) It is possible to improve health conditions by using empowerment interventions: 1. The need to adopt an ecological approach that simultaneously addresses empowerment. 2. Policy-makers need to take a longer-term approach to empowerment interventions, including proper longitudinal studies to enhance the evidence base for such interventions. 4) Satisfaction is central to the delivery of health and human services. The most critical factor in service delivery is providing quality care and user merit. 5) In developing people-oriented health technologies, priority should be given to the availability of lay resources and to indigenously developed health practices. 6) Empowerment is the most important idea within health promotion. It is often a difficult concept for health professionals to grasp since most have been trained to consider health care providers as experts and the patient as a recipient of this expertise. 7) Health care specialists can contribute considerably to the development of a collaborative, family-oriented approach in the development of self care. The possibilities for such an undertaking depend on the establishment of working relationships at two interfaces: between the health care specialist and his/her client families. A framework for developing these relationships is
Peelle, E.; Schweitzer, M.; Munro, J.; Carnes, S.; Wolfe, A.
Categories of factors linked to successful public participation (PP) program outcomes include PP process, organizational context, sociopolitical context, strategic considerations and unique (special circumstances) factors. We re-order the long list factors according to how essential, important, and unique they are and discuss their significance and interrelationships. It is argued that bureacratic structure and operational modes are basically in conflict with features of successful PP programs (openness, two-way education, communication with nonexpert outsiders). If this is so, then it is not surprising that the factors essential for PP success in bureacracies involve extraordinary management efforts by agencies to bypass, compensate for, or overcome structural constraints. We conclude by speculating about the long-term viability of PP practices in the agency setting as well as the consequences for agencies that attempt the problematic task of introducing PP into their complex, mission-oriented organizations.
Kunst, E.M.; van Woerkom, M.; Poell, R.F.
Participation in professional development activities is important for teachers to continuously improve their knowledge and skills. However, teachers differ in their attitude towards learning activities. This paper examined how different goal orientation profiles are related to participation in
Creighton, James L
"Internationally renowned facilitator and consultant James L. Creighton offers a practical guide to designing and facilitating public participation in environmental and public policy decision making...
The 1982 and 1985 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) produced a national audience profile for classical ballet and explored factors that predispose participation in this art form. This monograph analyzed data from these surveys in terms of: (1) audience size and composition for live ballet performances; (2) television's role in…
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 35.1620-4 Section... Freshwater Lakes § 35.1620-4 Public participation. (a) General. (1) In accordance with this part and part 25 of this chapter, the applicant shall provide for, encourage, and assist public participation in...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public participation. 35.917-5 Section... Public participation. (a) General. Consistent with section 101(e) of the Clean Water Act and 40 CFR part 25, EPA, the States, and grantees shall provide for, encourage, and assist public participation in...
Full Text Available Lexical processing among bilinguals is often affected by complex patterns of individual experience. In this paper we discuss the psychocentric perspective on language representation and processing, which highlights the centrality of individual experience in psycholinguistic experimentation. We discuss applications to the investigation of lexical processing among multilinguals and explore the advantages of using high-density experiments with multilinguals. High density experiments are designed to co-index measures of lexical perception and production, as well as participant profiles. We discuss the challenges associated with the characterization of participant profiles and present a new data visualization technique, that we term Facial Profiles. This technique is based on Chernoff faces developed over forty years ago. The Facial Profile technique seeks to overcome some of the challenges associated with the use of Chernoff faces, while maintaining the core insight that recoding multivariate data as facial features can engage the human face recognition system and thus enhance our ability to detect and interpret patterns within multivariate datasets. We demonstrate that Facial Profiles can code participant characteristics in lexical processing studies by recoding variables such as reading ability, speaking ability, and listening ability into iconically-related relative sizes of eye, mouth, and ear respectively. The balance of ability in bilinguals can be captured by creating composite facial profiles or Janus Facial Profiles. We demonstrate the use of Facial Profiles and Janus Facial Profiles in the characterization of participant effects in the study of lexical perception and production.
Giordano, Fanny Barbara
This poster is part of an early investigation of a PhD-study in Service Design that started in February 2017. The poster identifies challenges and opportunities emerging from a gap between citizen’s needs and public offering to address such needs. Citizens often organize themselves when public ad...... importantly that are informed by the real needs of their users (citizens). How design may contribute to build capacity and bridge relations between citizens and public service providers?...
Aston, Megan; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Edwards, Nancy; Young, Linda M
Citizen participation is heralded as a critical element of community health programs that emphasize empowerment and health promotion strategies. Although there is a growing body of research on public health nurses' primary health care practice, few studies have described how public health nurses foster citizen participation. This article presents findings from an interpretive qualitative study of public health nurses' perceptions of their role in fostering citizen participation in an eastern Canadian province at a time of significant health care restructuring. The findings from this study clearly profile public health nurses as integral to the practice of fostering citizen participation.
In general, news or media releases are used to disseminate information. Media releases aim to get the widest possible coverage for a community issue or proposal through the publication or broadcasting of the information in the release.
Stasiak, Anna; Wojtowicz-Jankowska, Dorota
The paper is an attempt to answer two questions: (1) how to develop positive social relations and citizenship among residents of cities in Poland and (2) how suitable shaping of public space affects the activation and integration of local residents. The specificity of the postwar process of urbanization in Poland - a country traditionally agricultural - was its political dimension (forced “nationalisation” of agriculture and industrialization of the country) ignoring the socio-cultural determinants and consequences of this process resulting in disappearance of traditional social bonds. According to forecasts, the number of urban dwellers is expected to grow by the year 2050 and increase up to 70 percent of the population. Such a rapid urban sprawl was not accompanied by appropriate social policies; the result was a low level of social organization and of a sense of citizenship. There are various attempts to change this situation. One of them is the development of a system of urban public spaces, according to the needs and preferences of residents (i.e. promotion of physical activity in public areas, introducing elements of art to the common external space, encouraging users to contribute to their surroundings and introducing the appearance of temporary, often cyclical, attractions). Regular interactions between people in public spaces are conducive to developing positive social relationships. Quality and development of the local community is dependent on the quality of space in which it is built. For this reason, attention has been paid to the factors influencing the perception of public space, i.e. geographical and natural conditions, cultural and architectural (arrangement, the availability and condition of these spaces). In the article, the examples of different types of Polish public spaces are described – permanent and temporal recreational spaces (including summer activities and winter attractions). Attempt has also been made to give an answer to the
This study analyzed the profile and challenges of women participating in agricultural co-operative activities in Maiduguri metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. Structured interview schedules were used to collect data from women participating in co-operative activities in the study area. One hundred and fifty women co-operative ...
Arleth, Mette; Campagna, Michele
The paper reports an ongoing comparative study on the accessibility of Geographic Information at public authorities’ websites in Denmark and Italy. The purpose of the study is twofold; to give an idea of the latest development and diffusion of GI on public authorities websites, and to identify...... critical factors for success or failure of the applications. First part of the study therefore consists of a mapping of the level of accessibility of GI in the two countries as a comparative analysis. The focus of the mapping is mainly on the use of geographic information as support to citizens...
... making the applicability analysis and draft conformity determination. (b) A Federal agency must make public its draft conformity determination under § 51.858 by placing a notice by prominent advertisement... a notice by prominent advertisement in a daily newspaper of general circulation in the area affected...
... Environmental Management Act. Effort should focus on public awareness and human resource capacity development so that the EIA process is diligently executed and that enforcement and follow-ups are properly done by the Department of Environmental Affairs which is a lead agency on environmental issues in Malawi.
Beierle, Thomas C.; Cayford, Jerry [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)
Public participation has received increasing attention in environmental policy making world wide. Yet research has been inadequate to answer fundamental questions about how successful past programs have been, what factors lead to success, and where efforts to improve public involvement should focus. To address these questions, we examine the case study record of public participation efforts in the United States over the last 30 years. We evaluate the success of numerous examples of public participation in environmental decision making and identify the factors that lead to success. The paper deals with a number of themes, including: The extent to which participation can incorporate public values into decision making, improve the substantive quality of decisions, reduce conflict, increase trust in institutions, and educate and inform the public; What can be expected from different approaches to public participation, such as public meetings, advisory committees, and mediation; The relative importance of the participatory process vs. the context in which participation takes place; Procedural features of particular importance; and The relationship between participation and implementation. The paper provides general results that can be used to guide the improvement of public participation programs, support assessment of innovative methods, and advance the theoretical understanding of public participation.
To aggravate this situation, the difficulties in effectively implementing the NWA are exacerbated by inadequate public participation in water use licensing processes. Public participation in environmental decision-making has increasingly received recognition for its role in ensuring administrative justice and the protection of ...
Stephen F. McCool
The increasing emphasis on public participation in ecosystem-based planning suggests an enlarging need to determine what makes public participation successful and what criteria are useful in identifying when a consensus has been reached. These two questions were investigated in research involving two small planning areas on the Bitterroot National Forest. It was...
The paper examines public libraries involvement in HIV/AIDS awareness campaign in South West Nigeria. These include the materials and services available on HIV/AIDS and challenges to their participation in the war against the epidemic. The study revealed that public libraries in South West Nigeria are not participating ...
Glucker, Anne N., E-mail: email@example.com [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC (Netherlands); Kolhoff, Arend, E-mail: email@example.com [Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, P.O. Box 2345, 3500 GH Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC (Netherlands)
Even a cursory glance at the literature on environmental impact assessment (EIA) reveals that public participation is being considered as an integral part of the assessment procedure. Public participation in EIA is commonly deemed to foster democratic policy-making and to render EIA more effective. Yet a closer look at the literature unveils that, beyond this general assertion, opinions of the precise meaning, objectives and adequate representation of public participation in EIA considerably diverge. Against this background, in this article we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the academic debate on public participation in EIA concerning its meaning, objectives and adequate level of inclusiveness. In so doing, we hope to stimulate a more focused debate on the subject, which is key to advancing the research agenda. Furthermore, this paper may serve as a starting point for practitioners involved in defining the role of public participation in EIA practice. -- Highlights: • There is little reflection on the meaning, objectives and adequate level of inclusiveness of public participation in EIA. • We provide a comprehensive overview of the academic debate on public participation in EIA concerning the meaning, objectives and adequate level of inclusiveness. • Theoretical claims put forth by scholars are contrasted with empirical evidence. • Overview shall stimulate a more focused debate on the subject. • This paper may serve as a starting point for practitioners involved in defining the role of public participation in EIA.
Jun 1, 2015 ... Public Access ICT across Cultures: Diversifying Participation in the Network Society. Public Access ICT across ... Jordan, Rwanda). The book documents the impacts of public access, positive and negative, on individuals, society and networks, and women, and examines the policy implications of findings.
Amelung, N.; Baumgarten, B.
WOS:000390125700001 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) Although political participation is a major issue in the research on both social movements and public participation, until today these two fields remain largely unconnected. This introductory article aims to bring these fields together, exploring the linkages and differences between studies on public participation and social movements, by focusing on the term “political participation” and its varying meanings and implications. As a result o...
The report is the Danish contribution to an EEC-study on the citizen participation in planning decisions of public authorities. In the other EEC-countries similar reports have been done. The report describes the rules on citizen participation, that are stated by laws. Different aspects of citizen...... participation are analysed, f.ex. the forms and the time-limitations in the participation....
Federal Laboratory Consortium — On October 17, 2008, the Conflict Resolution and Public Participation Center (CPCX) was named a Corps Center of Expertise (CX) and Directory of Expertise (DX). The...
Kocher, Kathryn M.; Thomas, George W.
This report profiles enlisted personnel leaving USAR drilling TPU status voluntarily, particularly unsatisfactory participants, based on prior service status: nonprior service (no prior Active Duty or Reserve service); prior Active Duty service (18 or more consecutive months); and "other" prior service (less than 18 months Active Duty service or prior Reserve service). Leavers from the 1995-96 transaction files are compared with the 1994 USAR membership. Loss categories include: no shows, uns...
Full Text Available Today institutions of higher learning all around the globe are undergoing rapid transformation as they compete to survive in the ever changing global demands as a result of globalisation and internationalization. In such a scenario, there is a critical demand for heads of schools and faculties in higher education to establish a strong academic reputation and become sense makers of their organizations. The roles of deans as academic leaders encompass areas such as research, academia and administration. Realizing deans as pillars of academic scholarship, this study investigated the academic and scholarly leadership profiles of deans in Malaysian public universities. The study involved 348 randomly selected deans and senior academic administrative staff from nine public universities. Data was collected via questionnaire and semi structured interviews. The findings indicated that a majority of the respondents agreed that deans should have a good academic standing and research profile possessing at least a PhD. to act as a role model for the faculty staff. Besides that respondents indicated that research and publication should be one of the most important criteria in the selection of a dean. Results indicated that on the average, deans in Malaysia conducted at least one research project and wrote approximately 1.67 papers per year. Deans also highlighted that as academic leaders they had insufficient time to pursue their academic scholarship due to increased administrative duties; hence, they found it difficult to balance their leadership and scholarship responsibilities. More importantly this study indicated that deans as academic leaders left much to be desired.
Jennifer L. Shirk
Full Text Available Members of the public participate in scientific research in many different contexts, stemming from traditions as varied as participatory action research and citizen science. Particularly in conservation and natural resource management contexts, where research often addresses complex social-ecological questions, the emphasis on and nature of this participation can significantly affect both the way that projects are designed and the outcomes that projects achieve. We review and integrate recent work in these and other fields, which has converged such that we propose the term public participation in scientific research (PPSR to discuss initiatives from diverse fields and traditions. We describe three predominant models of PPSR and call upon case studies suggesting that - regardless of the research context - project outcomes are influenced by (1 the degree of public participation in the research process and (2 the quality of public participation as negotiated during project design. To illustrate relationships between the quality of participation and outcomes, we offer a framework that considers how scientific and public interests are negotiated for project design toward multiple, integrated goals. We suggest that this framework and models, used in tandem, can support deliberate design of PPSR efforts that will enhance their outcomes for scientific research, individual participants, and social-ecological systems.
Public Access ICT across Cultures : Diversifying Participation in the Network Society. Couverture du livre Public Access ICT across Cultures. Directeur(s) : Francisco J. Proenza. Maison(s) d'édition : MIT Press, CRDI. 1 juin 2015. ISBN : 9780262527378. 472 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552505694. Téléchargez le PDF.
Morrison, Cecily; Dearden, Andy
A number of recent policies promote public participation in health service design. Yet, a growing literature has articulated a gap between policy aims and actual practice resulting in public participation becoming tokenistic. Drawing on theory from participatory design, we argue that choosing appropriate artefacts to act as representations can structure discussions between public participants and health professionals in ways that both groups find meaningful and valid. Through a case study of a service improvement project in outpatient services for older people, we describe three representational artefacts: emotion maps, stories, and tracing paper, and explain how they helped to mediate interactions between public participants and health professionals. We suggest that using such representational artefacts can provide an alternative approach to participation that stands in contrast to the current focus on the professionalisation of public participants. We conclude that including participatory designers in projects, to chose or design appropriate representational artefacts, can help to address the policy-practice gap of including public participants in health service design. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Lott, Joe L., II.; Hernandez, Jose; King, Joe P.; Brown, Tiffany; Fajardo, Ismael
Using data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03) of College Graduates, we use structural equation modeling to model the relationships between college major, values held in college, collegiate community service participation, and the post-college political participation of college graduates by public versus private…
Tetsworth, Kevin; Fraser, Dave; Glatt, Vaida; Hohmann, Erik
The purpose of this study was to survey the growth of Google Scholar public profiles in orthopedics over a 12-month period and to investigate global patterns. Data was prospectively acquired from June 2013 to June 2014. Google Scholar queries specific to orthopedic surgery were performed at 90-day intervals. Demographic aspects of each user were also compiled, including gender, current location, and primary interests. To determine differences between the growth of Google Scholar public profile registrations and citation counts, as well as differences in growth in different regions, repeated measures of analysis of variance (RMANOVA) were used. RMANOVA revealed statistically significant differences ( p = 0.0001) for regional growth. The largest growth was observed in the United Kingdom ( p = 0.009, 289%), followed by the Asia-Pacific region ( p = 0.004, 177%) and "Other" ( p = 0.006, 172%). The mean growth per 90-day interval is 19.9% ( p = 0.003) and the mean 12-month growth is 107% ( p = 0.05). Statistically significant differences between gender (male vs. female) and basic and clinical sciences ( χ 2 = 22.4, p = 0.0001) were observed. This study suggests an exponential growth in the number of authors in the field of orthopedic surgery creating a Google Scholar public profile, and at the current rate participation doubles every 10.6 months.
This paper examines the theoretical bases of publics and stakeholder participation in decision making, with special attention to mixed issues, including federal government actions such as remedial action programs and hazardous facility sitings. Empowerment associated with participation is addressed, focusing on differences between power and authority.
Arend, van der S.; Behagel, J.H.
The rise of public participation in policy is an integral part of the shift from government to governance, and is presented as the best and most appropriate answer to requests for democratic policymaking. Both in official accounts and in the work of scholars, participation is situated in a discourse
The US Department of Energy (DOE) is issuing this document, entitled Guidance on Public Participation for US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Activities, to summarize policy and provide guidance for public participation in environmental restoration activities at DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, facilities, and laboratories. While the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) has environmental restoration responsibility for the majority of DOE sites and facilities, other DOE Project Offices have similar responsibilities at their sites and facilities. This guidance is applicable to all environment restoration activities conducted by or for DOE under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA) (corrective actions only); and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). This guidance also is applicable to CERCLA remedial action programs under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 and the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, where DOE is the designated lead. The primary objectives of this guidance document are as follows: acclimate DOE staff to a changing culture that emphasizes the importance of public participation activities; provide direction on implementing these public participation activities; and, provide consistent guidance for all DOE Field Offices and facilities. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on conducting effective public participation activities for environmental restoration activities under CERCLA; RCRA corrective actions under sections 3004(u), 3004(v), and 3008(h); and NEPA public participation activities.
Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)
Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3
EPA delivered a two-day workshop in Santiago, Chile, on public participation. The course intended to enable students to increase the level of public impact through the levels of public participation, found on EPA’s Public Participation Guide.
Although public participation is deemed important in South Africa, negative perceptions of its legitimacy are widely acknowledged. Inclusive town-planning processes, as instruments to address inequality, have a significant role in enhancing democracy. This article reports on a study done from a communicative planning ...
In East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia, along the highway between the towns of Akaki and Modjo are located, several clusters of development projects. Some of these clusters are located amidst the farming community. In this study public participation in environmental decision-making processes at the local level is assessed as part ...
Public participation and the politics of environmentalism. ... Southern African Journal of Environmental Education ... Indeed, as ecological issues have moved to the top of the agenda of international politics, environmentalism appears in many cases to have lost the spirit of contention, limiting itself to the provision of survival ...
experienced as vague (Alexander, 2008: 58) and elusive (Theron, cited in Davids et al., 2009: 113) and not universally definable due to different meanings ascribed to it (Creighton, 2005: 8; Aregbeshola,. Mearns & Donaldson, 2011: 1279). Despite numerous definitions, public participation relates somehow to an open ...
Thugwane, S.J. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society, P.O. Box 582 Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Khathi, N.F.; Rasweswe, M.A. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society, P.O. Box 582 Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); South African Nuclear Energy Corporation, P.O. Box 582 Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)
The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has an objective to help inform and educate the public about the importance and benefits of nuclear science and technology. In South Africa, the government hosts annual national science campaigns to promote science and technology. These include the National Science Week, Science Olympiads and Energy week. SAYNPS encourages its members to participate in these campaigns through exhibitions and schools outreach programmes. Through these campaigns, schoolteachers and learners are educated about the benefits of safe usage of nuclear technology and about different careers in the nuclear industry. Through participation in the different campaigns it was acknowledged that participation of young professionals in public education will help preserve nuclear knowledge in the country. It was concluded that public education is still a task that needs to be intensified in order for the public to know the benefits of safe usage of nuclear technology. Scope: This paper presents the role that SAYNPS has played in nuclear public education in South Africa in 2006 and 2007. (authors)
Andersson, Kjell [Karita Research AB, Taeaby (Sweden)
Stakeholder involvement and public participation is recognized as a necessary part of nuclear waste management. It is possible to see three driving forces behind this development: (1) a deliberative movement with its roots in the 1960s leftish movement (a philosophical argument), (2) the need for public acceptance of proposed solutions (a practical argument), and (3) the need for awareness and clarity before crucial decisions are made (a practical and democratic argument). Depending on which driving force dominates an initiative for public participation, the initiator is likely to prefer certain public participation processes before others. The initiator has to select among a large number of processes already having been implemented or design a new one tailored for the specific situation. The process choice is crucial for which stakeholders are able to join and which goals can be reached. Much of the debate about public participation has referred to the ''Arnstein ladder'' (Arnstein, 1969) or its modernized versions, such as the participation ladder used in the IPPA Project (Richardson et.al. 2011) building on work by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP, 2008). The various forms of ladders have in common an increasing level of ambition for participation from low to high. The higher up on the ladder, the better it is often anticipated. However, with this should follow more responsibility and accountability of all participants, which in practice is often lacking. There are also practical problems in using the ladder to map public participation processes. For example the step 'collaboration' is ambiguous as it can mean different things. In the RISCOM Process, participants collaborate to improve clarity and awareness but not for finding common solutions. Therefore, the RISCOM Process (Vojtechova, 2009) does not fit into the ladder structure. To avoid these and other problems it is suggested to use three basic approaches to
Liu, Jun; Zhao, Hui
China has become the biggest mobile communication carrier in the world since 2001. Advanced technologies create a communication revolution, and the individual, through the advent of mobile media, has become an active participant in this process. This study investigates the mobile phone’s impact...... upon the developments of public participation, social inclusion and citizenship through the case study of Xiamen PX demonstration. In terms of local environmental activism, the Xiamen residents shared information with the help of wireless communication about the alleged misdeeds of party officials...... and took various civic actions again them. A rare sense of participation in public affairs is fostered through the use of mobile communication technology. The government must figure out how to improve the effective and regular information exchange and feedback top down and bottom up to raise the awareness...
Bødker, Susanne; Zander, Pär-Ola
This paper discusses three cases where design was carried out at the intersection between public sector and citizen communities. Based on three dominant traditions meeting there–public (municipal) decision-making, Web 2.0 and participatory design–we identify challenges and solutions regarding...... participation and engagement of municipal workers and citizens. While this intersection is exactly where a new form of democratic participation could develop, the three traditions were, nonetheless, far from easily combined in the specific cases. The challenges that we have identified are to: Identify win......-win situations, rather than to maximize participation; to work with motivation for long-term projects across municipality and communities; to identify and work with early movers, and not just representative citizens; and to create space for local municipal agencies to develop bottom-up technological solutions...
Full Text Available Public involvement has become a key concept in conservation management worldwide. This paper provides an overview of the situation in four countries where national parks have been established for over a century, and where their creation often involved clearing the land of earlier indigenous settlements. Since the 1970s, public participation has become common practice in park management, even though such participation has taken on a variety of forms. The paper analyses the general trends in public participation in park management practices, participation that most authors consider has contributed to successful governance policies and helped build participative democracy. Analyses at different levels, however, reveal that public participation can also divide stakeholders, making it really difficult for any effective coalition of stakeholders to emerge.L’implication du public est devenue l’un des éléments clé des politiques de conservation dans le monde. Cet article a pour objectif de proposer une analyse générale dans quatre pays ayant établi des parcs nationaux de manière très précoce, souvent en opposition avec les populations locales ou autochtones. Depuis les années 1970, la participation publique est devenue une pratique commune dans la gestion des parcs nationaux, même si elle revêt des réalités très variables. Cet article analyse les tendances générales de la participation (notamment au niveau des dispositifs dans les pratiques de gestion des parcs nationaux, qui sont généralement considérées comme des réussites en termes de pratiques politiques ou de gouvernance et qui sont souvent présentées comme des modes d’élaboration de démocratie délibérative. L’analyse utilisant les différents niveaux scalaires tend à montrer au contraire que les dispositifs de participation publique peuvent aussi fragmenter les parties prenantes et rendre plus difficile la constitution efficace d’une coalition d’acteurs.
Villaron, Charlène; Marqueste, Tanguy; Eisinger, François; Cappiello, Maria Antonietta; Cury, François
Benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are widely demonstrated, however, most of patients are not active enough. Several studies have analyzed the different variables that would affect the participation to physical activity programs. The aim of our study was to define profiles of patients who agree to participate in a physical activity program in the medical setting according to the hospital structure in which they receive their care, their past and present habits in sports and their temporal perspectives. Forty-six patients treated from two different hospitals (regional hospital denoted CLCC; and local hospital denoted CH), completed a survey consisting of a questionnaire on their past and present habits in physical activity, ZTPI and a demographic questionnaire. Patients could decide to participate or not in a physical activity program in the medical community. T-tests and Chi(2) were performed to compare the two groups. Chi(2) tests have shown that patients cared in CH are significantly more involved in physical activity program than patients cared in CLCC. Our study points out that the past and present patient PA (physical activity) has no influence on their accession to a physical activity program, however the type of hospital providing patient care could influence their participation. These results should lead us to rethink about the different forms of communication made around the physical activity programs in medical contexts, and about different practical arrangements proposed according to each health facility. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Park, Yukyung; Kim, Chang-Yup; You, Myoung Soon; Lee, Kun Sei; Park, Eunyoung
To assess the current public participation in-local health policy and its implications through the analysis of policy networks in health center programs. We examined the decision-making process in sub-health center installations and the implementation process in metabolic syndrome management program cases in two districts ('gu's) of Seoul. Participants of the policy network were selected by the snowballing method and completed self-administered questionnaires. Actors, the interactions among actors, and the characteristics of the network were analyzed by Netminer. The results showed that the public is not yet actively participating in the local public health policy processes of decision-making and implementation. In the decision-making process, most of the network actors were in the public sector, while the private sector was a minor actor and participated in only a limited number of issues after the major decisions were made. In the implementation process, the program was led by the health center, while other actors participated passively. Public participation in Korean public health policy is not yet well activated. Preliminary discussions with various stakeholders, including civil society, are needed before making important local public health policy decisions. In addition, efforts to include local institutions and residents in the implementation process with the public officials are necessary to improve the situation.
Carvalho, Anabela; Doyle, Julie
How is "participation" ascribed meaning and practised in science and environment communication? And how are citizen voices articulated, invoked, heard, marginalised or silenced in those processes? Citizen Voices takes its starting point in the so-called dialogic or participatory turn in scientific and environmental governance in which practices claiming to be based on principles of participation, dialogue and citizen involvement have proliferated. The book goes beyond the buzzword of "participation" in order to give empirically rich, theoretically informed and critical accounts of how citizen participation is understood and enacted in mass mediation and public engagement practices. A diverse series of studies across Europe and the US are presented, providing readers with empirical insights into the articulation of citizen voices in different national, cultural and institutional contexts. Building bridges across media and communication studies, science and technology studies, environmental studies and urban pl...
OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012
In most PISA-participating countries and economies, the average socio-economic background of students who attend privately managed schools is more advantaged than that of those who attend public schools. Yet in some countries, there is little difference in the socio-economic profiles between public and private schools. Why? An analysis of PISA…
Finka, Maroš; Ondrejička, Vladimír; Jamečný, Ľubomír; Husár, Milan
The dialogue among the decision makers and stakeholders is a crucial part of any decision-making processes, particularly in case of integrated transportation planning and planning of green infrastructure where a multitude of actors is present. Although the theory of public participation is well-developed after several decades of research, there is still a lack of practical guidelines due to the specificity of public participation challenges. The paper presents a model of public participation for integrated transport and green infrastructure planning for international project TRANSGREEN covering the area of five European countries – Slovakia, Czech Republic, Austria, Hungary and Romania. The challenge of the project is to coordinate the efforts of public actors and NGOs in international environment in oftentimes precarious projects of transport infrastructure building and developing of green infrastructure. The project aims at developing and environmentally-friendly and safe international transport network. The proposed public participation procedure consists of five main steps – spread of information (passive), collection of information (consultation), intermediate discussion, engagement and partnership (empowerment). The initial spread of information is a process of communicating with the stakeholders, informing and educating them and it is based on their willingness to be informed. The methods used in this stage are public displays, newsletters or press releases. The second step of consultation is based on transacting the opinions of stakeholders to the decision makers. Pools, surveys, public hearings or written responses are examples of the multitude of ways to achieve this objective and the main principle of openness of stakeholders. The third step is intermediate discussion where all sides of are invited to a dialogue using the tools such as public meetings, workshops or urban walks. The fourth step is an engagement based on humble negotiation, arbitration
Roman V. Gornev
Full Text Available Objective to clarify the status of public associations as subjects of public control and to analyze the problems of participation of citizens 39 associations in conducting public expertise and public audits. Methods the methodology of research includes general scientific methods such as dialectic method. Specific jurisprudence methods of scientific cognition have also been used. Systematic method was used for the analysis of forms of public control by citizens39 associations at the municipal level. The principle of scientific objectivity has allowed for a comprehensive and objective analysis of the factual material the totality of factors affecting the interaction of public associations with local authorities in the implementation of public control. The formallegal method allowed to analyze the normativelegal acts to reveal the signs of fixing of such public control forms as public expertise and public audit. In the present study other research methods were also applied allowing to study the theme in detail. Results the study identified the lack of legal regulation of the legal status of public associations as subjects of public control as well as some forms of public control. The additions to the list of subjects of public control by public associations were proposed as well as improvements in the implementation of public expertise and public audit by the citizens39 associations as forms of social control. Scientific novelty the author found a lack of regulation of public associationsrsquo participation in some forms of social control and justified proposals for their improvement from a scientific point of view. Practical significance the possibility to apply the research results in legislative activity aimed at improving the provisions of the Federal Laws quotOn fundamentals of public control in the Russian Federationquot and quotOn the general principles of local selfgovernment organization in the Russian Federationquot. In addition the
Behar, Doron M; Rosset, Saharon; Blue-Smith, Jason; Balanovsky, Oleg; Tzur, Shay; Comas, David; Mitchell, R. John; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Wells, R. Spencer
The Genographic Project is studying the genetic signatures of ancient human migrations and creating an open-source research database. It allows members of the public to participate in a real-time anthropological genetics study by submitting personal samples for analysis and donating the genetic results to the database. We report our experience from the first 18 months of public participation in the Genographic Project, during which we have created the largest standardized human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) database ever collected, comprising 78,590 genotypes. Here, we detail our genotyping and quality assurance protocols including direct sequencing of the mtDNA HVS-I, genotyping of 22 coding-region SNPs, and a series of computational quality checks based on phylogenetic principles. This database is very informative with respect to mtDNA phylogeny and mutational dynamics, and its size allows us to develop a nearest neighbor–based methodology for mtDNA haplogroup prediction based on HVS-I motifs that is superior to classic rule-based approaches. We make available to the scientific community and general public two new resources: a periodically updated database comprising all data donated by participants, and the nearest neighbor haplogroup prediction tool. PMID:17604454
Institute of Museum and Library Services — Pull up a state's profile to find state-level totals on key data such as numbers of libraries and librarians, revenue and expenditure, and collection sizes.These...
Daniel A. DeCaro
Full Text Available Public participation plays a role in the development and long-term maintenance of environmental institutions that are well-matched to local social-ecological conditions. However, the means by which public participation impacts such institutional fit remains unclear. We argue that one major reason for this lack of clarity is that analysts have not clearly outlined how humankind's sense of agency, or self-determination, influences institutional outcomes. Moreover, the concept of institutional fit is ambiguous as to what constitutes a good fit and how such fit could be diagnosed or improved. This is especially true for "social fit," or how well institutions match human expectations and local behavioral patterns. We develop an interdisciplinary framework based on principles of human agency and institutional analysis from social psychology to address these problems. Using the concept of "institutional acceptance" as an indicator of social fit, we show how analysts can define, diagnose, and improve social fit of participatory programs. We also show how such fit emerges and is sustained over time. This interdisciplinary perspective on fit and participation has important implications for participatory approaches to environmental management and the scientific study of institutional evolution.
This paper discusses issues of political influence and power struggles in connection with environmental projects through the lenses of a low-income settlement in the City of Chiang Mai, North Thailand. That low-income settlement has been an object of intervention in four different projects....../programmes in the last five years, namely (a) the Urban Community Environmental Activities (UCEA) project, a community driven initiative implemented with the support of the public organisation Community Organisation Development Institute (CODI) and the NGO People's Organisation for Participation (POP); (b) the Chiang...
Hansen, Henning Sten; Reinau, Kristian Hegner
The issue of public participation goes back to the late sixties and early seventies. Local and regional authorities made brochures and posters and arranged meetings to really involve the citizens. Recent advances in GIS and the Internet have improved the technical possibilities for supporting...... to be debated. The current paper has presented the results of a survey among actively involved citizens in Northern Jutland County. Our analysis showed a high degree of involvement among middle-age well-educated males with a higher education and income above average. Additionally, the analysis shows that he...
Beatriz Nelly Plot
Full Text Available This proyect rises the dificlutties and challeges, that political power and society have faced because of the implimetation of the new technologies on territorial management, which started to be developed togerther with the State Reform of the nineties. This study is carried through the analysis of two basic tools by the State Modernization Plan and called upon to participate by the City Council: the Participative Budget and the Strategic Plan. The analysis of these experiences allows us to observe, on the one hand, to what extent political power yields power spaces to the citizenship with absolute conviction; and, on the other hand, the level of presence and commitment that the society undertakes when participating in these spaces open to all the actors who, with different interests, are involved in the construction of the city. Whit the outcome of both expiriences the opportunity to give rise to a deeper change in the city management and the prospects for dealing with the demands arisen from agreements reached by the community are missed. Finally, it is deemed necessary to build up a more persevering and firmer attitude on the part of the society which may allow it to reach participative levels in those sectors of management where public policies, which directly affect it, are both planned and executed.
Perkins, Patricia E. (Ellie)
This paper outlines a number of examples from around the world of participatory processes for watershed decision-making, and discusses how they work, why they are important, their social and ecological potential, and the practical details of how to start, expand and develop them. Because of long-standing power differentials in all societies along gender, class and ethnic lines, equitable public participation requires the recognition that different members of society have different kinds of relationships with the environment in general, and with water in particular. From a range of political perspectives, inclusive participatory governance processes have many benefits. The author has recently completed a 5 year project linking universities and NGOs in Brazil and Canada to develop methods of broadening public engagement in local watershed management committees, with a special focus on gender and marginalized communities. The innovative environmental education and multi-lingual international public engagement practices of the Centre for Socio-Environmental Knowledge and Care of the La Plata Basin (which spans Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia) are also discussed in this paper.
Sørensen, Jannick Kirk
as ‘recommender services’, and embedded in the overarching concept of ‘Customer Relation Management’ (CRM). On the other hand it is often stressed that it is the duty of PSB to serve the whole society, not only a few ‘star customers’ – as expressed in PSB remits and in so called ‘public service contracts...
Full Text Available Scientific communication also pertains to the domain of society, where the formation of public opinion about science and technology is taking place. Concerning this process, two main points are exposed in the commentary. The first is a proposition on how the public as a social category may be conceptualized, and the second is the extent of the participation of members of the public in strengthening socialization and democratization practices in new, highly complex, contexts of scientific research. The public is conceptualized to include all citizens no matter their professional origin, including scientists, which promotes the idea of openness and equality of the public sphere where scientific issues are discussed. To be democratic in its practical-political setting, such a conception needs to deal with the problems of participation in a highly mediatized world, where not every member of the public could be included into scientific research. The author thus reflects on the mechanisms which would enable the formation of public forums where the trust of influential public actors as stakeholders of research can be tested.
Warren Pedersen, Lise; Trangbæk, Else
In 2005, Copenhagen municipality decided to develop and implement a sport and movement profile at a local elementary school. The overall development is discussed as are specific results and consequences of the decision. The role of physical education and teachers in relation to a health discourse......, sport and school sports viewed as an arena for talent identification and development will be discussed. In addition, a question of inequality raised, as a group of talented athletes are accepted into specific sports classes, focusing on cultural capital and the possibility of the educational system...... as reproducing or as an arena for social mobility. Finally a discussion of the possibilities for either sports policy development or school policy development through single initiatives is presented....
Heloiza Helena Matos e Nobre
Full Text Available Mobilizada por diversos discursos contemporâneos, a participação constitui-se em um campo de estudo amplo, cuja definição é proposta em variados referenciais teóricos, às vezes de modo conflitivo. Tema de relevância crescente, tem sido discutido por diversos autores para refletir sobre os impasses do sistema político das democracias modernas e constitui-se também em um conceito-chave da comunicação pública. Como iremos abordar, o fundamento da comunicação assenta-se em procedimentos, que precisam estar abertos à participação ativa da sociedade, e em objetivos, que têm o interesse público como pano de fundo. Este artigo procura, assim, discutir teoricamente o conceito de participação, tecendo algumas relações possíveis entre essa reflexão e o conceito de comunicação pública. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Participação; Comunicação pública; Democracia. ABSTRACT Mobilized by various contemporary discourses, participation is on a broad field of study, whose definition is proposed in different theoretical frameworks, sometimes conflicting mode. Subject of growing relevance has been mobilized by several authors to discuss impasses of the political system of modern democracies and also constituted in a key concept of public communication. How will we address the communication plea in procedures that need to be open to the active participation of society, and objectives that have the public interest as a backdrop. This article therefore seeks to theoretically discuss the concept of participation, weaving some possible links between that thought and the concept of public communication. KEYWORDS: Participation; Public communication; Democracy. RESUMEN Movilizados por diversos discursos contemporáneos, la participación es en un amplio campo de estudio, cuya definición se propone en diferentes marcos teóricos, a veces manera conflictiva. Tema de creciente relevancia, ha sido discutido por varios autores para
This paper presents a mapping of the online facilities concerning planning and geographic information that is currently offered for public participation at the Danish municipal and regional websites respectively. The Danish physical planning system has for the last 35 years consisted of three...... hierarchical levels: National, regional and municipal. The regional level has handled larger environmental issues and everything concerning planning and administration of non-urban areas; costal areas, nature preservation and restauration, agriculture, natural ressources, water quality etc. The Danish...... government has recently decided to eliminate the regional administration level and transfer the planning tasks to the municipalities, who has up till now almost entirely dealt with planning of urban areas. The problems and complexities that has to be handled in the open area planning differ from those...
Bergmans, Anne [Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Social and Political Sciences
Collective decision making in a democratic environment essentially is a process of negotiation. This assumption, as well as the failure of the formerly used topdown approach, led to a drastic change in the decision making process for siting a low level nuclear waste repository in Belgium. In two prospective communities, a local partnership was established between NIRAS-ONDRAF, the government organisation responsible for the Belgian nuclear waste, and representatives of the local communities. These partnerships are intended to bring the decision making process closer to the public concerned and to lower the threshold for active participation. The final outcome of this decision making exercise is therefore a mutual project, carried by both experts and local stakeholders, instead of an expert project imposed on an unwilling community.
Schwartz, Jason L
For observers of pharmaceutical regulation and the Food and Drug Administration, these are uncertain times. Events in late 2016 raised concerns that the FDA's evidentiary standards were being weakened, compromising the agency's ability to adequately perform its regulatory and public health responsibilities. Two developments most directly contributed to these fears-the approval of eteplirsen, a treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, against the recommendations of both FDA staff and an advisory committee and the December 2016 signing of the 21st Century Cures Act, which encouraged greater use by the FDA of "real-world" evidence not obtained through randomized controlled trials. The arrival of the Trump administration-with its deregulatory, industry-friendly approach-has only amplified concerns over the future of the FDA. It is too early to know whether the recent developments are truly harbingers of an FDA less likely to prevent unsafe or ineffective products from reaching the market. But elements in the two events-the role of patient narratives in deliberations regarding eteplirsen and the enthusiasm for real-world evidence in the 21st Century Cures Act-raise critical issues for the future of evidence in the FDA's work. The rigorous, inclusive approach under way to consider issues related to real-world evidence provides a model for a similarly needed inquiry regarding public participation in FDA decision-making. © 2017 The Hastings Center.
Whitlatch, E.E. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering)
The first planning era for energy facility siting was typified by technological decision making in a climate of eminent domain. The second planning era, from 1970 to present, involves regulatory/adjudicatory decision making in a climate of adversarial proceedings. However, outcomes are not much different than in the first: Decisions are still largely made on technological grounds, sites are secretly selected and anonymously secured, and public participation has little effect on decisions. The result has been endgame litigation that delays needed projects increases cost, and polarizes participants. Utilities are understandably reluctant to plan large base-load plants, yet almost all projections of electricity use indicate that such plants will be needed after 1996, if not before. The author discusses how it is in the self-interest of all three principal actors---industry, environmental groups, and state and local government---to move beyond confrontation to a third planning era based on negotiation. Unassisted negotiation (open siting or open planning) and assisted negotiation (facilitation and mediation) promise to produce mutual gain for all parties through cooperative and creative problem solving. Most importantly, they lay the groundwork for future productive interaction.
each involving between 13 000 and 27 000 participants. Attention is given to the number of participants who took part in these three events in 2005 and 2007 respectively, as well as to certain demographic data, in order to determine the extent of the infl ux of sport tourists into Cape Town and Durban during these events ...
Climstein, Mike; Walsh, Joe; Debeliso, Mark; Heazlewood, Tim; Sevene, Trish; Adams, Kent
Increasing evidence indicates adherence to exercise throughout life is concurrent with improved health. World masters games (WMG) have more participants than any other international sporting competition and is under investigated, particularly with regard to indices of cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore, we chose to investigate selected cardiovascular risk factors in WMG participants. This was a cross-sectional, observational study which utilized a web-based questionnaire to survey cardiovascular risk factors of WMG participants. The survey consisted of three sections: basic demographics, medical history and physiological parameters which included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), resting blood pressure (BP) and lipids (total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL)). A total of 1,435 participants, 872 male, aged 27-91yrs (mean age 54.99yrs) participated in the study. Key findings included significant differences (p<0.05) between genders in BMI (17.7%, p<0.001), WC (10.6%, p<0.001), resting SBP (5.8%, p<0.001) and resting DBP (4.8%, p<0.001). Significant differences were also found between genders in HDLs (15.2%, p<0.001), TC:HDL ratio (17.2%, p<0.001) and LDL:HDL ratio (19.0%, p<0.001). Significant differences (p<0.001) were also identified when comparing WMG lipid results to the Australian general population (TC p<0.001; HDLs p<0.001; LDLs p<0.001). A high percentage of WMG participants demonstrated optimal values in a number of CVD risk factors when compared to the general population, female WMG participants had better values as compared to males. This reflected a decreased CVD in WMG participants and supports our hypothesis of enhanced health characteristics in an active, but aged cohort.
Bathke, D. J.; Wall, N.; Haigh, T.; Smith, K. H.; Bernadt, T.
Drought is a complex problem that typically goes beyond the capacity, resources, and jurisdiction of any single person, program, organization, political boundary, or sector. Thus, by nature, monitoring, planning for, and reducing drought risk must be a collaborative process. The National Drought Mitigation Center, in partnership with the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) Program Office and others, provides active engagement and education drought professionals, stakeholders, and the general public about managing drought-related risks through resilience planning, monitoring, and education. Using case studies, we discuss recruitment processes, network building, participation techniques, and educational methods as they pertain to a variety of unique audiences with distinct objectives. Examples include collaborative decision-making at a World Meteorological Organization conference; planning, and peer-learning among drought professionals in a community of practice; drought condition monitoring through citizen science networks; research and education dissemination with stakeholder groups; and informal learning activities for all ages. Finally, we conclude with evaluation methods, indicators of success, and lessons learned for increasing the effectiveness of our programs in increasing drought resilience.
Ozgulbas, Nermin; Koyuncugil, Ali Serhan
This paper presents an application of the data mining method to determine the financial profiles of the public hospitals in Turkey. The study is based on the data compiled in 2004, covering 645 public hospitals run by the Ministry of Health (MoH) as the main provider of primary and secondary health services in Turkey. The public hospitals, currently financed by a mixture of funds allocated from the general budget and individually operated revolving funds, need urgent solutions to their financial problems as a part of an ongoing national reform effort. The analysis adopts the Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) decision tree algorithm, as one of the most efficient and up-to-date data mining method used for segmentation. The study has found that the public hospitals could be categorized by the CHAID into 12 different profiles in terms of their financial performance. These profiles have guided us in determining the key financial indicators to be focused upon in the public hospitals and present best practices to improve their respective financial performances. The findings have also allowed policy suggestions as to the financial strategies that may be considered in improving the financial performance of the public hospitals toward a successful health sector reform in Turkey. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt
in public misconceptions of science. This paper uses the dialogic space proposed by Callon et al. to explore relationships between public and science. The dialogic space spans collective versus scientific dimensions. The collective (or public) is constituted by aggregation (opinion polls) or by composition...
Lassen, Jesper; Nielsen, Annika Porsborg; Sandøe, Peter
Some societal issues raised by science and technology are examined in participatory processes that engage the public as a whole. Yet other, apparently similar issues are handled with little public involvement. Looking at two specific issues, we tried to explain this contrast — to say why...... initiatives to involve the public were so much more energetic in one case than they were in the other. The issues were GM foods and functional foods....
Kim, H. J.; Chung, Yun Hyung
The objective of this study is to help the general public and local residents to better understand and trust nuclear safety regulation. In order to obtain public confidence in nuclear safety regulation, the emotion and demand of public should be first understood and the change in an attitude to meet the present circumstances actively is requisite. Hence it is intended that a genuine communication shall be newly arranged and accomplished on the basis of mutual understanding. To achieve this, a series of public opinion poll have performed periodically and symposium for the public acceptance is held in order to frame a policy based on the understanding of nuclear safety and regulation of the general public and local residents. Besides nuclear safety indicators including safety sentiment indicators are being developed as a means to understand the safety of operating nuclear power plants from the viewpoint of the general public, a plan for the harmonious communication of nuclear safety information is established, and handbooks of nuclear terminologies and report-writing are under development in part. Finally plans for convergence of the public opinions and a wide public involvement in nuclear safety regulation are formulated and their applicability as organization and administration program is now under consideration.
The “minimalist approach to public participation” adopted by the court in this matter, it concludes, “has created a gap wide enough to let an important piece of legislation which has significant implications on the public to be passed as reasonable. Setting such low standards means that judicial review of the other branches of ...
During the period from the late sixties to the nineties Tanzania embraced state monopoly of the economy with the state acting as owner and entrepreneur. This period saw the expansion of the public sector at the expense of the private sector. Public enterprises were the major policy instrument and as such people were ...
...) Contents—(i) All public notices. All public notices issued under this subpart shall contain the following... period. All persons, including applicants, who believe any condition of a draft permit is inappropriate... a draft permit is inappropriate, must raise all reasonably ascertainable issues and submit all...
Olga S. Belokrylova
Full Text Available The degree of maturity of the civil society of a country is now seen as an important indicator of the development of a socially oriented market economy. The authors explore two forms of state and civil society relations - qualitative, characterized by the diffusion of a relationship of trust in society, and quantitative, in the system of public procurement corruption identifiable pace of localization. Institutional capacity development of civil society in public relations is the simultaneous modernization of the qualitative and quantitative scope of its relationship with the state. The paper presents the mechanism of transition to a partnership model relations between the state and civil society, the most important form of which is the realization of public control, rapid formal institutionalization which has provided detection and elimination of large-scale irregularities in public procurement. Its swift formal institutionalization provided by representatives of civil society to identify and eliminate large-scale irregularities in public procurement. The experience of NGO Fund "Sodeistvie - XXI vek" to identify "blind" purchases, is offered as a tool to improve the efficiency of public control conduct free training of potential public controlles by institutions engaged in training of civil officials for the course "Management of state and municipal procurement".
Treichel, J. [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)
The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when
as a result of information being accessible. The British Choose and Book portal (www.healthspace.nhs.uk) and Danish e-health portal (www.sundhed.dk) are examples of making knowledge and services available to the individual citizens: Sundhed.dk is the official Danish eHealth Portal for the public Danish...... Healthcare Services (‘sundhed’ means health in Danish). For the first time, the public Danish Healthcare Services have been brought together on the Internet by Sundhed.dk. This makes it possible for patients, their families and healthcare professionals alike to access information and to communicate with each...
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; De Lorent Gad, Mette; Kjeldsen, Anne Mette
the methodological critique of survey participation bias raised against the public service motivation literature and examines whether public service motivation increases the propensity to respond to surveys. By tracking more than 3,000 public service providers’ participation in a three-wave panel survey, our...
Dijkstra, Anne M.; Gutteling, Jan M.; Swart, Jac A.A.; Wieringa, Nicolien F.; Van der Windt, Henny J.; Seydel, E.R.
Nowadays, new technologies, like genomics, cannot be developed without the support of the public. However, although interested, the public does not always actively participate in science issues when offered the opportunity via public participation activities. In a study aimed at validating a
He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.
Rapid expansion of nuclear power in China requires not only increasing institutional capacity to prevent and adequately cope with nuclear risks, but also increasing public trust in governmental agencies and nuclear enterprises managing nuclear risks. Using a case study on Haiyang nuclear power plant
.... 1021.9 Section 1021.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL...: (1) Promptly after a decision is made to prepare a draft EIS, a notice of intent to prepare the draft... process. The notice shall solicit information and comment by other governmental agencies and the public...
Full Text Available The commentary on our paper from Boaz et al. is both welcome and pertinent, especially in its call for greater critical attention to be paid to some of the underlying principles of participation as well as to techniques and methods (1,2. In some respects our paper and subsequent research was designed to allow us to measure and better understand the impact of participating in a citizen’s jury on the jurors’ views and expressed preferences (1,3.
Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the principles and characteristics of a learning conference which uses action learning and action research (ALAR) processes to create: optimal learning for all participants through a collaborative, inclusive conference culture; further knowledge creation in publishing conference papers post-conference…
Alario-Hoyos, Carlos; Pérez-Sanagustin, Mar; Delgado-Kloos, Carlos; Parada G., Hugo A.; Muñoz-Organero, Mario
This paper presents an in-depth empirical analysis of a nine-week MOOC. This analysis provides novel results regarding participants' profiles and use of built-in and external social tools. The results served to detect seven participants' patterns and conclude that the forum was the social tool preferred to contribute to the MOOC.
Alario-Hoyos, Carlos; Pérez-Sanagustin, Mar; Delgado-Kloos, Carlos; Parada G., Hugo A.; Muñoz-Organero, Mario
This paper presents an in-depth empirical analysis of a nine-week MOOC. This analysis provides novel results regarding participants' profiles and use of built-in and external social tools. The results served to detect seven participants' patterns and conclude that the forum was the social tool preferred to contribute to the MOOC.
Full Text Available Objectives There is a dearth of studies examining the relationship between research output and other socio-demographic indicators in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The three interrelated aims of this study were, first, to ascertain the number of biomedical publications in the GCC from 1970 to 2010; second, to establish the rate of publication according population size during the same period and, third, to gauge the relationship between the number of publications and specific socio-economic parameters. Methods: The Medline database was searched in October 2010 by affiliation, year and publication type from 1970 to 2010. Data obtained were normalised to the number of publications per million of the population, gross domestic product, and the number of physicians in each country. Results: The number of articles from the GCC region published over this 40 year period was 25,561. Saudi Arabia had the highest number followed by Kuwait, UAE, and then Oman. Kuwait had the highest profile of publication when normalised to population size, followed by Qatar. Oman is the lowest in this ranking. Overall, the six countries showed a rising trend in publication numbers with Oman having a significant increase from 1990 to 2005. There was a significant relationship between the number of physicians and the number of publications. Conclusion: The research productivity from GGC has experienced complex and fluctuating growth in the past 40 years. Future prospects for increasing research productivity are discussed with particular reference to the situation in Oman.
Willis, Kimberly J.; Runco, Susan K.; Stefanov, William L.
The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth (GAPE) is an online database (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov) of terrestrial astronaut photography that enables the public to experience the astronaut s view from orbit. This database of imagery includes all NASA human-directed missions from the Mercury program of the early 1960 s to the current International Space Station (ISS). To date, the total number of images taken by astronauts is 1,025,333. Of the total, 621,316 images have been "cataloged" (image geographic center points determined and descriptive metadata added). The remaining imagery provides an opportunity for the citizen-scientist to become directly involved with NASA through cataloging of astronaut photography, while simultaneously experiencing the wonder and majesty of our home planet as seen by astronauts on board the ISS every day. We are currently developing a public cataloging interface for the GAPE website. When complete, the citizen-scientist will be able to access a selected subset of astronaut imagery. Each candidate will be required to pass a training tutorial in order to receive certification as a cataloger. The cataloger can then choose from a selection of images with basic metadata that is sorted by difficulty levels. Some guidance will be provided (template/pull down menus) for generation of geographic metadata required from the cataloger for each photograph. Each cataloger will also be able to view other contributions and further edit that metadata if they so choose. After the public inputs their metadata the images will be posted to an internal screening site. Images with similar geographic metadata and centerpoint coordinates from multiple catalogers will be reviewed by NASA JSC Crew Earth Observations (CEO) staff. Once reviewed and verified, the metadata will be entered into the GAPE database with the contributors identified by their chosen usernames as having cataloged the frame.
Full Text Available The evolution of public art throughout the twentieth century has resulted since the 60’s in a kind of practical intervention in the urban domain with a strong social and participatory intention. This paper presents several of these projects in relation to the kind of participattory levels, and detecting different trends. The paper Specially focuses on the project “Cartografies de La Mina”, developed in Sant Adrià de Besòs (Barcelona between 2002 and 2005 by the POLIS Research Centre at the University of Barcelona.
Full Text Available Recently enacted legislation on Public Private Partnerships in Uruguay provides a new institutional framework for the designing, structuring and subscription of contracts in ppp projects. Among its provisions, the new statute allocates competences to different administrative bodies for the execution, regulation and control of PPP s. Later administrative regulations were also adopted to facilitate the implementation and execution of this type of contracts. The present article studies these reforms, in order to provide a better understanding of the role played by the Technical Commission of the PPP Unit.
Caldron, Paul H; Impens, Ann; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim
The US is the leading sending country for short term medical missions (STMMs), an unregulated and unsanctioned, grass roots form of direct medical service aid from richer countries to low and middle income countries. The objective of this study is to profile US physicians who go on such missions by means of a survey sample of the US physician population. An online survey solicited information on physician participation in STMMS as well as demographic and professional features. Responses were descriptively tabulated and multivariate regressions were performed to model for physician profiles related to STMM participation. Physician participants in STMMs are more likely to be a surgeon, anesthesiologist or pediatrician, married with few or no children at home, later in their career and have an income of $200-250 K. Specialty is the strongest predictor of participation. STMM participation does not differ by race, ethnicity nor religion. Descriptive statistics further provide a limited profile of participants. Direct expenses may have less influence on participation than opportunity costs. Potential clues about motivation that may be inferred from the features of the profile are discussed.
Christopher M. Kelty
Full Text Available This essay reflects on three figures that can be used to make sense of the changing nature of public participation in the life sciences today: outlaws, hackers and Victorian gentlemen. Occasioned by a symposium held at UCLA (Outlaw Biology: Public Participation in the Age of Big Bio, the essay introduces several different modes of participation (DIY Bio, Bio Art, At home clinical genetics, patient advocacy and others and makes three points: 1 that public participation is first a problem of legitimacy, not legality or safety; 2 that public participation is itself enabled by and thrives on the infrastructure of mainstream biology; and 3 that we need a new set of concepts (other than inside/outside for describing the nature of public participation in biological research and innovation today.
Cheung, Iris (Hoi Ying); Kloss, Margarita; Brown, Rich; Meier, Alan
Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) have proliferated in the last decade, and comprise an increasing share of building energy consumption. Because of the diversity of MELs and our lack of understanding about how people use them, large-scale data collection is needed to inform meaningful energy reduction strategies. Traditional methods of data collection, however, usually incur high labor and metering equipment expenses. As an alternative, this paper investigates the feasibility of crowdsourcing data collection to satisfy at least part of the data collection needs with acceptable accuracy. This study assessed the reliability and accuracy of crowdsourced data, by recruiting over 20 volunteers (from the 2012 Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Open House event) to test our crowdsourcing protocol. The protocol asked volunteers to perform the following tasks for three test products with increasing complexity - record power meter and product characteristics, identify all power settings available, and report the measured power. Based on our collected data and analysis, we concluded that volunteers performed reasonably well for devices with functionalities with which they are familiar, and might not produce highly accurate field measurements for complex devices. Accuracy will likely improve when participants are measuring the power used by devices in their home which they know how to operate, by providing more specific instructions including instructional videos. When integrated with existing programs such as the Home Energy Saver tool, crowdsourcing data collection from individual homeowners has the potential to generate a substantial amount of information about MELs energy use in homes.
Kloss, Margarita; Cheung, Iris [Hoi; Brown, Richard; Meier, Alan
Miscellaneous and electronic loads (MELs) comprise an increasing share of building energy consumption. Large-scale data collection is needed to inform meaningful energy reduction strategies because of the diversity of MELs and our lack of understanding about how people use them. Traditional methods of data collection, however, usually incur high labor and metering equipment expenses. As an alternative, this paper investigates the feasibility of crowdsourcing data collection to satisfy at least part of the data collection needs with acceptable accuracy. We assessed the reliability and accuracy of crowd-sourced data by recruiting 18 volunteers and testing our crowdsourcing protocol. The protocol asked volunteers to perform measurement tasks for three MELs devices of increasing complexity 1) record power meter and MELs product characteristics, 2) identify and measure all power modes available, and 3) report the measured power. Volunteers performed reasonably well for devices with functionalities with which they were familiar, but many could not correctly identify all available power modes in complex devices. Accuracy may improve when participants measure the power used by familiar devices in their home, or by providing more specific instructions, e.g. videos. Furthermore, crowdsourcing data collection from individual homeowners has the potential to generate valuable information about MELs energy use in homes when integrated with existing programs such as Home Energy Saver and Building America.
Mwenda, A.N.; Bregt, A.K.; Ligtenberg, A.; Kibutu, T.N.
The objective of this study was to document trends in public participation within environmental impact assessment (EIA) in Kenya, using a Consultation and Public Participation Index (CPPI) developed for the analysis of EIA Study Reports submitted to the Environment Authority between 2002 and 2010.
... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical Assistance for Public Participation Request Form A Appendix A to Part 203 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FOR PUBLIC PARTICIPATION (TAPP) IN DEFENSE ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION ACTIVITIES...
Martin, Kenneth E.; Wilkinson, Kenneth P.
This study investigates the relationship between change in public affairs participation and involvement in a leadership development program for young adults in Pennsylvania at high and low socioeconomic-status levels. It was concluded that leadership development mediates the familiar relationship between public affairs participation and…
International environmental agreements are a primary mechanism of global environmental governance. Increasingly, international environmental agreements recognise the importance of public participation through education. Yet, despite the prominence of international environmental agreements on the international agenda, and the stated commitment to…
Lee, J. H.; Ahn, S. K.; Yun, Y. J. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
This paper proposes that the approach to nuclear policy system should be changed to the participatory and resilient way from the managerial and anticipatory way. This change is surely reasonable in the point that, firstly, the managerial and anticipatory approach contains the internal weakness of not allowing trials and errors due to its centralized decision making and, secondly, active participation of general public can give a great contribution to the course of decision-making in science and technology as well. However, the expansion of public participation has the risk of falling into the deadlock of unreasonable populism, so the course and procedures of public participation need to be included in the process of decision making in the matter of science and technology systematically. Accordingly, this paper shows the research result on the process of public participation in Europe and suggests the possibility that there can be a balanced and effective system of public participation in nuclear policy making.
Chi-Kwan Shea Ph.D., OTR/L
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to use Dunn’s model of sensory processing to investigate the sensory profiles of youth participating in a community-based occupational therapy pre-employment program. The youth participants had been involved in the juvenile justice system and were placed on probation. The studyanalyzed data from the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP questionnaires (Brown & Dunn, 2002 completed by 79 youth participants. Analysis of the participants’ scores on the AASP showed statistically significant differences from the norm in two quadrants; the delinquent youth scored lower in Sensation Seeking and higher in Sensation Avoiding. The delinquent youth participants demonstrated a high prevalence of atypical sensory processing patterns. Implications for further investigation and practice are discussed.
Molster, Caron; Potts, Ayla; McNamara, Beverley; Youngs, Leanne; Maxwell, Susannah; Dawkins, Hugh; O'Leary, Peter
Deliberative public engagement has been proposed for policy development, where issues are complex and there are diverse public perspectives and low awareness of competing issues. Scholars suggest a range of potential outcomes for citizens and government agencies from involvement in such processes. Few studies have examined outcomes from the perspective of citizen participants in deliberative processes. To examine participant perceptions of their involvement in and outcomes of a deliberative engagement exercise. A case study using semistructured interviews was conducted with participants following a deliberative forum on biobanking. From their involvement in the deliberative exercise, participants described transformations in their knowledge and beliefs about the policy issues. They reported being more informed to the extent of having confidence to educate others and effectively contribute to public policy development. They had developed greater trust in government policymakers who they believed would take reasonable account of their recommendations. We conclude that the participants were satisfied with the outcomes of the deliberative public engagement process and viewed it as an effective means of citizen involvement in public policy development. Particularly for citizens who participate in deliberative processes, such processes may promote active citizenship, empower citizens to undertake representative and educative roles, and improve relations between citizens and government agencies. Actions taken by policymakers subsequent to the deliberative exercise, whereby the majority of citizen recommendations were incorporated in the policy developed, may have contributed to participants holding sustained levels of trust in the commissioning government agency.
Full Text Available Under what conditions do citizens of nations and states comply with governmental requests to participate in public policymaking? Drawing on the dual pathway model of collective action (Stürmer & Simon, 2004 but with a focus on compliance with the status quo, rather than participation in collective protest, two studies examined citizens’ motivation to participate in public policymaking. Study 1 (N = 169 was an MTurk hosted survey that recruited participants from California, while Study 2 (N = 198 was a field experiment that recruited participants in Sardinia, Italy. Study 1 measured cost-benefit analyses, societal identification, and willingness to participate in public policymaking. Study 2 repeated the same procedures, with the exception that we manipulated costs of participation, and also measured participants’ trust in government. Study 1 confirmed our initial hypotheses – fewer costs predicted more willingness to participate, as did stronger state identification. However, Study 2 found an interactive effect of costs, identification, and trust on willingness to participate in public policymaking. Results confirm our hypotheses by showing that both costs and identification independently influence willingness to participate in public policymaking. Results also add to the literature by showing that these additive pathways can be influenced by trust in the source of governance.
This paper reports on a pilot study in the Danish "Profile in Mathematics" project implemented by the Directorate General for Employment, Placement and Vocational Training and the Ministry of Education. The pilot study develops and tests specific guidance materials to guide participants and teachers through a course for crane workers…
Full Text Available The public sphere, a central habermasian concept, with capitalist origins, becomes the environment of political actors’ participation that allows mass communication. This article describes in detail the dichotomy and the various perspectives of public and private space, including the modern implications of media, primarily TV, regarding the reconfiguration of public space (social and political. In the modern age, the new mediated public space brings new facets of communication situations, including the political side.
Silvio Fernando López Mera
Full Text Available By recognizing the importance of teacher profile in the quality of basic education, this study describes and analyzes the characteristics of public teachers in the city of Medellín. Analysis results suggest that: (1 teaching career is essentially feminine and senior, and (2 female teachers have higher ranks, teaching experience, and educational level than male teachers, which translates into higher wages. This implies that, although the sector is meritocratic, it is necessary to generate better incentives for current teachers and for high school graduates (especially the best ones to make the teaching career more attractive (and sought-after, and to avoid a possible deficit in teachers, not only in Medellín, but also in Colombia.
Jackson Estomih Muro
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to have a fresh look at the local governance status through exploring governance factors affecting community participation in public development projects. The study also has investigated the actors and factors shaping participation as well as causes for non-participation. For the purpose of the study six wards within two divisions of Poli and Mbuguni and Meru district headquarters were selected. In the wards a total of 80 respondents from among the community members were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Others were Village chairman Village Executive Officers Ward Executive Officers and Councilors were also interviewed and involved in the FGD. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation and figures were used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the communities were participated in the public development projects and people were participating through financial material and labor contribution to the public development projects. The analysis also showed that the government supported the ongoing public development projects including through provision of fund and expertise. The study showed the benefit of community participation in the development projects or programs like ownership of the projects and enjoying the benefits accrued from the projects. The study also indicated that there is significant change in terms of governance as influencers of community participation in public development projects. Despite the fortunes study showed some challenges found in wards and villages being the incidence of corruptions and misuse of public resources which were mentioned to slow community participation in public development projects. It was therefore concluded that adhering to the good governance principles contribute positively towards community participation in public development projects.
Radchuk, Olga; Kerbe, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Markus
Public participation in science and gamification of science are two strong contemporary trends, especially in the area of emerging techno-sciences. Involvement of the public in research-related activities is an integral part of public engagement with science and technologies, which can be successfully achieved through a participatory game design. Focusing on the participatory dimension of educational games, we have reviewed a number of existing participation heuristics in light of their suitability to characterize available mobile and browser science games. We analyzed 87 games with respect to their participatory and motivational elements and demonstrated that the majority of mobile games have only basic participative features. This review of the landscape of participative science games in the domain of life sciences highlights a number of major challenges present in the design of such applications. At the same time, it reveals a number of opportunities to enhance public engagement using science games.
Alessandro Luís Piolli
Full Text Available The knowledge deficit model with regard to the public has been severely criticized in the sociology of the public perception of science. However, when dealing with public decisions regarding scientific matters, political and scientific institutions insist on defending the deficit model. The idea that only certified experts, or those with vast experience, should have the right to participate in decisions can bring about problems for the future of democracies. Through a type of "topography of ideas", in which some concepts from the social studies of science are used in order to think about these problems, and through the case study of public participation in the elaboration of the proposal of discounts in the fees charged for rural water use in Brazil, we will try to point out an alternative to the deficit model. This alternative includes a "minimum comprehension" of the scientific matters involved in the decision on the part of the participants, using criteria judged by the public itself.
Public participation can be defined as ...”a process leading to a joint effort by stakeholders, technical specialists, the authorities and the proponent who work together to produce better decisions than if they had acted independently" (Greyling, 1999, p. 20). In South Africa, public participation processes are legally driven and form part a statutory part of environmental impact assessments. Many environmental impact assessments have been undertaken in South Africa, but the environmental im...
Hourdequin, Marion, E-mail: Marion.Hourdequin@ColoradoCollege.edu [Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, 790 East Beckwith, Missoula, MT 59801 (United States); Department of Philosophy, Colorado College, 14 E. Cache La Poudre St., Colorado Springs, CO 80903 (United States); Landres, Peter [Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, 790 East Beckwith, Missoula, MT 59801 (United States); Hanson, Mark J. [Department of Philosophy, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States); Craig, David R. [Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, 790 East Beckwith, Missoula, MT 59801 (United States)
Traditional mechanisms for public participation in environmental impact assessment under U.S. federal law have been criticized as ineffective and unable to resolve conflict. As these mechanisms are modified and new approaches developed, we argue that participation should be designed and evaluated not only on practical grounds of cost-effectiveness and efficiency, but also on ethical grounds based on democratic ideals. In this paper, we review and synthesize modern democratic theory to develop and justify four ethical principles for public participation: equal opportunity to participate, equal access to information, genuine deliberation, and shared commitment. We then explore several tensions that are inherent in applying these ethical principles to public participation in EIA. We next examine traditional NEPA processes and newer collaborative approaches in light of these principles. Finally, we explore the circumstances that argue for more in-depth participatory processes. While improved EIA participatory processes do not guarantee improved outcomes in environmental management, processes informed by these four ethical principles derived from democratic theory may lead to increased public engagement and satisfaction with government agency decisions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four ethical principles based on democratic theory for public participation in EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NEPA and collaboration offer different strengths in meeting these principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore tensions inherent in applying these principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved participatory processes may improve public acceptance of agency decisions.
Mwenda, A.N.; Bregt, A.K.; Ligtenberg, A.
This study set out to evaluate the use of spatial information during public participation within Environmental Impact Assessment (EAI) in Kenya, through a case study. A conceptual framework developed for this study considered four key elements: the stages of EIA in Kenya (EIA study stage), public
Marion Hourdequin; Peter Landres; Mark J. Hanson; David R. Craig
Traditional mechanisms for public participation in environmental impact assessment under U.S. federal law have been criticized as ineffective and unable to resolve conflict. As these mechanisms are modified and new approaches developed, we argue that participation should be designed and evaluated not only on practical grounds of cost-effectiveness and efficiency, but...
Hadjimichael, Maria; Delaney, Alyne
-inspired deliberative workshop held to tease out stakeholder views of management priorities for a section of the North Sea: the Dogger Bank. As this article reveals, the lessons learned from the Dogger Bank workshop advocate not simply what is required for managing one particular ocean commons, but also highlight some...... of the public participation research design failings, taking public participation in resource management further by adding to the literature and theoretical discussions on the public sphere (Habermas 1989). Analysis of the citizens jury-inspired deliberative workshop also highlights the critical issue of power...
Zhao, Xuefeng; Wang, Niannian; Ou, Jinping; Yu, Yan; Li, Mingchu
Currently more and more people concerned about the safety of major public security. Public participant urban infrastructure safety monitoring and investigation has become a trend in the era of big data. In this paper, public participant urban infrastructure safety protection system based on smart phones is proposed. The system makes it possible to public participant disaster data collection, monitoring and emergency evaluation in the field of disaster prevention and mitigation. Function of the system is to monitor the structural acceleration, angle and other vibration information, and extract structural deformation and implement disaster emergency communications based on smartphone without network. The monitoring data is uploaded to the website to create urban safety information database. Then the system supports big data analysis processing, the structure safety assessment and city safety early warning.
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is a legal analysis of the participation of public benefit organizations in personal income tax. The author defines public benefit organizations, indicating the conditions that they need to meet in order to be able to participate in the personal income tax. Broad considerations relate to the analysis of the legal structure of the 1% tax deduction, its scope and the procedures for transfer of funds from the State budget to eligible entities. The article also presents the scale of the issues against the background of the practical functioning of the public finances. The article summarizes the reflection on the rationality and the essence of the transfer of public funds to public benefit organizations.
Jochumsen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Casper Hvenegaard
The aim of this paper is to sketch a research project on user participation in public libraries and museums. For several years’ user participation, participatory culture and user driven innovation have been “buzzwords” in the ongoing development of cultural institutions in general and in museums...... and libraries in particular. From a cultural policy perspective research in this area is therefore of great importance. Taking our point of departure in respectively the public library and the local cultural history museum in the city of Roskilde we introduce to the current relevance of the subject...... of the research project. The case of Roskilde is particularly illustrative as it not only contains user participation, libraries and museums but also illustrate how the development of user participation actually blurs the borders of the two institutions. After a definition of the concept of user participation...
Rojas, Antonio J; Navas, Marisol; Sayans-Jiménez, Pablo; Cuadrado, Isabel
The main goal of this study was to identify acculturation preference profiles using cluster analysis in public and private areas of culture in the host and immigrant populations, and to find out the relationship between these profiles and prejudice levels. Four hundred and ninety-nine Spaniards and 500 Romanians participated in a survey. The sampling of Spaniards was multistage random and the sampling of Romanians was by quota. The results confirm our predictions. Romanians who are less prejudiced against Spaniards prefer assimilation in public areas and integration in private areas. Romanians who are more prejudiced against Spaniards prefer integration in public areas and separation in private areas. Spaniards who are less prejudiced against Romanians prefer integration in both public and private areas. Spaniards who are more prejudiced against Romanians prefer assimilation in both areas.
Vera Lúcia Messias Fialho Capellini
Full Text Available This article analyses aspects related to a continuing education course about Inclusive and Special Education in the area of Mental Disabilities offered to 20 (twenty groups of teachers by the Ministry of Education. The Distance Course was offered in different regions of Brazil with a 180 (a hundred and eighty hours workload. The research included the profile of the participants, an evaluation of the course by the participants and the analysis of the dropout causes. The aspects of the course under evaluation received a positive evaluation by most of the participants. The most frequent reason for the dropout rates include participants’ limitations in terms of meeting deadlines, personal reasons and difficulties in using computers. It was concluded that Distance Education seems to be a relevant tool for the acquisition of knowledge about inclusive practice.
Culley, Marci R; Hughey, Joseph
Qualitative case study findings are presented. We examined whether public participation in a hazardous waste dispute manifested in ways consistent with theories of social power; particularly whether participatory processes or participants' experiences of them were consistent with the three-dimensional view of power (Gaventa, Power and powerlessness: quiescence and rebellion in an appalacian valley, 1980; Lukes, Power: A radical view, 1974; Parenti, Power and the powerless, 1978). Findings from four data sources collected over 3 years revealed that participatory processes manifested in ways consistent with theories of power, and participants' experiences reflected this. Results illustrated how participation was limited and how citizen influence could be manipulated via control of resources, barriers to participation, agenda setting, and shaping conceptions about what participation was possible. Implications for community research and policy related to participation in hazardous waste disputes are discussed.
Full Text Available An environmental impact assessment (EIA is a decision-making process that evaluates the possible significant effects that a proposed project may exert on the environment. The EIA scoping and reviewing stages often involve public participation. Although its importance has long been recognized, public participation in the EIA process is often regarded as ineffective, due to time, budget, resource, technical and procedural constraints, as well as the complexity of environmental information. Geographic Information System (GIS and Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI have the potential to contribute to data collection, sharing and presentation, utilize local user-generated content to benefit decision-making and increase public outreach. This research integrated GIS, VGI, social media tools, data mining and mobile technology to design a spatially intelligent framework that presented and shared EIA information effectively to the public. A spatially intelligent public participative system (SIPPS was also developed as a proof-of-concept of the framework. The research selected the Tehachapi Renewable Transmission Project (TRTP as the pilot study area. Survey questionnaires were designed to collect feedback and conduct evaluation. Results show that SIPPS was able to improve the effectiveness of public participation, promote environmental awareness and achieve good system usability.
Shabani, Mahsa; Bezuidenhout, Louise; Borry, Pascal
Introducing data sharing practices into the genomic research arena has challenged the current mechanisms established to protect rights of individuals and triggered policy considerations. To inform such policy deliberations, soliciting public and research participants' attitudes with respect to genomic data sharing is a necessity. The main electronic databases were searched in order to retrieve empirical studies, investigating the attitudes of research participants and the public towards genomic data sharing through public databases. In the 15 included studies, participants' attitudes towards genomic data sharing revealed the influence of a constellation of interrelated factors, including the personal perceptions of controllability and sensitivity of data, potential risks and benefits of data sharing at individual and social level and also governance level considerations. This analysis indicates that future policy responses and recruitment practices should be attentive to a wide variety of concerns in order to promote both responsible and progressive research.
Public participation in Office of Environmental Management (EM) activities throughout the DOE complex is a critical component of the overall success of remediation and waste management efforts. The challenges facing EM and its stakeholders over the next decade or more are daunting (Nuclear Waste News 1996). Achieving a mission composed of such challenges will require innovation, dedication, and a significant degree of good will among all stakeholders. EM's efforts to date, including obtaining and using inputs offered by EM stakeholders, have been notable. Public participation specialists have accepted and met challenges and have consistently tried to improve their performance. They have reported their experiences both formally and informally (e.g., at professional conferences and EM Public Participation Network Workshops, other internal meetings of DOE and contractor public participation specialists, and one-on-one consultations) in order to advance the state of their practice. Our research, and our field research in particular (including our interactions with many representatives of numerous stakeholder groups at nine DOE sites with diverse EM problems), have shown that it, is possible to develop coherent results even in a problem domain as complex as that of EM. We conclude that performance-based evaluations of public participation appear possible, and we have recommended an approach, based on combined and integrated multi-stakeholder views on the attributes of successful public participation and associated performance indicators, that seems workable and should be acceptable to diverse stakeholders. Of course, as an untested recommendation, our approach needs the validation that can only be achieved by application (perhaps at a few DOE sites with ongoing EM activities). Such an application would serve to refine the proposed approach in terms of its clarity, its workability, and its potential for full-scale use by EM and, potentially, other government
Full Text Available In sustainable development which requires the balance between the economic, social and environmental objectives, it is of key importance that the public also participates in the broadest sense. For the comprehension of ecological and developmental decisions it is necessary to provide information and to raise the general environmental awareness. An individual or groups of people base their reactions to negative phenomena in the environment on their perception of it, which does not always correspond to the objective state but is modified by different factors, also by the access to information and by the participation of the public in taking the decisions.
Klyuvak Oksana V.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to formulate and develop the theoretical and methodological foundations for the functioning of the electronic public procurement system in the logistic environment and develop an approach to determining the level of enterprise readiness for participation in electronic public procurement based on the logistic management of information, financial, information and financial flows, document flows, flows of goods, flows of work and services. The classification of groups of temporary, quantitative, qualitative, cost, technical and technological indicators as well as indicators of the level of readiness of the electronic public procurement system at the macro- and microlevels is proposed. It is recommended to consider the readiness to participate in electronic public procurement and the effectiveness of fulfilling obligations to the customer after the completion of the tender process to be the key indicators for the enterprise. There developed an approach to determining the level of enterprise readiness for participation in electronic public procurement on the basis of a set of criteria related to management of information logistics systems, financial logistics, information and financial logistics, document management, commodity logistics, logistics services and works. Prospects for further research in this direction are development of an approach to financial and economic analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of the tender security mechanism in the system of electronic public procurement in Ukraine and countries of the European Union.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recently world creating opportunities under appropriate circumstances for people to manipulate decisions that affect them will increase the sense of ownership and care that is why participation has become a question of concern for any public and private project development and sustainability. The purpose of this study was to assessing the challenges affecting participation in provision of public services in Arusha city council. The specific objective of this study was to find out the challenges affecting public consultations and involvement in provision of public services at Arusha city council. The researcher use survey design technique in studying 150 samples from 416442 which included public citizens mayor councilors and employees at the Arusha city council office. The sample was selected through non- probability sampling techniques which was purposive and convenience. The data was collected through questionnaire and structured interview schedule and data was qualitatively analyzed where the factual and logical interpretation was explained through using of table and percentages. From the findings of the study provision of effective public services in Arusha city council is less effective and unsatisfactory because of insufficient number of staff poor technology conservatism bureaucracy culture relationship politics and poor communication. In order to address the issues the researcher recommends that the governance is weak and it needed to be reviewed in order to enhance the effectiveness of the entire process in provision of effective public services.
Nunes Maria F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Follow-up studies of former students are an efficient way to organize the entire process of professional training and curriculum evaluation. The aim of this study was to identify professional profile subgroups based on job-related variables in a sample of former students of a Brazilian public dental school. Methods A web-based password-protected questionnaire was sent to 633 registered dentists who graduated from the Federal University of Goias between 1988 and 2007. Job-related information was retrieved from 14 closed questions, on subjects such as gender, occupational routine, training, profits, income status, and self-perception of professional career, generating an automatic database for analysis. The two-step cluster method was used for dividing dentists into groups on the basis of minimal within-group and maximal between-group variation, using job-related variables to represent attributes upon which the clustering was based. Results There were 322 respondents (50.9%, predominantly female (64.9% and the mean age was 34 years (SD = 6.0. The automatic selection of an optimal number of clusters included 289 cases (89.8% in 3 natural clusters. Clusters 1, 2 and 3 included 52.2%, 30.8% and 17.0% of the sample respectively. Interpretation of within-group rank of variable importance for cluster segmentation resulted in the following characterization of clusters: Cluster 1 - specialist dentists with higher profits and positive views of the profession; Cluster 2 - general dental practitioners in small cities; Cluster 3 - underpaid and less motivated dentists with negative views of the profession. Male dentists were predominant in cluster 1 and females in cluster 3. One-way Anova showed that age and time since graduation were significantly lower in Cluster 2 (P Conclusions Cluster analysis was a valuable method for identifying natural grouping with relatively homogeneous cases, providing potentially meaningful information for
Saedi, Sedigheh; Noroozi, Mona; Khosrotabar, Naghmeh; Mazandarani, Shadi; Ghadrdoost, Behshid
Background: Restricted intakes of saturated and trans-fatty acids and replacement with poly or monounsaturated fatty acids are emphasized in healthy diets. This study evaluates the effects of a six-month consumption of canola oil compared to sunflower oil on lipid profile and anthropometric parameters of people affected by dyslipidemia. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 96 patients with dyslipidemia, who were randomly assigned into canola oil or the sunflower oil groups. The participants were instructed to record the contents of their daily meals, beverages, fruits, and snacks a day before treatment, at the second clinic visit, in the third month, and at the end of study (i.e., six months). Lipid profile and anthropometric parameters were compared between the two groups. Student t-test or Mann Whitney U test was used for statistical comparisons of variables between groups. Multivariate analysis was performed to adjust the confounding factor effects. Results: Of the enrolled participants, 44 (45.8%) were on sunflower oil diet and 52 (54.2%) on canola oil diet. We observed no change in anthropometric parameters and thus no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). Significant reductions in LDL-C (psunflower oil. Conclusion: Dietary fats in the form of canola oil or sunflower oil effectively lower the serum cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride concentrations. They also result in an increase in serum concentration of HDL-C. These oils, however, did not modify general anthropometric parameters. PMID:28638812
Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon; Krozer, Yoram
The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in effect since 2000, mandates public participation in water management. The directive's requirements are general, leaving it up to the EU Member States to determine how to address the issue. Using case studies, this paper discusses some of the benefits brought
Henriksen, H.J.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Højberg, A.L.; Ferrand, N.; Gijsbers, P.; Scholten, H.
The main purpose of public participation in integrated water resources modelling is to improve decision-making by ensuring that decisions are soundly based on shared knowledge, experience and scientific evidence. The present paper describes stakeholder involvement in the modelling process. The point
Team established in 1974 is studying the Upper Mississippi River from Minneapolis/St. ?aul to Lock and Dam 10 at Guttenberg . This team is called GREAT...Paul, Minnesota Prairie Du Chien, Wisconsin Clayton, Iowa Guttenberg , Iowa 7. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND INFORMATION TASK FORCE/WORK GROUP MEETINGS 1. St
Santizo Rodall, Claudia A.; Martin, Christopher James
This article analyses changes that have occurred in the elementary education system in Mexico since 1992 when an administrative de-concentration process took place. This process was accompanied by legal modifications that created opportunities for social participation in public elementary schools affairs. As a result, some school communities in…
Claudia Patricia Barrantes-Venegas
Full Text Available This article recovers an old John Dewey’s idea, called empowered deliberation, in order to present it as a mechanism to create citizens who are truly active in politics as well as in public service, when the distribution of services such as education, information and real participation are unequal among the community.
Pelaudeix, Cécile; Basse, Ellen Margrethe; Loukacheva, Natalia
before the Second World War to 2016-17 where the current Greenlandic authorities prepared a license for a project of extraction of rare earth elements and uranium in Kvanefjeld. It is shown that the issue of openness, transparency and public participation in Greenland is a long-standing issue...
Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon
The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), which went into effect in 2000, places public participation (PP) at the center stage of water management as part of its integrated approach to water management. It calls for PP in order to ensure protection and a sustainable use of the European river basins
... requirements of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 553; (2) Instructions, procedures, and other... procedures on administrative support activities such as personnel matters, procurement, service contracting... developed with public participation during land and resource management planning part 219, and other...
..., including press releases or any other forum or medium to elicit public participation. (4) Contents—(i) All... permit is inappropriate or that the permitting authority's initial decision to deny an application, terminate a permit, or prepare a draft permit is inappropriate, must raise all reasonably ascertainable...
Up to now China's environmental reform has been mainly a state-led process. Yet, to enable further environmental improvements increased involvement of citizens and consumers is inevitable. This article explores existing, newly developing and future forms and channels of public participation in
Surviving always at the edge of extinction, public participation in environmental decision making has an uncertain and problematic history. From its emergence from the urban planning and delivery system efforts of the 1960s to many siting and non-siting uses today, it remains a battleground, with few successes and many failures. While some compelling structural, organizational and cultural explanations for this state of affairs exist, the author offers a further one--a too-limited definition and vision of public participation. One then can argue for a more inclusive process such as stakeholder involvement (SI) to enable a more viable approach to decision making. One can argue that the narrow conceptualization offered in the term public participation (PP) is partly responsible for the meager results of decades of efforts by earnest practitioners. Because of the limited, unique, and self-selected publics that respond to the major PP mechanisms such as public hearings, PP has become largely the province of organized activist groups and is largely accepted as such by most parties, including PP professionals. The author reviews the roles of Congress, federal agencies/proponents, local governments, activist groups and PP professionals in creating the current limited PP processes. She discusses trends and prospects for moving to broader based, more inclusive SI approaches. The emerging SI approach presents major methodological and organizational challenges, but offers the promise of outcomes more likely to be legitimated and potentially more lasting.
May, Andrew; Ross, Tracy
Civic technology needs to be better understood in terms of the factors that promote representative public participation and impact. This paper reports on a mixed-methods study of a civic tech platform that enabled the public to provide feedback on public transport to the service providers. The overall aim of this research was to investigate the public's use of a leading civic tech platform, FixMyTransport. The key findings were that: an effective and easy-to-use civic technology platform enables broad participation; data and process complexity need to be removed; factual information can be captured in situ with impacts, consequences and opinions added later; emotions (if important) need to be explicitly elicited; feedback to, and a 'conversation' with, the users is important for engagement, as is a feeling of being part of a community. These findings can contribute to the future design of civic technology platforms. Practitioner Summary: There is a lack of understanding of how 'civic tech' platforms are used and how they may be designed for maximum effectiveness. Multiple data collection methods were used to investigate a well-developed example of civic tech. Effective civic tech can enable broad democratic participation to improve public services.
Institute of Museum and Library Services — Pull up a state's profile to find state-level totals on key data such as numbers of libraries and librarians, revenue and expenditures, and collection sizes.These...
Carnes, S.A.; Schweitzer, M.; Peelle, E.B.; Wolfe, A.K.; Munro, J.F.
Public participation in decision-making in the United States has become a dominant theme throughout the public sector and is increasingly used in the private sector. Recent reports by the National Research Council and the Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, set up jointly by the White House and Congress, conclude that risk decisions must increasingly be structured in such a manner as to involve stakeholders meaningfully in the processes and activities leading to decisions and, perhaps, through decision implementation. Both of these reports indicate that decisions may take longer but be better if officials: (1) bring all interested and affected parties to the table at the beginning of the risk-discussion process; (2) identify relevant concerns, losses, exposures and other information the parties have; (3) address significant concerns through appropriate research; and (4) present findings in an understandable, accessible way. This report is intended to facilitate subsequent evaluations of public participation activities and programs.
Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Shultz, Sandra J; Schmitz, Randy J
Whereas static lower extremity alignment (LEA) has been identified as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury, little is known about its influence on joint motion and moments commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury. To cluster participants according to combinations of LEA variables and compare these clusters in hip- and knee-joint kinematics and kinetics during the landing phase of a drop-jump task. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. A total of 141 participants (50 men: age = 22.2 ± 2.8 years, height = 177.9 ± 9.3 cm, weight = 80.9 ± 13.3 kg; 91 women: age = 21.2 ± 2.6 years, height = 163.9 ± 6.6 cm, weight = 61.1 ± 8.7 kg). Static LEA included pelvic angle, femoral anteversion, quadriceps angle, tibiofemoral angle, genu recurvatum, tibial torsion, and navicular drop. Cluster analysis grouped participants according to their static LEA profiles, and these groups were compared on their hip- and knee-joint kinematics and external moments during the landing phase of a double-legged drop jump. Three distinct clusters (C1-C3) were identified based on their static LEAs. Participants in clusters characterized with static internally rotated hip and valgus knee posture (C1) and externally rotated knee and valgus knee posture (C3) alignments demonstrated greater knee-valgus motion and smaller hip-flexion moments than the cluster with more neutral static alignment (C2). Participants in C1 also experienced greater hip internal-rotation and knee external-rotation moments than those in C2 and C3. Static LEA clusters that are positioned anatomically with a more rotated and valgus knee posture experienced greater dynamic valgus along with hip and knee moments during landing. Whereas static LEA contributes to differences in hip and knee rotational moments, sex may influence the differences in frontal-plane knee kinematics and sagittal-plane hip moments.
Gruen, Russell L; Campbell, Eric G; Blumenthal, David
Whether physicians have a professional responsibility to address health-related issues beyond providing care to individual patients has been vigorously debated. Yet little is known about practicing physicians' attitudes about or the extent to which they participate in public roles, which we defined as community participation, political involvement, and collective advocacy. To determine the importance physicians assign to public roles, their participation in related activities, and sociodemographic and practice factors related to physicians' rated levels of importance and activity. Mail survey conducted between November 2003 and June 2004 of 1662 US physicians engaged in direct patient care selected from primary care specialties (family practice, internal medicine, pediatrics) and 3 non-primary care specialties (anesthesiology, general surgery, cardiology). Rated importance of community participation, political involvement, collective advocacy, and relevant self-reported activities encompassing the previous 3 years; rated importance of physician action on different issues. Community participation, political involvement, and collective advocacy were rated as important by more than 90% of respondents, and a majority rated community participation and collective advocacy as very important. Nutrition, immunization, substance abuse, and road safety issues were rated as very important by more physicians than were access-to-care issues, unemployment, or illiteracy. Two thirds of respondents had participated in at least 1 of the 3 types of activities in the previous 3 years. Factors independently related to high overall rating of importance (civic-mindedness) included age, female sex, underrepresented race/ethnicity, and graduation from a non-US or non-Canadian medical school. Civic mindedness, medical specialty, practice type, underrepresented race/ethnicity, preceptors of physicians in training, rural practice, and graduation from a non-US or non-Canadian medical school
Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian Alzheimer's Association recommend the dementia patient's caregiver to attend group meetings which aim to give information and enable them to express and share feelings with individuals who are facing similar difficulties. Objectives: To identify the sociodemographic profile of the individuals who attend the Support Group for Family Members of Individuals with Alzheimer's disease at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, and to verify the degree of burden associated to the care given to this kind of patient. Methods: Forty-eight participants were sub-divided into two groups: 23 non-caregivers and 25 caregivers. All participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, and the caregivers also answered the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI. Student's t test was used for comparison of parametric data, and Chi-square test for categorical data between caregivers and non-caregivers. Spearman's rho correlation analysis was performed for the ZBI and the studied variables. Results: Participants were predominantly women. Only age differentiated one subgroup from the other. The mean score on the ZBI was 35.1 (14.7, and most of the caregivers presented up to moderate burden. Conclusions: Women attended the Support Group either as caregiver or non-caregiver. The level of burden among caregivers of high educational attainment was relatively high besides the short time as caregiver (up to a year.
Dr.Sc. Ibrahim Gashi
Full Text Available Being aware of the role of electoral systems as the most important mechanisms of fostering political interaction in a political system of a certain democratic society, it is our intention to study and theoretically and practically analyze the establishment and functioning of the electoral system in Kosovo, in the temporal context of the last decade. Before that thought, several standard theoretical modalities attributable to electoral systems are to be set, with a view of explaining the role and functions of the electoral systems in consolidating basic attributes of a mature democracy. In our case studies, amongst the most important attributes under analysis are: elections, as an instrument of civil participation in public policies. Furthermore, in studying the function of elections, we shall make efforts to elaborate on the level of political culture in Kosovo, creation of authority and legitimacy, and the extent of maturity of Kosovar society itself. Since Kosovo has been under international administration for more than ten years, the analysis of the electoral system in Kosovo is found to be sui generis, and this fact allows for an extraordinary understanding of the role of elections as an instrument of citizens for participating in public policies and public life in Kosovo. In attaining such goals, we shall focus on the analysis of all cycles of elections held in Kosovo since 2001, and up to the constitutional reforms ongoing related to electoral reforms in Kosovo.
... growth nexus and also narrows down on the implications of various issues unfolding in the public debt structure in Nigeria. As a way forward, government should increase the share of concessional loan in external debt stock and develop Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Framework for financing infrastructure projects.
Any actions by the executive to exclude public participation in reviewing documentation related to resource management and extractive developments by legislative or policy changes such as the proposed new planning legislation in NSW and the new mining State Environmental Planning Policy (Mining Petroleum, Production and Extractive Industries Amendment (Resource Significance 2013 (Amended Mining SEPP, are retrogressive steps. The argument in this paper is that, due to the often negative and large-scale impacts that mineral extraction developments may have on the community and the environment, mineral extraction developments should be subject to a rigorous EIA processes which incorporate effective and inclusive rights of public participation, especially in relation to major projects. Such rights should be enshrined in environmental legislation in the objects clause, standing for merit and judicial review provisions, and there should be a duty for the decision-makers to properly consider public submissions. Such provisions may lead to revision of the development or its outright rejection. Furthermore, innovative policies, programmes and legislative reform should be drafted to protect public participation and the right to oppose inappropriate developments.
Landis, Matthew J; Peppard, Paul P; Remington, Patrick L
Successful approaches are needed to decrease the burden of obesity on America's youth. Researchers often look to the high school interscholastic sports experience as a promising area for intervention. The purpose of this paper is to examine trends in participation over the course of a 4-year educational period. Two research questions are posed in this study: (1) how does participation in interscholastic sports change over the high school interscholastic sports experience, and (2) how do gender and school size influence these patterns? To answer these questions, a panel study is used to prospectively follow 412 Wisconsin public high schools from freshman year (2000-2001) to senior year (2003-2004). Participation prevalence (percent participation) in freshman year and risk of attrition (defined as a reduction in prevalence) from freshman to senior year are reported for sport, gender, and school size characteristics. Overall sports participation is greatest in smaller schools versus larger schools for both females (36% versus 20%) and males (38% versus 25%). Most high school sports exhibit declines in participation, including those sports with the highest prevalence of freshman participation. Compared to sports participants attending large schools, participants attending small schools have a lower risk of attrition from freshman to senior year. However, female attrition is much higher than male attrition in small schools, whereas this difference is not as apparent in large schools. The results of this research suggest school size and gender play important roles in initial and sustained involvement during high school. Despite the potential immediate and long-term benefits of high school interscholastic sports participation, there is limited research that prospectively examines patterns of participation through high school. Expanding the use of this measurement approach may effectively promote physical activity as youth grow into adults.
Marriott, Lisa K; Cameron, William E; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Cetola, Stephano; Ito, Matthew K; Williams, Craig D; Newcomb, Kenneth C; Randall, Joan A; Messenger, Wyatt B; Lipus, Adam C; Shannon, Jackilen
Health information technology (HIT) offers a resource for public empowerment through tailored information. Use interactive community health events to improve awareness of chronic disease risk factors while collecting data to improve health. Let's Get Healthy! is an education and research program in which participants visit interactive research stations to learn about their own health (diet, body composition, blood chemistry). HIT enables computerized data collection that presents participants with immediate results and tailored educational feedback. An anonymous wristband number links collected data in a population database. RESULTS AND LESSONS LEARNED: Communities tailor events to meet community health needs with volunteers trained to conduct research. Participants experience being a research participant and contribute to an anonymous population database for both traditional research purposes and open-source community use. By integrating HIT with community involvement, health fairs become an interactive method for engaging communities in research and raising health awareness.
Gibson, Andrew J.; Lewando‐Hundt, Gillian; Blaxter, Loraine
Abstract Aims We draw on the work of Nancy Fraser, and in particular her concepts of weak and strong publics, to analyze the process of parental involvement in managed neonatal network boards. Background Public involvement has moved beyond the individual level to include greater involvement of both patients and the public in governance. However, there is relatively little literature that explores the nature and outcomes of long‐term patient involvement initiatives or has attempted to theorize, particularly at the level of corporate decision making, the process of patient and public involvement. Methods A repeated survey of all neonatal network managers in England was carried out in 2006–07 to capture developments and changes in parental representation over this time period. This elicited information about the current status of parent representation on neonatal network boards. Four networks were also selected as case studies. This involved interviews with key members of each network board, interviews with parent representatives, observation of meetings and access to board minutes. Results Data collected show that a wide range of approaches to involving parents has been adopted. These range from decisions not to involve parents at this level to relatively well‐developed systems designed to link parent representatives on network boards to parents in neonatal units. Conclusion Despite these variations, we suggest that parental participation within neonatal services remains an example of a weak public because the parent representatives had limited participation with little influence on decision making. PMID:22040481
Rose, N L; Turner, S D; Goldsmith, B; Gosling, L; Davidson, T A
Public participation in scientific data collection is a rapidly expanding field. In water quality surveys, the involvement of the public, usually as trained volunteers, generally includes the identification of aquatic invertebrates to a broad taxonomic level. However, quality assurance is often not addressed and remains a key concern for the acceptance of publicly-generated water quality data. The Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) Water Survey, launched in May 2010, aimed to encourage interest and participation in water science by developing a 'low-barrier-to-entry' water quality survey. During 2010, over 3000 participant-selected lakes and ponds were surveyed making this the largest public participation lake and pond survey undertaken to date in the UK. But the OPAL approach of using untrained volunteers and largely anonymous data submission exacerbates quality control concerns. A number of approaches were used in order to address data quality issues including: sensitivity analysis to determine differences due to operator, sampling effort and duration; direct comparisons of identification between participants and experienced scientists; the use of a self-assessment identification quiz; the use of multiple participant surveys to assess data variability at single sites over short periods of time; comparison of survey techniques with other measurement variables and with other metrics generally considered more accurate. These quality control approaches were then used to screen the OPAL Water Survey data to generate a more robust dataset. The OPAL Water Survey results provide a regional and national assessment of water quality as well as a first national picture of water clarity (as suspended solids concentrations). Less than 10 % of lakes and ponds surveyed were 'poor' quality while 26.8 % were in the highest water quality band. It is likely that there will always be a question mark over untrained volunteer generated data simply because quality assurance is uncertain
As an effective model for Public enlightenment should be one that will: enable all stakeholders gain easy access to each other to achieve efficient dissemination of information; take into consideration the geopolitical and socioeconomic nature of the region in concern; be sustainable; flexible and adaptable, this research adopted the Integrative Literature Based Research Methodology by analysing articles of renowned authors and organizations published between 1995 and 2016 to gain supportive ideas that are vital towards the design of an effective model for public enlightenment and participation in resolving Climate Change. A model fulfilling the afore mentioned qualities was designed and reviewed for its practicability and effectiveness.
Gallagher, Thomas J.; Jacobson, Wendy S.
Guidelines for implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act state that environmental impact statements (EISs) shall use “appropriate graphics.” We examined one component of graphics, typography, identifying applicable criteria from the literature and applying them to 150 EISs prepared by seven agencies. We found that the EISs ranged widely in typographic quality. The average EIS met fewer than seven of ten criteria; 12% were considered unreadable. The results suggest that weak typography may seriously limit public review of EISs. Agencies are encouraged to make typography a serious component of their public participation programs.
Lu, Dan; Ma, Estella P-M; Ren, Jia; Pu, Dai; Yang, Hui; Yiu, Edwin M-L
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Mandarin (simplified) Chinese version of Voice Activity and Participation Profile (MC-VAPP) in mainland China. This study enrolled 786 subjects from February 2015 to March 2017, including 456 individuals with voice disorders (dysphonic group) and 330 vocally healthy individuals (nondysphonic group). The internal consistency (Cronbach alpha coefficient), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]), and differences in the MC-VAPP scores were compared between the two groups. Exploratory factor analysis was performed. The receiver operating characteristic curve and cutoff point were calculated. The MC-VAPP had a high internal consistency. Cronbach alpha coefficients for the subsection scores were from 0.86 and 0.96, with 0.98 for the total score. Test-retest reliability was high for the total score (ICC = 0.98). The four factors' cumulative contribution was determined to be 74.68%. The dysphonic participants displayed significantly higher total score and subsection scores than the nondysphonic participants (P <0.001). There were significant differences in total activity limitation scores and the total participation restriction scores between the two groups (P <0.001). The cutoff point for screening between the two groups was 36.5, with a sensitivity of 76.80% and specificity of 80.30%. The MC-VAPP is a reliable and valid instrument for the evaluation of voice-related quality of life in Chinese-speaking individuals. It is also recommended that the MC-VAPP would be a useful tool for screening individuals with and without voice disorders based on the cutoff value of 36.5. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Faham, Maryam; Anaraki, Zahra Ghayoumi; Ahmadi, Akram; Ebadi, Abbas; Silverman, Erin Pearson
Individuals with voice disorders may experience limits in activity and restricted participation in daily activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Voice Activity Participation Profile-Persian Version (VAPPP), a questionnaire which specifically investigates activity limitation and participation restriction in Persian-speaking individuals with voice disorders. We completed a translation procedure according to World Health Organization guidelines, prior to administering the questionnaire to 208 participants (156 patients with dysphonia and 52 controls), each of whom completed the questionnaire. We examined various psychometric properties including item analysis, factor analysis, internal consistency, discriminant validity, criterion-related validity, and test-retest reliability were investigated for this questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the 27 items on the VAPPP were distributed across four factors and that the first question, which assesses self-perceived dysphonia severity, was grouped separately. All the four subscales and total VAPPP have high internal consistency and test-retest reliability based on Cronbach's alpha coefficients and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Job effects (α = 0.85; ICC = 0.96), daily communication effects (α = 0.96; ICC = 0.83), social communication effects (α = 0.91; ICC = 0.93), emotional effects (α = 0.94; ICC = 0.76), and total score (α = 0.97; ICC = 0.88) are presented. VAPPP scores in patients with dysphonia were significantly different from those of the healthy control group (P < 0.001). The VAPPP total score has a high correlation to the Voice Handicap Index (r = 0.86; P < 0.001) CONCLUSION: The VAPPP is a reliable and valid tool for evaluating the quality of life of patients with dysphonia in Iran. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pires, Marcela Dutra Esteves; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara
The purpose of this study was to compare two types of rating scales using the Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP) self-assessment questionnaire, in order to check their influence on the results obtained by the same instrument. Participants were 32 individuals with vocal complaints of both genders, with ages between 15 and 58 years. All subjects answered the vocal self-assessment questionnaire VAPP using with two different rating scales, randomly presented: an 11-point numerical scale (NS) and a 10-cm long (or 100 points) visual analogue scale (VAS). Response time was registered and there was a two-week interval between applications. At the end of the task, participants were asked about the difficulties found in the task to answer each rating scale version, and also to indicate their preference. The mean VAPP scores were similar in both scales. Differences were found only in partial scores, referring to Activity Limitation and Effects on Emotion, with higher mean score in the numerical scale (p=0.008), however with no clinical impact. The order in which the scales were answered did not affect the results obtained, except for the aspect Effects on Social Communication, which presented lower scores with the visual analogue scale in the group of subjects that answered the numeric scale first (p=0.049). Finally, most participants answered faster to the questionnaire when using the numerical scale (p=0.003). The scores obtained in the VAPP by the two different rating scales were similar. The questionnaire with the numeric scale takes less time to be answered, which may be useful for clinical practice.
The study forms part of a more comprehensive investigation that focused on profiling and determining sport consumer behaviour during the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. Marketing theories inform the typology of sport consumers with differential analyses based on the interrelated needs, stemming from the ...
Cheng, Joyce; Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G
Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) under-rate their performance compared to objective observers. The present study examined whether exposure reduces the discrepancy between self and observer performance ratings and improved observer-rated performance in individuals with PSA. PSA participants gave a speech in front of a small audience and rated their performance using a questionnaire before and after completing repeated exposures to public speaking. Non-anxious control participants gave a speech and completed the questionnaire one time only. Objective observers watched videos of the speeches and rated performance using the same questionnaire. PSA participants underrated their performance to a greater degree than did controls prior to exposure, but also performed significantly more poorly than did controls when rated objectively. Bias significantly decreased and objective-rated performance significantly increased following completion of exposure in PSA participants, and on one performance measure, anxious participants no longer showed a greater discrepancy between self and observer performance ratings compared to controls. The study employed non-clinical student sample, but the results should be replicated in clinical anxiety samples. These findings indicate that exposure alone significantly reduces negative performance bias among PSA individuals, but additional exposure or additional interventions may be necessary to fully correct bias and performance deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thurston, Wilfreda E; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Meadows, Lynn M; Rutherford, Erin
A major focus of health system reform in Canada has been the regionalization of health services administration. With a goal of bringing decision-making closer to the community, there has been a commitment to public participation in planning by some health authorities. Women, however, often feel that their participation is minimal or their needs are not addressed. During regionalization of the Alberta health system, the Calgary Health Region (CHR) negotiated an agreement with the Salvation Army to provide women's health services through the Grace Women's Health Centre, a major part of the region's women's health program. We present a case study exploring the process and final agreement and the impact of this agreement on women's participation in health policy development. The historical context and the nature and impact of the agreement are described and several participation strategies that occurred within the partnership are discussed. The development of a formal partnership agreement, a governance model, was a success for public participation in this case; however, the greatest success for women was maintenance of a political space in which women's health as a priority could be discussed in a context where the forces against gender equity talk are strong.
Hu, Hui; Li, Xiang; Nguyen, Anh Dung; Kavan, Philip
... and public participation. By using a multi-criterion assessment model for economic, social, public health and environmental effects, this study indicates these incineration plants are established without much consideration...
Pavan, Barbara Nelson; Rometo, Lorraine
Pennsylvania's public school women administrators and their respective superintendents were surveyed by mailed questionnaires, which gathered information about their childhood, families, educational preparation, job recruitment, professional experiences, and future plans. The superintendents rated their work performance. Findings were compared…
T. О. Kolesnykova
Full Text Available Purpose. Publication of scientific periodicals in the Universities is very important and necessary element in the infrastructure of scientific communication. The aim of the article is: 1 providing a new model of publication system of the University scientific periodicals (on the example of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan – DNURT; 2 studying the peculiarities of the «Library publishing» model (Library Publishing and library as a new participant in the publication of world scientific periodicals of the University; 3 description of the developed software automation typesetting of scientific articles and their integration into international databases of scientific and technical information. Methodology. The scientists investigated: 1 the system of publication of scientific periodicals at DNURT; 2 integration system of electronic versions of periodicals and individual articles of scientists from DNURT into the world scientific databases; 3 publishing activity of the scientific and technical library of the University. Findings. The authors proved the need for the fast updates in each higher education institution of Ukrainian management system of scientific periodicals and the creation of the periodicals development concept. The conditions for the occurrence of positive changes in the publishing process in Universities were determined and named as a new participant in these processes – University library. The list of new tasks inherent in the scientific periodicals of the Universities was presented. The software product «Digital designer» was created as a new applied information technology solution to extend the functionality of the basic system information of the publication according to its editorial policy. Originality. The scientists studied the transformation process of the organizational structure of scientific periodicals publishing in the Universities of Ukraine and the world
With the intensification of not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) responses to both nuclear and chemical waste management and facility siting, we revisit public participation goals, processes, mechanisms and results to evaluate the uses and limits of public participation for achieving legitimate siting decisions. The deepening loss of trust of the American public in most institutions jeopardizes all preemptive nuclear and hazardous waste facility siting decisions, and carefully structured public participation efforts including some form of power sharing offer the best hope of devising legitimate and durable decisions. We review the key factors in the general siting milieu as well as the thickets of public participation-public involvement. Outcomes of six public participation (PP) case studies are presented and analyzed for problems as well as common factors contributing to their success or failure. The uses as well as the limits of PP in complex nuclear and hazardous waste management and siting processes are considered. 38 refs., 1 tab.
Paletto A.; Graziani A; Brescancin F; De_Meo I
Public participation in the implementation of the Natura 2000 network in Italy: the stakeholders’ experiences. Natura 2000 is an ecological network of protected areas identified by the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and the Birds Directive (79/409/EC) - recently replaced by the Directive 2009/147/EC - in order to ensure the long-term protection of endangered species in their natural habitats in European Union (EU) territory. EU Member States are responsible for developing and implementing the...
Glynn, P. D.; Shapiro, C. D.; Liu, S. B.
The need for broader understanding and involvement in science coupled with social technology advances enabling crowdsourcing and citizen science have created greater opportunities for public participation in the gathering, interpretation, and use of geospatial information. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing guidance for USGS scientists, partners, and interested members of the public on when and how public participation can most effectively be used in the conduct of scientific activities. Public participation can provide important perspectives and knowledge that cannot be obtained through traditional scientific methods alone. Citizen engagement can also provide increased efficiencies to USGS science and additional benefits to society including enhanced understanding, appreciation, and interest in geospatial information and its use in decision making.The USGS guidance addresses several fundamental issues by:1. Developing an operational definition of citizen or participatory science.2. Identifying the circumstances under which citizen science is appropriate for use and when its use is not recommended. 3. Describing structured processes for effective use of citizen science. 4. Defining the successful application of citizen science and identifying useful success metrics.The guidance is coordinated by the USGS Science and Decisions Center and developed by a multidisciplinary team of USGS scientists and managers. External perspectives will also be incorporated, as appropriate to align with other efforts such as the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Citizen Science and Crowdsourcing Toolkit for the Federal government. The guidance will include the development of an economic framework to assess the benefits and costs of geospatial information developed through participatory processes. This economic framework considers tradeoffs between obtaining additional perspectives through enhanced participation with costs associated from obtaining
Laura Maria IRIMIEȘ
Full Text Available Lobbying is one of the main structural elements of democratic governance and sustainable development and is essential to achieving competitive and effi cient administrative and decisional processes in local governance. Successfully implementing lobbying regulations and techniques is of extreme importance for any public system, where social participation in the decision-making process can strongly contribute to social, political and economic / fi nancial effi - ciency. Over the last 15 years, several legislative initiatives have tried to design a coherent framework for lobby, but they are still unapplied either due to insuffi cient public understanding of the concept, or due to more or less justifi ed uncertainties and fears. The necessity of regulating lobbying in Romania is placed in a context where an important number of anticorruption international and domestic recommendations and state reliability statistics, added to a certain lack of effectiveness in time and public money management, show that the public administration system needs to be reformed. And lobbying is, as the following article shows, a must for any public reform of public administration in Romania. The case of multilingual entrance signs / labels in Cluj-Napoca is an unquestionable and unbeatable example that the simple existence of legal frameworks of lobbying could turn into real time, energy and money savers.
Equipo SOBRE Lab
Full Text Available In December 2014, the SOBRE Lab team (www.sobrelab.com organized the I SOBRE Conference on Artistic Practices and Editorial Policies, held at the Faculty of Fine Arts of the University of Granada. The principal aim of the conference was to establish a relational map of the different initiatives linking contemporary editorial and art projects. The design of the event took into account the geopolitical context of this university and the professional and/or research links between the team members and Andalusia, setting this region as the primary geographical focus. The experience brought together groups and individuals including professionals, associations, teaching staff and students, and created areas of common interest based on a series of case studies that were presented and debated, together with question-and-answer dialogue. Thanks to this event, participants were able to share experiences characterized by investigating and communicating the effects and affects that emerge when artistic output is interrelated with knowledge-dissemination – emphasizing the political–relational dimension of current editorial forms and systems. An open access database is being prepared that captures the key data and basic profile for each participant/speaker and the different initiatives related to this field. Here we present the first entries to this database.
Full Text Available This article examines the tension between the democratic right of public participation on specific environmental issues, guaranteed by European Law, and the degree to which it is being challenged in the UK as a consequence of recent approaches to energy infrastructure planning. Recent trends in UK government policy frameworks seem both to threaten effective public participation and challenge EU planning strategy, in particular those outlined in the Aarhus convention. The research outlined in this study involves an assessment of the changing context of planning and energy policy, in addition to recent changes in legislation formulation in the UK. The research findings, derived from an extensive interview process of elite stakeholders engaged in policy and legislation formulation in the UK and the EU provide a new categorisation system of stakeholders in energy policy that can be utilised in future research. The article concludes with a second order analysis of the interviewee data and provides solutions to increase public participation in the planning of energy infrastructure that emerge from the different perspectives.
Maupin, Angela N.; Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Schiffman, Rachel F.; Bocknek, Erika L.
Variation in perceptions of resources and in coping strategies among low-income parents likely influences parenting. The purposes of this study were to identify differences in parental profiles, as indicated by receipt of public assistance, perceptions of adequacy of resources, and coping strategies, and to examine these profiles relative to…
Full Text Available This paper aims to empirically investigate the structure of a local social network site (SNS by means of a quantitative content analysis. Local SNSs have recently increased in Japan. The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication has supported city governments to set up local SNSs with the aim of encouraging public participation of citizens in municipal areas. However, the users of SNSs do not necessarily seem to utilize government-driven local SNSs for this purpose. The authors apply concepts of public participation and social grooming to study a local SNS. A quantitative content analysis was conducted to investigate users’ activity and latent factors that influence them. The result showed three findings. Firstly, the content of a local SNS might relate to three latent factors, namely, social grooming, civic participation, and political participation. Second, the former two factors could relate to users’ emotions. Third, compared to male users, female users might provide content that is more emotional and may be affected by the former two factors.
Davis, Mary V; Cannon, Margaret M; Corso, Liza; Lenaway, Dennis; Baker, Edward L
We sought to identify the incentives most likely to encourage voluntary participation in the national public health accreditation model. We reviewed existing incentives, held meetings with key informants, and conducted a survey of state and local public health agency representatives. The survey was sent to all state health departments and a sample of local health departments. Group-specific differences in survey responses were examined. Survey response rates were 51% among state health department representatives and 49% among local health department representatives. Both state health department and local health department respondents rated financial incentives for accredited agencies, financial incentives for agencies considering accreditation, and infrastructure and quality improvement as important incentives. State health department respondents also indicated that grant administration and grant application would encourage their participation in the national accreditation model, and local health department respondents also noted that technical assistance and training would encourage their participation. Incentives to encourage participation of state and local agencies in the national voluntary accreditation model should include financial support as well as support for agency infrastructure and quality improvements. Several initiatives are already under way to support agency infrastructure and quality improvement, but financial support incentives have yet to be developed.
Lostarnau, Carla; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Señoret, Michelle; Soto, Manuel; Rötting, Tobias S; Amezaga, Jaime M; Oyarzún, Ricardo
The main objective of this paper is to present a critical analysis of the stakeholder participation process within the Environmental Impact Assessment System in Chile, after ca. 14 years of being enforced. This analysis is sustained by the description and analysis of the stakeholder participation possibilities in a representative rural area of North-Central Chile. The Environmental Basis Act 19300, enacted in 1994, considers the participation of the local community in the environmental impact assessment of new projects. However, this possibility is very limited and difficult to exert, often resulting in frustration for the participants. This is due to a number of reasons, such as the imbalance of resources and knowledge among the majority of participating communities and project proponents, the complexity and administrative and legal constraints to participation, and the dominant interest of the Central Government in approving investments, specifically in energy and natural resources related projects, which generate wealth and jobs. Also, the State's rush to develop Internet-based communication and management systems has built a barrier for poor, traditional communities. This factor is clearly reflected in the case study considered. Results show that there is generally a significant lack of knowledge about institutions and participation tools. From this base, we intend to raise concern on these selected aspects that could be addressed to improve the effectiveness of the existing framework, both in Chile and in other developing countries, where immature environmental impact assessment and public management systems face similar pressures in relation to the sustainable use of their natural resources. Finally, some basic steps are proposed in order to make the community participation an effective tool for sustainable development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin van der Zwan
Full Text Available Attractive public spaces are crucial for tourism. After all, most tourists that visit a city, experience it by foot and increasingly by bicycle. Public spaces have to meet a few minimum requirements. If not, tourists will feel uncomfortable. For instance; a lot of rubbish and graffiti, worn out and damaged street furniture can cause a feeling of unsafety. Attractive public spaces are the ones that invite tourists to stay a bit longer than strictly necessary and sit down and relax. Some of these spaces are quit and green, others more vibrant, well dimensioned and furbished. In this paper I describe a method for defining and measuring the quality of public space and also for predicting the conclusion tourists may draw based on this; “will I revisit this place or not ?” In some cities inhabitants, local shop owners and local institutions voluntarily take the initiative to upgrade the quality of public spaces or even act as ‘city hosts’ to welcome visitors. These kinds of civic participation help to provide the unique experience many tourists are looking for.
Liu, Wei-Kuang; Liu, Li-Wei; Shiu, Yi-Shiang; Shen, Yang-Ting; Lin, Feng-Cheng; Hsieh, Hua-Hsuan
Under the framework of developing resilient and livable cities, this study was aimed at engaging local communities to achieve the goal of public participation. Given the prevalence of smart mobile devices, an interactive app called “Citizen Probe” was designed to guide users to participate in building resilient and livable urban spaces by enabling users to report the condition of their living environment. The app collects feedback from users regarding the perceived condition of the urban environment, and this information is used to further develop an open online index system. The index system serves as a guide for the public to actively transform their city into a resilient and livable urban environment. The app was designed for the reporting of flood incidents with the objective of resilient disaster prevention, which can be achieved by enabling users to identify disaster conditions in order to develop a database for basic disaster information. The database can be used in the prevention and mitigation of disasters and to provide a foundation for developing indices for assessing the resilience and livability of urban areas. Three communities in Taichung, Taiwan, participated in the study. Residents of these communities were requested to use the app and identify local environmental conditions to obtain spatial data according to four stages in disaster response: assessment, readiness, response, and recovery. A volunteered geographic information database was developed to display maps for providing users with current reports of predisaster risk assessment, disaster response capacity, real-time disaster conditions, and overall disaster recovery. In addition, the database can be used as a useful tool for researchers to conduct GIS analyses and initiate related discussions. The interactive app raises public awareness on disaster prevention and makes disaster prevention a daily norm. Further discussion between the public and experts will be initiated to assist in
Flear, Mark L; Pickersgill, Martyn D
'Citizen participation' includes various participatory techniques and is frequently viewed as an unproblematic and important social good when used as part of the regulation of the innovation and implementation of science and technology. This is perhaps especially evident in debates around 'anticipatory governance' or 'upstream engagement'. Here, we interrogate this thesis using the example of the European Union's regulation of emerging health technologies (such as nanotechnology). In this case, citizen participation in regulatory debate is concerned with innovative objects for medical application that are considered to be emergent or not yet concrete. Through synthesising insights from law, regulatory studies, critical theory, and science and technology studies, we seek to cast new light on the promises, paradoxes, and pitfalls of citizen participation as a tool or technology of regulation in itself. As such we aim to generate a new vantage point from which to view the values and sociotechnical imaginaries that are both 'designed-in' and 'designed-out' of citizen participation. In so doing, we show not only how publics (do not) regulate technologies, but also how citizens themselves are regulated through the techniques of participation.
Kypri, Kypros; Maclennan, Brett
In many high-income countries, the responsibility for alcohol regulation is being devolved from central to local governments. Although seeking public input is typically required by law, there remains little empirical evidence on whether and how the public is involved. We investigated public participation in local liquor licensing and related regulation in New Zealand. In 2007, we randomly sampled 2337 residents from the national electoral roll in seven communities and invited them to complete a postal questionnaire assessing their level of general community engagement, whether they had taken action on alcohol issues, and barriers to participation they perceived or encountered. A total of 1372 individuals responded (59% response). Fifty-two percent were current members of community organisations, and 40% had ever taken action on a local issue. Respondents considered alcohol to be a major problem locally, but only 4% had been involved in action to address a problem, whereas 18% had considered taking action. In their communities, 12% and 24%, respectively, felt they could influence the number or location of alcohol outlets. There was little variation across communities. Despite high levels of general community engagement and alcohol being widely regarded as a local problem, few community members reported acting on alcohol issues, and their self-efficacy to effect change was low. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden); Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology
The VALDOC summer school had its first meeting in Borgholm, Sweden, in June 2002. The central theme for the weeklong meeting was 'Transparency and public participation for decision making'. The summer school represented an international and successful merging of academics (seniors and students) from various fields, decision-makers from authorities, business and politics, journalists and consultants. The summer school aimed at reviewing and discussing transparency in the decision process from a multitude of perspectives. Work on biotechnology, the precautionary principle, decision making in parliament, mass media and journalism, values in a complex society, emotions and risk perception are but a few examples. The RISCOM model was used as a basic guiding theoretical tool in the discussions of the presentations and the work shop cases. The paper focus on a) a description and evaluation of the summer school in 2002 and b) what ideas and developments could be covered in the next summer school, planned for 2004. The need, and program, for a continuous discussion on transparency and public participation issues will be outlined. It is suggested that such a discussion can be substantially advanced and refined in the future by the involvement of active decision makers in industrial areas, political and administrative bodies, scientific fields and public interest groups.
... public participation requirements of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 553, in rulemakings... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Has SBA waived any of the public participation exemptions of the Administrative Procedure Act? 101.108 Section 101.108 Business Credit and...
Kato-Nitta, Naoko; Maeda, Tadahiko; Iwahashi, Kensuke; Tachikawa, Masashi
Despite the promotion of public engagement in science, there has been little empirical research on the sociocultural and attitudinal characteristics of participants in science communication activities and the extent to which such individuals are representative of the general population. We statistically investigated the distinctiveness of visitors to a scientific research institution by contrasting samples from visitor surveys and nationally representative surveys. The visitors had more cultural capital (science and technology/art and literature) and believed more in the value of science than the general public, but there was no difference regarding assessment of the levels of national science or of the national economy. A deeper examination of the variations in the visitors' exhibit-viewing behaviors revealed that individuals with more scientific and technical cultural capital viewed more exhibits and stayed longer at the events. This trend in exhibit-viewing behaviors remained consistent among the different questionnaire items and smart-card records.
Full Text Available The free and open publication of course materials (OpenCourseWare or OCW was initially undertaken by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT and other universities primarily to share educational resources among educators (Abelson, 2007. OCW, however, and more in general open educational resources (OER1, have also provided well-documented opportunities for all learners, including the so-called “informal learners” and “independent learners” (Carson, 2005; Mulder, 2006, p. 35. Universities have also increasingly documented clear benefits for specific target groups such as secondary education students and lifelong learners seeking to enter formal postsecondary education programs.In addition to benefitting learners, OCW publication has benefitted the publishing institutions themselves by providing recruiting advantages. Finally enrollment figures from some institutions indicate that even in the case of the free and open publication of materials from online programs, OCW does not negatively affect enrollment. This paper reviews evaluation conducted at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH, and Open Universiteit Nederland (OUNL concerning OCW effects on higher education participation and student recruitment.
Anahita A. Jami
Full Text Available A wider use of renewable energy is emerging as a viable solution to meet the increasing demand for global energy while contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, current literature on renewable energy, particularly on wind power, highlights the social barriers and public opposition to renewable energy investment. One solution to overcome the public opposition, which is recommended by scholars, is to deploy a collaborative approach. Relatively little research has specifically focused on the role of effective communication and the use of a knowledge-broker in collaborative decision-making. This study attempts to fill this gap through the proposition of a participatory framework that highlights the role of the knowledge-broker in a wind project decision-making process. In this paper, five illustrative wind projects in Ontario are used to highlight the current situation with public participation and to address how the proposed framework could have improved the process. Based on the recommended collaborative framework, perception must shift from the dominant view of the public as “a risk to be managed” towards “a resource that can be tapped”. The developers need to improve sharing what they know and foster co-learning around questions and concerns.
Hadjimichael, Maria; Delaney, Alyne
-inspired deliberative workshop held to tease out stakeholder views of management priorities for a section of the North Sea: the Dogger Bank. As this article reveals, the lessons learned from the Dogger Bank workshop advocate not simply what is required for managing one particular ocean commons, but also highlight some...... inherent, yet often unacknowledged, in public participation in environmental management. Stakeholder opinions uncovered through workshop discussions also show how commons are viewed today – as an economic resource-- highlighting the trend of the mainstreaming of the commodification of the commons....
Nykamp, Diane; Murphy, John E; Marshall, Leisa L; Bell, Allison
To examine factors that influenced doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students to collaborate with faculty members, preceptors, or others on scholarly activities that resulted in publication of an article in a pharmacy journal, and whether this experience influenced their consideration of a career in academic pharmacy. A 17-question survey instrument was e-mailed to student authors of papers published between 2004 and 2008 in 6 pharmacy journals. Responses were analyzed to determine factors influencing student participation in research and whether the experience led them to consider a career in academic pharmacy. Factors about their participation in the scholarly activity that respondents found valuable included personal fulfillment and making a contribution to the literature. Respondents indicated they were more interested in a career in academic pharmacy after their participation in the scholarly experience (p Participation in scholarly activities and student authorship of a peer-reviewed journal manuscript during pharmacy school may lead to increased interest in a career in academic pharmacy.
Smith, Edward Reed; Shapiro, Geoff; Sarani, Babak
The incidence and severity of civilian public mass shootings (CPMS) continue to rise. Initiatives predicated on lessons learned from military woundings have placed strong emphasis on hemorrhage control, especially via use of tourniquets, as means to improve survival. We hypothesize that both the overall wounding pattern and the specific fatal wounds in CPMS events are different from those in military combat fatalities and thus may require a new management strategy. A retrospective study of autopsy reports for all victims involved in 12 CPMS events was performed. Civilian public mass shootings was defined using the FBI and the Congressional Research Service definition. The site of injury, probable site of fatal injury, and presence of potentially survivable injury (defined as survival if prehospital care is provided within 10 minutes and trauma center care within 60 minutes of injury) was determined independently by each author. A total 139 fatalities consisting of 371 wounds from 12 CPMS events were reviewed. All wounds were due to gunshots. Victims had an average of 2.7 gunshots. Relative to military reports, the case fatality rate was significantly higher, and incidence of potentially survivable injuries was significantly lower. Overall, 58% of victims had gunshots to the head and chest, and only 20% had extremity wounds. The probable site of fatal wounding was the head or chest in 77% of cases. Only 7% of victims had potentially survivable wounds. The most common site of potentially survivable injury was the chest (89%). No head injury was potentially survivable. There were no deaths due to exsanguination from an extremity. The overall and fatal wounding patterns following CPMS are different from those resulting from combat operations. Given that no deaths were due to extremity hemorrhage, a treatment strategy that goes beyond use of tourniquets is needed to rescue the few victims with potentially survivable injuries. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level IV
Prayitno, Gunawan; Syaifurridzal, M.
Indonesia is one country to the world that rich with natural resources, especially on marine and coastal resources. But, the condition of rural inhabitants in coastal area still low in economic condition and public facilities and others not suitable for good living environment. The goal of this paper is to integrate the concept of social capital and public participation in the community activities. Social capital, which is interpreted with the term of the trust, networks and norm as governing human behavior is significant to motivate and coordinate collective action towards collaboration. Collective action or collaboration among people in the communities could solve the problem together. In the Grootaert research, with the title “Social Capital, Household Welfare and Poverty in Indonesia” (1999) found that active participation in decision making and memberships in heterogeneous organizations further reduce the likelihood to be poor. In this research, we found the same from Grootaert finding, that social capital (trust) has positive impact to community activities (path point 0.56) in this research location.
Levinson, Wendy; Kao, Audiey; Kuby, Alma; Thisted, Ronald A
The Institute of Medicine calls for physicians to engage patients in making clinical decisions, but not every patient may want the same level of participation. 1) To assess public preferences for participation in decision making in a representative sample of the U.S. population. 2) To understand how demographic variables and health status influence people's preferences for participation in decision making. A population-based survey of a fully representative sample of English-speaking adults was conducted in concert with the 2002 General Social Survey (N= 2,765). Respondents expressed preferences ranging from patient-directed to physician-directed styles on each of 3 aspects of decision making (seeking information, discussing options, making the final decision). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationships of demographic variables and health status to preferences. Nearly all respondents (96%) preferred to be offered choices and to be asked their opinions. In contrast, half of the respondents (52%) preferred to leave final decisions to their physicians and 44% preferred to rely on physicians for medical knowledge rather than seeking out information themselves. Women, more educated, and healthier people were more likely to prefer an active role in decision making. African-American and Hispanic respondents were more likely to prefer that physicians make the decisions. Preferences for an active role increased with age up to 45 years, but then declined. This population-based study demonstrates that people vary substantially in their preferences for participation in decision making. Physicians and health care organizations should not assume that patients wish to participate in clinical decision making, but must assess individual patient preferences and tailor care accordingly.
Turner, S D; Rose, N L; Goldsmith, B; Bearcock, J M; Scheib, C; Yang, H
Members of the public in England were invited in 2010 to take part in a national metals survey, by collecting samples of littoral sediment from a standing water body for geochemical analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first national sediment metals survey using public participation and reveals a snapshot of the extent of metals contamination in ponds and lakes across England. Hg, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations exceeding sediment quality guidelines for the health of aquatic biota are ubiquitous in ponds and lakes, not just in areas with a legacy of industrial activity. To validate the public sampling approach, a calibration exercise was conducted at ten water bodies selected to represent a range of lakes found across England. Sediment concentrations of Hg, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were measured in samples of soil, stream and littoral and deep water sediment to assess inputs. Significant differences between littoral sediment metal concentrations occur due to local variability, but also organic content, especially in upland, peat soil catchments. Variability of metal concentrations between littoral samples is shown to be low in small (complex inputs and variation in organic content of littoral samples have a greater variability. Collection of littoral sediments in small lakes and ponds, with or without voluntary participation, can provide a reliable sampling technique for the preliminary assessment of metal contamination in standing waters. However, the heterogeneity of geology, soils and history/extent of metal contamination in the English landscape, combined with the random nature of sample collection, shows that systematic sampling for evaluating the full extent of metal contamination in lakes is still required.
Rasanathan, Kumanan; Posayanonda, Tipicha; Birmingham, Maureen; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj
Abstract Aim This paper aims to describe and disseminate the process and initial outcomes of the first National Health Assembly (NHA) in Thailand, as an innovative example of health policy making. Setting The first NHA, held in December 2008 in Bangkok, brought together over 1500 people from government agencies, academia, civil society, health professionals and the private sector to discuss key health issues and produce resolutions to guide policy making. It adapted the approach used at the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization. Method Findings are derived from a literature review, document analysis, and the views and experiences of the authors, two of whom contributed to the organization of the NHA and two of whom were invited external observers. Results Fourteen agenda items were discussed and resolutions passed. Potential early impacts on policy making have included an increase in the 2010 public budget for Thailand’s universal health coverage scheme as total public expenditure has decreased; cabinet endorsement of proposed Strategies for Universal Access to Medicines for Thai People; and establishment of National Commissions on Health Impact Assessment and Trade and Health. Discussion The NHA was successful in bringing together various actors and sectors involved in the social production of health, including groups often marginalized in policy making. It provides an innovative model of how governments may be able to increase public participation and intersectoral collaboration that could be adapted in other contexts. Significant challenges remain in ensuring full participation of interested groups and in implementing, and monitoring the impact of, the resolutions passed. PMID:21281413
Brown, Kathryn Dharlene
The purpose of this study was to identify and assess Texas community orchestras and create a demographic and musical profile of participants. This was accomplished through use of two online questionnaires. A director survey questionnaire determined the organizational status of each orchestra. The directors surveyed were leaders in these…
Nikolay Mikhaylovich Shmatkov
Full Text Available The article dwells on the current state of the regulatory framework of the Russian Federation and the mechanism of public participation in forest management. The examples of addressing the problems of public participation in forest management in individual regions are disclosed. The article deals with the issues concerning the provision of in-interests of the local population through the voluntary forest certification system under the FSC scheme. Recommendations on improving the mechanism of public participation in solving the forest management issues are suggested
Rafael Cejudo Córdoba
Full Text Available This paper reviews arguments for and against voluntary and direct participation of the public in the funding of cultural activities. The starting point is that financing schemes implemented by cultural policies bear ethical implications aside from their instrumental aims. Using A. Sen’s comparative approach, it is discussed whether crowdfunding and other investment instruments for cultural consumers are forms of citizen patronage worthwhile from an ethical point of view. In spite of accusations of paternalism and commoditization of the cultural life, citizen patronage is argued to be a social innovation that encourages social responsibility of cultural consumers. Accordingly, cultural policies should take into account that private behaviors concerning consumption and investment are also ways of getting involved in social life.
Araújo, Rafael de Paula Aguiar; Penteado, Cláudio Luis Camargo; Santos, Marcelo Burgos Pimentel dos
The article explores processes of interaction between the State and organized civil society in an effort to assess the weight of the various social mobilization strategies utilized by different social organizations active in the city of São Paulo. The study is particularly interested in analyzing how the use of information and communications technology (ICT) influences the development of public policy as a means for shaping citizen opinion and establishing demands. A Political Participation and Influence Index was used to evaluate experiences in Internet activism in the city of São Paulo. Findings suggest that the movements and collectivities with the most inventive and broadest diversity of strategies achieve better results, signaling a new method of action in contemporary politics.
Bishop, Brian J; Vicary, David A; Browne, Alison L; Guard, Neil
Policy development and implementation should be fundamental for community psychologists in their endeavors to create social change. Policy necessarily is engaged at broad social and political levels, but it is mediated through communities and individuals, and thus appealing for our discipline. We argue that there are increasing opportunities for social input in liberal democracies with the growing awareness of the need to consider social factors in policy. Public participation is one aspect of policy development, but it can be problematic and can disempowered communities, especially disadvantaged communities. Using the framework of the 'third position', a case study of attempts to ameliorate institutional oppression of Australian Aboriginal people through policy change is described. Structural reform to community engagement is described in terms of empowerment and capacity building. Power relationships are deconstructed to allow understandings of the dynamics of policy change, and the broader implications for community psychological praxis are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The future of notifiable condition reporting in the United States is undergoing a transformation with the increasing development of Health Information Exchanges which support electronic data-sharing and -transfer networks and the wider adoption of electronic laboratory reporting. Communicable disease report forms originating in clinics are an important source of surveillance data for public health agencies. However, problems of poor data quality and delayed submission of reports to public health agencies are common. In addition, studies of barriers and facilitators to reporting have assumed that the primary reporter is the treating physician, although the extent to which a provider is involved in the reporting workflow is unclear. We sought to better understand the barriers to and burden of notifiable condition reporting from the perspectives of the three primary groups involved in reporting workflow: providers, clinic staff who bear the principal responsibility for reporting, and the public health workers who receive and process reports from clinics. In addition, we sought to situate these findings within the context of the future of notifiable disease reporting and the potential impacts of electronic lab and medical records on the surveillance system. Methods Seven ambulatory care clinics and 3 public health agencies that are part of a Health Information Exchange in the state of Indiana, USA, participated in the study. Data were obtained from a survey of clinic physicians (N = 29, interviews with clinic reporters (N = 11, and interviews with public health workers (N = 9. Survey data were summarized descriptively and interview transcripts underwent qualitative analysis. Results In both clinics and public health agencies, the laboratory report initiates reporting workflow. Provider involvement with reporting primarily revolves around ordering medications to treat a condition confirmed by the lab result. In clinics
Revere, Debra; Hills, Rebecca H; Dixon, Brian E; Gibson, P Joseph; Grannis, Shaun J
The future of notifiable condition reporting in the United States is undergoing a transformation with the increasing development of Health Information Exchanges which support electronic data-sharing and -transfer networks and the wider adoption of electronic laboratory reporting. Communicable disease report forms originating in clinics are an important source of surveillance data for public health agencies. However, problems of poor data quality and delayed submission of reports to public health agencies are common. In addition, studies of barriers and facilitators to reporting have assumed that the primary reporter is the treating physician, although the extent to which a provider is involved in the reporting workflow is unclear. We sought to better understand the barriers to and burden of notifiable condition reporting from the perspectives of the three primary groups involved in reporting workflow: providers, clinic staff who bear the principal responsibility for reporting, and the public health workers who receive and process reports from clinics. In addition, we sought to situate these findings within the context of the future of notifiable disease reporting and the potential impacts of electronic lab and medical records on the surveillance system. Seven ambulatory care clinics and 3 public health agencies that are part of a Health Information Exchange in the state of Indiana, USA, participated in the study. Data were obtained from a survey of clinic physicians (N = 29), interviews with clinic reporters (N = 11), and interviews with public health workers (N = 9). Survey data were summarized descriptively and interview transcripts underwent qualitative analysis. In both clinics and public health agencies, the laboratory report initiates reporting workflow. Provider involvement with reporting primarily revolves around ordering medications to treat a condition confirmed by the lab result. In clinics, reporting is typically the responsibility of clinic
Tanan, Natalia; Darmoyono, Laksmi
This paper discusses approaches to policy and planning of pedestrian facility that facilitate walking in cities in Indonesia. It applies quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze walkability in some cities. The new perspective in policy and planning are focusing on improving non-motorized mobility; it encourages walking and put the provision of the pedestrian facility as an integral part of built environmental planning and development. The policy perceives pedestrian facility in broad, not only about physical development, but also benefit to socioeconomic activity and environmental quality. It is expected that the implementation of policies and walkability concept could upgrade the pedestrian facility, as a walkable city delivers green atmosphere of the urban environment. A design competition of pedestrian facility was held to test the policy and accommodate input from the public. Public participation through competition also enriches the design of pedestrian facility that responsive to local condition. Implementation is still a challenge due to limited budget; however, there are tendencies that few cities improve pedestrian facilities to encourage people walking in order to make the city livable and environmentally friendly.
Full Text Available China's spectacular economic growth has caused the incidence of absolute poverty to plunge over the past two decades; however, this massive rate of industrialisation has also led to a pollution crisis with serious health and environmental concerns such as air pollution and contaminated drinking water supplies. China has hundreds of environmental laws and regulations, and is party to over eighty environmental treaties. Yet an official from the state environmental agency has described this as 'a wealth of laws with shallow roots', since despite all its legal commitments Chinese cities remain some of the most polluted areas on earth. This paper examines the reasons for the discrepancy between law and practice in combating pollution. Anti-pollution legislation is too vaguely worded to be useful in creating enforceable rights and obligations. There is also a considerable gap between national policy and local implementation by Environmental Protection Bureaus (EPBs. EPBs are beholden to local governments, which are in turn dependent on the biggest industrial actors (and polluters in their locality for economic development. One way to circumvent the inadequacies of government agencies is to allow citizens to bring their own actions in enforcing the law. This requires a strong support structure to provide the necessary resources for public participation: information and funding. In addition to the work of NGOs, the media, and legal aid centres, one potential initiative for increasing information flows is the establishment of a public emissions database. It is possible that the new China Pollution Source Census will fulfil this role.
Salaroli, Abner Ribeiro; Almeida,José Elias Feres de; GAMA,Janyluce Rezende
The public accounting follows the same direction of financial accounting on the search for convergence to international standards, where IFAC is the body responsible for issuing international standards of public accounting. In this context, this study aims to analyze the process of development of the international public accounting standard about public intangible assets. The analysis was performed based on the suggestions available in comment letters sent to the consultation process. As a th...
Full Text Available In vitro bioassays have been developed and are currently being evaluated as potential alternatives to traditional animal toxicity models. Already, the progress of high throughput screening techniques has resulted in an enormous amount of publicly available bioassay data having been generated for a large collection of compounds. When a compound is tested using a collection of various bioassays, all the testing results can be considered as providing a unique bio-profile for this compound, which records the responses induced when the compound interacts with different cellular systems or biological targets. Profiling compounds of environmental or pharmaceutical interest using useful toxicity bioassay data is a promising method to study complex animal toxicity. In this study, we developed an automatic virtual profiling tool to evaluate potential animal toxicants. First, we automatically acquired all PubChem bioassay data for a set of 4,841 compounds with publicly available rat acute toxicity results. Next, we developed a scoring system to evaluate the relevance between these extracted bioassays and animal acute toxicity. Finally, the top ranked bioassays were selected to profile the compounds of interest. The resulting response profiles proved to be useful to prioritize untested compounds for their animal toxicity potentials and form a potential in vitro toxicity testing panel. The protocol developed in this study could be combined with structure-activity approaches and used to explore additional publicly available bioassay datasets for modeling a broader range of animal toxicities.
Full Text Available Watershed management is creating the ecological balance between human beings and habitats and natural resources especially water resources. In this study the nature and human beings and all of the components involving on human activities in nature were tried to be tackled and the strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities (SWOT analysis of the area were evaluated by prioritizing R’WOT (Ranking + SWOT analysis for ensuring the participation and evaluating the ideas and attitudes of public institutions and private sector which are interest groups of Devrekani Watershed. According to the analysis result, both of the participant groups stated that the planned Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP in the basin will negatively affect the natural resource value. The economical deficiency- for the local administration- and the lack of qualified labour force –for private sector- issues are determined as the most important issues. Having an environmental plan (EP, supporting the traditional animal husbandry were determined as the highest priority factors by the local administration group and the presence of forests and grasslands and the eco-tourism potential were determined as the highest priority factors for the private sector. Creating awareness to local administration group, who are one of the most important decision making mechanisms in the area and did not prefer threats in a high priority way, is foreseen according to the context of the study.
Sanderson, Geoffrey T.
This memorandum provides data on the participation and performance of Advanced Placement (AP) exams taken by students in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) in the 2012-2013 school year as compared with those by public school students in Maryland and the nation. Generally, the number of AP exams taken by MCPS students in 2013…
Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki
Social concerns surrounding commercial plantation forest management practices in Australia have resulted in calls for more participatory forms of forest management decision-making. Public participation (or community engagement, CE) processes provide opportunities for affected and interested
D.D. Bradlow (Daniel); M.S. Chapman (Megan)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper systematically describes the public participation standards currently applied by multilateral development banks (MDBs) to the private sector and seeks to identify emerging trends and areas for further development or improvement. It begins by outlining the
Kaminski, A. P.; Bowman, C. D.; Buquo, L. E.; Conrad, P. G.; Davis, R. M.; Domagal-Goldman, S.; Pirtle, Z. T.; Skytland, N. G.; Tahu, G. J.; Thaller, M. L.; Viotti, M. A.
We show how citizen science, crowdsourcing, prize competitions, and other modalities can expand public participation and prove valuable for enhancing the science, technology, and societal relevance of planetary exploration over the next few decades.
Feldman, A F; Matjasko, J L
The current study presented a new description of adolescent school-based activity participation, in the form of mutually exclusive activity portfolios, and described the kinds of youth that participate in each portfolio. These portfolios included (1) Sports Only, (2) Academics Only, (3) School Only, (4) Performance Only, (5) Multiple Activities, and (6) Non-Participation. Findings indicated that youth demographic characteristics and school size differentiated between different kinds of activity participation as well as nonparticipation. More detailed activity portfolios were also identified that were complex and demonstrate the difficulty of examining participation beyond larger, more inclusive groupings. The Multiple Activity portfolio emerged as a unique group worthy of further examination. Characteristics of non-participators included: lower socioeconomic status, lower grades, and attended larger schools. Hispanic adolescents were also less likely to participate in school-based extracurricular activities. Findings from this study inform ecological models of adolescent development as well as school and social policy.
Full Text Available Public participation in the implementation of the Natura 2000 network in Italy: the stakeholders’ experiences. Natura 2000 is an ecological network of protected areas identified by the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC and the Birds Directive (79/409/EC - recently replaced by the Directive 2009/147/EC - in order to ensure the long-term protection of endangered species in their natural habitats in European Union (EU territory. EU Member States are responsible for developing and implementing the procedures defined by Habitats Directive, but there are no specific recommendations about participation of stakeholders and local community in the decision-making process. Consequently, each country has adopted a different participatory strategy taking into account the principles of integration approach. The integration approach is based on combining human activities and nature conservation purposes in the same area or, at least, in areas in close proximity. In Italy, the implementation of Natura 2000 network was developed at local level (Regions and Autonomous Provinces using different approaches and procedures. Starting from these considerations, the aim of the study was to analyse the stakeholders’ involvement process during the implementation of Habitats Directive in Italy and the management of Natura 2000 sites. This study was realized using three main criteria with the respective indicators: (1 inclusiveness of participatory process; (2 democracy of participatory process; (3 cooperation and conflicts during the implementation process of Natura 2000 network. The data were collected through the administration by email of a semi-structured questionnaire to 56 stakeholders divided in four main groups of interest (public administrations, universities and research centres, environmental associations, private organizations. The results of the survey show that the participatory process was characterized by a low level of inclusiveness despite the existence
Full Text Available This paper examines how stereotypes and media presentations related to gender norms influence public presentations of gay men and lesbian women. Using online profiles from the online dating website Match.com, this paper examines the body types daters use to describe themselves, their ideal date, and if the poster has a photograph of themselves on their profile. These profiles are used as a method of observing public presentations that are in a unique situation to be tailored towards notions of publically displayed social desirability. Findings indicate that gay men present their online bodies as stereotypically masculine and athletic, while lesbian women are willing to display a slightly broader range of body types. In addition, regardless of gender, both gay men and lesbian women present their ideal dates as stereotypically attractive, with gay men having a particular affinity for dating athletic men. Regression analysis suggests that intersectional variables such as race and age influence a person’s willingness to display a profile picture in the public arena. Overall, this study concludes that heteronormative standards of masculinity combined with structural influences from both the media and peer groups likely have an impact on gay men’s ideal gendered body, while the comparative exclusion of lesbian women from these media influences allow other experiences of gender norms slightly more freedom.
Mars, Godelief M J; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; Post, Marcel W M; Proot, Ireen M; Mesters, Ilse; van Eijk, Jacques T M
To develop and test the Maastricht Social Participation Profile (MSPP), an instrument measuring the actual social participation by older adults with a chronic physical illness, in accordance with their own definition of social participation. The development process consisted of a number of steps, ending with a field test in two waves (n = 412 and n = 125) among a random sample of people older than 59 years with either COPD or diabetes mellitus. Reproducibility was evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and smallest real differences at group level (SRDs(group)). Convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated with Pearson correlation coefficients between the MSPP and the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI). The MSPP consists of four indices: consumptive participation, formal social participation, informal social participation-acquaintances and informal social participation-family. Each index measured diversity and frequency of participation. ICCs ranged between 0.63 and 0.83. SRDs(group) ranged between 0.05 and 0.09. Convergent and discriminant validity were supported by the correlations between the MSPP(frequency) and the FAI. The MSPP has good validity and acceptable reproducibility. Its distinguishing features are its focus on actual social participation and the possibility to calculate both diversity and frequency scores.
Andersson, Erik; Olson, Maria
In this article we argue that young people's political participation in the social media can be considered "public pedagogy". The argument builds on a previous empirical analysis of a Swedish net community called Black Heart. Theoretically, the article is based on a particular notion of public pedagogy, education and Hannah Arendt's…
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public international organizations in which... UNITED STATES CITIZENS § 319.5 Public international organizations in which the U.S. participates by treaty or statute. Organizations designated by the President as international organizations pursuant to...
Tambyraja, Sherine R.; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Farquharson, Kelly; Justice, Laura M.
Purpose: The present study focused on the identification and stability of language and literacy profiles of primary school children receiving school-based language therapy over the course of one academic year. Method: Participants included 272 early elementary school-age children (144 boys, 128 girls) who had been clinically identified as having a…
Feldman, A. F.; Matjasko, J. L.
The current study presented a new description of adolescent school-based activity participation, in the form of mutually exclusive activity portfolios, and described the kinds of youth that participate in each portfolio. These portfolios included (1) Sports Only, (2) Academics Only, (3) School Only, (4) Performance Only, (5) Multiple Activities,…
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the satisfaction of participants in the offered programs of exercise of health and fitness clubs for municipal Youth and Sport organizations. A random sample of 320 participants was selected from 18 closed halls and responded to a questionnaire that was pre-checked for reliability, validity and objectivity (Chen, 2001. The questionnaire included questions related to demographics, participant satisfaction from the exercise programs and from the level of organisation these have, the quality of equipment the athletic halls have and the variety of services offered. Data was analysed statistically to determine the relationships and differences between the mean value of the different variables. Results show that the profile of the major customer segment is women from 26 to 35 years old with University education. Also, statistical analysis shows that there are significant differences between the average values in all 5 dimensions of participant satisfaction: the prices of exercise programs, program content, the quality of hall equipment, public relations and employee performance. Also, there are statistically significant differences between the demographic variables (age, sex, income and the 5 participant satisfaction dimensions. However, the dimensions that present statistically significant differences vary according to the demographic variable analysed. This shows that municipal sports centres should differentiate their offers according to the dimensions of satisfaction that are more important for each customer segment as these are formed based on age, income or sex.
Giobbie-Hurder Anita; Thürlimann Beat; Oberli Andrea; Baltzer Anna; Wirapati Pratyaksha; Delorenzi Mauro; Popovici Vlad; Antonov Janine; Viale Giuseppe; Altermatt Hans; Aebi Stefan; Jaggi Rolf
Abstract Background The purpose of the work reported here is to test reliable molecular profiles using routinely processed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from participants of the clinical trial BIG 1-98 with a median follow-up of 60 months. Methods RNA from fresh frozen (FF) and FFPE tumor samples of 82 patients were used for quality control, and independent FFPE tissues of 342 postmenopausal participants of BIG 1-98 with ER-positive cancer were analyzed by measuring prospect...
Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig
The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...... commitment is moderated by the implicit power motivation of the bank manager....
López-Aparicio, Susana; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp; Kahila-Tani, Maarit; Broberg, Anna
A crowdsourcing study supported by a public participation GIS tool was designed and carried out in two Norwegian regions. The aim was to improve the knowledge about emissions from wood burning for residential heating in urban areas based on the collection of citizens' localized insights. We focus on three main issues: 1) type of dwelling and residential heating source; 2) wood consumption and type of wood appliances; and 3) citizens' perception of the urban environment. Our study shows the importance of wood burning for residential heating, and of the resulted particle emissions, in Norwegian urban areas. Citizens' localized insights on environmental perception highlight the areas in the city that require particular attention as part of clean air strategies. Information about environmental perception is combined with existing environmental data showing certain correlation. The results support the urban environmental management based on co-benefit approaches, achieving several outcomes from a single policy measure. Measures to reduce urban air pollution will have a positive impact on the citizens' environmental perception, and therefore on their quality of life, in addition to reducing the negative consequences of air pollution on human health. The characterization of residential heating by fuelwood is still a challenging activity. Our study shows the potential of a crowdsourcing method as means for bottom-up approaches designed to increase our knowledge on human activities at urban scale that result on emissions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
... professionally responsible, for the attorneys in the office of the Chief Counsel also to advise other... from any participant or potential participant. (e) Communication between participants and attorneys. Participants in a hearing may communicate with the attorneys responsible for representing the center whose...
The European Water Framework Directive puts strong emphasis on stakeholder and public participation in water management. Several practical questions regarding who should be involved, why, when, and how still remain unanswered. This paper investigates stakeholders' own experiences and views of increased public participation in water management. The article also explores the potential for increasing levels of participation by forming catchment committees with representation from stakeholder groups and through the use of various practical methods for participation. For both these aspects of participation, the views, expectations, and apprehensions of different stakeholder groups involved in nutrient loss management are investigated. Stakeholder opinions were collected by inviting representatives from five stakeholder groups within the Rönneå catchment in southern Sweden to a catchment dialog process.
Li, Jun; Zeng, Zheng; Yu, Yang
As a unique group in China's urbanization, "urban villager" is the concern of various parties of the society. From "farmers" to "urban residents", urban villagers' means of production and life style change dramatically. At present, public facility planning in urban villagers' community always fail to meet their particular demands. Taking PPGIS as an instrument, the paper analyzes the present status of public facilities in urban villagers' community and the new demand on public facilities from the changing production means and life style. The purpose is to put forward suggestions for public facility setting in urban villagers' community and offer theoretic guidance and proposal for Wuhan new urban areas. PPGIS is gradually being applied to social science researches in recent years. Through the integrated platform, it can achieve the objective of communication, coordination, cooperation and collaboration of different interests. In this research, ephemeral mapping, sketch mapping, scale mapping and aerial photographs are used to acquire spatial data of public facilities and attribute data of urban villagers in their community. Through the comparison of data, the research shows that while urban villagers in Wuhan new urban areas gradually accept city life, they inevitably maintain certain rural habits and customs. Therefore, the public facility planning in this particular kind of communities can neither be treated equal as countryside facility planning, nor simply adopt the practice in urban residential areas' planning; rather the planning system should take into account facilities of different categories at all levels, communities of different types and residential groups.
Cobb, Enesha M; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Singer, Dianne; Davis, Matthew M
We determined national levels of public participation in medical research study design. We compared public interest in medical research participation (MRP) in studies overall, versus studies explicitly designed with public involvement. Cross-sectional household survey of US population in June 2013. Descriptive statistics estimated participation in medical research study design. Chi-square test compared levels of interest in MRP if respondent knew patients or community members helped design the study. Of 2,048 respondents (participation rate 60%), 5% knew someone who had helped design a medical research study. There was no association between having known someone or personal participation in study design and willingness to engage in MRP. Although the overall proportion of respondents who would consider MRP initially (51%) was similar to the proportion who would consider MRP with community member involvement in study design (49%), the changes in respondents' views across the different scenarios were significantly greater than what would have been expected by chance. We found similar levels of interest in MRP whether or not the public is involved in medical research study design. This finding may indicate that public involvement in study design, like community-based participatory research, may not affect overall rates of MRP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Critchley, Christine; Nicol, Dianne; Otlowski, Margaret
The necessity for biobanks to share their resources with third parties poses potential risks to public trust and the intention to participate in genetic research. We explore the effects of data sharing and the type of third-party access (public vs. private) on public trust and, in turn, the intention to participate in biobank research. An experimental design was used to assess a national sample of 1,701 Australians via a computer-assisted telephone interview. The results revealed that trust and the intention to participate significantly decreased in relation to private compared to public biobanks, and when access to third-party researchers was allowed compared to when it was not. Somewhat surprisingly, no differences were found in relation to the third party being international compared to Australian, but trust and the intention to participate were significantly eroded when private third parties were allowed access. Those with a university education were particularly distrustful of private biobanks and biobanks that allowed access, while those who were more aware of genetic databases appeared more confident with biobanks sharing with private-sector third parties. The pattern of results suggests that public awareness of the need for biobanks to share their resources widely needs to be increased to maintain public trust and support. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Cancer represents a major public health and economical burden in developed countries and has emerged as a major public health problem in developing countries, matching its effect in industrialized nations. Although there have been recent declines in breast cancer mortality rates in some European Union countries, breast cancer remains of key importance to public health in Europe. Now days there is increasing recognition of the causative role of lifestyle factors, as smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, or lake of physical activity. The present study aimed to appreciate the presence and magnitude of modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in a sample of patients diagnosed with the disease, and to outline a risk profile liable to be changed in the intention of reducing the global risk. Risk factors have been investigated in 65 patients diagnosed with breast cancer using a questionnaire for breast cancer risk factors evaluation. The high risk profile was identified as taking shape for urban environment, modulated by the impact of overweight-obesity, smoking, reproductive factors and environmental exposure to different chemical substances. From the public health perspective, the control of overweight and obesity comes out in the foreground of preventive activities. Public health approaches emphasize on inexpensive, practical methods and in this perspective the approach of obesity should focus on the alteration of environmental context, promoting healthy eating and increased physical activity which could have a positive, independent impact on breast cancer risk
Hu, Hui; Li, Xiang; Nguyen, Anh Dung; Kavan, Philip
With the rapid development of the waste incineration industry in China, top priority has been given to the problem of pollution caused by waste incineration. This study is the first attempt to assess all the waste incineration plants in Wuhan, the only national key city in central China, in terms of environmental impact, site selection, public health and public participation. By using a multi-criterion assessment model for economic, social, public health and environmental effects, this study indicates these incineration plants are established without much consideration of the local residents’ health and environment. A location analysis is also applied and some influences of waste incineration plants are illustrated. This study further introduces a signaling game model to prove that public participation is a necessary condition for improving the environmental impact assessment and increasing total welfare of different interest groups in China. This study finally offers some corresponding recommendations for improving the environmental impact assessments of waste incineration projects. PMID:26184242
Full Text Available With the rapid development of the waste incineration industry in China, top priority has been given to the problem of pollution caused by waste incineration. This study is the first attempt to assess all the waste incineration plants in Wuhan, the only national key city in central China, in terms of environmental impact, site selection, public health and public participation. By using a multi-criterion assessment model for economic, social, public health and environmental effects, this study indicates these incineration plants are established without much consideration of the local residents’ health and environment. A location analysis is also applied and some influences of waste incineration plants are illustrated. This study further introduces a signaling game model to prove that public participation is a necessary condition for improving the environmental impact assessment and increasing total welfare of different interest groups in China. This study finally offers some corresponding recommendations for improving the environmental impact assessments of waste incineration projects.
..., via webinar over the Internet. The registration deadline for participation in the meeting is due by 5... Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard, in a multi-vendor...
Full Text Available The main research objective is the analysis of the grouping of the students of the University of Ljubljana, with respect to the intensity of different types of exercise participation motives, their gender, discipline and year of study, level of physical activity, status of physical education class, organization of physical activities during study, and place of residence.
Full Text Available L’acronyme MooC (Massive online open Course est utilisé pour désigner les plateformes d’enseignement en ligne qui proposent des cours ouverts et qui peuvent s’adresser à des centaines, des milliers, voire des dizaines de milliers d’étudiants simultanément. Le but du présent article n’est pas de proposer une analyse du phénomène MooC dans sa généralité, mais d’offrir une vision originale d’un MooC, au travers de ses étudiants, de leur profil et de leur activité lors du cours. Pour ce faire, nous analysons les données collectées lors d’un des premiers cours lancés sur la plateforme française FUN, le cours « Fondamentaux en statistique ». Nous y décrivons la communauté des étudiants, leur profil socioéconomique, leurs motivations, leur activité sur le forum du cours. Nous étudierons comment les échanges sur le forum se structurent lors du cours.
Pelletier, Jean-François; D'Auteuil, Sylvain; Ducasse, Christian; Rodriguez Del Barrio, Lourdes
Among the guiding principles of the Mental Health Action Plan 2005-2010 (MHAP) of the Quebec Ministère de la santé et des services sociaux (Health and Social Services) is the recognition that persons who use mental health services (consumers) can be active agents of their own individual and collective recovery journey. In accordance with this principle, the MHAP called for greater participation of consumers in local, regional and national decision-making bodies within the network of health and social services in Quebec. The objectives of this article are to look back on the various forms of consumers' participation in connection with the MHAP since its enactment, and to better understand the complexities of being spokespersons through the Actor Network Theory conceptual framework. A scientific literature review was conducted. Different angles of analysis were used to highlight convergences and trends based on official governmental publications and ongoing research on consumers' participation in decision and policy making. It was thought that a vertical case study approach would offer an historical perspective going back to the early 1960s to discuss the foundations of an "ideology of participation." Another way of assessing participation is through a horizontal approach that would compare the terms of participation implemented from one regional authority to the other, in order to cover most of the Quebec territory. The MHAP did not provide clear indicators of how to assess progress made with regards to greater consumer participation. In some regions of Quebec, this participation was coordinated by community organizations that designated their representatives. In other regions, local authorities included consumers on a more individual basis to give their opinion. As all were not at the same stage in their recovery process, some were in a position to speak using the "we," while others still needed to express themselves using the "I." In either case, their function
Parnia, Aidin; Yamani, Nikoo; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Badihian, Shervin; Manouchehri, Navid; Fakhri, Maryam
A serious challenge to educate health staff for public health is to appear encouraging enough to persuade them for learning issues on this field and implementing new educational methods and innovative ways. Iran International Public Health Summer School (IPHS) made an effort to provide medical sciences students with a fortune to get familiar with and involved in public health. This study intended to evaluate the efficacy of this event. This cross-sectional study was performed in March-April 2015 by the help of an electronic self-administered questionnaire filled out by 49 Iranian participants 6 months after IPHS2014. The questionnaire assessed the main goals in seven main domains: Interest, activities, and general knowledge in the field of public health, general skills, educational methods, educational and executive schedules, and general satisfaction. Average scores of all domains were >3 (the mean), and all were statistically significant. The highest average score belonged to educational methods (3.92) and the lowest was calculated for the item regarding participants' activities on public health (3.5). No significant difference was found between positive answers of individuals who were interested or active in public health prior to the event and those who had no background. We believe IPHS was a unique instance in Public Health Education in Iran. Considering the level of success of this program to reach its goals for both students' with or without any previous background on public health, it is recommended as a general model to be simulated in other developing countries.
... functions, nor would it be professionally responsible, for the attorneys in the Office of the General... participant or potential participant. (d) Participants in a hearing may communicate with the attorneys responsible for representing the staff, in the same way that they may communicate with counsel for any other...
Susi Retna Cahyaningtyas
Full Text Available The latest Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012 requires bank to have minimum capital of 8%-14% depends on the risk profile of each bank. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to assess whether the total of inherent risk profile of each bank meets the terms of this regulation. In addition, this study aims to examine the impact of inherent risk profile and GCG on the banking company value. The sample in this study is determined by purposive sampling method and resulted in 24 banks or 72 observations during 2011-2013. The results showed that 23 banks had low risk and low to moderate risk, and only one bank had moderate risk. The results also showed that inherent risk profile rating is equivalent to capital adequacy. In other words, inherent risk profile of these banks have complied with Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012. Furthermore, this study indicated that GCG has significant and positive influence on the company value, while the inherent risk has no influence on the company value. Overall, this study suggest that go public banks in Indonesia are one of good alternative means of investment for its soundness as reflected by the fulfillment of minimum capital ratio required by the regulator.
Due to the increasing threat of irreversible, dangerous global warming, effective climate policy is one of the most urgent political challenges. And as mitigation costs are going to increase even in the case of cost efficient measures, government action against global warming needs the sovereign's support. So what is the role of public participation in modern market-based climate policy? Public Choice theory has been analyzing respective questions since the 1970s, mainly because economists' r...
Cerar Katja; Kondrič Miran; Sindik Joško
Abstract Introduction The main research objective is the analysis of the grouping of the students of the University of Ljubljana, with respect to the intensity of different types of exercise participation motives, their gender, discipline and year of study, level of physical activity, status of physical education class, organization of physical activities during study, and place of residence. Methods Data were collected using personal data sheets during enrolling students at the University of...
Tougas, Anne-Marie; Boisvert, Isabelle; Tourigny, Marc; Lemieux, Annie; Tremblay, Claudia; Gagnon, Mélanie M
This study sought to verify if a history of maltreatment may predict the psychosocial profile of children who participated in an intervention program aiming at reducing sexual behavior problems. Data were collected at both the beginning and the end of the intervention program using a clinical protocol and standardized tests selected on the basis of the intervention targets. In general, the results indicate that children who had experienced maltreatment display a psychosocial profile that is similar to that of children who had not experienced maltreatment. However, children who had experienced psychological abuse or neglect may display greater externalized or sexualized behaviors, whereas children who have a parent who had been a victim of sexual abuse may display fewer sexualized behaviors.
De Meester, An; Maes, Jolien; Stodden, David; Cardon, Greet; Goodway, Jacqueline; Lenoir, Matthieu; Haerens, Leen
The present study identified adolescents' motor competence (MC)-based profiles (e.g., high actual and low perceived MC), and accordingly investigated differences in motivation for physical education (PE), physical activity (PA) levels, and sports participation between profiles by using regression analyses. Actual MC was measured with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Adolescents (n = 215; 66.0% boys; mean age = 13.64 ± .58 years) completed validated questionnaires to assess perceived MC, motivation for PE, PA-levels, and sports participation. Actual and perceived MC were only moderately correlated and cluster analyses identified four groups. Two groups of overestimators (low - overestimation, average - overestimation) were identified (51%), who particularly displayed better motivation for PE when compared to their peers who accurately estimated themselves (low - accurate, average - accurate). Moreover, adolescents with low actual MC, but high perceived MC were significantly more active than adolescents with low actual MC who accurately estimated themselves. Results pointed in the same direction for organised sports participation. Underestimators were not found in the current sample, which is positive as underestimation might negatively influence adolescents' motivation to achieve and persist in PA and sports. In conclusion, results emphasise that developing perceived MC, especially among adolescents with low levels of actual MC, seems crucial to stimulate motivation for PE, and engagement in PA and sports.
Full Text Available This article contrasts the protections provided to participants in U.S. securities markets with the protections provided to participants in the U.S. mortgage markets. Participants in securities markets purchase and sell equity and debt securities. Participants in the mortgage markets borrow money to buy homes, using those homes as collateral for the mortgage loans they receive. Even after Dodd-Frank, participants in securities markets are afforded significantly higher levels of protection than participants in mortgage markets. The doctrine of suitability is a prime example of this inequity. Exploring possible explanations for this odd asymmetry of treatment, I conclude that interest group politics is to blame for the anomaly.
Oliver, Kathryn; Rees, Rebecca; Brady, Louca-Mai; Kavanagh, Josephine; Oliver, Sandy; Thomas, James
Background: Arguments supporting the involvement of users in research have even more weight when involving the public in systematic reviews of research. We aimed to explore the potential for public involvement in systematic reviews of observational and qualitative studies. Methods: Two consultative workshops were carried out with a group of young…
Howell, Robert E.; Wilkinson, Kenneth P.
In an effort to determine preliminary results of an intensive public affairs leadership program designed to improve the skills of selected potential rural leaders in analyzing and taking action upon public problems, two control and one comparison group were pre- and post-tested. Group I (N=91 with a 65% response) consisted of all persons who…
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Objective: Investigations of injecting drug users (IDUs have suggested that the social context may influence high-risk behaviours in this population. The aim of this study was to describe knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of IDUs attending public drug-treatment centres in our area.
Study design and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between July 2002 and February 2004, enrolling 607 drug users attending four public drug-treatment centres in the Palermo area. Two of them were located inside the urban area, whereas the other two were in rural districts near the city. All participants answered an anonymous questionnaire concerning social and demographic characteristic and potential high-risk behaviours.
Results: IDUs living in urban context have a higher educational level, higher number of sexual partners, as well as a lower prevalence of exchanging sex for drugs. Conversely, IDUs living in suburban/rural context are less likely to share syringes and more likely to have used light drugs in the past. Suburban/rural IDUs drink more alcohol but smoke less cigarettes/day, although both groups are strong smokers.
Conclusions: The results suggest that public drug-treatment centres should take in consideration the adoption of specific programs targeting specific groups, in line with the profile and needs of the subjects in each context in order to promote approaches leading to risk reduction.
Full Text Available Motivation Scientists increasingly rely on intelligent information systems to help them in their daily tasks, in particular for managing research objects, like publications or datasets. The relatively young research field of Semantic Publishing has been addressing the question how scientific applications can be improved through semantically rich representations of research objects, in order to facilitate their discovery and re-use. To complement the efforts in this area, we propose an automatic workflow to construct semantic user profiles of scholars, so that scholarly applications, like digital libraries or data repositories, can better understand their users’ interests, tasks, and competences, by incorporating these user profiles in their design. To make the user profiles sharable across applications, we propose to build them based on standard semantic web technologies, in particular the Resource Description Framework (RDF for representing user profiles and Linked Open Data (LOD sources for representing competence topics. To avoid the cold start problem, we suggest to automatically populate these profiles by analyzing the publications (co-authored by users, which we hypothesize reflect their research competences. Results We developed a novel approach, ScholarLens, which can automatically generate semantic user profiles for authors of scholarly literature. For modeling the competences of scholarly users and groups, we surveyed a number of existing linked open data vocabularies. In accordance with the LOD best practices, we propose an RDF Schema (RDFS based model for competence records that reuses existing vocabularies where appropriate. To automate the creation of semantic user profiles, we developed a complete, automated workflow that can generate semantic user profiles by analyzing full-text research articles through various natural language processing (NLP techniques. In our method, we start by processing a set of research articles for a
Hoekman, R.H.A.; Breedveld, K.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.
The relevance of local sport policy to achieve 'sport for all' has been widely recognized. Public spending on sport is seen necessary to keep sport affordable, while specific policy programs are aimed to include groups that lag behind in sport participation. This paper explores the impact of local
This article tests a case study of public participation in the decision-making about restructuring South Africa's large cohort of higher education institutions, as inherited in 1994, against theories of South Africa's new democracy. It shows that people formally outside the higher education policy sector--students, academics, parents and the…
This article examines the participation of "third-sector" organisations in public education in England. These organisations act as a cross-sectoral policy network made up of new kinds of policy experts: mediators and brokers with entrepreneurial careers in ideas. They have sought to make education reform thinkable, intelligible and…
Seider, Scott C.; Rabinowicz, Samantha A.; Gillmor, Susan C.
This mixed-methods study demonstrates that the SERVE Program at Ignatius University strengthened the public service motivation of participating undergraduates by combining weekly community service with readings in philosophy and theology. These findings offer insights about the role that philosophy and theology service-learning experiences can…
Shickle, Darren; Day, Matthew; Smith, Kevin; Zakariasen, Ken; Moskol, Jacob; Oliver, Thomas
Public health leadership has been criticized as being ineffective. The public health profession is relatively small. Critics have argued that there is over-emphasis on technical aspects and insufficient use of the 'community as a source of public health actions'. The paper analyses the resources, motivations and skills utilized by high-profile individuals who have made contributions to the public health agenda. The phenomenon of celebrity diplomacy is critiqued. Two exemplars are discussed: Jamie Oliver and Michael Bloomberg. The risks of involving celebrities are also considered. Leaders for public health demonstrate 'a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will' to make the 'right decisions happen'. While they may have ego or self-interest, in this context, at least, they channel their ambition for the public health cause, not themselves. Leaders from outside public health may have no understanding of what public health is nor consider their work as part of a wider public health agenda. It is important to understand why they become leaders for public health. This will inform a strategy for how others may be encouraged to collaborate for public health causes. Some key points for working with high-profile leaders for public health are identified. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Diorio, Joseph A.
Citizenship education programs promote political participation by young people. These programs risk misrepresenting politics to students by encouraging them to believe that there are universally accepted principles which govern the definition of citizenship and who is entitled to participate in its various dimensions. The article argues that…
Birch, Troy C.; Ferrin, Scott Ellis
Investigated the participation of rural Mexican American parents in their children's elementary schools. Interviews with Mexican and Anglo American parents indicated that both groups considered their participation in their children's education very important, though the two groups had different worldviews and backgrounds, different types of school…
Andriani, Yuli; Zagloel, T. Yuri M.; Koestoer, R. H.; Suparmoko, M.
Water is the source of life needed by living things. Human as one of living most in needs of water. Because the population growth follows the geometrical progression, while the natural resource increases calculates the arithmetic. Humans besides needing water also need land for shelter and for their livelihood needs, such as gardening or rice farmers. If the water absorption area is reduced, water availability will decrease. Therefore it is necessary to conduct an in-depth study of water resources management involving the community. The purpose of this study is to analyze community participation in water resources management, so that its availability can still meet the needs of living and sustainable. The method that used the level of community participation according to Arstein theory. The results obtained that community participation is at the level of partnership and power delegation. This level of participation is at the level of participation that determines the sustainability of water resources for present and future generations.
Helfrich, Christine A; Chan, Dara V; Simpson, Emily K; Sabol, Peggy
This longitudinal study examined differences in intervention outcomes based on readiness-to-change cluster profiles among 73 adults with a mental illness at risk for homelessness participating in a manualized life skills intervention. Intervention topics included money management, food management, safe community participation, and room- and self-care. Life skill knowledge and readiness-to-change, measured using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment, was examined at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-6 months later. Two scoring patterns emerged for readiness-to-change at each time point: Pre-Engaged and Engaged. Participants who were Engaged at the time of assessment scored significantly better than Pre-Engaged on post-intervention life skill testing, however group identification changed over time. Baseline readiness-to-change did not predict future performance or attrition, and therefore may not provide accurate indication of client investment for future learning or participation. Further investigation is needed to determine what factors contribute to Engaged membership.
Favero, N.; Meier, K.J.; O'Toole, Laurence J.
Much recent work in the study of public administration has emphasized new challenges, and relatively unusual aspects of management, such as managerial networking and interorganizational collaboration, cross-sectoral partnerships, the centrality of information technology in contemporary management,
This document describes a plan for involving the public in decisions related to cleaning up sites suspected of being contaminated with chemicals or radioactivity at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this section we describe the purpose of the Environmental Remediation Project, our past efforts to communicate with the northern New Mexico community, and the events that brought about our realization that less traditional, more innovative approaches to public involvement are needed.
In its 1993 report entitled ``Earning Public Trust and Confidence: Requisites for Managing Radioactive Waste,`` the Secretary of Energy`s Advisory Board noted, ``The legacy of distrust created by the Department`s history and culture will continue for a long time to color public reaction to its radioactive waste management efforts.`` The report goes on to say, ``It is easier today to understand why (past) actions occurred than to excuse them ... Many portions of the public resent what was done and feel they were betrayed by an agency that was supposed to be looking after their best interests.`` The public involvement process used in the renegotiation of the Tri-Party Agreement was, by everyone`s agreement, a major success for Hanford. People who had never trusted each other or worked together sat down at the table and created a document that may well guide Hanford into the future. Hanford will continue to build on the public involvement lessons learned from the Tank Waste Task Force as we launch our new Hanford Advisory Board. By bringing our stakeholders into the decisionmaking process, we believe Hanford is well on its way to forging a new partnership with the public -- one that will result in better decisions and speedier cleanup of the Hanford Site.
Flávia Couto de Oliveira Contigli
Full Text Available The current article aims to seek the correlation between popular participation and social control in public administration in the consolidation of the Brazilian democratic process, from the perspective of participatory democracy, as well as conditions for increasing this participation. In participatory democracy, having as the theoretical framework Bobbio (2006, p.30 and Santos (2002, p.62 and 63, it emphasizes public participation as one of the forms of management, where it plays an important role, as legitimating the decisions. This article discusses the ways of popular participation in government, with no claim to exhaust the subject, and was based on Perez settings (2004, Enterría (1998 and Di Pietro (1993, plus other institutes of participation popular. Search thus contribute including other popular participation instruments besides those already mentioned by these authors, emphasize the difficulties and to suggest some measures to minimize them. The methodology used to develop the work, dogmatic and legal, was developed through bibliographic research, done through a literature review and analytical reading on the subject.
Full Text Available Not only animals, plants and microbes but also humans cooperate in groups. The evolution of cooperation in a group is an evolutionary puzzle, because defectors always obtain a higher benefit than cooperators. When people participate in a group, they evaluate group member's reputations and then decide whether to participate in it. In some groups, membership is open to all who are willing to participate in the group. In other groups, a candidate is excluded from membership if group members regard the candidate's reputation as bad. We developed an evolutionary game model and investigated how participation in groups and ostracism influence the evolution of cooperation in groups when group members play the voluntary public goods game, by means of computer simulation. When group membership is open to all candidates and those candidates can decide whether to participate in a group, cooperation cannot be sustainable. However, cooperation is sustainable when a candidate cannot be a member unless all group members admit them to membership. Therefore, it is not participation in a group but rather ostracism, which functions as costless punishment on defectors, that is essential to sustain cooperation in the voluntary public goods game.
Full Text Available This paper presents a critical discussion on the current use of technology and participation in local government. It discusses the rise in popularity of mobile devices, and how they have been used in ICT for development. The paper describes the results of a baseline study undertaken in a city within Makana Municipality in the Eastern Cape of South Africa, to empirically investigate how residents are currently using mobile phones and participating with local government around the area of service delivery. The findings illustrate the current state of mobile phone usage and capabilities, and the potential for using the mobile platform to increase participation in local government in South Africa. The paper also can be used to inform and guide project stakeholders on how best to implement m-participation strategies.
Honein-AbouHaidar, Gladys N; Rabeneck, Linda; Paszat, Lawrence F; Sutradhar, Rinku; Tinmouth, Jill; Baxter, Nancy N
Since the publication of two randomized controlled trials (RCT) in 1996 demonstrating the effectiveness of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality, several public health initiatives have been introduced in Ontario to promote FOBT participation. We examined the effect of these initiatives on FOBT participation and evaluated temporal trends in participation between 1994 and 2012. Using administrative databases, we identified 18 annual cohorts of individuals age 50 to 74 years eligible for CRC screening and identified those who received FOBT in each quarter of a year. We used negative binomial segmented regression to examine the effect of initiatives on trends and Joinpoint regression to evaluate temporal trends in FOBT participation. Quarterly FOBT participation increased from 6.5 per 1000 in quarter 1 to 41.6 per 1000 in quarter 72 (January-March 2012). Segmented regression indicated increases following the publication of the RCTs in 1996 (Δ slope = 6%, 95% CI = 4.3-7.9), the primary care physician financial incentives announcement in 2005 (Δ slope = 2.2%, 95% CI = 0.68-3.7), the launch of the ColonCancerCheck (CCC) Program (Δ intercept = 35.4%, 95% CI = 18.3 -54.9), and the CCC Program 2-year anniversary (Δ slope = 7.2%, 95% CI = 3.9 - 10.5). Joinpoint validated these findings and identified the specific points when changes occurred. Although observed increases in FOBT participation cannot be definitively attributed to the various initiatives, the results of the two statistical approaches suggest a causal association between the observed increases in FOBT participation and most of these initiatives.
Burgess-Allen, Jilla; Owen-Smith, Vicci
In a health service environment where timescales for patient participation in service design are short and resources scarce, a balance needs to be achieved between research rigour and the timeliness and utility of the findings of patient participation processes. To develop a pragmatic mind mapping approach to managing the qualitative data from patient participation processes. While this article draws on experience of using mind maps in a variety of participation processes, a single example is used to illustrate the approach. In this example mind maps were created during the course of patient participation focus groups. Two group discussions were also transcribed verbatim to allow comparison of the rapid mind mapping approach with traditional thematic analysis of qualitative data. The illustrative example formed part of a local alcohol service review which included consultation with local alcohol service users, their families and staff groups. The mind mapping approach provided a pleasing graphical format for representing the key themes raised during the focus groups. It helped stimulate and galvanize discussion and keep it on track, enhanced transparency and group ownership of the data analysis process, allowed a rapid dynamic between data collection and feedback, and was considerably faster than traditional methods for the analysis of focus groups, while resulting in similar broad themes. This study suggests that the use of a mind mapping approach to managing qualitative data can provide a pragmatic resolution of the tension between limited resources and quality in patient participation processes. © 2010 The Authors. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Graversgaard, Morten; Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Kjeldsen, Chris
water planning, this does not accord with reality. The water council processes are limited in scope and controlled by the central government. Their process can be better characterized as expanded stakeholder consultation, officially part of the policy process but involving very little active public......Under the Water Framework Directive, public participation was identified as a key part of water planning. This caused a paradigm shift in Danish water planning. Water councils in River Basin Districts were established to provide public input on how to improve the physical conditions in streams....... A study of the water councils found that Denmark has complied with the requirements of making background information available to the public and ensuring consultation. The facilitation of the councils’ processes has worked well. However, while they are presented as the ‘new governance option’ in Danish...
de Bock, Martin; Derraik, José G B; Brennan, Christine M; Biggs, Janene B; Smith, Greg C; Cameron-Smith, David; Wall, Clare R; Cutfield, Wayne S
We aimed to assess the effects of psyllium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk adolescent population. This study encompassed a participant-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Subjects were 47 healthy adolescent males aged 15-16 years, recruited from secondary schools in lower socio-economic areas with high rates of obesity. Participants received 6 g/day of psyllium or placebo for 6 weeks, with a two-week washout before crossing over. Fasting lipid profiles, ambulatory blood pressure, auxological data, body composition, activity levels, and three-day food records were collected at baseline and after each 6-week intervention. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Matsuda method using glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test. 45 subjects completed the study, and compliance was very high: 87% of participants took >80% of prescribed capsules. At baseline, 44% of subjects were overweight or obese. 28% had decreased insulin sensitivity, but none had impaired glucose tolerance. Fibre supplementation led to a 4% reduction in android fat to gynoid fat ratio (p = 0.019), as well as a 0.12 mmol/l (6%) reduction in LDL cholesterol (p = 0.042). No associated adverse events were recorded. Dietary supplementation with 6 g/day of psyllium over 6 weeks improves fat distribution and lipid profile (parameters of the metabolic syndrome) in an at risk population of adolescent males. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000888268.
Martin de Bock
Full Text Available AIMS: We aimed to assess the effects of psyllium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk adolescent population. METHODS: This study encompassed a participant-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Subjects were 47 healthy adolescent males aged 15-16 years, recruited from secondary schools in lower socio-economic areas with high rates of obesity. Participants received 6 g/day of psyllium or placebo for 6 weeks, with a two-week washout before crossing over. Fasting lipid profiles, ambulatory blood pressure, auxological data, body composition, activity levels, and three-day food records were collected at baseline and after each 6-week intervention. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Matsuda method using glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: 45 subjects completed the study, and compliance was very high: 87% of participants took >80% of prescribed capsules. At baseline, 44% of subjects were overweight or obese. 28% had decreased insulin sensitivity, but none had impaired glucose tolerance. Fibre supplementation led to a 4% reduction in android fat to gynoid fat ratio (p = 0.019, as well as a 0.12 mmol/l (6% reduction in LDL cholesterol (p = 0.042. No associated adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary supplementation with 6 g/day of psyllium over 6 weeks improves fat distribution and lipid profile (parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk population of adolescent males. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000888268.
The 4th Controlling Conference of International Public Organisations is part of a cycle of yearly conferences which were held the previous years in Frankfurt, Munich, Luxemburg, and which will take place this year on 31 May and 1 June at CERN. The aim of these conferences is to offer a forum for Directors of Administration, Deputy CFOs, Secretary-Generals, Heads of Budget of International Organisations, to exchange experiences on selected themes related to performance management. This year’s theme is “The Reduction of Overheads in International Public Organisations”.
Andrés Payà Rico
Full Text Available In the present article we carry out a field study in a state school located in Carcaixent (from Valencia about the different perceptions, reflections and impressions of the faculty, management team, Parents Association (AMPA and parents from the political and critical reflection about the active participation of families. Thanks to a set of semi-structured interviews, its transcription and further analysis of its contents, we have obtained valuable conclusions and reflections which indicate the importance that families give to participation, to the point that they are immerse in the process of transformation in a learning community (CdA. Among the conclusions obtained in the mentioned qualitative study, we have been able to observe the familiar perceptions about participation, the existing obstacles and determinants for it, the relationship between the different members of the educational community, the channels of participation, etc.; a whole range of considerations which provide useful information of political and pedagogical character. These considerations can orientate the implementation of school participation policies and the construction of a cohesive and active educational community.
Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to examine those factors that are in- fluential in the participation of Tehran University students in physical activities. According to the results and goals, this study is applied and descriptive respectively and based on the data collection this is a field study. A community sample of 16000 of Tehran University students participated in this study. Using Morgan table, 377 students were selected with random stratified selection procedure. To evaluate the effective factors in physical activity participation a researcher-made questionnaire with a reliability of 0.84 was administered. To analyze the data after the non-confirmation of parametric conditions and the natural data distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, descriptive and deductive statistics including frequency and mean, Friedman test, Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal-Wallace test were used in SPSS with the significance of 0.05. The research findings have indicated that physical fitness, beauty and health have been more influential in physical activities and exercise participation than other factors. There was a significant difference in ranking the effective factors among male and female students. Gender, age and marital status were also among those factors contributing to the participation of students in exercises.
... recipients; monitor the academic performance of recipients; and to place recipients at payback sites. The IHS... the IHS Web site at: http://www.ihs.gov/scholarship/apply_now.cfm . Affected Public: Individuals, not... Academic 50 1 50 0.13 ( 8 min)... 7 Problem (IHS-856-9). Change of Status (IHS-856-10). 50 1 50 .045 (25...
... IHS Pre-graduate, Preparatory, and/or Health Professions Scholarship recipients; monitor the academic performance of recipients; and to place recipients at payback sites. The IHS Scholarship Program streamlined... at: http://www.ihs.gov/scholarship/apply_now.cfm . Affected Public: Individuals, not-for-profit...
... academic performance of awardees, to place awardees at payback sites, and for awardees to request... technology to make the application electronically available on the Internet. Affected Public: Individuals... Academic 50 1 50 0.13 (8 min).... 7 Problem (IHS-856-9). Change of Status (IHS-856-10). 50 1 50 0.45 (25...
The year 1989 marked a new phase in the political lives of nations, following the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of ideological conflicts between the two former antagonistic poles. This change led to a new way of transforming state structures and articulating their role in reforming the public space. The example of the ...
Sanderson, Geoffrey T.
The Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) Class of 2014 consistently outperformed graduates across Maryland and the nation on all sections of the ACT, according to the ACT, Inc. annual report that was released Wednesday, August 20, 2014. Thirty percent of the graduates in the MCPS Class of 2014 took the ACT exam. According to the ACT,…
J. Ebbesson (Jonas)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ In using the Aarhus Convention as a reference, this article examines the tension between two developments of environmental governance in the last decades: (i) the strengthening of participatory rights of members of the public in environmental decision-making; and (ii)
Norglo, Benhardt Edem Kofi; Goris, Margriet; Lie, Rico; Ong’ayo, Antony Otieno
This paper examines the involvement of African diaspora organizations in Dutch and European policy-making concerning Africa. It addresses the extent to which their inclusion or exclusion in public policy processes in their destination countries is likely to impact (development) policies relating to
... require approval by higher authorities, a standard Department of Defense Request Form should be completed... personnel, meals and quarters or standard per diem allowance, etc.—will be borne by the sponsor. (6... emphasize joint Service activity and must support recruiting programs. Participation in beauty contests...
Ferber, Paul; Foltz, Franz; Pugliese, Rudy
The interactive nature of the Internet is seen by some as a technological innovation that might boost participation in politics and civic affairs. That potential, however, is clouded by imprecise definitions of interactivity found among scholars and practitioners alike. Evaluation of state legislature Web sites found them to not be very…
Pineo-Jensen, Shelley Jacques
This exploratory investigation examined the relationship between states' educational standardization and voter turnout, using cultural and critical theory lenses. The study documented the problem of low voter participation and current education standardization policies. The study used a complementarity mixed-methods design with sequential…
De la Cruz-Novey, H. Alicia
In the last two decades protected area management approaches have experienced a shift from top-down management models to more diverse governance approaches that involve various forms and degrees of participation from local populations. These new participatory approaches seek to reaffirm cultural values, maintain cultural landscapes, recognize the…
Hof, John G.; Kaiser, H. Fred
A theoretical structure for projecting long-term outdoor recreation demand is presented and demonstrated, using data from an outdoor recreation survey by the United States Department of Interior. Since the availability of opportunities seems to influence participation significantly, future planning should take into account supply-demand…
Many different levels of government, organizations, and programs actively shape the future of energy in Arizona, a state that lacks a comprehensive energy plan. Disparate actions by multiple actors may slow the energy policy process rather than expedite it. The absence of a state energy policy or plan raises questions about how multiple actors and ideas engage with state energy policy development and whether the absence of a comprehensive state plan can be understood. Improving how policy development is conceptualized and giving more focused attention to the mechanisms by which interested parties become involved in shaping Arizona energy policy. To explore these questions, I examine the future energy efficiency. Initially, public engagement mechanisms were examined for their role in policy creation from a theoretical perspective. Next a prominent public engagement forum that was dedicated to the topic of the Arizona's energy future was examined, mapping its process and conclusions onto a policy process model. The first part of this thesis involves an experimental expert consultation panel which was convened to amplify and refine the results of a public forum. The second part utilizes an online follow up survey to complete unfinished ideas from the focus group. The experiment flowed from a hypothesis that formal expert discussion on energy efficiency policies, guided by the recommendations put forth by the public engagement forum on energy in Arizona, would result in an increase in relevance while providing a forum for interdisciplinary collaboration that is atypical in today's energy discussions. This experiment was designed and evaluated utilizing a public engagement framework that incorporated theoretical and empirical elements. Specifically, I adapted elements of three methods of public and expert engagement used in policy development to create a consultation process that was contextualized to energy efficiency stakeholders in Arizona and their unique
Significant changes in the conventional weather pattern experienced globally have sparked enormous concerns to environmental stakeholders. Having been established that the main driver of change in our Climate is the result of anthropogenic activities which contribute to the global increase in concentration of Green House Gases (GHG), there is therefore need for effective sensitization and public awareness regarding our actions and how they contribute to the issue of Climate Change experienced...
This paper analyzes critically the state of regulated media in developing economies. In order to engender rapid growth and structural change the state is required to control the media to provide the essential conditions of stability and societal change. This media-for-development orthodoxy has held sway for more than six decades now, leading to governments, often authoritarian, utilizing the media to prolong their hegemony over society. Taking the welfare of citizens as the basis of public-pr...
Norglo, Benhardt Edem Kofi; Goris, Margriet; Lie, Rico; Ong’ayo, Antony Otieno
This paper examines the involvement of African diaspora organizations in Dutch and European policy-making concerning Africa. It addresses the extent to which their inclusion or exclusion in public policy processes in their destination countries is likely to impact (development) policies relating to their countries of origin. The findings are based on a collaborative research project that involved knowledge institutes and African diaspora organizations in the Netherlands. The data consist of 3...
Ludidi, Nompazamo Alma
The purpose of this research is to determine the extent of public participation in waste management, willingness of the community to assist the municipality in waste management and how the officials involve the community as partners in waste management. Waste management has become a big environmental challenge in Sedibeng District Municipality due to rural- urban drift leading to population increase in the region. In cities and towns where there is population increase there is excessive gener...
Abstract Recent legislation enabling increased patient and public involvement in health decision-making will increasingly interact with the maturing independent patient movement to open up accountability systems across healthcare. Lay people will develop new roles, building on learning from the independent advocacy sector, self management, and wider active participation. Inevitably, this means a profound cultural challenge for healthcare organizations, and for citizens, as they begin to understand the implications of the new policies, including patient choice.
As the paradigm of science communication transferred from a one-way, deficit model to an approach that emphasizes public participation and dialogue, citizens in the modern society have thus assumed different civic abilities. These civic abilities include basic knowledge about science, understanding of both the advantages and disadvantages of science, and the ability to make decisions regarding future development of emerging technologies. Because people rely mostly on the media for scientific ...
Kaminski, Amy; Buquo, Lynn; Roman, Monsi; Beck, Beth; Thaller, Michelle
This paper analyzes NASA's increasing effort to invite greater public participation in its techno scientific work through open innovation methodologies. First we examine why NASA has expanded its use of these approaches, noting the roles of an intertwined set of forcing functions including budget constraints, the availability of technological resources, and committed individuals. Next we outline the strategies the agency has invoked to engage the public in research, technology development, and other activities to advance and shape NASA's mission. As we show, promoting greater public involvement has entailed facilitating the NASA workforce's familiarity with open innovation approaches as well as developing projects and creating outreach strategies appropriate to the envisioned participant base. We then discuss the wide variety of outcomes NASA's open innovation initiatives have yielded in support of NASA research and development objectives as well as benefits to participants and others. We conclude with a discussion of the remaining barriers to the use of open innovation techniques as a standard practice and the strategies in work to overcome those barriers so the full potential of a democratized approach to innovation can be realized.
Colin J. Ferster
Full Text Available Wildfire management in the wildland-urban interface (WUI protects property and life from wildland fire. One approach that has potential to provide information about the amount and location of fuels to forest managers and, at the same time, increase public knowledge and engagement in reducing wildfire threats is public participation in scientific research (PPSR—also known as citizen science—where members of the public participate in the research process. In this exploratory study, residents of a wildfire-affected community tested a smartphone application to collect data about forest fuels and answered questions about wildfire, their community, and experiences using the application. In this paper, the application is introduced, the volunteers’ motivations, attitudes, and behaviors are considered, and the potential of using a PPSR approach for wildfire management discussed. Although there are practical challenges to applying PPSR approaches to wildfire hazard management, the participants in this study demonstrated the potential of PPSR to increase awareness and understanding of actions that can reduce the threat of wildfire. Wildfire managers may consider utilizing PPSR approaches to engage the community in wildfire preparedness.
Despite recent U.K. Government commitments' to encourage public participation in environmental decision making, those exercises conducted to date have been largely confined to 'traditional' modes of participation such as the dissemination of information and in encouraging feedback on proposals through, for example, questionnaires or surveys. It is the premise of this paper that participative approaches that use IT-based methods, based on combined geographical information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation techniques that could involve the public in the decision-making process, have the potential to build consensus and reduce disputes and conflicts such as those arising from the siting of different types of waste facilities. The potential of these techniques are documented through a review of the existing literature in order to highlight the opportunities and challenges facing decision makers in increasing the involvement of the public at different stages of the waste facility management process. It is concluded that there are important lessons to be learned by researchers, consultants, managers and decision makers if barriers hindering the wider use of such techniques are to be overcome.
Berthold Kuhn; Freie Universität Berlin; Yangyong Zhang; Xiamen University
"Climate protection issues are receiving more attention in China. Responding to this survey, 133 environmental and climate protection experts indicated that the government is a key factor in raising awareness of climate protection in China. Experts participating in the survey also referred to the role of the media - in particular social media - NGOs and educational institutions in spreading climate protection awareness. Additionally, interviews were carried out with 40 of the experts, who wer...
Full Text Available This paper presents collaborative tools for public participation across multiple networking sites. The tools are part of the Comuno networking site for public governance and services, which is particularly targeted at the public sector (currently in alpha testing at http://comuno.org. The Broadcast tool allows cross-posting content from Comuno to a wide variety of other networking sites, such as Facebook or Twitter. The UserFeed and TopicFeed tools build RSS feeds from content published by a specific user or under a specific topic. The LifeStream tool gathers a user’s activities across multiple networking sites in the private account section at Comuno. These tools and related aspects of the Comuno networking site are discussed and presented in the context of deliberation and opinion-forming in a Swiss bilingual city.
Sommer, Adir; Belkin, Avner; Ofir, Shay; Assia, Ehud
In recent decades cataract surgery has shifted slowly from public hospitals to ambulatory surgery centers, demonstrating changes in the profile of patients presenting to public hospitals for cataract surgery. These changes may potentially affect the complexity of surgeries, their volume, resident training, and perhaps also visual outcomes and patient satisfaction. To assess the changes in the medical and demographic characteristics of patients undergoing cataract surgery in a public hospital over a period of 15 years. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients undergoing preoperative assessment before cataract surgery. Records for the period October 2000 to January 2001 (100 patients), October 2006 to January 2007 (100 patients), and October 2013 to January 2014 (150 patients) were assessed for demographic, systemic and ocular related parameters. There was a significant increase in the average age of patients (70.4, 72.4, 73.9 years, P = 0.026), with a significant increase in the percentage of patients of Arab ethnicity (17%, 11%, 28.7%, P = 0.002), and concomitant systemic co-morbidities (38%, 46%, 64.7%, P cataract (38%, 34.4%, 56.9%, P = 0.001), and a significant increase in the percentage of patients taking alpha-blocking medications (0%, 8%, 10.7 %, P = 0.004). Patients presenting for cataract surgery in 2013 compared to those in earlier periods are older, sicker and have more ocular conditions potentially affecting cataract surgery outcomes, patient satisfaction and residents' training.
Grassi, S.; Klein, T. M.
Wind energy is one of the most important source of renewable energy characterized by a significant growth in the last decades and giving a more and more relevant contribution to the energy supply. One of the main disadvantages of a faster integration of wind energy into the energy mix is related to the visual impact of wind turbines on the landscape. In addition, the siting of new massive infrastructures has the potential to threaten a community's well-being if new projects are perceived being unfair. The public perception of the impact of wind turbines on the landscape is also crucial for their acceptance. The implementation of wind energy projects is hampered often because of a lack of planning or communication tools enabling a more transparent and efficient interaction between all stakeholders involved in the projects (i.e. developers, local communities and administrations, NGOs, etc.). Concerning the visual assessment of wind farms, a critical gap lies in effective visualization tools to improve the public perception of alternative wind turbines layouts. In this paper, we describe the advantages of a 3D dynamical and interactive visualization platform for an augmented reality to support wind energy planners in order to enhance the social acceptance of new wind energy projects.
The outcome of Bill Clinton's health care initiative presents policy analysts and democratic theorists with a puzzle: How could vigorous discussion of health reform, introduced into the context of an emerging public consensus about its urgency, produce widespread incomprehension of the issue and foster public reluctance to embrace any specific proposal for change? Starting from the perspective of political theories of deliberative democracy, I approach the puzzle of failed health reform by pointing to the paradox of decision making in an adversary democracy. First, I argue that the policy initiative stalled because the debate was set up to depoliticize the question of health reform and thereby disengage citizens from the problem. Second, I defend a conception of "power-sensitive" deliberation, which I argue is a check against two typical mechanisms of depoliticization: factionalism and the "democractic wish." Third, I suggest four criteria for power-sensitive deliberation, which I then use to analyze the recent health care debates. Finally, I explore the incentives and obstacles to creating opportunities for this kind of deliberation.
Full Text Available 本研究為探究公共圖書館老年志工參與志願服務之概況，以臺北市立圖書館老年志工為研究對象，試圖了解老年志工最初參與志願服務的動機、參與志願服務的目的、選擇進入公共圖書館服務的因素、參與志願服務情形（含訓練課程、服務情形）、持續參與服務的原因等五項研究問題。 研究取向及方法以質性研究之半結構式訪談法為主，共訪談三十名年齡在56至85歲的志工；最後依研究結果提出相關建議，以作為圖書館相關單位參考。This study aims to explore the participation of the elderly in voluntary services in public libraries. The subjects for this study have been chosen from the elderly volunteers of the Taipei Public Library. The research questions attempt to investigate the followings: the motivations and purposes of elderly participation in volunteer services, the factors that influence their choices of entering the public library service, and the experience of volunteer services. This study uses a semi-structured interview and a small questionnaire to collect data. In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the research subjects and to interpret the research results appropriately, the findings have been supplemented with the background information of research subjects collected from personal profile forms to achieve the relevance to the volunteer services experience of elderly participation. The total of 30 elderly volunteer aged from 56 to 85 have been interviewed. Based on the research findings, the authors propose a framework for understanding elderly volunteers participating in public library services, and offer suggestions to voluntary service units of public libraries and elderly volunteers.
McNab, Duncan; McKay, John; Bowie, Paul
Small-scale quality improvement projects are expected to make a significant contribution towards improving the quality of healthcare. Enabling doctors-in-training to design and lead quality improvement projects is important preparation for independent practice. Participation is mandatory in speciality training curricula. However, provision of training and ongoing support in quality improvement methods and practice is variable. We aimed to design and deliver a quality improvement training package to core medical and general practice specialty trainees and evaluate impact in terms of project participation, completion and publication in a healthcare journal. A quality improvement training package was developed and delivered to core medical trainees and general practice specialty trainees in the west of Scotland encompassing a 1-day workshop and mentoring during completion of a quality improvement project over 3 months. A mixed methods evaluation was undertaken and data collected via questionnaire surveys, knowledge assessment, and formative assessment of project proposals, completed quality improvement projects and publication success. Twenty-three participants attended the training day with 20 submitting a project proposal (87%). Ten completed quality improvement projects (43%), eight were judged as satisfactory (35%), and four were submitted and accepted for journal publication (17%). Knowledge and confidence in aspects of quality improvement improved during the pilot, while early feedback on project proposals was valued (85.7%). This small study reports modest success in training core medical trainees and general practice specialty trainees in quality improvement. Many gained knowledge of, confidence in and experience of quality improvement, while journal publication was shown to be possible. The development of educational resources to aid quality improvement project completion and mentoring support is necessary if expectations for quality improvement are to be
Vania Souza Bilert
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the profile of beginner and graduate students who apply for Executive Secretariat graduation course. This research was carried out with students from 11 Brazilian public undergraduate schools, both federal and state ones. This is considered a descriptive and exploratory study, which analyzed 507 students, 311 beginners and 196 graduate ones. The main results show that students perform in different segment companies, but especially in service companies, 87% are female and the predominant age group is between 17 and 24 years old. In a positive way, this research stands out the factor that these students perform professionally since the beginning of the graduation, exerting the functions which are up to the Executive Secretariat professional. This reveals that the students are able to link what they have learned inside the classroom with the professional practice, which also highlights the acceptance of professionals of Executive Secretariat by the entrepreneurship.
Simão, Ana; Densham, Paul J; Haklay, Mordechai Muki
Spatial planning typically involves multiple stakeholders. To any specific planning problem, stakeholders often bring different levels of knowledge about the components of the problem and make assumptions, reflecting their individual experiences, that yield conflicting views about desirable planning outcomes. Consequently, stakeholders need to learn about the likely outcomes that result from their stated preferences; this learning can be supported through enhanced access to information, increased public participation in spatial decision-making and support for distributed collaboration amongst planners, stakeholders and the public. This paper presents a conceptual system framework for web-based GIS that supports public participation in collaborative planning. The framework combines an information area, a Multi-Criteria Spatial Decision Support System (MC-SDSS) and an argumentation map to support distributed and asynchronous collaboration in spatial planning. After analysing the novel aspects of this framework, the paper describes its implementation, as a proof of concept, in a system for Web-based Participatory Wind Energy Planning (WePWEP). Details are provided on the specific implementation of each of WePWEP's four tiers, including technical and structural aspects. Throughout the paper, particular emphasis is placed on the need to support user learning throughout the planning process.
On October 24, 1992, President Bush signed into law the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The bill is a sweeping, comprehensive overhaul of the Nation`s energy laws, the first in more than a decade. Among other provisions, the National Energy Policy Act reforms the licensing process for new nuclear power plants by adopting a new approach developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989, and upheld in court in 1992. The NRC 10 CFR Part 52 rule is a three-step process that guarantees public participation at each step. The steps are: early site permit approval; standard design certifications; and, combined construction/operating licenses for nuclear power reactors. Licensing reform increases an organization`s ability to respond to future baseload electricity generation needs with less financial risk for ratepayers and the organization. Costly delays can be avoided because design, safety and siting issues will be resolved before a company starts to build a plant. Specifically, early site permit approval allows for site suitability and acceptability issues to be addressed prior to an organization`s commitment to build a plant. Responsibility for site-specific activities, including communications and public participation, rests with those organizations selected to try out early site approval. This plan has been prepared to assist those companies (referred to as sponsoring organizations) in planning their communications and public involvement programs. It provides research findings, information and recommendations to be used by organizations as a resource and starting point in developing their own plans.
Hildegard Susana Jung
Full Text Available This study, of theoretical and documentary nature, aims to investigate the role of school councils in Brazilian municipalities. Therefore, we analyzed the construction of the democratic process in Brazil, as well as the progress of popular participation in these bodies, composed by representatives of the school community. In this context, we can highlight the municipality of Frederico Westphalen, Rio Grande do Sul, tracing possibilities and challenges of local social control. It is possible to observe that, despite the creation of the first school councils have taken place in the early 1990s, only in 2003 they became a reality in the city. Many of these boards come up against bureaucracy and lack of knowledge of their mission by its components. Despite the small number of investigations about it, it can be concluded that it is necessary to develop the relationship between theory and practice, so that the school councils are able to carry out their role of bringing the community into the school effectively
Garmendia, Eneko [Institute for Environmental Sciences and Technologies (ICTA), Autonomous University of Barcelona (Spain); Environmental Economics Unit, Institute for Public Economics, University of the Basque Country (Spain); Stagl, Sigrid [Department of Socio-Economics, WU Vienna, Vienna University of Economics and Business (Austria)
Shaping change such that it avoids losing potentially useful options for future development is a challenging task in the face of complex, coevolving socio-ecological systems. Sustainability appraisal methods, which open up dialogue and options before closing down and making suggestions, pay attention to the inclusion of various and conflicting points of view and address uncertainty, are increasingly used in the science, environment and energy policy domains. The quality of the process is seen as key to high quality appraisal outcomes. Dimensions of quality include learning opportunities which are seen as ways for addressing complexity and uncertainty. Participatory sustainability appraisal methods intend to support social learning among participants. Despite high expectations, social learning processes in sustainability appraisals are poorly conceptualized and empirically understudied. This paper (1) briefly reviews theories of social learning; (2) develops a conceptual framework for the analysis; and (3) presents an empirical application of the framework by use of data obtained from three energy and natural resource management case studies around Europe. (author)
Mech, L. David; Sharpe, V.A.; Norton, B.; Donnelley, S.
The first time I ever saw a wolf in New York State's Adirondack Mountains was in 1956. It was a brush wolf, or coyote (Canis latrans), not a real wolf, but to an eager young wildlife student this distinction meant little. The presence of this large deer-killing canid let my fresh imagination view the Adirondacks as a real northern wilderness. Since then I have spent the last 40 years studying the real wolf: the gray wolf (Canis lupus). Although inhabiting nearby Quebec and Ontario, the gray wolf still has not made its way back to the Adirondacks as it has to Wisconsin, Michigan, and Montana. Those three states had the critical advantages of a nearby reservoir population of wolves and wilderness corridors through which dispersers from the reservoirs could immigrate. The Adirondacks, on the other hand, are geographically more similar to the greater Yellowstone area in that they are separated from any wolf reservoir by long distances and intensively human-developed areas aversive to wolves from the reservoir populations. If wolves are to return to the Adirondacks, they almost certainly will have to be reintroduced, as they were to Yellowstone National Park. Wolf reintroduction, as distinct from natural recovery, is an especially contentious issue, for it entails dramatic, deliberate action that must be open to public scrutiny, thorough discussion and review, and highly polarized debate. This is as it should be because once a wolf population is reintroduced to an area, it must be managed forever. There is no turning back. The wolf was once eradicated not just from the Adirondacks but from almost all of the 48 contiguous states. That feat was accomplished by a primarily pioneering society that applied itself endlessly to the task, armed with poison. We can never return to those days, so once the wolf is reintroduced successfully, it will almost certainly be here to stay.
Nathanielly Cristina Carvalho de Brito Santos
Full Text Available One aimed to identify the nutritional profile of children in a public daycare center in the city of Cuité-Paraíba, from the perspective of health surveillance. This is a cross-sectional, exploratory-descriptive, field study with a quantitative approach, performed in 2011, with 55 children from 6 to 60 months of life, assisted full time in a public daycare center, who met the selection criteria: be attending the daycare center; and not present any disability. One used for evaluation the anthropometric measurements of weight, height and Body Mass Index, according to the growth curve suggested by the Ministry of Health. One identified that 96.4% had adequate nutritional status, however, 7.3% had overweight risk and 3.6% underweight risk, especially girls. It is important to raise managers’, professionals’ and parents’ awareness about the health surveillance of children in daycare centers for identification and intervention against nutritional changes, encouraging an adequate child growth.
Manuel Ángel Calvo-Calvo
Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to identify web tools leading to virtual citizen participation in health, to find out what tools exist and their degree of development in the websites of the Andalusia Public Health System. It identified 42 website tools that can facilitate information for, and interactivity with, citizenry. A descriptive and transversal study was then conducted to find out what participatory tools appear on six websites of the Andalusia Public Health System. Of the tools proposed, 33 were present in the analyzed webs. The participatory resources that were most developed by the organizations studied were the presence in social networks and Web 2.0 and 1.0 applications for informing the citizenry. 2.0 tools for web-user interaction and publishing contents created by users were developed to a lesser degree. Finally, online applications for interaction and collaboration among users had not been developed on the websites studied.
Šolić, Ivana; Stipčić, Ana; Pavličević, Ivančica; Marušić, Ana
Despite increased visibility of clinical trials through international trial registries, patients often remain uninformed of their existence, especially if they do not have access to adequate information about clinical research, including the language of the information. The aim of this study was to describe the context for transparency of clinical trials in Croatia in relation to countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and to assess how informed Croatian patients are about clinical trials and their accessibility. We assessed the transparency of clinical trials from the data available in the public domain. We also conducted an anonymous survey on a convenience sample of 257 patients visiting two family medicine offices or an oncology department in south Croatia, and members of national patients' associations. Despite legal provisions for transparency of clinical trials in Croatia, they are still not sufficiently visible in the public domain. Among countries from Central and Eastern Europe, Croatia has the fewest number of registered trials in the EU Clinical Trials Registry. 66% of the patients in the survey were aware of the existence of clinical trials but only 15% were informed about possibilities of participating in a trial. Although 58% of the respondents were willing to try new treatments, only 6% actually participated in a clinical trial. Only 2% of the respondents were aware of publicly available trial registries. Our study demonstrates that there is low transparency of clinical trials in Croatia, and that Croatian patients are not fully aware of clinical trials and the possibilities of participating in them, despite reported availability of Internet resources and good communication with their physicians. There is a need for active policy measures to increase the awareness of and access to clinical trials to patients in Croatia, particularly in their own language.
de Deus, Raquel Mendonça; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Jaime, Patrícia Constante; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an intervention implemented under the Programa Academia da Saúde (Health Gym Programme) of Belo Horizonte, MG on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants. Intervention study involving participants in the Health Gym Programme which encompasses group food and nutrition education activities over a period of 11 months combined with regular physical activity. Impact was assessed by comparing nutritional and anthropometric indicators in women participants who were divided into two groups according to their participation rate in the intervention. A total of 124 women were evaluated, results showed an increase in the number of daily meals (pnutritional interventions with physical activity to ensure positive impacts on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants in the Health Gym Programme.
Many site-based educators (Wildlife Refuges, nature centers, Cooperative Extension Programs, schools, arboretums) struggle with developing and implementing cohesive long-term scientific monitoring projects into their existing outreach programming. Moreover, projects that are not meaningful to participants often have little or no sustainable long-term impact. Programs proven most effective are those which 1.) engage the participants in the study design and implementation process, 2.) answer a scientific question posed by site leaders; the data collected supports USA-NPN efforts as well as related site management and monitoring questions, 3.) are built into existing outreach and education programs, using phenology as a lens for understanding both natural and cultural history, and 4.) consistently share outcomes and results with the participants. The USA National Phenology Network's (USA-NPN) Education Program provides phenology curriculum and outreach to educators in formal, non-formal, and informal settings. Materials are designed to serve participants in grades 5-12, higher education, and adult learners. Phenology, used as a lens for place-based education, can inform science, environmental, and climate literacy, as well as other subject areas including cultural studies, art, and language arts. The USA-NPN offers consultation with site leaders on how to successfully engage site-based volunteers and students in long-term phenological studies using Nature's Notebook (NN), the professional and citizen science phenology monitoring program. USA-NPN education and educator instruction materials are designed and field-tested to demonstrate how to implement a long-term NN phenology-monitoring program at such sites. These curricula incorporate monitoring for public visitors, long-term volunteers, and school groups, while meeting the goals of USA-NPN and the site, and can be used as a model for other public participation in science programs interested in achieving similar
Ferraro, Gianluca [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Martell, Meritxell [Merience SCP, Barcelona (Spain)
Since 2000, the EURATOM Framework Programmes have dedicated political attention and economic support to public participation in radioactive waste management (RWM). Although a one-fit-all solution for a participatory RWM does not exist, the diversity that characterizes the European Union (EU) offers a relevant pool of knowledge and experience. The Joint Research Centre has used the knowledge and experience cumulated by relevant EURATOM projects to define a list of general principles for a more participatory approach to RWM. The principles explained in this article can ultimately work as indications for the changes and strategic actions that are needed for a better RWM in the EU.
Full Text Available This article focuses on emphasizing howa variety of apparently irrelevant legislationimperfections may induce significant misunderstandingsregarding the real spirit of democraticgovernance, corrupting the practice of activecitizenship in the policy-making processes anddepriving the Romanian public administration ofan important and valuable instrument for efficientgovernance and implementation of sustainabledecisions. The authors chose to analyze aspectsof the related legislation, as it represents afundamental element needed for the developmentof active citizenship. This article is the result of alarger on-going research on the phenomena ofpublic participation and policy dialogue that aimsto provide a more accurate understanding ofactive citizenship mechanisms and to investigatethe existence of a deliberative conscience at thelevel of the Romanian society.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the work reported here is to test reliable molecular profiles using routinely processed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues from participants of the clinical trial BIG 1-98 with a median follow-up of 60 months. Methods RNA from fresh frozen (FF and FFPE tumor samples of 82 patients were used for quality control, and independent FFPE tissues of 342 postmenopausal participants of BIG 1-98 with ER-positive cancer were analyzed by measuring prospectively selected genes and computing scores representing the functions of the estrogen receptor (eight genes, ER_8, the progesterone receptor (five genes, PGR_5, Her2 (two genes, HER2_2, and proliferation (ten genes, PRO_10 by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR on TaqMan Low Density Arrays. Molecular scores were computed for each category and ER_8, PGR_5, HER2_2, and PRO_10 scores were combined into a RISK_25 score. Results Pearson correlation coefficients between FF- and FFPE-derived scores were at least 0.94 and high concordance was observed between molecular scores and immunohistochemical data. The HER2_2, PGR_5, PRO_10 and RISK_25 scores were significant predictors of disease free-survival (DFS in univariate Cox proportional hazard regression. PRO_10 and RISK_25 scores predicted DFS in patients with histological grade II breast cancer and in lymph node positive disease. The PRO_10 and PGR_5 scores were independent predictors of DFS in multivariate Cox regression models incorporating clinical risk indicators; PRO_10 outperformed Ki-67 labeling index in multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses. Conclusions Scores representing the endocrine responsiveness and proliferation status of breast cancers were developed from gene expression analyses based on RNA derived from FFPE tissues. The validation of the molecular scores with tumor samples of participants of the BIG 1-98 trial demonstrates that such scores can serve as independent prognostic
Antonov, Janine; Popovici, Vlad; Delorenzi, Mauro; Wirapati, Pratyaksha; Baltzer, Anna; Oberli, Andrea; Thürlimann, Beat; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Viale, Giuseppe; Altermatt, Hans Jörg; Aebi, Stefan; Jaggi, Rolf
The purpose of the work reported here is to test reliable molecular profiles using routinely processed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from participants of the clinical trial BIG 1-98 with a median follow-up of 60 months. RNA from fresh frozen (FF) and FFPE tumor samples of 82 patients were used for quality control, and independent FFPE tissues of 342 postmenopausal participants of BIG 1-98 with ER-positive cancer were analyzed by measuring prospectively selected genes and computing scores representing the functions of the estrogen receptor (eight genes, ER_8), the progesterone receptor (five genes, PGR_5), Her2 (two genes, HER2_2), and proliferation (ten genes, PRO_10) by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) on TaqMan Low Density Arrays. Molecular scores were computed for each category and ER_8, PGR_5, HER2_2, and PRO_10 scores were combined into a RISK_25 score. Pearson correlation coefficients between FF- and FFPE-derived scores were at least 0.94 and high concordance was observed between molecular scores and immunohistochemical data. The HER2_2, PGR_5, PRO_10 and RISK_25 scores were significant predictors of disease free-survival (DFS) in univariate Cox proportional hazard regression. PRO_10 and RISK_25 scores predicted DFS in patients with histological grade II breast cancer and in lymph node positive disease. The PRO_10 and PGR_5 scores were independent predictors of DFS in multivariate Cox regression models incorporating clinical risk indicators; PRO_10 outperformed Ki-67 labeling index in multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses. Scores representing the endocrine responsiveness and proliferation status of breast cancers were developed from gene expression analyses based on RNA derived from FFPE tissues. The validation of the molecular scores with tumor samples of participants of the BIG 1-98 trial demonstrates that such scores can serve as independent prognostic factors to estimate disease free survival (DFS) in
Sène, A. M.; Bonin, S.; Soubeyran, O.
Several social scientists have dealt with the usefulness of a participative approach in development plans. The call for sustainable development has increased the focus on this type of approach in a very classical way, which is the case for the creation of new water tanks. Most of these scientists have also pinpointed the major difficulties and failures faced during the execution of this new approach in developing countries. This study is a concrete example which underlines the lack of this type of approach as far as water management in the Senegal River is concerned, mainly in relation to watershed. We base our study on the analysis and criticism of the regional organization OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River) which is in charge of water management in the Senegal River. The results of the study can, therefore, be summed up as follows: (i) An on-site direct observation, individual interviews, group discussion and information analysis point out the lack of participation of local people in water management in the Senegal River and, in general, the harmful socio-economic impacts resulting from it. (ii) The reasons for this lack of participative approach are mainly due to the model set up by the OMVS in terms of water management in the Senegal River, a model that has excluded or tackled in a very light way the issue of public participation in decision-making through out its juridical and regulation instruments. (iii) Elements of consideration on some measures, which could possibly improve the level of participation of local people in river water management.
Sawin, Kathleen J; Liu, Tiebin; Ward, Elisabeth; Thibadeau, Judy; Schechter, Michael S; Soe, Minn M; Walker, William
To use data from the US National Spina Bifida Patient Registry (NSBPR) to describe variations in Contexts of Care, Processes of Care, and Health Outcomes among individuals with spina bifida (SB) receiving care in 10 clinics. Reported here are baseline cross-sectional data representing the first visit of 2172 participants from 10 specialized, multidisciplinary SB clinics participating in the NSBPR. We used descriptive statistics, the Fisher exact test, χ(2) test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test to examine the data. The mean age was 10.1 (SD 8.1) years with slightly more female subjects (52.5%). The majority was white (63.4%) and relied upon public insurance (53.5%). One-third had sacral lesions, 44.8% had mid-low lumbar lesions, and 24.9% had high lumbar and thoracic lesions. The most common surgery was ventricular shunt placement (65.7%). The most common bladder-management technique among those with bladder impairment was intermittent catheterization (69.0%). Almost 14% experienced a pressure ulcer in the last year. Of those ages 5 years or older with bowel or bladder impairments, almost 30% were continent of stool; a similar percentage was continent of urine. Most variables were associated with type of SB diagnosis. The NSBPR provides a cross section of a predominantly pediatric population of patients followed in specialized SB programs. There were wide variations in the variables studied and major differences in Context of Care, Processes of Care, and Health Outcomes by type of SB. Such wide variation and the differences by type of SB should be considered in future analyses of outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Machado, Helena; Silva, Susana
The ethical aspects of biobanks and forensic DNA databases are often treated as separate issues. As a reflection of this, public participation, or the involvement of citizens in genetic databases, has been approached differently in the fields of forensics and medicine. This paper aims to cross the boundaries between medicine and forensics by exploring the flows between the ethical issues presented in the two domains and the subsequent conceptualisation of public trust and legitimisation. We propose to introduce the concept of 'solidarity', traditionally applied only to medical and research biobanks, into a consideration of public engagement in medicine and forensics. Inclusion of a solidarity-based framework, in both medical biobanks and forensic DNA databases, raises new questions that should be included in the ethical debate, in relation to both health services/medical research and activities associated with the criminal justice system. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Kolasa, Katarzyna; Dohnalik, Jacek; Borek, Ewa; Siemiątkowski, Marek; Scibiorski, Cezary
To assess the concept of public involvement in the decision-making process in the healthcare sector in Poland. A poll was conducted in 2011 on a representative random sample of residents of Poland. Respondents were asked about their preferences concerning the selection of the groups most appropriately representing public interests in the process of decision-making in the healthcare: Patients' Advocacy Groups (PAGs), Carers' Advocacy Groups (CAGs) and Citizens' Councils (CCs). A systematic literature review was performed to study real life examples of patients' involvement in the decision making processes in the Polish healthcare sector as well. In total, 83% of respondents would wish the participation of PAGs in decision-making concerning healthcare resources. The attitude to the engagement of CAGs and CCs was still positive but significantly lower, by 6 and 7 percentage points respectively. Some socio-demographic differences were observed. In the literature review, five examples of the Polish patients' empowerment and three cases of PAGs' engagement in decision making process were identified. Although its importance was met with a universal approval by the majority of responders, real life examples of public engagement in decision making process indicate there is still room for improvement in the Polish healthcare. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nowell, Branda; Harrison, Lisa Macon
Collaborative partnerships have grown in prominence as vehicles for systems change and organizational development among a network of organizations, particularly in the complex field of public health. Likewise, supporting the functioning and effectiveness of collaborative partnerships has become a key interest among organizational development scholars and community psychologists alike. In the question of capacity-building, no aspect of collaborative capacity has received greater attention than that of leadership. Research on collaborative partnerships has highlighted the importance of shared leadership while at the same time acknowledging that specific individuals do and often must emerge and assume more prominent roles in the partnership in order for the work of the partnership to move forward. However, we have limited knowledge of these key individuals and the roles that they play in non-hierarchical, voluntary partnerships. The present study is a comparative case study of prominent leaders in three regional public health partnerships. The aim of this investigation is to explore the questions: (1) What does it mean to be a leader in a context where no one is "in charge?" (2) What roles do those individuals identified as leaders play?, and (3) What are the specific capacities that enable the enactment of these roles? We find that those viewed as leaders by their partnerships shared a similar profile both in the range and types of roles they play and the capacities that enable them to carry out these roles. Further, we find that while individual attributes such as passion, knowledge, and leadership skills are important, some of the most prominent capacities are rooted in the organizational and institutional contexts within which the leader is nested.
Background The capacity of service providers in the public sector to deliver inclusive services is essential to implement strategies that will allow the full participation of disabled youth in development opportunities in the rural context. Objectives This article sets out to describe the capacity of service providers in facilitating the participation of disabled youth in economic development opportunities. Method An instrumental, embedded single case study informed the research design. The sample consisted of five disabled youth, four family members and six service providers. Data was gathered through in depth individual interviews and focus group discussions. Data analysis was done inductively and thematically. In the discussion, the interpretation used organisational capacity elements as a framework. Results The findings indicate a perception of disability as a multifaceted and challenging issue with different orientations to service delivery, based on the understanding of the impairment and disability. There is a strong focus on impairment and negative attitudes. Discussion An asset-building approach could facilitate awareness of the capacities of disabled youth and thus shift negative attitudes to enabling attitudes. The vague strategies for youth and women reflect an organisational attitude that seems non-committal to its core agenda of inclusive development, which would ensure equal opportunities for participation by disabled youth. Conclusion An appreciative process of facilitating a deeper understanding of the needs of disabled youth would assist service providers to reconceptualise disability within an expansive framework of equal opportunities and active citizenship. PMID:28730042
Full Text Available Several studies have been able to identify the constant lack of interest of the scientiﬁc community of communication towards the ﬁeld of radio (Antón & Serrano, 2007; Balsebre, 1994. This is probably a common aspect in some of the researchers who have dedicated their work in order to discuss several questions posed to the radio as a mass media profoundly connected with the social ecosystem. Probably it is harder though to ﬁnd identical perspectives regarding the current landscape of radio. Besides debating in certain way, how can we describe the actual state of this media, it is still important to focus on one of its historical characteristics: its connection with the telephone and, therefore, with listeners, as well as their eventual intervention. This has been a concern for some researchers as some of them have deﬁned participation as a especial format or genre within radio productions (Cébrian Herreros, 2001; Merayo Pérez, 2000. This represents the considerable importance that this concept has been able to gather in recent studies, as well as it contributes to reinforce the role of media institutions, in general, and radio, particularly, to draw efﬁcient strategies to integrate citizens’ intervention in a healthy and democratic way. From some theoretical approaches, notwithstanding citizens’ participation as a key concept of this paper, it will presented a case study which has basically tried to compare the dynamics of participation in two public opinion programmes in the Portuguese radio: Antena Aberta and Fórum da TSF. Hence these two formats will try to understand how Portuguese media productions are working presently to empower citizens to participate in these formats. Thus, some criteria have been drawn to establish this comparison, for instance, the available platforms to participate, selection of participants, schedules for the programme’sbroadcasting, or subjects discussed. Following the title of this journal, how
FERNANDA DOS SANTOS
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the profile of appendectomies performed in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS and to compare the laparoscopic and laparotomic techniques of appendectomy. Methods: This work used information from DataSus from 2008 to 2014 (http://datasus.saude.gov.br. We compared the data of patients submitted to laparotomic appendectomy with those submitted to laparoscopic one. Results: when comparing the total growth of appendectomies, the laparoscopic route increased 279.7%, while the increase in laparotomic surgery was 25% (p <0.001 in the study period. With regard to medical and hospital costs, laparoscopic appendectomy accounted for only 2.6% of the total expenditure on appendectomies performed by the Unified Health System (SUS hospitals, with an average cost 7.6% lower than that of laparotomy procedures, but without statistical significance. The mortality rate was 57.1% lower in the laparoscopic approach when compared with laparotomy. Conclusion: there has been a significant increase in the laparoscopic route in the treatment of appendicitis, but the method is still rarely used in SUS patients. The costs of laparoscopic appendectomy were similar to those observed in laparotomic access.
Full Text Available Abstract This article examines some of the challenges that the notion of a (monolingual native speaker faces in a global context of increasing awareness that bilingualism and multilingualism are the norm rather than the exception. It also discusses the distinction between two child language acquisition environments, bilingual first language acquisition and early second language acquisition, which can lead to bilingual or multilingual outcomes early on in life. This serves as a backdrop for a study of language profiling practices in public schools across the province of Ontario. Student registration forms from 44 district school boards were analysed with regard to the number, type and combination patterns of language background questions. The findings indicate that school boards are aware of the potentially diverse linguistic backgrounds of incoming students, but may not be conceptually or methodologically equipped to recognize the full spectrum of linguistic complexity involved. Some degree of standardization of language background profiling across different districts is recommended as a measure that may benefit the province. Résumé Cet article examine certains défis auxquels la notion d’un locuteur natif (monolingue fait face dans un contexte mondial où il existe une reconnaissance croissante que le bilinguisme et le multilinguisme représentent la norme plutôt que l’exception. L’article aborde également la distinction entre deux contextes d’acquisition de la langue chez les enfants, ceux-ci étant l'acquisition bilingue de la langue première et l’acquisition précoce de la langue seconde, qui peuvent mener à des résultats bilingues ou multilingues tôt dans la vie. Ceci sert de toile de fond pour une étude des pratiques de profilage linguistique dans des écoles publiques à travers la province de l’Ontario. Des formulaires d’inscription d’élèves provenant de 44 conseils scolaires ont été analysés en termes du
Full Text Available This article deals with the much debated issue of children’s public participation from the perspective of legal practices in the Russian Federation. Having emerged at the level of national jurisdictions, the practice of engaging minors in decision-making processes on issues of public significance – or the practice of public participation of children – is stipulated by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, based on Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Public participation of minors implies that children have clearly defined opportunities to take part in decision-making processes concerning those political and public matters affecting their interests.Albeit limited by the clause “regarding the issues concerning them,” the claims for such participation are dictated by emerging standards of international law. The author has examined the process of devising these standards in Russian public law. Moreover, an analysis of the evolution of academic views on public participation of children in Russian legal scholarship is also included in this article.Relying extensively on the method of legal analysis and the comparative analysis of the conformity of national public law standards with respect to international law, the author proposes several legal amendments to the Federal law “On the Basic Guarantees of the Rights of the Child in the Russian Federation,” which would lead to anchoring more solidly the participatory right of minors in the legal system of the Russian Federation.
Full Text Available The paper discusses the need to protect the legitimacy of decision-making process in investment arbitration through public access to the proceedings. Unlike commercial arbitration, investment arbitration entails decisions on state responsibility for measures directed towards protection of environment, lives and health of its population or human rights. Presence of the public interest in such disputes brings under strong criticism a traditional characteristic of arbitration process - its confidentiality. The problem of democratic deficit of decision-making can be resolved, inter alia, by allowing persons who are not parties to the dispute to participate in the proceedings if they consider that their interest might be affected by arbitral award. The 2006 Arbitration Rules of International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes envisage, subject to approval of the Tribunal, the right of a non-disputing party to file a written submission with the Tribunal regarding a factual or legal issue connected with the subject matter of the dispute. However, without right of those entities to attend arbitral hearings and, more importantly, without their access to documents submitted during the proceedings, this is not by far enough to give 'friends of the court' a meaningful and significant role.
Korpilo, Silviya; Virtanen, Tarmo; Saukkonen, Tiina; Lehvävirta, Susanna
Planning and management needs up-to-date, easily-obtainable and accurate information on the spatial and social aspects of visitor behaviour in order to balance human use and impacts, and protection of natural resources in public parks. We used a web-based public participation GIS (PPGIS) approach to gather citizen data on visitor behaviour in Helsinki's Central Park in order to aid collaborative spatial decision-making. The study combined smartphone GPS tracking, route drawing and a questionnaire to examine differences between user groups in their use of formal trails, off-trail behaviour and the motivations that affect it. In our sample (n = 233), different activity types were associated with distinctive spatial patterns and potential extent of impacts. The density mapping and statistical analyses indicated three types of behaviour: predominantly on or close to formal trails (runners and cyclists), spatially concentrated off-trail behaviour confined to a few informal paths (mountain bikers), and dispersed off-trail use pattern (walkers and dog walkers). Across all user groups, off-trail behaviour was mainly motivated by positive attraction towards the environment such as scenic view, exploration, and viewing flora and fauna. Study findings lead to several management recommendations that were presented to city officials. These include reducing dispersion and the spatial extent of trampling impacts by encouraging use of a limited number of well-established informal paths away from sensitive vegetation and protected habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Santos, Fernanda Dos; Cavasana, Gabriel Flamarim; Campos, Tercio DE
to analyze the profile of appendectomies performed in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) and to compare the laparoscopic and laparotomic techniques of appendectomy. This work used information from DataSus from 2008 to 2014 (http://datasus.saude.gov.br). We compared the data of patients submitted to laparotomic appendectomy with those submitted to laparoscopic one. when comparing the total growth of appendectomies, the laparoscopic route increased 279.7%, while the increase in laparotomic surgery was 25% (p Sistema de Saúde Pública (SUS) do Brasil e comparar as técnicas de apendicectomia, por via laparoscópica e laparotômica. este trabalho utilizou informações do DataSus de 2008 a 2014 (http://datasus.saude.gov.br). Foram comparados os dados dos doentes submetidos à apendicectomia laparotômica com aqueles submetidos à apendicectomia laparoscópica. ao se comparar o crescimento total das apendicectomias, a via laparoscópica aumentou 279,7%, enquanto o aumento da cirurgia laparotômica foi 25% (pSistema Único de Saúde (SUS) com custo médio 7,6% inferior ao das cirurgias por via laparotômica, porém sem significância estatística. A taxa de mortalidade foi 57,1% menor na via laparoscópica quando comparado com a laparotômica. vem havendo um aumento significativo da via laparoscópica no tratamento das apendicites, mas o método ainda é pouco utilizado nos doentes do SUS. Os custos da apendicectomia laparoscópica se mostraram semelhantes aos observados nos acessos laparotômicos.
Lawrence K. Thema
Full Text Available Background: Despite the impact of oral diseases on the quality of life, there is limited updated evidence on oral health status in Limpopo province.Objectives: To determine the epidemiological profile of patients utilising public oral health services in Limpopo province.Method: This was a descriptive retrospective clinical chart review conducted in five purposively selected district hospitals in Limpopo province. The collected data included the patient’s sociodemographic information, reasons for dental consultation, information on the dental or oral diseases and the treatment received. Five hundred clinical files were systematically selected (100 from each district hospital for the period 01 January 1995 to 31 December 2013. Data were collected using the World Health Organization’s indicator age groups, namely 6-year-olds, 12-year-olds, 18-year-olds and 35–44-year-old groups. A data capturing sheet was used to record the collected information. Data were analysed using the statistical software package for social sciences SPSS version 23.0.Results: The majority of patients were in the age group of 6 to 20 years (n = 375, 75%. The majority were male patients (n = 309; 62%. Dental caries was the most common complaint (n = 298, 60%. The second most common main complaint in this age group was retained primary or deciduous teeth (n = 60, 12% affecting children mainly in the age group of 6 to 12 years. The most common clinical procedure across all five districts was dental extractions (n = 324, 64%. Other clinical interventions included scaling and polishing (n = 33, 12% and dental restorative care (n = 20, 3%.Conclusion: There is an urgent need to reorient oral health service delivery in Limpopo province to focus more on preventive oral health programmes.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the OLEANDER and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 22 November 2001 to 23 January 2002....
Goerge, Robert; Datta, A. Rupa; Xia, Kanru; Witte, Ann D.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Milesi, Carolina; Brandon, Richard; Guzman, Lina; Zanoni, Wladimir
The analyses presented in the Technical Report, "Which Centers Participate in Head Start or Public Pre-Kindergarten" characterize centers that have at least one child whose enrollment is funded through Head Start or Public Pre-K funds. This supplement to the technical report provides interested readers with technical details of the…
Challenging Expertise: Paul Feyerabend vs. Harry Collins & Robert Evans on democracy, public participation and scientific authority: Paul Feyerabend vs. Harry Collins & Robert Evans on scientific authority and public participation.
This paper compares Feyerabend's arguments in Science in a Free Society to the controversial theory of expertise proposed by Harry Collins and Robert Evans as a Third Wave of Science Studies. Is the legitimacy of democratic decisions threatened by the unquestioned authority of scientific advice? Or does, on the contrary, science need protection from too much democratic participation in technical decisions? Where Feyerabend's political relativism envisions democratic society as inherently pluralist and demands equal contribution of all traditions and worldviews to public decision-making, Collins and Evans hold a conception of elective modernism, defending the reality and value of technical expertise and arguing that science deserves a privileged status in modern democracies, because scientific values are also democratic values. I will argue that Feyerabend's political relativism provides a valuable framework for the evaluation of Collins' and Evans' theory of expertise. By constructing a dialog between Feyerabend and this more recent approach in Science and Technology Studies, the aim of this article is not only to show where the two positions differ and in what way they might be reconciled, but also how Feyerabend's philosophy provides substantial input to contemporary debate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sorensen, A. E.; Jordan, R.
Recent literature has suggested public participatory research models (e.g., citizen science and similar) as a key opportunity for scientists to meaningfully engage and communicate with the public to increase support for science and encourage pro-science behavior. In this, there has been an inherent assumption that all models of engagement yield similar participant results with few examples of assessment of these programs. While many of these programs do share superficial similarities in their modes of participant engagement and participant motivation, there is a large disparity in participant engagement between them. This disparity suggests that framing of these projects (e.g., citizen science versus crowd sourcing) also plays an important role in decisions about participation. Additionally, participant outcomes, in terms of beliefs about scientific practices and scientific trust, between these two project types has not yet been investigated. To investigate the impact of framing, participants were recruited to a web-based tree phenology public participatory research program where half the participants were engaged in a citizen science framed program and the other were engaged in a crowdsourced framed project. The participants in each frame were engaged in the same task (reporting leaf budding/leaf drop), but the way the projects were framed differed. Post-participation we see that there are indeed statistically significant differences in participant outcomes between individuals who participated as a citizen scientist versus as a crowdsourcer. Particularly we see differences in terms of their views of science, identity, and trust of science. This work is the first to the authors' knowledge that aims to evaluate if projects can be treated synonymously when discussing potential for public engagement and broader trust and literacy outcomes.
Full Text Available As the paradigm of science communication transferred from a one-way, deficit model to an approach that emphasizes public participation and dialogue, citizens in the modern society have thus assumed different civic abilities. These civic abilities include basic knowledge about science, understanding of both the advantages and disadvantages of science, and the ability to make decisions regarding future development of emerging technologies. Because people rely mostly on the media for scientific information, the role of the media in cultivating civic responsibility warrants investigation. Using nanotechnology as a case study, this study aims to examine whether the media can build an informed citizenry and are helpful in people’s decision-making process. The analysis is based on a nationally representative telephone survey (N= 918. The findings indicate that attention to science news on TV has a direct and positive effect on support for nanotechnology. It also exerts an indirect effect by increasing risk perception. Attention to science news on newspapers increases the level of nano knowledge, which, in turn, heightens benefit perception and support. However, the effect of the Internet is subtler. Its effect on knowledge and support depends on education or age. The results of this study suggest that different media platforms play different roles in cultivating the necessary abilities people need in modern, scientific society. By understanding the differential role of the media, science communicators not only can choose appropriate channels for effective communication, but can develop strategies to better use the media as helpful tools in public science education.
Barth, Regine; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate [OeEo-Institute e.V., Inst. for Applied Ecology, Darmstadt (Germany); Arens, Georg [Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)
This paper reflects the first findings of a current research project funded by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection and conducted by an interdisciplinary working group of the OEko-Institute. One focus of this project is the systematic analysis of past and existing participatory processes in different nuclear and non-nuclear projects. On the basis of this analysis and a literature review a specific concept for public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a repository for high radioactive waste (HAW repository) in Germany will be derived. The concept shall foster transparency and acceptance. The working group of the OEko-Institute combines long standing research experience and an intimate knowledge of radioactive waste management including political, technical, management and social problems of final disposal on the one hand. On the other hand members play an active role in stakeholder processes of different non-nuclear projects as well as experience with a wide range of participative measures and their impact. This allows an approach which integrates the specific features of radioactive waste disposal with a wider perspective on the demands and opportunities of stakeholder processes. The procedure of site selection for a HAW repository in Germany still has to be specified. The procedure introduced by the 'Committee on a Site Selection Procedure for Repository Sites' (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd) has not been adopted. The Committee had suggested installing a negotiation group to discuss the AkEnd proposals in the so called 'Phase II'. This suggestion could not be followed because not all relevant stakeholders were willing to participate. An internal draft for a federal law implementing main elements of the AkEnd findings was developed by the Ministry for Environment in 2005, but has never been brought to the cabinet. Due to the change of Government in Germany, the next steps still are
Samsø, Denmark's Renewable Energy Island since 1997, is world renowned for being self-sufficient in renewable energy and for having achieved energy self-sufficiency and CO2 neutrality through successful processes of public participation. In this article I seek to show how these processes of public...... participation so central to the Renewable Energy Island project can be better understood as instances of material participation motivated first and foremost by a concern for the future of the island as a 'liveable' community; a community in which jobs and institutions are not constantly threatening to disappear....... By turning to material participation, a concept inspired by Noortje Marres and Jennifer Gabrys, the efforts put into Samsø’s energy transformation by the islanders are given specificity. While much literature on public participation foregrounds public meetings and other spaces for deliberation and debate...
Liberman, Lihi; Ratzon, Navah; Bart, Orit
Participation is a person's involvement in daily activities in a variety of environments, roles and life situations. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience difficulties in gaining academic achievements or in their engagement in activity of daily living. Motor difficulties have a negative effect on the ability to participate, as well as on various affective components. Senses of coherence, effort and hope have not yet been assessed, within the context of participation, in children with DCD. The purpose of the present study is to look into the relations between participation and senses of coherence, effort and hope among children with DCD, in comparison to typically developed children. Fifty subjects aged 5-6 years participated in the study, 25 of whom are children diagnosed with DCD, the other 25 being typical children. The DCD diagnosis was established according to the DSM-IV criteria and the M-ABC test. All children completed the coherence questionnaire for children as well as the children's questionnaire on effort and hope. Parents completed the Children Participation Questionnaire (CPQ), and the Performance Skills Questionnaire (PSQ). Children with DCD had lower performance skills, lower sense of coherence, hope, and effort than their peers. They less enjoy their participation and their parents are less satisfied in comparison to control group. Significant correlations were found between sense of coherence and hope to participation. Process skills were found to be the main predictor for explaining child's participation. While treating children with DCD we have to consider also socio-psychological aspects that may be weakened. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The benefits of public participation in water management are recognized by governments, scholars, and stakeholders. These benefits, however, do not result from all engagement endeavors. This leads to the question: What are the determinants for effective public participation? Given a list of criteria for achieving the transformational capacity of participation, we analyze the benefits (including the influence on public policies gained through public participation and the determinant factors for obtaining these benefits in the Ebro River Basin in Spain and in the Tucson Basin in Arizona (U.S.. Furthermore, and considering that droughts and floods are major water management challenges in both case studies, we focus on the potential of participation to build adaptive capacity. Our analysis of these case studies concludes that influence on public policies is determined more by the context of the participatory process, i.e., legal framework, political leadership, and social awareness, whereas influence on adaptive capacity building depends more on the characteristics of the participatory process, particularly the existence of active on-site consultation and deliberation.
Bleacher, L.; Hsu, B. C.; Campbell, B. A.; Hess, M.
The Science Communication Working Group (SCWG) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been in existence since late 2007. The SCWG is comprised of education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, public affairs specialists, scientists, and engineers. The goals of the SCWG are to identify barriers to scientist and engineer engagement in E/PO activities and to enable those scientists and engineers who wish to contribute to E/PO to be able to do so. SCWG members have held meetings with scientists and engineers across GSFC to determine barriers to their involvement in E/PO. During these meetings, SCWG members presented examples of successful, ongoing E/PO projects, encouraged active research scientists and engineers to talk about their own E/PO efforts and what worked for them, discussed the E/PO working environment, discussed opportunities for getting involved in E/PO (particularly in high-impact efforts that do not take much time), handed out booklets on effective E/PO, and asked scientists and engineers what they need to engage in E/PO. The identified barriers were consistent among scientists in GSFC's four science divisions (Earth science, planetary science, heliophysics, and astrophysics). Common barriers included 1) lack of time, 2) lack of funding support, 3) lack of value placed on doing E/PO by supervisors, 4) lack of training on doing appropriate/effective E/PO for different audiences, 5) lack of awareness and information about opportunities, 6) lack of understanding of what E/PO really is, and 7) level of effort required to do E/PO. Engineers reported similar issues, but the issues of time and funding support were more pronounced due to their highly structured work day and environment. Since the barriers were identified, the SCWG has taken a number of steps to address and rectify them. Steps have included holding various events to introduce scientists and engineers to E/PO staff and opportunities including an E/PO Open House, brown bag seminars on
van den Berge, M; Ozcanhan, G; Zijlstra, S; Lindenbergh, A; Sijen, T
Especially when minute evidentiary traces are analysed, background cell material unrelated to the crime may contribute to detectable levels in the genetic analyses. To gain understanding on the composition of human cell material residing on surfaces contributing to background traces, we performed DNA and mRNA profiling on samplings of various items. Samples were selected by considering events contributing to cell material deposits in exemplary activities (e.g. dragging a person by the trouser ankles), and can be grouped as public objects, private samples, transfer-related samples and washing machine experiments. Results show that high DNA yields do not necessarily relate to an increased number of contributors or to the detection of other cell types than skin. Background cellular material may be found on any type of public or private item. When a major contributor can be deduced in DNA profiles from private items, this can be a different person than the owner of the item. Also when a specific activity is performed and the areas of physical contact are analysed, the "perpetrator" does not necessarily represent the major contributor in the STR profile. Washing machine experiments show that transfer and persistence during laundry is limited for DNA and cell type dependent for RNA. Skin conditions such as the presence of sebum or sweat can promote DNA transfer. Results of this study, which encompasses 549 samples, increase our understanding regarding the prevalence of human cell material in background and activity scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans
The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Caplin, J.; Padge, G.; Smith, D.; Wiblin, C. [Advanced Systems Technology, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting an enhanced participatory rulemaking to establish radiological criteria for the decommissioning of NRC-licensed facilities. As part of this rulemaking, On August 20, 1994 the NRC published a proposed rule for public comment. Paragraph 20.1406(b) of the proposed rule would require that the licensee convene a Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) if the licensee proposed release of the site for restricted use after decommissioning. To encourage comment the NRC held a workshop on the subject of $SABs on December 6, 7, and 8, 1994. This report summarizes the 567 comments categorized from the transcript of the workshop. The commenters at the workshop generally supported public participation in decommissioning cases. Many participants favored promulgating requirements in the NRC`s rules. Some industry participants favored relying on voluntary exchanges between the public and the licensees. Many participants indicated that a SSAB or something functionally equivalent is needed in controversial decommissioning cases, but that some lesser undertaking can achieve meaningful public participation in other cases. No analysis or response to the comments is included in this report.
Venício Almeida Barbosa
Full Text Available This study aimed to draw the profile of newborns with respiratory distress, assessing geographical origin, sex, maternal gestational and obstetric profile. Methods: This was a descriptive crosssectional study with a quantitative approach. Data collection was performed by medical research and through an interview with themothers. Results: The study population was composed by 72 individuals with 37 females and 45 from other cities. The maternal gestational profile: 58.3% were between 20 and 34 years, 52.8% were multiparous, 44.4% had incomes below the minimum wage, the same value was also found for those who studied between the 5th and 8th grade of elementary school, 90.3% had just one pregnancy, 20.9% had risk factors and 76.6% had less than seven prenatal consultations. The obstetric profile: 55.6% had cesarean delivery, 58.3% were preterm, 43.1% underweight, 35% had some complications during delivery and 36.1% some change in another system. Conclusion: We concluded that most of the study Perfil dos neonatos com desconforto respiratório population has some characteristics that make a high-risk pregnancy and newborn female, born by cesarean section, premature and with low birth weight.
Full Text Available Samsø, Denmark's Renewable Energy Island since 1997, is world renowned for being self-sufficient in renewable energy and for having achieved energy self-sufficiency and CO2 neutrality through successful processes of public participation. In this article I seek to show how these processes of public participation so central to the Renewable Energy Island project can be better understood as instances of material participation motivated first and foremost by a concern for the future of the island as a 'liveable' community; a community in which jobs and institutions are not constantly threatening to disappear. By turning to material participation, a concept inspired by Noortje Marres and Jennifer Gabrys, the efforts put into Samsø’s energy transformation by the islanders are given specificity. While much literature on public participation foregrounds public meetings and other spaces for deliberation and debate, material participation locates participation in everyday practice and work. On Samsø, the islanders’ participation was not an add-on to the project, it was an indispensable resource in itself. Building on extensive fieldwork I analyse how the islanders came to invest their time and resources in the Renewable Energy Island project, highlighting how, by materializing energy in concrete, local projects, energy and climate change-related projects can gain community-strengthening potentialities reaching beyond goals of energy self-sufficiency.
Norte Gomez, M. D.
This paper outlines the need to expand and improve public participation in decision-making on energy. In an advanced society like ours you can not continue using the same tools they used a century ago. Provide and transmit by the scientific community to society, information science and technology in an appropriate language that comes to them, giving them opportunities and enabling them to participate objectively in this decision making. There must be a legitimate, honest, sincere and plural debate where the participation of all the actors involved and from all strata of society. (Author)
Anderson, Susannah; Mezuk, Briana
This study investigates the relationship between participating in a high school debate program on college-readiness in the Chicago Public School district over a 10-year period. At-risk school students were identified using an index including 8th grade achievement, poverty status, and enrollment in special education. Regression analyses were used…
(ie up to the date of publication). (The work also included the ribbons and details of awards of the South West. African Police.) The book formed a milestone in ...... Medal (1952) (instituted 1954)*. '1. John Chard Decoration. (1952) (instituted. 1954 )*. ~2. John Chard Medal (1952) instituted 1954)*. ~3. Korea Medal (1953).
Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Abotalebi, Parvaneh; Ghavami, Mostafa
Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the highest reasons of deaths for people in the world. The objective of current study is to analyze and visualize the trend of global scientific activities in the field of breast cancer during a period of 10 years through 2006-2015. Methods: The current study was performed by utilizing the scientometrics analysis and mapping the co-authorship and co-organization networks. The Web of Science Core Collection (WoS-CC)database was used to extract all papers indexed as a topic of breast cancer through 2006 to 2015. Research productivity was measured through analysis several parameters, including: the number and time course of publications, the journal and language of publications, the frequency and type of publications, as well as top 20 active sub-categories together with country contribution. The extracted data were transferred into the Excel charts and plotted as diagrams. The Science of Science (Sci2) and CiteSpace softwares were used as tools for mapping the co-authorship and co-organization networks of the published papers. Results: Analysis of data indicated that the number of publications in the field of breast cancer has linearly increased and correlated with the time-course of the study. The number of publication indexed in WoS-CC in 2015 was two times greater than that of 2006, which reached from 15 229 documents in 2006 to 30 667 documents in 2015. English Language accounted for 98% of total publications as the most dominant language. The vast majority of publications' type was in the form of original journal articles (64.7%). Based on Bradford scatterings law, the journal of "Cancer Research" was the most productive journal among the core journals, while the USA, China, and England were the most prolific countries in the field. The co-organization network indicated the dominant role of Harvard University in the field. Conclusion: The integrity of network indicated that scientists in the field of breast cancer
Ramadani, Naser; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Berisha, Merita; Hoxha, Rina; Begolli, Ilir; Salihu, Drita; Krasniqi, Pranvera
AIM: To determine the characteristics of the Socio-medical profile of road traffic accidents in Kosovo, between 2010 and 2015 year.STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study.METHODS: A descriptive method based on the database of road traffic accidents from the National Police of Kosovo.RESULTS: In Kosovo for the period 2010-2015, on average, the yearly number of road traffic accidents is 18437 with mortality rate 7.4 per 100000 and lethality of 1.5%. The highest number of fatal cases are drivers and a...
Significance for public healthRisk-based decision making is a core feature of government actions aimed at protecting public health from the adverse effects of environmental hazards. In the past, it has often been an expert-driven, mostly obscure process used by federal agencies to justify and defend regulatory decisions made outside the public arena. But the nature of decision making has changed as it has become apparent that environmental health problems are more complicated, controversial, and costly to solve than originally thought. Meaningful public engagement is now an inherent component of all phases of the risk assessment - risk management paradigm because it promotes stakeholder buy in, taps into unique stakeholder knowledge, and promotes the concept of environmental democracy.In the United States, the risk assessment - risk management paradigm that underpins federal decisions about environmental health risks was first established in 1983. In the beginning, the importance of public participation was not explicitly recognized within the paradigm. Over time, however, it has become evident that not only must risk-based decisions be founded on the best available scientific knowledge and understanding, but also that they must take account of the knowledge, values, and preferences of interested and affected parties, including community members, business people, and environmental advocates. This article examines the gradually expanding role of public participation in risk-based decision making in the United States, and traces its evolution from a peripheral issue labeled as an external pressure to an integral element of the 21st century risk assessment - risk management paradigm. Today, and into the foreseeable future, public participation and stakeholder involvement are intrinsic features of the emerging American regulatory landscape, which emphasizes collaborative approaches for achieving cooperative and cost-effective solutions to complicated and often
Alison Laurie Neilson
Full Text Available This paper discusses civic participation with reference to fishing communities in the Azores archipelago, Portugal. We explore how concepts and political processes actively exclude people, and how researchers could dig deeper to find opportunities to build from diverse cultural practices of participation. Specifically, we describe examples of efforts towards participatory sustainable development as well as introduce a centuries-old highly participatory practice of sharing food. The rituals of the Cult of the Holy Spirit, based on sharing and justice, are an example of strong civic engagement rich with possibility from which to build alternatives to current forms of participation for fisheries governance. We suggest that islands offer understandings of human social interactions in ways that larger landmasses might not. This is a call for reflection on images underlying our understandings of participation and governing the sea commons, and looking more closely at islanders and their long held practices.
Murtazalieva, K A; Druzhilovskiy, D S; Goel, R K; Sastry, G N; Poroikov, V V
Drug repurposing provides a non-laborious and less expensive way for finding new human medicines. Computational assessment of bioactivity profiles shed light on the hidden pharmacological potential of the launched drugs. Currently, several freely available computational tools are available via the Internet, which predict multitarget profiles of drug-like compounds. They are based on chemical similarity assessment (ChemProt, SuperPred, SEA, SwissTargetPrediction and TargetHunter) or machine learning methods (ChemProt and PASS). To compare their performance, this study has created two evaluation sets, consisting of (1) 50 well-known repositioned drugs and (2) 12 drugs recently patented for new indications. In the first set, sensitivity values varied from 0.64 (TarPred) to 1.00 (PASS Online) for the initial indications and from 0.64 (TarPred) to 0.98 (PASS Online) for the repurposed indications. In the second set, sensitivity values varied from 0.08 (SuperPred) to 1.00 (PASS Online) for the initial indications and from 0.00 (SuperPred) to 1.00 (PASS Online) for the repurposed indications. Thus, this analysis demonstrated that the performance of machine learning methods surpassed those of chemical similarity assessments, particularly in the case of novel repurposed indications.
Full Text Available Nowadays, sensor-rich smartphones potentially enable the harvesting of huge amounts of valuable sensing data in urban environments, by opportunistically involving citizens to play the role of mobile virtual sensors to cover Smart City areas of interest. This paper proposes an in-depth study of the challenging technical issues related to the efficient assignment of Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS data collection tasks to volunteers in a crowdsensing campaign. In particular, the paper originally describes how to increase the effectiveness of the proposed sensing campaigns through the inclusion of several new facilities, including accurate participant selection algorithms able to profile and predict user mobility patterns, gaming techniques, and timely geo-notification. The reported results show the feasibility of exploiting profiling trends/prediction techniques from volunteers’ behavior; moreover, they quantitatively compare different MCS task assignment strategies based on large-scale and real MCS data campaigns run in the ParticipAct living lab, an ongoing MCS real-world experiment that involved more than 170 students of the University of Bologna for more than one year.
This article examines citizen participation in the governance of contemporary urban green space. Rather than exploring normative questions of ideal forms of participatory democracy, it focuses on changing roles and relationships between local state and non-state actors in order to identify and explain the changing nature of participation. I argue that neoliberal urban restructuring has changed the conditions for participation and thus participation itself in fundamental ways and that we need an account of changes in statehood and governance in order to capture this conceptually. Based on the case of community gardens in Berlin, the article discusses the extent to which this changed relationship is expressed by current citizen participation as well as the potential and problems that result from it. My empirical results show the emergence of a new political acceptance of autonomously organized projects and active citizen participation in urban green space governance. The central argument of this article is that this new acceptance can be conceptualized as an expression of the neoliberalization of cities. Nevertheless, this neoliberal strategy at the same time leads to complex and contradictory outcomes and the resulting benefits are also acknowledged.
de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos, F
This study focuses on the academic and intellectual career of scientist Nelson Chaves, founder of the Nutritionists School and the Institute of Nutrition at the Federal University in Pernambuco. The methodology was based on quantitative and qualitative analyses of this author's scientific production, published from 1932 to 1982. Beginning with his search for solutions to malnutrition children from the Zona da Mata region in Pernambuco, this scientist created what is commonly called the humanist-ecological paradigm of the Brazilian nutritional issue, thus contributing to the institutionalization of the field of nutrition in public health throughout Brazil.
Stone, Robert R.
Television coverage of the 1972 Presidential Conventions was a complicated, time consuming, exhausting and yet challenging task for the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). Operating on limited funds and borrowed equipment, PBS had to literally throw together its operation in Miami Beach and still keep tabs on the candidates wandering around the…
This study of two cases of sexual harassment investigates employee perceptions and organizational characteristics associated with policy and implementation procedures in two public school districts in New York State which experienced different outcomes to litigation in response to formal complaints of sexual harassment. Using documentary evidence…
Recent reforms in the general music curriculum have, for the most part, failed to lessen the attrition rates of African Americans from public school music programs. In this article I assert that an embodied ideal of cultural nobility, exemplified by Auguste Rodin's famous statue, "The Thinker", has unconsciously operated as a template for…
Abildsnes, Eirik; Stea, Tonje H; Berntsen, Sveinung; Omfjord, Christina S; Rohde, Gudrun
High quality physical education programs in high schools may facilitate adoption of sustainable healthy living among adolescents. Public health nurses often meet students who avoid taking part in physical education programs. We aimed to explore physical education teachers' and public health nurses' perceptions of high school students' attitudes towards physical education, and to explore physical education teachers' thoughts about how to facilitate and promote students' participation in class. Prior to an initiative from physical education teachers, introducing a new physical education model in two high schools in the South of Norway, we conducted focus groups with 6 physical education teachers and 8 public health nurses. After implementation of the new model, we conducted two additional focus group interviews with 10 physical education teachers. In analyses we used Systematic Text Condensation and an editing analysis style. In general, the students were experienced as engaged and appreciating physical education lessons. Those who seldom attended often strived with other subjects in school as well, had mental health problems, or were characterized as outsiders in several arenas. Some students were reported to be reluctant to expose their bodies in showers after class, and students who seldom attended physical education class frequently visited the school health services. Although the majority of students were engaged in class, several of the students lacked knowledge about physical fitness and motoric skills to be able to master daily activities. The participants related the students' competence and attitude towards participation in physical education class to previous experiences in junior high school, to the competence of physical education teachers, and to possibility for students to influence the content of physical education programs. The participants suggested that high school students' attitudes towards participation in physical education is heterogeneous
Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda
In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…
Ramadani, Naser; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Berisha, Merita; Hoxha, Rina; Begolli, Ilir; Salihu, Drita; Krasniqi, Pranvera
To determine the characteristics of the Socio-medical profile of road traffic accidents in Kosovo, between 2010 and 2015 year. Retrospective study. A descriptive method based on the database of road traffic accidents from the National Police of Kosovo. In Kosovo for the period 2010-2015, on average, the yearly number of road traffic accidents is 18437 with mortality rate 7.4 per 100000 and lethality of 1.5%. The highest number of fatal cases are drivers and above 19 years old with more than 80%. Among injured significantly highest percentage is among passengers for all years and above 19 years old. Road traffic accident with a vehicle occurs most frequently, with approximately over 70%, mostly on dry road 72.9% and clear weather 71.1%. The driver is the contributing factors of road traffic accidents on average 99.3% whereas climatic conditions only 0.5%, with over 50% of crashes occurring in urban road 56.2%, mostly during Monday 16.0% and in the afternoon rush hours between 14.00-18.00 with 31.0%. There is a slight decrease in the mortality rate of 0.1‰ and lethality rate of 0.1% each year, whereas there is an increase of 21.5‰ for traumatism rate for each year.
5. RESULTS a. Preliminary Feasibility Report The proceedings of the meetings, as well as the results of the mail-back questionaires were published in...From these meetings and questionaires , the study Team was able to get a better idea of the public’s reactions to the pos- sible conclusions and...CONTACT SPORTS Now AND IN THE FUTURE, a. Sent to Recreation, Water Quality and Flood Plain Manage- ment Work Groups. 5. MIEMO TO PLAN FORMULATION WORK
Seguinot-Medina, Samarys; Rivera-Rentas, Alberto
Asthma is a rapidly growing chronic disease in the general population of the world, mostly in children. Puerto Ricans have the highest prevalence of children with asthma among the Hispanic community in the US and its territories. Asthma and air quality are becoming a significant and potentially costly public health issue in Puerto Rico. The CDC has reported that in Puerto Rico, 320,350 adults have asthma and this number represents 11.5% of the island adult population. The north east municipality of Carolina, Puerto Rico, has the highest asthma prevalence in the 0 to 17 year old range (2001 data). In this study, we address the potential relationship between anthropogenic and naturally occurring environmental factors, and asthma prevalence in an urban elementary public school in Carolina in an effort to empower and engage communities to work on their environmental health issues. We integrated geographic information systems (GIS) data of anthropogenic activities near the school as well as the natural resources and geomorphology of the region. We found that as Carolina is close by to Caribbean National Forest (El Yunque), this together with the temperature and precipitation cycles in the zone creates the ideal environmental conditions for increased humidity and pollen, mold and fungi development through out the year. We also collected health and socio economic data to generate an asthma profile of the students, employees and parents from the school community, and through a survey we identified perceptions on environmental asthma triggers, and indoor air quality in the school and homes of the students and employees. Finally, we implemented a workshop on indoor air quality designed to engage the school community in managing asthma triggers and the school environment. Our results showed that nearly 30 % of its student's population has asthma, and from this group 58% are males and 42% are female students. Of all asthmatic children, only 43% receive treatment for the
Full Text Available Asthma is a rapidly growing chronic disease in the general population of the world, mostly in children. Puerto Ricans have the highest prevalence of children with asthma among the Hispanic community in the US and its territories. Asthma and air quality are becoming a significant and potentially costly public health issue in Puerto Rico. The CDC has reported that in Puerto Rico, 320,350 adults have asthma and this number represents 11.5% of the island adult population. The north east municipality of Carolina, Puerto Rico, has the highest asthma prevalence in the 0 to 17 year old range (2001 data. In this study, we address the potential relationship between anthropogenic and naturally occurring environmental factors, and asthma prevalence in an urban elementary public school in Carolina in an effort to empower and engage communities to work on their environmental health issues. We integrated geographic information systems (GIS data of anthropogenic activities near the school as well as the natural resources and geomorphology of the region. We found that as Carolina is close by to Caribbean National Forest (El Yunque, this together with the temperature and precipitation cycles in the zone creates the ideal environmental conditions for increased humidity and pollen, mold and fungi development through out the year. We also collected health and socio economic data to generate an asthma profile of the students, employees and parents from the school community, and through a survey we identified perceptions on environmental asthma triggers, and indoor air quality in the school and homes of the students and employees. Finally, we implemented a workshop on indoor air quality designed to engage the school community in managing asthma triggers and the school environment. Our results showed that nearly 30 % of its studentÃ¢Â€Â™s population has asthma, and from this group 58% are males and 42% are female students. Of all asthmatic children, only 43
Hopkins, Carolyn; Sydes, Matthew; Murray, Gordon; Woolfall, Kerry; Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula; Tudur Smith, Catrin
Evaluate current data sharing activities of UK publicly funded Clinical Trial Units (CTUs) and identify good practices and barriers. Web-based survey of Directors of 45 UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC)-registered CTUs. Twenty-three (51%) CTUs responded: Five (22%) of these had an established data sharing policy and eight (35%) specifically requested consent to use patient data beyond the scope of the original trial. Fifteen (65%) CTUs had received requests for data, and seven (30%) had made external requests for data in the previous 12 months. CTUs supported the need for increased data sharing activities although concerns were raised about patient identification, misuse of data, and financial burden. Custodianship of clinical trial data and requirements for a CTU to align its policy to their parent institutes were also raised. No CTUs supported the use of an open access model for data sharing. There is support within the publicly funded UKCRC-registered CTUs for data sharing, but many perceived barriers remain. CTUs are currently using a variety of approaches and procedures for sharing data. This survey has informed further work, including development of guidance for publicly funded CTUs, to promote good practice and facilitate data sharing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Antia, Shirin D; Sabers, Darrell L; Stinson, Michael S
The Classroom Participation Questionnaire (CPQ) was administered to 136 deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) students attending general education classrooms in Grades 4-10. The CPQ is a student-rated measure that yields scores for Understanding Teachers, Understanding Students, Positive Affect, and Negative Affect. Validity and reliability of a long (28-item) and a short (16-item) form are reported. We provide evidence of (a) internal structure validity through an examination of the relationships between the subscales and an analysis of interitem reliability within each scale, (b) reliability over time by examining the scores of students over a 3-year period, and (c) external structure validity through an examination of the relationships of the CPQ with measures of teacher-rated academic competence and Stanford achievement scores. The results suggest that both the long and short form of the CPQ can be used to assess participation of D/HH students in general education classrooms.
Full Text Available Urine has emerged as an attractive biofluid for the noninvasive detection of prostate cancer (PCa. There is a strong imperative to discover candidate urinary markers for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of PCa. The rising flood of various omics profiles presents immense opportunities for the identification of prospective biomarkers. Here we present a simple and efficient strategy to derive candidate urine markers for prostate tumor by mining cancer genomic profiles from public databases. Prostate, bladder and kidney are three major tissues from which cellular matters could be released into urine. To identify urinary markers specific for PCa, upregulated entities that might be shed in exosomes of bladder cancer and kidney cancer are first excluded. Through the ontology-based filtering and further assessment, a reduced list of 19 entities encoding urinary proteins was derived as putative PCa markers. Among them, we have found 10 entities closely associated with the process of tumor cell growth and development by pathway enrichment analysis. Further, using the 10 entities as seeds, we have constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI subnetwork and suggested a few urine markers as preferred prognostic markers to monitor the invasion and progression of PCa. Our approach is amenable to discover and prioritize potential markers present in a variety of body fluids for a spectrum of human diseases.
Lucicleia Barreto Queiroz
Full Text Available In the last decade, youth entered the agenda of public policies in Brazil, recognizing not only the problems that affect young people, but also the need for a proactive perspective that views youngsters as playing a central role in the design and implementation of policy. This is a tendency that is also noticeable in other countries, and there is clearly a “vogue of youth participation” (Bessant 2004, 401 in public policy across the world. Research in the field tends to show that these experiences can be effective in promoting young people civic and political knowledge, attitudes and competences and therefore can become a strategy of non-formal citizenship education. However, there are critiques that participation in these initiatives risks pamphleteering and tokenism. The goal of this paper is to enter this debate by considering the Brazilian experience in the State of Acre and to explore whether and how opportunities for participation that youth public policies appear to stimulate are, in fact, perceived and experienced by groups involved in the process, from decision-makers to young people. Results show that, as in other countries, policies are still not living up to expectations and much more systematic work is necessary to guarantee that participation in youth policies is, in fact, a relevant citizenship experience.
Sène, A. M.; Bonin, S; O. Soubeyran
International audience; Several social scientists have dealt with the usefulness of a participative approach in development plans. The call for sustainable development has increased the focus on this type of approach in a very classical way, which is the case for the creation of new water tanks. Most of these scientists have also pinpointed the major difficulties and failures faced during the execution of this new approach in developing countries. This study is a concrete example which underl...
Bawole, Justice Nyigmah
This article investigates the involvement of local stakeholders in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) processes of Ghana's first off-shore oil fields (the Jubilee fields). Adopting key informants interviews and documentary reviews, the article argues that the public hearings and the other stakeholder engagement processes were cosmetic and rhetoric with the view to meeting legal requirements rather than a purposeful interest in eliciting inputs from local stakeholders. It further argues that the operators appear to lack the social legitimacy and social license that will make them acceptable in the project communities. A rigorous community engagement along with a commitment to actively involving local stakeholders in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes of the partners may enhance the image of the partners and improve their social legitimacy. Local government agencies should be capacitated to actively engage project organisers; and government must mitigate the impact of the oil projects through well-structured social support programmes.
Bawole, Justice Nyigmah
This article investigates the involvement of local stakeholders in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) processes of Ghana's first off-shore oil fields (the Jubilee fields). Adopting key informants interviews and documentary reviews, the article argues that the public hearings and the other stakeholder engagement processes were cosmetic and rhetoric with the view to meeting legal requirements rather than a purposeful interest in eliciting inputs from local stakeholders. It further argues that the operators appear to lack the social legitimacy and social license that will make them acceptable in the project communities. A rigorous community engagement along with a commitment to actively involving local stakeholders in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes of the partners may enhance the image of the partners and improve their social legitimacy. Local government agencies should be capacitated to actively engage project organisers; and government must mitigate the impact of the oil projects through well-structured social support programmes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Species identification and antifungal susceptibility tests were carried out on 212 Candida isolates obtained from bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections and dialysis-associated peritonitis, from cases attended at a Brazilian public tertiary hospital from January 1998 to January 2005. Findings Candida albicans represented 33% of the isolates, Candida parapsilosis 31.1%, Candida tropicalis 17.9%,Candida glabrata 11.8%, and others species 6.2%. In blood culture, C. parapsilosis was the most frequently encountered species (48%. The resistance levels to the antifungal azoles were relatively low for the several species, except for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Amphotericin B resistance was observed in 1 isolate of C. parapsilosis. Conclusions The species distribution and antifungal susceptibility herein observed presented several epidemiological features common to other tertiary hospitals in Latin American countries. It also exhibited some peculiarity, such as a very high frequency of C. parapsilosis both in bloodstream infections and dialysis-associated peritonitis. C. albicans also occurred in an important number of case infections, in all evaluated clinical sources. C. glabrata presented a high proportion of resistant isolates. The data emphasize the necessity to carry out the correct species identification accompanied by the susceptibility tests in all tertiary hospitals.
José Ivo dos Santos Pedrosa
Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis in order tosystematize the process of institutionalization of populareducation in structures of the federal government of Braziland in particular the Popular Education and Health in theorganizational structure of the Ministry of Health with theaim of critical thinking on the relationship between socialmovements (civil society and the Government, especiallythe process of institutionalization. While the method ofconstruction is intended to use the theoretical frameworkabout the theory of new social movements as a basis forrefl ection. It stands out as a result of the recognition abilityof the political space for dialogue between government andcivil society, pointing to the need for new ways to establishthis relationship and a refl ection of popular education, inaddition to the methodological perspective is the potentialto strengthen democracy that represents a matrix capable ofdirecting political and educational participation in health.
Zandersen, Marianne; Stage, Carsten
in developing green infrastructures that equally integrate habitats for biodiversity and sustainable urban drainage (SUD) that help adapt to climate change. The project focuses on transforming one urban park in a suburban town north of Aarhus (Lystrup), and the paper deals with our conceptualisation and design......Managing climate induced excesses of rainwater in urban areas calls for nature-based solutions in urban parks, i.e. creating rainbeds, artificial lakes, building dikes and digging ditches. Traditionally, such blue-green climate adaptation measures do not integrate efforts to create more rich...... of the process of trying to engage citizens in co-deciding and developing the park. We present the project’s various phases of participation moving from local resource mappings, to engaging with local gatekeepers to initiating a large citizen meeting and various development workshops. We also address...
Roca, Elisabet; Gamboa, Gonzalo; Tàbara, J David
The complex and multidimensional nature of coastal erosion risks makes it necessary to move away from single-perspective assessment and management methods that have conventionally predominated in coastal management. This article explores the suitability of participatory multicriteria analysis (MCA) for improving the integration of diverse expertises and values and enhancing the social-ecological robustness of the processes that lead to the definition of relevant policy options to deal with those risks. We test this approach in the Mediterranean coastal locality of Lido de Sète in France. Results show that the more adaptive alternatives such as "retreating the shoreline" were preferred by our selected stakeholders to those corresponding to "protecting the shoreline" and the business as usual proposals traditionally put forward by experts and policymakers on these matters. Participative MCA contributed to represent coastal multidimensionality, elicit and integrate different views and preferences, facilitated knowledge exchange, and allowed highlighting existing uncertainties.
The Office of Consumer Affairs has the primary responsibility for managing and coordinating the public-participation efforts of the Department of Energy through public meetings, advisory committee participation, and other outreach mechanisms aimed at assuring all citizens an opportunity to participate in the governmental process relating to energy decisions. The Manual outlines the public-participation policy that should be followed by all offices. All offices are directed to observe the guidance in the manual in shaping and conducting public-participation activities, including the public-participation efforts required by DOE Order 2030, Procedures for the Development and Analysis of Regulations, Standards, and Guidelines. Two chapters included are: Determining Public Participation Needs and Public Participation Plan. (MCW)
Full Text Available Computers in the 1980s were seen as a way to liberate people from the constraints of physicality, to expand the horizons of knowledge, and to enhance access to information. But after a few somersaults, we are back to a market that closes rather than opens our horizons, one that monopolizes, and even de facto owns, our very information. With the adoption of the term “user” - as opposed to “participant” for example – an asymmetry of power is underlined. This linguistic choice enables Internet platforms (such as Twitter, Facebook, iCloud, GoogleDrive to maintain shady property rights on what users might perceive as public spaces (precisely because they are built to project a public space dynamic but are in fact spaces in which the control over users' own data (e.g. pictures, texts is often impossible, transforming such data into a commodity and reducing users to (used consumers. En la década de 1980, los ordenadores se contemplaban como una forma de liberar a la gente de las limitaciones del mundo físico, ampliar los horizontes del conocimiento, y mejorar el acceso a la información. Pero después de diversos giros, volvemos a estar en un mercado que cierra nuestros horizontes en lugar de ampliarlos, que monopoliza, e incluso posee de facto, nuestra propia información. Con la adopción del término "usuario" - en lugar de "participante", por ejemplo - se pone de manifiesto la asimetría de poder existente. Esta opción lingüística permite a las plataformas de Internet (como Twitter, Facebook, iCloud, GoogleDrive mantener derechos de propiedad poco claros sobre plataformas que los usuarios pueden percibir como espacios públicos (precisamente porque están construidas para parecer un espacio público dinámico pero son en realidad espacios en los que es a menudo imposible controlar los propios datos de los usuarios (por ejemplo, imágenes, textos, transformando estos datos en una mercancía y convirtiendo a los usuarios en
O'Connor, M; van den Hove, S
We outline the potential participative governance and risk management in application to technological choices in the nuclear sector within the European Union (EU). Well-conducted public participation, stakeholder consultation and deliberation procedures can enhance the policy process and improve the robustness of strategies dealing with high-stakes investment and risk management challenges. Key nuclear issues now confronting EU member states are: public concern with large-scale environmental and health issues; the Chernobyl accident (and others less catastrophic) whose effect has been to erode public confidence and trust in the nuclear sector; the maturity of the nuclear plant, hence the emerging prominence of waste transportation, reprocessing and disposal issues as part of historical liability within the EU; the nuclear energy heritage of central and eastern European candidate countries to EU accession. The obligatory management of inherited technological risks and uncertainties on large temporal and geographical scales, is a novel feature of technology assessment and governance. Progress in the nuclear sector will aid the development of methodologies for technological foresight and risk governance in fields other than the nuclear alone.
Full Text Available In recent years, environmental law and pol-icy have undergone a change of governance models, shifting from central state, top-down regulation to more transparent, local decision making structures involving private companies, non-governmental organizations, concerned cit-izens and interest groups. The Aarhus Conven-tion became a part of the Serbian legal system in 2009. Its provisions not only strengthen third-par-ty rights to participate, but furthermore oblige state authorities to be active in involving citizens in environmental decisions. The question arises about the extent of consequences of this devel-opment at the international level for the national legal system.Analysis of the implementation of the Gen-eral Administrative Procedural Act (GAPA and the Law on Environmental Protection in Serbia shows that social actors used to be allowed to participate in citizen’s forums and decision mak-ing in environmental matters, and their role was important only if they were directly and individu-ally concerned. This situation changed partially in 2004 with the adoption of new laws. The article examines recent cases in which the public and public concerned were not able to participate in environmental decision making, even though the law stipulated such a possibility. The article examines the consequences of implementing a new model, where representatives of collective interests would be able to infuence environmen-tal decision making, proposed by the Draft of the new GAPA.
Brännström, I; Emmelin, M; Dahlgren, L; Johansson, M; Wall, S
A comprehensive community-based programme for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes was established in 1985 in a small municipality in northern Sweden. A cross-sectional survey to the general public was performed and semi-structured open-ended interviews were taken of actors at different levels. Notes from official records were also included in the study. The aim was to describe and discuss some factors that promote or constrain community participation in health programmes. The results generally confirmed that the right of definition concerning the health programme mainly remained with the health professionals. Community participation was mainly defined by the actors based on the medical and health planning approach and, thereby, as a means to transform health policy plans into reality by transmitting health knowledge and increasing consciousness among the citizens of the need for changing lifestyles. However, participation as a means of identifying problems and demonstrating power relationships and as elements in promoting local democracy was hardly represented among the actors at all. Overall, the CVD health programme was characterized by consensus between the actors. Despite this, debates and arguments about interpretations, social interests, personal conflicts and ideological constraints were observed. However, a majority of the public wanted the CVD preventive programme to continue.
Francisca Maria da Silva Correia
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Teachers often undertake nighttime work involving exam corrections, projects and devising lesson plans in their homes. Many present excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS and depression. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate EDS and depression in teachers from public schools. Methods: 201 female teachers were evaluated in the district of Quipapá/PE, Brazil. Among the study sample, 38 working 1 shift (CONTROL 1, 40 working 2 shifts (CONTROL 2 and 123 working 3 shifts (WTeachers-3T. The subjects were submitted to evaluation by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.The EDS data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's multiple comparison, p<0.05 and expressed in MEDIAN (MINIMUM - MAXIMUM whereas the depression data were analyzed by the Chi-square test, with p<0.05, expressed in percentage. Results: WTeachers-3T presented excessive daytime sleepiness and higher rates of mild (24% and moderate (37% depression compared to controls - Control 1: mild (8% and moderate (11% - Control 2: mild (5% and moderate (15%. Conclusion: This study found that teachers in the Quipapá municipality of Penambuco state working three shifts showed excessive daytime sleepiness and a higher percentage of mild and moderate depression compared to teachers working only one (1 or two (2 shifts.
Timothy C Marzullo
Full Text Available Although people are generally interested in how the brain functions, neuroscience education for the public is hampered by a lack of low cost and engaging teaching materials. To address this, we developed an open-source tool, the SpikerBox, which is appropriate for use in middle/high school educational programs and by amateurs. This device can be used in easy experiments in which students insert sewing pins into the leg of a cockroach, or other invertebrate, to amplify and listen to the electrical activity of neurons. With the cockroach leg preparation, students can hear and see (using a smartphone oscilloscope app we have developed the dramatic changes in activity caused by touching the mechanosensitive barbs. Students can also experiment with other manipulations such as temperature, drugs, and microstimulation that affect the neural activity. We include teaching guides and other resources in the supplemental materials. These hands-on lessons with the SpikerBox have proven to be effective in teaching basic neuroscience.
Maryse C Cnossen
Full Text Available The strength of evidence underpinning care and treatment recommendations in traumatic brain injury (TBI is low. Comparative effectiveness research (CER has been proposed as a framework to provide evidence for optimal care for TBI patients. The first step in CER is to map the existing variation. The aim of current study is to quantify variation in general structural and process characteristics among centers participating in the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI study.We designed a set of 11 provider profiling questionnaires with 321 questions about various aspects of TBI care, chosen based on literature and expert opinion. After pilot testing, questionnaires were disseminated to 71 centers from 20 countries participating in the CENTER-TBI study. Reliability of questionnaires was estimated by calculating a concordance rate among 5% duplicate questions.All 71 centers completed the questionnaires. Median concordance rate among duplicate questions was 0.85. The majority of centers were academic hospitals (n = 65, 92%, designated as a level I trauma center (n = 48, 68% and situated in an urban location (n = 70, 99%. The availability of facilities for neuro-trauma care varied across centers; e.g. 40 (57% had a dedicated neuro-intensive care unit (ICU, 36 (51% had an in-hospital rehabilitation unit and the organization of the ICU was closed in 64% (n = 45 of the centers. In addition, we found wide variation in processes of care, such as the ICU admission policy and intracranial pressure monitoring policy among centers.Even among high-volume, specialized neurotrauma centers there is substantial variation in structures and processes of TBI care. This variation provides an opportunity to study effectiveness of specific aspects of TBI care and to identify best practices with CER approaches.
Hugo Tapia Martínez
Full Text Available Objective: describe the obstetric profile of adolescents at beginning of labor, at delivery, postpartum, and in puerperium.Method: Cross-sectional descriptive study with 85 pregnant adolescents, selected by convenience, referred by health centers to a public hospital in Mexico City. Risks were evaluated before, during and after delivery and in puerperium, and measured respectively with the "Previgenes" that compose the Reproductive and Perinatal Risk Assessment System.Results: socioeconomic status, occupation and education level had influence on the emotionality of adolescents in relation to labor, whose obstetric risk was low for 55%, medium for 35%, and high for 10%. Risk in labor was low for 55%, medium for 18%, and high for 27%. Risk postpartum was low for 50%, medium for 25%, and high for 25%. In puerperium, most adolescents (90% had low risk.Conclusion: most adolescents had low risk in the stages evaluated. The study contributed to identify strategies to approach risk considering the vulnerability inherent in this type of population and favored the conduct of appropriate interventions for the respective needs.
Leonardi, L; Mori, M
The Nicaraguan democratic government has been building, since the defeat of somozism in 1979, a very extensive and uniform health system in the whole country, giving special attention to the problems of prevention and health education, promoting and utilizing a wide participation of the population. The most emblematic representative of the Nicaraguan model of participation is the Brigadista Popular en Salud, a voluntary figure in urban and rural areas, working along side the Sole National Health System. The work and role of the Brigadista is integrated in a health education action defined "Educaciòn Popular en Salud", intended as a dialogue through which the educator and educated, beginning with the specific political and economical social reality, accomplish work of observation, analysis and syntesis of the different phenomena that deal with health-sickness. The Brigadista is a member of the community that works voluntarily for the community to carry out health actions, in coordination with the "Puesto de Salud" of the community. The authors refer to a research study done in the field in 1987, geared to study the profile, role and activities of the Brigadista. The research was done in the "Las Segovias" Region, in the Northern part of the country, in two Health Areas, involving three urban centers and six rural communities: 73 Brigadistas were interviewed, of which 50 (predetermined) of urban centers and 23 (total population) in rural communities. The article represents in a comparative manner the operative Brigadista respectively, in urban areas on the one hand and in rural areas on the other. The article examines: sex; age; schooling; work activity; social-cultural background; collective systems background; participation in Literacy Campaigns; motivation; length and continuity of activities; relationship with the territory; activities done. The Brigadista that works in rural areas seems actually to be more attached, even to the formal image of his role, that
Balliett, Mary; Burke, Jeanmarie R.
Objective The purpose of this study was to describe changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone following a low–energy-density dietary intervention plus regimented supplementation program. Methods The study design was a pre-post intervention design without a control group. Normal participants were recruited from the faculty, staff, students, and community members from a chiropractic college to participate in a 21-day weight loss program. All participants (n = 49; 36 women, 13 men; 31 ± 10.3 years of age) received freshly prepared mostly vegan meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) that included 1200 to 1400 daily calories (5020.8 to 5857.6 J) for the women and 1600 to 1800 (6694.4 to 7531.2 J) daily calories for the men. Nutritional supplements containing enzymes that were intended to facilitate digestion, reduce cholesterol levels, increase metabolic rate, and mediate inflammatory processes were consumed 30 minutes before each meal. The regimented supplementation program included once-daily supplementation with a green drink that contained alfalfa, wheatgrass, apple cider vinegar, and fulvic acid throughout the study period. A cleanse supplementation containing magnesium, chia, flaxseed, lemon, camu camu, cat's claw, bentonite clay, tumeric, pau d'arco, chanca piedra, stevia, zeolite clay, slippery elm, garlic, ginger, peppermint, aloe, citrus bioflavonoids, and fulvic acid was added before each meal during week 2. During week 3, the cleanse supplementation was replaced with probiotic and prebiotic supplementation. Results Multiple paired t tests detected clinically meaningful reductions in weight (− 8.7 ± 5.54 lb) (− 3.9 ± 2.5 kg), total cholesterol (− 30.0 ± 29.77 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (− 21.0 ± 25.20 mg/dL) (P < .05). There was a pre-post intervention increase in testosterone for men (111.0 ± 121.13 ng/dL, P < .05). Conclusions Weight loss and improvements
Balliett, Mary; Burke, Jeanmarie R
The purpose of this study was to describe changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone following a low-energy-density dietary intervention plus regimented supplementation program. The study design was a pre-post intervention design without a control group. Normal participants were recruited from the faculty, staff, students, and community members from a chiropractic college to participate in a 21-day weight loss program. All participants (n = 49; 36 women, 13 men; 31 ± 10.3 years of age) received freshly prepared mostly vegan meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) that included 1200 to 1400 daily calories (5020.8 to 5857.6 J) for the women and 1600 to 1800 (6694.4 to 7531.2 J) daily calories for the men. Nutritional supplements containing enzymes that were intended to facilitate digestion, reduce cholesterol levels, increase metabolic rate, and mediate inflammatory processes were consumed 30 minutes before each meal. The regimented supplementation program included once-daily supplementation with a green drink that contained alfalfa, wheatgrass, apple cider vinegar, and fulvic acid throughout the study period. A cleanse supplementation containing magnesium, chia, flaxseed, lemon, camu camu, cat's claw, bentonite clay, tumeric, pau d'arco, chanca piedra, stevia, zeolite clay, slippery elm, garlic, ginger, peppermint, aloe, citrus bioflavonoids, and fulvic acid was added before each meal during week 2. During week 3, the cleanse supplementation was replaced with probiotic and prebiotic supplementation. Multiple paired t tests detected clinically meaningful reductions in weight (- 8.7 ± 5.54 lb) (- 3.9 ± 2.5 kg), total cholesterol (- 30.0 ± 29.77 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (- 21.0 ± 25.20 mg/dL) (P < .05). There was a pre-post intervention increase in testosterone for men (111.0 ± 121.13 ng/dL, P < .05). Weight loss and improvements in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein
Anderson, Susannah; Mezuk, Briana
This study investigates the relationship between participating in a high school debate program on college-readiness in the Chicago Public School district over a 10-year period. At-risk school students were identified using an index including 8th grade achievement, poverty status, and enrollment in special education. Regression analyses were used to assess the association between debate participation and graduation and ACT performance. Overall, debaters were 3.1 times more likely to graduate from high school (95% confidence interval: 2.7-3.5) than non-debaters, and more likely to reach the college-readiness benchmarks on the English, Reading, and Science portions of the ACT. This association was similar for both low-risk and at-risk students. Debate intensity was positively related to higher scores on all sections of the ACT. Findings indicate that debate participation is associated with improved academic performance for at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wright, Bill J; Dulacki, Kristen; Rissi, Jill; McBride, Leslie; Tran, Sarah; Royal, Natalie
Employers are increasingly exploring health benefits that incentivize lifestyle change for employees. We used early data from an ongoing study of one such model-the Health Engagement Model (HEM), which Oregon implemented for all public employees in 2012-to analyze variation in employee participation and engagement. A survey was designed to assess program engagement, opinions of the program, and self-reported lifestyle changes. Data were collected in 2012, about 9 months after HEM launched. A representative random sample of 4500 state employees served as the study subjects. Primary measures included whether employees signed up for the program, completed its required activities, and reported making lifestyle changes. Logistic regression was used to analyze survey results. Most employees (86%) chose to participate, but there were important socioeconomic differences: some key target populations, including smokers and obese employees, were the least likely to sign up; less educated employees were also less likely to complete program activities. Despite mostly negative opinions of the program, almost half of participants reported making lifestyle changes. Oregon's HEM launch was largely unpopular with employees, but many reported making the desired lifestyle changes. However, some of those the program is most interested in enrolling were the least likely to engage. People involved with implementing similar programs will need to think carefully about how to cultivate broad interest among employees.
Luther, J.; Meyer, V.; Kuhlicke, C.; Scheuer, S.; Unnerstall, H.
The EU Floods Directive requires the establishment of flood risk maps for high risk areas in all EU Member States by 2013. However, if existing at all, the current practice of risk mapping still shows some deficits: Risk maps are often seen as an information tool rather than a communication tool. This means that e.g. important local knowledge is not incorporated and forms a contrast to the understanding of capacity building which calls for engaging individuals in the process of learning and adapting to change and for the establishment of a more interactive public administration that learns equally from its actions and from the feedback it receives. Furthermore, the contents of risk maps often do not match the requirements of the end users, so that risk maps are often designed and visualised in a way which cannot be easily understood by laypersons and/or which is not suitable for the respective needs of public authorities in risk and flood event management. The project RISK MAP aimed at improving flood risk maps as a means to foster public participation and raising flood risk awareness. For achieving this aim, RISK MAP (1) developed rules for appropriate stakeholder participation enabling the incorporation of local knowledge and preferences; (2) improved the content of risk maps by considering different risk criteria through the use of a deliberative multicriteria risk mapping tool; and (3) improved the visualisation of risk maps in order to produce user-friendly risk maps by applying the experimental graphic semiology (EGS) method that uses the eye tracking approach. The research was carried out in five European case studies where the status quo of risk mapping and the legal framework was analysed, several stakeholder interviews and workshops were conducted, the visual perception of risk maps was tested and - based on this empirical work - exemplary improved risk maps were produced. The presentation and paper will outline the main findings of the project which
Wenner, Lettie McSpadden; Wenner, Manfred W.
Analysis of the voting patterns in six states on the 1976 initiatives for a moratorium on nuclear power plants. Demographic characteristics were found to be unimportant variables, while percentage of people enrolled in colleges and universities, percentage of land in farms, and relative cost of electricity were found to be important. Stresses…
Interviews with stakeholders are one-to-one conversations about a specific topic or issue. The primary purpose of these interviews is to obtain project-relevant information and elicit stakeholder reactions and suggestions.
Citizen juries involve creating a “jury” a representative sample of citizens (usually selected in a random or stratified manner) who are briefed in detail on the background and current thinking relating to a particular issue or project.
Gisele Silva Pereira
Full Text Available This paper explores public participation in environmental impact assessment (EIA and the decision making in the context of major sports events and their associated infrastructure in Brazil and England. The methodology is based on detailed case study analysis involving document analysis and interviews with key stakeholders. The results demonstrated that there is evidence that public participation within the EIA process informed the decision making and planning process for London 2012 and for the Pan American Village of the Rio 2007 Games. Finally, a practical recommendation for the Brazilian context and recommendations for further research are made. Participação pública na Avaliação de Impacto Ambiental (AIA e megaeventos esportivos: uma análise comparativa dos Jogos Olímpicos de Londres 2012 e dos Jogos Pan Americanos do Rio 2007 - Este artigo explora a participação pública na Avaliação de Impacto Ambiental (AIA e a tomada de decisão no contexto de megaeventos esportivos e a infraestrutura associada no Brasil e na Inglaterra. A metodologia baseia-se em estudo de caso envolvendo análise de documentos e entrevistas com atores-chave. Os resultados demonstraram que há evidência de que a participação pública integrante do processo de AIA informou a tomada de decisão e o processo de planejamento para Londres 2012 e para a Vila Pan Americana dos Jogos do Rio 2007. Finalmente, uma recomendação prática para o contexto brasileiro e recomendações para pesquisas futuras são destacadas.
Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.
The Academy for Educational Development (AED) has been in the social marketing, communication, and participation business for some 40 years. This book profiles 82 projects carried out in the 1960s and 1970s in countries around the world. These projects were researched and documented by AED under its Clearinghouse on Development Communication. It…
Hall, D; Taylor, R W; Jacobson, A; Sadowsky, P L; Bartolucci, A
This study was designed to assess the perceived optimal profiles of African Americans versus white Americans. A survey was conducted using profile silhouettes of 30 African American and 30 white patients, ranging in age from 7 to 17 years. Twenty white orthodontists, 18 African American orthodontists, 20 white laypersons, and 20 African American laypersons evaluated the profiles. The preference of each rater for each of the 60 profiles was scored on an attached visual analog scale. Eighteen cephalometric variables were measured for each profile, and statistical analyses were performed on the profiles that had a mean rating of 60 or greater from an analog scale of 0 to 100. The results show the following 6 cephalometric variables were significant: Z-angle, skeletal convexity at A-point, upper lip prominence, lower lip prominence, nasomental angle, and mentolabial sulcus. All raters preferred the African American sample to have a greater profile convexity than they preferred for the white sample. The raters preferred the African American sample with upper and lower lips that were more prominent compared with the white sample. However, only the choice of the African American orthodontists for the African American sample was significantly different for this parameter. The white orthodontists gave the highest mean scores for the profile chosen, whereas the African American laypersons gave the lowest scores.
Full Text Available Background. There is a lack of studies assessing the profile and outcome of psychiatric patients at entry-level public hospitals that are prescribed by the Mental Health Care Act to provide a decentralised model of psychiatric care. Objective. To assess the demographic and clinical profile as well as length of stay and outcomes of mental healthcare users admitted to a district-level public hospital in the Western Cape. Method. Demographic data, clinical diagnosis, length of stay, referral profile and outcomes of patients (N=487 admitted to Helderberg Hospital during the period 1 January 2011 - 31 December 2011 were collected. Results. Psychotic disorders were the most prevalent (n=287, 59% diagnoses, while 228 (47% of admission episodes had comorbid/secondary diagnoses. Substance use disorders were present in 184 (38% of admission episodes, 37 (57% of readmissions and 19 (61% of abscondments. Most admission episodes (n=372, 76% were discharged without referral to specialist/tertiary care. Conclusion. Methamphetamine use places a significant burden on the provision of mental healthcare services at entry-level care. Recommendations for improving service delivery at this district-level public hospital are provided.
Celis-Morales, C A; Lyall, D M; Gray, S R; Steell, L; Anderson, J; Iliodromiti, S; Welsh, P; Guo, Y; Petermann, F; Mackay, D F; Bailey, M E S; Pell, J P; Gill, J M R; Sattar, N
Obesity is a multifactorial condition influenced by both genetics and lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the association between a validated genetic profile risk score for obesity (GPRS-obesity) and body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) was modified by macronutrient intake in a large general population study. This study included cross-sectional data from 48 170 white European adults, aged 37-73 years, participating in the UK Biobank. Interactions between GPRS-obesity and macronutrient intake (including total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate and dietary fibre intake) and its effects on BMI and WC were investigated. The 93-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) GPRS was associated with a higher BMI (β: 0.57 kg m - 2 per s.d. increase in GPRS (95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.60); P=1.9 × 10 -183 ) independent of major confounding factors. There was a significant interaction between GPRS and total fat intake (P ( interaction) =0.007). Among high-fat-intake individuals, BMI was higher by 0.60 (0.52, 0.67) kg m -2 per s.d. increase in GPRS-obesity; the change in BMI with GPRS was lower among low-fat-intake individuals (β: 0.50 (0.44, 0.57) kg m -2 ). Significant interactions with similar patterns were observed for saturated fat intake (high β: 0.66 (0.59, 0.73) versus low β: 0.49 (0.42, 0.55) kg m -2 , P ( interaction) =2 × 10 -4 ) and for total energy intake (high β: 0.58 (0.51, 0.64) versus low β: 0.49 (0.42, 0.56) kg m -2 , P ( interaction) =0.019), but not for protein intake, carbohydrate intake and fibre intake (P ( interaction) >0.05). The findings were broadly similar using WC as the outcome. These data suggest that the benefits of reducing the intake of fats and total energy intake may be more important in individuals with high genetic risk for obesity.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the SKOGAFOSS and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 27 December 27, 2000 to 19 September...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected by from XBT casts from the OLEANDER and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 12 July 2001 to 27 November 2001....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the ENTERPRISE and other vessels from a world-wide distribution from 01 August 2001 to 03 December 2001. Data...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — emperature profiles were collected by from XBT from the OLEANDER and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 13 November 2000 to 12 October 2001. Data...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the OLEANDER and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 14 June 2001 to 20 August 2001. Data...
Léonard Kouegnigan Rerambiah
Conclusions: The antimicrobial resistance profiles seen here are of concern. To control the spread of drug-resistant bacteria, clinicians should be cognizant of their local antimicrobial resistance patterns.
Public participation in the social policies and services of the community of Madrid: the institutional system / El sistema institucional de participación ciudadana en las políticas y los servicios sociales de la comunidad de Madrid
Gema Pastor Albaladejo
Full Text Available This article analyzes the Community of Madrid’s institutional public participation system, to determine whether the different existing formal mechanisms (regulatory framework and permanent participation organisms have an appropriate institutional design to ensure that citizens have access to, and the ability to intervene in, those deliberative processes that may in some way influence the regional social policies and services.
Sanderson, Saskia C; Suckiel, Sabrina A; Zweig, Micol; Bottinger, Erwin P; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Richardson, Lynne D
As whole-genome sequencing (WGS) increases in availability, WGS educational aids are needed for research participants, patients, and the general public. Our aim was therefore to develop an accessible and scalable WGS educational aid. We engaged multiple stakeholders in an iterative process over a 1-year period culminating in the production of a novel 10-minute WGS educational animated video, "Whole Genome Sequencing and You" (https://goo.gl/HV8ezJ). We then presented the animated video to 281 online-survey respondents (the video-information group). There were also two comparison groups: a written-information group (n = 281) and a no-information group (n = 300). In the video-information group, 79% reported the video was easy to understand, satisfaction scores were high (mean 4.00 on 1-5 scale, where 5 = high satisfaction), and knowledge increased significantly. There were significant differences in knowledge compared with the no-information group but few differences compared with the written-information group. Intention to receive personal results from WGS and decisional conflict in response to a hypothetical scenario did not differ between the three groups. The educational animated video, "Whole Genome Sequencing and You," was well received by this sample of online-survey respondents. Further work is needed to evaluate its utility as an aid to informed decision making about WGS in other populations.Genet Med 18 5, 501-512.
Carmen Salgado Santamaría
Full Text Available El desarrollo de los podcasting, como sistema añadido de la ciberradio, impulsa a las redes de participación e intercambios comunicativos de interés social, que exhiben numerosas ventajas frente a las prácticas radiofónicas conocidas. La difusión que la radio pública realiza de los podcasts, la colocan en el actual proceso de convergencia tecnológica, y la sitúan en una sociedad de la información y del conocimiento, capaz de ofrecer diferentes servicios al alcance de todos los ciudadanos. Sólo la introducción de nuevos contenidos y servicios que aporten valor añadido a los existentes y satisfagan las necesidades de sus usuarios, procurarán la rentabilidad de este sistema. The development of podcasting as an additional system of cyberradio stimulates the appearance of networks of participation and communicative interchanges of social interest, and has numerous advantages over conventional radio practices. The spreading of podcasts through public radio situates it within the process of technological convergence and in an Information and Knowledge society which is able to offer different services within reach of all citizens. Only the introduction of new contents and services that contribute added value to the existing ones and satisfy the needs of users will make this system profitable.
Over the past 15 months, the Virginia Board of Education has been redesigning its public school students' high school educational experience to better prepare them to participate in the global economy. To lay the groundwork for this redesign, the Profile of a Graduate was developed. The profile in turn grew out of a broader review of Virginia's…
Laosebikan-Buggs, Morolake O.
The purpose of this study was to investigate student participation in collegiate student governance, the impact of that involvement and its influence on career choice for African-American participants, and to enlighten educators about role and value of collegiate student government participation. If participation in student government and…
Full Text Available Cette étude se propose d’analyser la participation des lecteurs-contributeurs à travers un dispositif spécifique, celui du live blogging, ou couverture en ligne et en direct sur le web d’un événement. Ce travail porte spécifiquement sur le live réalisé par lemonde.fr durant « l’affaire DSK » en mai 2011. Nous conduisons une analyse sur un corpus relatif aux premières 24 heures (sur 40 de cette couverture et composé de deux documents : le flux du live (376 posts tous locuteurs confondus et l’ensemble des messages soumis par les internautes (environ 8000 posts dont une infime partie seulement a été publiée (1%. L’analyse comparée des deux facettes de cette participation et des éléments méta-descriptifs relatifs au dispositif nous conduit à analyser la place de la parole ordinaire des internautes dans la production journalistique en interrogeant : 1 le processus de modération/filtrage effectué par les journalistes et la projection d’une représentation normative de la figure de l’internaute participant et 2 l’émergence d’une posture énonciative collective chez les internautes, prémisse d’une forme de « public » du live. Notre démarche qualita- tive a consisté à identifier manuellement l’ensemble des contributions des internautes en fonction de leur registre d’expression, en distinguant notamment les questions/demandes d’information, les opinions/commentaires personnels et les apports d’information. L’analyse a permis d’éclairer les ressorts de la participation profane en soulignant l’écart entre les messages soumis par les internautes et ceux publiés par les journalistes (révélateur de la modération éditoriale et donc la faible représentativité des contributions publiées sur le live. Globalement, les journalistes survalorisent les apports d’informations et délaissent presque systématiquement les messages de commentaires et opinions
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT and other data were collected from the COLUMBUS COROMANDEL and other platforms participating in NOAA's Shipboard Environmental Data Acquisition System (SEAS)...
, the textbook risk profile of centre-right parties’ electorates allows them to cut back on labour market-related schemes since these parties get negligible support from workers and low income voters. Conducting a comparative case study of recent Danish and Swedish centre-right governments, this article analyses......-related welfare schemes. Second, I argue that the leeway on labour market-related schemes is contingent on the actual risk profile of the centre-right’s electorate, and thereby move beyond the stylised assumptions from recent literature. In this respect, the Danish centre-right did, in contrast to its Swedish......Recent theoretical advances in the welfare state literature have outlined the differences between labour market- and life course-related schemes as centre-right parties have difficulties in enacting retrenchment on life course-related schemes because they concern every voter. In contrast...
Browne, Jessica L; Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Ventura, Adriana D
and social aspects of diabetes. The aim of the MILES-2 study was to provide a (1) longitudinal follow-up of the original MILES 2011 study cohort; (2) cross-sectional assessment of a new cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants were English-speaking Australians with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, aged 18....... The final sample included N=2342 eligible respondents (longitudinal cohort: n=504; 2015 new cohort: n=1838); 54% had type 2 diabetes. FINDINGS TO DATE: Survey respondents were from an advantaged socioeconomic background compared to the general population. Respondents with type 1 diabetes were over......-represented in the new cohort (45%) relative to the planned stratification (40% type 1 diabetes, 60% type 2 diabetes). Respondents with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes were under-represented in the new cohort relative to the stratified sampling (42% invited vs 50% response). Participants who completed both the 2011...
Browne, Jessica L; Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Ventura, Adriana D
and social aspects of diabetes. The aim of the MILES-2 study was to provide a (1) longitudinal follow-up of the original MILES 2011 study cohort; (2) cross-sectional assessment of a new cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants were English-speaking Australians with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, aged 18....... The final sample included N=2342 eligible respondents (longitudinal cohort: n=504; 2015 new cohort: n=1838); 54% had type 2 diabetes. FINDINGS TO DATE: Survey respondents were from an advantaged socioeconomic background compared to the general population. Respondents with type 1 diabetes were over...
Gubhaju, Lina; McNamara, Bridgette J; Banks, Emily; Joshy, Grace; Raphael, Beverley; Williamson, Anna; Eades, Sandra J
Despite large disparities in health outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians, detailed evidence on the health and lifestyle characteristics of older Aboriginal Australians is lacking. The aim of this study is to quantify socio-demographic and health risk factors and mental and physical health status among Aboriginal participants from the 45 and Up Study and to compare these with non-Aboriginal participants from the study. The 45 and Up Study is a large-scale study of individuals aged 45 years and older from the general population of New South Wales, Australia responding to a baseline questionnaire distributed from 2006-2008. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of self-reported responses from the baseline questionnaire for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants relating to socio-demographic factors, health risk factors, current and past medical and surgical history, physical disability, functional health limitations and levels of current psychological distress were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, with adjustments for age and sex. Overall, 1939 of 266,661 45 and Up Study participants examined in this study identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (0.7%). Compared to non-Aboriginal participants, Aboriginal participants were significantly more likely to be: younger (mean age 58 versus 63 years); without formal educational qualifications (age- and sex- adjusted OR=6.2, 95% CI 5.3-7.3); of unemployed (3.7, 2.9-4.6) or disabled (4.6, 3.9-5.3) work status; and with a household incomediabetes [2.1, 1.8-2.4]; depression [1.6, 1.4-1.8] and stroke [1.8, 1.4-2.3]), have care-giving responsibilities (1.8, 1.5-2.2); have a major physical disability (2.6, 2.2-3.1); have severe physical functional limitation (2.9, 2.4-3.4) and have very high levels of psychological distress (2.4, 2.0-3.0). Aboriginal participants from the 45 and Up Study experience greater levels of disadvantage and have greater health needs
Zdroik, Jennifer; Veliz, Philip
School districts in the United States are turning toward new sources of revenue to maintain their interscholastic sports programs. One common revenue generating policy is the implementation of participation fees, also known as pay-to-play. One concern of the growing trend of participation fees is how it impacts student participation opportunities. This study looks at how pay-to-play fees are impacting participation opportunities and participation rates in the state of Michigan. Through merging 3 school-level data sets, Civil Rights Data Collection, the Common Core of Data, and participation information from MHSAA (Michigan High School Athletic Association), bivariate analysis and ordinary least squares regression were used in our analysis. Our findings indicate that certain types of schools are able to support pay-to-play fees: relatively large schools that are located in suburban, white communities, with relatively low poverty rates. We also found that participation fees are not decreasing the number of sport opportunities for students, participation opportunities are higher in schools with fees; but participation rates are similar between schools with and without participation fees. Participation fee policy implications are discussed and we offer suggestions for future research.
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PARTICIPATORY PROCESSES TOWARDS URBAN REGENERATION AT THE HISTORIC CENTER OF PUEBLA. RESEARCH LINE: PUBLIC SPACE, CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND HISTORIC CENTER. SAN ANTONIO, EL REFUGIO AND SANTA ANITA.
Adriana Hernández; Christian de la Torre; Paloma Morales; Bernanrdo Aco; Maricurz Bautista; César Rojas
This paper addresses the problem of citizen participation on three old neighborhoods of the city of Puebla, Mexico (San Antonio, El Refugio and Santa Anita), that have been excluded from all architectural and urban transformation plans. Amongst the common problems are the buildings and public areas deterioration, derivate from the lack of state intervention through specific programs and the economic status from landowners. The participation of architecture, urban planning, political scienc...
Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen; Madsen, Mads; Lind, Rune Rasmussen
Introduction: To evaluate activity profile of the girls in the health education programme, “FIFA 11 for Health” for Europe and to examine potential differences between girls involved in leisure-time sports club activities, i.e. football and other sports, and non-sport-club active girls. The 22...... sessions were delivered during school time by trained teachers over 11-week-period, 2x45 min per week. Methods: A total of 34 girls were monitored. The activity profile was monitored using the ZXY tracking system (ChyronHego, Norway), during 4 of the 22 “FIFA 11 for Health” in Europe sessions for a total...... of 34 girls of which 8 were football club active, 15 were involved in other leisure-time sports and 11 were non-sport-club active. Distance covered in various speed zones (Walking (0-4 km/h), jogging (4.1-8.0 km/h), running (8.1-12.0 km/h), high intensity running (12.1-16.0 km/h) and sprinting (>16 km...
Earnshaw, S.; Monnet, D.L.; Duncan, B.; O'Toole, J.; Ekdahl, K.; Goossens, H.
Antibiotic resistance is a major European and global public health problem and is, for a large part, driven by misuse of antibiotics. Hence, reducing unnecessary antibiotic use, particularly for the treatment of certain respiratory tract infections where they are not needed, is a public health
Intensive lifestyle intervention in general practice to prevent type 2 diabetes among 18 to 60-year-old South Asians: 1-year effects on the weight status and metabolic profile of participants in a randomized controlled trial.
Admiraal, Wanda M; Vlaar, Everlina M; Nierkens, Vera; Holleman, Frits; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Stronks, Karien; van Valkengoed, Irene G M
To study 1-year effectiveness of an intensive, culturally targeted lifestyle intervention in general practice for weight status and metabolic profile of South-Asians at risk of type 2 diabetes. 536 South-Asians at risk of type 2 diabetes were randomized to an intervention (n = 283) or control (n = 253) group. The intervention, which was targeted culturally to the South-Asian population, consisted of individual lifestyle counselling, a family session, cooking classes, and supervised physical activity programme. All components of the intervention were carried out by professionals as part of their daily clinical practice. The control group received generic lifestyle advice. Change in weight status and metabolic profile were assessed after 1 year. After 1 year, 201 participants were lost to follow-up. Remaining participants in intervention (n = 177) and control (n = 158) group had similar baseline characteristics. Weight loss in the intervention group was 0.2±3.3 kg, weight gain in the control group was 0.4±3.1 kg (p = 0.08). Changes in other weight-related measurements did not differ significantly between groups. Furthermore, there were no differences between groups in changes of metabolic profile. All results remained similar after repeating analyses in a multiple imputed dataset. An intensive, culturally targeted, lifestyle intervention of 1 year did not improve weight status and metabolic profile of South-Asians at risk of type 2 diabetes. The laborious recruitment, high drop-out, and lack of effectiveness emphasise the difficulty of realising health benefits in practice and suggest that this strategy might not be the optimal approach for this population. Nederlands Trial Register NTR1499.
Islaine Fernandes Dubuc
Full Text Available One is about a transversal descriptive inquiry in the characterize causes of morbidade and mortality between adolescents taken care of in the urgency and emergency service of a public hospital. The collection of data was carried through the attendance fiches, in the January, February and March months of 2003, totalizing 2722. The population consisted of adolescents of 10 the 19 years of age, residents in the city. The morbi-mortality causes had been classified in accordance with the International Classification of Desease (CID-10. More than the half of the taken care is for the feminine population (54.1%. The predominant causes of morbidade had been the infectious and parasitic illnesses in the feminine sex (26.5% and injuries and poisoning and some other consequences of external causes in the masculine sex (30.5%. The month of bigger attendance was March (38.4%. The period of the night was of bigger prevalence (37.6%. The medical clinic took care of 63.9% of the adolescents. They had received high, 84.6% of the cases and had not been detected deaths. The results contribute for the aiming of writ of prevention public politics the specific action, of control and reduction of the main causes of morbidade that take the adolescent population to look the service of ready aid.
Rizki Mei Listawati
Full Text Available Kehidupan saat ini menawarkan berbagai kemudahan. Namun, seiring dengan hal tersebut ada banyak permasalahan yang memicu stress. Selain itu, terdapat banyak unsur kimia dan logam berat yang jika saling berinteraksi dapat menimbulkan berbagai macam penyakit mulai dari flu hingga kanker, termasuk autis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis potensi profil protein dalam darah yang menyebabkan autis berdasarkan bioinformatik. Kemudian, disosialisasikan kepada masyarakat khususnya orang tua anak autis di Kota Malang sehingga dapat memberikan wawasan tentang autis. Penelitian ini juga dapat dikembangkan sebagai dasar penelitian laboratorium. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif, menggunakan tiga database yaitu National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, Uniprot, dan Protein Data Bank (PDB serta menggunakan software Pymol. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa: 1 Protein dalam darah yang berpotensi menyebabkan autis berdasarkan artikel yaitu mTOR, Glutathione S Transferase P, Chemokine Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1, Interferon-∂-Inducible Protein-16 (IFI-16, dan serotonin; 2 Protein-protein tersebut setelah dianalisis dengan menggunakan tiga database (NCBI, Uniprot, dan PDB menunjukkan bahwa protein Glutathione S Transferase P lebih berpotensi terhadap autis. Hal ini karena protein tersebut berfungsi untuk mencegah neurodegeneration; 3 Penelitian tentang penyebab autis sangat dibutuhkan oleh orang tua anak autis (masyarakat, sehingga dapat diminimalisir akses masuknya pemicu tersebut.
Galvanese, Ana Tereza Costa; D'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas; Lima, Elizabeth Maria Freire de Araújo; Pereira, Lygia Maria de França; Nascimento, Ana Paula; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima
By studying the inclusion of artistic and cultural activities in the care provided throughout the history of public mental healthcare in greater São Paulo, Brazil, we can better understand and characterize the practices adopted in the Psychosocial Care Centers in the city today. Experiments carried out between the 1920s and 1990s are investigated, based on bibliographic research. The contemporary data were obtained from research undertaken at 126 workshops at 21 Psychosocial Care Centers in the same city between April 2007 and April 2008. The findings indicate that the current trend in mental healthcare, whose clinical perspective spans the realms of art and mental health and has territorial ramifications, has maintained some of the features encountered in earlier mental healthcare experiments.
Shilpi Saha; S Pavan Kumar
.... Because participation in decision making is found to play a significant role in job satisfaction, delegating tasks within a work group to meet deadlines is likely to enhance the level of interaction among members...
Mauricio López Cruz; Andrea Valdivia Barrios; Roberto Fernández Droguett
... critical revision of "inclusive" policies in education in Chile. We present two studies developed with visual narrative methods, using photo elicitation and participative photography as methodological strategies to study students' voices...
Devineni, Damayanthi; Vaccaro, Nicole; Murphy, Joe; Curtin, Christopher; Mamidi, Rao N V S; Weiner, Sveta; Wang, Shean-Sheng; Ariyawansa, Jay; Stieltjes, Hans; Wajs, Ewa; Di Prospero, Nicholas A; Rothenberg, Paul
Canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is metabolized by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B4, and is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Canagliflozin exposures may be affected by coadministration of drugs that induce (e.g., rifampin for UGT) or inhibit (e.g. probenecid for UGT; cyclosporine A for P-gp) these pathways. The primary objective of these three independent studies (single-center, open-label, fixed-sequence) was to evaluate the effects of rifampin (study 1), probenecid (study 2), and cyclosporine A (study 3) on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin in healthy participants. Participants received; in study 1: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1 and 10), rifampin 600 mg (days 4-12); study 2: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1-17), probenecid 500 mg twice daily (days 15-17); and study 3: canagliflozin 300 mg (days 1-8), cyclosporine A 400 mg (day 8). Pharmacokinetics were assessed at prespecified intervals on days 1 and 10 (study 1); on days 14 and 17 (study 2), and on days 2-8 (study 3). Rifampin decreased the maximum plasma canagliflozin concentration (Cmax) by 28% and its area under the curve (AUC) by 51%. Probenecid increased the Cmax by 13% and the AUC by 21%. Cyclosporine A increased the AUC by 23% but did not affect the Cmax. Coadministration of canagliflozin with rifampin, probenecid, and cyclosporine A was well-tolerated. No clinically meaningful interactions were observed for probenecid or cyclosporine A, while rifampin coadministration modestly reduced canagliflozin plasma concentrations and could necessitate an appropriate monitoring of glycemic control.
In the first part of this article I propose a conceptual framework--based on the deficit, public debate and co-production of knowledge models articulated by (Callon, 1999)--with which to examine students' appropriation of de socioscientific issues (SSI). The second part of this article presents the way a group of three…
Koli, Suneeta; Girish Kumar, C P; Selvaraj, V; Prabu, R; Chandrasekar, C; Valan, A S; Suria Kumar, J; Raja, K
A large number of people living with HIV/AIDS residing in HBV endemic regions such as in India are highly susceptible to acquire co-infections like HBV but also transmit them to other due to their high risk behaviours. The present study aimed to estimate HBV prevalence and distribution of various HBV serological markers among HIV infected individuals. This cross sectional survey covered HIV infected individuals attending the largest HIV care center in India. Socio-demographic details and blood samples to screen for HBV seromarkers using commercial ELISA kits were collected. Among 1160 HIV infected patients, prevalence of HBcAb, HBsAb, HBsAg and HBeAg was 66, 29.4, 16.6 and 5.8 % respectively. Overall, 28.9 % individuals had no evidence of any of the four markers, indicating lack of previous exposure and future risk of acquiring HBV infection. Presence of anti-HBsAg in a mere 0.9 % of individuals reflected low levels HBV vaccine conferred immunity which could be due to poor HBV vaccine coverage in this high risk population. With high prevalence and evidence of exposure to HBV as well as considering the growing literature on increase in hepatic complications in HIV-HBV co-infected individuals, the need for mandatory HBV screening of all HIV infected individuals cannot be over-emphasised. The policy makers and HIV programme managers must consider HBV vaccination for newly detected HBV naive HIV infected individuals and also focus on creating public awareness on HBV and HIV prevention.
Full Text Available ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of and problems with the Safe Community Programs in Gangbuk-gu, one of the 25 districts of the capital city of Korea.MethodsThe study subjects were 396 individuals who were involved in Safe Community Programs between 2009 and 2011. We examined the effectiveness and willingness of respondents to participate as a safety leader of the Safe Community Program with a questionnaire. We examined the injury death rates of Gangbuk-gu by using of the death certificate data of Korea's National Statistical Office. Descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests were used.ResultsThe effectiveness of programs did not differ but active participation differed significantly among subjects (p<0.05. The injury death rate of Gangbuk-gu as a whole increased during the implementation period. However, senior safety, in particular, may be a helpful program for reducing injuries in Gangbuk-gu.ConclusionsThis study suggests that the lack of active participation may be a major problem of Safe Community Programs in Gangbuk-gu. Therefore, Safe Community Programs should be expanded to the entire district of Gangbuk-gu and more active participation programs should be developed.
Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva
The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation....
Hunter Mellado, R F; Negron, J; Gomez, M A
To introduce the ASSUME study with the presentation of a clinical, socio-demographic, preventive and psychological profile of a geriatric population of patients who receive their health care in the General Internal Medicine Ambulatory Sector of our institution. The Assume study is a prospective, randomized trial which is directed at increasing the participation of patients in preventive health care strategies at a primary, secondary and tertiary level. In this paper we focus on the initial stage of the process which aims to define and synthesize predisposing risk factors in the geriatric patient which would be amenable to primary, secondary and tertiary preventive strategies. Through a process of patient interview profiles of a physical, social and psychological nature are have been constructed. With the availability of this profile a clearer definition of the potential benefit of preventive strategies could be established. In this paper we present the initial profile of patients of all patients randomized to the study as of Sept. 01, 1997. A total of 123 patients have been enrolled with 48(39%) males and 75(61%) females. The mean age of patients is 70 years with a median of 68 years. Cardiovascular disorders establish the leading disease events in our population of patients with Hypertension in 85%, Ischemic heart disease in 50%, Myocardial Infarction in 19% and 40% with a history of Congestive Heart failure. Diabetes and Heart Failure were seen in 40%. An average of 4.4 prescribed drugs per patient was documented. A minority of patients took more than 7 drugs and none took more than 9 medications. Most patients (67 or 55%) had not required hospitalizations in the preceding 12 months and none of the patients required more than 4 hospitalizations. The average LOS was 8.60 days. The Preventive Medicine profile reveals a large number of un-vaccinated adults. Regular cigarette smoking was seen in 12%. We have used the body mass index as a measure of adequacy of weight
Investigating Research Gaps of Pharmaceutical take back Events: An Analysis of take back Program Participants' Socioeconomic, Demographic, and Geographic Characteristics and the Public Health Benefits of take back Programs
Stoddard, K. I.; Hodge, V.; Maxey, G.; Tiwari, C.; Cready, C.; Huggett, D. B.
Research continues to show that pharmaceutical environmental contamination causes adverse effects to aquatic life. There are also public health risks associated with pharmaceuticals because in-home reserves of medications provide opportunities for accidental poisoning and intentional medication abuse. Pharmaceutical take back programs have been seen as a potential remedy for these issues; however, a thorough review of past programs indicates limited research has been conducted on take back programs. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in take back program research. To address these gaps and ultimately determine if take back programs could improve public health, research was conducted in conjunction with the take back program Denton drug disposal days held in Denton, Texas. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of Denton drug disposal days participants were investigated using surveys and Geographic Information Systems. Potential impacts of the Denton drug disposal days program on public health were determined by comparing data from Denton drug disposal days events with data supplied by the North Texas Poison Center. Results suggest that Denton drug disposal days events may have prevented accidental poisonings or intentional abuse, however only qualitative comparisons support this statement and there was insufficient empirical evidence to support the conclusion that Denton drug disposal days events were exclusively responsible for public health improvements. An interesting finding was that there was a definitive travel threshold that influenced participation in Denton drug disposal days events. Overall, this study fills some geographic, socioeconomic, and demographic data gaps of take back programs and proposes methods to analyze and improve participation in future take back programs. These methods could also be applied to improve participation in other local environmentally-focused programs such as household hazardous collection events.
Kim, Hyun-Joong; Hwang, Se-Min; Lee, In-Young; Cho, Joon-Pil; Kwon, Myoung-Ok; Jung, Jae-Hun; Byun, Ju-Young
The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of and problems with the Safe Community Programs in Gangbuk-gu, one of the 25 districts of the capital city of Korea. The study subjects were 396 individuals who were involved in Safe Community Programs between 2009 and 2011. We examined the effectiveness and willingness of respondents to participate as a safety leader of the Safe Community Program with a questionnaire. We examined the injury death rates of Gangbuk-gu by using of the death certificate data of Korea's National Statistical Office. Descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests were used. The effectiveness of programs did not differ but active participation differed significantly among subjects (pdeveloped.
Effective recruitment of participants to a phase I study using the internet and publicity releases through charities and patient organisations: analysis of the adaptive study of IL-2 dose on regulatory T cells in type 1 diabetes (DILT1D).
Heywood, James; Evangelou, Marina; Goymer, Donna; Kennet, Jane; Anselmiova, Katerina; Guy, Catherine; O'Brien, Criona; Nutland, Sarah; Brown, Judy; Walker, Neil M; Todd, John A; Waldron-Lynch, Frank
A barrier to the successful development of new disease treatments is the timely recruitment of participants to experimental medicine studies that are primarily designed to investigate biological mechanisms rather than evaluate clinical efficacy. The aim of this study was to analyse the performance of three recruitment sources and the effect of publicity events during the Adaptive study of IL-2 dose on regulatory T cells in type 1 diabetes (DILT1D). The final study outcome, demography, disease duration, residence and the effect of publicity events on the performance of three recruitment sources (clinics, type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease register and the internet) were analysed from a bespoke DILT1D recruitment database. For the internet source, the origin of website hits in relation to publicity events was also evaluated. A total of 735 potentially eligible participants were approached to identify the final 45 DILT1D participants. A total of 477 (64%) were identified via the disease register, but only 59 (12%) responded to contact. A total of 317 individuals registered with the DILT1D study team. Self-referral via the study website generated 170 (54%) registered individuals and was the most popular and successful source, with 88 (28%) sourced from diabetes clinics and 59 (19%) from the disease register. Of those with known T1D duration (N = 272), the internet and clinics sources identified a larger number (57, 21%) of newly diagnosed T1D (March 2013); DRN767 (registered: 21 January 2013).
Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée
This article presents a case study where a modified version of strategic option development and analysis (SODA) is applied to enhance the level of citizens’ participation in a strategic forest management planning process managed by the Danish Forest and Nature Agency. The case is interesting......, communication of stakeholder perspectives, identification and management of conflicts, decision process transparency, and agency accountability for final planning outcomes. The primary problems encountered relate to the difficulty of reading the cognitive maps, time requirements, and selection of facilitator...
Simovska, Venka; Bruun Jensen, Bjarne
Although participation is not a new issue, it would be fair to say that consequential participation, which implies young people engaging in meaningful dialogue with adults and institutions and influencing decision-making processes in matters that concern them, is still in its infancy. This document...... aims to set the scene for discussing young people's participation in different domains that have an impact on their lives. It outlines the meaning and different interpretations of the concept of "participation" before reviewing why participation is an important issue in relation to young people...... and society. It then describes different forms, modes or qualities of participation and proposes a specific model of facilitating participatory work with young people - the IVAC approach (Investigation-Vision-Action-Change). The concept of action, types of actions aimed at initiating change and corresponding...
Banerjee, Sushanta K; Kumar, Rakesh; Warvadekar, Janardan; Manning, Vinoj; Andersen, Kathryn Louise
Maternal mortality, which primarily burdens developing countries, reflects the greatest health divide between rich and poor. This is especially pronounced for access to safe abortion services which alone avert 1 of every 10 maternal deaths in India. Primarily due to confidentiality concerns, poor women in India prefer private services which are often offered by untrained providers and may be expensive. In 2006 the state government of Madhya Pradesh (population 73 million) began a concerted effort to ensure access to safe abortion services at public health facilities to both rural and urban poor women. This study aims to understand the socio-economic profile of women seeking abortion services in public health facilities across this state and out of pocket cost accessing abortion services. In particular, we examine the level of access that poor women have to safe abortion services in Madhya Pradesh. This study consisted of a cross-sectional client follow-up design. A total of 19 facilities were selected using two-stage random sampling and 1036 women presenting to chosen facilities with abortion and post-abortion complications were interviewed between May and December 2014. A structured data collection tool was developed. A composite wealth index computed using principal component analysis derived weights from consumer durables and asset holding and classified women into three categories, poor, moderate, and rich. Findings highlight that overall 57% of women who received abortion care at public health facilities were poor, followed by 21% moderate and 22% rich. More poor women sought care at primary level facilities (58%) than secondary level facilities and among women presenting for postabortion complications (67%) than induced abortion. Women reported spending no money to access abortion services as abortion services are free of cost at public facilities. However, poor women spend INR 64 (1 USD) while visiting primary level facilities and INR 256 (USD 4) while
Alberto Rivera-Rentas; Samarys Seguinot-Medina
Asthma is a rapidly growing chronic disease in the general population of the world, mostly in children. Puerto Ricans have the highest prevalence of children with asthma among the Hispanic community in the US and its territories. Asthma and air quality are becoming a significant and potentially costly public health issue in Puerto Rico. The CDC has reported that in Puerto Rico, 320,350 adults have asthma and this number represents 11.5% of the island adult population. The north east municipal...
Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Heinesen, Eskil
For employees who get cancer and survive, the probability of returning to work may depend on their ability to work, potential earnings losses if they do not return to work, qualifications and job type, but also on characteristics of the pre-cancer workplace. This paper focuses on differences between public and private sector employees in the effect of breast cancer on the probability of being out of the labour force three years after the diagnosis. We use propensity score weighting methods and a large longitudinal Danish administrative dataset which allows us to control for a wide range of important baseline characteristics such as education, sector of employment, labour market status, income, health, and demographics. We find that the educational gradient in the effect of cancer is significant in the public sector, where the estimated effects are 11.5 and 3.8 percentage points, respectively, for the low- and high-educated. The corresponding estimates for the private sector are 6.2 and 3.2 percentage points and here the educational gradient is only marginally significant. We discuss possible mechanisms behind the large sector gradient for the low-educated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Tammy; Boyden, Jennifer Emiko; Pittz, William J.
This report analyzes current public education policies, procedures, and practices that compound racial inequities by profiling students of color. Such practices divert resources away from proven solutions that advance academic excellence. Bias in high-stakes testing serves to increase student achievement gaps. Zero-tolerance and maximum-security…
Full Text Available Objetivo: ¡Hagamos salud! es una estrategia de promoción de la salud aplicable en centros educativos que se basa en la evidencia, la participación, el consenso y el compromiso de la comunidad educativa. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar esta estrategia según la consecución de dos objetivos específicos: 1 la percepción de la comunidad escolar respecto al proceso de implantación y 2 los cambios producidos. Métodos: Durante el curso 2010-11 se llevaron a cabo: 1 un estudio cualitativo descriptivo para evaluar el proceso de implantación mediante la identificación de factores facilitadores, barreras, necesidades y propuestas de mejora, a través de grupos focales y entrevistas en profundidad; 2 un estudio cuasiexperimental antes-después con grupo control mediante encuestas con el fin de evaluar la participación y el nivel de ajuste a los parámetros de las Escuelas Promotoras de Salud. Las fuentes de información utilizadas fueron profesionales del ámbito de la salud y la educación. Resultados: Los principales factores facilitadores fueron la implicación de la estructura directiva y la formación durante la implantación. La principal barrera fue la escasez de tiempo y recursos. Los centros ¡Hagamos salud! cumplen en mayor medida los criterios de Escuelas Promotoras de Salud que el grupo comparación: son más participativos, realizan un mayor número de acciones preventivas e incorporaron decisiones de salud en la programación y la normativa del centro. Conclusiones: ¡Hagamos salud! es una estrategia participativa y comunitaria que, basándose en los criterios de las Escuelas Promotoras de Salud, permite crear entornos promotores de la salud.Objective: Let's foster health¿ is an intervention strategy in health promotion for use in primary and secondary schools and based on evidence, participation, consensus and the commitment of all members of the educational community. The aim of the present study was to evaluate this
female athletes needed treatment for their eating disorders with additional 58% that were at high risk for developing eating disorder behaviours. The average BMI of 25.07±4.42 kg/m2 (table 1) obtained was on the high side (overweight) not only for athletes but also for general good health (CDC;. Konin and Koike, 2008).
Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))
Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)
Drake, Brett; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Sapokaite, Lina
This study uses administrative data to track the first re-reports of maltreatment in a low-income, urban child welfare population (n=4957) while controlling for other public service involvement. Service system involvement is explored across the following sectors: Child Welfare, Income Maintenance, Special Education, Juvenile Court, and various forms of Medicaid-reimbursed medical or mental health care. This study builds knowledge by adding the services dimension to an ecological framework for analyses and by following recurrence for a longer period of time than prior investigations (7.5 years). We model the re-reporting of a child for maltreatment as a function of child, caregiver, service, and neighborhood characteristics using data from birth records, child welfare, income maintenance, Medicaid, adult corrections, juvenile court, special education, law enforcement, and census sources. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are presented, the latter using Cox regression with a robust sandwich covariance matrix estimate to account for the intracluster dependence within tracts. Key results across bivariate and multivariate analyses included a lower rate of re-reporting among children with parents who were high school graduates and/or permanently exited from the first spell on AFDC (pfamilies that received less intensive in-home services compared to those not receiving services, receiving intensive in-home, or foster care services (pstrong association with the likelihood of a child being re-reported to the child welfare agency and should be more heavily attended to by child welfare workers. High rates of service sector overlap suggest that interagency ties and cooperation should be strengthened. The lower risk associated with less intensive in-home services compared to un-served cases may indicate under-identification of in-home service eligibility following a first report of maltreatment.
Measuring social values for landscapes is an emerging field of research and is critical to the successful management of urban ecosystems. Green open space planning has traditionally relied on rigid standards and metrics without considering the physical requirements of green spaces that are valued for different reasons and by different people. Relating social landscape values to key environmental variables provides a much stronger evidence base for planning landscapes that are both socially desirable and environmentally sustainable. This study spatially quantified residents' values for green space in the Lower Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia by enabling participants to mark their values for specific open spaces on interactive paper maps. The survey instrument was designed to evaluate the effect of spatial scale by providing maps of residents' local area at both suburb and municipality scales. The importance of open space values differed depending on whether they were indicated via marker dots or reported on in a general aspatial sense. This suggests that certain open space functions were inadequately provided for in the local area (specifically, cultural significance and health/therapeutic value). Additionally, all value types recorded a greater abundance of marker dots at the finer (suburb) scale compared to the coarser (municipality) scale, but this pattern was more pronounced for some values than others (e.g. physical exercise value). Finally, significant relationships were observed between the abundance of value marker dots in parks and their environmental characteristics (e.g. percentage of vegetation). These results have interesting implications when considering the compatibility between different functions of green spaces and how planners can incorporate information about social values with more traditional approaches to green space planning.
A task for generations. A commission plans for the future. Pt. 2. Public participation, time required, international comparison, past conflicts; Generationenaufgabe Endlagerung. Eine Kommission plant fuer die Zukunft. T. 2. Konzept zur Oeffentlichkeitsbeteiligung, Zeitbedarf, internationaler Vergleich, Konflikte der Vergangenheit
Fischer, Bernhard [E.ON Generation GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Jaeger, Gerd [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)
German Federal and State governments have committed the political foundations for the disposal of high radioactive, heat-generating waste with the Repository Site Selection Act (StandAG). The act defines a new site selection procedure and the ''Kommission Lagerung hoch radioaktiver Abfallstoffe'' (Commission Disposal of High Radioactive Waste). The Commission should evaluate the site selection process criteria, processes and decision-making basis, evaluate the StandAG and make proposals for public participation and transparency. The commission presented its final report on 5 July 2016. atw spoke with the representatives of industry, Dr. Bernhard Fischer and Prof. Dr. Gerd Jaeger, on the commission work.
Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom...... they could not give open accounts about sexual practice. Attempting to overcome these barriers, I participated in excessive nightlife activities, and as a consequence they began viewing me as a more accepting and reliable person. Although breaking down these barriers provided invaluable insight...... into their sexual culture, it also caused anxiety and troubling desires vis-à-vis informants. I discuss how anthropologists, through fieldwork are transformed from powerful seducers of informants to objects of informants' seduction. This creates dilemmas for the anthropologist whose fieldwork depends on informants...
Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Huitema, Dave; O'Toole, Laurence J.; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Huitema, D.; O'Toole, Laurence J.
The main subject to which this book seeks to contribute is the question of how and under which circumstances public participation can enhance the quality of environmental decision-making. This chapter outlines the issues addressed in the succeeding contributions. The core of the argument is that in
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Chemical equilibrium is recognized as a topic of several misconceptions. Its origins must be tracked from previous scholarship. Its impact on biochemistry learning is not fully described. A possible bulk of data is the FUVEST exam. OBJECTIVES: Identify students’ errors profile on chemical equilibrium tasks using public data from FUVEST exam. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data analysis from FUVEST were: i Private and Public school distribution in Elementary and Middle School, and High School candidates of Pharmacy-Biochemistry course and total USP careers until the last call for enrollment (2004-2013; ii Average performance in 1st and 2nd parts of FUVEST exam of Pharmacy-Biochemistry, Chemistry, Engineering, Biological Sciences, Languages and Medicine courses and total enrolled candidates until 1st call for enrollment (2008- 2013; iii Performance of candidates of Pharmacy-Biochemistry, Chemistry, Engineering, Biological Sciences, Languages and Medicine courses and total USP careers in chemical equilibrium issues from 1st part of FUVEST (2011-2013. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: i 66.2% of candidates came from private Elementary-Middle School courses and 71.8%, came from High School courses; ii Average grade over the period for 1st and 2nd FUVEST parts are respectively (in 100 points: Pharmacy-Biochemistry 66.7 and 61.2, Chemistry 65.9 and 58.9, Engineering 75.9 and 71.9, Biological Sciences 65.6 and 54.6, Languages 49.9 and 43.3, Medicine 83.5 and 79.5, total enrolled candidates 51,5 and 48.9; iii Four chemical equilibrium issues were found during 2011-2013 and the analysis of multiplechoice percentage distribution over the courses showed that there was a similar performance of students among them, except for Engineering and Medicine with higher grades, but the same proportional distribution among choices. CONCLUSION: Approved students came majorly from private schools. There was a different average performance among courses and similar on
Fabian, Louise; Samson, Kristine
with participation are currently strong influential factors in Danish planning. The article explores the use of participatory DIY urban design in two cases: the relocation of beer drinkers in Enghave Square and the Carlsberg City development in Copenhagen, Denmark. Carlsberg City is the most thorough Danish example...
Gayles, Joy Gaston; Hu, Shouping
Most of the internal and public scrutiny of college sports involves high profile athletes in sports such as football and men's basketball; yet, recent research on the impact of sport participation on student learning and development has largely focused on comparing all athletes to their non-athlete peers across institutional types. There is a need…
Effects of a recreational physical activity and healthy habits orientation program, using an illustrated diary, on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese schoolchildren: a pilot study in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil.
Militão, Angeliete Garcez; de Oliveira Karnikowski, Margô Gomes; da Silva, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez Militão, Elba Sancho; Dos Santos Pereira, Raiane Maiara; Grubert Campbell, Carmen Silvia
Educative strategies need to be adopted to encourage the consumption of healthy foods and to promote physical activity in childhood and adolescence. The effects of recreational physical activity and a health-habit orientation program using an illustrated diary on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese children was investigated. The weight and height of 314 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 11 years old, in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil, were recorded. According to the body mass index (BMI) classification proposed by the World Health Organization, 84 were overweight or obese for their age and sex. Of these children, 34 (40%) participated in the study. Students were divided into two groups matched for sex, age, BMI, percent body fat (%BF): the intervention group (IG, n = 17) and the control group (CG, n = 17). The IG underwent a program of 10 weeks of exercise with recreational activities and health-habit orientation using an illustrated diary of habits, while no such interventions were used with the CG during the study period. Before and after the intervention, the children's weight, height, BMI, %BF, waist circumference (WC), maximum oxygen intake (VO2max), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, glucose, eating habits, and physical activity level (PAL) were assessed. In analyzing the data, we used descriptive statistics and paired and unpaired t-tests, using a significance level of 0.05. For assessment of dietary habits, a questionnaire, contingency tables, and the chi-squared test were used, with habits and to increase their physical activity level.
Gloria Molina M
Full Text Available Objetivo: Este artículo pretende aportar al debate sobre la participación pública y privada en la provisión de servicios de salud y discutir los aspectos principales de las reformas de salud en Colombia en el contexto internacional y algunos de sus avances y limitaciones. Síntesis: En Colombia, la descentralización y el Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud han transformado el sistema de salud en todos sus aspectos. Los mecanismos de mercado y la competencia dinamizan las relaciones entre múltiples actores e instituciones, por medio de contratos de prestación de servicios, en un contexto con poca capacidad rectora del Estado y de múltiples intereses económicos. Conclusiones: La revisión del tema permite sugerir que la diversidad de actores, la amplia participación privada, la reducción del sector público, el interés de los actores puesto en la rentabilidad económica, los mecanismos de mercado y competencia sin suficiente capacidad rectora del Estado, han generado fallas de mercado y de gobierno que pueden estar afectando el acceso, la calidad, la cobertura de los servicios y la salud pública en general. Se destaca la necesidad de una política de cooperación y alianza interinstitucional, donde los actores públicos y privados trabajen coordinadamente para lograr impactar el desempeño del sistema y la salud de la población.Objective: This paper tries to contribute to the debate about public and private participation in the provision of health services and discusses the same issues of the Colombian’s health reform, within the international context, some of its achievements and limitations. Summary: In Colombia, the descentralization process and the Social Security System for Health have transformed the whole health system. Market mechanisms, competition and outsourcing the provision of health services, within a framework of limited state stewardship, generates interplay between several actors, institutions and
Lee, Susanna; McGrath, Elizabeth A.
In 1988, the Delaware State legislature provided for the development of profile reports (PRs) on all full-time public high schools in the state. To determine the impact of the high school PRs, this study addressed the following: (1) public awareness of the PR program; (2) the percentage of the public that received a high school profile; (3) public…
Tadyanemhandu, Cathrine; Manie, Shamila
Physiotherapy is integral to patient management in the Intensive Care Unit. The precise role that physiotherapists play in the critical care differs significantly worldwide. The aim of the study was to describe the profile of patients and the current patterns of physiotherapy services delivered for patients admitted in the five public hospital intensive care units in Zimbabwe. A prospective record review was performed and records of all consecutive patients admitted into the five units during a two months period were included in the analysis. The data was collected using a checklist and the following were recorded for each patient: 1) demographic information, 2) admission diagnoses, 3) surgery classification, 4) method and time of mechanical ventilation 5) physiotherapy techniques and frequency and 6) the length of stay. A total of 137 patients were admitted to five units during the study. The mean age of patients in the study was 36.0 years (SD = 16.6). A mortality rate of 17.5 % was observed with most of the patients being below the age of 45 years. The majority of the patients, 61(45 %) had undergone emergency surgery and were in the ICU for postoperative treatment, whilst only 19(14 %) were in the units for clinical treatment (non-surgical). On admission, 72(52.6 %) of the patients were on mechanical ventilation. The mean duration on mechanical ventilation for patients was 4.0 days (SD =2.7) and a length of stay in the unit of 4.5 days (SD = 3.0). Of the patients who were admitted into the ICU 120 (87.6 %) had at least one session of physiotherapy treatment during their stay. The mean number of days physiotherapy treatment was received was 3.71 (SD = 3.14) days. The most commonly used physiotherapy techniques were active assisted limb movements (66.4 %), deep breathing exercises (65.0 %) and forced expiratory techniques (65.0 %). A young population admitted in the ICU for post-surgical treatment was observed across all hospital ICUs. The techniques which were
... analytical methods and conclusions relied upon in making the applicability analysis and draft conformity... placing a notice by prominent advertisement in a daily newspaper of general circulation in the area....158 for a Federal action by placing a notice by prominent advertisement in a daily newspaper of...
Full Text Available The major purpose of this article is to analyze the most important FP programs in Poland in order to increase knowledge on the subject and to show the occurring relations between the programs applied and the socioeconomic results of enterprises. The emphasis has been put on showing the multidimensional relationships between employee financial ownership and economic results, as well as on proving the relationship mechanisms of employee ownership on productivity are complex interactions by nature. Additionally, it has helped to separate crucial characteristic features of the applied forms of FP. This empirical approach concentrates on qualitative research and not quantitative, which although broad based, does not precisely identify the aforementioned relationships too precisely.
The assumption prevails that there is an inclusive, elected leadership representing only their specific ... sometimes serve as a substitute chairperson on a ward committee if the ward councillor cannot be present. ...... and implementation: A South African perspective with reference to the Port Elizabeth municipality. Lambert.
Dr Tanya du Plessis
one can be put out of this estate and subjected to the political power of another without his own consent, which ... context – analysis of its real-life successes or failures falls beyond the scope of this contribution. Where applicable, the ...... Commissioner for Human Rights. International Bill of Human Rights [Found on internet].
ment bureaucracies - for example the language of management ... (and the language of their original expression) whose main interest .... intentionally opaque. Needless to say, such a rhetorical move serves to reinforce analytically oriented scholars' perception that Continental scholarship is characterised by confusion and.
Haliton Alves de Oliveira Junior
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the baseline demographic and clinical characteristics as well as the functional status of a prospective cohort of patients with rheumatic diseases assisted by the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS. Data for 302 patients receiving tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors (anti-TNF agents was collected through a standard form. Among patients, 229 (75.8% were female and 155 (51.3% were Caucasian; the mean age was 50.3 ± 12.8 years, and the mean disease duration was 9.9 ± 8.7 years. Among them 214 patients (70.9% received adalimumab, 72 (23.8% etanercept, and 16 (5.3% infliximab. Mean Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI was 1.37 ± 0.67 for all participants. Poor functional response was associated with female gender, married patients and with a score of < 0.6 on the EuroQoL-5 dimensions (EQ-5D. Significant correlation was found between the HAQ-DI values, disease activity and quality of life (QOL. The results obtained in this study contribute to a better understanding of the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with rheumatic diseases at the beginning of anti-TNF-agent treatment by SUS. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with another Brazilian and foreign cross-sectional investigations. This knowledge can be of great importance for further studies evaluating the effectiveness of biological agents, as well as, to contribute to improve the well-being of the patients with rheumatic diseases.
Fabio Humberto Ribeiro Paes Ferraz
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As doenças glomerulares são uma causa frequente de doença renal crônica, sobretudo nos países em desenvolvimento. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil destas glomerulopatias em um hospital público da cidade de Brasília, Distrito Federal. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas 121 biopsias renais pela equipe de nefrologia do Hospital Regional da Asa Norte (HRAN entre agosto de 2005 e maio de 2009. Foram excluídas oito biopsias realizadas em pacientes transplantados renais e analisados os prontuários dos 113 pacientes restantes. Dados analisados: sexo, idade, exames laboratoriais, síndrome glomerular, diagnóstico clínico, grau de fibrose intersticial, uso de imunossupressores, necessidade de diálise e desfecho clínico. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi 34,9 ± 16,2 anos, com predomínio masculino (51,3%. As principais síndromes glomerulares foram: síndrome nefrótica (41,6% e glomerulonefrite rapidamente progressiva (35,4%. Entre as glomerulopatias primárias, houve predomínio da glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal (26,9% e da nefropatia por IgA (25% e entre as secundárias a nefrite lúpica (50% e a glomerulonefrite proliferativa exsudativa difusa (34,2%. A maioria dos pacientes fez uso de imunossupressores (68,1% e quase um terço deles (29,2% necessitou de diálise durante a internação. Evoluíram para terapia dialítica crônica 13,3% dos pacientes e 10,6% evoluíram a óbito. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo poderá contribuir para melhor entendimento epidemiológico das doenças glomerulares no Distrito Federal, orientando na adoção de políticas públicas visando permitir rápido diagnóstico e manejo clínico das mesmas.INTRODUCTION: Glomerular diseases are a frequent etiology of chronic kidney disease, especially in the developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To determine the profile of such glomerulopathies in a public hospital located in the city of Brasilia, Federal District. METHODS: 121 renal biopsies in
Full Text Available Physical planning is also a political activity. Therefore participation is a necessary form of democratic actions undertaken by individuals and groups that strive for democratisation of civil society and strengthening of democratic social values. Public participation of citizens, legal subjects, interest groups and others in physical planning is essential even from the aspect of ensuring success and efficiency of planning documents, if the idea is to devise a plan, which the people would be ready and capable of implementing. Thus the role of the physical planner is changing from technical expert to mediator or anchor-person, who nevertheless has to operate within a normative framework.
Vandenhouten, Christine L; Malakar, Crystalmichelle L; Kubsch, Sylvia; Block, Derryl E; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan
Level of political participation and factors contributing to participation were measured among Midwest RNs (n = 468) via an online survey (Cronbach's α = .95). Respondents reported engaging in primarily "low cost" activities (e.g., voting, discussing politics, and contacting elected officials), with fewer reporting speaking at public gatherings, participating in demonstrations, and membership in nursing organizations. Psychological engagement was most predictive (p political participation with the dimensions of political interest, political efficacy, and political information/knowledge highly significant (p political participation (p political participation. Findings showed that nurse educators and leaders of professional nursing organizations need to model and cultivate greater psychological engagement among students and nurses.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...
Hansen, Henning Sten; Reinau, Kristian Hegner
Recent advances in GIS and the Internet have improved the technical possibilities for supporting the public participation through e-Participation systems - e.g. Public Participation GIS. On the other hand there has been too much focus on many technical aspects of public participation with reduced...... debate among all citizens, the result of a PPGIS service is a debate among a rather limited group....
Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.
Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information
Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø
Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information