WorldWideScience

Sample records for profile occupational exposures

  1. Molecular profile of sensitization in subjects with short occupational exposure to latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Lamberti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We examined the prevalence of latex allergy in subjects with occupational exposure to latex allergens for less than 5 years, determining the disease spectrum in symptomatic workers. We identified the most frequent molecular allergens by Immuno- CAP (ICAP, correlating the findings with skin prick test (SPT results. Material and Methods: Seven hundred twenty-three healthcare students using latex gloves on a regular basis were invited to participate in a baseline questionnaire screening. An ICAP serum test was performed only when a possible latex allergy was indicated by the questionnaire. Results: The total number of participants responding to the baseline survey was 619. Glove-related symptoms were indicated by 4% (N = 25 of the students. The most common symptom was contact dermatitis (N = 18, 72%. In 12 subjects, ICAP revealed a real sensitization to latex, with a recombinant latex allergen profile showing a high frequency for rHev b 6.01 specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE (N = 9, 67%. In these individuals, skin symptoms were more prevalent than other types (88%. Conclusions: The combined positivity for rHev b 6.01, rHev 8 and rHev b 5 determined by ICAP identified 92% of latex-allergic subjects with short-term exposure to latex.

  2. Molecular profile of sensitization in subjects with short occupational exposure to latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Monica; Buonanno, Rosaria; Ritonnaro, Chiara; Giovane, Giancarlo; Crispino, Vincenzo; Feola, Antonia; Medici, Nicola; Sannolo, Nicola; Di Carlo, Angelina; Di Domenico, Marina

    2015-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of latex allergy in subjects with occupational exposure to latex allergens for less than 5 years, determining the disease spectrum in symptomatic workers. We identified the most frequent molecular allergens by Immuno- CAP (ICAP), correlating the findings with skin prick test (SPT) results. Seven hundred twenty-three healthcare students using latex gloves on a regular basis were invited to participate in a baseline questionnaire screening. An ICAP serum test was performed only when a possible latex allergy was indicated by the questionnaire. The total number of participants responding to the baseline survey was 619. Glove-related symptoms were indicated by 4% (N = 25) of the students. The most common symptom was contact dermatitis (N = 18, 72%). In 12 subjects, ICAP revealed a real sensitization to latex, with a recombinant latex allergen profile showing a high frequency for rHev b 6.01 specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) (N = 9, 67%). In these individuals, skin symptoms were more prevalent than other types (88%). The combined positivity for rHev b 6.01, rHev 8 and rHev b 5 determined by ICAP identified 92% of latex-allergic subjects with short-term exposure to latex. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...... and questionnaires. The main occupational exposure was organic dust and 49% reported no lifetime occupational exposure. The results suggest occupational exposures to be associated to COPD also in never smokers and women. We found an exposure-response relation in the cross sectional analyses. The results...

  4. Workers’ cytokines profiling upon exposure to MWCNT aerosol in occupational settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatkhutdinova, L. M.; Khaliullin, T. O.; Zalyalov, R. R.; Vasilyeva, O. L.; Valeeva, I. Kh; Mustafin, I. G.

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have found that upon pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) animals develop primarily fibrosis and granulomas in lungs. In vitro and in vivo studies also give reason to assume that local exposure could be related to remote effects, including immune system and the endothelium. To investigate the remote effect hypothesis, we have analyzed blood, nasal lavage and induced sputum samples taken from workers in the frame of the Russian epidemiological study on Carbon Nanotubes Exposure and Risk Assessment (CNT-ERA). In serum and nasal lavage no significant differences between exposure and control groups were observed with a high variability to the cytokines content. In the samples of induced sputum from exposed workers the content of IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a, IL-4, IL-5, IFN-g exceeded the control group values, but after the regression models construction and bootstrap analysis, significant differences were found only for IL-1b. This study could not provide evidences of blood cytokines changes following local cytokine production in airways in workers exposed to MWCNTs. Cytokines variability in serum and nasal lavage may indicate the absence of severe systemic inflammatory response upon the existing occupational exposure to MWCNTs. Other systemic responses (including allergy-like or autoimmune reactions) should be regarded as well.

  5. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  6. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  7. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  8. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  9. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  10. Occupational Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powered by Translate UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Facebook Twitter Instagram RSS Subscribe Search A TO Z INDEX UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Facebook Twitter Instagram RSS Subscribe Occupational Safety and Health Administration English | ...

  11. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  12. Occupational Profiles in Environmental Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CEDEFOP Flash, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Two pilot projects on environmental profiles in the chemical and metal industries and in the public sector were conducted in four countries. Two aspects were studied: job requirements in selected enterprises and departments of the civil service and the occupational competencies of the staff carrying out these tasks. Studies on the chemical and…

  13. Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Crouzier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71 GHz, 50 W/m2, were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1 hour/day, 3 times/week. Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, 1H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, 13C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy after eye surgery was not justified.

  14. Precision Machining Technologies. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of precision machinist. The…

  15. Non-occupational exposure to silica dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagia, L J

    2012-09-01

    Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed.

  16. Occupational hazard exposure and at risk drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, K M; Furner, S E; Qian, Y

    1999-01-01

    This study examined associations between workers' reported exposure to occupational hazards and at risk drinking. A sample of 15,907 working adults was drawn from the 1985 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (weighted sample represented 85,395,000 workers). This was the only year the NHIS included questions on both occupational hazard exposure and at risk drinking. Occupational hazard exposures included chemical/biological substances, physical hazards, injury risk, and mental stress. At risk drinking was defined as binge drinking and drinking and driving. Prevalence adjusted odds ratios were estimated. Sixty percent of workers reported exposure to one or more occupational hazards with considerable variation among and within occupations. In all, 31% reported binge drinking and 15% drove after drinking too much. In a multivariate analysis that controlled for background characteristics, workers who reported occupational hazard exposures were 1.2 to 1.4 times more likely to engage in binge drinking than workers without exposures. Similar results were found for drinking/driving. All multivariate results were statistically significant. Findings suggest workers who report occupational hazard exposures are at greater risk of both binge drinking and drinking/driving. Occupational and environmental health nurses can lead workplace initiatives to reduce occupational hazard exposure and, simultaneously, invest in health promotion efforts to curb at risk drinking among workers.

  17. Occupational exposure to solvents and bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2017-01-01

    between 1961 and 2005 and 566,715 population controls matched according to country, sex and birth year. Census-based occupational titles of the cases and controls were linked with the job exposure matrix created by the NOCCA project to estimate quantitative cumulative occupational exposures. A conditional...

  18. Application of oligonucleotide microarray technology to toxic occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Maureen R; Weston, Ainsley

    2008-01-01

    Microarray technology has advanced toward analysis of toxic occupational exposures in biological systems. Microarray analysis is an ideal way to search for biomarkers of exposure, even if no specific gene or pathway has been identified. Analysis may now be performed on thousands of genes simultaneously, as opposed to small numbers of genes as in the past. This ability has been put to use to analyze gene expression profiles of a variety of occupational toxins in animal models to classify toxins into specific categories based on response. Analysis of normal human cell strains allows an extension of this analysis to investigate the role of interindividual variation in response to various toxins. This methodology was used to analyze four occupationally related toxins in our lab: oxythioquinox (OTQ), a quinoxaline pesticide; malathion, an organophosphate pesticide; di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a chemical commonly found in personal care and cosmetic items; and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), an environmental and occupational carcinogen. The results for each exposure highlighted signaling pathways involved in response to these occupational exposures. Both pesticides showed increase in metabolic enzymes, while DBP showed alterations in genes related to fertility. BaP exposure showed alterations in two cytochrome P450s related to carcinogenicity. When used with occupational exposure information, these data may be used to augment risk assessment to make the workplace safer for a greater proportion of the workforce, including individuals susceptible to disease related to exposures.

  19. Exposure-response in occupational allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meinir G

    2008-04-01

    This review examines the relationship between exposure to workplace allergens and the risk of developing occupational allergy. Evidence suggests that the risk of developing occupational allergy increases with allergen exposure; however, with some occupational allergens, this exposure-response relationship is more complex. In laboratory animal workers, the risk of developing occupational allergy increases with exposure, except at high allergen exposure when there is a reduction in sensitization. This attenuation of specific immunoglobulin E antibody is associated with increased specific immunoglobulin G4 antibodies, which are likely to play a protective role, leading to a form of natural tolerance. Exposure-response relationships are also very dependent on the genetic susceptibility of the individual. The interaction between genes, occupational allergens and other cofactors in the environment, such as endotoxin, are also important risk factors in the development of sensitization and asthma. Occupational allergy provides a good opportunity to understand the complex relationships between exposure to allergens in the workplace, interaction with genes and the coexposures with other factors in the working environment and the increased risk of developing occupational allergy.

  20. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2006 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  1. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  2. Nanosilver – Occupational exposure limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Historically, nanosilver has been known as colloidal silver composed of particles with a size below 100 nm. Silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies, creating a wide range of products. Due to antibacterial properties nanosilver is used, among others, in medical devices (wound dressings, textiles (sport clothes, socks, plastics and building materials (paints. Colloidal silver is considered by many as an ideal agent in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms, unlike antibiotics, without side effects. However, in light of toxicological research, nanosilver is not inert to the body. The inhalation of silver nanoparticles have an adverse effect mainly on the liver and lung of rats. The oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species is responsible for the toxicity of nanoparticles, contributing to cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. The activity of the readily oxidized nanosilver surface underlies the molecular mechanism of toxicity. This leads to the release of silver ions, a known harmful agent. Occupational exposure to silver nanoparticles may occur in the process of its manufacture, formulation and also usage during spraying, in particular. In Poland, as well as in other countries of the world, there is no separate hygiene standards applicable to nanomaterials. The present study attempts to estimate the value of MAC-TWA (maximum admissible concentration – the time-weighted average for silver – a nano-objects fraction, which amounted to 0.01 mg/m3. The authors are of the opinion that the current value of the MAC-TWA for silver metallic – inhalable fraction (0.05 mg/m3 does not provide sufficient protection against the harmful effects of silver in the form of nano-objects. Med Pr 2015;66(3:429–442

  3. Marketing Management. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  4. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  5. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  6. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibañez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesús; Alguacil, Juan; de la Hera, Manuela García; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  7. Occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M.; Olsen, Jorn; Johansen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the association between occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides (MF), a peripheral T-cell lymphoma. SUBJECTS and METHODS: A European multicenter case-control study including seven rare cases (one being MF) was conducted between 1995 and 1997. From the 118...... accepted cases, 104 were interviewed, of which 76 were definite cases. Population controls were selected randomly from the regions of case ascertainment. Information based on occupational experiences was coded according to industry types. A job exposure matrix was created according to the expected exposure...

  8. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  9. Occupational exposure assessment in a radioactive facility: a preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Alice dos Santos; Gerulis, Eduardo; Sanches, Matias P.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G., E-mail: alicesante@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The risk that a worker has found on the job is a function of the hazards present and his exposure level to those hazards. Exposure and risk assessment is therefore the heart of all occupational health and industrial hygiene programs involving a continuous process of information gathering. The use of a systematic method to characterize workplace exposures to chemical, physical and biological risks is a fundamental part of this process. This study aims to carry out a preliminary evaluation in a radioactive facility, identifying potential exposures and consequently the existing occupational hazards (risk/agent) in the workplace which the employee is subject. The study is based on proposal to carry out a basic characterization of the facility, which could be the first step in the investigation of occupational exposure. For this study was essential to know the workplace, potential risks and agents; workforce profile including assignment of tasks, sources of exposure processes, and control measures. The main tool used in this study was based on references, records, standards, procedures, interviews with the workers and with management. Since the basic characterization of the facility has been carried out, consequently the potential exposure to the agents of risks to workers has been identified. The study provided an overview of the perception of risk founded at facility studied. It is expected to contribute with the occupational health program resources for welfare of the worker. (author)

  10. Occupational Exposures and Chronic Airflow Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Dimich-Ward

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent literature was reviewed to evaluate whether chronic airflow limitation is associated with occupational exposures to dusts. Only those studies that controlled for the effects of smoking were included. There is compelling evidence that exposure to inorganic dusts, such as from coal and hardrock mining or asbestos, are associated with the development of chronic airflow limitation, independently of pneumoconiosis. Nonsmoking gold miners are particularly at high risk of airflow obstruction and emphysema. Findings from studies of organic dusts, such as exposures to wood, cotton, grain or other agricultural dusts, or to mixed dust exposures, were less consistent but tended to show positive dose-response associations. In the majority of studies, no statistical interaction was shown between dust exposures and smoking; however, the effects of the dust exposures were often more pronounced. An occupational history should be considered, in addition to a smoking history, as an integral part of an investigation of chronic airflow limitation in a patient.

  11. Trichloroethylene occupational exposure: elements for better prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, L; Faure, J; Guilland, B; Chomat, D; Didier, B; Debru, J L

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-eight workers occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene (TRI) were studied by physical examination, exposure parameters (measure of atmospheric TRI and urinary trichloroacetic acid (CA) and evaluation of personal factors (age, alcoholic and tobacco consumption). A statistical comparison (chi 2 test) of the frequency of the symptoms observed in the high- and low-exposure populations with an analysis of nonprofessional factors allowed us to distinguish different classes of symptoms. Those more likely linked with TRI exposure are trigeminal and optic nerve impairment, asthenia, headache and dizziness. An interaction between TRI exposure and alcohol intake on the occurrence of clinical liver impairment and degreaser flush is suggested.

  12. Entertainment Marketing. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for entertainment marketing is an employer-verified competency list that evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives throughout Ohio. The competency list consists of six units: (1) human…

  13. General Marketing. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This General Marketing Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This OCAP identifies the…

  14. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  15. Occupational exposure, willingness to care and misconception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Hepatitis-B infection poses a significant threat to the health of dental surgeons and oral healthcare delivery worldwide. Aim/Objective: To assess occupational exposure, willingness to care and misconceptions about hepatitis-B virus (HBV) transmission among dental surgeons in Nigeria. Methods: This ...

  16. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  17. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the Way ... Methods: The methods used in this work include a systematic review of secondary data from peer-reviewed literature, thesis reports from academia, ...

  18. epidemiology and management of occupational exposure to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behavior modification such as eliminating needle recapping and disposing of sharps into sharps container immediately after use, use of safer devices such as needles that sheath after use and the regular use of personal protective equipments aimed at reducing the risk of occupational exposure to blood- borne pathogens.

  19. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  20. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  1. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1999 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  2. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1998 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health with support from Environment Safety and Health Technical Information Services publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  3. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  5. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  6. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2002 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  7. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  8. Occupational Exposure to Chlorinated and Petroleum Solvents and Mycosis Fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsen, Jorn; Villeneuve, Sara

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF).......To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF)....

  9. Occupational exposure to uranium particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, L.; Medeiros, G.; Dias da Cunha, K. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: carneiro@ird.gov.br; Lima, C.; Barros Leite, C.V.; Ramos, J.L. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RIO), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2007-07-01

    The risk for the human health due to exposure to aerosols containing uranium depend on the intake pattern, the mass concentration and the speciation of the elements present in airborne particles. In this work PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission) technique was used to characterize aerosols samples collected in the environment. The PIXE technique allows the identification of the elements present in the sample and to determine their mass concentrations. The aerosol samples were collected using a six-stage cascade impactor and coarse and fine air sampler (AGF sampler) in two sites of Rio de Janeiro City. One, a mineral laboratory processing mineral containing uranium associated to crystals lattice located at Fundao Island a industrial zone and the other, in a laboratory at Barra da Tijuca a residential zone close to a lagoon and to the seashore. The Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) measured indicated that the airborne particulate were in the fine fraction of the aerosols collected in both locations. In order to identify the contribution of the seawater particles from the Guanabara Bay in the aerosols, seawater samples were also collected at Fundao Island. The analysis of the results suggests that the aerosols are different in both sampling site and also exist a contribution from the Guanabara Bay seawater particles to the aerosols collected in the Fundao Island. (author)

  10. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  11. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    .g. the quantitation of identified DNA-adducts or substance unspecific as is the measurement of DNA-repair. The sample material used for analysis must be well characterized and subject to uniform processing for comparison of the results. Confounding factors of smoking, age and sex must be well controlled......) occupational exposure limit value of styrene in ambient air. The consideration of ethical issues in human genetic monitoring is an important but often overlooked aspect. This includes the scientific and preventional relevance of performing a test on individuals, pre- and post study information of donors......Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e...

  12. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Occupational exposure limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is produced in Poland as a high production volume chemical (HPVC. It is used mainly as a pigment for paints and coatings, plastics, paper, and also as additives to food and pharmaceuticals. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are increasingly applied in cosmetics, textiles and plastics as the ultraviolet light blocker. This contributes to a growing occupational exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are potentially responsible for the most adverse effects of titanium dioxide. Due to the absence of separate fraction of nanoobjects and appropriate measurement methods the maximum admissible concentrations (MAC for particles < 100 nm and nano-TiO2 cannot be established. In the world there are 2 proposals of occupational exposure levels for titanium dioxide nanoparticles: 0.3 mg/m3, proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH, and 0.6 mg/m3, proposed by experts of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO. The authors of this article, based on the available data and existing methods for hygiene standards binding in Poland, concluded that the MAC value of 0.3 mg/m3 for nanoparticles TiO2 in the workplace air can be accepted. Med Pr 2014;65(3:407–418

  13. [Occupational exposure to benzene in Brazil: estimates based on an occupational exposure matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Maria Juliana Moura; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2016-12-22

    This study estimates the number of exposed workers and the prevalence of occupational benzene exposure in Brazil. Due to the lack of available local measurements for the study, data were used from an occupational exposure matrix, the Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), which covers proportions of individuals exposed to benzene, calculated as environmental measures. In Brazil, the 2010 Demographic Census identified 86,353,839 workers in the workforce and employed. Applying the FINJEM parameters, an estimated 7,376,761 (8.5%) belonged to potentially exposed occupational groups, while 770,212 were considered exposed to benzene, corresponding to an occupational group-weighted prevalence of 0.9%, higher in men (1.1%) than in women (0.6%). Exposed individuals were concentrated in the category of Machine and Motor Operators and Mechanics (62%). The number of exposed and prevalence of occupational exposure to benzene are high, even when compared to Finnish parameters, suggesting the need for monitoring and control of this carcinogen in Brazil.

  14. Occupational skin exposure to water: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anveden Berglind, I; Alderling, M; Järvholm, B; Lidén, C; Meding, B

    2009-03-01

    Occupational exposure to skin irritants, in particular to water, is an important risk factor for hand eczema. To assess occupational skin exposure to water in the general population. As part of a public health survey in Stockholm, Sweden, 18,267 gainfully employed individuals aged 18-64 years completed a questionnaire with previously validated questions regarding occupational skin exposure to water. Altogether 16% reported exposure to water for (1/2) h or more a day, and 13% reported exposure to water more than 10 times a day. Furthermore, 7% reported water exposure of more than 2 h and 6% of more than 20 times a day. Women reported more water exposure than men and many female-dominated occupations were seen to comprise water exposure. Women were also more exposed than men within the same jobs. Young adults were more exposed than older. A total of 18% were employed in high-risk occupations for hand eczema. Fifty-nine per cent of individuals employed in high-risk occupations reported water exposure at work, compared with 11% in low-risk occupations. A total of 20% of the population of working age acknowledged occupational skin exposure to water, which was found to be more common in young adults and women. Using job title as a proxy for water exposure gives an underestimation due to misclassification. In assessing occupational skin exposure to water, both exposure time and frequency should be considered.

  15. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2009-10-01

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  16. Australian work exposures studies: occupational exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomichen, Jasmine; El-Zaemey, Sonia; Heyworth, Jane S; Carey, Renee N; Darcey, Ellie; Reid, Alison; Glass, Deborah C; Driscoll, Tim; Peters, Susan; Abramson, Michael; Fritschi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in some occupational settings. Some pesticides have been classified as carcinogens; however, data on the number of workers exposed to pesticides are not available in Australia. The main aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of pesticide exposure in Australian workplaces. The analysis used data from the Australian Work Exposures Study, a series of nationwide telephone surveys which investigated work-related prevalence and exposure to carcinogens and asthmagens, including pesticides, among current Australian workers. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Workers were considered exposed to pesticides if they reported applying or mixing pesticides in their current job. Of the 10 371 respondents, 410 (4%) respondents were assessed as being exposed to pesticides in the workplace, with exposure being more likely among males, individuals born in Australia, individuals with lower education level and those residing in regional or remote areas. Glyphosate was the most common active ingredient used by workers. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational pesticide exposure in Australia and one of the few recent studies internationally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pracha P. Eamranond

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

  18. Occupational and Environmental Lead Exposure in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In spite of the high risk of lead exposure in Nigeria, there is a paucity of data on the occupational and environmental burden of lead exposure and its impact on human health especially its nephrotoxic effects. This study aims to assess the degree of occupational and environmental lead exposure in Port ...

  19. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podonsky, Glenn S. [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The

  20. [Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: occupational exposure limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced in Poland as a high production volume chemical (HPVC). It is used mainly as a pigment for paints and coatings, plastics, paper, and also as additives to food and pharmaceuticals. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are increasingly applied in cosmetics, textiles and plastics as the ultraviolet light blocker. This contributes to a growing occupational exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are potentially responsible for the most adverse effects of titanium dioxide. Due to the absence of separate fraction of nanoobjects and appropriate measurement methods the maximum admissible concentrations (MAC) for particles titanium dioxide nanoparticles: 0.3 mg/m3, proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and 0.6 mg/m3, proposed by experts of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). The authors of this article, based on the available data and existing methods for hygiene standards binding in Poland, concluded that the MAC value of 0.3 mg/m3 for nanoparticles TiO2 in the workplace air can be accepted.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor... § 1926.52 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be... Noise Exposures Duration per day, hours Sound level dBA slow response 8 90 6 92 4 95 3 97 2 100 11/2 102...

  2. Investigation of Occupational Asthma: Do Clinicians Fail to Identify rRelevant Occupational Exposures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo de Olim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Specific inhalation challenges (SIC enable the identification of the agent responsible of occupational asthma (OA. A clinician may fail to identify a specific agent in the workplace, which may potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. The expert assessment method performed by an occupational hygienist has been used to evaluate occupational exposures in epidemiological studies.

  3. Occupational noise exposure and the risk of hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent Lodberg

    2013-01-01

    Noise may increase the risk of hypertension, but findings are inconsistent with respect to both community and occupational noise exposure. We used a large sample of noise-exposed industrial trades to analyze the association of occupational noise exposure and the risk of hypertension....

  4. Dose-time-response association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourt, Aude; Lévêque, Emilie; Guichard, Elie; Gilg Soit Ilg, Anabelle; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Leffondré, Karen

    2017-09-01

    Early occupational exposure to asbestos has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of pleural mesothelioma (PM), which suggests that the timing of exposure might play a role in the dose-response relationship. However, none studies has evaluated the relative impact of increasing the annual intensity of occupational exposure to asbestos at each time of the whole exposure history. Yet such evaluation would allow the comparison of the risks of PM associated with different longitudinal profiles of occupational exposure to asbestos. Our objective was to estimate the time-dependent relative impact of asbestos exposure intensity over the whole occupational history and to compare the resulting estimated risks of PM associated with different profiles of exposure, using data from a large French case-control study. This study included 1196 male cases recruited in 1987-2006 and 2369 matched controls on birth year. Occupational exposure to asbestos was assessed using a job exposure matrix and represented in logistic regression models using a flexible weighted cumulative index of exposure. Due to much stronger weights of early doses of asbestos exposure, subjects who accumulated 20 fibres/mL over their entire job history with high doses during the first years and low doses thereafter were at higher risk of PM than those who accumulated most of the doses later (OR=2.37 (95% CI 2.01 to 2.87)). This study provides new insights on the dose-time-response relationship between occupational asbestos and PM and illustrates the importance of considering timing of exposure in its association with cancer risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. [Occupational differences in exposure to hazardous work conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinacci, Chiara; d'Errico, A; Cardano, M; Perini, F; Costa, G

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have been aimed at describing organizational and psychosocial conditions of the Italian workforce by occupational group, and they have been mainly conducted within specific occupations. The present study aimed at identifying specific groups of occupations which have unfavourable profiles from the point of view of exposure to specific organizational factors and psychosocial risks, and to physical, chemical and ergonomic risks, and analyzing their distribution by worker age. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 4,195 workers in the Piedmont Region who were members of the CGIL Trade Union (Italian General Confederation of Labour), who answered a self-administered questionnaire in 2000, aimed at assessing chemical, physical, and ergonomic risks, accidents, and psychosocial factors connected with work organization and work tasks. Psychosocial risks were assessed via three scales aimed at measuring the degree of control, psychophysical demands, and worker satisfaction. The proportion of workers exposed to the above mentioned risks was analysed according to occupational group. This group was then compared with all other groups taken together, according to prevalence of high strain condition (combination of high demand and low control) and HSUR condition (High Strain Unfairly Rewarded; combination of high strain and low satisfaction). Among males aged 25-44 years, restricted to the occupation groups with more than ten workers in high strain condition, significantly higher proportions of stress were observed in leather workers and shoemakers, paper factory workers, rubber workers, crane and bridge crane operators, plastic workers, painters, transport drivers and carpenters. For many of these groups, excesses were confirmed for the HSUR condition. Among subjects aged over 44 years, a higher risk for high strain was confirmed in rubber workers, transport drivers and carpenters. In addition, machine tool operators, assembly line and mechanical workers in this

  6. Lung function: occupational exposure to wood dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Occupational exposure to wood dust has been shown to cause several respiratory disorders, such as allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, sino-nasal adenocarcinoma, and impairment of lung function. The aim of the study was to estimate lung function (in the woodworking industry among workers employed by wood processing, who run the risk of being expose to wood dust. Methods The study concerns a group of 70 workers aged 24-55. All the workers underwent general and laryngological examination. A group of 20 workers, working at the positions where dustiness exceeded TLV (threshold limit value took X-ray of the chest and spirometry. The following parameters were measured: VC, IC, ERV, TV, BF, FEV1, FVC, PEF, MEF25-75, FEV1%FVC, FEV1%VC. The data are presented as means ± SD and the authors applied references values according to ERS guidelines. Results The results show that there was no decline in FEV1 (3.7 ± 0.7 and FVC (4.5 ± 0.8. Normal lung function was defined as FEV1/VC ratio ≥0.7. None of the tested workers had obstructive pattern in spirometry. The mean FEV1%VC was 77.1 ± 10.2. These results suggest that wood dust exposure might not lead to significant pulmonary damage. Conclusions These data do not corroborate that wood dust plays significant role in lung function impairment. Future studies of respiratory health among workers exposed to wood dust are needed.

  7. Occupational exposure to ultrafine particles among airport employees--combining personal monitoring and global positioning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported...... at several airports, especially on the apron, but knowledge on individual exposure profiles among different occupational groups working at an airport is lacking. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare personal exposure to UFP among five different occupational groups working at Copenhagen Airport (CPH...... exposed to intermediate concentrations (GM: 12 to 20 × 10(3) UFP/cm(3)). CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates a strong gradient of exposure to UFP in ambient air across occupational groups of airport employees....

  8. [Toxic nephropathy secondary to occupational exposure to metallic mercury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitzuk, Ana; Greco, Vanina; Caputo, Daniel; Alvarez, Estela

    2014-01-01

    Toxic nephrophaties secondary to occupational exposure to metals have been widely studied, including membranous nephropathy by mercury, which is rare. Occupational poisoning by mercury is frequent, neurological symptoms are the main form of clinical presentation. Secondary renal involvement in chronic exposure to metallic mercury can cause glomerular disease by deposit of immune-complexes. Membranous glomerulopathy and minimal change disease are the most frequently reported forms. Here we describe the case of a patient with occupational exposure to metallic mercury, where nephrotic syndrome due to membranous glomerulonephritis responded favorably to both chelation and immunosuppressive therapy.

  9. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in Table... conservation program shall be administered. Table I permissible noise exposures 1 Duration per day, hours Sound...

  10. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in Australian road transport workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Si, Si; Carey, Renee; Reid, Alison; Peters, Susan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822930; Glass, Deborah D; Driscoll, Timothy; Darcey, Ellie; Fritschi, Lin

    BACKGROUND: Road transport workers (RTWs) are at high risk of exposure to several occupational carcinogens. However, there are gaps in knowledge regarding the extent and the circumstances of exposure. As a sub-study of the Australian Work Exposures Study, this study investigated the prevalence of

  11. Occupational Radiation Exposure During Endovascular Aortic Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Schurink, Geert Willem H., E-mail: gwh.schurink@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Bol, Martine E., E-mail: m.bol@maastrichtuniversity.nl; Haan, Michiel W. de, E-mail: m.de.haan@mumc.nl; Zwam, Willem H. van, E-mail: w.van.zwam@mumc.nl; Wildberger, Joachim E., E-mail: j.wildberger@mumc.nl; Jeukens, Cécile R. L. P. N., E-mail: cecile.jeukens@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation exposure to operating room personnel and to assess determinants for high personal doses during endovascular aortic repair.Materials and MethodsOccupational radiation exposure was prospectively evaluated during 22 infra-renal aortic repair procedures (EVAR), 11 thoracic aortic repair procedures (TEVAR), and 11 fenestrated or branched aortic repair procedures (FEVAR). Real-time over-lead dosimeters attached to the left breast pocket measured personal doses for the first operators (FO) and second operators (SO), radiology technicians (RT), scrub nurses (SN), anesthesiologists (AN), and non-sterile nurses (NSN). Besides protective apron and thyroid collar, no additional radiation shielding was used. Procedural dose area product (DAP), iodinated contrast volume, fluoroscopy time, patient’s body weight, and C-arm angulation were documented.ResultsAverage procedural FO dose was significantly higher during FEVAR (0.34 ± 0.28 mSv) compared to EVAR (0.11 ± 0.21 mSv) and TEVAR (0.06 ± 0.05 mSv; p = 0.003). Average personnel doses were 0.17 ± 0.21 mSv (FO), 0.042 ± 0.045 mSv (SO), 0.019 ± 0.042 mSv (RT), 0.017 ± 0.031 mSv (SN), 0.006 ± 0.007 mSv (AN), and 0.004 ± 0.009 mSv (NSN). SO and AN doses were strongly correlated with FO dose (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between FO dose and procedural DAP (R = 0.69, p < 0.001), iodinated contrast volume (R = 0.67, p < 0.001) and left-anterior C-arm projections >60° (p = 0.02), and a weak correlation with fluoroscopy time (R = 0.40, p = 0.049).ConclusionAverage FO dose was a factor four higher than SO dose. Predictors for high personal doses are procedural DAP, iodinated contrast volume, and left-anterior C-arm projections greater than 60°.

  12. A comparison of occupational and nonoccupational noise exposures in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Neitzel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate noise exposures and the contributions of occupational and nonoccupational activities among three groups of Swedish workers (office workers, day care workers, and military flight technicians, and to evaluate risk factors for elevated hearing threshold levels. Forty-five subjects were recruited across the three groups. Each subject completed a risk factor questionnaire along with Békésy audiometry at frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz. Subjects also wore a noise dosimeter continuously for 1 week, and documented their occupational and nonoccupational activities using a time-activity log. Subjects in all groups completed >7400 h of dosimetry, and had weekly exposures between 76 and 81 dBA. Day care workers had the highest daily exposures, and flight technicians had the highest weekly exposures. Most daily and weekly exposures exceeded the 70 dBA exposure limit recommended for prevention of any hearing loss. Subjects′ perceptions of their exposures generally agreed well with measured noise levels. Among office workers, exposures were predominately nonoccupational, while among flight technicians nonoccupational and occupational activities contributed roughly equally, and among day care workers occupational exposures were dominant. Extreme exposures and cumulative noise exposure were associated with an increased risk of hearing threshold levels >10 dB hearing level. Effective hearing loss prevention programs may be needed in occupations not historically considered to be at high risk of noise-induced hearing loss (e.g., day care workers. Prevention efforts need to address nonoccupational exposures as well as occupational exposures, as nonoccupational activities may present the dominant risk of noise-induced hearing loss for some workers.

  13. A comparison of occupational and nonoccupational noise exposures in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Richard L; Svensson, Eva B; Sayler, Stephanie K; Ann-Christin, Johnson

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate noise exposures and the contributions of occupational and nonoccupational activities among three groups of Swedish workers (office workers, day care workers, and military flight technicians), and to evaluate risk factors for elevated hearing threshold levels. Forty-five subjects were recruited across the three groups. Each subject completed a risk factor questionnaire along with Békésy audiometry at frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz. Subjects also wore a noise dosimeter continuously for 1 week, and documented their occupational and nonoccupational activities using a time-activity log. Subjects in all groups completed >7400 h of dosimetry, and had weekly exposures between 76 and 81 dBA. Day care workers had the highest daily exposures, and flight technicians had the highest weekly exposures. Most daily and weekly exposures exceeded the 70 dBA exposure limit recommended for prevention of any hearing loss. Subjects' perceptions of their exposures generally agreed well with measured noise levels. Among office workers, exposures were predominately nonoccupational, while among flight technicians nonoccupational and occupational activities contributed roughly equally, and among day care workers occupational exposures were dominant. Extreme exposures and cumulative noise exposure were associated with an increased risk of hearing threshold levels >10 dB hearing level. Effective hearing loss prevention programs may be needed in occupations not historically considered to be at high risk of noise-induced hearing loss (e.g., day care workers). Prevention efforts need to address nonoccupational exposures as well as occupational exposures, as nonoccupational activities may present the dominant risk of noise-induced hearing loss for some workers.

  14. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  15. Task profile and risk of occupational hepatitis A infection in sewerage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuebling, M; Hofmann, F

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess to what extent parameters of task-related occupational exposure influence anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) seroprevalence in sewerage workers, using a new instrument for classification of exposure. A new instrument for the assessment of work-related infection hazards was developed based on expert interviews, evaluation of literature and theoretical considerations. It was included in a questionnaire for collecting detailed information on occupational exposure, safety awareness, safety behaviour and socio-demography. Anti-HAV status was assessed for all (n = 343) (non-vaccinated) study participants. Marked differences in task profile and task-related exposure within the group of sewerage workers were found, underlining the necessity of a detailed exposure analysis. In a multivariate model three risk factors that were related significantly to anti-HAV positivity were identified: age, country of origin and task-related exposure. Since task profiles and occupational exposure differ strongly within the job category of sewerage workers. evaluation of endangerment has to reflect individual task-related exposure. The task-exposure matrix developed and presented in this study is a practicable and valid instrument for exposure assessment and may be used for the exposure analysis of further biological agents in this working environment. Besides the known risk parameters age and origin, our study demonstrates a dose-response relationship between the degree of occupational exposure and the anti-HAV seroprevalence. Therefore, an effective worksite HAV-prevention programme should consider all technical, structural and educational measures that help to reduce individual exposure.

  16. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  17. The risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure after controlling for occupational environment status in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used for the current study. Self-report questionnaires were used to investigate occupational injury and exposure to noise, chemicals, and machines and equipments. In separate analyses for occupation and occupational hazard, the proportion of occupational injuries increased according to severity of noise exposure (all P exposure group, the respective odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for occupational injury was 1.39 (1.07-1.80) and 1.67 (1.13-2.46) in the mild and severe noise exposure groups, after controlling for age, gender, sleep hours, work schedule (shift work), and exposure status to hazardous chemicals and hazardous machines and equipments. The current study highlights the association between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Furthermore, risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure.

  18. Parental occupational exposure to organic solvents and anencephaly in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Garduño, C; Lacasaña, M; Blanco-Muñoz, J; Borja-Aburto, V Hugo; García, A M

    2010-01-01

    To assess the relationship between parental occupational exposure to organic solvents, and the risk of anencephaly in Mexico. A case-control study was conducted based on the registers of the Epidemiological Surveillance System for Neural Tube Defects in Mexico; 151 cases of anencephaly of > or =20 weeks' gestation were included. A control, born alive and without any apparent congenital malformations at birth, was selected for each case in the same maternity service in which the case was born. Information on occupational exposures, lifestyle habits, reproductive history, use of medicines, supplementation with multivitamins and folic acid, was obtained by a general questionnaire; a food frequency questionnaire was also applied to obtain information of daily intake of folate and other B vitamins. Occupational exposure to organic solvents was based on job title as a proxy for exposure and analysed considering two critical periods around conception. In logistic regression analysis, the odds of having a child with anencephaly was higher if the mother or the father was occupationally exposed to organic solvents during the periconceptional period, or when both parents or at least one of them were occupationally exposed during this period with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.97 (95% CI 1.36 to 6.52). The results support the hypothesis that both maternal and paternal occupational exposure to organic solvents can increase the probability of having a child with anencephaly.

  19. Management of occupational exposure to the human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exposure care, including the administration of antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV ... recommend that a four-week regimen of two drugs be started as soon as possible after most cases of HIV exposure through percutaneous or mucosal routes.

  20. Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esswein, Eric J; Breitenstein, Michael; Snawder, John; Kiefer, Max; Sieber, W Karl

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a previously uncharacterized occupational health hazard: work crew exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing involves high pressure injection of large volumes of water and sand, and smaller quantities of well treatment chemicals, into a gas or oil well to fracture shale or other rock formations, allowing more efficient recovery of hydrocarbons from a petroleum-bearing reservoir. Crystalline silica ("frac sand") is commonly used as a proppant to hold open cracks and fissures created by hydraulic pressure. Each stage of the process requires hundreds of thousands of pounds of quartz-containing sand; millions of pounds may be needed for all zones of a well. Mechanical handling of frac sand creates respirable crystalline silica dust, a potential exposure hazard for workers. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collected 111 personal breathing zone samples at 11 sites in five states to evaluate worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. At each of the 11 sites, full-shift samples exceeded occupational health criteria (e.g., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration calculated permissible exposure limit, the NIOSH recommended exposure limit, or the ACGIH threshold limit value), in some cases, by 10 or more times the occupational health criteria. Based on these evaluations, an occupational health hazard was determined to exist for workplace exposures to crystalline silica. Seven points of dust generation were identified, including sand handling machinery and dust generated from the work site itself. Recommendations to control exposures include product substitution (when feasible), engineering controls or modifications to sand handling machinery, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment. To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic study of work crew exposures to crystalline silica during

  1. The Australian Work Exposures Study : Prevalence of Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Si, Si; Carey, Renee N; Reid, Alison; Driscoll, Timothy; Glass, Deborah C; Peters, Susan; Benke, Geza; Darcey, Ellie; Fritschi, Lin

    BACKGROUND: Respirable crystalline silica (RCS) is a biologically active dust that can accumulate in the lung and induce silicosis and lung cancer. Despite occupational exposure being the predominant source, no study has described current occupational RCS exposure on a national scale in Australia.

  2. Testicular germ cell tumours and parental occupational exposure to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Cornet, Charlotte; Fervers, Béatrice; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    controls per case were randomly selected from the general national populations, matched on year of birth. Information on parental occupation was collected through censuses or Pension Fund information and converted into a pesticide exposure index based on the Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix. RESULTS...

  3. Occupational exposure to cleaning products and asthma in hospital workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumas, O.; Donnay, C.; Heederik, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Hery, M.; Choudat, D.; Kauffmann, F.; le Moual, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cleaning products may cause work-related asthma, but information regarding the specific exposures involved is scarce. We aimed to determine the associations between asthma and occupational exposure to cleaning agents in hospital workers. METHODS: Analyses were conducted in 179 (136 women)

  4. Environmental and occupational exposure to lead | Njoroge | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the status of environmental and occupational lead exposure in selected areas in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Kariobangi North, Babadogo, Waithaka and Pumwani for assessment of environmental exposure to lead (Pb) and Ziwani Jua Kali works for assessment of ...

  5. Risk modification and combined exposures in occupational respiratory allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portengen, Lützen

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the impact of combined exposure to allergens and non-allergenic agents on the development of respiratory allergy in occupational populations. The effect of early life exposure to the farming environment and endotoxin

  6. Effect of occupational exposures on male fertility: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiner, Einat K; Sheiner, Eyal; Hammel, Rachel D; Potashnik, Gad; Carel, Refael

    2003-04-01

    The present review was aimed to determine the influence of working conditions, occupational exposures to potential chemical and physical reproductive toxic agents and psychological stress during work on male fertility. Significant associations were reported between impaired semen parameters and the following chemical exposures: metals (lead, mercury), pesticides (dibromochlorophane, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), ethylene glycol ethers and estrogens. The following physical exposures were shown to deteriorate sperm parameters: radiation (both ionized and microwaves) and heat. Psychological distress has another important contribution to infertility. Several studies indicated that stress has a negative impact on sperm parameters. Occupational parameters should be an important part of history taking among patients attending infertility clinics.

  7. Occupational rdiation exposure and anthropometric indices among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Sun Bi; Moon, Eun Kyeong; Cha, Eun Shill; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Worldwide increase in the prevalence of abnormal anthropometric indices (i.e., body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC)) are associated with increased risk of death and adverse health outcomes which causes great burden in public health. Studies on the association between radiation exposure and altered anthropometric indices reported both positive and negative associations in atomic bomb and childhood cancer survivors. We have initiated a radiologic technologists health study to investigate occupational radiation exposure and their health effects. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association between occupational radiation dose with BMI and WC in radiologic technologists in South Korea. These results explain that occupational radiation exposure can possibly alter BMI and WC. Therefore, further study is required to verify the prospective causal effect of radiation exposure on anthropometric indices.

  8. MANAGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO THE HUMAN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    safer practices, barrier precautions, safer needle devices, and other innovations, remain the best way to prevent occupational ..... large—bore hollow needle, a deep puncture, a device visibly contaminated with blood, or a needle used in a patient's artery or vein ... Spira AI, Marx PA, Patterson BK, et a1. Cellular targets of ...

  9. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of. Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and ... frameworks: air pollution and health, occupational health and safety and climate change and health. Methods: The methods used in this work ..... Risk management at the individual level, through the provision of personal ...

  10. The risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure after controlling for occupational environment status in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Ha Yoon; Jaehoon Roh; Chi-Nyon Kim; Jong-Uk Won

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Materials and Methods: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used for the current study. Self-report questionnaires were used to investigate occupational injury and exposure to noise, chemicals, and machines and equipments. Results: In separate analyses for occupation and occupational hazard, the proportion of occupational injuries increased according...

  11. [Hygiene and legal aspects of occupational exposure assessment to cytostatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The employers responsibilities for the assessment of occupational exposure to cytostatics in the workplace were analyzed in the light of existing legal regulations. Cytostatics may pose a threat to health and life of workers taking care of patients treated oncologically, i.e., pharmacists, physicians, nurses and other personnel. The significant scale of occupational exposure to cytostatics in Poland is confirmed by the data collected in the Central Register of Data on Exposure to Carcinogenic or Mutagenic Substances, Mixtures, Agents or Technological Processes, maintained by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland. The issue of occupational risk assessment of exposure to cytostatics gives raise to numerous concerns. Polish regulations concerning health protection of employees occupationally exposed to cytostatics are not unequivocal, as they are derived from different areas of the law, especially those applying to hazard classification, labeling and preparation of safety data sheets for cytostatics. There are neither binding occupational exposure limits legally set for active compounds of antineoplastic drugs nor methods for monitoring of these substances concentrations in a worker's breathing zone and biological material. This prevents the employer to carry out the correct assessment of occupational exposure, the results of which are the basis for preparing the proper preventive strategy. In this article the consequences of amendments to the European chemical legislation for employers responsible for adequate protection of health and life of employees exposed to cytostatics, were discussed, as well as some legal changes aimed at a better health and life protection of workers exposed to cytostatics in a workplace were proposed. Med Pr 2018;69(1):77-92. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Neurotoxicity in Preclinical Models of Occupational Exposure to Organophosphorus Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Jaymie R.; Rohlman, Diane S.; Lein, Pamela J.; Pieper, Andrew A.

    2017-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OPs) compounds are widely used as insecticides, plasticizers, and fuel additives. These compounds potently inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that inactivates acetylcholine at neuronal synapses, and acute exposure to high OP levels can cause cholinergic crisis in humans and animals. Evidence further suggests that repeated exposure to lower OP levels insufficient to cause cholinergic crisis, frequently encountered in the occupational setting, also pose serious risks to people. For example, multiple epidemiological studies have identified associations between occupational OP exposure and neurodegenerative disease, psychiatric illness, and sensorimotor deficits. Rigorous scientific investigation of the basic science mechanisms underlying these epidemiological findings requires valid preclinical models in which tightly-regulated exposure paradigms can be correlated with neurotoxicity. Here, we review the experimental models of occupational OP exposure currently used in the field. We found that animal studies simulating occupational OP exposures do indeed show evidence of neurotoxicity, and that utilization of these models is helping illuminate the mechanisms underlying OP-induced neurological sequelae. Still, further work is necessary to evaluate exposure levels, protection methods, and treatment strategies, which taken together could serve to modify guidelines for improving workplace conditions globally. PMID:28149268

  13. DOE Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure_2011 pamphlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU

    2012-08-08

    This pamphlet focusses on two HSS activities that help ensure radiation exposures are accurately assessed and recorded, namely: 1) the quality and accuracy of occupational radiation exposure monitoring, and 2) the recording, reporting, analysis, and dissemination of the monitoring results. It is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is in place to ensure that radiation exposure monitoring at all DOE sites is precise and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing policies to protect individuals from occupational exposure to radiation. In tandem, these programs provide DOE management and workers an assurance that occupational radiation exposures are accurately measured, analyzed, and reported.

  14. Occupational Exposure to Inhalable Manganese at German Workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Van Gelder, Rainer; Schwank, Tobias; Hagemann, Cornelia; Zschiesche, Wolfgang; Behrens, Thomas; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2017-11-10

    Due to mounting evidence of neurotoxic effects of manganese (Mn) already at low concentrations, occupational exposure limits (OELs) have been adopted. We analyzed 5771 personal measurements of inhalable manganese (Mn) together with information on sampling conditions and job tasks from the German exposure database Messdaten zur Exposition gegenüber Gefahrstoffen am Arbeitsplatz (MEGA) to assess exposure levels in welders and other occupations between 1989 and 2015. Geometric means (GMs) of exposure to Mn were estimated for various occupational settings adjusted for 2-h sampling duration and analytical method, centered at 2009. Measurements below the limit of quantification (LOQ) were multiply imputed. The median concentration was 74 µg m-3 (inter-quartile range 14-260 µg m-3) in welders and 8 µg m-3 (inter-quartile range 100 µg m-3 were observed in gas metal and flux-cored arc welders and in shielded metal arc welders using consumables of high Mn content (>5%). Tungsten inert gas welding, laser welding and working in other occupations such as foundry worker, electroplater, or grinder were associated with GMs <10 µg m-3. A shorter sampling duration was associated with higher Mn concentrations. High-emission welding techniques require protective measures to cope with adopted OELs. Results of this study are useful to assess cumulative Mn exposure in community-based studies on neurotoxic effects. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  15. Impact of climate change on occupational exposure to solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Carlo; Borra, Massimo; Militello, Andrea; Polichetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to solar radiation may induce both acute and long-term effects on skin and eyes. Personal exposure is very difficult to assess accurately, as it depends on environmental, organisational and individual factors. The ongoing climate change interacting with stratospheric ozone dynamics may affect occupational exposure to solar radiation. In addition, tropospheric levels of environmental pollutants interacting with solar radiation may be altered by climate dynamics, so introducing another variable affecting the overall exposure to solar radiation. Given the uncertainties regarding the direction of changes in exposure to solar radiation due to climate change, compliance of outdoor workers with protective measures and a proper health surveillance are crucial. At the same time, education and training, along with the promotion of healthier lifestyles, are of paramount importance.

  16. Antipyrine clearance during experimental and occupational exposure to toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, M; Bælum, Jesper; Lundqvist, G R

    1983-01-01

    Exposure to toluene vapour enhances hepatic microsomal enzyme function in animals as assessed by the metabolism of the test drug antipyrine. Thirty six printing trade workers with long term occupational exposure to a mixture of organic solvents and 39 matched controls were randomly allocated...... into four groups. Eighteen printers and 21 controls were exposed to 100 ppm of toluene during 6.5 hours in an exposure chamber. The remaining 18 printers and 18 controls were exposed to 0 ppm of toluene under similar conditions. The salivary clearance of antipyrine was measured immediately after the stay...... clearance 12 printing trade workers with 17 years (median) of occupational exposure to toluene vapour at concentrations of about 100 ppm were investigated before and four weeks after cessation of exposure. No difference in antipyrine clearance was found either within the groups or between the groups at any...

  17. Climate change: the potential impact on occupational exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Maria Pia; Cabella, Renato; Gherardi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the possible influence of global climate change (GCC) on exposure to plant protection products (PPP) in the workplace. The paper has evaluated the main potential relationships between GCC and occupational exposure to pesticides, by highlighting how global warming might affect their future use and by reviewing its possible consequence on workers' exposure. Global warming, influencing the spatial and temporal distribution and proliferation of weeds, the impact of already present insect pests and pathogens and the introduction of new infesting species, could cause a changed use of pesticides in terms of higher amounts, doses and types of products applied, so influencing the human exposure to them during agricultural activities. GCC, in particular heat waves, may also potentially have impact on workers' susceptibility to pesticides absorption. Prevention policies of health in the workplace must be ready to address new risks from occupational exposure to pesticide, presumably different from current risks, since an increased use may be expected.

  18. Occupational exposure to diisocyanates in polyurethane foam factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świerczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Nowakowska-Świrta, Ewa; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Wittczak, Tomasz; Dudek, Wojciech; Bonczarowska, Marzena; Wesolowski, Wiktor; Czerczak, Sławomir; Pałczyński, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate health effects of occupational exposure to diisocyanates (DIC) among polyurethane foam products factory workers. Thirty workers had a physical examination, skin prick tests with common allergens, allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to diisocyanates and pulmonary function tests. Concentrations of selected isocyanates in the workplace air samples as well as concentration of their metabolites in the urine samples collected from the workers of the plant were determined. The most frequent work-related symptoms reported by the examined subjects were rhinitis and skin symptoms. Sensitization to at least 1 common allergen was noted in 26.7% of the subjects. Spirometry changes of bronchial obstruction of a mild degree was observed in 5 workers. The specific IgE antibodies to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) were not detected in any of the patients' serum. Cellular profiles of the collected induced sputum (ISP) did not reveal any abnormalities. Air concentrations of TDI isomers ranged 0.2-58.9 μg/m3 and in 7 cases they exceeded the Combined Exposure Index (CEI) value for those compounds. Concentrations of TDI metabolites in post-shift urine samples were significantly higher than in the case of pre-shift urine samples and in 6 cases they exceeded the British Biological Monitoring Guidance Value (BMGV - 1 μmol amine/mol creatinine). We didn't find a correlation between urinary concentrations of TDI, concentrations in the air and concentrations of toluenediamine (TDA) in the post shift urine samples. Lack of such a correlation may be an effect of the respiratory protective equipment use. Determination of specific IgE in serum is not sensitive enough to serve as a biomarker. Estimation of concentrations of diisocyanate metabolites in urine samples and the presence of work-related allergic symptoms seem to be an adequate method for occupational exposure monitoring of DIC, which may

  19. Occupational exposure to diisocyanates in polyurethane foam factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Świerczyńska-Machura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate health effects of occupational exposure to diisocyanates (DIC among polyurethane foam products factory workers. Material and Methods: Thirty workers had a physical examination, skin prick tests with common allergens, allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies to diisocyanates and pulmonary function tests. Concentrations of selected isocyanates in the workplace air samples as well as concentration of their metabolites in the urine samples collected from the workers of the plant were determined. Results: The most frequent work-related symptoms reported by the examined subjects were rhinitis and skin symptoms. Sensitization to at least 1 common allergen was noted in 26.7% of the subjects. Spirometry changes of bronchial obstruction of a mild degree was observed in 5 workers. The specific IgE antibodies to toluene diisocyanate (TDI and 4,4’-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate (MDI were not detected in any of the patients’ serum. Cellular profiles of the collected induced sputum (ISP did not reveal any abnormalities. Air concentrations of TDI isomers ranged 0.2–58.9 μg/m3 and in 7 cases they exceeded the Combined Exposure Index (CEI value for those compounds. Concentrations of TDI metabolites in post-shift urine samples were significantly higher than in the case of pre-shift urine samples and in 6 cases they exceeded the British Biological Monitoring Guidance Value (BMGV – 1 μmol amine/mol creatinine. We didn’t find a correlation between urinary concentrations of TDI, concentrations in the air and concentrations of toluenediamine (TDA in the post shift urine samples. Lack of such a correlation may be an effect of the respiratory protective equipment use. Conclusions: Determination of specific IgE in serum is not sensitive enough to serve as a biomarker. Estimation of concentrations of diisocyanate metabolites in urine samples and the presence of work-related allergic symptoms seem to be

  20. [Occupational exposure to mycotoxins in various branches of industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Piotr M; Cyprowski, Marcin; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Mycotoxins are a quite numerous group of substances released as metabolites by molds, which badly affect human and animal health. Their impact on organisms resulting from alimentary exposure is well recognized, but the mechanisms by which they exert their health effects after inhalation exposure are still poorly investigated. The aim of this work was to review the literature concerning the outcomes of occupational exposure to mycotoxins present in the work environment. The author discusses the major mycotoxin classes, their chemical structure, some physicochemical properties and biological activity properties. This paper summarizes the results of investigations on the impact of occupational exposure to molds present in the workplace air in various branches of industry. Problems of identifying the mechanism of health effects exerted due inhalation exposure to mycotoxins are also discussed. This review shows that there is lack of good hygiene standards and legislation regulating the presence of these compounds in the workplace air. These is due to insufficient number of analyses aimed at estimating short-term inhalation exposure to mycotoxins and lack of monitoring of long-term exposure and its health effects. The authors concludes that occupational exposure to mycotoxins and their role in the development of pathological changes in the respiratory system require further investigations.

  1. Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metal oxides, nanotubes, nanowires, quantum dots, and carbon fullerenes (buckyballs), among others. Early scientific studies have indicated ... to minimize worker exposure. This NIOSH CIB, (1) reviews the animal and other toxicological data relevant to ...

  2. Exposure to Stress: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to work-related violence or threats # # Sleep deprivation 2 # # Role ambiguity and conflict # # Understaffing # # Career development ... surgeries cancelled, nonessential staff told to stay home, use of masks, gloves, and gowns were mandatory, and ...

  3. Congenital heart defects and parental occupational exposure to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Claudia A; Vlot, Ingrid J; Burdorf, Alex; Obermann-Borst, Sylvia A; Helbing, Willem A; Wildhagen, Mark F; Steegers, Eric A P; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M

    2012-05-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common major malformations in newborns. In this study we examined the associations between the occurrence of CHDs in children and periconceptional occupational parental exposures to chemicals. In an age-matched case-control study with standardized data collection at c. 15 months after birth, 424 mothers and 421 fathers of a child with CHD and 480 mothers and 477 fathers of a non-malformed child, filled out questionnaires on periconceptional general and job characteristics. A job exposure matrix, which links the information on job title and a description of work tasks to an expert judgement on exposure to chemicals in the workplace, was used. The overall prevalence of occupational exposure to chemicals was 5.0 in cases and 6.2% in controls for mothers [odds ratio (OR) adjusted = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26-3.25], while 22.3 and 15.9% for fathers, respectively (OR adjusted = 1.23; 95% CI: 0.39-3.91). No association of maternal occupational exposure to chemicals with risk of CHDs was found. Paternal exposure to phthalates was associated with a higher incidence of CHDs in general (OR adjusted = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.27-3.40). Paternal exposure to phthalates was associated with perimembranous ventricular septal defect (OR adjusted = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.37-5.92), to polychlorinated compounds with atrioventricular septal defect (OR adjusted = 4.22; 95% CI: 1.23-14.42) and to alkylphenolic compounds with coarctation of the aorta (OR adjusted = 3.85; 95% CI: 1.17-12.67). Periconceptional paternal (but not maternal) occupational exposure to certain chemicals is associated with an increased risk of CHDs in children. The results, however, must be interpreted cautiously as exposure probabilities are a crude measure of exposure.

  4. [Cardiovascular risk, occupation and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a group of workers in Salamanca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identify the cardiovascular risk factors in a group of workers in the province of Salamanca, protected by external prevention services, as regards exposure to occupational carcinogens, by sector of activity and gender. An observational descriptive epidemiological study was conducted. The sample selection was by stratified random sampling in each entity. The variables collected by questionnaire were, sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), using the clinical-work histories as a source of information. Statistically significant differences were observed in cardiovascular risk according to the exposure to occupational carcinogens (p cardiovascular risk in the work place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Australian work exposures studies : occupational exposure to pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jomichen, Jasmine; El-Zaemey, Sonia; Heyworth, Jane S; Carey, Renee N; Darcey, Ellie; Reid, Alison; Glass, Deborah C; Driscoll, Tim; Peters, Susan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822930; Abramson, Michael; Fritschi, Lin

    BACKGROUND: Pesticides are widely used in some occupational settings. Some pesticides have been classified as carcinogens; however, data on the number of workers exposed to pesticides are not available in Australia. The main aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of pesticide

  7. Environmentally Sustainable Occupational Exposure to Nanoparticles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The entire sample of respondents was 40; however, 15 cases could not be used because these respondents did not complete the questionnaire survey. The remaining 25 were used for the pilot study. The survey included questions on type of work and vehicle; exposure; symptoms such as frequency and severity of wheeze ...

  8. The Association between Prolonged Occupational Exposure to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is widely used in hair dyes and cosmetic skin application. PPD intoxication following oral ingestion could be an important cause of ARF in Sudan, Morocco and the Indian Subcontinent. Repeated and prolonged exposure to PPD may also be associated with Chronic Kidney ...

  9. Occupational pesticide exposure among Yemeni women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaemey, Sonia; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane

    2013-04-01

    Limited research on the nature and extent of pesticide exposure among women in developing countries is available. The aim of this study was to describe potential pesticide exposure among women living in Yemen that occurs through agricultural work. In this cross-sectional study, 410 women who had a daughter enrolled in high school during 2011-2012 were surveyed regarding pesticide exposure. Of the 410 women who responded to the survey, 171 women reported working on farms during their lifetime. Of these 171 women, 147 reported working on a farm prior to marriage and 108 reported working on a farm after marriage. Among the women who reported working on a farm before marriage, 47% had worked on farms where pesticides were used. Among those women who reported working on farms after marriage, 69% of women worked on farms where pesticides were used. Among women who reported working on a farm before marriage where pesticides were used, 45% reported not using any protective equipment. This proportion was 33% among women who worked on a farm after marriage. Among the 28 commercial pesticides that were listed within the questionnaire, the banned compound dimethoate was the most commonly reported pesticide to be used on farms. The findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among farmers and enforcing effective banning of the most toxic pesticides is needed to reduce pesticide exposure among Yemeni women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Food Management, Production, and Service. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Food Management, Production, and Service Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This…

  11. Multifocal osteonecrosis secondary to occupational exposure to aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Assun??o, Jorge Henrique; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Gracitelli, Mauro Emilio Conforto; Filippi, Ren?e Zon; Ferreira, Arnaldo Amado

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multifocal osteonecrosis is a rare disease; chronic use of corticosteroids is considered the main risk factor. Patients with chronic renal failure can develop aluminum toxicity, which can lead to osteomalacia and encephalopathy. An association between osteonecrosis and aluminum toxicity has been reported among patients with dialytic renal insufficiency. Occupational exposure to aluminum rarely causes lung disease and no cases of bone lesions resulting from exposure to this metal have...

  12. [Diisocyanate exposure as a cause of occupational asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousová, Karin; Krcmová, Irena

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a summary of current knowledge on asthma caused by diisocyanates in workers under occupational exposure and introduce basic characteristics of these chemicals widely used in industry. Although they represent one of the main causes of occupational bronchial asthma (AB) in developed industrial countries, the number of reported asthma caused by diisocyanates is still relatively low in the Czech Republic--it represents less than ten percent of all reported occupational asthma. One of the possible reasons is demanding diagnostics and assessment of occupational impact of chemical noxae with combined effect mechanism characteristic of low-molecular diisocyanates. Studies concerned with presented topics support the concept that AB caused by diisocyanates shows clinical features of both atopic and nonatopic asthma. AB caused by DI is presented by mixed type of the TH1/TH2 response, influx and regulatory role of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Mixed immunopathological mechanism and toxic effect are combined. For the present, evaluation of elimination and reexposure tests appear as the most valuable of available diagnostic methods, respectively simulated reexposure test in a health care facility and assesment of serum IgG or IgE antibodies against diisocyanates can be used. Data on occurrence of the disease in the Czech Republic and detailed information on the sample of patients with respiratory allergic disease caused by diisocyanates reported by the Clinic of Occupational Diseases of the Faculty Hospital in Hradec Králové in 1994-2003 are presented. The disease was caused by evaporation of diisocyanates released during the production of polyurethanes and evaporation of adhesives containing toluendiisocyanate (TDI). In most cases, there were milder forms of asthma with significant improvement or elimination of difficulties occuring after occupational exposure was interrupted. Knowledge of the pathogenesis of AB caused by diisocyanates should accelerate the

  13. Association between occupational exposure and the clinical characteristics of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caillaud Denis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The contribution of occupational exposures to COPD and their interaction with cigarette smoking on clinical pattern of COPD remain underappreciated. The aim of this study was to explore the contribution of occupational exposures on clinical pattern of COPD. Methods Cross-sectional data from a multicenter tertiary care cohort of 591 smokers or ex-smokers with COPD (median FEV1 49% were analyzed. Self-reported exposure to vapor, dust, gas or fumes (VDGF at any time during the entire career was recorded. Results VDGF exposure was reported in 209 (35% subjects aged 31 to 88 years. Several features were significantly associated with VDGF exposure: age (median 68 versus 64 years, p  Conclusion In this patient series of COPD patients, subjects exposed to VDGF were older male patients who reported more work-related respiratory disability, more asthma-like symptoms and atopy, suggesting that, even in smokers or ex-smokers with COPD, occupational exposures are associated with distinct patients characteristics.

  14. Assessing the reproductive health of men with occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Steven M; Marlow, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    The earliest report linking environmental (occupational) exposure to adverse human male reproductive effects dates back to1775 when an English physician, Percival Pott, reported a high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps. This observation led to safety regulations in the form of bathing requirements for these workers. The fact that male-mediated reproductive harm in humans may be a result of toxicant exposures did not become firmly established until relatively recently, when Lancranjan studied lead-exposed workers in Romania in 1975, and later in 1977, when Whorton examined the effects of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) on male workers in California. Since these discoveries, several additional human reproductive toxicants have been identified through the convergence of laboratory and observational findings. Many research gaps remain, as the pool of potential human exposures with undetermined effects on male reproduction is vast. This review provides an overview of methods used to study the effects of exposures on male reproduction and their reproductive health, with a primary emphasis on the implementation and interpretation of human studies. Emphasis will be on occupational exposures, although much of the information is also useful in assessing environmental studies, occupational exposures are usually much higher and better defined.

  15. Association between occupational exposure and the clinical characteristics of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, Denis; Lemoigne, Franck; Carré, Philippe; Escamilla, Roger; Chanez, Pascal; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Court-Fortune, Isabelle; Jebrak, Gilles; Pinet, Christophe; Perez, Thierry; Brinchault, Graziella; Paillasseur, Jean-Louis; Roche, Nicolas

    2012-04-26

    The contribution of occupational exposures to COPD and their interaction with cigarette smoking on clinical pattern of COPD remain underappreciated. The aim of this study was to explore the contribution of occupational exposures on clinical pattern of COPD. Cross-sectional data from a multicenter tertiary care cohort of 591 smokers or ex-smokers with COPD (median FEV1 49%) were analyzed. Self-reported exposure to vapor, dust, gas or fumes (VDGF) at any time during the entire career was recorded. VDGF exposure was reported in 209 (35%) subjects aged 31 to 88 years. Several features were significantly associated with VDGF exposure: age (median 68 versus 64 years, p < 0.001), male gender (90% vs 76%; p < 0.0001), reported work-related respiratory disability (86% vs 7%, p < 0.001), current wheezing (71% vs 61%, p = 0.03) and hay fever (15.5% vs 8.5%, p < 0.01). In contrast, current and cumulative smoking was less (p = 0.01) despite similar severity of airflow obstruction. In this patient series of COPD patients, subjects exposed to VDGF were older male patients who reported more work-related respiratory disability, more asthma-like symptoms and atopy, suggesting that, even in smokers or ex-smokers with COPD, occupational exposures are associated with distinct patients characteristics.

  16. Monitoring of occupational exposure in manufacturing of stainless steel constructions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Bencko, V.; Pápayová, A.; Šaligová, D.; Tejral, J.; Borská, L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2001), s. 171-175 ISSN 1210-7778 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : occupational exposure * stainless steel construction industry * instrumental neutron activation analysis Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines

  17. High-resolution metabolomics of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Douglas I; Uppal, Karan; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Smith, Martyn; Hu, Wei; Purdue, Mark P; Tang, Xiaojiang; Reiss, Boris; Kim, Sungkyoon; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Pennell, Kurt D; Jones, Dean P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to adverse health outcomes including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and kidney and liver cancer; however, TCE's mode of action for development of these diseases in humans is not well understood. METHODS: Non-targeted metabolomics

  18. Disorders induced by direct occupational exposure to noise: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Pueyo, Andrea; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2016-01-01

    To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals) was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: "Noise, Occupational," "Occupational Exposure," and "Occupational Disease." The following limits were considered: "Humans," "Adult (more than 18 years)," and "Comparative Studies." A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders.

  19. Disorders induced by direct occupational exposure to noise: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Domingo-Pueyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed, ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information, Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: “Noise, Occupational,” “Occupational Exposure,” and “Occupational Disease.” The following limits were considered: “Humans,” “Adult (more than 18 years,” and “Comparative Studies.” Results: A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. Conclusions: It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders.

  20. Mixed chemical-induced oxidative stress in occupational exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to single chemicals and associated disorders in occupational environments has received significant attention. Understanding these events holds great promise for risk identification, assessment and chemical induced disease prevention. Fifty (50) fasting male workers, age range 18-50 years exposed to chemical ...

  1. Occupational exposure to solvents and acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Lehtinen-Jacks, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to assess the relation between occupational exposure to solvents and the risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS: Altogether, this study comprises 15 332 incident cases of AML diagnosed in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Iceland from 1961-2005 and 76...

  2. Occupational exposure, attitude to HIV-positive patients and uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-13

    Nov 13, 2017 ... Revista interamericana De Psicologia ¼ Intera- merican Journal of Psychology, 41, 57–66. Ganczak, M., Szych, Z., & Karakiewicz, B. (2012). Assessment of occupational exposure to HBV, HCV and HIV in gynecologic and obstetric staff. Medycyna. Pracy, 63(1), 11–17. Hadadi, A., Afhami, S., Karbakhsh, M., ...

  3. Post exposure prophylaxis of HIV transmission after occupational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-19

    Mar 19, 2010 ... vaccination and active tracing of HCWs who default follow up after PEP. Introduction. After an occupational .... HBV vaccination status of the HCW, as well as the time, date and detailed description of the ..... prophylaxis after intravaginal exposure of pig-tailed macaques to a human-derived retrovirus (human ...

  4. Toxic hepatitis in occupational exposure to solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Cataudella, Emanuela; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the main organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs and toxic chemicals, and so is the primary target organ for many organic solvents. Work activities with hepatotoxins exposures are numerous and, moreover, organic solvents are used in various industrial processes. Organic solvents used in different industrial processes may be associated with hepatotoxicity. Several factors contribute to liver toxicity; among these are: species differences, nutritional condition, genetic facto...

  5. Occupational exposures and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): comparison of a COPD-specific job exposure matrix and expert-evaluated occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Laura; Doney, Brent; Weinmann, Sheila

    2017-03-01

    To compare the occupational exposure levels assigned by our National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific job exposure matrix (NIOSH COPD JEM) and by expert evaluation of detailed occupational information for various jobs held by members of an integrated health plan in the Northwest USA. We analysed data from a prior study examining COPD and occupational exposures. Jobs were assigned exposure levels using 2 methods: (1) the COPD JEM and (2) expert evaluation. Agreement (Cohen's κ coefficients), sensitivity and specificity were calculated to compare exposure levels assigned by the 2 methods for 8 exposure categories. κ indicated slight to moderate agreement (0.19-0.51) between the 2 methods and was highest for organic dust and overall exposure. Sensitivity of the matrix ranged from 33.9% to 68.5% and was highest for sensitisers, diesel exhaust and overall exposure. Specificity ranged from 74.7% to 97.1% and was highest for fumes, organic dust and mineral dust. This COPD JEM was compared with exposures assigned by experts and offers a generalisable approach to assigning occupational exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Occupational lead exposure and renin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B C; Beattie, A D; Elliott, H L; Goldberg, A; Moore, M R; Beevers, D G; Tree, M

    1979-01-01

    Hypertension may result from chronic lead exposure. Lead poisoning arising from "moonshine whiskey" drinking has been associated with a rise in plasma renin activity. In the present study, plasma renin concentration following intravenous administration of frusemide was measured in eleven subjects with moderate or severe lead poisoning of industrial origin. The results were compared with those obtained for seven normal, control subjects. There was no significant difference in response obtained in the two groups. Industrial lead poisoning does not appear to affect renin release. The combined insult of lead and alcohol may explain the findings in the previous study.

  7. Occupational exposure to aldrin: clinical and laboratory findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avar, P.; Czeglédi-Jankó, G.

    1970-01-01

    Avar, P., and Czeglédi-Jankó, G. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 279-282. Occupational exposure to aldrin: clinical and laboratory findings. The paper reports the relation of neurological symptoms and EEG findings to the concentration of HEOD in whole blood. Fifteen men who had been making aldrin in a fertilizer plant for up to five years were examined in the last month of exposure. Three of them were followed up for seven months after cessation of exposure. Eight were examined on one occasion two years after their last period of exposure to aldrin. Some men in whom the HEOD concentrations in whole blood were above 0·10 ppm had symptoms of poisoning but these were absent in others with higher (0·25 ppm) concentrations. In three men severely affected at the time of cessation of exposure, symptoms ceased within seven months. Symptoms that were still present in others two years later are ascribed to occupational exposure to lindane. After cessation of exposure, the concentration of HEOD in whole blood fell slowly, initially at a rate corresponding to a biological half-life of 50 to 150 days. Later, it fell more slowly, so that two years after the cessation of exposure the concentrations of HEOD in whole blood were still higher than in the general Hungarian population. PMID:4194425

  8. [Risk assessment of renal dysfunction caused by occupational lead exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li-ting; Lei, Li-jian; Chang, Xiu-li; Jin, Tai-yi; Zheng, Guang; Guo, Wei-jun; Li, Hui-qi; Pan, Xiao-hai

    2010-03-01

    To assess the risk of renal dysfunction caused by occupational lead exposure through epidemiological investigation. The workers in a battery factory were selected as the subjects for the exposure and effect assessment. The occupational environmental monitoring data was collected and used to calculate the total external dose of lead. The relationship between external dose and internal dose of lead was analyzed. The external dose, blood lead (BPb) and urinary lead (UPb) were used as exposure biomarkers while the urinary N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG), and urinary albumin (UALB) were used as the effect biomarkers for the renal dysfunction caused by lead. Software of BMDS (BMDS 11311) was used to calculate BMD. The external and internal does of lead was positively correlated (BPb: r = 0.466, P < 0.01; UPb: r = 0.383, P < 0.01). The levels of BPb, UPb in exposure group (654.03 microg/L, 143.45 microg/g Cr) were significantly higher than those in the control group (57.12 microg/L, 7.20 microg/g Cr), so were UALB, UNAG; in addition, all of them presented significant dose-response relationship. The BPb BMD of UALB, UNAG were 607.76, 362.56 microg/L respectively and the UPb BMD of UALB, UNAG were 117.79, 78.79 microg/gCr respectively. Occupational lead exposure can cause renal dysfunction, which presents dose-response relationship; the risk assessment of renal dysfunction caused by occupational lead exposure is performed by BMD calculation of BPb and UPb.

  9. The Australian Work Exposures Study: Prevalence of Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Timothy R; Carey, Renee N; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to produce a population-based estimate of the prevalence of work-related exposure to formaldehyde, to identify the main circumstances of exposure and to describe the use of workplace control measures designed to decrease those exposures. The analysis used data from the Australian Workplace Exposures Study, a nationwide telephone survey, which investigated the current prevalence and exposure circumstances of work-related exposure to 38 known or suspected carcinogens, including formaldehyde, among Australian workers aged 18-65 years. Using the web-based tool OccIDEAS, semi-quantitative information was collected about exposures in the current job held by the respondent. Questions were addressed primarily at tasks undertaken rather than about self-reported exposures. Of the 4993 included respondents, 124 (2.5%) were identified as probably being exposed to formaldehyde in the course of their work [extrapolated to 2.6% of the Australian working population-265 000 (95% confidence interval 221 000-316 000) workers]. Most (87.1%) were male. About half worked in technical and trades occupations. In terms of industry, about half worked in the construction industry. The main circumstances of exposure were working with particle board or plywood typically through carpentry work, building maintenance, or sanding prior to painting; with the more common of other exposures circumstances being firefighters involved in fighting fires, fire overhaul, and clean-up or back-burning; and health workers using formaldehyde when sterilizing equipment or in a pathology laboratory setting. The use of control measures was inconsistent. Workers are exposed to formaldehyde in many different occupational circumstances. Information on the exposure circumstances can be used to support decisions on appropriate priorities for intervention and control of occupational exposure to formaldehyde, and estimates of burden of cancer arising from occupational exposure to formaldehyde

  10. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  11. The Australian Work Exposures Study: Prevalence of Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Si; Carey, Renee N; Reid, Alison; Driscoll, Timothy; Glass, Deborah C; Peters, Susan; Benke, Geza; Darcey, Ellie; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Respirable crystalline silica (RCS) is a biologically active dust that can accumulate in the lung and induce silicosis and lung cancer. Despite occupational exposure being the predominant source, no study has described current occupational RCS exposure on a national scale in Australia. The aim of this study is to estimate the characteristics of those exposed and the circumstances of RCS exposure in Australian workplaces. A cross-sectional survey of the Australian working population (18-65 years old) was conducted. Information about the respondents' current job and their demographic characteristics was collected in a telephone interview. Occupational exposure to RCS was determined based on preprogrammed decision rules regarding potential levels of exposure associated with self-reported tasks. Overall, 6.4% of respondents were deemed exposed to RCS at work in 2012 (3.3% were exposed at a high level). The exposure varied with sex, state of residence, and socioeconomic status. Miners and construction workers were most likely to be highly exposed to RCS when performing tasks with concrete or cement or working near crushers that create RCS-containing dusts. When extrapolated to the entire Australian working population, 6.6% of Australian workers were exposed to RCS and 3.7% were highly exposed when carrying out tasks at work. This is the first study investigating occupational RCS exposure in an entire national working population. The information about occupational tasks that lead to high level RCS exposure provided by this study will inform the direction of occupational interventions and policies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  12. Hearing loss in the elderly: History of occupational noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meneses-Barriviera, Caroline Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise exposure is one of the most common health risk factors, and workers are exposed to sound pressure levels capable of producing hearing loss. Aim: To assess the prevalence of hearing loss in the elderly and its possible association with a history of occupational noise exposure and with sex. Methods: A prospective study in subjects aged over 60 years. The subjects underwent anamnesis and audiological assessment. The Mann-Whitney test and multiple logistic regression, with 95% confidence interval and p < 0.05, were used for statistical analysis. Results: There were 498 subjects from both sexes, and the median age was 69 years. From the comparison between men and women, we obtained the medium hearing I (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz p = 0.8318 and the mean hearing II (3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz; p < 0.0001. Comparing the thresholds of individuals with and without a history of occupational noise exposure, we obtained the medium hearing I (p = 0.9542 and the mean hearing II (p = 0.0007. Conclusion: There was a statistically significant association between hearing loss at high frequencies and the risk factors being male and occupational noise exposure.

  13. Occupational Blood Exposure among Health Care Personnel and Hospital Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hajjaji Darouiche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood and body fluid Exposure is a major occupational safety problems for health care workers. Therefore, we conducted a descriptive and retrospective study to identify the characteristics of blood exposure accidents in health care settings which lasted five years (2005-2009 at the two university hospitals of Sfax. We have 593 blood exposure accidents in health care settings 152 (25.6% health personnel and 441 (74.4% trainees' doctors, nurses and health technicians. The mechanism of blood and body fluid exposure was accidental needle-stick injury in 78.9% of health staff, and 81% of trainees, accidental cut in 14.7% of health workers and 10.2% of trainees. The increasing severity of blood exposure accidents is linked to the lack of safe behavior against this risk.

  14. Occupational risks of blood exposure in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Donald E

    2007-07-01

    Bloodborne pathogens continue to be a source of occupational infection for healthcare workers, but particularly for surgeons. Over 1 per cent of the U.S. population has one or more chronic viral infections. Hepatitis B is the infection that has the longest known role as an occupational pathogen, but infection with this virus is largely preventable with the use of the effective hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis C affects the largest number of people in the United States, and there is no vaccine available for the prevention of this infection. HIV infection still has not been associated with a documented transmission in the operating room environment, but six cases of probable occupational transmission have been reported. A total of 57 healthcare workers have had documented occupational infection since the epidemic of HIV infection began. Infection of blood-borne pathogens to patients from infected surgeons remains a concern. Surgeons who are e-antigen-positive for hepatitis B have been well documented to be an infection risk to patients in the operating room. Only four surgeons have been documented to transmit hepatitis C, although other transmissions have occurred in the care of patients when practices of infection control have been violated. No surgical transmission of HIV to a patient has been identified at this time. Prevention of occupational infection requires use of protective barriers, avoidance of exposure risk by modification of techniques, and a constant awareness of sharp instruments in the operating room. Blood exposure in the operating room carries risk of infection and should be avoided. It is likely that other infectious agents will emerge as operating room threats. Surgeons must maintain vigilance in avoiding blood exposure and percutaneous injury.

  15. Profile of the Brazilian Researcher in Occupational Therapy

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    Any Carolina Cardoso Guimarães Vasconcelos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the profile of Brazilian PhD researchers in occupational therapy based on data obtained from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq. Two hundred forty curricula of occupational therapists were individually analyzed, 102 of them from PhD researchers. The curricula were analyzed with respect to gender; completion time of undergraduate studies; institution; time spent for obtaining the doctorate; professional activities; geographical distribution, scientific, and editorial composition; and guidance of undergraduate research, specialization, and master, doctorate and post-doctorate courses. The data showed that 94% of the researchers were women. With regard to professional practice, 73% of the doctors were affiliated to public universities and 84% were located in the southeast region. A total of 1361 papers were produced, at an average of 13.3 articles per researcher, with 25% on the theme of functional health (cognitive, neuromotor, musculoskeletal occupational performance and assistive technology. The PhD researchers in occupational therapy also published 90 books and 488 book chapters. Additionally, 59% of the researchers collaborated as reviewers for scientific periodicals. The results of the analysis will allow the academic community to gain a perspective of the occupational therapy scenario in Brazil, assisting in the establishment of future priorities for improving knowledge and professional practice.

  16. Identifying occupational and nonoccupational exposure to mercury in dental personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Fallah Mehrjerdi, Mohammad Ali; Hassani, Hamid

    2017-03-04

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occupational and nonoccupational exposure to mercury (Hg) vapor in dental personnel by examining the relationships between blood mercury, urine mercury, and their ratio with air mercury. The method was performed on 50 occupational exposed and 50 unexposed controls (25 men and 25 women). The mercury concentrations in air and human biological samples were determined based on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method and standard method (SM) by a new mode of liquid-phase microextraction, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations in urine (μg Hg 0 /g creatinine) and blood were significantly higher than control group, respectively (19.41 ± 5.18 vs 2.15 ± 0.07 μg/g and 16.40 ± 4.97 vs 2.50 ± 0.02 μg/L) (p mercury concentration in blood/urine ratio (r = .380) with dental office air are new indicators for assessing occupational exposure in dental personnel.

  17. Occupational exposure to diisocyanates in polyurethane foam factory workers

    OpenAIRE

    Dominika Świerczyńska-Machura; Sławomir Brzeźnicki; Ewa Nowakowska-Świrta; Jolanta Walusiak-Skorupa; Tomasz Wittczak; Wojciech Dudek; Marzena Bonczarowska; Wiktor Wesolowski; Sławomir Czerczak; Cezary Pałczyński

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate health effects of occupational exposure to diisocyanates (DIC) among polyurethane foam products factory workers. Material and Methods: Thirty workers had a physical examination, skin prick tests with common allergens, allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to diisocyanates and pulmonary function tests. Concentrations of selected isocyanates in the workplace air samples as well as concentration of their metabolites in the urine samp...

  18. The risk of occupational exposure and infection with infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbaugh, R J

    1999-06-01

    The diversity of potentially infectious agents that frequent the health care environment continues to increase. As a result, healthcare workers are at some degree of risk, for exposure to, and infection by, a variety of infectious diseases or conditions. This article is devoted to the epidemiology of major infectious diseases and conditions known to be transmitted in health care settings. In addition, the relative risk of occupational exposure to and infection by these diseases is also discussed as are general preventive measures associated with Standard and Transmission-based Precautions.

  19. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica at Alberta work sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnoff, Diane; Todor, Maria S; Beach, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Although crystalline silica has been recognized as a health hazard for many years, it is still encountered in many work environments. Numerous studies have revealed an association between exposure to respirable crystalline silica and the development of silicosis and other lung diseases including lung cancer. Alberta Jobs, Skills, Training and Labour conducted a project to evaluate exposure to crystalline silica at a total of 40 work sites across 13 industries. Total airborne respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica concentrations were quite variable, but there was a potential to exceed the Alberta Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) of 0.025 mg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica at many of the work sites evaluated. The industries with the highest potentials for overexposure occurred in sand and mineral processing (GM 0.090 mg/m(3)), followed by new commercial building construction (GM 0.055 mg/m(3)), aggregate mining and crushing (GM 0.048 mg/m(3)), abrasive blasting (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)), and demolition (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)). For worker occupations, geometric mean exposure ranged from 0.105 mg/m(3) (brick layer/mason/concrete cutting) to 0.008 mg/m(3) (dispatcher/shipping, administration). Potential for GM exposure exceeding the OEL was identified in a number of occupations where it was not expected, such as electricians, carpenters and painters. These exposures were generally related to the specific task the worker was doing, or arose from incidental exposure from other activities at the work site. The results indicate that where there is a potential for activities producing airborne respirable crystalline silica, it is critical that the employer include all worker occupations at the work site in their hazard assessment. There appears to be a relationship between airborne total respirable dust concentration and total respirable dust concentrations, but further study is require to fully characterize this relationship. If this relationship holds true

  20. RADIOFREQUENCY AND MICROWAVE RADIATION HEALTH EFFECTS AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Damnjanović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there have been considerable discussion and concern about the possible hazards of RF/MW radiation. More recently, the growth and development in personal mobile communications have focused attention on the frequencies associated with this technology. A number of studies have examined the health effects of RF/MW electromagnetic fields (EMFs, originating from occupational exposure, hobbies, or residence near the radio or television transmitters. Particularly controversial are the biophysical mechanisms by which these RF fields may affect biological systems. General health effects reviews explore possible carcinogenic, reproductive and neurological effects. Health effects by exposure source have been observed in radar traffic devices, wireless communications with cellular phones, radio transmission, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Several epidemiological surveys have suggested associations with non-specific complaints such as headache, tiredness, sleep disturbance, loss of memory, and dizziness. These findings, which echo reports of illness associated with other types of radiofrequency (RF radiation, relate not only to the use of mobile phones, but also to residence near the mobile phone base stations and other settings involving occupational exposure. The biological effects suggest that some precautions are necessary, and preventive approaches are highly recommended. Further researches are required to give more information about the effects of microwave radiation on our health, especially in occupational setting and professionally exposed workers.

  1. Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending its existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica. OSHA has determined that employees exposed to respirable crystalline silica at the previous permissible exposure limits face a significant risk of material impairment to their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica are at increased risk of developing silicosis and other non-malignant respiratory diseases, lung cancer, and kidney disease. This final rule establishes a new permissible exposure limit of 50 micrograms of respirable crystalline silica per cubic meter of air (50 [mu]g/m\\3\\) as an 8-hour time-weighted average in all industries covered by the rule. It also includes other provisions to protect employees, such as requirements for exposure assessment, methods for controlling exposure, respiratory protection, medical surveillance, hazard communication, and recordkeeping. OSHA is issuing two separate standards--one for general industry and maritime, and the other for construction--in order to tailor requirements to the circumstances found in these sectors.

  2. The optimisation of occupational potential exposures - preliminary considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouail, P. [Centre d`Etude sur l`Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Guimaraes, L. [Cidade Universitaria Armando de Salles Oliveira (Brazil)

    1995-03-01

    One of the major innovation brought about the ICRP 60 recommendations and emphasized by the ICRP 64 publication, is the introduction of the concept of potential exposures into the system of radiological protection. Potential exposures are characterized by {open_quotes}probability of occurrence lesser than unity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}radiological risks exceeding normal levels{close_quotes} where normal must be interpreted as not exceeding the planned routine exposures. It is then necessary to develop consensual methods to look for and choose the optimum scenarios (i.e. those for which probability of events and possible consequences have been reduced as low as reasonably achievable). Moreover, the boundaries for the unacceptable levels of risks for workers should be defined, as well as reasonable risk indicators. The aim of this paper is to discuss the actual changes in the field of occupational radiological protection, induced by the potential exposure concept with particular emphasize on the optimization of protection.

  3. Multi-endpoint biological monitoring in combined, carcinogenic occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendi, Katalin; Hornyák, László; Varga, Csaba

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to develop a relevant multi-endpoint biomonitoring system by studying different genotoxicity biomarkers in complex carcinogenic exposures under occupational situations. Altogether 109 workers were followed in five different workplaces. The combined carcinogenic exposures were monitored in the urine and peripheral blood samples using Ames mutagenicity test and cytogenetic analyzes. The different genotoxicity endpoints studied showed different results in the same carcinogenic exposure situations. The urinary mutagenicity tests provided more information and proved to be more sensitive compared to the cytogenetic tests in the majority of cases. In complex exposures multistep biomonitoring panel should be applied, because the exact mechanisms of the combination of single exposing agents are not known. Such a panel should involve monitoring different endpoints, e.g. point mutations, chromosomal mutations. A relatively affordable and rapid testing panel was developed using validated tests as Ames and cytogenetic assays, but its practical use should be confirmed by further investigations.

  4. Exposure to flour dust in the occupational environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobnicka, Agata; Górny, Rafał L.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to flour dust can be found in the food industry and animal feed production. It may result in various adverse health outcomes from conjunctivitis to baker's asthma. In this paper, flour dust exposure in the above-mentioned occupational environments is characterized and its health effects are discussed. A peer-reviewed literature search was carried out and all available published materials were included if they provided information on the above-mentioned elements. The hitherto conducted studies show that different components of flour dust like enzymes, proteins and baker's additives can cause both non-allergic and allergic reactions among exposed workers. Moreover, the problem of exposure to cereal allergens present in flour dust can also be a concern for bakers’ family members. Appreciating the importance of all these issues, the exposure assessment methods, hygienic standards and preventive measures are also addressed in this paper. PMID:26414680

  5. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lakshmi Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  6. Occupational exposure to ultrafine particles among airport employees--combining personal monitoring and global positioning system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lauenborg Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported at several airports, especially on the apron, but knowledge on individual exposure profiles among different occupational groups working at an airport is lacking. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare personal exposure to UFP among five different occupational groups working at Copenhagen Airport (CPH. METHOD: 30 employees from five different occupational groups (baggage handlers, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside and landside security at CPH were instructed to wear a personal monitor of particle number concentration in real time and a GPS device. The measurements were carried out on 8 days distributed over two weeks in October 2012. The overall differences between the groups were assessed using linear mixed model. RESULTS: Data showed significant differences in exposure levels among the groups when adjusted for variation within individuals and for effect of time and date (p<0.01. Baggage handlers were exposed to 7 times higher average concentrations (geometric mean, GM: 37×103 UFP/cm(3, 95% CI: 25-55 × 10(3 UFP/cm(3 than employees mainly working indoors (GM: 5 × 10(3 UFP/cm(3, 95% CI: 2-11 × 103 UFP/cm(3. Furthermore, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside security were exposed to intermediate concentrations (GM: 12 to 20 × 10(3 UFP/cm(3. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates a strong gradient of exposure to UFP in ambient air across occupational groups of airport employees.

  7. Occupational exposure to cleaning products and asthma in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Orianne; Donnay, Carole; Heederik, Dick J J; Héry, Michel; Choudat, Dominique; Kauffmann, Francine; Le Moual, Nicole

    2012-12-01

    Cleaning products may cause work-related asthma, but information regarding the specific exposures involved is scarce. We aimed to determine the associations between asthma and occupational exposure to cleaning agents in hospital workers. Analyses were conducted in 179 (136 women) hospital workers and a reference population of 545 subjects (18-79 years) from the French case-control and familial Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (2003-2007). Exposures to cleaning agents were estimated using three methods: self-report, expert assessment and an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix (JEM). Associations between cleaning products and current asthma were evaluated by logistic regressions, stratified by sex and adjusted for age and smoking status. According to expert assessment, 55% of male and 81% of female hospital workers were exposed to cleaning/disinfecting tasks weekly (pcleaning/disinfecting tasks and current asthma in men or in women whatever the assessment method used. In women, exposure to decalcifiers (expert assessment) was associated with current asthma (OR (95% CI):2.38 (1.06 to 5.33)). In hospital workers classified as exposed according to both the expert assessment and the JEM, additional associations were observed for exposure to ammonia (3.05 (1.19 to 7.82)) and to sprays with moderate/high intensity (2.87 (1.02 to 8.11)). Female hospital workers are often exposed to numerous cleaning products, some of which were markedly associated with current asthma. Low numbers prevented a meaningful analysis in men. Objective and more accurate estimates of occupational exposure to cleaning products are needed to better understand the adverse effects of cleaning products.

  8. The Social Profiles of Occupational Therapy Students’ Educational Groups

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    Tore Bonsaksen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today’s occupational therapy models emphasize that a person’s choice of, satisfaction with, and performance in occupations are markedly influenced by the context. For students undergoing a group-based study module, the group is an important context factor. Until recently, there has been a lack of instruments available for the assessment of functioning and participation at the group level. This mixed methods pilot study aimed to examine occupational therapy students’ perceptions of their group’s level of functioning and course of development during one study module. Methods: The students’ perceptions of their group’s functioning were assessed in two ways: by examining their scores on the Social Profile (SP, a new instrument, and by examining their qualitative descriptions of the groups and how the groups developed over time. The sample consisted of four occupational therapy students. Results: Two students perceived their group functioning as stable over time. One student’s scores indicated an increase in group functioning over time, whereas one student’s showed a decrease. The interview statements showed varying degrees of connectedness with the SP items. Conclusions: Descriptions of stability and change corresponded very well with the students’ SP trajectories, indicating content validity of the assessment as a whole.

  9. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd, E-mail: suzie@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad [Radiation Safety & Health Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, N. A. H. Abd. [Faculty of Science & Mathematics, Sultan Idris of Education Universit, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H{sub 0}) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  10. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  11. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H₀) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304).

  12. Rare occupational cause of nasal septum perforation: Nickel exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Cagri Bolek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many etiologies are held accountable for nasal septum perforations. Topical nasal drug usage, previous surgeries, trauma, nose picking, squamous cell carcinoma, some rheumatological disorders such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis, some infectious diseases such as syphilis and leprosy are among the causes of the perforations. Occupational heavy metal exposures by inhalation rarely may also cause nasal septum perforation. Here, we present a 29-year-old patient without any known diseases, who is a worker at a metallic coating and nickel-plating factory, referred for investigation of his nasal cartilage septum perforation from an otorhinolaryngology clinic. The patient questioning, physical examination and laboratory assessment about rheumatic and infectious diseases were negative. There was a metallic smell in the breath during the physical examination. The analysis showed serum nickel level at 31 μg/l and urine nickel at 18 μg/l (84.11 μg/g creatinine. Other possible serum and urine heavy metal levels were within normal ranges. Nickel exposure is usually together with other heavy metals (chromium or cadmium, it is rarely alone. Nickel ingested by inhalation usually leads to respiratory problems such as reduced olfactory acuity, ulcers, septum perforation or tumors of the nasal sinuses. This case demonstrates the importance of occupational anamnesis and awareness of diagnosis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6:963–967

  13. The Australian Work Exposures Study: Occupational Exposure to Lead and Lead Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Timothy R; Carey, Renee N; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to produce a population-based estimate of the prevalence of work-related exposure to lead and its compounds, to identify the main circumstances of exposures, and to collect information on the use of workplace control measures designed to decrease those exposures. Data came from the Australian Workplace Exposures Study, a nationwide telephone survey which investigated the current prevalence and circumstances of work-related exposure to 38 known or suspected carcinogens, including lead, among Australian workers aged 18-65 years. Using the web-based tool, OccIDEAS, semi-quantitative information was collected about exposures in the current job held by the respondent. Questions were addressed primarily at tasks undertaken rather than about self-reported exposures. A total of 307 (6.1%) of the 4993 included respondents were identified as probably being exposed to lead in the course of their work. Of these, almost all (96%) were male; about half worked in trades and technician-related occupations, and about half worked in the construction industry. The main tasks associated with probable exposures were, in decreasing order: soldering; sanding and burning off paint while painting old houses, ships, or bridges; plumbing work; cleaning up or sifting through the remains of a fire; radiator-repair work; machining metals or alloys containing lead; mining; welding leaded steel; and working at or using indoor firing ranges. Where information on control measures was available, inconsistent use was reported. Applied to the Australian working population, approximately 6.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.6-7.0] of all workers (i.e. 631000, 95% CI 566000-704000 workers) were estimated to have probable occupational exposure to lead. Lead remains an important exposure in many different occupational circumstances in Australia and probably other developed countries. This information can be used to support decisions on priorities for intervention and control

  14. Airborne occupational exposures and risk of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, C; Plato, N; Johansson, A L V; Nyrén, O; Lagergren, J

    2006-02-01

    The reasons for the increasing incidence of and strong male predominance in patients with oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma remain unclear. The authors hypothesised that airborne occupational exposures in male dominated industries might contribute. In a nationwide Swedish population based case control study, 189 and 262 cases of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma respectively, 167 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 820 frequency matched controls underwent personal interviews. Based on each study participant's lifetime occupational history the authors assessed cumulative airborne occupational exposure for 10 agents, analysed individually and combined, by a deterministic additive model including probability, frequency, and intensity. Furthermore, occupations and industries of longest duration were analysed. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Tendencies of positive associations were found between high exposure to pesticides and risk of oesophageal (OR 2.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.7)) and cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.6)). Among workers highly exposed to particular agents, a tendency of an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma was found. There was a twofold increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma among concrete and construction workers (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.2)) and a nearly fourfold increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma among workers within the motor vehicle industry (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 10.4)). An increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 12.5)), and a tendency of an increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.8 (95% CI 0.9 to 8.5)), were identified among hotel and restaurant workers. Specific airborne occupational exposures do not seem to be of major importance in the aetiology of oesophageal or cardia adenocarcinoma and are unlikely to

  15. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the Polish Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Kieliszek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Standard devices used by military personnel that may pose electromagnetic hazard include: radars, missile systems, radio navigation systems and radio transceivers. The aim of this study has been to evaluate the exposure of military personnel to electromagnetic fields. Material and Methods: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was analyzed in the work environment of personnel of 204 devices divided into 5 groups (surface-to-air missile system radars, aircraft and helicopters, communication devices, surveillance and height finder radars, airport radars and radio navigation systems. Measurements were carried out at indicators, device terminals, radio panels, above vehicle seats, in vehicle hatches, by cabinets containing high power vacuum tubes and other transmitter components, by transmission lines, connectors, etc. Results: Portable radios emit the electric field strength between 20–80 V/m close to a human head. The manpack radio operator’s exposure is 60–120 V/m. Inside vehicles with high frequency/very high frequency (HF/VHF band radios, the electric field strength is between 7–30 V/m and inside the radar cabin it ranges between 9–20 V/m. Most of the personnel on ships are not exposed to the electromagnetic field from their own radar systems but rather by accidental exposure from the radar systems of other ships. Operators of surface-to-air missile systems are exposed to the electric field strength between 7–15 V/m and the personnel of non-directional radio beacons – 100–150 V/m. Conclusions: In 57% of military devices Polish soldiers work in the occupational protection zones. In 35% of cases, soldiers work in intermediate and hazardous zones and in 22% – only in the intermediate zone. In 43% of devices, military personnel are not exposed to electromagnetic field. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4:565–577

  16. Impact of occupational mechanical exposures on risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia requiring surgical repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Marie Vestergaard; Frost, Poul; Bay-Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    We undertook a register-based cohort study to evaluate exposure-response relations between cumulative occupational mechanical exposures, and risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair.......We undertook a register-based cohort study to evaluate exposure-response relations between cumulative occupational mechanical exposures, and risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair....

  17. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Nanomaterials using Control Banding Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase

    Nanotechnology can be termed as the “new industrial revolution”. A broad range of potential benefits in various applications for the environment and everyday life of humans can be related to the use of nanotechnology. Nanomaterials are used in a large variety of products already in the market......, and because of their novel physical and chemical characteristics, the application of nanomaterials is projected to increase further. This will inevitably increase the production of nanomaterials with potential increase of exposure for the workers which are the first in line expected to become exposed...... to potentially hazardous nanomaterials. Exposure assessment of nanomaterials is more difficult to define and conduct than that of traditional chemicals. This thesis provides an analysis of the field of occupational exposure assessment and a number of challenges are identified. The analysis showed...

  18. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer from occupational radiation exposure among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures. Ionizing radiation is a confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. This study, therefore, was aimed to estimate lifetime cancer risk from occupational exposure among radiologic technologists that has been recruited in 2012-2013. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure.

  19. Use of personal protective equipment under occupational exposure to cytostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Krzemińska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of cancer cases enhances the usage of cytostatic agents and thereby contributes to the increase in the number of health care workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics. Material and Methods: This article presents the results of the survey aimed at obtaining data on the reduction of occupational exposure through using personal protective equipment by the medical and pharmaceutical personnel involved in handling cytostatics. The questionnaires were sent by mail or e-mail to oncology hospitals and pharmacies preparing cytostatic drugs. Responses were received from 94 people employed in these workplaces. The main questions concerned the forms of cytostatics; job activities; types of personal protective equipment used and working time under exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Results: The majority (over 90% of the healthcare personnel declared the use of personal protective equipment when working under conditions of exposure to cytostatic drugs. Depending on the type of protection, 15–35% of people reported that the most frequent time of their single use of the apron, the overalls, the gloves, the cap, the goggles or the respirators did not exceed few minutes. Gloves were changed most frequently. However, half of the responses indicated that the time after which the respondents removed protection equipment greatly differed. Conclusions: Almost the whole group of respondents applied personal protective equipment when working under exposure to cytostatics. However, personal protective equipment was not used every time in case of exposure. The medical and pharmaceutical staff worked under exposure to cytostatics for a few or even dozen hours during the working day. Med Pr 2016;67(4:499–508

  20. Occupational exposure and cancer of the pancreas: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietri, F; Clavel, F

    1991-09-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed about the aetiology of cancer of the pancreas, especially concerning the effects of tobacco, coffee, alcohol, diet, and pancreatic pathology. Results of numerous epidemiological studies are, however, inconsistent. Chemical carcinogens have been implicated as possible risk factors. Animal studies have been carried out to determine the role of these chemical factors but, except for nitrosamines and their derivatives (components of tobacco), chemicals have not been proved carcinogenic for the pancreas. Many studies have also been conducted among occupational groups. Several of them showed an excess risk of cancer of the pancreas, especially in the chemical and petroleum industries. The lack of accuracy about the nature of products used, however, does not permit a definitive conclusion as to their carcinogenic role. This paper is a review of publications about occupational exposures and cancer of the pancreas.

  1. Occupational Hazard Exposures and Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sherri S; Lee, Chien-Nan; Wu, Ying-Hsuan; Tu, Nai-Chi; Guo, Yue-Leon; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chen, Chi-Hsien

    2017-12-15

    To explore the prevalence of exposure to occupational hazards and depressive mood with associated underlying risk factors among pregnant workers. Women at 12 weeks of gestation (n = 172) were recruited during regular prenatal screening. Data were obtained via questionnaires that explored job details and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The most commonly encountered hazard was prolonged standing. The majority of women reported that the workplace provided no information on the safety or rights of pregnant women, but those exposed to ≥4 hazards had more access to such services (p burnout, lower job control, and reduced workplace support were significantly associated with possible antenatal depressive symptoms. Pregnant workers are exposed to substantial levels of occupational hazards and may experience depressive symptoms; thus, their work conditions require monitoring and improvement.

  2. Male fertility following occupational exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Marcello; Satta, Giannina; Fadda, Domenica; Pili, Sergio; Cocco, Pierluigi

    2015-04-01

    The inconsistent epidemiological results of the endocrine disrupting effects of DDT fuel a harsh debate on its global ban. We tested the hypothesis that occupational exposure to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) causes impairment in male fertility in a cohort of DDT exposed workers, in Sardinia, Italy. We accessed official records on date of marriage and date of birth of the first child to estimate time to pregnancy (TTP) in the spouses of 1223 workers employed in a 1946-1950 anti-malarial campaign. The TTP calculation was censored at the 13th month after date of marriage. We used a modified Cox's proportional hazard model to calculate the fecundability ratio (FR) by job, by cumulative exposure to DDT, and by time window in relation to the anti-malarial operations, adjusting by paternal age at marriage. Among the spouses of DDT applicators, fecundability did not vary during DDT use (FR=1.22, 95% CI 0.84-1.77) nor in the following decade (FR=1.01, 95% CI 0.67-1.50) with reference to the prior years. A significant increase occurred among the unexposed and the less exposed sub-cohorts, which generated a non-significantly reduced FR among the DDT applicator sub-cohort with reference to the unexposed following exposure. We did not find evidence of an impairment in male fertility following heavy occupational exposure to DDT. However, although fecundability was highest among the spouses of the DDT applicators in the years prior to the anti-malarial campaign, we cannot exclude that DDT exposure prevented an increase parallel to that observed among the unexposed and the less exposed sub-cohorts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Occupational Exposure to Chromium of Assembly Workers in Aviation Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, G; Castiglia, L; Pieri, M; Novi, C; d'Angelo, R; Sannolo, N; Lamberti, M; Miraglia, N

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft are constructed by modules that are covered by a "primer" layer, which can often contain hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], known carcinogen to humans. While the occupational exposure to Cr(VI) during aircraft painting is ascertained, the exposure assessment of assembly workers (assemblers) requires investigations. Three biological monitoring campaigns (BM-I,II,III) were performed in an aviation industry, on homogeneous groups of assemblers (N = 43) and controls (N = 23), by measuring chromium concentrations in end-shift urine collected at the end of the working week and the chromium concentration difference between end- and before-shift urines. BM-I was conducted on full-time workers, BM-II was performed on workers after a 3-4 day absence from work, BM-III on workers using ecoprimers with lower Cr(VI) content. Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and mean values were compared by T-test. Even if Cr concentrations measured during BM-I were lower than Biological Exposure Indices by ACGIH, statistically significant differences were found between urinary Cr concentrations of workers and controls. Despite 3-4 days of absence from work, urinary chromium concentrations measured during BM-II were still higher than references from nonoccupationally exposed populations. In the BM-III campaign, the obtained preliminary results suggested the efficacy of using ecoprimers. The healthcare of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents follows the principle of limiting the exposure to "the minimum technically possible". The obtained results evidence that assemblers of aviation industries, whose task does not involve the direct use of primers containing Cr(VI), show an albeit slight occupational exposure to Cr(VI), that must be carefully taken into consideration in planning suitable prevention measures during risk assessment and management processes.

  4. Baby on Board: Managing Occupational Radiation Exposure During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, M Victoria

    2018-03-01

    This article reviews the issue of occupational radiation exposure as a deterrent to recruitment of women into the field of interventional radiology and provides the reader with three strategies to optimize radiation protection during fluoroscopically guided procedures. These include personal protective shielding, use of ancillary shielding, and techniques that limit fluoroscopy x-ray tube output. When optimal radiation safety practices are implemented as the norm in the IR suite, very little extra needs to be done to ensure that fetal dose of a pregnant interventionalist is negligible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical and traumatic occupational eye exposures in aviation personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydes, Harry C; Zautcke, John L; Zell-Kanter, Michele

    2011-11-01

    The eye is vulnerable to chemical exposure and foreign body infiltration in the occupational setting. Individuals working in the aviation field are prone to these types of exposures. We conducted a 28-mo retrospective chart review to document the number of airline workers complaining of chemical or foreign body exposure to the eye at an onsite airport medical clinic. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), code for chemical conjunctivitis (372.5), was used to identify patients' charts. We documented the type of treatment that was initiated and whether there was eye damage. We further investigated the chemical composition of the products and whether there was any associated toxicity. Few instances of chemical exposure and foreign body infiltration were found. Patients were exposed to the following products: lubricants (e.g., naphthenic oils), hydraulic fluid (e.g., petroleum or phosphate ester based), jet fuel (e.g., kerosene), and de-icing agents (e.g., propylene glycol). There was no documentation regarding the use of personal protection equipment in the patients' charts. All patients received eye irrigation with normal saline. No sequelae were documented. Airline personnel are exposed to a variety of chemical agents in the workplace. None of the agents that workers were exposed to in this small study exhibited toxic effects to the eye. Proper use of personal protection equipment in aviation personnel may limit the number of chemical and foreign body eye exposures.

  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and occupational exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Elena

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both industrialized and developing countries. Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for COPD. However, relevant information from the literature published within the last years, either on general population samples or on workplaces, indicate that about 15% of all cases of COPD is work-related. Specific settings and agents are quoted which have been indicated or confirmed as linked to COPD. Coal miners, hard-rock miners, tunnel workers, concrete-manufacturing workers, nonmining industrial workers have been shown to be at highest risk for developing COPD. Further evidence that occupational agents are capable of inducing COPD comes from experimental studies, particularly in animal models. In conclusion, occupational exposure to dusts, chemicals, gases should be considered an established, or supported by good evidence, risk factor for developing COPD. The implications of this substantial occupational contribution to COPD must be considered in research planning, in public policy decision-making, and in clinical practice.

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and occupational exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piera Boschetto; Sonia Quintavalle; Deborah Miotto; Natalina Lo Cascio; Elena Zeni; Cristina E. Mapp [University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy). Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine

    2006-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both industrialized and developing countries. Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for COPD. However, relevant information from the literature published within the last years, either on general population samples or on workplaces, indicate that about 15% of all cases of COPD is work-related. Specific settings and agents are quoted which have been indicated or confirmed as linked to COPD. Coal miners, hard-rock miners, tunnel workers, concrete-manufacturing workers, nonmining industrial workers have been shown to be at highest risk for developing COPD. Further evidence that occupational agents are capable of inducing COPD comes from experimental studies, particularly in animal models. In conclusion, occupational exposure to dusts, chemicals, gases should be considered an established, or supported by good evidence, risk factor for developing COPD. The implications of this substantial occupational contribution to COPD must be considered in research planning, in public policy decision-making, and in clinical practice.

  8. Occupational and environmental exposure to mercury among Iranian hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakour, Hoda; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the mercury concentrations in female hairdressers associated with occupational and environmental exposure through cosmetic products and amalgam fillings. Sixty-two hair and nail samples were collected randomly from Iranian hairdressers. Hg level determination was carried out using a LECO, AMA 254, Advanced Mercury Analyzer according to ASTM, standard No. D-6722. The mean mercury levels were 1.15 ± 1.03 ug/g and 1.82 ± 1.12 μg/g in the hair and nail samples, respectively with a positive correlation among them (r=0.98). A significant relation was also observed between Hg levels and the number of amalgam fillings (pmercury concentrations in their hair and nails, suggesting the importance of mercury exposure assessment in hidden, less-explored sources of Hg in the workplace.

  9. Paternal occupational lead exposure and offspring risks for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmén, Markku; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G

    2016-10-01

    This register-based cohort study investigated whether paternal occupational exposure to inorganic lead was related to offspring risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). Exposed men (n=11,863) were identified from blood lead measurements taken at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 1973-1983. Data on mothers and their offspring born from 1972-1984 were obtained from the national Population Information System. Two population comparison offspring for each exposed offspring were matched on date of birth, sex and area (n=23,720). SSD cases were identified from The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Hazard ratios of SSD between exposed groups were analyzed using conditional proportional hazards regression, adjusted for parental history of psychoses, parental ages, language of offspring, father's employment, and father's self-employment. After 26-38years of follow up, there were no significant differences in the incidence of schizophrenia, either between the offspring of exposed (188/11,863; 1.6%) and unexposed fathers (347/23,720; 1.5%) or based on blood lead levels (adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 0.97, CI 0.52-1.83, 1.25, CI 0.85-1.82, 0.90, CI 0.54-1.49, and 1.38, CI 0.65-2.92 for lead categories exposure to lead is not a risk factor for schizophrenia in offspring. However, the majority of exposed fathers had low-level exposure, and we cannot exclude the possibility of an effect for higher exposures to lead. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A tool to enhance occupational therapy reasoning from ICF perspective: The Hasselt Occupational Performance Profile (H-OPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghysels, R; Vanroye, E; Westhovens, M; Spooren, A

    2017-03-01

    In order to enhance occupational therapy reasoning in clinical practice, different elements such as client-centred approach, evidence-based care and interdisciplinary work should be taken into account, but is a challenge. To describe the development of the digital Hasselt Occupational Performance Profile (H-OPP © ) that enhances occupational therapy reasoning from ICF perspective. A participative qualitative design was used to create the H-OPP © in an iterative way in which occupational therapy lectures, ICF experts, students and occupational therapists in the field were involved. After linking occupational therapy terminology to the ICF, different stages of the H-OPP were identified and elaborated with main features: generating an occupational performance profile based on inventarization of problems and possibilities, formulating an occupational performance diagnosis and enabling to create an intervention plan. In all stages, both the perspectives of the client and the occupational therapist were taken into account. To increase practical use, the tool was further elaborated and digitalized. The H-OPP © is a digital coach that guides and facilitates professional reasoning in (novice) occupational therapists. It augments involvement of the client system. Furthermore, it enhances interdisciplinary communication and evidence-based care.

  11. Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case-control study in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villeneuve, Sara; Cyr, Diane; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown aetiology. In addition to genetic and hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected of playing a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an in...

  12. The relationship between occupational sun exposure and non-melanoma skin cancer: clinical basics, epidemiology, occupational disease evaluation, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartasch, Manigé; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Schmitt, Jochen; Drexler, Hans

    2012-10-01

    The cumulative effect of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for the worldwide increase in non-melanoma skin cancer, a category that includes squamous cell carcinoma and its precursors (the actinic keratoses) as well as basal-cell carcinoma. Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in areas of the world with a light-skinned population. The occupational exposure to UV radiation is high in many outdoor occupations; recent studies suggest that persons working in such occupations are more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancer. On the basis of a selective review of the literature, we present the current state of knowledge about occupational and non-occupational UV exposure and the findings of meta-analyses on the association of outdoor activity with non-melanoma skin cancer. We also give an overview of the current recommendations for prevention and for medicolegal assessment. Recent meta-analyses have consistently documented a significantly higher risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin among persons who work outdoors (odds ratio [OR] 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-2.22, pnon-melanoma skin cancer in persons with high occupational exposure to UV radiation should be reported as an occupational disease under § 9, paragraph 2 of the Seventh Book of the German Social Code (Sozialgesetzbuch, SGB VII). Preventive measures are urgently needed for persons with high occupational exposure to UV radiation.

  13. Assessment of occupational and public exposure to trichloramine in Swiss indoor swimming pools: a proposal for an occupational exposure limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrat, Jean; Donzé, Gérard; Iseli, Christophe; Perret, Daniel; Tomicic, Catherine; Schenk, Olivier

    2012-04-01

    The presence of trichloramine in the air in different indoor swimming pools has been studied in several countries. In almost all studies, the results show a possible health impact due to trichloramine among pool attendants. The main objectives of our study were to evaluate, for the first time in Switzerland, occupational and public trichloramine exposure in a representative panel of indoor pools and to propose an occupational exposure limit for trichloramine. Measurements were done in 30 indoor swimming pools located in three regions of Switzerland: Jura, Neuchâtel, and Fribourg. All investigations were performed during the 2007-2008 winter season in order to assure closed windows and standard ventilation conditions. Trichloramine air samplings were performed at 130 cm above the floor around the pool. Analyses of free chlorine and bounded chlorine were performed on-site, and water samples were immediately sent to the laboratory for analysis of trihalomethanes, urea, and dissolved organic carbon. A health questionnaire was distributed to all the participants. Our results indicate that in all the studied facilities except one, the trichloramine concentrations were below the French reference value of 0.5 mg m(-3), and only three were equal to or slightly over 0.3 mg m(-3). Overall, our results point out a very low and consistent range of trichloramine concentrations (mean concentration of trichloramine: 0.114 ± 0.043 mg m(-3)). A total of 184 questionnaires were filled out by pool workers. Of the study population, 66% were men (n = 117), 21% were smokers (9 women and 29 men), and only 7% (n = 13) were ex-smokers. The control group was composed of 71 persons (38 men and 33 women); 22% (n = 15) were smokers and 24% (n = 16) ex-smokers. Our results demonstrate an increasing risk of irritative symptoms up to a level of 0.2-0.3 mg m(-3) of trichloramine. The health data in our study, as well as the review of the literature, strongly suggest fixing the trichloramine

  14. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  15. 78 FR 65242 - Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica; Extension of Comment Period; Extension of Period To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Exposure to Crystalline Silica; Extension of Comment Period; Extension of Period To Submit Notices of... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica for an additional 47... occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica (78 FR 56274). This notice requested written comments by...

  16. The Australian Work Exposures Study: prevalence of occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Carey, Renee N; Driscoll, Timothy R; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in occupational settings. Diesel exhaust has been classified as a lung carcinogen, but data on number of workers exposed to different levels of diesel exhaust are not available in Australia. The aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of exposure to diesel engine exhaust in Australian workplaces. A cross-sectional survey of Australian males and females (18-65 years old) in current paid employment was undertaken. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Semi-quantitative occupational exposure levels to diesel exhaust were assigned using programmed decision rules and numbers of workers exposed in Australia in 2011 were estimated. We defined substantial exposure as exposed at a medium or high level, for at least 5h per week. Substantial occupational exposure to diesel exhaust was experienced by 13.4% of the respondents in their current job. Exposure prevalence varied across states, ranging from 6.4% in the Australian Capital Territory to 17.0% in Western Australia. Exposures occurred mainly in the agricultural, mining, transport and construction industries, and among mechanics. Men (20.4%) were more often exposed than women (4.7%). Extrapolation to the total working population indicated that 13.8% (95% confidence interval 10.0-20.4) of the 2011 Australian workforce were estimated to be substantially exposed to diesel exhaust, and 1.8% of the workers were estimated to experience high levels of exposures in their current job. About 1.2 million Australian workers were estimated to have been exposed to diesel exhaust in their workplace in 2011. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational diesel exhaust exposure in Australia and will enable estimation of the number of lung cancers attributable to diesel exhaust exposure in the workplace. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press

  17. Occupational exposure to microwave radiation in diathermia units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.A.; Ubeda, A. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Servicio de Investigacion-BEM, Madrid (Spain); Tellez, M.; Santa Olalla, I. [Hospital La Paz, Servicio de Radiofisica y Radioproteccion, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The present study summarizes preliminary data addressed to complete the present knowledge on the microwave (M.V.)-exposure doses and conditions in workers exposed chronically to relatively high, though nonthermal, levels of that non ionizing radiations (N.I.R.). The obtained data are of direct application to radiation protection in occupational media provided that: 1) help to detect and eradicate practices and situations that result in overexposure; 2) they constitute a basis for the design and development of strategies for exposure control and minimization, and 3) they represent a dosimetric support necessary to properly interpret past and future epidemiologic and experimental data on potential health effects of chronic exposures to M.W. radiation at work. The described results will be extended through additional dosimetric recordings in other hospitals. The dosimetric data will be compared to the results of questionnaires among the electro-therapists working at the units studied. The objective is to identify potential relationships between exposure doses and specific diseases or level of risk perception among the investigated professional group. (authors)

  18. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry.

  19. Determining Types of Health Effects To Persian Gulf Veterans Due To Exposure To Occupational Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Appiowed bw pub1be MA DVtbufi Unifted DETERMINING TYPES OF HEALTH EFFECTS TO PERSIAN GULF VETERANS DUE TO EXPOSURE TO OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS THESI S F...9_,* TLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS DETERMINING TYPES OF HEALTH EFFECTS TO PERSIAN GULF VETERANS DUE TO EXPOSURE TO OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS PE: 62202F WV...PERSIAN GULF VETERANS DUE TO EXPOSURE TO OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS THESIS Rebecca A. Nelson, Captain, USAF AFIT/GEE/ENV/95D Approved for public release

  20. Dose - response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Hong, Jeong-Suk; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively). Workplace dust exposure was classified as noise exposure as 90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24) and 3.42 (2.26-5.17) at 80-89 dB and ≥ 90 dB versus exposure level. Noise exposure increases the risk of occupational injury in the workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury.

  1. Virus occupational exposure in solid waste processing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Annalaura; Federigi, Ileana; Verani, Marco

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that workers involved in the management of solid waste are at risk of exposure to bioaerosol, which is generally studied in relation to bacteria, fungi, and endotoxins. However, to date, there have been no reports on the incidence of work-related infectious diseases. To determine if occupational exposure to viruses occurs upon exposure to waste-related activities, monitoring was carried out in a landfill, a waste recycling plant, an incineration plant, and a waste collection vehicles. Air and surfaces were sampled and analyzed for torque teno virus (TTV), human adenovirus (HAdV), norovirus, rotavirus, and enterovirus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Positivity was confirmed by sequencing and quantification with real-time PCR; infectivity was also tested for culturable viruses. Samples were analyzed in parallel for mean total bacterial and fungi counts in both the summer and winter. In total, 30% (12/40) of air and 13.5% (5/37) of surface samples collected in plants were positive for HAdV and TTV. Among the eight HAdV-positive samples, six (75%), revealed in landfill and recycling plant air and in incinerator and waste vehicles surfaces, were able to replicate in cell culture and were subsequently confirmed as infective. The frequency of detection of virus-positive samples was similar in both seasons, but with evident differences in the type of virus detected: TTV and HAdV were more frequently detected in the summer and winter, respectively. The area of highest viral contamination was the paper selection landfill. Fungi and bacterial contamination did not correlate with viral presence or concentration. In conclusion, we evidence that working with solid and liquid waste can lead to infectious viruses, included in Group 2 of the European Directive 90/679/CEE pathogens list; thus, further investigation on the sources and routes of contamination is needed in order to assess the occupational risk.

  2. Exposure to occupational therapy as a factor influencing recruitment to the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Nicole

    2015-08-01

    This article provides insight into the impact that exposure to an occupational therapist, in personal capacity or via a professional interaction, has on the decision to enter an occupational therapy undergraduate programme. A quantitative survey was completed by 139 occupational therapy students. The survey tool focussed on the students' exposure to a range of allied health professions (e.g. occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology) and investigated how exposure to occupational therapy had influenced their decision to enter the programme. The results indicated that over 70% of respondents had personal professional exposure to occupational therapy prior to making a career decision. Exposure most frequently involved occupational therapy intervention of a friend or family member. The majority of students who had professional exposure to occupational therapy (e.g. family, self, friend received occupational therapy) identified that it was the most influential factor in their career choice. Forty per cent of the occupational therapy students did not enter the programme straight from school and the influence of 'working with an occupational therapist' was noteworthy for mature aged students. Occupational therapists need to consider that every interaction they have with the community provides valuable information regarding the profession and gives insight into occupational therapy as a potential career path for other people. Additionally, the current research identifies there were differences in the impact, type and number of exposures for different student groups, and this potentially offers some insight into ways in which occupational therapy could target specific groups within the community to increase future diversity in the profession. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  3. Occupational exposure to hepatitis infection among Turkish nurses: frequency of needle exposure, sharps injuries and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosgeroglu, N; Ayranci, U; Vardareli, E; Dincer, S

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the demographic factors and pattern of injuries sustained by nurses, and to determine the occupational hazard of exposure to hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses among nurses. The study involved 906 hospital-based nurses working in three large hospitals. Between August 2002 and January 2003 a total of 595 practising nurses were accepted for inclusion. The results of questionnaires completed were collated and chi2 and ratios were used for analysis. Of the 595 nurses, 111 (18.7%) had evidence of previous or current HBV infection and 32 (5.4%) of HCV infection. We found that 11.2% of the nurses who had worked for a period of between 0 and 5 years and 37.1% of those who had worked for a period between 16 and 20 years had evidence of HBV or HCV infection. Of the nurses working in surgical clinics, 59.4% had evidence of previous HBV or HCV infection and those working in hospital clinics had an 18.2% infection rate. Of the nurses occupationally exposed to HBV and HCV infections, 22.4% had received sharps injuries from apparatus and 63.6% had suffered needlestick exposure. Findings also showed 2.7% HBsAg positivity and 5.4% anti-HCV positivity. Of the 452 (76%) nurses who faced the occupational hazard of exposure to hepatitis infections, 27.7% (125/452) had not been vaccinated against HBV. Nurses working in our health-care sector are frequently exposed to occupational exposure for HBV and HCV infections. In order to prevent the infection of nurses with hepatitis, we advocate precautions and protection from sharps injuries. A programme of education, vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis must be implemented.

  4. Dose - response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers′ Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively. Workplace dust exposure was classified as 90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24 and 3.42 (2.26-5.17 at 80-89 dB and ≥90 dB versus <80 dB. These associations remained significant when in a separate analysis according to high or low dust exposure level. Noise exposure increases the risk of occupational injury in the workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury.

  5. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

    2014-07-01

    Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 μg/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 μg/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 μg/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 μg/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of occupational silica exposure on pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Rosenman, Kenneth D; Reilly, Mary Jo; Rice, Carol H

    2002-08-01

    To assess the effect of occupational silica exposure on pulmonary function. Epidemiologic evaluation based on employee interview, plant walk-through, and information abstracted from company medical records, employment records, and industrial hygiene measurements. Drawn from 1,072 current and former hourly wage workers employed before January 1, 1986. Thirty-six individuals with radiographic evidence of parenchymal changes consistent with asbestosis or silicosis were excluded. In addition, eight individuals whose race was listed as other than white or black were excluded. Analysis of spirometry data (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC) only using the test results that met American Thoracic Society criteria for reproducibility and acceptability shows decreasing percent-predicted FVC and FEV1 and decreasing FEV1/FVC in relationship to increasing silica exposure among smokers. Logistic regression analyses of abnormal FVC and abnormal FEV1 values (where abnormal is defined as meter mean silica exposure (p = 0.011 and p = 0.001, respectively). All analyses were adjusted for weight, height, age, ethnicity, smoking status, and other silica exposures. Systematic problems leading to measurement error were possible, but would have been nondifferential in effect and not related to silica measurements. There is a consistent association between increased pulmonary function abnormalities and estimated measures of cumulative silica exposure within the current allowable OSHA regulatory level. Despite concerns about the quality control of the pulmonary function measurements use in these analyses, our results support the need to lower allowable air levels of silica and increase efforts to encourage cessation of cigarette smoking among silica-exposed workers.

  7. Serum protein expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis in workers occupationally exposed to chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guiping; Wang, Tianjing; Liu, Jiaxing; Chen, Zhangjian; Zhong, Lijun; Yu, Shanfa; Zhao, Zuchang; Zhai, Min; Jia, Guang

    2017-08-05

    Cr(VI) is widely-recognized as occupational and environmental contaminant, but the precise underlying mechanisms of Cr(VI) induced carcinogenic toxicity remain to be elucidated. Among kinds of toxic mechanisms, alteration of protein profiling usually elaborate a key mechanism of Cr(VI) induced toxicity and carcinogenesis. Large-scale proteins changes can reflect the onset or progression of carcinogenic toxicity, and potential serum protein biomarkers of Cr(VI) exposure. To gain an insight into the serum proteins expression profiling in chromate workers and find potential novel serum proteins biomarkers of Cr(VI) exposure, 107 male participants from a chromate production plant were recruited into the study. Questionnaire was applied to collect personal information and occupational history. Chromium concentration in blood (CrB) was measured to evaluate the participants' internal exposure. Serum proteins profiling and bioinformatics analysis were performed to explore differentially expressed proteins, proteins-chemical interaction network, critical proteins nodes related to the signaling pathways among 16 controls and 25 exposure workers in the first stage. ELISA tests were applied to verify the critical interested proteins nodes in the remaining 41 exposure workers and 25 controls. The results showed that the CrB levels in the control group were significantly lower than that in the exposure group (P<0.05). 44 significantly differentially expressed serum proteins formed 16 significant signaling pathways and a complex proteins-chemical interaction network, which associated with the immune system and extracellular matrix organization. C reactive protein (CRP), sonic hedgehog protein (SHH) and calcium located at critical nodes in proteins-chemical interaction network. There was a significant negative correlation between serum CRP level and CrB (P<0.05), and a significant positive correlation between SHH concentrations and CrB (P<0.05), which indicated that CRP and SHH

  8. Occupational Heat Stress Profiles in Selected Workplaces in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Chinnadurai, Jeremiah S; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2015-12-29

    Health and productivity impacts from occupational heat stress have significant ramifications for the large workforce of India. This study profiled occupational heat stress impacts on the health and productivity of workers in select organized and unorganized Indian work sectors. During hotter and cooler seasons, Wet Bulb Globe Temperatures (WBGT) were used to quantify the risk of heat stress, according to International workplace guidelines. Questionnaires assessed workers' perceived health and productivity impacts from heat stress. A total of 442 workers from 18 Indian workplaces participated (22% and 78% from the organized and unorganized sector, respectively). Overall 82% and 42% of workers were exposed to higher than recommended WBGT during hotter and cooler periods, respectively. Workers with heavy workloads reported more heat-related health issues (chi square = 23.67, p ≤ 0.001) and reduced productivity (chi square = 15.82, p ≤ 0.001), especially the outdoor workers. Heat-rashes, dehydration, heat-syncope and urinogenital symptoms were self-reported health issues. Cited reasons for productivity losses were: extended-work hours due to fatigue/exhaustion, sickness/hospitalization and wages lost. Reducing workplace heat stress will benefit industries and workers via improving worker health and productivity. Adaptation and mitigation measures to tackle heat stress are imperative to protect the present and future workforce as climate change progresses.

  9. Occupational Heat Stress Profiles in Selected Workplaces in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhya Venugopal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Health and productivity impacts from occupational heat stress have significant ramifications for the large workforce of India. This study profiled occupational heat stress impacts on the health and productivity of workers in select organized and unorganized Indian work sectors. During hotter and cooler seasons, Wet Bulb Globe Temperatures (WBGT were used to quantify the risk of heat stress, according to International workplace guidelines. Questionnaires assessed workers’ perceived health and productivity impacts from heat stress. A total of 442 workers from 18 Indian workplaces participated (22% and 78% from the organized and unorganized sector, respectively. Overall 82% and 42% of workers were exposed to higher than recommended WBGT during hotter and cooler periods, respectively. Workers with heavy workloads reported more heat-related health issues (chi square = 23.67, p ≤ 0.001 and reduced productivity (chi square = 15.82, p ≤ 0.001, especially the outdoor workers. Heat-rashes, dehydration, heat-syncope and urinogenital symptoms were self-reported health issues. Cited reasons for productivity losses were: extended-work hours due to fatigue/exhaustion, sickness/hospitalization and wages lost. Reducing workplace heat stress will benefit industries and workers via improving worker health and productivity. Adaptation and mitigation measures to tackle heat stress are imperative to protect the present and future workforce as climate change progresses.

  10. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, François; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-07-01

    The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m(3), 15.4 μg/m(3), 14.0 μg/m(3), 247.6 μg/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1mg/m(3), 9.0 μg/m(3), 9.0 μg/m(3), 219.2 μg/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees' skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupational exposure to dial painters and assemblers of radioluminous timepieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R E; Shuman, F G; Moghissi, A A; Blackburn, J A; Bailey, E D

    1983-05-01

    An evaluation of available personnel monitoring data and radium body burden records of dial painters handling an annual average of 1.5 Ci of radium indicates that they received an average of about 2 rem/person whole body exposure, 3 rem to the lungs from radon inhalation and 0.2 rad to the bone from radium body burdens. Among groups of similar workers handling tritium in Texas plants, the highest occupational exposures were about 160 mrem annually per person received by refinishers of tritium dial timepieces and back-lit watch assemblers. Based upon scenarios of exposures to 147Pm, repairers of timepieces containing 147Pm receive about 4.4 X 10(-4) mrem/person/yr whole body dose equivalent. The amounts that they process are in the microcurie range. Although the trend is away from the use of radium as a luminizing activator, there are indications that it is still used in timepieces even as tritium and 147Pm are increasingly being used for this purpose.

  12. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, M.A. [Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Human Biochemistry, Uninversity of Buenos Aires, School of Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schnitman, M. [Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, French Hospital C.Milstein, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    In the present paper we present the consequences of an accidental occupational radiation exposure at a local hospital in Buenos Aires. Control at a local radiology service showed the lack of correct shielding in the X-ray equipment. The physicians and technicians (14 persons) exposed to radiation during 12 months were examined. The survey shows that: a) In 11 out of 14 radiation-exposed patients nodular goiter developed and an additional patient had diffuse goiter which means a goiter incidence of 85.7%; b) In 5 of the nodular goiter patients an increase in the size or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up period. No cancer was detected by FNA; c) Hypothyroidism was observed in 3/14 patients, and an additional patient had an abnormal TRH-TSH test, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism; and d) Increased circulating antithyroid antibodies were found in one of the hypothyroid patients

  13. Tetrabromobisphenol A – Toxicity, environmental and occupational exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jarosiewicz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brominated flame retardants (BFR, including tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA represents 25% of the global market of flame retardants. Among them, TBBPA is used on the largest scale (approx. 60% because of its firebreak properties and widespread occurrence in every day products such as furniture, upholstery, adhesives and electronic equipment. A broad application of TBBPA can contribute to environmental pollution. Tetrabromobisphenol A has been determined in soil, water, river sediments and the atmosphere. Tetrabromobisphenol A is characterized by a high value of coefficient n-octanol/water (log P = 4.5, low acidity, and it may exist in undissociated or dissociated form. Due to the high hydrophobicity, TBBPA may accumulate in living organisms, including humans at different food chain levels. The occurrence of TBBPA in humans, e.g., in blood, fat tissue and mother milk, has been reported. Tetrabromobisphenol A is classified as hazard statements (H H400/H410, which means that it is toxic to aquatic biota, causing long-term changes in these organisms. Up to now, only a few studies have been conducted to assess potential toxicity of high doses of TBBPA to mammals. Although many people are occupationally exposed to TBBPA during production or processing of this substance in their workplaces, there are only a few studies that have assessed the real hazard associated with TBPPA exposure. The aim of the study was to discuss the latest literature (mainly from the years 2010–2016 referring to the presence of TBBPA in the environment and its effects to living organisms. Data concerning occupational exposure to TBBPA were also presented. Med Pr 2017;68(1:121–134

  14. Tetranychus urticae allergy in a population without occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, N; Iraola, V; Plácido, J L

    2014-07-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagus mite found in the leaves of numerous plants. High sensitization rates have been demonstrated, however, provocation tests have only been performed in an occupational setting. To assess accuracy of skin prick tests and clinical relevance of T. urticae sensitization by means of conjunctival provocation tests (CPT) in a population without occupational exposure and to evaluate possible environmental risk factors for T. urticae allergy. Patients ≥ 18 years old sensitized to T. urticae (n = 12) and a non-sensitized control group (n = 12) were invited to perform CPT with T. urticae and fulfill a questionnaire including demographic data, questions on environmental exposure to T. urticae and allergy symptoms/diagnosis. A single-blinded placebo-controlled CPT with T. urticae (Leti®) was performed with increasing concentrations (0.002, 0.02, 0.2 and 2 mg/mL) and considered positive if conjunctival hyperemia, palpebral edema or lacrimation were observed in the tested eye. Of T. urticae sensitized patients (mean wheal 4.4 ± 1.5 mm), 9 had a positive CPT, including 3 monosensitized. A good diagnostic accuracy was found for skin prick tests: AUC = 0.952, sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 80%, positive likelihood ratio = 5 and negative likelihood ratio = 0 for a 3 mm wheal. No differences were found between allergic and non-allergic subjects regarding atopy, allergic disease or farming activities. A high prevalence of allergy to Tetranychus urticae was found in the north of Portugal. Future studies with a larger number of patients are needed to evaluate its relation to clinical symptoms and the impact of environmental factors.

  15. From eyeballing to statistical modelling : methods for assessment of occupational exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis methods for assessment of occupational exposure are evaluated and developed. These methods range from subjective methods (qualitative and semiquantitative) to more objective quantitative methods based on actual measurement of personal exposure to chemical and physical

  16. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity, and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Tang, X.; Rothman, N.; Vermeulen, R.; Ji, Z.; Shen, M.; Qiu, C.; Guo, W.; Liu, S.; Reiss, B.; Freeman, L.B.; Ge, Y.; Hubbard, A.E.; Hua, M.; Blair, A.; Galvan, N.; Ruan, X.; Alter, B.P.; Xin, K.X.; Li, S.; Moore, L.E.; Kim, S.; Xie, Y.; Hayes, R.B.; Azuma, M.; Hauptmann, M.; Xiong, J.; Stewart, P.; Li, L.; Rappaport, S.M.; Huang, H.; Fraumeni, J.F.; Smith, M.T.; Lan, Q.

    2010-01-01

    There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing, and other industries. Epidemiologic studies suggest that

  17. Occupational exposures and gastrointestinal cancers among Finnish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vainio, Harri; Kauppinen, Timo; Vasama-Neuvonen, Kaisa; Partanen, Timo; Pukkala, Eero

    2003-03-01

    A cohort including all female workers born 1906 through 1945 (n = 413,877) in Finland was identified through the Population Census of Finland of 1970. Incident cases of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract were explored during 1971 to 1995. Job titles in census records were converted to exposures of 31 occupational agents through a job-exposure matrix. For each agent, the product of level and probability of exposures was calculated and subdivided in three categories: zero, low and medium/high. Poisson regression models estimated relative risks (RR) for each agent, standardized for birth cohort, follow-up period, and socioeconomic status. Adjustment at job title level was done for alcohol use for cancers of the esophagus and liver and smoking for pancreatic cancer. The results showing either statistically significant RR at the medium/high level of exposure (RRH) or statistically significant trend (P cancer risk (2009 cases) was positively associated with sedentary work (RRH 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6; P trend 0.001) and negatively associated with perceived workload (P trend = 0.007). For stomach cancer (1881 cases), we observed an association with exposure to electromagnetic fields (RRH 1.44, 95% CI = 1.01-2.05) and man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) (p trend 0.03). Rectal cancer (1323 cases) showed an association with chromium (RRH 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2-3.1) and oil mist (RR 2.0; 95% CI = 1.0-3.9). For pancreas cancer (1302 cases) we found associations with exposure to chromium (RRH 1.8; 95% CI = 1.0-3.1; P trend 0.01), electromagnetic fields (RRH 1.8; 95% CI = 1.2-2.8; P trend 0.02), and sedentary work (RRH 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0-1.7; P trend 0.05). We found no significant associations between any FINJEM agents and cancers of the esophagus (389 cases), liver (389 cases), and gallbladder (651 cases). Having examined the associations between seven cancer sites and over 30 exposures there exists the real possibility that some of the associations detected are chance findings

  18. Male reproduction and environmental and occupational exposures: a review of epidemiologic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns that chemical exposures in the environment have been detrimental to male sexual development and fertility have been heightened by reports of declining sperm counts over the past 50 years. Marked geographic variation has been found in semen quality and in the incidence of testicular cancer and certain urogenital defects. Debate continues over the existence, magnitude and significance of these trends, and how best to evaluate the hypothesis that in utero and childhood exposures to estrogenic compounds may be to blame. Epidemiologic methods for assessing the impact of hazardous substances on male reproductive health have been developed mainly in the area of occupational medicine, and this paper will review the currently recommended methods. These include questionnaires to determine reproductive history and sexual function; reproductive hormone profiles; and semen analyses such as sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. New research tools that show significant promise from the fields of clinical reproductive medicine and reproductive toxicology are discussed as possible additions to epidemiologic studies, including assays of sperm function and genetic integrity, and biomarkers of DNA damage. For population-based studies involving occupational groups or communities with environmental exposures, issues related to the cost, validity, precision and utility of these methods must be carefully considered.

  19. Occupational noise exposure and hearing loss characteristics of a blue-collar population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmkamp, J.C.; Talbott, E.O.; Margolis, H.

    1984-12-01

    Recent studies of health effects from chronic exposure to noise in the workplace have not consistently addressed nonoccupational variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 197 randomly selected male hourly workers from a noisy plant ( greater than or equal to 89 dBA) in Pittsburgh to fully assess noise exposure and hearing loss, incorporating information on duration of exposure, noise level, occupational and medical histories, audiometric evaluation, and external noise sources. Population audiometric profiles are characteristic of noise-induced hearing loss; mean hearing thresholds for press room men were significantly higher at 2, 3, and 6 kHz (p less than or equal to .05). Only 40% of the men consistently wore hearing protection. Recent use of ototoxic drugs, noisy hobbies/second jobs, military service, family history of hearing loss, and ear-related problems were not found to have a significant effect on hearing levels at high frequencies, suggesting that observed hearing losses were of an occupational origin. 31 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, François, E-mail: francois.zimmermann@inrs.fr; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the five fluorescent lamp recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are mercury vapors and dust containing lead and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels were correlated with steps and processes. • All the stages and processes are concerned by worrying levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m{sup 3}, 15.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 14.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 247.6 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1 mg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 219.2 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees’ skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures.

  1. A review of the evidence for occupational exposure risks to novel anticancer agents - A focus on monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Julie; Alexander, Marliese; Byrne, Jenny; MacMillan, Kent; Mollo, Adele; Kirsa, Sue; Green, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Evidence of occupational exposure risks to novel anticancer agents is limited and yet to be formally evaluated from the Australian healthcare perspective. From March to September 2013 medical databases, organizational policies, drug monographs, and the World Wide Web were searched for evidence relating to occupational exposure to monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, gene therapies, and other unclassified novel anticancer agents. Australian legislation, national and international guidelines, and drug company information excluded novel agents or provided inconsistent risk assessments and safe handling recommendations. Monoclonal antibody guidelines reported conflicting information and were often divergent with available evidence and pharmacologic rationale demonstrating minimal internalisation ability and occupational exposure risk. Despite similar physiochemical, pharmacologic, and internalisation properties to monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins were included in only a minority of guidelines. Clinical directives for the safe handling of gene therapies and live vaccines were limited, where available focusing on prevention against exposure and cross-contamination. Although mechanistically different, novel small molecule agents (proteasome inhibitors), possess similar physiochemical and internalisation properties to traditional cytotoxic agents warranting cytotoxic classification and handling. Novel agents are rapidly emerging into clinical practice, and healthcare personnel have few resources to evaluate risk and provide safety recommendations. Novel agents possess differing physical, molecular and pharmacological profiles compared to traditional cytotoxic anticancer agents. Evaluation of occupational exposure risk should consider both toxicity and internalisation. Evidence-based guidance able to direct safe handling practices for novel anticancer agents across a variety of clinical settings is urgently required. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Effects of Occupational Noise Exposure on 24-Hour Ambulatory Vascular Properties in Male Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Su, Ta-Chen; Lin, Shou-Yu; Jain, Ruei-Man; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that occupational noise exposure is associated with hypertension, but the related mechanism in vascular structural changes is unclear. Objective This panel study aimed to investigate effects of occupational noise exposure on ambulatory vascular structural properties in male workers. Methods We recruited 20 volunteers and divided them into a high-noise–exposure group of 15 and a low-noise–exposure group of 5 based on environmental noise measur...

  3. Lead exposure in US worksites: A literature review and development of an occupational lead exposure database from the published literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Locke, Sarah J.; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Purdue, Mark P.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retrospective exposure assessment of occupational lead exposure in population-based studies requires historical exposure information from many occupations and industries. Methods We reviewed published US exposure monitoring studies to identify lead exposure measurement data. We developed an occupational lead exposure database from the 175 identified papers containing 1,111 sets of lead concentration summary statistics (21% area air, 47% personal air, 32% blood). We also extracted ancillary exposure-related information, including job, industry, task/location, year collected, sampling strategy, control measures in place, and sampling and analytical methods. Results Measurements were published between 1940 and 2010 and represented 27 2-digit standardized industry classification codes. The majority of the measurements were related to lead-based paint work, joining or cutting metal using heat, primary and secondary metal manufacturing, and lead acid battery manufacturing. Conclusions This database can be used in future statistical analyses to characterize differences in lead exposure across time, jobs, and industries. PMID:25968240

  4. The economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma due to occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; Kalcevich, Christina; McLeod, Chris; Lebeau, Martin; Song, Chaojie; McLeod, Kim; Kim, Joanne; Demers, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    To estimate the economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma due to occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure in Canada. We estimate the lifetime cost of newly diagnosed lung cancer and mesothelioma cases associated with occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure for calendar year 2011 based on the societal perspective. The key cost components considered are healthcare costs, productivity and output costs, and quality of life costs. There were 427 cases of newly diagnosed mesothelioma cases and 1904 lung cancer cases attributable to asbestos exposure in 2011 for a total of 2331 cases. Our estimate of the economic burden is $C831 million in direct and indirect costs for newly identified cases of mesothelioma and lung cancer and $C1.5 billion in quality of life costs based on a value of $C100 000 per quality-adjusted life year. This amounts to $C356 429 and $C652 369 per case, respectively. The economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma associated with occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure is substantial. The estimate identified is for 2331 newly diagnosed, occupational and para-occupational exposure cases in 2011, so it is only a portion of the burden of existing cases in that year. Our findings provide important information for policy decision makers for priority setting, in particular the merits of banning the mining of asbestos and use of products containing asbestos in countries where they are still allowed and also the merits of asbestos removal in older buildings with asbestos insulation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. 78 FR 45981 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office... requirements specified in the Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard (29 CFR 1910.95). The information... Standard requires employers to: Monitor worker exposure to noise when it is likely that such exposures may...

  6. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and sex-differential risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries.......The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries....

  7. Diazepam influences urinary bioindicator of occupational toluene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Alberto Thalison; Albuquerque, Ana Carolina Campos; Lepera, José Salvador; Martins, Isarita

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the influence of diazepam (DZP) on the excretion of TOL by examining their urinary metabolites, hippuric acid (HA) and ortho-cresol (o-C). Male Wistar rats were exposed to TOL (20ppm) in a nose-only exposure chamber (6h/day, 5days/week for 6 weeks) with simultaneous administration of DZP (10mg/kg/day). Urinary o-C levels were determined by GC-MS, while HA, creatinine (CR), DZP and its metabolite, nordiazepam, were analysed by HPLC-DAD. The results of a Mann-Whitney U test showed that DZP influenced the urinary excretion of o-C (p<0.05). This pioneering study revealed that there was an interaction between DZP and TOL, probably by the inhibition of the CYP isoforms (CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2E1, and CYP1A2) involved in the oxidative metabolism of the solvent. This is relevant information to be considered in the biomonitoring of occupational toluene exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezewska, Anna; Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Woźnica, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector) test method. The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency), the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health.

  9. Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jeżewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. Material and Methods: The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector test method. Results: The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency, the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. Conclusions: The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health. Med Pr 2014;65(1:33–41

  10. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6.......6-3.1 PCE/pry and 6.0-6.9 MCE/pry). Finally Pathology, Internal medicine, Radiology and Paediatrics had a considerable risk (0.8-1.3 PCE/pry and 1.3-2.9 MCE/pry). Potential risk factors were examined by Poisson regression. Employment as senior as compared to junior doctor was associated with a higher risk...... of PCE (RR 2.2) and MCE (RR up to 2.7 depending on experience) among surgeons and an increased risk of PCE in anaesthetists (RR 1.7). In contrast, senior physicians in Internal medicine, Radiology and Paediatrics had a several fold lower risk of PCE (RR 0.6) and MCE (RR 0.6 in males, 0.3 in females...

  11. Risk assessment and management of occupational exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, M; Fait, A; Colosio, C

    1999-06-30

    Occupational exposure to pesticides in agriculture and public health applications may cause acute and long-term health effects. Prevention of adverse effects in the users requires actions to be undertaken in the pre-marketing and post-marketing phase of these products. The pre-marketing preventive actions are primary responsibility of industry and the public administration. Admission of pesticide use (registration) is carried out by considering the toxicological properties of each pesticide (hazard identification), determining the dose-response relationship (NOEL identification), assessing or predicting the exposure level in the various scenarios of their use, and characterising the risk. The decision about admission takes into consideration the balance between risks and benefits. The post-marketing preventive activities consist of the promotion of a proper risk management at the workplace. Such a management includes the risk assessment of the specific conditions of use, the adoption of proper work practices, and the health surveillance of the workers. Each country should develop an adequate National Plan for Prevention of Pesticide Risk which allocates different roles and tasks at the central, regional and local level.

  12. Setting evidence-based occupational exposure limits for manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Ruth; Ashdown, Lini; McGough, Doreen; Huici-Montagud, Alicia; Levy, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    In 2004, a review by the Institute of Environment and Health (IEH) made recommendations on occupational exposure limits (OELs) for manganese and its inorganic compounds for inhalable and respirable fractions respectively. These OELs were based on a detailed comprehensive evaluation of all the scientific data available at that time. Since then, more published studies have become available and a number of occupational standard-setting committees (EU SCOEL, US ACGIH-TLV, and German MAK) have proposed OEL's for manganese and its inorganic compounds that are somewhat lower that those proposed in the 2004 review. Based on current understanding, the key toxicological and human health issues that are likely to influence a health-based recommendation relate to: neurotoxicology; reproductive and developmental toxicology; and mutagenicity/carcinogenicity. Of these, it is generally considered that neurotoxicity presents the most sensitive endpoint. As such, many of the studies that have been reported since the IEH review have sought to use those neurofunctional tests that appear to be particularly sensitive at identifying the subtle neurological changes thought to associate with manganese toxicity. These recent studies have, however, continued to be limited to a significant extent by reliance on cross-sectional designs and also by use of unreliable exposure estimation methods. Consequently the strength of the potential association between manganese exposure and these subtle subclinical cognitive or neuromotor changes is still poorly characterised and the relevance of these minor differences in terms of either their clinical or quality of life consequences remains unknown. Based upon the overall evidence, it is concluded that the 8-h time weighted averages (TWA) for respirable (0.05mg/m 3 as Mn) and inhalable (0.2mg/m 3 as Mn) fractions as recommended by the SCOEL in 2011 are the most methodologically-sound, as they are based on the best available studies, most suited to the

  13. Statistical Methods and Software for the Analysis of Occupational Exposure Data with Non-detectable Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frome, EL

    2005-09-20

    Environmental exposure measurements are, in general, positive and may be subject to left censoring; i.e,. the measured value is less than a ''detection limit''. In occupational monitoring, strategies for assessing workplace exposures typically focus on the mean exposure level or the probability that any measurement exceeds a limit. Parametric methods used to determine acceptable levels of exposure, are often based on a two parameter lognormal distribution. The mean exposure level, an upper percentile, and the exceedance fraction are used to characterize exposure levels, and confidence limits are used to describe the uncertainty in these estimates. Statistical methods for random samples (without non-detects) from the lognormal distribution are well known for each of these situations. In this report, methods for estimating these quantities based on the maximum likelihood method for randomly left censored lognormal data are described and graphical methods are used to evaluate the lognormal assumption. If the lognormal model is in doubt and an alternative distribution for the exposure profile of a similar exposure group is not available, then nonparametric methods for left censored data are used. The mean exposure level, along with the upper confidence limit, is obtained using the product limit estimate, and the upper confidence limit on an upper percentile (i.e., the upper tolerance limit) is obtained using a nonparametric approach. All of these methods are well known but computational complexity has limited their use in routine data analysis with left censored data. The recent development of the R environment for statistical data analysis and graphics has greatly enhanced the availability of high-quality nonproprietary (open source) software that serves as the basis for implementing the methods in this paper.

  14. Occupational exposure to indium: what does biomonitoring tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoet, Perrine; De Graef, Emmy; Swennen, Bert; Seminck, Théo; Yakoub, Yousof; Deumer, Gladys; Haufroid, Vincent; Lison, Dominique

    2012-08-13

    The industrial uses of indium, a rare metal with no known physiological role in humans, have increased dramatically over the past 15 years. The results of animal toxicity studies showing pulmonary and systemic effects as well as some reports in workers have created a growing concern about the possible occurrence of toxic effects in exposed workers. Validated biomarkers to assess exposure to indium are not available. This work aimed at investigating the kinetics of indium in urine (In-U) and plasma (In-Pl) in workers manufacturing In ingots and mainly exposed to hardly water-soluble In compounds. All nine workers from the In department of a large metallurgical concern participated in the study as well as 5 retired workers and 20 controls. Personal breathing zone air was collected throughout the work shift on Monday and Friday. Blood and urine samples were collected, before and after the shift, on the same day as the air sampling and on preshift the next Monday after a non-working week-end. Moreover, rats were given either InCl(3) by intraperitoneal injection or In(2)O(3) by pharyngeal aspiration, In was followed in plasma during 120 days and measured in tissues 120 days after exposure. Higher In-Pl and In-U concentrations were found in both current (range 0.32-12.61 μg/L plasma; 0.22-3.50 μg/g creat) and former (0.03-4.38 μg/L plasma; 0.02-0.69 μg/g creat) workers compared with controls (<0.03 μg/L plasma; <0.02 μg/g creat). Both biological parameters were highly correlated but no correlation was found between In-air (10-1030 μg/m(3)) and In-Pl or In-U. Normalizing In-U by the urinary creatinine concentration reduced the inter- (from 90% to 70%) and intra-individual variability (from 54% to 35%). In-Pl remained remarkably stable along the working week (inter- and intra-individual variability: 89% and 10%, respectively). Neither In-U nor In-Pl significantly increased during the day or the week. A week-end without occupational exposure was not sufficient to

  15. Use of job-exposure matrices to estimate occupational exposure to pesticides: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, Camille; Bouvier, Ghislaine; Lebailly, Pierre; Baldi, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    The health effects of pesticides have been extensively studied in epidemiology, mainly in agricultural populations. However, pesticide exposure assessment remains a key methodological issue for epidemiological studies. Besides self-reported information, expert assessment or metrology, job-exposure matrices still appear to be an interesting tool. We reviewed all existing matrices assessing occupational exposure to pesticides in epidemiological studies and described the exposure parameters they included. We identified two types of matrices, (i) generic ones that are generally used in case-control studies and document broad categories of pesticides in a large range of jobs, and (ii) specific matrices, developed for use in agricultural cohorts, that generally provide exposure metrics at the active ingredient level. The various applications of these matrices in epidemiological studies have proven that they are valuable tools to assess pesticide exposure. Specific matrices are particularly promising for use in agricultural cohorts. However, results obtained with matrices have rarely been compared with those obtained with other tools. In addition, the external validity of the given estimates has not been adequately discussed. Yet, matrices would help in reducing misclassification and in quantifying cumulated exposures, to improve knowledge about the chronic health effects of pesticides.

  16. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Zachi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 ± 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 ± 0.9 µg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05. In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03. The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  17. Simulation of annual electric lighting demand using various occupancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the effect on electric lighting demand of applying occupancy models of various resolution to climate-based daylight modelling. The lighting demand was evaluated for a building zone with the occupant always present, with occupancy corresponding to absence f...

  18. [Prevalence of exposure to occupational risks in pregnant Spanish workers (the INMA Project-Valencia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Galarzo, M Carmen; García, Ana M; Estarlich, Marisa; García García, Francisco; Esplugues, Ana; Rodríguez, Paz; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran

    2009-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of exposure to occupational risks among pregnant women and analyze its relationship with personal and occupational characteristics using information collected in the Childhood and Environment (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA])-Valencia cohort study. The INMA-Valencia cohort study started in 2004 with 855 pregnant women living in Valencia, Spain. Data on sociodemographic variables (age, education and country of birth) and occupational conditions (activity, occupation, type of contract, working hours and self-reported occupational exposure to physical load and psychosocial, physical, chemical and biological risks) in women with paid employment during pregnancy (n=649) were collected through face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire in week 32 of pregnancy. The prevalences of reported exposure to physical and psychosocial load and to physical pollutants (including non-ionizing radiations) were 56%, 63% and 62%, respectively. The prevalence of reported exposure to chemicals (including cleaning products) and biological pollutants was 22% and 6%, respectively. In general, the characteristics most closely associated with exposure to occupational risks were younger age, non-Spanish nationality, lower education, having a temporary contract or being self-employed. This study is the first to quantify the prevalence of exposure to occupational risks during pregnancy in a Spanish population-based sample. According to the data observed, surveillance and control actions should be intensified in pregnant workers, as some of the observed occupational exposures have been consistently associated with detrimental reproductive and developmental effects.

  19. Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2014-01-01

    -term occupational noise exposure and cortisol level measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational noise exposure levels were recorded every 5s by personal...... at the ear 77.7dB(A) [range: 55.0-94.2]. In linear and mixed regression models that adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, personal income, BMI, leisure-time noise exposure level, time since occupational noise exposure ceased, awakening time, and time of saliva sampling, we...

  20. Relation between colour vision loss and occupational styrene exposure level

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Y; Kishi, R.; Katakura, Y; Tsukishima, E; Fujiwara, K.; Kasai, S; Satoh, T.; Sata, F; Kawai, T.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relation between colour vision loss and the exposure level of styrene. Exposure level included the current exposure concentration, past cumulative exposure, and the maximum exposure level in the past.

  1. Information profiles on potential occupational hazards: nitrophenols. Draft report (Second)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    Information profiles are presented for the following nitrophenols: 2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol. The mononitrophenols were moderately toxic to animals, causing initial stimulation and subsequent depression of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Positive results were obtained in several mutagenicity assays for 3-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol. 2,4,-Dinitrophenol was far more acutely toxic than other important nitrophenol derivatives. It was able to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation by suppressing the coupling of electron flow to synthesis of adenosine triphosphatase. It caused weakness, intense thirst and sweating, increased body temperature and respiration rate, neuritis, convulsions, and the rapid onset of rigor mortis after death. It has also caused cataracts in humans when used as a weight-reducing aid. Inhalation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol has caused considerable irritation to the eyes and to the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. Dermal exposure has produced severe skin irritation and sensitization.

  2. 75 FR 24746 - Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard; Extension of the Office... requirements specified in the Occupational Exposure to Noise Standard. The information collection requirements...; maintaining records of workplace noise exposure and workers' audiograms; and allowing workers, OSHA, and NIOSH...

  3. Evaluation of decompression safety in an occupational diving group using self reported diving exposure and health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolette, D J; Gorman, D F

    2003-06-01

    Many occupational diving groups have substantially different diving patterns to those for which decompression schedules are validated. To evaluate tuna farm occupational diving practice against existing decompression models and describe a method for collecting and modelling self reported field decompression data. Machine readable objective depth/time profiles were obtained from depth/time recorders worn by tuna farm occupational divers. Divers' health status was measured at the end of each working day using a self administered health survey that produces an interval diver health score (DHS) with possible values ranging from 0 to 30. Depth/time profiles were analysed according to existing decompression models. The contribution of diving exposure and between diver variability to DHS was evaluated using linear regression. The mean risk of decompression sickness was calculated as 0.005 (SD 0.003, n = 383). The mean DHS following diving was 3 (SD 2, n = 383) and following non-diving activities was 1 (SD 1, n = 41). After accounting for between diver variability in intercept, DHS was found to increase one unit for every 1% increase in the risk of decompression sickness. A method has been established for the collection and analysis of self reported objective decompression data from occupational diving groups that can potentially be used as the basis for development of purpose designed occupational diving decompression schedules.

  4. Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    and Midlife Biobank with a job exposure matrix and a national register containing information on social transfer payment. By coding individual job histories from the Danish version of ISCO-codes (International Standard Classification of Occupations), we calculated cumulative occupational mechanical exposures......-regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results: During the follow-up period...

  5. Occupational exposure to radio frequency/microwave radiation and the risk of brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Spallek, Jacob; Schüz, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    It is still under debate whether occupational exposure to radio frequency/microwave electromagnetic fields (RF/MW-EMF) contributes to the development of brain tumors. This analysis examined the role of occupational RF/MW-EMF exposure in the risk of glioma and meningioma. A population-based, case....... No significant association between occupational exposure to RF/MW-EMF and brain tumors was found. For glioma, the adjusted odds ratio for highly exposed persons compared with persons not highly exposed was 1.21 (95% confidence interval: 0.69, 2.13); for meningioma, it was 1.34 (95% confidence interval: 0.64, 2...

  6. Information profiles on potential occupational hazards: Phthalates. Draft report (Second)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    Information profiles are presented for these phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, dimethyl phthalate, ditridecyl phthalate, diundecyl phthalate, N-dexy-N-decyl phthalate and mixed dialkyl (C7 to C11) phthalates. In general, the phthalates had a low order of acute toxicity. Histological damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys was associated with acute oral and/or intraperitoneal exposures to some of the compounds. Others have caused slight skin and eye irritation. Repeated oral exposure to many of the esters resulted in liver and/or kidney damage. Ingestion of di-n-butyl phthalate in humans caused nausea, dizziness, photophobia, lacrimation and conjunctivitis. Patients receiving blood stored in polyvinvyl chloride bags that contained residual di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate suffered a respiratory distress syndrome called shock lung. Neurological effects have been reported in workers exposed to a mixture of phthalate esters in production vapors. Epidemiological studies of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate showed no adverse health effects.

  7. Renal cancer risk and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Stewart, Patricia A.; Zaridze, David; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Gromiec, Jan P.; Sobotka, Roman; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and certain plastic monomers increased renal cell carcinomas (RCC) risk. Methods Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate RCC risk in relation to exposure. Results No association between RCC risk and having ever been occupationally exposed to any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or plastics was observed. Duration of exposure and average exposure also showed no association with risk. Suggestive positive associations between RCC risk and cumulative exposure to styrene (P-trend = 0.02) and acrylonitrile (P-trend = 0.06) were found. Cumulative exposure to petroleum/gasoline engine emissions was inversely associated with risk (P-trend = 0.02). Conclusions Results indicate a possible association between occupational styrene and acrylonitrile exposure and RCC risk. Additional studies are needed to replicate findings, as this is the first time these associations have been reported and they may be due to chance. PMID:21270648

  8. A task-based assessment of parental occupational exposure to pesticides and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunier, Robert B; Kang, Alice; Hammond, S Katharine; Reinier, Kyndaron; Lea, C Suzanne; Chang, Jeffrey S; Does, Monique; Scelo, Ghislaine; Kirsch, Janice; Crouse, Vonda; Cooper, Robert; Quinlan, Patricia; Metayer, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    Associations between parental occupational pesticide exposure and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) vary across studies, likely due to different exposure assessment methodologies. We assessed parental occupational pesticide exposure from the year before pregnancy to the child's third year of life for 669 children diagnosed with ALL and 1021 controls. We conducted expert rating using task-based job modules (JM) to estimate exposure to pesticides among farmer workers, gardeners, agricultural packers, and pesticide applicators. We compared this method to (1) partial JM using job titles and a brief description, but without completing the task-based questionnaire, and (2) job exposure matrix (JEM) linking job titles to the International Standard Classifications of Occupation Codes. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for ALL cancer risk and pesticide exposure adjusting for child's sex, age, race/ethnicity and household income. Compared to complete JMs, partial JMs and JEM led to 3.1% and 9.4% of parents with pesticide exposure misclassified, respectively. Misclassification was similar in cases and controls. Using complete JMs, we observed an increased risk of ALL for paternal occupational exposure to any pesticides (OR=1.7; 95% CI=1.2, 2.5), with higher risks reported for pesticides to treat nut crops (OR=4.5; 95% CI=0.9, 23.0), and for children diagnosed before five years of age (OR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Exposure misclassification from JEM attenuated these associations by about 57%. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure before and after birth was not associated with ALL. The risk of ALL was elevated in young children with paternal occupational pesticide exposure during the perinatal period, using more detailed occupational information for exposure classification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of considering non-occupational radiation exposure on the association between occupational dose and solid cancer among French nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Lucie; Cléro, Enora; Samson, Eric; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Laurier, Dominique; Leuraud, Klervi

    2017-10-21

    The French nuclear worker cohort allows for the assessment of cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure, but workers are also exposed to medical and environmental radiation which can be of the same order of magnitude. This study aims to examine the impact of non-occupational radiation exposures on the dose-risk analysis between occupational radiation exposure and cancer mortality. The cohort included workers employed before 1995 for at least one year by CEA, AREVA NC or EDF and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure. Monitoring results were used to calculate occupational individual doses. Scenarios of work-related X-ray and environmental exposures were simulated. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between occupational exposure and cancer mortality adjusting for non-occupational radiation exposure. The mean cumulative dose of external occupational radiation was 18.4 mSv among 59 004 workers. Depending on the hypotheses made, the mean cumulative work-related X-ray dose varied between 3.1 and 9.2 mSv and the mean cumulative environmental dose was around 130 mSv. The unadjusted excess relative rate of cancer per Sievert (ERR/Sv) was 0.34 (90% CI -0.44 to 1.24). Adjusting for environmental radiation exposure did not substantially modify this risk coefficient, but it was attenuated by medical exposure (ERR/Sv point estimate between 0.15 and 0.23). Occupational radiation risk estimates were lower when adjusted for work-related X-ray exposures. Environmental exposures had a very slight impact on the occupational exposure risk estimates. In any scenario of non-occupational exposure considered, a positive but insignificant excess cancer risk associated with occupational exposure was observed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. 77 FR 16865 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Occupational Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Noise Exposure AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for public comments... extension of an existing information collection, OMB Control Number 1219-0120, Occupational Noise Exposure... originally titled ``Noise exposure assessment; audiometric testing, evaluation, and records and training in...

  11. Occupational Exposure to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes During Commercial Production Synthesis and Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Eelco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411290088; Bekker, Cindy|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357974484; Fransman, Wouter; Brouwer, Derk; Tromp, Peter; Vlaanderen, Jelle|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31403160X; Godderis, Lode; Hoet, Peter; Lan, Qing; Silverman, Debra; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Pronk, Anjoeka

    The world-wide production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has increased substantially in the last decade, leading to occupational exposures. There is a paucity of exposure data of workers involved in the commercial production of CNTs. The goals of this study were to assess personal exposure to

  12. Pro Et Con Analysis Of Occupational Exposure Assessement Tools And Concepts For nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Alstrup Jensen, Keld

    of the tools (input data requirements, exposure evaluation and handling to reduce exposure) as well as specific pros and cons. Most of the tools provide a transparent and comprehensible approach to assess occupational exposure, but the majority of them are based on purely qualitative considerations about...

  13. Occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases and high-frequency audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgianni, Concetto; Gangemi, Silvia; Tanzariello, Maria Giuseppina; Barresi, Gaetano; Miceli, Ludovica; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Spatari, Giovanna

    2015-09-01

    Occupational exposure to anaestethic gases has been suggested to induce auditory damages. The aim of this study is to investigate high-frequency audiometric responses in subjects exposed to anaesthetic gases, in order to highlight the possible effects on auditory system. The study was performed on a sample of 30 medical specialists of Messina University Anaesthesia and Intensive care. We have used tonal audiometry as well as high-frequency one. We have compared the responses with those obtained in a similar control group not exposed to anaesthetic gases. Results were compared statistically. Results show a strong correlation (p = 0.000) between left and right ear responses to all the audiometric tests. The exposed and the control group run though the standard audiometry analysis plays different audiometric responses up only to higher frequencies (2000 HZ p = 0.009 and 4000 Hz p = 0.04); in high-frequency audiometry, as all other frequencies, the attention is drew to the fact that the sample groups distinguish themselves in a significantly statistic way (10,000 Hz p = 0.025, 12,000 Hz p = 0.008, 14,000 Hz p = 0.026, 16,000 Hz p = 0.08). The highest values are the ones related to exposed subjects both in standard (2000 Hz p = 0.01, 4000 Hz p = 0.02) and in high-frequency audiometry (10,000 Hz p = 0.011, 12,000 Hz p = 0.004, 14,000 Hz p = 0.012, 16,000 Hz p = 0.004). Results, even if preliminary and referred to a low-range sample, show an involvement of the anatomic structure responsible for the perception of high-frequency audiometric responses in subjects exposed to anaesthetic gases. © The Author(s) 2012.

  14. [ASSESSMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO RADIO FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniołczyk, Halina; Mariańska, Magda; Mamrot, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    European Union Directive 2013/35/UE provides for the implementation of EU regulations into national legislation. Our aim is to assess actual health hazards from radiofrequency eldctromagnetic field (RF EMF) (range: 100 kHz - 300 GHz) and indicate workplaces with the highest risk to employee health. Data from measurements of RF EMF performed by the Laboratory of Electromagnetic Hazards in Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Łódź, Poland) were analyzed. The analysis covered the results of electric field intensity (E) for over 450 selected items. The ranges of protection zones and the extent to which maximum admissible intensity (MAI) values were also analyzed. The determinations and'measurements of EMF in the work environment met the requirements of Polish Standard, while Polish regulations on the MAI values were used as the criterion for the assessment of the exposure. The highest values of E field intensity at workplaces were measured for: electrosurgery, to 400 V/m, and short-wave diathermy units, to 220 V/m, dielectric welders to 240 V/m, within the FM radio antenna systems, to 180 V/m. The widest protection zones were noted for prototype research instruments, short-wave diathermy units, and dielectric welders. The most excessive (up to 12-fold MAI) values were recorded for dielectric welders, short-wave diathermy units (up to 11-fold) and microwave diathermy units (up to 8-fold). Our results have confirmed the high RF EMF values for physiotherapists, operators of dielectric welders, and mast maintenance workers in radio com munication facilities (especially radio and TV broadcasting stations).

  15. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  16. Occupational exposure during application and removal of antifouling paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, I.; Jagt, K.E.V.D.; Christopher, Y.; Lurvink, M.; Schinkel, J.; Tielemans, E.; Hemmen, J.J.V.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure data on biocides are relatively rare in published literature, especially for secondary exposure. This is also the case for antifouling exposure. Therefore, a field study was carried out measuring exposure to antifouling paints. Both primary exposure (rolling and spraying) and secondary

  17. Airborne Isocyanate Exposures in the Collision Repair Industry and a Comparison to Occupational Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Ceballos, Diana M.; Weiland, Elisa C.; Flack, Sheila L.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Gaines, Linda G. Trelles; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2014-01-01

    Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 μg/m3 for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 μg NCO/m3 for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UKHSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OROSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or

  18. Inguinal hernia repair among men in relation to occupational mechanical exposures and lifestyle factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Marie Vestergaard; Frost, Poul; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate exposure-response relationships between occupational mechanical exposures and first-time lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair and effects of lifestyle factors. To estimate if occupational mechanical exposures advance the repairs. METHODS: This longitudinal study...... was based on a cohort of men aged 18-65 years with questionnaire data from the Musculoskeletal Research Database at the Danish Ramazzini Centre. We estimated occupational mechanical exposures using a job exposure matrix. First-time inguinal hernia repairs from 1998 to 2014 were identified in the Danish...... showed lower HRs for both repair types. Leisure-time physical activity and smoking status were not related to any of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Assuming a causal relationship, the results suggest that around 30% of all first-time lateral inguinal hernia repairs in the highest exposure category would...

  19. Environmental and Occupational Exposure to Nickel in Iran: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Tavakkoli

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Considering the high nickel contamination in some industrial workers, it seems necessary to do regular surveillance in these occupational groups and avoid unnecessary exposure to nickel as much as possible. Also, safer dental material should be used in orthodontics.

  20. Attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a Southeastern city of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo

    2007-07-01

    Noise is the most frequent type of occupational exposure and can lead to both auditory and extra-auditory dysfunction as well as increasing the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil. In this hospital-based case-control study, including 600 cases and 822 controls, the odds ratio of work accidents (controlled for several covariables) was obtained classifying occupational noise exposure into four levels and determining the prevalence at each level. Based on these data, the calculated attributable fraction was 0.3041 (95%CI: 0.2341-0.3676), i.e., 30% of work accidents in the study area were statistically associated with occupational noise exposure. The authors discuss the causes of this association and the implications for the prevention of work accidents.

  1. Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Le Moual, Nicole; Kennedy, Susan M; Kauffmann, Francine

    2004-01-01

    The association of asthma with occupational exposures was studied in 14,151 adults, aged 25-59 years, from the general population of the 1975 French Pollution Atmospherique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques (PAARC) Survey...

  2. The effect of male occupational exposure in infertile couples in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens, A; Krüger, K; Ulstein, M

    1999-12-01

    The objective of the study was to assess whether reduced semen quality in infertile couples is associated with occupational exposures known to be hazardous to fertility. Results of the first semen analysis were linked to occupational exposure data from a self-administered questionnaire. Reduced semen quality was found in men exposed to electromagnetic fields (odds ratio, 3.22; confidence interval, 1.46 to 7.09). A tendency toward reduced semen quality was seen in commuters (OR, 1.52; CI, 0.89 to 2.59), shift workers (OR, 1.46; CI, 0.89 to 2.40), and men exposed to heavy metals (OR, 1.47; CI, 0.76 to 2.87). In general, the impact of occupational exposure on semen quality in infertile couples in Norway seemed to be minor. However, occupational exposure mapping is still important in individual infertility investigations.

  3. 75 FR 80819 - Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin “Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin... risks. A draft Current Intelligence Bulletin entitled ``Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and..., telephone number, and relevant business affiliations of the presenter, topic of the presentation, and ] the...

  4. Occupational accidents with exposure to biological material: Description of cases in Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técia Maria Santos Carneiro e Cordeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: This study is included in the field of public health in Brazil, in particular occupational health, by the occupational accidents with exposure to biological material consists of a preventable injury. Thus, the objective was to describe risk factors the of occupational accidents with exposure to biological material and the conduct postexposure adopted notified of cases in Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN in the State of Bahia in 2012. Methods: This is a descriptive epidemiological study realized with data from the injuries of notifications SINAN in February 2013, the analysis was realized using descriptive statistics in absolute frequencies and relative. Results: The results indicate a higher occurrence of occupational accidents involving exposure to biological materials in Bahia in the female population (78.1% and aged between 30-49 years (51.5%; the blood was fluid larger contact in accidents 75.2% by percutaneous (71.5%; post-exposure procedures were adopted in accordance recommended by the Ministry of Health; divers information were not fulfilled in the notifications and only 23.8% of Occupational Accidents Comunication (CAT were issued. Conclusion: It is considered necessary to draw up strategies on occupational health and safety, consciousness of workers about the relevance of the measures adopted after occupational accidents with exposure to biological material and the training of professionals for case notification and research to fill all the fields of the notification form and also the issuance of CAT.

  5. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD:A DANISH POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Würtz, Else Toft

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF).The thesis addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years.4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. CO...

  6. Assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals by air sampling for comparison with limit values: the influence of sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Frédéric; Vincent, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    This study was aimed at quantifying the impact of sampling duration and the number of measurements taken on the quality of assessing occupational exposure to toluene. To this end, a measurement database was built, based on four campaigns carried out in an industrial printing facility. Five homogeneous exposure groups (HEGs) were set up and between 120 and 290 individual measurements lasting from 2 to 8 h were collected for each of them. These measurements were performed with the objective of comparing them to the 8-h Occupational Exposure Limit (8-h OEL). The resulting data were used to define a reference exposure profile per HEG: the 'gold standard'. This exposure profile corresponds to a log-normal distribution of measurements from which compliance/non-compliance with the 8-h OEL decision is derived. To simulate the possible sampling strategies used by industrial hygienists, six scenarios were defined, each containing a different number of measurements: 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, and 12 measurements performed per HEG, over different working days and different seasons of the year. The measurement values per scenario were simulated by sampling from the real measurement per HEG. For each scenario, 1000 simulated exposure profiles and corresponding simulated compliance decisions were computed. They were compared to the gold standard compliance decision using statistical indicators. Three methods were used for computing the simulated compliance decision: (i) the 95th percentile must be lower than the 8-h OEL, (ii) the exceedance fraction with respect to the 8-h OEL must be <0.1% (as defined by standard CEN 689, Appendix D), and (iii) the 70% upper confidence limit of the exceedance fraction with respect to the 8-h OEL must be <5% (as defined by French regulations). The results show that exposure assessment quality increases with both the number of measurements and sampling duration when using the 95th percentile and exposure assessment based on French regulations, whereas it

  7. Occupational Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in a Portuguese Poultry Slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Susana; Veiga, Luísa; Almeida, Ana; dos Santos, Mateus; Carolino, Elisabete; Viegas, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a secondary metabolite produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and is the most potent hepatocarcinogen known in mammals and has been classified by the International Agency of Research on Cancer as Group 1 carcinogen. Although dietary exposure to AFB1 has been extensively documented, there are still few studies dedicated to the problem of occupational exposure. Considering recent findings regarding AFB1 occupational exposure in poultry production, it was considered relevant to clarify if there is also exposure in poultry slaughterhouses. Occupational exposure assessment to AFB1 was done with a biomarker of internal dose that measures AFB1 in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty workers from a slaughterhouse were enrolled in this study. A control group (n = 30) was also considered in order to know AFB1 background levels for Portuguese population. Fourteen workers (47.0%) showed detectable levels of AFB1 with values from 1.06 to 4.03ng ml(-1), with a mean value of 1.73ng ml(-1). No AFB1 was detected in serum of individuals used as controls. Despite uncertainties regarding the exposure route that is contributing more to exposure (inhalation or dermal) is possible to state that exposure to AFB1 is occurring in the slaughterhouse studied. It seems that reducing AFB1 contamination in poultry production can have a positive result in this occupational setting. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  8. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and risk of congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Garne, Ester

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure to organic solvents during the 1st trimester of pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies. Organic solvents are also used in the home environments in paint products, but no study has investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population.......Occupational exposure to organic solvents during the 1st trimester of pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies. Organic solvents are also used in the home environments in paint products, but no study has investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population....

  9. Risks of phthalate exposure among the general population: implications for occupational health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Victoria M; McCauley, Linda A

    2007-01-01

    Personal care items including lotions, perfumes, deodorants, shampoos, and cosmetics are sources of phthalate exposure. Women of childbearing age, children, and beauty salon workers are at greater risk for exposure. Occupational health nurses are in an ideal position to rally support for improved regulatory laws and for funding of evidence-based research that will reduce phthalate exposures and improve client health. Occupational health nurses must support the establishment and implementation of procedures for workplace safety inspections among susceptible populations. Information regarding reduction of overall phthalate exposure must be available for clients. Resources like phthalate-free product lists can be valuable tools in helping clients make informed decisions about alternatives to phthalates.

  10. Evaluation of Occupational Exposures at Compost Production Facilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ott, Darrin

    2001-01-01

    ..., and other typical occupational health tools to build control programs around. Assessment of the effectiveness of workplace hazard control practices were made by air sampling where feasible or other means if not, i.e...

  11. Occupational exposures and health outcomes among Latina hotel cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended.

  12. Medical radiation exposure and its impact on occupational practices in Korean radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seul Ki; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The use of radiology examinations in medicine has been growing worldwide. Annually an estimated 3.1 billion radiologic exams are performed. According to this expansion of medical radiation exposure, it has been hard to pay no attention to the effects of medical radiation exposures in the exposure from different types of radiation source. This study, therefore, was aimed to assess the association of medical and occupational radiation exposure in Korean radiologic technologists and evaluate necessity for its consideration in occupational studies. This study did not show the strong association between medical radiation exposure and occupational radiation exposure except several modalities with specific frequency. These results are preliminary but certainly meaningful for interpretation of epidemiologic finding, therefore, we need further evaluation specially for the repeatedly exposed imaging tests and high dose procedures that presented somewhat weak relationship in this study linked with health outcomes of radiation exposure. This study did not show the strong association between medical radiation exposure and occupational radiation exposure except several modalities with specific frequency. These results are preliminary but certainly meaningful for interpretation of epidemiologic finding, therefore, we need further evaluation specially for the repeatedly exposed imaging tests and high dose procedures that presented somewhat weak relationship in this study linked with health outcomes of radiation exposure.

  13. Surveillance of occupational noise exposures using OSHA's Integrated Management Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middendorf, Paul J

    2004-11-01

    Exposure to noise has long been known to cause hearing loss, and is an ubiquitous problem in workplaces. Occupational noise exposures for industries stored in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) can be used to identify temporal and industrial trends of noise exposure to anticipate changes in rates of hearing loss. The noise records in OSHA's IMIS database for 1979-1999 were extracted by major industry division and measurement criteria. The noise exposures were summarized by year, industry, and employment size. The majority of records are from Manufacturing and Services. Exposures in Manufacturing and Services have decreased during the period, except that PEL exposures measured by federal enforcement increased from 1995 to 1999. Noise exposures in manufacturing have been reduced since the late 1970s, except those documented by federal enforcement. Noise exposure data outside manufacturing is not well represented in IMIS. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Temporal epileptic seizures and occupational exposure to solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, M; Bælum, Jesper; Bonde, J P

    1994-01-01

    exposure to a mixture of organic solvents (mainly cyclohexanone, white spirit, and isopropanol). Epileptic seizures of temporal type were occurring in relation to solvent exposure. The seizures disappeared shortly after stopping exposure but returned just after a short term re-exposure to cyclohexanone...

  15. Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia antibodies and pregnancy outcome in Danish women with occupational exposure to animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsø, Bjørn; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Mølbak, Kåre

    2014-01-01

    unexposed pregnant women were analysed for IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia. Pregnancy outcomes of interest were identified through the Danish National Patient Register. RESULTS: Women with occupational exposure to animals had significantly higher IgG antibody...... to occupational exposure to animals in women exposed to food producing animals. METHODS: We used data and blood samples from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Serum samples collected during the first trimester from 192 pregnant women who were occupationally exposed to domestic animals and 188 randomly selected...

  16. A survey of exposures related to recognized occupational contact dermatitis in Denmark in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Tanja Korfitsen; Ebbehøj, Niels; Agner, Tove

    2014-01-01

    to outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to give an overview of exposures for patients with occupational contact dermatitis in Denmark in 2010, and relate this to line of work and disease severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a descriptive, register-based study including patients...... with recognized occupational contact dermatitis in Denmark in 2010. Data were obtained from the National Board of Industrial Injuries in Denmark, and comprised information about the skin disease as well as the occupation/industry of employment and exposures. RESULTS: One thousand five hundred and four patients...

  17. Assessment of occupational exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Aniołczyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: European Union Directive 2013/35/UE provides for the implementation of EU regulations into national legislation. Our aim is to assess actual health hazards from radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF (range: 100 kHz – 300 GHz and indicate workplaces with the highest risk to employee health. Material and Methods: Data from measurements of RF EMF performed by the Laboratory of Electromagnetic Hazards in Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Łódź, Poland were analyzed. The analysis covered the results of electric field intensity (E for over 450 selected items. The ranges of protection zones and the extent to which maximum admissible intensity (MAI values were also analyzed. The determinations and measurements of EMF in the work environment met the requirements of Polish Standard, while Polish regulations on the MAI values were used as the criterion for the assessment of the exposure. Results: The highest values of E field intensity at workplaces were measured for: electrosurgery, to 400 V/m, and short-wave diathermy units, to 220 V/m, dielectric welders to 240 V/m, within the FM radio antenna systems, to 180 V/m. The widest protection zones were noted for prototype research instruments, short-wave diathermy units, and dielectric welders. The most excessive (up to 12-fold MAI values were recorded for dielectric welders, short-wave diathermy units (up to 11-fold and microwave diathermy units (up to 8-fold. Conclusions: Our results have confirmed the high RF EMF values for physiotherapists, operators of dielectric welders, and mast maintenance workers in radio communication facilities (especially radio and TV broadcasting stations. Med Pr 2015;66(2:199–212

  18. Assessment of health consequences of steel industry welders′ occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zamanian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that the time period of UV exposure in welders is higher than the permissible contact threshold level. Therefore, considering the outbreak of the eye and skin disorders in the welders, decreasing exposure time, reducing UV radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures.

  19. Validity and Reliability of Exposure Assessors’ Ratings of Exposure Intensity by Type of Occupational Questionnaire and Type of Rater

    OpenAIRE

    Friesen, Melissa C.; Coble, Joseph B.; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Lu, Wei; Stewart, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    Background: In epidemiologic studies that rely on professional judgment to assess occupational exposures, the raters’ accurate assessment is vital to detect associations. We examined the influence of the type of questionnaire, type of industry, and type of rater on the raters’ ability to reliably and validly assess within-industry differences in exposure. Our aim was to identify areas where improvements in exposure assessment may be possible.

  20. Occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and lung cancer in Canadian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Sahni, Vanita; Johnson, Kenneth C

    2011-07-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies diesel exhaust as a probable human carcinogen; this decision is based largely from lung cancer evidence. Gasoline exhaust is classified as a possible carcinogen. Epidemiological studies are needed that improve upon some of the limitations of previous research with respect to the characterization of exposure, and the control for the potential confounding influence of smoking and other occupational exposures. Our objective was to investigate associations between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions and lung cancer. We used a case-control study design that involved men 40 years of age and older at the time of interview. Analyses are based on 1681 incident cases of lung cancer and 2,053 population controls. A self-reported questionnaire elicited a lifetime occupational history, including general tasks, and information on other potential risk factors. Occupational exposures to diesel and gasoline emissions, crystalline silica, and asbestos were assigned to each job held by study subjects by industrial hygienists who were blind to case-control status. Exposure metrics for diesel and gasoline emissions that were modeled included: ever exposure, cumulative exposure, and concentration of exposure. We found a dose-response relationship between cumulative occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and lung cancer. This association was more pronounced for the squamous and large cell subtypes with adjusted odds ratios across the three increasing tertiles of cumulative lifetime exposure relative to those with no exposure of 0.99, 1.25, and 1.32 (p=0.04) for squamous cell carcinoma, and 1.06, 1.19, 1.68 (p=0.02) for large cell carcinoma. While the association with cumulative exposure to gasoline was weakly positive, it was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that exposure to diesel engine emissions increases the risk of lung cancer particularly for squamous and large cell

  1. Occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of hay fever in 7-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of allergic diseases including hay fever has increased in the last decades, especially in Westernised countries. The aim of this study was to analyse whether occupational exposure during pregnancy is associated with development of hay fever in 7-year-old Danish children....... METHODS: A total of 42 696 women and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Information on hay fever...... in the child was obtained by an internet questionnaire at follow-up at 7 years of age. RESULTS: Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed no significant association between maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and hay fever among the 7-year-old children. Stratifying for atopic status...

  2. Contribution of job-exposure matrices for exposure assessment in occupational safety and health monitoring systems: application from the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentin, Arnaud; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Paris, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    To detect new hazards ("signals"), occupational health monitoring systems mostly rest on the description of exposures in the jobs held and on reports by medical doctors; these are subject to declarative bias. Our study aims to assess whether job-exposure matrices (JEMs) could be useful tools for signal detection by improving exposure reporting. Using the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network (RNV3P) data from 2001 to 2011, we explored the associations between disease and exposure prevalence for 3 well-known pathology/exposure couples and for one debatable couple. We compared the associations measured when using physicians' reports or applying the JEMs, respectively, for these selected diseases and across non-selected RNV3P population or for cases with musculoskeletal disorders, used as two reference groups; the ratio of exposure prevalences according to the two sources of information were computed for each disease category. Our population contained 58,188 subjects referred with pathologies related to work. Mean age at diagnosis was 45.8 years (95% CI 45.7; 45.9), and 57.2% were men. For experts, exposure ratios increase with knowledge on exposure causality. As expected, JEMs retrieved more exposed cases than experts (exposure ratios between 12 and 194), except for the couple silica/silicosis, but not for the MSD control group (ratio between 0.2 and 0.8). JEMs enhanced the number of exposures possibly linked with some conditions, compared to experts' assessment, relative to the whole database or to a reference group; they are less likely to suffer from declarative bias than reports by occupational health professionals.

  3. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-19

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  4. Complexity of occupational exposures for home health-care workers: nurses vs. home health aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittle, Beverly; Agbonifo, Noma; Suarez, Rassull; Davis, Kermit G; Ballard, Tangela

    2016-11-01

    To identify occupational exposures for home health-care nurses and aides. Home health-care workers' occupational injury rates in the USA are higher than the national average, yet research on causative exposures and hazards is limited. Participants were interviewed about annual frequency of occupational exposures and hazards. Exposure and hazard means were compared between home health-care nurses and aides using a Wilcoxon two-sample test. A majority of the sample was over 40 years old and obese, potentially increasing injury risks. Home health-care nurses performed more clinical tasks, increasing exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Home health-care aides performed more physical tasks with risk for occupational musculoskeletal injuries. They also dispensed oral medications and anti-cancer medications, and were exposed to drug residue at a frequency comparable to home health-care nurses. Both groups were exposed to occupational second-hand smoke. Establishing employee safety-related policies, promoting healthy lifestyle among staff, and making engineered tools readily available to staff can assist in decreasing exposures and hazards. Implications for nursing management include implementation of health-promotion programmes, strategies to reduce exposure to second-hand smoke, ensuring access to and education on assistive and safety devices, and education for all staff on protection against drug residue. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Occupational Exposure to Nano-Objects and Their Agglomerates and Aggregates Across Various Life Cycle Stages; A Broad-Scale Exposure Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Cindy; Kuijpers, Eelco; Brouwer, Derk H; Vermeulen, Roel; Fransman, Wouter

    BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to manufactured nano-objects and their agglomerates, and aggregates (NOAA) has been described in several workplace air monitoring studies. However, data pooling for general conclusions and exposure estimates are hampered by limited exposure data across the

  6. Assessment of management policies and practices for occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens in dialysis facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Panlilio, Adelisa L; Hobbs, Cynthia; Patel, Priti R; Kuhar, David T

    2012-10-01

    Occupational exposure management is an important element in preventing the transmission of bloodborne pathogens in health care settings. In 2008, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a survey to assess procedures for managing occupational bloodborne pathogen exposures in outpatient dialysis facilities in the United States. A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected outpatient dialysis facilities. 339 outpatient dialysis facilities drawn from the 2006 US end-stage renal disease database. Hospital affiliation (free-standing vs hospital-based facilities), profit status (for-profit vs not-for-profit facilities), and number of health care personnel (≥100 vs facilities reporting occupational bloodborne pathogen exposures and offering occupational exposure management services. We analyzed bloodborne pathogen exposures and provision of postexposure prophylaxis by facility type. Nearly all respondents (99.7%) had written policies and 95% provided occupational exposure management services to health care personnel during the daytime on weekdays, but services were provided infrequently during other periods of the week. Approximately 10%-15% of facilities reported having HIV, HBV, or HCV exposures in health care personnel in the 12 months prior to the survey, but inconsistencies were noted in procedures for managing such exposures. Despite 86% of facilities providing HIV prophylaxis for exposed health care personnel, only 37% designated a primary HIV postexposure prophylaxis regimen. For-profit and free-standing facilities reported fewer exposures, but did not as reliably offer HBV prophylaxis or have a primary HIV postexposure prophylaxis regimen relative to not-for-profit and hospital-based facilities. The survey response rate was low (37%) and familiarity of individuals completing the survey with facility policies or national guidelines could not be ascertained. Significant improvements are required in the implementation of guidelines for managing

  7. Noise exposure in occupational setting associated with elevated blood pressure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuchang; Ni, Yaqin; Zhang, Lei; Kong, Liya; Lu, Luying; Yang, Zhangping; Yang, Luoxian; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhu, Yimin

    2017-01-23

    Hypertension is the primary out-auditory adverse outcome caused due to occupational noise exposure. This study investigated the associations of noise exposure in an occupational setting with blood pressure and risk of hypertension. A total of 1,390 occupational noise-exposed workers and 1399 frequency matched non-noise-exposed subjects were recruited from a cross-sectional survey of occupational noise-exposed and the general population, respectively. Blood pressure was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer following a standard protocol. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of noise exposure adjusted by potential confounders. Noise-exposed subjects had significantly higher levels of systolic blood pressure(SBP) (125.1 ± 13.9 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (77.6 ± 10.7 mm Hg) than control subjects (SBP: 117.2 ± 15.7 mm Hg, DBP: 70.0 ± 10.5 mm Hg) (P noise exposure and blood pressure (SBP and DBP) (P noise exposure and 9.0% in control group (P noise exposure had the risk of hypertension with an OR of 1.941 (95% CI = 1.471- 2.561) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and drinking status. Dose-response relationships were found between noise intensity, years of noise exposure, cumulative noise exposure and the risk of hypertension (all P values noise categories (P > 0.05). Occupational noise exposure was associated with higher levels of SBP, DBP, and the risk of hypertension. These findings indicate that effective and feasible measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of hypertension caused by occupational noise exposure.

  8. Occupational exposure and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alif, Sheikh M; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bowatte, Gayan; Karahalios, Amalia; Benke, Geza; Dennekamp, Martine; Mehta, Amar J; Miedinger, David; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Matheson, Melanie C

    2016-08-01

    Due to contradictory literature we have performed a systematic review and meta-analyse of population-based studies that have used Job Exposure Matrices to assess occupational exposure and risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Two researchers independently searched databases for published articles using predefined inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed, and results pooled for COPD and chronic bronchitis for exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and gases/fumes using a fixed and random effect model. Five studies met predetermined inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed low exposure to mineral dust, and high exposure to gases/fumes were associated with an increased risk of COPD. We also found significantly increased the risk of chronic bronchitis for low and high exposure to biological dust and mineral dust. Expert commentary: The relationship between occupational exposure assessed by the JEM and the risk of COPD and chronic bronchitis shows significant association with occupational exposure. However, the heterogeneity of the meta-analyses suggests more wide population-based studies with older age groups and longitudinal phenotype assessment of COPD to clarify the role of occupational exposure to COPD risk.

  9. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Tehran Metro Drivers to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad reza Monazzam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF-MFs in train drivers is an integral part of the driving task and creates concern about driving jobs. The present study was designed to investigate the occupational exposure of Tehran train drivers to extremely low frequency magnetic fields. Methods: In order to measure the driver’s exposure, from each line, a random sample in AC and DC type trains was selected and measurements were done according to the IEEE std 644-1994 using a triple axis TES-394 device. Train drivers were then compared with national occupational exposure limit guidelines. Results: The maximum and minimum mean exposure was found in AC external city trains (1.2±1.5 μT and DC internal city trains (0.31±0.2 μT, respectively. The maximum and minimum exposure was 9 μT and 0.08 μT in AC trains of line 5, respectively. In the internal train line, maximum and minimum values were 5.4 μT and 0.08 μT in AC trains. Conclusions: In none of the exposure scenarios in different trains, the exposure exceeded the national or international occupational exposure limit guidelines. However, this should not be the basis of safety in these fields

  10. Occupational exposures in healthcare workers in University Hospital Dubrava--10 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdar, Tihana; Derek, Lovorka; Unić, Adriana; Marijancević, Domagoj; Marković, Durda; Primorac, Ana; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2013-09-01

    Occupational hazardous exposure in healthcare workers is any contact with a material that carries the risk of acquiring an infection during their working activities. Among the most frequent viral occupational infections are those transmitted by blood such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, they represent a significant public health problem related to the majority of documented cases of professionally acquired infections. Reporting of occupational exposures in University Hospital Dubrava has been implemented in connection with the activity of the Committee for Hospital Infections since January 2002. During the period of occupational exposures' monitoring (from January 2002 to December 2011) 451 cases were reported. The majority of occupational exposures were reported by nurses and medical technicians (55.4%). The most common type of exposure was the needlestick injury (77.6%). 27.9% of the accidents occurred during the blood sampling and 23.5% during the surgical procedure. In 59.4% of the exposed workers aHBs-titer status was assessed as satisfactory. Positive serology with respect to HBV was confirmed in 1.6% of patients, HCV in 2.2% of patients and none for HIV. Cases of professionally acquired infections were not recorded in the registry. Consequences of the occupational exposure could include the development of professional infection, ban or inability to work further in health care services and last but not least a threat to healthcare workers life. It is therefore deemed necessary to prevent occupational exposure to blood-borne infections. The most important preventive action in respect to HBV, HCV and HIV infections is nonspecific pre-exposure prophylaxis.

  11. Noise exposure in occupational setting associated with elevated blood pressure in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchang Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension is the primary out-auditory adverse outcome caused due to occupational noise exposure. This study investigated the associations of noise exposure in an occupational setting with blood pressure and risk of hypertension. Methods A total of 1,390 occupational noise-exposed workers and 1399 frequency matched non-noise-exposed subjects were recruited from a cross-sectional survey of occupational noise-exposed and the general population, respectively. Blood pressure was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer following a standard protocol. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of noise exposure adjusted by potential confounders. Results Noise-exposed subjects had significantly higher levels of systolic blood pressure(SBP (125.1 ± 13.9 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP (77.6 ± 10.7 mm Hg than control subjects (SBP: 117.2 ± 15.7 mm Hg, DBP: 70.0 ± 10.5 mm Hg (P  0.05. Conclusions Occupational noise exposure was associated with higher levels of SBP, DBP, and the risk of hypertension. These findings indicate that effective and feasible measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of hypertension caused by occupational noise exposure.

  12. Occupational Exposure During Pregnancy and the Risk of Atopic Dermatitis in the Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Berit Hvass; Schlünssen, Vivi; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    , maternal mixed low- and high molecular weight agents exposure (health care workers) during pregnancy was positively associated with AD (OR 1.07 (95% CI: 0.98-1.16)). Maternal exposure to low molecular weight agents showed a borderline significantly decreased risk of AD (OR 0.88 (0.78-1.00)). By age 7, none...... of the maternal exposure groups were associated with a changed risk of AD in the offspring. Conclusions: Our results do not suggest maternal exposure during pregnancy to be a significant risk factor for AD in the offspring. Exposure of pregnant women employed in the healthcare sector to e.g. antibiotics, latex...... of the present study was to analyse whether maternal occupational exposure to allergens or irritants during pregnancy is associated with AD in the offspring. Methods: A total of 41,724 mother-child pairs from The Danish National Birth Cohort were categorized according to maternal occupational exposure assessed...

  13. Long-Term Profile Stability of the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytowski, Donald G.

    1976-01-01

    Profile stability of the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey was assessed for profiles obtained twelve and nineteen years apart for persons between thirteen and twenty years of age at the time of first administration. Reported reliabilities ranged from .40 to .80 for various sub-samples. (JKS)

  14. Assessment of Relationship between Spontaneous Abortion and Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammadi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays, some studies indicate the adverse effects of exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents on the reproductive system of females. This study aimed to assess the relationship between spontaneous abortion with occupational exposure to organic solvents in pharmaceutical industry. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study which was carried out in 2010 in one of the pharmaceutical factories located in the suburbs of Tehran. During the study, married women who were working in the factory laboratory units and were exposed to mixed organic solvents were compared with married women who were working in the packing units of the factory without occupational exposure to organic solvents. Frequency of spontaneous abortion and duration of pregnancy were assessed in both two groups. Collected data were analyzed with the SPSS software using t-test, logistic regression, and chi-square test. Results: In the present study, the frequency of spontaneous abortion in employees with exposure to organic solvents mixture was 10.7%. This study showed that even after adjustment for confounding factors, there was a significant correlation between spontaneous abortion and occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture and this correlation increased with increasing levels of exposure to organic solvents. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between occupational exposure to mixed organic solvents and waiting time to become pregnant (TTP. Furthermore, this study showed that even after adjustment for confounding variables, shift workers were significantly more affected by spontaneous abortion compared to daytime workers (P < 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, since there is probability of spontaneous abortion resulting from occupational exposure to various chemicals including organic solvents, review of the status of occupational exposure of workers can be helpful

  15. Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome: a nationwide Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2014-11-01

    The primary aim was to examine exposure-response relationships between cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS), and to compare sex-specific exposure-response relationships. The secondary aim was to examine the time window of relevant exposures. We conducted a nationwide register study of all persons born in Denmark (1933-1977), who had at least 5 years of full-time employment. In the follow-up period (2003-2008), we identified first-time events of surgery for SIS. Cumulative exposure estimates for a 10-year exposure time window with a 1-year lag time were obtained by linking occupational codes with a job exposure matrix. The exposure estimates were expressed as, for example, arm-elevation-years in accordance with the pack-year concept of tobacco consumption. We used a multivariable logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis. The adjusted OR (ORadj) increased to a maximum of 2.1 for arm-elevation-years, repetition-years and force-years, and to 1.5 for hand-arm-vibration-years. Sex-specific exposure-response relationships were similar for men and women, when assessed using a relative risk scale. The ORadj increased gradually with the number of years contributing to the cumulative exposure estimates. The excess fraction was 24%. Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures carried an increase in risk of surgery for SIS with similar exposure-response curves for men and women. The risk of surgery for SIS increased gradually, when the period of exposure assessment was extended. In the general working population, a substantial fraction of all first-time operations for SIS could be related to occupational exposures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Health-based recommended occupational exposure limits for phthalic anhydride.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maclaine Pont, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    As inhalation is the most likely route of exposure the proposed MAC-value is based on an evaluation of the inhalatory data in man and animals. The earliest appearing effect after prolonged exposure of experimental animals (3 hr/day on 4 consecutive days, followed by 10 days without exposure, during

  17. [Occupational hazards, DNA damage, and oxidative stress on exposure to waste anesthetic gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Lorena M C; Braz, Mariana G; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo; Braz, José Reinaldo C; Braz, Leandro G

    The waste anesthetic gases (WAGs) present in the ambient air of operating rooms (OR), are associated with various occupational hazards. This paper intends to discuss occupational exposure to WAGs and its impact on exposed professionals, with emphasis on genetic damage and oxidative stress. Despite the emergence of safer inhaled anesthetics, occupational exposure to WAGs remains a current concern. Factors related to anesthetic techniques and anesthesia workstations, in addition to the absence of a scavenging system in the OR, contribute to anesthetic pollution. In order to minimize the health risks of exposed professionals, several countries have recommended legislation with maximum exposure limits. However, developing countries still require measurement of WAGs and regulation for occupational exposure to WAGs. WAGs are capable of inducing damage to the genetic material, such as DNA damage assessed using the comet assay and increased frequency of micronucleus in professionals with long-term exposure. Oxidative stress is also associated with WAGs exposure, as it induces lipid peroxidation, oxidative damage in DNA, and impairment of the antioxidant defense system in exposed professionals. The occupational hazards related to WAGs including genotoxicity, mutagenicity and oxidative stress, stand as a public health issue and must be acknowledged by exposed personnel and responsible authorities, especially in developing countries. Thus, it is urgent to stablish maximum safe limits of concentration of WAGs in ORs and educational practices and protocols for exposed professionals. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Occupational electromagnetic field exposures associated with sleep quality: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    Full Text Available Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world's population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant.A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject.After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39 and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24 across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI: 2.12 (1.23∼3.66 in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07∼3.15 in the third tertile. There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration.The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration.

  19. Occupational electromagnetic field exposures associated with sleep quality: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world's population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23∼3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07∼3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration.

  20. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  1. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  2. Neurodevelopmental toxicity risks due to occupational exposure to industrial chemicals during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julvez, Jordi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to neurotoxic chemicals is of particular concern when it occurs during early development. The immature brain is highly vulnerable prenatally and is therefore at risk due to occupational exposures incurred by pregnant women. A systematic search of the literature has been performed...

  3. Occupational exposures and changes in pulmonary function over 13 years among residents of Cracow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, M; Jedrychowski, W; Wysocki, M

    1988-01-01

    In a 13 year follow up study conducted among residents of Cracow the relation of annual rate of decline in FEV1 to occupational exposures was analysed. The study group consisted of 696 men and 983 women aged 19-60 at the start of the study in 1968. They were interviewed three times, in 1968, 1973, and 1981, and decline in FEV1 was estimated for each subject from spirometric measurements in 1968 and 1981. The interviews provided data on exposure at the workplace to dusts, variable temperature, and chemicals or irritating gases, which established duration and time of the exposure. The FEV1 mean level, height, and smoking habits were considered as confounders in the analysis. The study indicated that the most pronounced influence on decline in FEV1 was prolonged and continuing exposure to variable temperature. The effects of dusts, independent of exposure to variable temperature, were much smaller but analysis in occupational subgroups suggest that dust may be important in some, such as workers in the building materials and pottery industry. Relatively immediate effects of exposure to chemicals were detected independently of effects of other exposures. The estimated effects of occupational exposures were of a similar magnitude as those of tobacco smoking though related to much smaller groups. Both effects were additive in accelerating decline in lung function. These results, obtained in the general population and less biased by selection than studies performed in industrial settings, show the importance of occupational factors in the natural history of limitation of airflow. PMID:3203079

  4. Assessment of occupational exposure to pesticides in agriculture : Pt 1 General aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1992-01-01

    For registration of pesticides data on toxicology and on occupational exposure are required. In this series of reviews the exposure data available in the published literature for mixing and loading, application and re-entry are considered for the establishment of generic/surrogate data bases with

  5. Occupational exposure to organic dust increases lung cancer risk in the general population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822930; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Olsson, A.C.; Wichmann, H.E.; Bruske, I.; Consonni, D.; Landi, M.T.; Caporaso, N.; Siemiatycki, J.; Richiardi, L.; Mirabelli, D.; Simonato, L.; Gustavsson, P.; Plato, N.; Jockel, K.H.; Ahrens, W.; Pohlabeln, H.; Boffetta, P.; Brennan, P.; Zaridze, D.; Cassidy, A.; Lissowska, J; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Rudnai, P.; Fabianova, E.; Forastiere, F.; Bencko, V.; Foretova, L.; Janout, V.; Stucker, I.; Dumitru, R.S.; Benhamou, S.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Kendzia, B.; Pesch, B.; Straif, K.; Bruning, T.; Vermeulen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organic dust is a complex mixture of particulate matter from microbial, plant or animal origin. Occupations with exposure to animal products have been associated with an increased lung cancer risk, while exposure to microbial components (eg, endotoxin) has been associated with a

  6. Profiles of noise exposure levels in South African mining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available , Soer MM. Noise exposure in gold miners: utilizing audiogram configuration to determine hearing handicap. /Occupational Health SA/. 2007;13(5):16-19. 4. Bauer ER, Spencer ER, Smith AK, Hudak RL. /Reducing Noise-induced Hearing Loss in Longwall Coal...

  7. Kuder Occupational Interest Survey Profiles of Reentry Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittle, Carol K.; Denker, Elenor R.

    1977-01-01

    The Kuder Occupational Interest Survey was administered to 202 women considering reentry into education. It was found that the KOIS does differentiate between women and individual interests are reflected for this sample of women. It was concluded that examination of male-normed scales is very useful in counseling. (Author)

  8. Construction of pilot system for the Korea information system of occupational exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Seong Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Il; Im, Bok Soo; Lee, Seon Mi; Kim, Hyung Uk; Chae, Eun Yeong [ADDLAB Co., Ltd., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-01-15

    In this study, the construction of Korea Information System of Occupational Exposure (KISOE) system is designed with occupational exposure control system based on information evaluation technology and it makes the reliability of the personal exposure by use of personal dose verification. While the operation of national based radiation worker protection system, this system are settled the control system for radiation worker and ALARA. The purpose of construction and operation of pilot system of KISOE systematically is to derive the master plan of KISOE, stable development of this system, and serve the high quality radiation use internationally.

  9. Will the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Proposed Standards for Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Reduce Workplace Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Susan E; Morriss, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is developing regulations to amend existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica by establishing a new permissible exposure limit as well as a series of ancillary provisions for controlling exposure. This article briefly reviews OSHA's proposed regulatory approach and the statutory authority on which it is based. It then evaluates OSHA's preliminary determination of significant risk and its analysis of the risk reduction achievable by its proposed controls. It recognizes that OSHA faces multiple challenges in devising a regulatory approach that reduces exposures and health risks and meets its statutory goal. However, the greatest challenge to reducing risks associated with silica exposure is not the lack of incentives (for either employers or employees) but rather lack of information, particularly information on the relative toxicity of different forms of silica. The article finds that OSHA's proposed rule would contribute little in the way of new information, particularly since it is largely based on information that is at least a decade old--a significant deficiency, given the rapidly changing conditions observed over the last 45 years. The article concludes with recommendations for alternative approaches that would be more likely to generate information needed to improve worker health outcomes. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Effect of occupational lead-exposure on blood pressure, serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouman, A E; El-Safty, I A

    2000-01-01

    Numerous observations have indicated a relationship between lead exposure and elevated blood pressure. The present study aims to investigate the association between occupational lead-exposure and elevated blood pressure as well as serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity as parameters affecting blood pressure. Fifty occupationally lead-exposed (16 males and 34 females) and 50 non-exposed (15 males and 34 females) workers were selected after application of certain exclusion criteria. All workers were admitted to complete clinical examination, including standard blood pressure measurement. Also, blood lead level, serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were estimated. The results of both occupationally lead-exposed males and females demonstrated no significant differences regarding age, work duration, systolic and diastolic blood pressures when compared to occupationally non-exposed males and females; respectively. In addition, occupationally lead-exposed males and females revealed a significant increase in blood lead level and serum aldosterone concentration in comparison to their controls. Moreover, plasma renin activity is significantly decreased among the lead-exposed male workers while it is significantly increased among the lead-exposed female workers in comparison to their controls. It is concluded that serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity are affected by occupationally low-level of lead exposure, and the present study provide further support for the association between blood lead exposure and blood pressure related hormones.

  11. Occupational exposure levels to wood dust in Italy, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarselli, A; Binazzi, A; Ferrante, P; Marinaccio, A

    2008-08-01

    Wood dust has been classified as carcinogenic to humans and the association with nasal cancer risk has been observed in a large number of epidemiological studies. The aim of this study is to summarise data about occupational exposure levels to wood dust in Italy and to examine some exposure determinants. Exposure measurements on wood dust were extracted from the SIREP (Italian Information System on Occupational Exposure to Carcinogens) database between 1996-2006. Descriptive statistics were calculated for exposure-related variables using univariate analyses. The prevalence of elevated exposure levels was estimated overall and for some industrial sectors. A multifactorial analysis of variance was performed to determine which factors influenced exposure levels to wood dust. The total number of exposure measurements (n) reported is 10,837, which refer to 10,528 workers and 1181 companies. The overall arithmetic mean is 1.44 mg/m(3) and the geometric mean is 0.97 mg/m(3). Industrial sectors at high risk are "manufacture of wood and wood products" (n = 5539) as well as "manufacture of furniture" (n = 4347). About 74% of exposure measurements report a value industrial sector, company size and geographical location of the company influence the exposure levels. This study confirms the previous findings about occupational exposure to wood dust (mainly in wood industry and among woodworking machine operators) and suggests further investigations on other risk sectors (building and repairing of ships and boats). The potential of the occupational exposure database as a source of data for exposure assessment and surveillance is also confirmed.

  12. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Münster, Eva; Schüz, Joachim; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Wahrendorf, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria

    2009-05-29

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany. A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis), the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians) of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours), although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher than those of the general public.

  13. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahrendorf Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF in Germany. Methods A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis, the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours, although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. Conclusion The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher

  14. Lead exposure in US worksites: A literature review and development of an occupational lead exposure database from the published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Locke, Sarah J; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Purdue, Mark P; Friesen, Melissa C

    2015-06-01

    Retrospective exposure assessment of occupational lead exposure in population-based studies requires historical exposure information from many occupations and industries. We reviewed published US exposure monitoring studies to identify lead measurement data. We developed an occupational lead exposure database from the 175 identified papers containing 1,111 sets of lead concentration summary statistics (21% area air, 47% personal air, 32% blood). We also extracted ancillary exposure-related information, including job, industry, task/location, year collected, sampling strategy, control measures in place, and sampling and analytical methods. The measurements were published between 1940 and 2010 and represented 27 2-digit standardized industry classification codes. The majority of the measurements were related to lead-based paint work, joining or cutting metal using heat, primary and secondary metal manufacturing, and lead acid battery manufacturing. This database can be used in future statistical analyses to characterize differences in lead exposure across time, jobs, and industries. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Exploring chainsaw operator occupational exposure to carbon monoxide in forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Brionny; Parker, Richard; Todoroki, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by chainsaws can negatively impact health in forestry workers. This exploratory study measures CO concentration within the breathing zone of chainsaw operators during motor-manual operations, and discusses the potential influences on CO exposure levels. A CO monitoring instrument was paired with a concurrent video recording of task activities to enable correlation of exact working operations to critical exposure levels. Multiple streams of meteorological data were also collected from sensors worn by the eight professional tree fellers/log makers. Time-weighted averages were applied to investigate levels of CO exposure during a nominal 1-hr monitoring period. The differing task demands and environment were found to influence worker exposure to CO, supporting previous research. Pending further investigation, a number of possible actions are recommended to reduce observed high exposure levels and/or emission concentration.

  16. The impact of semen quality, occupational exposure to environmental factors and lifestyle on recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruixue, Wang; Hongli, Zhou; Zhihong, Zhang; Rulin, Dai; Dongfeng, Geng; Ruizhi, Liu

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of male semen quality, occupational exposure, and lifestyle on recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Information on couples' occupational exposure and lifestyle was collected using a detailed questionnaire from 68 RPL couples and 63 randomly selected healthy controls. Semen parameters were estimated by computer-assisted sperm analysis, and sperm nuclear status was detected with aniline blue (AB) staining. Patients in the RPL group had significantly lower viability, normal morphology, and total progressive motility of sperm, and a higher mean percentage of AB staining positive sperm compared with those of controls (P  0.05). Significant odds ratio (OR) was found when occupational exposure and unhealthy habits were superimposed (OR: 11.965, P = 0.005). In addition to standard female factors for evaluating the risk for RPL, the use of male factors should also be taken into consideration. We found that sperm quality, occupational exposure, and lifestyle are factors that affect RPL. Consequently, occupational exposure and lifestyle factors should constitute an important section of questionnaires given to patients, and these factors should be evaluated by a clinician or trained staff.

  17. Toward Developing a New Occupational Exposure Metric Approach for Characterization of Diesel Aerosols

    OpenAIRE

    Cauda, Emanuele G.; Ku, Bon Ki; Miller, Arthur L.; Barone, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    The extensive use of diesel-powered equipment in mines makes the exposure to diesel aerosols a serious occupational issue. The exposure metric currently used in U.S. underground noncoal mines is based on the measurement of total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass concentration in the air. Recent toxicological evidence suggests that the measurement of mass concentration is not sufficient to correlate ultrafine aerosol exposure with health effects. This urges the evaluation of alternati...

  18. Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: State of the science and research recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Roxana Z; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S

    2014-07-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Experimental study on human exposure to occupant generated pollutants in rooms with ductless personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Lu, Pengfei

    2014-01-01

    The performance of “ductless” personalized ventilation in conjunction with displacement ventilation with regard to exposure to different body bioeffluents was studied. Experiments were performed in a full-scale room furnished as a double office. Room air temperature was kept at 26 oC. Two breathing...... thermal manikins were used to simulate occupants. Tracer gases were used to simulate human bioeffluents (feet, groins, armpits and exhaled air) released from one manikin, simulating polluting occupant. The second manikin simulated exposed occupant. Different combinations of supply flow rates and operation...... modes for the ductless personalized and displacement ventilation were tested. The location of the bioeffluent source affected the spread of body bioeffluents in the space. The ductless personalized ventilation provided cleaner air to both occupants than displacement ventilation alone. Occupants using...

  20. Occupational exposures to leaded and unleaded gasoline engine emissions and lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengting; Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jérôme; Pasquet, Romain; Pintos, Javier; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Richardson, Lesley; Ho, Vikki

    2017-12-21

    To determine whether occupational exposure to gasoline engine emissions (GEE) increased the risk of lung cancer and more specifically whether leaded or unleaded GEE increased the risk. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal, Canada. The first was conducted in the early 1980s and included many types of cancer including lung cancer. The second was conducted in the late 1990s and focused on lung cancer. Population controls were used in both studies. Altogether, there were 1595 cases and 1432 population controls. A comprehensive expert-based exposure assessment procedure was implemented and exposure was assessed for 294 agents, including unleaded GEE, leaded GEE and diesel engine emissions (DEE). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate ORs between various metrics of GEE exposure and lung cancer, adjusting for smoking, DEE and other potential confounders. About half of all controls were occupationally exposed to GEE. Irrespective of the metrics of exposure (any exposure, duration of exposure and cumulative exposure) and the type of lung cancer, and the covariates included in models, none of the point estimates of the ORs between occupational exposure to leaded or unleaded GEE and lung cancer were above 1.0. Pooling two studies, the OR for any exposure to leaded GEE was 0.82 (0.68-1.00). Our results do not support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to GEE increases the risk of lung cancer. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Interaction of atopy and smoking on respiratory effects of occupational dust exposure: a general population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten Jan P; Kromhout Hans; Kerkhof Marjan; de Meer Gea; Heederik Dick

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background For individual exposures, effect modification by atopy or smoking has been reported on the occurrence of occupational airway disease. It is unclear if effect modification can be studied in a general population by an aggregated exposure measure. Assess relationship between airway obstruction and occupational exposure using a job-exposure-matrix (JEM) classifying jobs into 3 broad types of exposure, and test for effect modification by atopy, and smoking. Methods Data from 1,...

  2. Climate change and occupational allergies: an overview on biological pollution, exposure and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Maria Concetta; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; D'Amato, Gennaro; Cecchi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Climate change, air pollution, temperature increase and other environmental variables are modifying air quality, contributing to the increase of prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases. Allergies are complex diseases characterized by multilevel interactions between individual susceptibility, response to immune modulation and environmental exposures to physical, chemical and biological agents. Occupational allergies introduce a further complexity to these relationships by adding occupational exposure to both the indoor and outdoor ones in the living environment. The aim of this paper is to overview climate-related allergy affecting environmental and occupational health, as literature data are scanty in this regard, and to suggest a management model of this risk based on a multidisciplinary approach, taking the case of biological pollution, with details on exposure and prevention. The management of climate-related occupational allergy should take into account preventive health strategies, environmental, public and occupational interventions, as well as to develop, implement, evaluate, and improve guidelines and standards protecting workers health under changing climatic conditions; new tools and strategies based on local conditions will have to be developed. Experimental studies and acquisition of environmental and personal data have to be matched to derive useful information for the scope of occupational health and safety.

  3. Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent Lodberg; Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Lund, Søren Peter; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and occupational noise exposure have been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypothetically mediated by stress-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and cortisol level measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational noise exposure levels were recorded every 5s by personal dosimeters and we calculated the full-shift LAEq value and estimated duration and cumulative exposure based on their work histories since 1980. For 332 workers who kept a log-book on the use of hearing protection devices (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every noise recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the noise level at the ear. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at 20.00 h, the following day at awakening, and 30 min after awakening on average 5, 14 and 14.5h after finishing work. The mean ambient noise exposure level was 79.9 dB(A) [range: 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at the ear 77.7 dB(A) [range: 55.0-94.2]. In linear and mixed regression models that adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, personal income, BMI, leisure-time noise exposure level, time since occupational noise exposure ceased, awakening time, and time of saliva sampling, we observed no statistically significant exposure response relation between recent, or long-term ambient occupational noise exposure level and any cortisol parameter off work. This was neither the case for recent noise level at the ear. To conclude, neither recent nor long-term occupational noise exposure levels were associated with increased cortisol level off work. Thus, our results do not indicate that a sustained activation of the HPA axis, as measured by cortisol, is involved in

  4. [Occupational exposure to carcinogens: analysis of the application of the CAREX information system to Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grado Andrés, Adolfo; Molinero Ruiz, Emilia; van der Haar, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate occupational exposures to human carcinogens in Catalonia in 2009, taking as a reference the CAREX ESP 2007 information system, and to evaluate the suitability of extrapolating these data to Catalonia. The reference population is the number of people registered with the Social Security system in Catalonia in 2009. Carcinogens considered are those which the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified into groups 1 and 2A and are related to occupational exposures. The exposure prevalences from the CAREX ESP 2007, adapted to the Catalonian Industrial Classification (CCAE 09), were used. Technical survey reports from the Occupational Safety and Health Centers of the Catalonian local government, and related databases were consulted. The most frequent occupational exposures to human carcinogens were solar radiation, crystalline silica, diesel exhaust, radon and wood dust, although based mainly on data not considered adequate for extrapolation to Catalonia. Around 217 exposure situations for 25 carcinogens, not previously considered in CAREX ESP 2007, were identified. The estimated number of workers exposed to human carcinogens in Catalonia in 2009 based on the CAREX ESP 2007 system could differ from the real situation. Development of a CAREX CAT system that incorporates exposure data from Catalonia is recommended. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  5. Occupational hand eczema caused by nickel and evaluated by quantitative exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. EU legislation has reduced the epidemic of nickel contact allergy affecting the consumer, and shifted the focus towards occupational exposure. The acid wipe sampling technique was developed to quantitatively determine skin exposure to metals. Objectives. To assess the clinical...... usefulness of the acid wipe sampling technique as part of the diagnostic investigation for occupational nickel allergy-associated hand dermatitis. Patients and methods. Six patients with vesicular dermatitis on the hands were included. Acid wipe sampling of skin and patch testing with a nickel sulfate...... dilution series were performed. Results. Nickel was detected in all samples from the hands. In all patients, the nickel content on the hands was higher than on the non-exposed control area. Conclusions. Occupational exposure to nickel-releasing items raised the nickel content on exposed skin as compared...

  6. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-03-24

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

  7. Experiences from occupational exposure limits set on aerosols containing allergenic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar; Larsen, Søren; Hansen, Jitka S

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies...... for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used...... is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases....

  8. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from the perspective of nursing professionals in hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Martins Gallo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the security measures taken and the control of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in units of hemodynamic, from the perspective of nursing, this quantitative descriptive study was developed during January and February, 2011. A check-list of binary responses (yes / no was made based on the legislation and updated literature and it was applied in four hospitals in the northern region of Paraná State. The analysis of the data showed that 29 employees have knowledge about occupational exposure and apply barrier methods effectively to minimize doses of ionizing radiation. The data also showed that employees are participating in ongoing updating on the subject, and that they claim that this participation has a positive effect so that the occupational exposure occurs consciously, and also, the workers did not refuse to participate in any action facing their individual protection.

  9. Occupational and environmental exposures to heavy metals: risk factors for male infertility in Lebanon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; King, Luke; Nriagu, Jerome O; Kobeissi, Loulou; Hammoud, Najwa; Awwad, Johnny; Abu-Musa, Antoine A; Hannoun, Antoine B

    2008-02-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine whether occupational or environmental exposures, particularly to heavy metals, are associated with male infertility in Lebanon, a war-torn country with a history of environmental degradation. Seventy-four infertile cases and 76 fertile controls were selected from 2 major fertility clinics in Beirut. Data collection involved risk-factor interviews, semen analysis, and blood collection for heavy metal analysis. Multiple regression analysis showed that men with reported occupational exposures were twice as likely to be infertile as unexposed men. However, none of the subcategories of infertile men (based on semen analysis results) had significantly higher whole blood concentrations of heavy metals when compared to fertile controls. Blood concentrations were well within the range for referent populations of healthy individuals. Thus, despite Lebanon's poor record of occupational and environmental stewardship, exposure to metal pollutants does not appear to represent an important risk factor for male infertility.

  10. Occupational overpressure exposure of breachers and military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimori, G. H.; Reilly, L. A.; LaValle, C. R.; Olaghere Da Silva, U. B.

    2017-11-01

    Military and law enforcement personnel may be routinely and repetitively exposed to low-level blast (LLB) overpressure during training and in operations. This repeated exposure has been associated with symptoms similar to that reported for sports concussion. This study reports LLB exposure for various military and law enforcement sources in operational training environments. Peak overpressure and impulse data are presented from indoor breaching, outdoor breaching, shotgun door breaching, small arms discharge, and mortar and artillery fire missions. Data were collected using the Black Box Biometrics (B3) Blast Gauge sensors. In all cases, sensors were attached to the operators and, where possible, also statically mounted to walls or other fixed structures. Peak overpressures from below 1 psi (7 kPa) to over 12 psi (83 kPa) were recorded; all values reported are uncorrected for incidence angle to the blast exposure source. The results of these studies indicate that the current minimum safe distance calculations are often inaccurate for both indoor and outdoor breaching scenarios as true environmental exposure can consistently exceed the 4 psi (28 kPa) incident safe threshold prescribed by U.S. Army doctrine. While ballistic (shotgun) door breaching and small arms firing only expose the operator to low peak exposure levels, the sheer number of rounds fired during training may result in an excessive cumulative exposure. Mortar and artillery crew members received significantly different overpressure and impulse exposures based on their position (job) relative to the weapon. As both the artillery and mortar crews commonly fire hundreds of rounds during a single training session they are also likely to receive high cumulative exposures. These studies serve to provide the research community with estimates for typical operator exposure across a range of operational scenarios or in the discharge of various weapons systems.

  11. Occupational overpressure exposure of breachers and military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimori, G. H.; Reilly, L. A.; LaValle, C. R.; Olaghere Da Silva, U. B.

    2017-08-01

    Military and law enforcement personnel may be routinely and repetitively exposed to low-level blast (LLB) overpressure during training and in operations. This repeated exposure has been associated with symptoms similar to that reported for sports concussion. This study reports LLB exposure for various military and law enforcement sources in operational training environments. Peak overpressure and impulse data are presented from indoor breaching, outdoor breaching, shotgun door breaching, small arms discharge, and mortar and artillery fire missions. Data were collected using the Black Box Biometrics (B3) Blast Gauge sensors. In all cases, sensors were attached to the operators and, where possible, also statically mounted to walls or other fixed structures. Peak overpressures from below 1 psi (7 kPa) to over 12 psi (83 kPa) were recorded; all values reported are uncorrected for incidence angle to the blast exposure source. The results of these studies indicate that the current minimum safe distance calculations are often inaccurate for both indoor and outdoor breaching scenarios as true environmental exposure can consistently exceed the 4 psi (28 kPa) incident safe threshold prescribed by U.S. Army doctrine. While ballistic (shotgun) door breaching and small arms firing only expose the operator to low peak exposure levels, the sheer number of rounds fired during training may result in an excessive cumulative exposure. Mortar and artillery crew members received significantly different overpressure and impulse exposures based on their position (job) relative to the weapon. As both the artillery and mortar crews commonly fire hundreds of rounds during a single training session they are also likely to receive high cumulative exposures. These studies serve to provide the research community with estimates for typical operator exposure across a range of operational scenarios or in the discharge of various weapons systems.

  12. Construct validity of a newly developed instrument: profile of occupational engagement in people with schizophrenia, POES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerholm, Ulrika; Eklund, Mona

    2006-01-01

    It is highly relevant to estimate to what extent a person with schizophrenia engages in occupations and participates in different life situations in order to understand the determinants of well-being in this group of people. This study aimed at examining the construct validity of the instrument Profile of Occupational Engagement in persons with Schizophrenia, POES. Global Assessment of Functioning, GAF, and a scale measuring Satisfaction with daily occupations and Activity level were chosen as standards against which POES was validated. As hypothesized, moderate associations were found between POES and GAF (0.73), Activity level (0.70), and Satisfaction with daily occupations (0.50). Regarding the separate items of POES, the items that concerned the range of occupations performed had the strongest association with Activity level, and the items that concerned ongoing occupations, i.e. Routines and Extent of performing meaningful occupations, correlated most strongly with Satisfaction with daily occupations. Thus, the strongest associations were found for the expected items. Altogether, POES seems to possess satisfactory construct validity and be a construct in its own right, as indicated by correlations of expected size and direction with the selected instruments and for expected items.

  13. Occupational exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates in agriculture and allergy: results from the EUROPIT field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaen, Gmh; van Amelsvoort, Lgpm; Boers, D; Corsini, E; Fustinoni, S; Vergieva, T; Bosetti, C; Pennanen, S; Liesivuori, J; Colosio, C; van Loveren, H

    2008-09-01

    This epidemiological study was carried out to evaluate the possible association between occupational exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EDBC) and allergy. The study was conducted in four countries in the European Union: The Netherlands, Finland, Italy and Bulgaria. A total of 248 workers exposed to EDBC and 231 non-occupationally exposed subjects entered the study. Exposure to EDBC was measured as urinary ethylenethiourea (ETU) in urinary samples collected at baseline and after 30 days of exposure. Several effect parameters were evaluated including questionnaire data on allergy, Phadiatop, a general allergy test, and specific IgE parameters. These data were also collected at baseline and after 30 days of exposure. Cross-sectional as well as longitudinal comparisons were made, adjusted for potential confounding factors. No association was found between exposure status, EDBC levels and allergic contact dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, food allergy or atopy as measured by the Phadiatop. The prevalence of skin irritation was elevated in the Dutch field study only and is more likely a result of plant contact rather than EDBC exposure. Occupational exposure to sunlight was noted to have a protective effect on atopy in terms of IgE positivity. We conclude that the EDBC exposure levels experienced in our field study are not associated with increased prevalence of allergic symptoms or allergy.

  14. Occupational and Public Exposure During Normal Operation of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Vedernikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on occupational and public exposure during operation of disposal facilities receiving liquid and solid radioactive waste of various classes and provides a comparative analysis of the relevant doses: actual and calculated at the design stage. Occupational and public exposure study presented in this paper covers normal operations of a radioactive waste disposal facility receiving waste. Results: Analysis of individual and collective occupational doses was performed based on data collected during operation of near-surface disposal facilities for short-lived intermediate-, lowand very low-level waste in France, as well as nearsurface disposal facilities for long-lived waste in Russia. Further analysis of occupational and public doses calculated at the design stage was completed covering a near-surface disposal facility in Belgium and deep disposal facilities in the United Kingdom and the Nizhne-Kansk rock massive (Russia. The results show that engineering and technical solutions enable almost complete elimination of internal occupational exposure, whereas external exposure doses would fall within the range of values typical for a basic nuclear facility. Conclusion: radioactive waste disposal facilities being developed, constructed and operated meet the safety requirements effective in the Russian Federation and consistent with relevant international recommendations. It has been found that individual occupational exposure doses commensurate with those received by personnel of similar facilities abroad. Furthermore, according to the forecasts, mean individual doses for personnel during radioactive waste disposal would be an order of magnitude lower than the dose limit of 20 mSv/year. As for the public exposure, during normal operation, potential impact is virtually impossible by delaminating boundaries of a nuclear facility sanitary protection zone inside which the disposal facility is located and can be solely attributed to the use

  15. The respiratory effects of occupational polypropylene flock exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atis, S; Tutluoglu, B; Levent, E; Ozturk, C; Tunaci, A; Sahin, K; Saral, A; Oktay, I; Kanik, A; Nemery, B

    2005-01-01

    ...: December 14, 2003 Accepted September 22, 2004 The present study evaluated the possible effects of exposure to polypropylene flock on respiratory health and serum cytokines in a cross-sectional study...

  16. Neurotoxicity in Preclinical Models of Occupational Exposure to Organophosphorus Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Voorhees, Jaymie R.; Rohlman, Diane S.; Lein, Pamela J.; Pieper, Andrew A.

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Voorhees, Rohlman, Lein and Pieper. Organophosphorus (OPs) compounds are widely used as insecticides, plasticizers, and fuel additives. These compounds potently inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that inactivates acetylcholine at neuronal synapses, and acute exposure to high OP levels can cause cholinergic crisis in humans and animals. Evidence further suggests that repeated exposure to lower OP levels insufficient to cause cholinergic crisis, frequently encountered in the...

  17. Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Bisphenol A in Five Different Production Companies in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinälä, Milla; Ylinen, Katriina; Tuomi, Tapani; Santonen, Tiina; Porras, Simo P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess occupational exposure to bisphenol A in Finland. Five companies took part in the research project: two paint factories (liquid and powder paints), a composite product factory, a thermal paper factory, and a tractor factory. Exposure was assessed by measuring total bisphenol A excretion (free and conjugated) from urine samples, and its concentrations in the air. The results revealed the specific work tasks in two of five companies in which significant occupational exposure to bisphenol A may occur. In the manufacturing of liquid paint hardener, urine samples collected after the working day showed bisphenol A levels of up to 100-170 µg l-1. Workers in thermal paper manufacturing were also exposed to bisphenol A, especially those working in the manufacture of coating material and operating coating machines. Median concentrations of the post-shift urine samples of coating machine workers were in the range of 130-250 µg l-1. The highest bisphenol A concentrations were in the range of 1000-1500 µg l-1. Recommendations for more effective personal protection resulted in decreased exposure, particularly among coating machine operators. In the rest of the companies, urinary bisphenol A levels were typically in the range of those of the general population. Bisphenol A concentrations in air samples were typically low (bisphenol A (maximum 17.6 mg m-3). Low air levels, even in the companies with high urinary levels, suggest exposure via dermal contact. According to the results, exposure to bisphenol A may occur particularly in work tasks that involve the use of pure bisphenol A. In these tasks, special attention should be paid to the prevention of skin exposure. Inhalation exposure may become relevant in dusty work tasks. Since skin exposure is of potential concern in these tasks, biomonitoring is recommended as the method for assessing occupational exposure to bisphenol A. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  18. Can polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures and enantiomer fractions be used for source identification and to age date occupational exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megson, David; Focant, Jean-Françios; Patterson, Donald G; Robson, Matthew; Lohan, Maeve C; Worsfold, Paul J; Comber, Sean; Kalin, Robert; Reiner, Eric; O'Sullivan, Gwen

    2015-08-01

    Detailed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures and chiral Enantiomer Fractions (EFs) of CB-95, CB-136 and CB-149 were measured for 30 workers at a transformer dismantling plant. This was undertaken to identify sources of exposure and investigate changes to the PCB signature and EFs over different exposure periods. Approximately 1.5 g of serum was extracted and PCB signatures were created through analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) and EFs calculated following analysis by gas chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). A total of 84 PCBs were identified in the serum samples with concentrations of the 7 indicator PCBs ranging from 11-350 ng g(-1) of serum (1.2-39 μg g(-1) lipid). The PCB signatures were interpreted using principal component analysis (PCA) which was able to distinguish workers with background or recent minimal exposure from those with prolonged occupational exposure. Occupationally exposed individuals had a similar PCB profile to Aroclor A1260. However, individuals with prolonged exposure had depleted proportions of several PCB congeners that are susceptible to metabolism (CB-95, CB-101 and CB-151) and elevated proportions of PCBs that are resistant to metabolism (CB-74, CB-153, CB-138 and CB-180). The results also identified a third group of workers with elevated proportions of CB-28, CB-60, CB-66, CB-74, CB-105 and CB-118 who appeared to have been exposed to an additional source of PCBs. The results show near complete removal of the CB-95 E2 enantiomer in some samples, indicating that bioselective metabolism or preferential excretion of one enantiomer occurs in humans. By considering PCB concentrations along with detailed congener specific signatures it was possible to identify different exposure sources, and gain an insight into both the magnitude and duration of exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Occupational mercury exposure in association with prevalence of multiple sclerosis and tremor among US dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglen, Julia; Gruninger, Stephen E; Chou, Hwai-Nan; Weuve, Jennifer; Turyk, Mary Ellen; Freels, Sally; Stayner, Leslie Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The effects of chronic occupational exposure to elemental mercury (Hg(0)) are largely unknown. The objective was to evaluate the association of occupational Hg(0) exposure with multiple sclerosis (MS) and tremor. The study included 13,906 dentists who attended the American Dental Association's annual meeting over 24 years (1986-2007 and 2011-2012). Participants reported MS and tremor and provided urine specimens for Hg(0) analysis. The authors estimated mean Hg(0) exposures over time and used logistic regression to estimate the associations of 3 Hg(0) exposure measures with MS or tremor. Among participants, 0.18% reported MS and 1.24% reported tremor. Hg(0) exposure was not associated with MS (odds ratio [OR] per 191 micrograms per liter in cumulative Hg(0) exposure, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-1.85). Increased prevalent risk of tremor was found with exposure to both urinary Hg(0) exposure (OR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.00-1.22]) and cumulative Hg(0) exposure among younger dentists (tremor. Studies with more sophisticated outcome and exposure measures, and including more retired dentists, would provide critical information toward understanding the relation of Hg(0) exposures to MS and tremor risk. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Occupational exposure to pesticides are associated with fixed airflow obstruction in middle-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alif, Sheikh M; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Benke, Geza; Dennekamp, Martine; Burgess, John A; Perret, Jennifer L; Lodge, Caroline J; Morrison, Stephen; Johns, David Peter; Giles, Graham G; Gurrin, Lyle C; Thomas, Paul S; Hopper, John Llewelyn; Wood-Baker, Richard; Thompson, Bruce R; Feather, Iain H; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Walters, E Haydn; Abramson, Michael J; Matheson, Melanie Claire

    2017-11-01

    Population-based studies have found evidence of a relationship between occupational exposures and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), but these studies are limited by the use of prebronchodilator spirometry. Establishing this link using postbronchodilator is critical, because occupational exposures are a modifiable risk factor for COPD. To investigate the associations between occupational exposures and fixed airflow obstruction using postbronchodilator spirometry. One thousand three hundred and thirty-five participants were included from 2002 to 2008 follow-up of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS). Spirometry was performed and lifetime work history calendars were used to collect occupational history. ALOHA plus Job Exposure Matrix was used to assign occupational exposure, and defined as ever exposed and cumulative exposure unit (EU)-years. Fixed airflow obstruction was defined by postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.7 and the lower limit of normal (LLN). Multinomial logistic regressions were used to investigate potential associations while controlling for possible confounders. Ever exposure to biological dust (relative risk (RR)=1.58, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.48), pesticides (RR=1.74,95% CI 1.00 to 3.07) and herbicides (RR=2.09,95% CI 1.18 to 3.70) were associated with fixed airflow obstruction. Cumulative EU-years to all pesticides (RR=1.11,95% CI 1.00 to 1.25) and herbicides (RR=1.15,95% CI 1.00 to 1.32) were also associated with fixed airflow obstruction. In addition, all pesticides exposure was consistently associated with chronic bronchitis and symptoms that are consistent with airflow obstruction. Ever exposure to mineral dust, gases/fumes and vapours, gases, dust or fumes were only associated with fixed airflow obstruction in non-asthmatics only. Pesticides and herbicides exposures were associated with fixed airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis. Biological dust exposure was also associated with fixed airflow obstruction in non

  1. Self-reported occupational exposure to chemical and physical factors and risk of skin problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonso, Jose Hernan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Tynes, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Prospective studies on occupational dermatoses in the general working population are sparse. This study investigated prospectively the impact of self-reported occupational exposure to chemicals and physical factors on the risk of skin problems. The cohort comprised respondents drawn randomly from...... the general population in Norway, who were registered employed in 2006 and 2009 (n = 6,745). Indoor dry air (odds ratio (OR) 1.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-1.6) was a significant baseline predictor of skin problems at follow-up, whereas exposure to cleaning products (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.5), water...

  2. Two cases with squamous cell carcinoma occurred on the hand induced by the occupational exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbara, Takuro; Arikawa, Kayo; Takeo, Motokazu; Hatta, Naohito; Takata, Minoru; Takehara, Kazuhiko [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-04-01

    Two cases with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) occurred on the hand induced by the occupational exposure to ionizing radiation were reported. The patients were a 57-years-old osteopathic physician and a 66-years-old dentist presented with ulcerated skin tumors on fingers. Both patients had primary tumors extending to the bone and later developed lung metastasis. Although the incidence of radiation-induced SCC are decreasing in Japan, the patients who received occupational radiation exposure should be followed-up carefully. (author)

  3. Surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome in relation to intensities of occupational mechanical exposures across 10-year exposure time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2017-01-01

    if exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) is an independent risk factor. METHODS: We used data from a register-based cohort study of the entire Danish working population (n=2 374 403). During follow-up (2003-2008), 14 118 first-time events of surgery for SIS occurred. For each person, we linked register......-based occupational codes (1993-2007) to a general population job exposure matrix to obtain year-by-year exposure intensities on measurement scales for force, upper arm elevation >90° and repetition and expert rated intensities of exposure to HAV. For 10-year exposure time windows, we calculated the duration...... intensities for repetition. Any intensities of force and upper arm elevation >90° above minimal implied an increased risk across 10-year exposure time windows. No independent associations were found for HAV....

  4. Occupational exposure to chrome VI compounds in French companies: results of a national campaign to measure exposure (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Raymond; Gillet, Martine; Goutet, Pierre; Guichard, Christine; Hédouin-Langlet, Catherine; Frocaut, Anne Marie; Lambert, Pierre; Leray, Fabrice; Mardelle, Patricia; Dorotte, Michel; Rousset, Davy

    2015-01-01

    A campaign to measure exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds was carried out in France by the seven CARSAT chemistry laboratories, CRAMIF laboratory, and INRS over the 2010-2013 period. The survey included 99 companies involved in various activity sectors. The inhalable fraction of airborne particles was sampled, and exposure levels were determined using ion chromatography analysis combined with post-column derivatization and UV detection. The quality of the measurement results was guaranteed by an inter-laboratory comparison system involving all the laboratories participating in this study. Exposure levels frequently exceeded the French occupational exposure limit value (OELV) of 1 µg m(-3), in activities such as thermal metallization and manufacturing and application of paint in the aeronautics sector. The results also reveal a general trend for a greater proportion of soluble Chromium VI (Cr VI) compounds compared with insoluble compounds. Qualitative and quantitative information relating to the presence of other metallic compounds in the air of workplaces is also provided, for example for Cr III, Ni, Fe, etc. The sampling strategy used and the measurement method are easy to implement, making it possible to check occupational exposure with a view to comparing it to an 8 h-OELV of 1 µg m(-3). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  5. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina N. Burns

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA and community (70 dBA noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001. A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01 even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  6. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N.; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001). A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage. PMID:26797626

  7. Occupational exposure and laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer risk in central and eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shangina, O.; Brennan, P.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Mates, D.; Fabianova, E.; Fletcher, T.; Mannetje, A.; Boffetta, P.; Zaridze, D. [International Agency for Research Center, Lyon (France)

    2006-08-15

    A multicenter case-control study was conducted during 1999-2002 in four European countries (Poland, Romania, Russia, and Slovakia) to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in risk of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer. Male cancer cases (34 hypopharyngeal, 316 laryngeal) with full data on occupational history and nonoccupational factors were compared with 728 hospital controls for occupational exposure to 73 suspected carcinogens. Occupational history was evaluated by industrial hygienists blinded to case/control status. Elevated risks for over exposure to coal dust were found for both hypopharyngeal (odds ratio (OR) = 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 14.89) and laryngeal (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.94, 3.47) cancer, with clear dose-response patterns. Inclusion of a 20-year lag in the analysis strengthened these associations. Hypopharyngeal cancer risk was also significantly associated with exposure to mild steel dust (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.39, 6.64) and iron compounds and fumes (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.29, 5.84), without clear dose-response relations. Laryngeal cancer was significantly associated with exposure to hard-alloys dust (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.57) and chlorinated solvents (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.61), without dose-response relations. A possible link between high formaldehyde exposure and laryngeal cancer was suggested. These data indicate that occupational exposure to coal dust may play a role in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Other possible relations need further evaluation.

  8. Occupational exposure to manganese, copper, lead, iron, mercury and zinc and the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorell, J M; Johnson, C C; Rybicki, B A; Peterson, E L; Kortsha, G X; Brown, G G; Richardson, R J

    1999-01-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in the Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) in metropolitan Detroit to assess occupational exposures to manganese, copper, lead, iron, mercury and zinc as risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). Non-demented men and women 50 years of age who were receiving primary medical care at HFHS were recruited, and concurrently enrolled cases (n = 144) and controls (n = 464) were frequency-matched for sex, race and age (+/- 5 years). A risk factor questionnaire, administered by trained interviewers, inquired about every job held by each subject for 6 months from age 18 onward, including a detailed assessment of actual job tasks, tools and environment. An experienced industrial hygienist, blinded to subjects' case-control status, used these data to rate every job as exposed or not exposed to one or more of the metals of interest. Adjusting for sex, race, age and smoking status, 20 years of occupational exposure to any metal was not associated with PD. However, more than 20 years exposure to manganese (Odds Ratio [OR] = 10.61, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.06, 105.83) or copper (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.06,5.89) was associated with PD. Occupational exposure for > 20 years to combinations of lead-copper (OR = 5.24, 95% CI = 1.59, 17.21), lead-iron (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.07,7.50), and iron-copper (OR = 3.69, 95% CI = 1.40,9.71) was also associated with the disease. No association of occupational exposure to iron, mercury or zinc with PD was found. A lack of statistical power precluded analyses of metal combinations for those with a low prevalence of exposure (i.e., manganese, mercury and zinc). Our findings suggest that chronic occupational exposure to manganese or copper, individually, or to dual combinations of lead, iron and copper, is associated with PD.

  9. Surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome in relation to intensities of occupational mechanical exposures across 10-year exposure time windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2017-08-20

    We aimed to identify intensities of occupational mechanical exposures (force, arm elevation and repetition) that do not entail an increased risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) even after prolonged durations of exposure. Additionally, we wanted to evaluate if exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) is an independent risk factor. We used data from a register-based cohort study of the entire Danish working population (n=2 374 403). During follow-up (2003-2008), 14 118 first-time events of surgery for SIS occurred. For each person, we linked register-based occupational codes (1993-2007) to a general population job exposure matrix to obtain year-by-year exposure intensities on measurement scales for force, upper arm elevation >90° and repetition and expert rated intensities of exposure to HAV. For 10-year exposure time windows, we calculated the duration of exposure at specific intensities above minimal (low, medium and high). We used a logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis adjusting for cumulative effects of other mechanical exposures. We found indications of safe exposure intensities for repetition (median angular velocity 90° >2 min/day implied an increased risk reaching ORs of 1.7 and 1.5 after 10 years at low intensities. No associations were found for HAV. We found indications of safe exposure intensities for repetition. Any intensities of force and upper arm elevation >90° above minimal implied an increased risk across 10-year exposure time windows. No independent associations were found for HAV. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Occupational Exposure to Indium of Indium Smelter Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chun Guang; Wang, Huan Qiang; Song, Han Bo; Li, Zhi Hui; Li, Xiao Ping; Ye, Shao Se; Zhang, Fu Gang; Cui, Shi Wei; Yan, Hui Fang; Li, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Case reports of indium-related lung disease in workers have raised public concern to the human toxicity of indium (In) and its compounds. However, studies evaluating the exposure or health of workers in In smelting plants are rare. Therefore, in this study, we focused on four In smelting plants, with the main objective of characterizing In in smelter plants in China and discussing the potential exposure biomarkers of In exposure. We recruited 494 subjectsat four In smelting plants in China. Personal air samples, first morning urine and spot blood samples were collected. In concentrations in samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In concentrations in air samples did not exceed the permissible concentration-time weighed average, but the smelter workers had a higher internal exposure to In. Positive correlations were observed between the air In and urine In concentrations, and between the air In and blood In concentrations. This study provides basic data for the following In exposure and health risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli John J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10 were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to fit statistical models. Results Based on conditional logistic regression modeling, the following factors independently increased the risk of NHL: farmer and machinist as long held occupations; constant exposure to diesel exhaust fumes; constant exposure to ionizing radiation (radium; and personal history of another cancer. Men who had worked for 20 years or more as farmer and machinist were the most likely to develop NHL. Conclusion An increased risk of developing NHL is associated with the following: long held occupations of faer and machinist; exposure to diesel fumes; and exposure to ionizing radiation (radium. The risk of NHL increased with the duration of employment as a farmer or machinist.

  12. Occupational airborne exposure of the general population of a Norwegian county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, P; Baste, V; Hanoa, R; Gulsvik, A

    1992-02-01

    Occupational airborne exposure was examined for a stratified sample (N = 1275) of the general population aged 18-73 years in Hordaland County, Norway. The subjects identified all jobs of more than six months since leaving school and stated whether they had been occupationally exposed to specific agents and work processes potentially harmful to the lungs. The prevalence in the population ever having been exposed was 18% for asbestos, 9% for quartz, 5% for aluminum dust, 6% for wood dust, 12% for metal gases, 12% for welding, 9% for soldering, and 1% for hairdressing. According to occupational title (last job), 3% of the population had held a job with a high degree of airborne exposure, 26% a job with moderate exposure, and 70% a job with no airborne exposure. During their worklife both the men and the women tended to leave polluted jobs more often than unpolluted jobs. Occupational exposure to airborne pollutants potentially harmful to the lungs is widespread in this Norwegian general population.

  13. Characteristics of Occupational Exposure to Benzene during Turnaround in the Petrochemical Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun-Kyo; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kwon, Jiwoon; Lee, Naroo; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Lee, Jong-Han; Lee, In-Seop; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Kil

    2010-09-01

    The level of benzene exposure in the petrochemical industry during regular operation has been well established, but not in turnaround (TA), where high exposure may occur. In this study, the characteristics of occupational exposure to benzene during TA in the petrochemical companies were investigated in order to determine the best management strategies and improve the working environment. This was accomplished by evaluating the exposure level for the workers working in environments where benzene was being produced or used as an ingredient during the unit process. From 2003 to 2008, a total of 705 workers in three petrochemical companies in Korea were studied. Long- and short-term (start-up. All works were classified into 12 occupation categories. The long-term geometric mean (GM) benzene exposure level was 0.025 (5.82) ppm (0.005-42.120 ppm) and the short-term exposure concentration during TA was 0.020 (17.42) ppm (0.005-61.855 ppm). The proportions of TA samples exceeding the time-weighted average, occupational exposure level (TWA-OEL in Korea, 1 ppm) and the short-term exposure limit (STEL-OEL, 5 ppm) were 4.1% (20 samples of 488) and 6.0% (13 samples of 217), respectively. The results for the benzene exposure levels and the rates of exceeding the OEL were both statistically significant (p < 0.05). Among the 12 job categories of petrochemical workers, mechanical engineers, plumbers, welders, fieldman and scaffolding workers exhibited long-term samples that exceeded the OEL of benzene, and the rate of exceeding the OEL was statistically significant for the first two occupations (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the periodic work environment must be assessed during non-routine works such as TA.

  14. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: occupational exposure assessment in the photocatalytic paving production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinazzè, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.spinazze@uninsubria.it; Cattaneo, Andrea; Limonta, Marina [Università degli studi dell’Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia (Italy); Bollati, Valentina; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto [Università degli Studi di Milano, EPIGET-Epidemiology, Epigenetics and Toxicology Lab, Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e di Comunità (Italy); Cavallo, Domenico M. [Università degli studi dell’Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Limited data are available regarding occupational exposure assessment to nano-sized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO{sub 2}). The objective of this study is to assess the occupational exposure of workers engaged in the application of nano-TiO{sub 2} onto concrete building materials, by means of a multi-metric approach (mean diameter, number, mass and surface area concentrations). The measurement design consists of the combined use of (i) direct-reading instruments to evaluate the total particle number concentrations relative to the background concentration and the mean size-dependent characteristics of particles (mean diameter and surface area concentration) and to estimate the 8-h time-weighted average (8-h TWA) exposure to nano-TiO{sub 2} for workers involved in different working tasks; and (ii) filter-based air sampling, used for the determination of size-resolved particle mass concentrations. A further estimation was performed to obtain the mean 8-h TWA exposure values expressed as mass concentrations (µg nano-TiO{sub 2}/m{sup 3}). The multi-metric characterization of occupational exposure to nano-TiO{sub 2} was significantly different both for different work environments and for each work task. Generally, workers were exposed to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs; <100 nm) mean levels lower than the recommended reference values and proposed occupational exposure limits (40,000 particle/cm{sup 3}; 300 µg/m{sup 3}) and relevant exposures to peak concentration were not likely to be expected. The estimated 8-h TWA exposure showed differences between the unexposed and exposed subjects. For these last, further differences were defined between operators involved in different work tasks. This study provides information on nano-TiO{sub 2} number and mass concentration, size distribution, particles diameter and surface area concentrations, which were used to obtain work shift-averaged exposures.

  15. Occupational Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA): A Reality That Still Needs to Be Unveiled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane, is one of the most utilized industrial chemicals worldwide, with the ability to interfere with/or mimic estrogenic hormones with associated biological responses. Environmental human exposure to this endocrine disruptor, mostly through oral intake, is considered a generalized phenomenon, particularly in developed countries. However, in the context of occupational exposure, non-dietary exposure sources (e.g., air and contact) cannot be underestimated. Here, we performed a review of the literature on BPA occupational exposure and associated health effects. Relevantly, the authors only identified 19 studies from 2009 to 2017 that demonstrate that occupationally exposed individuals have significantly higher detected BPA levels than environmentally exposed populations and that the detection rate of serum BPA increases in relation to the time of exposure. However, only 12 studies performed in China have correlated potential health effects with detected BPA levels, and shown that BPA-exposed male workers are at greater risk of male sexual dysfunction across all domains of sexual function; also, endocrine disruption, alterations to epigenetic marks (DNA methylation) and epidemiological evidence have shown significant effects on the offspring of parents exposed to BPA during pregnancy. This overview raises awareness of the dramatic and consistent increase in the production and exposure of BPA and creates urgency to assess the actual exposure of workers to this xenoestrogen and to evaluate potential associated adverse health effects. PMID:29051454

  16. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, Lamya; Blettner, Maria; Hammer, Gael P; Zeeb, Hajo, E-mail: yousif@imbei.uni-mainz.d [Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 69, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated. (review)

  17. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Lamya; Blettner, Maria; Hammer, Gaël P; Zeeb, Hajo

    2010-09-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated.

  18. Comparison of occupational exposure assessment tools and concepts for nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    The development, production and application of engineered nanomaterials have been growing in different fields. This leads to a consequent increased potential of exposure to nanomaterials in the working environment. However to determine the potential exposure risk is a challenging task for risk...... assessors, due to limited availability of data on nanomaterial exposure level. To face this challenge a number of methods have been developed including the “Control Banding Nanotool”, the “Swiss precautionary matrix”; “Stoffenmanager Nano version 1.0; “ANSES - Development of a specific Control Banding Tool...... for Nanomaterials”; “NanoSafer vs. 1.1 – A web-based precautionary risk assessment tool for manufactured nanomaterials using first order modeling” Based on the literature information we have analyzed these tools and discussed elements regarding: the domain of application and whether it accounts for the nanospecific...

  19. Occupational exposure to medical X rays in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, J.; Nowak, B.; Liniecki, J. (Inst. of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland))

    1991-01-01

    Personal dosimetry in Poland indicates that exposure to X rays of workers engaged in surgical radiology is higher than that among other radiologists and auxiliary personnel, 0.9 as against 0.4 mSv per annum. This information, however, does not provide detailed insight into the exposures. To study this problem, the exposure of personnel employed in operating theatres and utilising fluoroscopy was investigated. With TL dosemeters, the distribution of doses to the body was measured on the surface of protective aprons and on the forehead, the wrist and the shoulder. The study embraced 20 centres in Poland engaged in cardiac pacemaker insertion, haemodynamic examinations of the heart, transcutaneous removal of kidney stones, radiological control of biliary routes and orthopaedic surgery. The results enable one to assess the average annual effective dose equivalent H{sub E} for workers and the corresponding dose equivalents H to the lens of the eye and the hands. (author).

  20. Effects of occupational pesticide exposure on children applying pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar M; Abou Salem, Mahmoud E; Mechael, Atef A; Hendy, Olfat M; Rohlman, Diane S; Ismail, Ahmed A

    2008-09-01

    Nearly 40% of the Egyptian workforce is employed in agriculture. The cotton industry relies on children and adolescents, who work seasonally, to apply pesticides to the cotton crops. Although previous research has examined adult pesticide exposures in this workforce in Egypt, no research has examined the health effects in adolescents. This study attempts to systematically replicate findings examining the impact of organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure in adults on Arabic speaking children working as applicators. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of pesticide exposure on children and adolescents spraying cotton fields. Male children currently applying pesticides between the ages of 9 and 15 (Younger, n=30) and 16 and 19 (Older, n=20) were recruited for the study. They completed a neurobehavioral test battery; personality inventory; work, health, and exposure questionnaires; and medical and neurological screening exams. Blood samples were collected to measure acetylcholinesterase. Children not working in agriculture, matched on age and education, served as controls. Both Younger and Older applicator groups, performed significantly worse than the controls on the majority of neurobehavioral tests controlling for age and years of education. The applicators reported significantly more neurological symptoms than the controls and had lower acetylcholinesterase activity. A dose-effect relationship demonstrated that increased years of exposure to organophosphate pesticides is associated with cognitive deficits. This is one of the several studies demonstrating that functional cognitive effects are positively correlated with increased years of exposure to OP pesticides, though primarily in adult populations, building confidence in the association. Since children around the world are exposed to OP pesticides, these studies suggest that the need to evaluate this potential problem is urgent.

  1. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, Nadine S M; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Burdorf, Alex; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Kauppinen, Timo; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; van den Brandt, Piet a

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and

  2. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, N.S.M.; Vermeulen, R.; Burdorf, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kauppinen, T.; Kromhout, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and smoking.

  3. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer in the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, N.S.M.; Vermeulen, R.; Burdorf, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Keszei, A.P.; Peters, S.; Kauppinen, T.; Kromhout, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2014-01-01

    The evidence for an association between occupational asbestos exposure and esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer is limited. We studied this association specifically addressing risk differences between relatively low and high exposure, risk associated with cancer subtypes, the influence of

  4. Contribution of host factors and workplace exposure to the outcome of occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Maestrelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of occupational asthma after diagnosis is often poor. The identification of factors associated with a worse outcome may help in the management of the disease, determining its prognosis and assessing the permanent impairment attributable to occupational exposure. The aim of this systematic review was to provide the available evidence from the medical literature to answer the question: “What is the contribution of host factors and workplace exposure to the risk of a bad outcome of occupational asthma?” A systematic literature search was conducted in March 2010. We retrieved 177 abstracts. Of these, 67 were assessed as potentially relevant. After full text evaluation, 35 articles that were actually relevant for the question were included in the analysis. The information obtained was sufficient to establish that older age, high-molecular-weight agents, impaired lung function and longer duration of exposure to the offending agent at the time of diagnosis had a negative role on the outcome of occupational asthma. Atopy and smoking at diagnosis did not seem to influence the outcome of occupational asthma. A limited number of studies considered sex and the pattern of asthmatic reaction on specific inhalation challenge and their findings were contradictory.

  5. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    2017-10-12

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection. Serum levels of six inflammatory biomarkers including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed in all subjects. Compared to unexposed controls, concentrations of MIP-1β were significantly reduced by ∼37% in DEE exposed workers (P 397 µg/m3 ) compared to unexposed controls. Further, significant inverse exposure-response relationships for IL-8 and MCP-1 were also found in relation to increasing PM2.5 levels among the DEE exposed workers. Given that IL-8, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nurses' Occupational Trauma Exposure, Resilience, and Coping Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sherry Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Nursing education courses and professional development (PD) do not include coping and resilience training for registered nurses (RNs) who work in emergency departments (EDs). Exposure to traumatic events, death, and dying may lead to health issues, substance abuse, stress symptoms, nursing staff turnover, and compassion fatigue among ED RNs.…

  7. 78 FR 56273 - Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... silica well below the current PELs are at increased risk of lung cancer mortality and silicosis mortality... exposures that can lead to acute silicosis. Subsequent to completion of the PEA, OSHA identified an industry... illnesses, and 2.3 prevented cases of renal failure--and 40.8 avoided cases of silicosis morbidity...

  8. Congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, MC; Ayme, S; Calzolari, E; DeWalle, HEK; KnillJones, R; Candela, S; Dale, [No Value; Dananche, B; deVigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L

    Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during preg

  9. Ambient and at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlien-Søborg, Mai C; Schmedes, Astrid S; Stokholm, Z A

    2016-01-01

    workers to obtain contrast in noise exposure levels. They provided a serum sample and wore portable dosimeters that every 5-s recorded ambient noise exposure levels during a 24-h period. We extracted measurements obtained during work and calculated the full-shift mean ambient noise level. For 331 workers......OBJECTIVES: Occupational and residential noise exposure has been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Alteration of serum lipid levels has been proposed as a possible causal pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between ambient and at......-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides when accounting for well-established predictors of lipid levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 424 industrial workers and 84 financial...

  10. Occupational noise exposure, psychosocial working conditions and the risk of tinnitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther Frederiksen, Thomas; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of occupational noise (current and cumulative doses) and psychosocial work factors (psychological demands and decision latitude) on tinnitus occurrence among workers, using objective and non-self-reported exposure measures to prevent...... reporting bias. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from a Danish survey from 2009 to 2010 that included 534 workers from children day care units and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between risk factors (current noise exposure, cumulative noise exposure and psychosocial working...... conditions) and tinnitus were analyzed with logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no statistically significant associations between either current [OR 0.95 (95% CI 0.89; 1.01)] or cumulative [OR 0.93 (95% CI 0.81; 1.06)] occupational noise exposure and tinnitus. Likewise, results for psychosocial working...

  11. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie N; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. Though organic solvents in the form of paint fumes are also found in the home environment, no studies have investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. We studied...... associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth within the Danish National Birth Cohort which consecutively recruited pregnant women from 1996 to 2002 from all over Denmark. Around the 30th pregnancy week, 19,000 mothers were interviewed about use of paint...... of preterm birth after adjustment for potential confounders. Our results suggest that there are no causal relationship between non-occupational exposure to paint fumes in the residence during pregnancy and fetal growth....

  12. Occupational Exposure to Aluminum and Alzheimer Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Sohaib A; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to systematically quantify the association between occupational exposure to aluminum and risk of Alzheimer disease (AD). Electronic database searches were conducted up to March 2015 for controlled studies. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Three retrospective case-control studies, involving 1056 participants, met the criteria for inclusion. All studies used surrogate informants to ascertain exposure. Occupational aluminum exposure was not associated with AD (odds ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.59 to 1.68), even in sensitivity analysis excluding studies with low-quality assessment scores (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 3.10). The findings of the present meta-analysis do not support a causative role of aluminum in the pathogenesis of AD. Nevertheless, in the absence of prospective studies with more precise ascertainment of exposure, a role for aluminum cannot be definitively excluded.

  13. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure: a nation-wide survey among Danish doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, H

    1997-01-01

    ). Only 35% adhered to the basic principles of universal precautions (UP) and non-compliance was associated with a considerably increased risk of both MCE and PCE, especially in non-surgical specialties. In conclusion, we found an unacceptably high incidence of occupational blood exposures among Danish...... doctors. Non-compliance with UP was associated with an increased risk of exposure and efforts to improve compliance with UP as well as implementation and evaluation of other preventive measures are needed.......Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6...

  14. [An investigation of psychological state at different stages of occupational AIDS exposure and related influencing factors in Nanning, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Q; Ge, X M; Mo, J C; Li, S S; Chen, C C; Chen, S Y

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the changes in psychological state after occupational exposure in the AIDS occupational exposure population and related influencing factors, and to provide baseline data and a basis for related departments to conduct mental health prevention and intervention for personnel with occupational AIDS exposure. Methods: AIDS risk assessment was performed for all personnel with occupational AIDS exposure in 2014 in Nanning, China, and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) psychological scale was used for psychological state evaluation at 24 hours, 1 week, and 3 months after occupational exposure in all persons who met the research criteria. Results: Most of the persons with occupational AIDS exposure came from secondary and tertiary hospitals (85%) , and nurses accounted for the highest percentage (78.3% ). The age ranged from 21 to 50 years, and the mean age was 31.02 ± 7.92 years. The persons with occupational AIDS exposure aged 20~29 years accounted for the highest percentage (51.6%) , and most persons (76.7%) graduated from junior colleges. Compared with the adult norm, there was significant increases in the total psychological score and the number of positive items after occupational exposure (P<0.05). The scores of all items at 24 hours were significantly higher than those at the other time points, and the scores of all items gradually decreased over time (F=227.24, 267.57, and 287.46, P<0.05). Compared with the adult norm, there were significant increases in the factor points at 24 hours and significant reductions in the factor points at 3 months (P<0.05). Compared with those at 24 hours, the factor scores at 3 months decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Occupational AIDS exposure affects the mental status of related personnel, and the mental status at 24 hours after exposure is poor. Related departments should provide corresponding psychological counseling for the occupational exposure population at different exposure times.

  15. A meta-analysis of occupational trichloroethylene exposure and liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dominik D; Kelsh, Michael A; Mink, Pamela J; Mandel, Jeffrey H; Basu, Rupa; Weingart, Michal

    2007-11-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies of trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure and liver cancer have been inconsistent. To quantitatively evaluate this association and to examine sources of heterogeneity, we conducted a meta-analysis of occupational studies of TCE exposure and liver/biliary tract cancer. We identified 14 occupational cohort studies of TCE exposed workers and one case-control study that met our inclusion criteria. Nine studies specifically identified TCE as a workplace exposure, and were classified as Group I cohort studies. Subcohorts of workers, identified within eight of these studies as more likely exposed to TCE than the total cohort, were analyzed separately. The combined liver/biliary cancer summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) for all studies was 1.08 (95% CI 0.91-1.29; heterogeneity (H)-P-value=0.12). For the total study populations in the Group I cohorts, the SRRE was 1.14 (95% CI 0.93-1.39; H-P-value=0.05) and for the subcohorts, the SRRE was 1.30 (95% CI 1.09-1.55). Within this subcohort analysis, the association for the European studies of workers from various industries (SRRE=1.38; based on four studies) was higher than the association for the US studies of aerospace and aircraft workers (SRRE=0.97, based on four studies). Although positive associations were observed for some analyses, results were inconsistent across occupational groups (aerospace/aircraft vs. other industries combined), study location, and incidence versus mortality endpoints. In addition, exposure-response trends were not observed consistently across studies. Interpretation is also limited by the potential impact of uncontrolled confounding by other occupational or lifestyle exposures such as smoking or alcohol consumption. Given these limitations, the currently available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to support a causal relation between occupational TCE exposure and liver/biliary cancer.

  16. Occupational Exposure to Mercury among Workers in a Fluorescent Lamp Factory, Quisna Industrial Zone, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    MA Al-Batanony; GM Abdel-Rasul; MA Abu-Salem; MM Al-Dalatony; HK Allam

    2013-01-01

    Background: With the fast growth in the market of fluorescent lamps, particularly compact fluorescent light, the associated risk of mercury exposure, which is an essential component in all types of fluorescent lamps, has received increasing public attention worldwide. Even low doses of mercury are toxic. Objective: To study the health consequences of occupational exposure to mercury in workers of a fluorescent lamp factory. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 138 workers of a floresce...

  17. Studies of the occupational exposure of Malaysian plantation workers to paraquat.

    OpenAIRE

    Chester, G.; Woollen, B. H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies carried out on the occupational exposure to paraquat of plantation workers in Malaysia comprised quantitative estimates of dermal and respiratory exposure of knapsack spray operators, carriers, and rubber tappers operating under their normal working conditions. Spray operators have been shown to be dermally exposed to paraquat by walking through recently sprayed vegetation and into their own spray, regular adjustment and unblocking of spray nozzles and leakage, and overfilling of knap...

  18. Risk of occupational exposure to the HBV infection in non-clinical healthcare personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Rymer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational risk of blood-borne infections is investigated mostly among nurses and doctors, studies concerning non-clinical health personnel (nCHP being rare. The analysis of the occupational exposure to the hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and the history of vaccination against the HBV in the nCHP group has been the aim of the study. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 458 cases of the occupational exposure to biological agents was conducted: group I – doctors (N = 121, 28%, group II – nursing staff (N = 251, 55%, group III – nCHP (N = 86, 19%. Results: In the group III the source was usually unknown (group: I – 0.83%, II – 11.16%, III – 86.05%, p < 0.001, and the proportion of individuals vaccinated against hepatitis B before the exposure was the lowest (group: I – 98.35%, II – 97.19%, III – 77.91%, p < 0.001. In this group most exposures resulted from injuries caused by needles/sharps deposited in waste sacks (60% or anywhere outside of the medical waste container (5%. The possibility of the HBV infection risk during the exposure was found in 25 cases and was significantly more frequent in the group III. The qualification for the HBV post-exposure prophylaxis was also significantly more frequent in the group III. Conclusions: The exposure to the occupational risk of the HBV infection also concerns the non-clinical healthcare personnel. The non-clinical healthcare personnel comprises one of the main groups of the HBV post-exposure recipients. It is essential to determine the causes of the low hepatitis B vaccination coverage in the nCHP and consider introduction of mandatory vaccination in this group in Poland. Med Pr 2016;67(3:301–310

  19. Occupational exposure to noise in maxillofacial operating theatres: an initial prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Brian Diaz; Prabhu, I S; Cousin, C H S; Cousin, G C S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to excessive noise could impair surgical performance and communication, and lead to long-term hearing loss, but it is only recently that studies on occupational exposure to noise in operating theatres have been published. The aim of this prospective study was to assess mean and peak levels of noise during maxillofacial operations. We found that both were comparable to those in other surgical specialties such as orthopaedics in which power tools are used. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the risk of lung cancer in Canadian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachuri, Linda; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Harris, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Crystalline silica is a recognized carcinogen, but the association with lung cancer at lower levels of exposure has not been well characterized. This study investigated the relationship between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer and the combined effects of cigarette smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in eight Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain a lifetime occupational history and information on other risk factors. Occupational hygienists assigned silica exposures to each job based on concentration, frequency and reliability. Data from 1681 incident lung cancer cases and 2053 controls were analyzed using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models included adjustments for cigarette smoking, lifetime residential second-hand smoke and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions. Relative to the unexposed, increasing duration of silica exposure at any concentration was associated with a significant trend in lung cancer risk (OR ≥ 30 years: 1.67, 1.21-2.24; ptrend  = 0.002). The highest tertile of cumulative silica exposure was associated with lung cancer (OR = 1.81, 1.34-2.42; ptrend  = 0.004) relative to the lowest. Men exposed to silica for ≥30 years with ≥40 cigarette pack-years had the highest risk relative to those unexposed with silica is a risk factor for lung cancer, independently from active and passive smoking, as well as from exposure to other lung carcinogens. © 2013 UICC.

  1. Occupational noise exposure and ischaemic heart disease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, R; Burgess, G; Dippnall, W M; Cherry, N

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that long term exposure to excessive noise can increase the risk of ischaemic heart disease. A case-control design, nested within a cohort of nuclear power workers employed at two sites in England over the period 1950-98, was used. Cases were men who died from ischaemic heart disease (ICD-9: 410-414) aged 75 or under; each was matched to a surviving control of the nearest age who joined the same site at the same time. Personal noise exposure was assessed retrospectively for each man by hygienists using (1) company work histories, (2) noise survey records from 1965-98, and (3) judgements about likely use of hearing protection devices. Men were classified into four groups according to their cumulative exposure to noise, with men whose exposure at the company never exceeded 85dB(A) for at least one year being considered "unexposed". Risks were compared via odds ratios (ORs) using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, height, BMI, and smoking, as measured at recruitment to the company. Analysis was based on 1101 case-control pairs. There was little difference between the exposure groups at recruitment. There was no evidence of increased risk at site A: the ORs for ischaemic heart disease mortality among low, medium, and high exposure categories, compared to unexposed men, being 1.04, 1.00, and 0.77. The corresponding ORs (95% CIs) at site B were 1.15 (0.81-1.65) 1.45 (1.02-2.06), and 1.37 (0.96-1.96). When the comparison was confined to men with at least five years of employment, these dropped to 1.07 (0.64-1.77), 1.33 (0.88-2.01), and 1.21 (0.82-1.79) respectively. The authors did not find statistically robust evidence of increased risk but the estimates at site B are consistent with those in a major cohort study. A strength of the present study is that the validity of noise estimation at site B has been demonstrated elsewhere.

  2. Do regulations protect workers from occupational exposures to carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic (CMR) agents in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havet, Nathalie; Penot, Alexis; Plantier, Morgane; Charbotel, Barbara; Morelle, Magali; Fervers, Béatrice

    2017-12-09

    This article explores the impact of regulations on the implementation of collective protections in France to occupational exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic (CMR) agents. Individual data from the French national cross-sectional survey of occupational hazards conducted in 2010 were analysed. We investigated whether stricter regulations and longer exposures were associated with higher level of collective protection using multivariate logistic regressions. General ventilation, for which effect is limited as collective protection for CMR products, was present in 19% of situations involving CMR agents while isolation chambers, the most effective form of protection, were only very rarely implemented. Multilevel logistic regressions show that exposure situations to products classified as category 1 or 2 by the European Union do not have a higher probability of benefiting from a collective protection measures. Exposures to products with a Binding Occupational Exposure Limit Value selectively benefited from a better level of protection. Exposures to agents entered on the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) list of proven or probable carcinogens benefited more from effective collective protections than products suspected to be carcinogens but not yet classified by IARC. These results suggest that the dissemination of evaluations of carcinogens by the IARC translate into improved protective measures even though the IARC classification has no mandatory impact on regulations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie N; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2010-05-01

    Occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. Though organic solvents in the form of paint fumes are also found in the home environment, no studies have investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. We studied associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth within the Danish National Birth Cohort which consecutively recruited pregnant women from 1996 to 2002 from all over Denmark. Around the 30th pregnancy week, 19,000 mothers were interviewed about use of paint in their residence during pregnancy. The mothers were also asked about smoking habits and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy weight, height, parity and occupation. Information on birth weight and gestational age was obtained from national registers. We found that 45% of the mothers had been exposed to paint fumes in their residence during pregnancy. We found a statistically significant inverse relationship between exposure to paint fumes and the risk of being small for gestational age. There were no statistically significant associations between exposure to paint fumes and birth weight and risk of preterm birth after adjustment for potential confounders. Our results suggest that there are no causal relationship between non-occupational exposure to paint fumes in the residence during pregnancy and fetal growth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Occupational solvent exposure during pregnancy and child behaviour at age 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelé, Fabienne; Muckle, Gina; Costet, Nathalie; Garlantézec, Ronan; Monfort, Christine; Multigner, Luc; Rouget, Florence; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2013-02-01

    Many women who work during pregnancy are occupationally exposed to toxicants. The developing central nervous system is highly vulnerable to neurotoxicants such as solvents. Although the neurotoxicity of solvents to adults is well established, very few studies have examined their effects on children's behaviour following prenatal exposure. Women from the Perturbateurs endocriniens: Étude Longitudinale sur les Anomalies de la Grossesse, l'Infertilité et l'Enfance (PELAGIE) mother-child cohort (including 3005 working women) were recruited in Brittany (France) between 2002 and 2006, at the beginning of pregnancy, to assess occupational exposure to solvents at that time. Child behaviour was documented at age 2 by mothers (n=1278) assessing components of attention deficit/hyperactivity, aggression, opposition and emotionality. We used a multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the association between occupational solvent exposure and children's behaviour. Complementary sensitivity analyses allowed us to handle missing data, due mostly to attrition. 20% of women reported occasional exposure and 31% regular exposure to solvents. Children prenatally exposed were more likely to have higher scores of attention deficit/hyperactivity and aggression, and dose-response relations were observed. The dose-response effect and the high prevalence of children potentially exposed to solvents from their mother's workplace exposure underline the public health relevance of this result. Our results should be replicated in further studies designed to identify which solvents are most deleterious and to assess child behaviour at school age.

  5. Occupational noise exposure of nightclub bar employees in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aoife C; Boyd, Sara M; Henehan, Gary T M; Chambers, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Due to the transposition of the EU Directive 2003/10/EC into Irish Law, the entertainment sector was obligated to comply with the requirements of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007, Chapter 1 Part 5: Control of Noise at Work since February 2008. Compliance with the Noise Regulations was examined in 9 nightclubs in Ireland. The typical daily noise exposure of 19 bar employees was measured using 2 logging dosimeters and a Type 1 fixed position sound level meter. Physical site inspections identified nightclub noise control measures. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess the managers and employees awareness of the noise legislation. The average bar employee daily noise exposure (L(EX, 8h)) was 92 dBA, almost 4 times more than the accepted legal limit. None of the venues examined were fully compliant with the requirements of the 2007 Noise Regulations, and awareness of this legislation was limited.

  6. Occupational noise exposure of nightclub bar employees in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife C Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the transposition of the EU Directive 2003/10/EC into Irish Law, the entertainment sector was obligated to comply with the requirements of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application Regulations 2007, Chapter 1 Part 5: Control of Noise at Work since February 2008. Compliance with the Noise Regulations was examined in 9 nightclubs in Ireland. The typical daily noise exposure of 19 bar employees was measured using 2 logging dosimeters and a Type 1 fixed position sound level meter. Physical site inspections identified nightclub noise control measures. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess the managers and employees awareness of the noise legislation. The average bar employee daily noise exposure (L EX, 8h was 92 dBA, almost 4 times more than the accepted legal limit. None of the venues examined were fully compliant with the requirements of the 2007 Noise Regulations, and awareness of this legislation was limited.

  7. Hepatitis B Antigenaemia (HbS Ag): Risk Of Occupational Exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implications of these findings are discussed, especially with regards, to the risk of occupational exposure of laboratory and health workers. The provision of appropriate laboratory safety measures and regulations, and compliance with these are emphasized, especially in this environment. KEY WORDS: Hepatitis B virus ...

  8. Comet assay as a human biomonitoring tool: application in occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-05-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs is associated with genotoxic effects, although comet assay analyzed parameters were higher in exposed comparing with controls, were not significant. Also the study of the susceptibility biomarkers did not show statistical significant differences, the small size of our sample hampered the finding of a possible association, let alone a causality relationship.

  9. [Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and sex ratio of the offspring: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shu-Hui; Liu, Yi-Ting; Liu, Yang

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and the sex ratio of the offspring. We searched various databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, OVID, Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wanfang Database, for the literature relevant to the association of paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation with the sex ratio of the offspring. We conducted a meta-analysis on their correlation using Stata 11.0. There was no statistically significant difference in the sex ratio between the offspring with paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and those without (pooled OR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.95 -1.05], P = 0.875). Subgroup analysis of both case-control and cohort studies revealed no significant difference (pooled OR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.104 and pooled OR = 0.98 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.186, respectively). Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation is not correlated with the sex ratio of the offspring.

  10. ESBL carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers is associated with occupational exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen, W.; Gompel, Van L.; Schmitt, H.; Liakopoulos, A.; Heres, L.; Urlings, B.A.; Mevius, D.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) carriage in slaughterhouse workers and the association with occupational exposure to slaughter animals and products. Stool samples from 334 employees in a Dutch pig slaughterhouse were obtained. Presence of ESBL was determined by

  11. Interactions between SERPINA1 PiMZ genotype, occupational exposure and lung function decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, A. J.; Thun, G. A.; Imboden, M.; Ferrarotti, I.; Keidel, D.; Künzli, N.; Kromhout, H.; Miedinger, D.; Phuleria, H.; Rochat, T.; Russi, E. W.; Schindler, C.; Schwartz, J.; Vermeulen, R.; Luisetti, M.; Probst-Hensch, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated interactions between SERPINA1 PiMZ genotype, associated with intermediate α1-antitrysin deficiency, with outdoor particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), and occupational exposure to vapours, dusts, gases and fumes (VGDF), and their effects on annual change in lung function.

  12. Climate change and occupational allergies: an overview on biological pollution, exposure and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Concetta D 'ovidio, Maria; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; D 'amato, Gennaro; Cecchi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Climate change, air pollution, temperature increase and other environmental variables are modifying air quality, contributing to the increase of prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases. Allergies are complex diseases characterized by multilevel interactions between individual susceptibility, response to immune modulation and environmental exposures to physical, chemical and biological agents. Occupational allergies introduce a further complexity to these relationsh...

  13. Occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors and lymphoma risk in a multi-centric European study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costas, L.; Infante-Rivard, C.; Zock, J.P.; Tongeren, M. van; Boffetta, P.; Cusson, A.; Robles, C.; Casabonne, D.; Benavente, Y.; Becker, N.; Brennan, P.; Foretova, L.; Maynadié, M.; Staines, A.; Nieters, A.; Cocco, P.; Sanjose, S. de

    2015-01-01

    Background: Incidence rates of lymphoma are usually higher in men than in women, and oestrogens may protect against lymphoma. Methods: We evaluated occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) among 2457 controls and 2178 incident lymphoma cases and subtypes from the European

  14. Epidemiological studies of the relationship between occupational exposures and chronic non-specific lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heederik, D.J.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis the relationship between occupational exposures, lung function and Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease is studied. The study comprises an epidemiological analysis of data from the British Pneumoconiosis Field Research among coal miners and an analysis of data gathered

  15. Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Koomen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and

  16. Approach to setting occupational exposure limits for sensory irritants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Arts, J.H.E.; Mojet, J.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes how scientists in the Netherlands set occupational exposure limits (OELs) for sensory irritants. When they tackle this issue, a number of key questions need to be answered. For example, did the studies indeed measure sensory irritation and not cytotoxicity? When the irritant

  17. Occupational exposure in hemodynamic; Exposicao ocupacional em hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Amanda J.; Fernandes, Ivani M.; Silva, Paula P. Nou; Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G., E-mail: ajsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: imfernandes@ipen.b, E-mail: ppsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: gmsordi@ipen.b, E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper has an objective to perform a radiometric survey at a hemodynamic service. Besides, it was intended to evaluate the effective dose of health professionals and to provide data which can contribute with minimization of exposures during the realization of hemodynamic procedure. The radiometric survey was realized in the real environment of work simulating the conditions of a hemodynamic study with a ionization chamber

  18. Occupational mouse allergen exposure among non-mouse handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin-Brosnan, Jean; Paigen, Beverly; Hagberg, Karol A; Langley, Stephen; O'Neil, Elise A; Krevans, Mary; Eggleston, Peyton A; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed mouse allergen exposure across a range of jobs, including non-mouse handling jobs, at a mouse facility. Baseline data from 220 new employees enrolled in the Jackson Laboratory (JAXCohort) were analyzed. The baseline assessment included a questionnaire, allergy skin testing, and spirometry. Exposure assessments consisted of collection of two full-shift breathing zone air samples during a 1-week period. Air samples were analyzed for mouse allergen content, and the mean concentration of the two shifts represented mouse allergen exposure for that employee. The mean age of the 220 participants was 33 years. Ten percent reported current asthma and 56% were atopic. Thirty-eight percent were animal caretakers, 20% scientists, 20% administrative/support personnel, 10% materials/supplies handlers, and 9% laboratory technicians. Sixty percent of the population handled mice. Eighty-two percent of study participants had detectable breathing zone mouse allergen, and breathing zone mouse allergen concentrations were 1.02 ng/m³ (0.13-6.91) (median [interquartile range (IQR)]. Although mouse handlers had significantly higher concentrations of breathing zone mouse allergen than non-handlers (median [IQR]: 4.13 ng/m³ [0.69-12.12] and 0.21 ng/m³ [below detection (BD)-0.63], respectively; p < 0.001), 66% of non-handlers had detectable breathing zone mouse allergen. Mouse allergen concentrations among administrative/support personnel and materials/supplies handlers, jobs that generally do not entail handling mice, were median [IQR]: 0.23 ng/m³ [BD-0.59] and 0.63 ng/m³ [BD-18.91], respectively. Seventy-one percent of administrative/support personnel, and 68% of materials/supplies handlers had detectable breathing zone mouse allergen. As many as half of non-mouse handlers may have levels of exposure that are similar to levels observed among mouse handlers.

  19. Occupational exposure to fungi and particles in animal feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; Carolino, Elisabete; Sabino, Raquel; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Viegas, Susana

    Very few studies regarding fungal and particulate matter (PM) exposure in feed industry have been reported, although such contaminants are likely to be a significant contributing factor to several symptoms reported among workers. The purpose of this study has been to characterize fungal and dust exposure in one Portuguese feed industry. Air and surface samples were collected and subject to further macro- and microscopic observations. In addition we collected other air samples in order to perform real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of genes from Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus complexes as well as Stachybotrys chartarum. Additionally, two exposure metrics were considered - particle mass concentration (PMC), measured in 5 different sizes (PM0.5, PM1, PM2.5, PM5, PM10), and particle number concentration (PNC) based on results given in 6 different sizes in terms of diameter (0.3 μm, 0.5 μm, 1 μm, 2.5 μm, 5 μm and 10 μm). Species from the Aspergillus fumigatus complex were the most abundant in air (46.6%) and in surfaces, Penicillium genus was the most frequently found (32%). The only DNA was detected from A. fumigatus complex. The most prevalent in dust samples were smaller particles which may reach deep into the respiratory system and trigger not only local effects but also the systemic ones. Future research work must be developed aiming at assessing the real health effects of these co-exposures. Med Pr 2016;67(2):143-154. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Lifetime occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes is associated with bronchitis symptoms and higher diffusion capacity in COPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Esther; Ferrer, Jaume; Zock, Jan Paul; Serra, Ignasi; Antó, Josep M.; De Batlle, Jordi; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Donaire-González, David; Benet, Marta; Balcells, Eva; Monsó, Eduard; Gayete, Àngel; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Guerra, Stefano; Gea, Joaquim; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Vollmer, Ivan; Barberà, Joan Albert; Gómez, Federico P.; Paré, Carles; Roca, Josep; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Agustí, Àlvar; Freixa, Xavier; Rodriguez, Diego A.; Gimeno, Elena; Portillo, Karina; Andreu, Jordi; Pallissa, Esther; Casan, Pere; Güell, Rosa; Giménez, Ana; Marín, Alicia; Morera, Josep; Farrero, Eva; Escarrabill, Joan; Ferrer, Antoni; Sauleda, Jaume; Togores, Bernat; Gáldiz, Juan Bautista; López, Lorena; Belda, José

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes has been associated with reduced FEV1 and sputum production in COPD patients. The effect of occupational exposure on other characteristics of COPD, especially those reflecting emphysema, has not been studied in these patients.\

  1. Occupational Animal Exposure Among Persons with Campylobacteriosis and Cryptosporidiosis - Nebraska, 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chia-Ping; Stover, Derry T; Buss, Bryan F; Carlson, Anna V; Luckhaupt, Sara E

    2017-09-15

    Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2). This exposure route is of particular interest in Nebraska, where animal agriculture and associated industries are an important part of the state's economy. To estimate the percentage of disease that might be related to occupational animal exposure in Nebraska, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services (NDHHS) and CDC reviewed deidentified investigation reports from 2005 to 2015 of cases of campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis among Nebraska residents aged ≥14 years. Case investigation notes were searched for evidence of occupational animal exposures, which were classified into discrete categories based on industry, animal/meat, and specific work activity/exposure. Occupational animal exposure was identified in 16.6% of 3,352 campylobacteriosis and 8.7% of 1,070 cryptosporidiosis cases, among which animal production (e.g., farming or ranching) was the most commonly mentioned industry type (68.2% and 78.5%, respectively), followed by employment in animal slaughter and processing facilities (16.3% and 5.4%, respectively). Among animal/meat occupational exposures, cattle/beef was most commonly mentioned, with exposure to feedlots (concentrated animal feeding operations in which animals are fed on stored feeds) reported in 29.9% of campylobacteriosis and 7.9% of cryptosporidiosis cases. Close contact with animals and manure in feedlots and other farm settings might place

  2. Environmental and Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Human Sperm Parameters: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martenies, Sheena E.; Perry, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    Of continuing concern are the associations between environmental or occupational exposures to pesticides and semen quality parameters. Prior research has indicated that there may be associations between exposure to pesticides of a variety of classes and decreased sperm health. The intent of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence related to pesticide exposures and commonly used semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility and morphology. The recent literature was searched for studies published between January, 2007 and August, 2012 that focused on environmental or occupational pesticide exposures. Included in the review are 17 studies, 15 of which reported significant associations between exposure to pesticides and semen quality indicators. Two studies also investigated the roles genetic polymorphisms may play in the strength or directions of these associations. Specific pesticides targeted for study included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and abamectin. Pyrethroids and organophosphates were analyzed as classes of pesticides rather than as individual compounds, primarily due to the limitations of exposure assessment techniques. Overall, a majority of the studies reported significant associations between pesticide exposure and sperm parameters. A decrease in sperm concentration was the most commonly reported finding among all of the pesticide classes investigated. Decreased motility was also associated with exposures to each of the pesticide classes, although these findings were less frequent across studies. An association between pesticide exposure and sperm morphology was less clear, with only two studies reporting an association. The evidence presented in this review continues to support the hypothesis that exposures to pesticides at environmentally or occupationally relevant levels may be associated with decreased sperm health. Future work in this area should focus on associations between specific

  3. Monitoring of occupational exposure of mild steel welders to ozone and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Mansour R; Esmaeilzadeh, Morteza; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Salehpour, Sousan

    2011-01-01

    Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding are widely used for mild steel segments in basic metal industries. Pulmonary problems such as asthma, pulmonary inflammation, hyper-responsiveness of airways and higher susceptibility to infections are reported as the result of occupational exposure of welders to ozone and nitrogen oxides. Potent oxidizing agents like ozone and nitrogen oxides are also reported to be a precursor for respiratory problems and cause lipid peroxidation of membranes. A total of 43 nonsmoking MIG and TIG welders and 41 nonsmoking workers without appreciable exposure to any chemicals as the control population were chosen to participate in this study. Occupational exposure to ozone was monitored according to the validated methods. Malondialdehyde (MDA) of blood serum as a biomarker for lipid peroxidation was analyzed using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Data obtained from this study were analyzed using t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. A total of 88.4% and 74.4% of welders had exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide higher than the permissible limit of occupational exposure, respectively. Generally, exposure of MIG welders to ozone was significantly higher than TIG welders (P = 0.006). However, exposure to nitrogen dioxide gas was comparable in both groups. Serum MDA of welders was significantly higher than that of the control group (P = 0.001). A significant correlation was detected between ozone exposure and level of serum malondialdehyde. Such correlation was not observed for nitrogen dioxide exposure. Considering the high exposure of welders to ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and higher level of serum malondialdehyde in them compared to controls, risk management is recommended for this group of workers.

  4. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, C K; Schuepfer, P; Boiteux, P, E-mail: chuynh@hospvd.c [Institute for Work and Health, rue du Bugnon 21, CH-1005 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of mug.g{sup -1} or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  5. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of μg.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  6. Retrospective Assessment of Occupational Exposures for the GENEVA Study of ALS among Military Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Anila; Woskie, Susan R; Gore, Rebecca; Sandler, Dale P; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the retrospective exposure assessment conducted to assess occupational exposures for the Genes and Environmental Exposures in Veterans (GENEVA) study, a case-control study investigating the joint contribution of genetics and environmental exposures to the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among military veterans. Occupational histories for 1597 study participants collected as part of the GENEVA study were the basis for this retrospective exposure assessment. The data set included 15528 jobs held from 1924 to 2010, representing 4539 unique industry and occupation (I&O) combinations. Three industrial hygiene experts were recruited to independently rate occupational exposures to specific agents previously associated with an increased risk of ALS. Utilizing information on industry, job title, tasks performed, and materials used for each job held, raters assigned exposures associated with each I&O for the 'current time' defined as the period after 1995 (post-1995). The exposure assessment targeted agents identified as potential occupational risk factors for ALS. Experts rated semi-quantitatively exposure intensity in five exposure categories (0-4) for Group A agents (lead, formaldehyde, hydrocarbon solvents, and chlorinated solvents) and qualitatively as yes/no (1/0) exposed for Group B agents (mercury, selenium, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls, electromagnetic field, pesticides, and viral agents). Confidence scores (0-3) were reported for every I&O rated based on raters' experience with that industry and/or job. Each I&O was assigned an average exposure score of the raters and an alternative exposure rating was developed for each I&O by excluding low confidence (<2) scores before averaging. Exposure reconstruction for jobs held pre-1995 was done by comparing exposure data extracted from the OSHA Chemical Exposure and Health Database (CEHD) during pre-1995 and post-1995. For agents with limited exposure data in the CEHD, pre-1995

  7. Ambient and at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum lipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlien-Søborg, Mai C; Schmedes, Astrid S; Stokholm, Z A; Grynderup, M B; Bonde, J P; Jensen, C S; Hansen, Å M; Frederiksen, T W; Kristiansen, J; Christensen, K L; Vestergaard, J M; Lund, S P; Kolstad, H A

    2016-10-01

    Occupational and residential noise exposure has been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Alteration of serum lipid levels has been proposed as a possible causal pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between ambient and at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides when accounting for well-established predictors of lipid levels. This cross-sectional study included 424 industrial workers and 84 financial workers to obtain contrast in noise exposure levels. They provided a serum sample and wore portable dosimeters that every 5-s recorded ambient noise exposure levels during a 24-h period. We extracted measurements obtained during work and calculated the full-shift mean ambient noise level. For 331 workers who kept a diary on the use of a hearing protection device (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every noise recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the mean full-shift noise exposure level at the ear. Mean ambient noise level was 79.9 dB (A) [range 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at the ear 77.8 dB (A) [range 55.0-94.2]. Ambient and at-the-ear noise levels were strongly associated with increasing levels of triglycerides, cholesterol-HDL ratio, and decreasing levels of HDL-cholesterol, but only in unadjusted analyses that did not account for HPD use and other risk factors. No associations between ambient or at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum lipid levels were observed. This indicates that a causal pathway between occupational and residential noise exposure and cardiovascular disease does not include alteration of lipid levels.

  8. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wanhyung; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Lee, Seunghyun; Song, Bo Mi; Hong, Seri; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2016-11-01

    Crystalline silica is a widely used industrial material that is readily available worldwide, and is one of the most common types of particulate mineral pollutants. It has been classified as a group 1 human carcinogen of the respiratory system; however, whether it is linked to gastric cancer remains uncertain. We conducted a systemic review and meta-analyses to search for evidence of the relationship between gastric cancer and occupational exposure to crystalline silica. We searched for articles on occupations involving silica exposure and gastric cancer studies up to December 2014. Pooled-risk estimates of the association between occupational crystalline silica exposure and risk of gastric cancer were calculated by a random effects model. Metaregression analyses of industry type and histological confirmation status, study design and industrial subgroup analyses were performed. 29 articles, including 9 case-control and 20 cohort studies, were analysed. The overall summary effects size was 1.25 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.34) for the association of occupational silica exposure with gastric cancer. Both heterogeneity and publication bias were partially attenuated after subgroup analyses. Heterogeneity of studies was attenuated after metaregression by industry. Higher overall effects were observed in the mining and foundry industries. We found a significant relationship between occupational crystalline silica exposure and gastric cancer. Our results were strengthened by various subgroup analyses and, considering the biological plausibility of our premise, further studies are required to better understand this association. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Working conditions and occupational risk exposure in employees driving for work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Emmanuel; Ndagire, Sheba; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Hours, Martine; Charbotel, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of the occupational constraints and exposures to which employees facing road risk at work are subject was performed, with comparison versus non-exposed employees. Objective was to improve knowledge of the characteristics of workers exposed to road risk in France and of the concomitant occupational constraints. The descriptive study was based on data from the 2010 SUMER survey (Medical Monitoring of Occupational Risk Exposure: Surveillance Médicale des Expositions aux Risques professionnels), which included data not only on road risk exposure at work but also on a range of socio-occupational factors and working conditions. The main variable of interest was "driving (car, truck, bus, coach, etc.) on public thoroughfares" for work (during the last week of work). This was a dichotomous "Yes/No" variable, distinguishing employees who drove for work; it also comprised 4-step weekly exposure duration: company executives (PCS 36). Employees with driving exposure more often worked in small businesses or establishments. Constraints in terms of schedule and work-time were more frequent in employees with driving exposure. Constraints in terms of work rhythm were more frequent in non-exposed employees, with the exception of external demands requiring immediate response. On the Karasek's Job Demand-Control Model, employees with driving exposure less often had low decision latitude. Prevalence of job-strain was also lower, as was prevalence of "iso-strain" (combination of job-strain and social isolation). Employees with driving exposure were less often concerned by hostile behavior and, when they did report such psychological violence (inspired on the Leymann questionnaire), it was significantly more frequently due to clients, users or patients. Employees with driving exposure at work showed several specificities. The present study, based on a representative nationwide survey of employees, confirmed the existence of differences in working conditions between employees

  10. Chickenpox ARDS in a health care worker following occupational exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Knaggs, A

    2012-02-03

    A case is described of chickenpox acute respiratory distress syndrome in an ambulance driver after the inter-hospital transfer of a patient known to have chickenpox pneumonia. Following this exposure, he neither avoided patient contact nor received varicella zoster immune globulin. He subsequently required 13 days of ventilatory support before making a full recovery. The case described supports the contention that health care workers should be screened by serology for immunity to chickenpox before patient contact occurs, with subsequent vaccination of those who are non-immune, when the vaccine becomes available.

  11. Mortality and cancer morbidity after heavy occupational fluoride exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P; Juel, K; Jensen, Ole Møller

    1985-01-01

    with specific mortality rates for the Copenhagen area, violent death (and suicide taken alone) remained in significant excess among employees hired before 1940. Cancer morbidity data for the 35-year period 1943-1977 showed 78 cases of malignant neoplasms in the cryolite workers against 53.2 expected for Denmark...... as a whole and 67.9 for Copenhagen. The excess was almost entirely due to an excess number of respiratory cancers. Cancer morbidity showed no apparent correlation with length of employment or time from first exposure. Because detailed information on predictors for respiratory cancer was unavailable...

  12. Occupational Exposure to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes During Commercial Production Synthesis and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Eelco; Bekker, Cindy; Fransman, Wouter; Brouwer, Derk; Tromp, Peter; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Godderis, Lode; Hoet, Peter; Lan, Qing; Silverman, Debra; Vermeulen, Roel; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2016-04-01

    The world-wide production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has increased substantially in the last decade, leading to occupational exposures. There is a paucity of exposure data of workers involved in the commercial production of CNTs. The goals of this study were to assess personal exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) during the synthesis and handling of MWCNTs in a commercial production facility and to link these exposure levels to specific activities. Personal full-shift filter-based samples were collected, during commercial production and handling of MWCNTs, R&D activities, and office work. The concentrations of MWCNT were evaluated on the basis of EC concentrations. Associations were studied between observed MWCNT exposure levels and location and activities. SEM analyses showed MWCNTs, present as agglomerates ranging between 200 nm and 100 µm. Exposure levels of MWCNTs observed in the production area during the full scale synthesis of MWCNTs (N = 23) were comparable to levels observed during further handling of MWCNTs (N = 19): (GM (95% lower confidence limit-95% upper confidence limit)) 41 μg m(-3) (20-88) versus 43 μg m(-3) (22-86), respectively. In the R&D area (N = 11) and the office (N = 5), exposure levels of MWCNTs were significantly (P production area, whereas increased exposure levels in the R&D area were related to handling of MWCNTs powder. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  13. Relationship between exposure to industrial noise and serum lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Bahabad, Afshin Malek; Moghaddam, Azadeh Nahan

    2011-01-01

    Aim of our study was to investigate the effects of exposure to industrial noise on serum lipid profile among workers who are exposed to noise at work. In a historical cohort study, we recruited 154 and 146 male workers as high and low level noise exposure groups respectively. We defined workers with at least one year exposure to noise level more than 90 dB as high exposure group, and those with exposure to less than 80 dB as low exposure group. Afterwards, in the fasting blood specimens of participants we measured serum Triglyceride (TG), total Cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL). Mean of TG, TC, HDL and LDL for low exposure group were 148, 189, 38 and 103 mg/dl and for high exposure group were 237, 189, 37 and 104 mg/dl respectively. Mean serum TG between two groups was different. Even after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and work hours per week, serum TG among high exposure group was 89 mg/dl higher than low exposure group and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.00). There was no significant difference between two groups in TC, LDL and HDL levels. This study did not find a statistically significant relationship between exposure to noise and serum TC, LDL and HDL, but TG in two groups was different and this difference was statistically significant.

  14. Relationship Between Exposure to Industrial Noise and Serum Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mehrdad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of our study was to investigate the effects of exposure to industrial noise on serum lipid profile among workers who are exposed to noise at work. In a historical cohort study, we recruited 154 and 146 male workers as high and low level noise exposure groups respectively. We defined workers with at least one year exposure to noise level more than 90 dB as high exposure group, and those with exposure to less than 80 dB as low exposure group. Afterwards, in the fasting blood specimens of participants we measured serum Triglyceride (TG, total Cholesterol (TC, high and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL. Mean of TG, TC, HDL and LDL for low exposure group were 148, 189, 38 and 103 mg/dl and for high exposure group were 237, 189, 37 and 104 mg/dl respectively. Mean serum TG between two groups was different. Even after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and work hours per week, serum TG among high exposure group was 89 mg/dl higher than low exposure group and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.00. There was no significant difference between two groups in TC, LDL and HDL levels. This study did not find a statistically significant relationship between exposure to noise and serum TC, LDL and HDL, but TG in two groups was different and this difference was statistically significant.

  15. Occupational Lead Exposure and Associations with Selected Cancers: The Shanghai Men's and Women's Health Study Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Linda M; Friesen, Melissa C; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Koh, Dong-Hee; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Locke, Sarah J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Purdue, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of occupational lead exposure have suggested increased risks of cancers of the stomach, lung, kidney, brain, and meninges; however, the totality of the evidence is inconsistent. We investigated the relationship between occupational lead exposure and cancer incidence at the five abovementioned sites in two prospective cohorts in Shanghai, China. Annual job/industry-specific estimates of lead fume and lead dust exposure, derived from a statistical model combining expert lead intensity ratings with inspection measurements, were applied to the lifetime work histories of participants from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS; n = 73,363) and the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS; n = 61,379) to estimate cumulative exposure to lead fume and lead dust. These metrics were then combined into an overall occupational lead exposure variable. Cohort-specific relative hazard rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing exposed and unexposed participants were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression and combined by meta-analysis. The proportions of SWHS and SMHS participants with estimated occupational lead exposure were 8.9% and 6.9%, respectively. Lead exposure was positively associated with meningioma risk in women only (n = 38 unexposed and 9 exposed cases; RR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.0), particularly with above-median cumulative exposure (RR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.3, 7.4). However, all 12 meningioma cases among men were classified as unexposed to lead. We also observed non-significant associations with lead exposure for cancers of the kidney (n = 157 unexposed and 17 ever exposed cases; RR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.9, 2.3) and brain (n = 67 unexposed and 10 ever exposed cases; RR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.7, 4.8) overall. Our findings, though limited by small numbers of cases, suggest that lead is associated with the risk of several cancers in women and men. Liao LM, Friesen MC, Xiang YB, Cai H, Koh DH, Ji BT, Yang G, Li HL, Locke SJ, Rothman N

  16. Prospective risk of rheumatologic disease associated with occupational exposure in a cohort of male construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Paul D; Järvholm, Bengt; Torén, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    The association between occupational exposure and autoimmune disease is well recognized for silica, and suspected for other inhalants. We used a large cohort to estimate the risks of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis associated with silica and other occupational exposures. We analyzed data for male Swedish construction industry employees. Exposure was defined by a job-exposure matrix for silica and for other inorganic dusts; those with other job-exposure matrix exposures but not to either of the 2 inorganic dust categories were excluded. National hospital treatment data were linked for International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) Revision-coded diagnoses of rheumatoid arthritis (seronegative and positive), systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis. The 2 occupational exposures were tested as independent predictors of prospective hospital-based treatment for these diagnoses using age-adjusted Poisson multivariable regression analyses to calculate relative risk (RR). We analyzed hospital-based treatment data (1997 through 2010) for 240,983 men aged 30 to 84 years. There were 713 incident cases of rheumatoid arthritis (467 seropositive, 195 seronegative, 51 not classified) and 128 cases combined for systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis. Adjusted for smoking and age, the 2 occupational exposures (silica and other inorganic dusts) were each associated with increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis combined: RR 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.64) and RR 1.31 (95% CI, 1.11-1.53), respectively. Among ever smokers, both silica and other inorganic dust exposure were associated with increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RRs 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11-1.68 and 1.42; 95% CI, 1.17-1.73, respectively), while among never smokers, neither exposure was associated with statistically

  17. Patient doses and occupational exposure in a hybrid operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, C; Pérez-García, H; Agulla, M; Torres, R; Miguel, D; Del Castillo, A; Flota, C M; Alonso, D; de Frutos, J; Vaquero, C

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to characterize the radiation exposure to patients and workers in a new vascular hybrid operating room during X-ray-guided procedures. During one year, data from 260 interventions performed in a hybrid operating room equipped with a Siemens Artis Zeego angiography system were monitored. The patient doses were analysed using the following parameters: radiation time, kerma-area product, patient entrance reference point dose and peak skin dose. Staff radiation exposure and ambient dose equivalent were also measured using direct reading dosimeters and thermoluminescent dosimeters. The radiation time, kerma-area product, patient entrance reference point dose and peak skin dose were, on average, 19:15min, 67Gy·cm(2), 0.41Gy and 0.23Gy, respectively. Although the contribution of the acquisition mode was smaller than 5% in terms of the radiation time, this mode accounted for more than 60% of the effective dose per patient. All of the worker dose measurements remained below the limits established by law. The working conditions in the hybrid operating room HOR are safe in terms of patient and staff radiation protection. Nevertheless, doses are highly dependent on the workload; thus, further research is necessary to evaluate any possible radiological deviation of the daily working conditions in the HOR. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) and the risk of uveal melanoma using international data of a case-control study from nine European countries. METHODS: After exclusion of proxy interviews, 280 cases and 3084 control......-disrupting agents. We constructed several exposure scores, taking into account intensity of exposure, use of personal protective equipment, and exposure duration. We calculated unconditional logistic regression analyses, adjusting for country, age, sex, eye color and a history of ocular damage due to intense...... ultraviolet (UV) exposure. RESULTS: The overall exposure prevalence to EDC was low reaching a maximum of 11% for heavy metals with endocrine-disrupting properties. Although working in some industries was associated with increased melanoma risk [such as dry cleaning: odds ratio (OR) 6.15, 95% confidence...

  19. Effect of noise exposure on occupational injuries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad-Sardrudi, Hossein; Dormohammadi, Ali; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2012-12-13

    Noise exposure is the most frequent occupational factor which may increase the risk of work-related injuries. The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between occupational injuries and noise exposure as well as hearing loss. This study was conducted from April 2008 to March 2009 on 1062 workers in the Tabriz Tractor Manufacturing Plant. Sound pressure level (SPL) ≥85 dB in the workplace was considered as the independent variable (exposure) and physical occupational injuries as the dependent variable (outcome). Data were extracted from the workers' medical records using a checklist. Of 1062 volunteers, 392 (36.9%) were exposed (with SPL≥85 dB) and 670 (63.1%) were unexposed (with SPLnoise exposure and hearing impairment have adverse effect on work safety and can increase the probability of work-related injuries. This means reducing noise exposure can contribute to increase safety in workplaces where noise is a factor. Furthermore, using assistive listening devices may reduce risk of work injuries among hearing-impaired workers.

  20. Knowledge of Occupational Chemical Exposure and Smoking Behavior in Korean Immigrant Drycleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Dal Lae; Duffy, Sonia A; Hong, OiSaeng

    2016-02-01

    To examine the association between knowledge of chemical exposure at work and cigarette smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a total of 151 Korean immigrant drycleaners (mean age = 49 years, 64 % male) from 96 drycleaning shops in a Midwestern state. The data were collected on demographic and work-related characteristics, knowledge of occupational chemical exposure, health concerns associated with chemical exposure, and smoking status. Approximately 25 % of participants were current smokers. The multivariate regression showed that greater knowledge of occupational chemical exposures was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of current smoking [odds ratio (OR) .63; 95 % confidence interval (CI) .41-.95]. Furthermore, male gender (OR 6.32; 95 % CI 1.66-24.00), shorter-term residence in the US (OR .93; 95 % CI .88-.98), and having multiple duties (OR 2.76; 95 % CI 1.01-7.51) were important covariates associated with current smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. Knowledge on occupational chemical exposure was significantly associated with smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. Smoking cessation programs for this population should consider integrated approaches that incorporate work environment factors into individual and sociocultural components.

  1. Pleural mesothelioma: Case-report of uncommon occupational asbestos exposure in a small furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, Enrico; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma is no longer disputed, although it is not always easy to trace past occupational exposure. This report describes a case of uncommon asbestos exposure of a small furniture industry worker, who subsequently died of pleural malignant mesothelioma, to stress the crucial importance of a full reconstruction of the occupational history, both for legal and compensation purposes. Sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma was diagnosed in a 70-year-old man, who was previously employed as a carpenter in a small furniture industry. He worked for about 6 years in the small factory, was exposed to asbestos during the assembly of the furniture inspired by classical architecture, in which asbestos cement tubes were used to reproduce classical columns. During this production process no specific work safety measures were applied, nor masks or local aspirators. No extra-professional exposure to asbestos was identified. This mesothelioma case was investigated by the Public Prosecutor's assignment that commissioned expert evidence on the legal accountability for the disease. Despite its uncommon expositive circumstance, the length of latency (about 30 years), the duration of exposure, the clinical and histochemical features are all consistent with literature evidence, accounting for the occupational origin of this malignancy. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Xeno-oestrogenic activity in serum as marker of occupational pesticide exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2007-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of currently used pesticides are reported to possess oestrogen-like properties or to disturb the endocrine system in other ways. Objectives: To investigate if xeno-oestrogenic activity in serum can be used as a biomarker of the combined exposure to pesticides...... with oestrogen-like properties in an occupational setting. Methods: Serum samples were obtained from two separate cohorts representing non-pregnant and pregnant female greenhouse workers in Denmark. Serum samples from 270 non-pregnant women and 173 pregnant women were analysed for xeno-oestrogenic activity...... of the combined exposure to mixtures of oestrogen-like pesticides. Although the individual pesticides responsible for the xeno-oestrogenic response were not identified, the study demonstrates that, even within highly-controlled greenhouse operations, occupational exposure to oestrogen-like pesticides can result...

  3. Unconsented HIV testing in cases of occupational exposure: ethics, law, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Ethan; Macklin, Ruth

    2012-10-01

    Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) has substantially reduced the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) after an occupational exposure; nevertheless, exposure to HIV remains a concern for emergency department providers. According to published guidelines, PEP should be taken only when source patients are HIV-positive or have risk factors for HIV. Initiating PEP when source patients are uninfected puts exposed persons at risk from taking toxic drugs with no compensating benefit. Forgoing PEP if the source is infected results in increased risk of acquiring HIV. What should be done if source patients refuse HIV testing? Is it justifiable to test the blood of these patients over their autonomous objection? The authors review current law and policy and perform an ethical analysis to determine if laws permitting unconsented testing in cases of occupational exposure can be ethically justified. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  4. Epigenetic alterations and occupational exposure to benzene, fibers, and heavy metals associated with tumor development (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Rossella; Marconi, Andrea; Di Salvatore, Valentina; Franco, Sabrina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Libra, Massimo

    2017-05-01

    The chronic occupational exposure to contaminants and carcinogens leads to the development of cancer. Over the past decades, many carcinogens have been found in the occupational environment and their presence is often associated with an increased incidence of cancer. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the majority of carcinogens are classified as 'probable' and 'possible' human carcinogens, while, direct evidence of carcinogenicity is provided in epidemiological and experimental studies. Additionally, accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations may be early indicators of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogen exposure. In the present review, the relationship between exposures to benzene, mineral fibers, metals and epigenetic alterations are discussed as the most important cancer risk factors during work activities.

  5. Wet-work Exposure: A Main Risk Factor for Occupational Hand Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Behroozy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wet-work can be defined as activities where workers have to immerse their hands in liquids for >2 hours per shift, or wear waterproof (occlusive gloves for a corresponding amount of time, or wash their hands >20 times per shift. This review considers the recent literature on wet-work exposure, and examines wet-work as a main risk factor for developing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed description of wet-work exposure among specific occupational groups who extensively deal with water and other liquids in their occupations. Furthermore, it highlights the extent and importance of the subsequent adverse health effects caused by exposure to wet-work.

  6. A Formaldehyde Exposure Assessment Tool for Occupants of FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Spears, Michael; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    The report outlines the methodology used to develop a web-based tool to assess the formaldehyde exposure of the occupants of Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) temporary housing units (THUs) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. Linear regression models were built using available data to retrospectively estimate the indoor temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde emission factors and concentration, and hence the formaldehyde exposures. The interactive web-tool allows the user to define the inputs to the model to evaluate formaldehyde exposures for different scenarios.

  7. [Principles of establishing occupational exposure limits for carcinogens in Poland and in other EU countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowroń, Jolanta; Czerczak, Slawomir

    2013-01-01

    The principles of determining exposure limits for carcinogens adopted in Poland, the European Union and in other selected countries of the EC are discussed in this article. Carcinogens and/or mutagens pose a direct health risk to people exposed to them. If carcinogens cannot be eliminated from the work and living environments, their exposure should be kept at the lowest possible level. To assess health risk for carcinogens it is necessary to determine the probability of developing a disease or of death from cancer as a result of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances.

  8. Principles of establishing occupational exposure limits for carcinogens in Poland and in other EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Skowroń

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The principles of determining exposure limits for carcinogens adopted in Poland, the European Union and in other selected countries of the EC are discussed in this article. Carcinogens and/or mutagens pose a direct health risk to people exposed to them. If carcinogens cannot be eliminated from the work and living environments, their exposure should be kept at the lowest possible level. To assess health risk for carcinogens it is necessary to determine the probability of developing a disease or of death from cancer as a result of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. Med Pr 2013;64(4:541–563

  9. Occupational exposures to thorium in two Brazilian niobium plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias da Cunha, K.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Barros Leite, C.V

    1998-07-01

    The worker exposure to thorium-bearing airborne particulate was estimated in two Brazilian plants that process niobium minerals, one in the Amazon Forest (Plant A) and the other in the State of Goias (Plant B). The aerosol particle size and the thorium concentrations in the respirable fractions of aerosol concentrations were determined. Results indicate that in Plant A, the MMAD (Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter) of particles containing thorium were in the range 1.1 to 1.8 {mu}m: in Plant B they were in the range 1.1 to 3.4 {mu}m. The thorium faeces concentrations before the vacation were higher than thorium faeces concentrations in the control group. After the vacation the thorium faeces concentrations were similar to the thorium faeces concentrations in the control group. These results indicate that the thorium incorporation by the workers are mostly due to ingestion. (author)

  10. Fulminant hepatic failure after occupational exposure to 2-nitropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R; Letz, G; Pasternak, G; Blanc, P

    1987-10-01

    Two construction workers became ill after applying an epoxy resin coating containing 2-nitropropane in the confined space of an underground concrete vault. One man died 10 days later from fulminant hepatic failure. The second man recovered but has had persistently elevated serum aminotransferase activity. The serum concentration of 2-nitropropane on admission of the man who died was 13 mg/L, and was 8.5 mg/L in his coworker. The acute toxicity of 2-nitropropane has not been widely appreciated despite previous reports of death due to hepatic failure after exposure to the compound in confined spaces. These cases show the importance of effective education and protective work practices.

  11. Occupational exposure in orthopedic procedures under fluoroscopic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Owsiak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In interventional radiology the highest radiation doses are usually recorded for both the medical staff and the patients. Interventional procedures with X-rays are implemented in a number of medical specializations. This paper concerns the exposure of interventional teams performing orthopedic procedures under X-rays control. Material and Methods: Doses for interventional teams were measured in the 3 Łódź hospitals. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were applied to measure the following dose equivalents: Hp(3 for eye lens, Hp(0.07 for palm skin, Hp(10 at the level of the neck without a protective shield (i.e., collar and Hp(10 for the whole body on the front surface of the trunk (measured under the protective apron at the level of the chest. Results: Doses for the operator who performs surgery, assisting physicians and scrub nurse were measured during 95 procedures. The highest doses were received by the operator the dose for eyes per 1 procedure did not exceed 0.1 mSv, the highest dose for hands was 1.6 mSv and the highest recorded effective dose was 0.02 mSv. Conclusions: On the basis of the results of measurements and their comparison with the values reported in the literature it may be concluded that the obtained results fall within the published reference range (for non-vascular procedures. This proves the compatibility of practice in the monitored Łódź hospitals with routine methodology applied in other interventional departments. The measurement results confirm that the usage of thermoluminescent dosimetry is fully adequate for the evaluation of exposure in interventional radiology and that the usage of at least 2 dosemeters for that staff is necessary. Med Pr 2017;68(2:221–227

  12. [Study of the effect of occupational exposure to glyphosate on hepatorenal function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Pan, L P; Ding, E M; Ge, Q J; Zhang, Z H; Xu, J N; Zhang, L; Zhu, B L

    2017-07-06

    Objective: To explore the effect of occupational exposure to glyphosate on hepatorenal function. Methods: 526 workers who were occupationally exposed to glyphosate from 5 glyphosate-producing factories were selected as cases; and another 442 administrative staffs who were not exposed to glyphosate were selected as controls from April to November, 2014. All the subjects accepted occupational health examination. The concentration level of glyphosate in the air of workshop was detected and the time weighted average concentration (TWA) was calculated. And analyze the difference of hepatorenal fuction between case group and control group. Result: The age of the subjects in the case and control groups were separately (35.6±10.3), (34.3±9.7) years old, with the length of working for (6.5±5.7), (7.7±6.8) years. The TWA of glyphosate in the case group was between Glyphosate can affect the hepatic and renal function among occupational exposure population, and there was an association between the effect and the exposure dose.

  13. Evaluating interventions aimed at reducing occupational exposure to latex and rubber glove allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; McNamee, Roseanne; Agius, Raymond; Wilkinson, Stephen Mark; Carder, Melanie; Stocks, Susan J

    2012-12-01

    Concerns over occupational exposures to blood-borne viruses resulted in increased protective glove use; consequentially latex allergy became a hazard for some occupational groups. Interventions aimed at managing this problem included substitution measures (eg, non-powdered/non-latex gloves), but such changes may not occur simultaneously across occupational sectors. This study evaluated whether the incidence of occupational dermatoses fell after interventions aiming to reduce exposure to 'latex and rubber glove allergens' ('latex') were introduced, and whether these interventions were more effective for healthcare workers (HCWs), compared with non-HCWs. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing cases reported to EPIDERM (a UK-wide surveillance scheme) during post versus pre-intervention periods were calculated, both where 'latex' was cited and for cases associated with other exposures ('controls'). Among HCWs, cases of contact urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) where 'latex' was cited showed significant downward trends post-intervention, with IRRs of 0.72, 95% CI; 0.52 to 1.00 and 0.47, 95% CI; 0.35 to 0.64 respectively. For HCWs, this fall in 'latex' associated ACD was significantly greater (p=0.02) than for other exposures ('controls') IRR=0.85, 95% CI; 0.57 to 1.28, and greater than that among non-HCWs (IRR 0.75, 95% CI; 0.61 to 0.93). Increases over time were seen for irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) reporting for HCWs, both for cases associated with 'latex' (IRR 1.47, 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.13) and for other exposures ('controls') IRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.76, but not for non-HCWs. A reduction in overall ACD, particularly in HCWs, coincided with interventions aimed at managing workplace contact dermatoses associated with 'latex' exposure. A coincidental rise in ICD reporting is also important, both for hand care and for infection control strategies.

  14. Non-melanoma skin cancer: occupational risk from UV light and arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdu, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has a significant impact on public health and health care costs as a result of high morbidity and disfigurement due to the destruction of surrounding tissues. Although the mortality rates of these tumors are low, the high incidence rates determine a considerable number of deaths. NMSC is the most common type of skin cancer, representing about 1/3 of all malignancies diagnosed worldwide each year. The most common NMSC are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Studies on humans and experimental animals indicate that ultraviolet (UV) light and arsenic play important roles in the development of these skin malignancies. Several epidemiological studies have investigated the risk of developing NMSC and the potential link between exposure to sunlight and arsenic in the agricultural and industrial occupational settings. To date, the published literature suggests that there is no apparent skin cancer risk as regards workplace exposure to artificial UV light or arsenic. Concerning UV light from sun exposure at the workplace, most published studies indicated an elevated risk for SCC, but are less conclusive for BCC. Many of these studies are limited by the methodology used in the evaluation of occupational exposure and the lack of adjustment for major confounders. Therefore, further epidemiological studies are required to focus on exposure assessment at the individual level as well as potential interactions with other occupational and non-occupational exposures and individual susceptibility. In doing so, we can better quantify the true risk of skin cancer in exposed workers and inform effective public health prevention programs.

  15. Occupational Exposure to Benzene and Chromosomal Structural Aberrations in the Sperm of Chinese Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Weldon, Rosana H.; Li, Guilan; Zhang, Luoping; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Schmid, Thomas E.; Xing, Caihong; Kurtovich, Elaine; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Benzene is an industrial chemical that causes blood disorders, including acute myeloid leukemia. We previously reported that occupational exposures near the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit (8 hr) of 1 ppm was associated with sperm aneuploidy. Objective: We investigated whether occupational exposures near 1 ppm increase the incidence of sperm carrying structural chromosomal aberrations. Methods: We applied a sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization assay to measure frequencies of sperm carrying partial chromosomal duplications or deletions of 1cen or 1p36.3 or breaks within 1cen-1q12 among 30 benzene-exposed and 11 unexposed workers in Tianjin, China, as part of the China Benzene and Sperm Study (C-BASS). Exposed workers were categorized into low-, moderate-, and high-exposure groups based on urinary benzene (medians: 2.9, 11.0, and 110.6 µg/L, respectively). Median air benzene concentrations in the three exposure groups were 1.2, 3.7, and 8.4 ppm, respectively. Results: Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all structural aberrations combined were 1.42 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.83), 1.44 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.85), and 1.75 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.24) and for deletion of 1p36.3 alone were 4.31 (95% CI: 1.18, 15.78), 6.02 (95% CI: 1.69, 21.39), and 7.88 (95% CI: 2.21, 28.05) for men with low, moderate, and high exposure, respectively, compared with unexposed men. Chromosome breaks were significantly increased in the high-exposure group [IRR 1.49 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.02)]. Conclusions: Occupational exposures to benzene were associated with increased incidence of chromosomally defective sperm, raising concerns for worker infertility and spontaneous abortions as well as mental retardation and inherited defects in their children. Our sperm findings point to benzene as a possible risk factor for de novo 1p36 deletion syndrome. Because chromosomal aberrations in sperm can arise from defective stem

  16. Occupational ultraviolet exposure and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Demin; Xu, Fei; Hu, Kaiming; Yin, Li; Duan, Huijie; Zhang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, SuZhan

    2017-09-22

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a heterogeneous group of lympho-proliferative disorders. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence from case-control studies and cohort study on the inconsistent association between occupational sun exposure and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We searched PubMed, ISI web of science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and reference lists for relevant articles. Study specific odds ratios or relative risk and 95% confidence intervals were pooled by using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Ten case-control studies and one cohort study were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled odds ratios for occupational ultraviolet exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk was 1.15(95% confidence intervals: 0.99, 1.32; I2 = 44.4%). Occupational sun exposure was positively associated with the risk of NHL 1.14 (95% confidence intervals: 1.05, 1.23; I2=25.4% p for heterogeneity =0.202) in Caucasian population. Common subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and ultraviolet exposure had the negative results. The pooled odds ratios was 1.16, (95%confidence intervals: 0.90, 1.50) for T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma; 0.79, (95%confidence intervals: 0.61, 1.02) for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma; 1.13, (95%confidence intervals: 0.96, 1.34) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia; 1.25, (95%confidence intervals: 0.95, 1.64) for males; 1.49, (95%confidence intervals: 0.99, 2.25) for females. Data suggested that occupational ultraviolet exposure was a risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Caucasian population. While, there had no relationship between occupational ultraviolet exposure and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in general population as well as non-Hodgkin lymphoma common subtypes. Besides, gender specific occupational sun exposure also indicated no association on risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  17. Varied exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic (CMR) chemicals in occupational settings in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havet, Nathalie; Penot, Alexis; Morelle, Magali; Perrier, Lionel; Charbotel, Barbara; Fervers, Béatrice

    2017-02-01

    To explore varied exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic chemicals (CMR) for French employees. Our study assessed data from the French national cross-sectional survey of occupational risks (SUMER) that was conducted in 2010 in a national representative sample of employees. We selected 28 CMR agents that were classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer or European Union as being known or presumed to have CMR potential in humans. The association of individual and job characteristics with exposure prevalence, duration, and intensity of the CMR agents during a 1-week period was examined using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Overall, 10.4% of employees in 2010 were exposed to one or more CMR agents at their workplace, and 3.4% were subjected to multiple CMR exposures. Blue-collar workers, night-shift workers and workers with short-term employment contracts experienced higher exposure prevalence (p agents (p < 0.001). The presence of a Committee for Health, Safety, and Working Conditions, and intervention by Occupational Health and Safety officers were significantly associated with reduced exposure intensities (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05). Establishment of European CMR regulations and the existence of an applicable substitution principle reduced the exposure duration (p < 0.001) and intensity (p < 0.05). Our results point out disparities in CMR exposure and identify high-priority targets for prevention measures to help reducing social health discrepancies.

  18. Occupational radon exposure and lung cancer mortality: estimating intervention effects using the parametric G formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessie K.; McGrath, Leah J.; Buckley, Jessie P.; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Cole, Stephen R.; Richardson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional regression analysis techniques used to estimate associations between occupational radon exposure and lung cancer focus on estimating the effect of cumulative radon exposure on lung cancer, while public health interventions are typically based on regulating radon concentration rather than workers’ cumulative exposure. Moreover, estimating the direct effect of cumulative occupational exposure on lung cancer may be difficult in situations vulnerable to the healthy worker survivor bias. Methods Workers in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Miners cohort (N=4,134) entered the study between 1950 and 1964 and were followed for lung cancer mortality through 2005. We use the parametric g-formula to compare the observed lung cancer mortality to the potential lung cancer mortality had each of 3 policies to limit monthly radon exposure been in place throughout follow-up. Results There were 617 lung cancer deaths over 135,275 person-years of follow-up. With no intervention on radon exposure, estimated lung cancer mortality by age 90 was 16%. Lung cancer mortality was reduced for all interventions considered, and larger reductions in lung cancer mortality were seen for interventions with lower monthly radon exposure limits. The most stringent guideline, the Mine Safety and Health Administration standard of 0.33 working level months, reduced lung cancer mortality from 16% to 10% (risk ratio 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.61, 0.73). Conclusions This work illustrates the utility of the parametric g-formula for estimating the effects of policies regarding occupational exposures, particularly in situations vulnerable to the healthy worker survivor bias. PMID:25192403

  19. Occupational exposure to styrene in the fibreglass reinforced plastic industry: comparison between two different manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranfo, Giovanna; Gherardi, Monica; Paci, E; Gatto, Mariapia; Gordiani, A; Caporossi, Lidia; Capanna, Silvia; Sisto, Renata; Papaleo, B; Fiumalbi, Carla; Garofani, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Styrene is used in manufacturing fiberglass reinforced plastics: and occupational exposure was related to neurotoxicology and genotoxicity. The sum of the metabolites mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids is the ACGIH biomarker for occupational exposure with a BEI of 400 mg/g of creatinine in end shift urine corresponding to a airborne styrene concentration of 85 mg/m3. There are two main molding processes, open and closed, the last more effective at controlling worker's styrene exposure. To compare the open molding process to the compression of fiber reinforced resin foils, a kind of closed molding, monitoring the styrene exposure of workers in two production sites (A and B). Environmental Monitoring was carried out by Radiello samplers and Biological Monitoring by means of the determination of MA and PGA with HPLC/MS/MS in 10 workers at Site A and 14 at Site B. The median values for styrene exposure resulted 31.1 mg/m3 for Site A and 24.4 mg/m for Site B, while the medians for the sum of the two metabolites in the end shift urine were 86.7 e 33.8 mg/g creatinine respectively. There is a significant linear correlation between personal styrene exposure and the excretion of styrene metabolites (R = 0.74). As expected the exposure markers of the workers of the two production sites resulted higher in the open process. The analytical results of both environmental and biological monitoring were all below the occupational exposure limits, confirming the efficacy of the protective devices.

  20. Occupational EMF exposure from radar at X and Ku frequency band and plasma catecholamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarika; Kapoor, Neeru

    2015-09-01

    Workers in certain occupations such as the military may be exposed to technical radiofrequency radiation exposure above current limits, which may pose a health risk. The present investigation intended to find the effect of chronic electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from radar on plasma catecholamines in the military workforce. In the study, 166 male personnel selected randomly were categorized into three groups: control (n = 68), exposure group-I (X-band, 8-12 GHz, n = 40), and exposure group-II (Ku-band, 12.5-18 GHz, n = 58). The three clusters were further divided into two groups according to their years of service (YOS) (up to 9 years and ≥10 years) to study the effect of years of radar exposure. Enzyme immunoassay was employed to assess catecholamine concentrations. EMF levels were recorded at different occupational distances from radar. Significant adrenaline diminution was registered in exposure group-II with no significant difference in exposure group-I when both groups were weighed against control. Nor-adrenaline and dopamine levels did not vary significantly in both exposure groups when compared to controls. Exposure in terms of YOS also did not yield any significant alteration in any of the catecholamines and in any of the exposure groups when compared with their respective control groups. The shift from baseline catecholamine values due to stress has immense significance for health and well-being. Their continual alteration may prove harmful in due course. Suitable follow-up studies are needed to further strengthen these preliminary observations and for now, exposures should be limited as much as possible with essential safeguards. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Monitoring occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetics in the operating theatre: environmental and biological measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovesti, S; Ferrari, A; Faggiano, D; Vivoli, G

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) and isoflurane were measured in environmental and urinary samples from subjects occupationally exposed to volatile anaesthetics in operating theatres in a hospital in northern Italy. The aim was to establish whether: an automatic analyzer (Brüel & Kjaer 1302 spectrometer) can be used for fixed position sampling ("anaesthetist zone" and "surgeon/instrument nurse zone"); periodic monitoring of anaesthetics will reduce exposure; exposure to N2O and isoflurane is within legal limits; exposure differs between anaesthetists and surgeons/instrument nurses. Exposure to anaesthetics was monitored twice at six-month intervals. In the first test time spent in the operating theatre was noted and exposure levels were measured automatically. In the second test levels were monitored with passive personal sampling devices. Environmental concentrations of N2O determined by the spectrometer were correlated to urinary levels. Urinary levels of N2O calculated from the regression line were the same as those obtained with the personal samplers. Environmental and urinary levels of N2O decreased significantly from the first to second test. In the second sampling 70% of subjects had levels of exposure to N2O and isoflurane within prescribed environmental limits (50 ppm for N2O and 0.5 ppm for isoflurane). At the first test anaesthetists had significantly higher levels of exposure to N2O than surgeons/instrument nurses. The survey demonstrated that: fixed position sampling data related to time spent in the operating theatre can be used to gauge individual exposure levels; exposure levels decrease after tests following implementation of preventive measures; monitoring needs to be repeated because exposure levels often exceed legal limits; occupational exposure decreases when pollution in the anaesthetic zone is reduced.

  2. Occupational Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Vimercati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory and allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate allergic diseases in 111 traffic wardens compared to a control group of 101 administrative employees. All participating subjects underwent a physical examination, in which a complete medical history was taken and a dedicated allergological questionnaire administered. Spirometry, Specific IgE dosage (RAST and skin prick tests (SPT were done. Diagnostic investigations such as the nasal cytology, a specific nasal provocation test and rhinomanometry were also performed. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 11. The percentage of subjects with a diagnosis of allergy was higher in the exposed workers than in the controls. As regards the clinical tests, the positivity was higher for the group of exposed subjects. Among the exposed workers, those who worked on foot or motorcycle had a higher positivity in clinical trials compared to the traffic wardens who used the car. Our study showed a higher percentage of allergic subjects in the group of workers exposed to outdoor pollutants than in the controls. These results suggest that allergological tests should be included in the health surveillance protocols for workers exposed to outdoor pollutants.

  3. Self-reported Occupational Skin Exposure and Risk of Physician-certified Long-term Sick Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonso, Jose H; Tynes, Tore; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    exposure to cleaning products (odds ratio (OR) 1.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-2.5) and waste (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.7) among men, and occupational skin exposure to water (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.0-1.6) among women. The estimated population attributable risk for occupational skin exposure was 14...

  4. [Study on relationships between biomarkers in workers with low-level occupational lead exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Zhang, Hengdong; Zhou, Qianqian; Gong, Wei; Zhu, Baoli; Li, Wenchao; Zhou, Yang

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the lead exposure, its effects, and the relationships between biomarkers of susceptibility in the workers with low-level occupational lead exposure, and to explore its sensitivity and practical value to evaluate the health hazard. The concentrations of lead fume and lead dust in workplaces of a lead acid storage battery enterprise in Jiangsu Province, China, were measured by occupational health monitoring method. The blood samples of 233 workers with occupational lead exposure and 76 non-occupational lead exposure were collected to measure the blood lead (Pb-B) level using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), the zinc Protoporphyrin (ZPP) level with blood fluorescence assay, and the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) concentration by a spectrophotometer, and to determine the gene polymorphism of ALAD with TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the same time, their urine samples were collected to measure urine lead (Pb-U) concentration with GFAAS and delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) concentration with a spectrophotometer. The correlations between the above indices were analyzed by multiple linear regression method. The concentration of lead fume in 18 testing sites and the concentration of lead dust in 30 testing sites were 0.002-0.019 mg/m3 and 0.004-0.013 mg/m3, respectively. Pb-B level was positively correlated with Pb-U concentration (r=0.62, Plead exposure. Among 233 workers, 218 (93.6%) had ≤70 µg/L Pb-U, and 15 (6.9%) had ≥400≥g/L Pb-B. Pb-B level was not correlated with ZPP level as Pb-B level was 0.05). And in 233 workers with occupational lead exposure, there were no significant differences in Pb-B level, ZPP level, and ALAD activity between the workers with ALAD1-2 genotype and the workers with ALAD1-1 genotype (P>0.05). In 76 workers with non-occupational lead exposure, there was no significant difference in Pb-B level between the workers with ALAD1-2 genotype and the workers with ALAD1

  5. Occupational noise exposure, psychosocial working conditions and the risk of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Hansen, Åse Marie; Lund, Søren Peter; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of occupational noise (current and cumulative doses) and psychosocial work factors (psychological demands and decision latitude) on tinnitus occurrence among workers, using objective and non-self-reported exposure measures to prevent reporting bias. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from a Danish survey from 2009 to 2010 that included 534 workers from children day care units and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between risk factors (current noise exposure, cumulative noise exposure and psychosocial working conditions) and tinnitus were analyzed with logistic regression. We found no statistically significant associations between either current [OR 0.95 (95% CI 0.89; 1.01)] or cumulative [OR 0.93 (95% CI 0.81; 1.06)] occupational noise exposure and tinnitus. Likewise, results for psychosocial working conditions showed no statistically significant association between work place decision latitude [OR 1.06 (95% CI 0.94; 1.13)] or psychological demands [OR 1.07 (95% CI 0.90; 1.26)] and tinnitus. Our results suggest that current Danish occupational noise levels (in combination with relevant noise protection) are not associated with tinnitus. Also, results indicated that the psychosocial working conditions we observed in this cohort of mainly industrial workers were not associated with tinnitus. Therefore, psychosocial working conditions comparable to those observed in this study are probably not relevant to take into account in the evaluation of workers presenting with tinnitus.

  6. Reduction of Endogenous Melatonin Accelerates Cognitive Decline in Mice in a Simulated Occupational Formaldehyde Exposure Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Mei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals afflicted with occupational formaldehyde (FA exposure often suffer from abnormal behaviors such as aggression, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and in particular, cognitive impairments. Coincidentally, clinical patients with melatonin (MT deficiency also complain of cognitive problems associated with the above mental disorders. Whether and how FA affects endogenous MT metabolism and induces cognitive decline need to be elucidated. To mimic occupational FA exposure environment, 16 healthy adult male mice were exposed to gaseous FA (3 mg/m3 for 7 consecutive days. Results showed that FA exposure impaired spatial memory associated with hippocampal neuronal death. Biochemical analysis revealed that FA exposure elicited an intensive oxidative stress by reducing systemic glutathione levels, in particular, decreasing brain MT concentrations. Inversely, intraperitoneal injection of MT markedly attenuated FA-induced hippocampal neuronal death, restored brain MT levels, and reversed memory decline. At tissue levels, injection of FA into the hippocampus distinctly reduced brain MT concentrations. Furthermore, at cellular and molecular levels, we found that FA directly inactivated MT in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that MT supplementation contributes to the rescue of cognitive decline, and may alleviate mental disorders in the occupational FA-exposed human populations.

  7. Glutaraldehyde exposure and its occupational impact in the health care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek R; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Despite the search for effective and less toxic substitutes, glutaraldehyde (GA) remains one of the few substances capable of high-level instrument disinfection in modern health care. Workers commonly affected include operating room nurses, radiographers, x-ray technicians and cleaners. Widespread hospital usage combined with its well-known irritant properties, has ensured an increase in occupationally-related illnesses during recent years. Operating room nurses, laboratory workers and x-ray technicians frequently contact GA in both the liquid and vapor form. Workplace exposure is usually dependent on job tasks, ventilation levels and the use of protective equipment. GA is a relatively potent irritant and sensitizer, with a well-documented history of symptoms following occupational exposure. Although mechanisms for GA toxicity have been postulated, research on the toxicological, teratogenic, and carcinogenic potential of this chemical has shown inconsistent results. Reducing workplace exposure to its lowest possible level represents the most important hazard reduction strategy. This may be achieved by keeping GA containers tightly sealed when not in use, maintaining adequate ventilation levels and the rigid adherence to appropriate personal protective equipment. Substitution with automated cold sterilization machines may be another appropriate measure, while banning unnecessary practices such as GA fogging and its use as a surface disinfectant may also be helpful in reducing occupational exposure in the health care environment.

  8. Occupational Noise Exposure, Bilateral High-Frequency Hearing Loss, and Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Mannino, David M

    2017-11-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between occupational noise exposure and blood pressure using self-reported occupational exposure and bilateral high-frequency hearing loss. This study included 4548 participants aged 20 to 69 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2004. On the basis of self-reported exposure status, participants were divided into the current, former, or never exposed groups. Bilateral high-frequency hearing loss was defined as the average high-frequency hearing threshold at least 25 dB in both ears. The currently exposed participants had slightly increased diastolic blood pressure compared with those never exposed. Among previously exposed participants, those with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss had increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and the prevalence of hypertension compared with those with normal high-frequency hearing. Although there were some significant results, the evidence was not consistent to support the associations between occupational noise exposure and blood pressure.

  9. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  10. Lead level in seminal plasma may affect semen quality for men without occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsien-Ming; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Wang, Mei-Li; Huang, Hong-Yuan; Lee, Chyi-Long; Wang, Hsin-Shih; Soong, Yung-Kuei; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2012-11-08

    Infertility affects approximately 10-15% of reproductive-age couples. Poor semen quality contributes to about 25% of infertile cases. Resulting from the direct effect on testicular function or hormonal alterations, heavy metals exposure has been related to impaired semen quality. The objective of this study was to assess the level of lead in the seminal plasma in men without occupational exposure to lead, and to determine the relationship between semen quality and lead concentration in the semen. This is a prospective and nonrandomized clinical study conducted in University infertility clinic and academic research laboratory. Three hundred and forty-one male partners of infertile couples undergoing infertility evaluation and management were recruited to the study. Semen samples collected for the analyses of semen quality were also used for the measurement of lead concentrations. Semen samples were evaluated according to the WHO standards. All subjects were married and from infertile couples without occupational exposure to lead. There is a significant inverse correlation between the lead concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count. A higher semen lead concentration was correlated with lower sperm count, but not with semen volume, sperm motility or sperm morphology as assessed by simple linear regression. We found that semen lead concentration was significantly higher among the patients with lower sperm count. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a high level of lead accumulation in semen may reduce the sperm count contributing to infertility of men without occupational exposure to lead.

  11. [Occupational exposure and male fertility. Results of an Italian multicenter study in an exposed population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, G; Lauria, L; Figà-Talamanca, I

    2001-01-01

    It was believed that occupational exposure to several toxic agents could negatively affect male fertility. This paper reports the results of a study on the fertility of couples in whom the man was occupationally exposed to three different toxics: metals, solvents and pesticides, having effects on reproduction. Fertility was evaluated during the time that elapsed between attempting and achieving the first pregnancy of the couple (time to pregnancy--TTP). Exposure to occupational risks during the period preceding conception was defined on the basis of data collected from 153 workers of a mint (exposed to metal and solvents), 322 agricultural workers licensed to handle pesticides and 127 greenhouse workers. Comparing the groups exposed during the conception period with comparable non-exposed groups, we found a slight delay in conception among couples with male exposure to metals (OR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.5-3.6), to solvents (OR = 1.7; 95% CI 0.6-4.6) and to pesticides among greenhouse workers (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 0.8-3.1 for the moderately exposed and OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-5.1 for the heavily exposed). No increase in the risk of conception delay was observed in agricultural workers with generic exposure to pesticides. The results of this study suggest that the workers exposed to metals and solvents and greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides experienced a delay in conception at the time of their wives' first pregnancy.

  12. Hemolytic Anemia as an Outcome of Occupational Exposure to Formalin: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yazdi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure studies indicate that formaldehyde exposure causes temporary and consistent effects on industrial workers exposed to formalin. Case: The case was a 36-year-old man who had developed intravascular hemolytic anemia caused by formalin after inhalation exposure. Formalin is a clear solution of 37% formaldehyde in water. The primary route of exposure to formaldehyde is inhalation. The case was presented with severe Coomb's negative hemolytic anemia with hemoglobinuria and was treated successfully with therapeutic red cell transfusion and exposure removal. Conclusion: All employers must provide a safe and healthy workplace for prevention of harmful effects of formalin. Elimination of formalin from workplace, implementation of local and general ventilation, and using proper protective equipments are the most effective methods in the workplace.

  13. Is it possible to use biomonitoring for the quantitative assessment of formaldehyde occupational exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarella, Pieranna; Tranfo, Giovanna; Pigini, Daniela; Carbonari, Damiano

    2016-12-01

    The European classification, labeling and packaging classified formaldehyde as human carcinogen Group 1B and mutagen 2, fostering the re-evaluation of the exposure risk in occupational settings. Although formaldehyde exposure is traditionally measured in air, many efforts were made to identify specific exposure biomarkers: urinary formaldehyde, formic acid and DNA damage indicators. Though used in combination, none of these seems satisfactory. The influence of the metabolism on exogenous formaldehyde levels, the exposure to other xenobiotics, the difference in genetic background and metabolism efficiency, misled the relationship between genotoxicity and exposure data. Nevertheless, the limitation of adverse effects to the local contact sites hampers biomonitoring. Here we discuss the feasibility of formaldehyde biomonitoring and the use of DNA, DNA-protein cross-links and protein adducts as potential biomarkers.

  14. The respiratory effects of occupational polypropylene flock exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atis, S; Tutluoglu, B; Levent, E; Ozturk, C; Tunaci, A; Sahin, K; Saral, A; Oktay, I; Kanik, A; Nemery, B

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the possible effects of exposure to polypropylene flock on respiratory health and serum cytokines in a cross-sectional study of workers from a plant in Turkey. A total of 50 polypropylene flocking workers were compared to a control group of 45 subjects. All subjects filled out a respiratory questionnaire and underwent a physical examination, a chest radiograph and pulmonary function testing, including single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DL,CO). Serum interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured. Additionally, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest was performed in 10 exposed workers with low DL,CO. Work-related respiratory symptoms were reported in 26% of the exposed subjects and in 13.3% of the controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of respiratory symptoms increased 3.6 fold in polypropylene flocking workers when compared to controls. Parameters of the study group, including per cent predicted: forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, forced mid-expiratory flow 25-75% and DL,CO, were significantly lower than in controls. Multivariate analyses showed that being a polypropylene flocking worker was a predictive factor for impairment of pulmonary function. Serum IL-8 and TNF-alpha levels were increased in the study group compared with the controls. HRCT revealed peribronchial thickening and diffuse ground glass attenuation in some subjects. The present study suggests the presence of subtle or the beginning of interstitial lung disease in these polypropylene flocking workers.

  15. Occupational exposure assessment for crystalline silica dust: approach in Poland and worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Crystalline silica is a health hazard commonly encountered in work environment. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust concerns workers employed in such industries as mineral, fuel-energy, metal, chemical and construction industry. It is estimated that over 2 million workers in the European Union are exposed to crystalline silica. In Poland, over 50 thousand people work under conditions of silica dust exposure exceeding the occupational exposure limit. The assessment of occupational exposure to crystalline silica is a multi-phase process, primarily dependent on workplace measurements, quantitative analyses of samples, and comparison of results with respective standards. The present article summarizes the approaches to and methods used for assessment of exposure to crystalline silica as adopted in different countries in the EU and worldwide. It also compares the occupational limit values in force in almost 40 countries. Further, it points out the consequences resulting from the fact that IARC has regarded the two most common forms of crystalline silica: quartz and cristobalite as human carcinogens. The article includes an inter-country review of the methods used for air sample collection, dust concentration measurements, and determination of crystalline silica. The selection was based on the GESTIS database which lists the methods approved by the European Union for the measurements and tests regarding hazardous agents. Special attention has been paid to the methods of determining crystalline silica. The author attempts to analyze the influence of analytical techniques, sample preparation and the reference materials on determination results. Also the operating parameters of the method, including limit of detection, limit of quantification, and precision, have been compared.

  16. Workplace monitoring of occupational exposure to refractory ceramic fiber--a 17-year retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, L Daniel; Allshouse, John; Fairfax, Richard E; Lentz, T J; Venturin, Dean; Walters, Thomas E

    2008-02-01

    This article presents a 17-year (1990-2006) retrospective summary of ongoing studies of occupational exposure to refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) in the United States. Beginning in 1990, RCF producers integrated and harmonized individual workplace monitoring programs to provide data useful for various longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses, benchmarking, and various technical analyses. For 10 of these 17 years, the program has been conducted in partnership with government agencies, first a 5-year (1993-1998) program with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and later another 5-year (2002-2006) program with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. This article updates earlier published studies and provides lessons to be learned in the design of industrial hygiene monitoring and control programs.

  17. Occupational exposure of medical staff due to diagnostic X-ray examinations in veterinary medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergel, E.; Feige, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) (Germany); Haeusler, U. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The implementation of the Council directive 96/29 EURATOM and the corresponding national Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Protection Ordinance coming subsequently into effect led to a changed situation regarding the occupational radiation protection in the medical sector. To reduce the occupational exposure of veterinarians and assisting staff in veterinary radiography is particularly challenging as, in opposite to human radiological examination, the presence of staff is indispensable to restrain the patient. Beyond that the relevant literature reports about too high and/or about unnecessary radiation exposures. To gain a comprehensive knowledge upon the possible exposure of involved staff, the variety of typical examination methods in veterinary clinics and at practitioners had been investigated during the daily routine. Dose measurements were performed for different employees during the examinations taking into account several places of exposure (lens, thyroid, chest, hand, gonad, and feet). Veterinary X-ray diagnostic examinations for pets as well as in equine radiography had been accounted for this study. In total, 101 examination methods, 4.484 accompanied examinations and 53.892 single dose readings resulted in a reliable statistical base to set up a 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' allowing the dose assessment for a variable number and kind of examinations. The 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' is believed to be a useful tool for optimization of occupational radiation exposure of veterinarians by appraising the height of a possible dose, forcing a review of the status quo and triggering the improvement of personal protection by establishing adequate measures. (orig.)

  18. Health effects of occupational exposure to crystalline silica in the light of current research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline silica is commonly found in the work environment. Possible health effects of occupational exposure continue to be the subject of extensive research. The aim of this paper was to analyze the recent findings concerning the health effects of exposure to crystalline silica, taking into account different levels of exposure. This work is based on the relevant information from the papers retrieved from the following databases: EBSCO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, using the following keywords: crystalline silica, quartz, health effects. The review of the results confirms the multi-faceted harmful effects of crystalline silica. Prolonged occupational exposure, apart from silicosis and non-cancer respiratory diseases, may also result in the development of lung cancer, and autoimmune and chronic kidney diseases, the pathogenesis, which has not been completely explained yet. The exposure to the crystalline silica at concentrations close to the current occupational exposure limit value does not exclude the risk of the following pathologies: silicosis, lung cancer, other lung diseases and renal diseases. It is not feasible to completely eliminate the crystalline silica dust from the work environment. The best way to reduce the health effects of the exposure is to minimize the concentrations of silica dust. Further progress in clarifying the true mechanisms of interaction between silica dust and lung cells, the determination of the importance of surface properties of the silica particles in the pathogenic processes and explaining the effects of co-morbid dust in the work environment may help to prevent the harmful effects of silica dust.

  19. [Occupational exposure to pesticides among farmers of the Łódź' voivodeship agricultural area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta; Gawora-Ziółek, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agriculture for the crop protection. Despite advanced mechanization of the agricultural production, the population's exposure to these chemicals is still significant. The objective of the study was to evaluate farmers' occupational exposure to two most frequently used pesticides: MCPA and 2,4-D. Pesticide exposure was assessed in 24 farmers, living in the Łódź voivodeship agriculture area, for 71 sprayings performed on their arable areas. The exposure assessment methods were used to estimate workers' exposure to selected pesticides (MCPA and 2,4-D). The analysis covered the biological material (urine) collected on the day of pesticides spraying: in the morning before spraying (Sample A), in the evening after spraying (Sample B) and on the next day (Sample C). The level of pesticides found in farmers' urine was growing from sample A to sample C. The highest level of pesticides was found in sample C and the lowest in sample A. The predictors of the pesticide level were: sample collection time (urine concentration of pesticides in sample C compared with sample B) (p = 0.002), concentration of pesticides in sample A (p = 0.012) and the amount of products used during spraying (p = 0.021). 'The use of protective equipment was at the border of statistical significance (p = 0.059). The differences in exposure between farmers can be only partly explained by the analyzed exposure predictors. The study not only confirmed the presence of occupational exposure but also showed the level of exposure among farmers under study. This is very important because in Poland the level of exposure among farmers is unknown and studies using the biological monitoring are very rare.

  20. Occupational Exposure to Nano-Objects and Their Agglomerates and Aggregates Across Various Life Cycle Stages; A Broad-Scale Exposure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Cindy; Kuijpers, Eelco; Brouwer, Derk H; Vermeulen, Roel; Fransman, Wouter

    2015-07-01

    Occupational exposure to manufactured nano-objects and their agglomerates, and aggregates (NOAA) has been described in several workplace air monitoring studies. However, data pooling for general conclusions and exposure estimates are hampered by limited exposure data across the occupational life cycle of NOAA and a lack in comparability between the methods of collecting and analysing the data. By applying a consistent method of collecting and analysing the workplace exposure data, this study aimed to provide information about the occupational NOAA exposure levels across various life cycle stages of NOAA in the Netherlands which can also be used for multi-purpose use. Personal/near field task-based exposure data was collected using a multi-source exposure assessment method collecting real time particle number concentration, particle size distribution (PSD), filter-based samples for morphological, and elemental analysis and detailed contextual information. A decision logic was followed allowing a consistent and objective way of analysing the exposure data. In total, 46 measurement surveys were conducted at 15 companies covering 18 different exposure situations across various occupational life cycle stages of NOAA. Highest activity-effect levels were found during replacement of big bags (<1000-76000 # cm(-3)), mixing/dumping of powders manually (<1000-52000 # cm(-3)) and mechanically (<1000-100000 # cm(-3)), and spraying of liquid (2000-800000 # cm(-3)) showing a high variability between and within the various exposure situations. In general, a limited change in PSD was found during the activity compared to the background. This broad-scale exposure study gives a comprehensive overview of the NOAA exposure situations in the Netherlands and an indication of the levels of occupational exposure to NOAA across various life cycle of NOAA. The collected workplace exposure data and contextual information will serve as basis for future pooling of data and modelling of worker

  1. Neuropsychological effects of occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimm, B; Sturm, W; Esser, A; Schettgen, T; Willmes, K; Lang, J; Gaum, P M; Kraus, T

    2017-12-01

    In the context of a health surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a transformer and capacitor recycling company in Germany, their family members, employees of surrounding companies and area residents a broad range of cognitive functions covering attention, executive processing, reasoning, memory and motor performance was examined. The study aimed at identifying potential adverse effects of PCB load on cognitive functions. Detailed analysis of PCB burden of the participants revealed rather high correlations of lower and higher chlorinated as well as dioxin-like PCBs. Nearly one half of the participants exhibited increased burden in all three PCB classes whereas only 33 out of 237 participants did not show any increased PCB burden. Thus, data analysis followed a two-fold strategy: (1) Based on studies providing data on PCB exposure of the German general population the PCB burden of every participant was classified as normal (percentile rank PR <95) or increased (PR ≥95). Increased burden with respect to lower (LPCBs) and higher chlorinated (HPCBs) as well as dioxin-like (dlPCBs) PCBs was assumed if a participant showed at least one congener surpassing the PR95 criterion for the respective congener class and (2) Overall plasma PCB level per congener class was used as measure of PCB load. In a multivariate approach using structural equation modelling and multiple regression analysis we found a significant impact of PCBs on word fluency and sensorimotor processing irrespective of the measure of PCB burden (PR95 criterion or overall plasma level). However, no effect of PCB burden on memory, attention, and cognitive flexibility could be demonstrated. Particularly, an increase of LPCBs was associated with an overall reduction of verbal fluency of letter and semantic word generation as well as word production based on a single or two alternating criteria. In addition, participants with increased burden of LPCBs exhibited a time-on-task effect in terms of a

  2. Assessment of Occupational Noise Exposure among Groundskeepers in North Carolina Public Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanay, Jo Anne G; Kearney, Gregory D; Mannarino, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    Groundskeepers may have increased risk to noise-induced hearing loss due to the performance of excessively noisy tasks. This study assessed the exposure of groundskeepers to noise in multiple universities and determined the association between noise exposure and variables (ie, university, month, tool used). Personal noise exposures were monitored during the work shift using noise dosimetry. A sound level meter was used to measure the maximum sound pressure levels from groundskeeping equipment. The mean Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures were 83.0 ± 9.6 and 88.0 ± 6.7 dBA, respectively. About 52% of the OSHA TWAs and 77% of the NIOSH TWAs exceeded 85 dBA. Riding mower use was associated with high TWA noise exposures and with having OSHA TWAs exceeding 85 and 90 dBA. The maximum sound pressure levels of equipment and tools measured ranged from 76 to 109 dBA, 82% of which were >85 dBA. These findings support that groundskeepers have excessive noise exposures, which may be effectively reduced through careful scheduling of the use of noisy equipment/tools.

  3. Cross sectional and longitudinal study on selenium, glutathione peroxidase, smoking, and occupational exposure in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadif, R.; Oryszczyn, M.P.; Fradier-Dusch, M.; Hellier, G.; Bertrand, J.P.; Pham, Q.T.; Kauffmann, F. [INSERM, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Faculty of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the variations of selenium (Se) concentration relative to changes in occupational exposure to coal dust, taking into account age and changes in smoking habits in miners surveyed twice, in 1990 and 1994. It was found that selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activities (GSH-Px) activities were significantly lower in active than in retired miners. Moreover, Se concentration was lower in miners exposed to high compared with those exposed to low dust concentrations. In miners exposed to high dust concentrations, Se concentration was significantly lower whereas erythrocyte GSH-Px activity was significantly higher in the subgroup with estimated cumulative exposure {gt} 68 mg/m{sup 3}.y. In all miners, plasma GSH-Px activity was correlated with Se concentration. The 4 year Se changes were negatively related to exposure to high dust concentrations and positively related to change in exposure from high to retirement and to change from smoker to ex-smoker. The variations of Se concentration in relation to changes in occupational exposure to coal dust and in smoking habits, and the close correlation found between plasma Se concentration and GSH-Px activity suggest that both are required in antioxidant defence. These results agree well with the hypothesis that the decrease in Se concentration reflects its use against reactive oxygen species generated by exposure to coal mine dust and by smoking.

  4. Occupational exposure to textile dust and lung cancer risk: Results from the ICARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khedher, Soumaya; Neri, Monica; Guida, Florence; Matrat, Mireille; Cenée, Sylvie; Sanchez, Marie; Radoi, Loredana; Menvielle, Gwenn; Marrer, Emilie; Luce, Danièle; Stücker, Isabelle

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the association of lung cancer with occupational exposure to textile dust and specifically to cotton dust in the population-based case-control study ICARE. Lifelong occupational history of 2926 cases and 3555 controls was collected using standardized questionnaires, with specific questions for textile dust exposure. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models controlling for confounding factors including smoking and asbestos exposure. An inverse association between textile dust exposure and lung cancer was found among workers exposed ≥5% of their work time (OR = 0.80, 95%CI = 0.58-1.09), more pronounced for distant exposures (40+ years; up to a 56% reduced risk, statistically significant). The OR of lung cancer was significantly decreased among workers exposed to cotton fibers (OR = 0.70, 95%CI = 0.48-0.97). Our results provide some evidence of a decreased risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to textile dust, particularly cotton. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Guo, Weihong; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Laura Beane, Freeman; Ge, Yichen; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hua, Ming; Blair, Aaron; Galvan, Noe; Ruan, Xiaolin; Alter, Blanche P.; Xin, Kerry X.; Li, Senhua; Moore, Lee E.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Xie, Yuxuan; Hayes, Richard B.; Azuma, Mariko; Hauptmann, Michael; Xiong, Jun; Stewart, Patricia; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Huang, Hanlin; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing

    2010-01-01

    There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing and other industries. Epidemiological studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on formaldehyde’s ability to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse impact on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures. PMID:20056626

  6. Occupationally related exposures and reduced semen quality: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielemans, E; Burdorf, A; te Velde, E R; Weber, R F; van Kooij, R J; Veulemans, H; Heederik, D J

    1999-04-01

    To determine whether there is an association between abnormal semen parameters and occupational exposures to organic solvents, metals, and pesticides. Case-control study using three case groups based on different cutoff values for semen parameters and one standard reference group. University Hospital Utrecht and University Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Male partners of couples having their first consultation at the two infertility clinics (n = 899). Men provided at least one semen sample. Occupational exposure was assessed with use of job-specific questionnaires, a job exposure matrix, and measurements of metals and metabolites of solvents in urine. Standard clinical semen analyses were used to define case groups and controls. An association between aromatic solvents and reduced semen quality was demonstrated, irrespective of the exposure assessment method used. The associations were stronger if the case definition was based on stricter cutoff values for semen parameters. Risk estimates were higher if the analysis was restricted to primary infertile men. Exposure to other pollutants at the workplace was not associated with impaired semen quality. The findings indicated an association between aromatic solvent exposure and impaired semen parameters.

  7. Indicator ability of biosubstances in monitoring the moderate occupational exposure to toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabeklis, Andrei R; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nechiporenko, Sergei P; Lakarova, Elena V

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the monitoring system, watching influence of toxic metals on human health in industrial plants, indicator properties of different biosubstances were compared. Four types of samples (whole blood, plasma, urine, and hair) from 263 workers of the "Khimprom" chemical plant (Novocheboksarsk, Russia) were subjected to multielement analysis by ICP-AES/ICP-MS. 19-25 chemical elements, including main toxic metals (Cd, Hg, Pb, etc.) were determined. The results were calculated with regard to workers' individual data on occupational exposure to chemical elements. Hair was found to be the most sensitive to toxic and conditionally toxic trace metals: Pb, Mn, Cr, Be, Ni, while occupational contact with macro elements (Na, P), trace metalloids (Si, B) and some other metals (Zn) was not reflected in hair. Whole blood relatively weakly indicated a moderate occupational level of metals except Pb and Mn, but effectively reflected deficiencies of essential elements: I, Cr, and shifts in K/Na ratio, which are likely to be secondary effects of harmful occupational factors. Blood plasma reflected only contact with Be, P; urine--only with Ni. In both whole blood and plasma the changes for the absolute majority of elements were similar. Thus, hair analysis is useful for monitoring the occupational exposure to toxic and conditionally toxic chemical elements, while a general estimation of occupational harmful influence on mineral metabolism requires simultaneous investigation of two biosubstances: hair and whole blood, or hair and blood plasma, with whole blood being more preferable. Analysis of urine is appropriate for monitoring particular chemical elements, e.g. nickel. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Rasch Analysis of the Profiles of Occupational Engagement in people with Severe mental illness (POES) instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerholm, Ulrika; Lundgren-Nilsson, Åsa

    2015-08-19

    The Profiles of Occupational Engagement in people with Severe mental illness (POES) instrument was developed to study time use profiles of occupations and measure the extent they are characterized by engagement. However, the dimensional factors are not known. The aim of the present study was to establish the internal construct validity of the POES using the Rasch measurement model. A sample of 192 outpatients in Sweden was administered the POES and data were subjected to Rasch analysis. The POES showed good fit to the Rasch model after accommodation for local dependency. The nine items had high reliability as measured by person separation index, and no threshold disordering was present. Differential item functioning analysis showed no significant differences across groups of age, sex, diagnosis, or country of origin. The POES is a unidimensional scale that represents a continuum of occupational engagement. The transformed POES sum score can be used on an interval scale to measure status and changes in occupational engagement in mental health practice and research.

  9. Assessment of occupational exposure to the respirable fraction of cement dust and crystalline silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to respirable fraction of cement dust and its crystalline silica content is the most important occupational risk factor in cement industries requiring more evaluation and monitoring. This study aimed to assess exposure to crystalline silica and cement dust among workers of a cement industry in Saveh city, Iran. . Material and Method: In this cross-sectional study, 62 samples of respirable dust were collected from breathing zone of the workers in different sections of factory. Determination of respirable fraction of cement dust concentrations carried out using gravimetric method according to the NIOSH method no. 0600. Visible absorption spectrophotometry was used according to the NIOSH method no. 7601 to determine crystalline silica content of respirable dust samples. . Result: The highest exposure concentrations to respirable fraction of cement dust was observed in the Raw Mill and Cement Mill, and the lowest exposure in Administrative Department and Kiln the range of workers exposure in the production sites were 1.77 to 18.89 mg/m3. The range of workers exposure to the crystalline silica in the production sites was 0.011 to 0.104 mg/m3. The highest and lowest mean of exposures was observed in the raw Mill and cement mill respectively. Occupational exposure to the crystalline silica in 57% of site samples exceeded adjusted TLV recommended by NIOSH and Iranian of Occupational Health Technical Committee (0.05 mg/m3. The average of free SiO2 fraction in whole site samples was 1.17% varying from 0.49% in the cement Mill to 1.53% and 1.7% in crusher and Kiln sections, respectively .Conclusion: Levels of exposure to cement respirable dust in all productive sections were significantly higher than the adjusted TLV. However, in administrative and control departments it was lower than the TLV level. Regarding crystalline silica, levels of exposure only in “Raw mill” and “kiln” were significantly higher than the adjusted TLV

  10. Pesticides contaminated dust exposure, risk diagnosis and exposure markers in occupational and residential settings of Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Sidra; Halsall, Crispin; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2017-12-01

    There are few studies documenting the dust loaded with pesticides as a potential non-dietary exposure source for occupational worker and populations living near agricultural farms and pesticides formulation plants. In present study we have evaluated the pesticide concentration in dust from potential sites and relevant health risk from dust ingestion. Furthermore, the effect of currently used pesticides was investigated on blood and urine parameters of subjects: farmer, factory worker, urban resident and rural resident and controlled subjects with presumably different levels of exposure. The urinary metabolites (TCPY and IMPY) were quantified as biomarkers of exposure to chlorpyrifos and diazinon in relation with biomarkers of effect including BuChE, LH, FSH, testosterone and oxidative stress. Results showed that chlorpyrifos and diazinon were present in higher concentration in dust and posed a high health risk to exposed subjects. The mean SOD value was high among the farmer (3048U/g Hb) followed by factory worker (1677.6U/g Hb). The urinary biomarkers - TCPY and IMPY- were found higher in exposed subjects as compared to control. Furthermore, testosterone was found in higher concentration in factory worker than control (12.63ng/ml vs 4.61ng/ml respectively). A decreased BuChE activity was noticed in occupational group and significant differences were observed in control verses exposed subjects. The PCA analysis evidenced the impact of pesticides on exposure biomarkers and male reproductive hormones. The study suggests that dust contaminated with pesticides engenders significant health risk particularly related to the nervous and endocrine system, not only for occupational workers exposed to direct ingestion but also for nearby residential community. Succinctly putting: Pesticides loaded dust in the city of Lahore, being a high priority concern for the government of Pakistan, demands to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytotoxic and Inflammatory Potential of Air Samples from Occupational Settings with Exposure to Organic Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Susana; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Korkalainen, Merja; Faria, Tiago; Pacífico, Cátia; Carolino, Elisabete; Quintal Gomes, Anita; Viegas, Carla

    2017-03-01

    Organic dust and related microbial exposures are the main inducers of several respiratory symptoms. Occupational exposure to organic dust is very common and has been reported in diverse settings. In vitro tests using relevant cell cultures can be very useful for characterizing the toxicity of complex mixtures present in the air of occupational environments such as organic dust. In this study, the cell viability and the inflammatory response, as measured by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), were determined in human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytic cells. These cells were exposed to air samples from five occupational settings known to possess high levels of contamination of organic dust: poultry and swine feed industries, waste sorting, poultry production and slaughterhouses. Additionally, fungi and particle contamination of those settings was studied to better characterize the organic dust composition. All air samples collected from the assessed workplaces caused both cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects. The highest responses were observed in the feed industry, particularly in swine feed production. This study emphasizes the importance of measuring the organic dust/mixture effects in occupational settings and suggests that differences in the organic dust content may result in differences in health effects for exposed workers.

  12. Cytotoxic and Inflammatory Potential of Air Samples from Occupational Settings with Exposure to Organic Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Viegas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic dust and related microbial exposures are the main inducers of several respiratory symptoms. Occupational exposure to organic dust is very common and has been reported in diverse settings. In vitro tests using relevant cell cultures can be very useful for characterizing the toxicity of complex mixtures present in the air of occupational environments such as organic dust. In this study, the cell viability and the inflammatory response, as measured by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα and interleukin-1 β (IL-1β, were determined in human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytic cells. These cells were exposed to air samples from five occupational settings known to possess high levels of contamination of organic dust: poultry and swine feed industries, waste sorting, poultry production and slaughterhouses. Additionally, fungi and particle contamination of those settings was studied to better characterize the organic dust composition. All air samples collected from the assessed workplaces caused both cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects. The highest responses were observed in the feed industry, particularly in swine feed production. This study emphasizes the importance of measuring the organic dust/mixture effects in occupational settings and suggests that differences in the organic dust content may result in differences in health effects for exposed workers.

  13. Estimating the global burden of low back pain attributable to combined occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnett, Laura; Prüss-Utün, Annette; Nelson, Deborah Imel; Fingerhut, Marilyn A; Leigh, James; Tak, SangWoo; Phillips, Sharonne

    2005-12-01

    There is little information about the global burden of non-traumatic low back pain (LBP) attributable to the effects of physical and psychosocial occupational stressors. Based on a review of the epidemiological evidence, occupation-specific relative risks were used to compute attributable proportions by age, gender, and geographical sub-region for the economically active population aged 15 and older. The reference group was professional/administrative workers; other risk categories were Low, clerical and sales; Moderate, operators (production workers) and service; and High, farmers. Worldwide, 37% of LBP was attributed to occupation, with twofold variation across regions. The attributable proportion was higher for men than women, because of higher participation in the labor force and in occupations with heavy lifting or whole-body vibration. Work-related LBP was estimated to cause 818,000 disability-adjusted life years lost annually. Occupational exposures to ergonomic stressors represent a substantial source of preventable back pain. Specific research on children is needed to quantify the global burden of disease due to child labor. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Rules and recent trends for setting health-based occupational exposure limits for chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Skowroń

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The working environment is the special case of the non-natural environment created by man in which the increased production activity brings about the concentration of stimulators particularly aggressive to the human organism, such as chemical hazards, noise, vibration, extreme temperatures, and finally, intensified psychological and emotional stress. Depending on the nature and intensity, working environment factors have been classified into dangerous, harmful and annoying. The workers are more and more frequently exposed to dangerous chemicals in the working environment. The chemicals cause many diseases including, in the 1st place, respiratory insufficiency, inflammatory skin conditions, psychoneurological disorders and neoplastic diseases. Occupational exposure limit values (OELs, the main criteria for occupational exposure assessment, constitute an important factor for the safe use of chemicals in the working environment. In Poland, to date there are 524 chemical substances and 19 dusts for which maximum admissible concentrations (MAC have been established.

  15. Measuring Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electric Fields at 220 kV Substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkkalainen, Herkko; Heiskanen, Timo; Tonteri, Juhani; Elovaara, Jarmo; Mika, Penttilä; Korpinen, Leena

    2017-11-01

    Earlier studies conducted at 400 and 110 kV substations in Finland have shown that the occupational exposure to electric fields can exceed the action levels (ALs) set by Directive 2013/35/EU. This is a case study investigating the level of occupational exposure experienced by workers at 220 kV substations in order to determine if the actions levels are being exceeded. The measurements were conducted at two old 220 kV substations in Finland. The higher AL of 20 kV m-1 was exceeded at both substations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Control banding tools for occupational exposure assessment of nanomaterials - Ready for use in a regulatory context?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2016-01-01

    area of concern. Therefore, a number of Control Banding (CB)-based tools have been developed in order to assess and manage the potential risks associated with occupational exposure to nanomaterials. In this paper we provide a comparative analysis of different nanomaterial-specific types of control......-banding/risk prioritization tools (the Control Banding Nanotool, IVAM Technical Guidance, Stoffenmanager Nano, ANSES CB Tool, NanoSafer, and the Precautionary Matrix) in order to evaluate their use-domains; types, extent, use and availability of input parameters; their output format; and finally their potential use...... and maturity in regard to meeting the minimum requirements for occupational exposure assessment under REACH and the conceptual source-transmission-receptor model by Schneider et al. (2011). This was done through an analysis including a literature review and use of the tools. It was found that the tools were...

  17. Occupational Exposure to Swine, Poultry, and Cattle and Antibody Biomarkers of Campylobacter jejuni Exposure and Autoimmune Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegosen, Leora; Breysse, Patrick N; Agnew, Jacqueline; Gray, Gregory C; Nachamkin, Irving; Sheikh, Kazim; Kamel, Freya; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter jejuni infection has been associated with an increased risk of autoimmune peripheral neuropathy, but risks of occupational exposure to C. jejuni have received less attention. This study compared anti-C. jejuni IgA, IgG, and IgM antibody levels, as well as the likelihood of testing positive for any of five anti-ganglioside autoantibodies, between animal farmers and non-farmers. Anti-C. jejuni antibody levels were also compared between farmers with different animal herd or flock sizes. The relationship between anti-C. jejuni antibody levels and detection of anti-ganglioside autoantibodies was also assessed. Serum samples from 129 Agricultural Health Study swine farmers (some of whom also worked with other animals) and 46 non-farmers, all from Iowa, were analyzed for anti-C. jejuni antibodies and anti-ganglioside autoantibodies using ELISA. Information on animal exposures was assessed using questionnaire data. Anti-C. jejuni antibody levels were compared using Mann-Whitney tests and linear regression on log-transformed outcomes. Fisher's Exact Tests and logistic regression were used to compare likelihood of positivity for anti-ganglioside autoantibodies. Farmers had significantly higher levels of anti-C. jejuni IgA (p antibodies compared to non-farmers. There was no consistent pattern of anti-C. jejuni antibody levels based on animal herd or flock size. A higher percentage of farmers (21%) tested positive for anti-ganglioside autoantibodies compared to non-farmers (9%), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.11). There was no significant association between anti-C. jejuni antibody levels and anti-ganglioside autoantibodies. The findings provide evidence that farmers who work with animals may be at increased risk of exposure to C. jejuni. Future research should include longitudinal studies of exposures and outcomes, as well as studies of interventions to reduce exposure. Policies to reduce occupational exposure to C. jejuni

  18. Occupational exposure to magnetic fields and breast cancer among women textile workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M; Thomas, David B; Yost, Michael; Davis, Scott; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E Dawn; Camp, Janice E; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J; Checkoway, Harvey

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) is hypothesized to increase the risk of breast cancer by reducing production of melatonin by the pineal gland. A nested case-cohort study was conducted to investigate the association between occupational exposure to MFs and the risk of breast cancer within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. The study included 1,687 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1989 to 2000 and 4,702 noncases selected from the cohort. Subjects' complete work histories were linked to a job-exposure matrix developed specifically for the present study to estimate cumulative MF exposure. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling that was adapted for the case-cohort design. Hazard ratios were estimated in relation to cumulative exposure during a woman's entire working years. No association was observed between cumulative exposure to MFs and overall risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of cumulative exposure was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.87, 1.21). Similar null findings were observed when exposures were lagged and stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis. The findings do not support the hypothesis that MF exposure increases the risk of breast cancer.

  19. Occupational noise exposure and hearing loss of workers in two plants in eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H O; Dennis, J H; Badran, O; Ismail, M; Ballal, S G; Ashoor, A; Jerwood, D

    2001-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of hearing loss associated with occupational noise exposure and other risk factors. A cross-sectional study involving 269 exposed and 99 non-exposed subjects (non-industrial noise exposed subjects) randomly selected. Current noise exposure was estimated using both sound level meter and noise-dosimeter. Past noise exposure was estimated by interview questionnaire. Otoscopic examination and conventional frequency (0.25-8 kHz) audiometry were used to assess the hearing loss in each subject. 75% (202 subjects) from the exposed group were exposed to a daily Leq above the permissible level of 85 dB(A) and most (61%) of these did not and had never used any form of hearing protection. Hearing loss was found to be bilateral and symmetrical in both groups. Bivariate analysis showed a significant hearing loss in the exposed vs non-exposed subjects with a characteristic dip at 4 kHz. Thirty eight percent of exposed subjects had hearing impairment, which was an 8-fold higher rate than that found for non-exposed subjects. Multivariate analysis indicated exposure to noise was the primary, and age the secondary predictor of hearing loss. Odds of hearing impairment were lower for a small sub-group of exposed workers using hearing protection (N=19) in which logistic regression analysis showed the probability of workers adopting hearing protective devices increased with noise exposure, education, and awareness of noise control. Hearing loss was also greater amongst those who used headphones to listen to recorded cassettes. Gross occupational exposure to noise has been demonstrated to cause hearing loss and the authors believe that occupational hearing loss in Saudi Arabia is a widespread problem. Strategies of noise assessment and control are introduced which may help improve the work environment.

  20. Occupational Exposure of Nanoparticles In Forensic Science: A Need Of Safe Use

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla RK

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advancement in nanotechnology sets new paradigms in science and technology, but simultaneously increased apprehensions about the health risks of nano-objects. Recently, various types of nanoparticles used in several areas of forensic including paint, inks, security document and to develop the latent fingerprint. Objective: Despite bright outlooks of nanoparticles used in various fields of forensic science, an increasing occupational as well as laboratory exposure of nanoparticles...

  1. Occupational exposure to sharp injuries among medical and dental house officers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sharp injuries constitute important occupational exposure in hospital environment, and perhaps the newly graduated medical and dental students, known as House Officers, in the first twelve months of their practice, are the most vulnerable of all health workers. This study was designed to examine the nature and prevalence of occupational injuries among medical and dental house officers and factors associated with reporting these injuries. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, types of exposure, and barriers to official reporting of occupational injuries. One hundred and forty-four medical and dental house officers in 3 government owned hospitals in Edo State, Nigeria participated in the study, between April and May, 2010. Descriptive and multivariable analyses were performed. Results: The overall response rate was 96%. Out of all participants, 69.4% were male; 82.6% were medical house officers. Prevalence of percutaneous injury was 56.9%; where needlestick injury constituted one-third of all injuries. Mean frequency of injury was 1.86±2.24, with medicals having more injuries (p = 0.043. The ward was the most common location for the injury and 14.8% of exposures occurred as a result of lapse in concentration. At least 77.0% did not formally report their injury and perceived low injury risk was the most common reason given (51.67%. Conclusion: This study shows that a substantial number of House Officers are exposed to occupational injuries and that the majority of them does not formally report these. Safer work environment may be achieved by implementing adequate educational programs tailored specifically to house officers, and policies encouraging exposure reporting should be developed.

  2. The risk of occupational exposure and infection with infectious diseases: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbaugh, R J

    1998-12-01

    This article is the second of a series devoted to the epidemiology of selected infectious diseases known to be transmitted in health care settings. In subsequent issues, the relative risk of occupational exposure to and infection with these diseases will be discussed. Part 1 (October 1998 Home Care Provider) consisted of a brief review of general preventive measures associated with standard and transmission-based precautions. This article will address specific viral illnesses associated with blood-borne transmission.

  3. BIOMarkers for occupational diesel exhaust exposure monitoring (BIOMODEM)--a study in underground mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheepers, P T J; Coggon, D; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2002-01-01

    of urinary metabolites of benzene and pyrene. In addition, increased O(6)-alkylguanine DNA adducts were detected in the white blood cells of underground workers, suggesting higher exposure to nitroso-compounds. However, no differences between underground and surface workers were observed in the levels...... of other bulky DNA adducts determined by 32P-postlabelling, or in DNA damage. The study indicated that smoking, diet and residential indoor air pollution are important non-occupational factors to consider when interpreting biomonitoring results....

  4. Occupational exposure to lead and organophosphorus pesticides: effect on male reproductive health

    OpenAIRE

    Yucra, Sandra; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Doctor en Medicina; Gasco, Manuel; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Rubio, Julio; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increased occupational exposure to different pollutants such as heavy metals and pesticides, because of the significant growth in industrial, mining, and agriculture activities. Adverse effects on human health can be observed in the respiratory, renal, nervous, endocrine, and reproductive systems, being the latter quite susceptible to many physical and chemical agents generated by industrial or agricultural activities. These agents are present in some specific activiti...

  5. Occupational and environmental exposures and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: silica, sunlight, solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wither, Joan; Bernatsky, Sasha; Claudio, Jaime O.; Clarke, Ann; Rioux, John D.; Fortin, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined occupational and non-occupational exposures in relation to risk of SLE in a case–control study conducted through the Canadian Network for Improved Outcomes in SLE (CaNIOS). Methods. SLE cases (n = 258) were recruited from 11 rheumatology centres across Canada. Controls (without SLE, n = 263) were randomly selected from phone number listings and matched to cases by age, sex and area of residence. Data were collected using a structured telephone interview. Results. An association was seen with outdoor work in the 12 months preceding diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.8]; effect modification by sun reaction was suggested, with the strongest effect among people who reported reacting to midday sun with a blistering sunburn or a rash (OR 7.9; 95% CI 0.97, 64.7). Relatively strong but imprecise associations were seen with work as an artist working with paints, dyes or developing film (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.3, 12.3) and work that included applying nail polish or nail applications (OR 10.2; 95% CI 1.3, 81.5). Patients were more likely than controls to report participation in pottery or ceramics work as a leisure activity, with an increased risk among individuals with a total frequency of at least 26 days (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1, 3.9). Analyses of potential respirable silica exposures suggested an exposure–response gradient (OR 1.0, 1.4. and 2.1 for zero, one and two or more sources of exposure, respectively; trend test P < 0.01). Conclusions. This study supports the role of specific occupational and non-occupational exposures in the development of SLE. PMID:20675707

  6. Evaluation of the occupational exposure to ciclophosphamide in nine hospitals from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales-Rimache, Jaime A.; Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Licenciado en Tecnología Médica, magíster en Salud Ocupacional

    2014-01-01

    Objetives. Evaluate occupational exposure to cyclophosphamide in nine hospitals of Peru. Materials and methods. Cross-cutting observational study conducted in 2010, for which 24-hour urine samples were obtained from 96 employees of the oncologic mixture units and oncology services of nine hospitals in Peru, the quantification of cyclophosphamide was done through the GC-MS methodology (Gas Cromathography-Mass Spectroscopy). Additionally, working surfaces were tested by obtaining samples with w...

  7. Calibrating a population-based job-exposure matrix using inspection measurements to estimate historical occupational exposure to lead for a population-based cohort in Shanghai, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, Dong Hee; Bhatti, Parveen; Coble, Joseph B.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou; Ji, Bu Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Locke, Sarah J.; Portengen, Lutzen; Yang, Gong; Chow, Wong Ho; Gao, Yu Tang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiologic evidence for the carcinogenicity of lead is inconsistent and requires improved exposure assessment to estimate risk. We evaluated historical occupational lead exposure for a population-based cohort of women (n=74,942) by calibrating a job-exposure matrix (JEM) with lead fume

  8. Knowledge of occupational exposure to HIV: a cross sectional study of healthcare workers in Tumbi and Dodoma hospitals, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashoto, Kijakazi Obed; Mubyazi, Godfrey Martin; Mushi, Adiel K

    2015-01-22

    Insufficient knowledge on blood-borne pathogens has been identified as a factor that influences occupational exposure to needle stick and sharps injuries. The objective of this study was to assess healthcare workers' knowledge on occupational exposure to HIV. A cross sectional survey was conducted at Tumbi designated regional hospital and Dodoma regional hospital, Tanzania in February 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used to capture information on knowledge of occupational exposure to HIV infection. A total of 401 healthcare workers responded to a self-administered questionnaire. High proportion of healthcare workers (96.3%) understood that they are at risk of occupational exposure to HIV. The majority of healthcare workers trained on post exposure prophylaxis procedure and use of personal protective equipment were clinicians (87.1% and 71.4% respectively) and nurses (81.8% and 74.6% respectively). Over a quarter of the healthcare workers were not aware of whom to contact in the event of occupational exposure. One third of healthcare workers did not have comprehensive knowledge on causes of occupational HIV transmission and did not know when post exposure prophylaxis is indicated. Healthcare workers not trained on the use of person protective equipment were less likely to have comprehensive knowledge on occupational exposure to HIV (OR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 - 0.9). Knowledge on causes of occupational exposure varied with the cadre of healthcare workers. Nurses were more likely to have comprehensive knowledge on occupational exposure to HIV than non-clinical staff (OR = 2.6; 95% CI 1.5 - 4.5). A substantial proportion of studied healthcare workers had little knowledge on occupational exposure to HIV and was not aware of a contact person in the event of occupational exposure to HIV. Training on post exposure prophylaxis and infection prevention and control including the use of person protective equipment provided to nurses and clinicians should be

  9. Occupational exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer risk: results of the ICARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khedher, Soumaya; Neri, Monica; Guida, Florence; Matrat, Mireille; Cenée, Sylvie; Sanchez, Marie; Menvielle, Gwenn; Molinié, Florence; Luce, Danièle; Stücker, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the role of occupational exposure to endotoxins in lung cancer in a French population-based case-control study (ICARE (Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers)). Detailed information was collected on the occupational history and smoking habits from 2926 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer and 3555 matched controls. We evaluated each subject's endotoxin exposure after cross referencing International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) codes (for job tasks) and Nomenclature d'Activités Françaises (NAF) codes (for activity sectors). Endotoxin exposure levels were attributed to each work environment based on literature reports. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models and controlled for main confounding factors. An inverse association between exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer was found (OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95). Negative trends were shown with duration and cumulative exposure, and the risk was decreased decades after exposure cessation (all statistically significant). Lung cancer risk was particularly reduced among workers highly exposed (eg, in dairy, cattle, poultry, pig farms), but also in those weakly exposed (eg, in waste treatment). Statistically significant interactions were shown with smoking, and never/light smokers were more sensitive to an endotoxin effect than heavy smokers (eg, OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.32 and OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.40, respectively, for the quartiles with the highest cumulative exposure, compared with those never exposed). Pronounced inverse associations were shown with adenocarcinoma histological subtype (OR=0.37, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.55 in the highly exposed). Our findings suggest that exposure to endotoxins, even at a low level, reduces the risk of lung cancer. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  10. Occupational Exposure to Mineral Turpentine and Heavy Fuels: A Possible Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Helou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between solvents and Alzheimer's disease (AD has been the subject of several studies. Yet, only few studies have examined the various solvents separately, and the controls have rarely been monitored long enough. For these reasons and others, we believe that further studies are required. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify solvents associated with the clinicoradiological diagnostic of AD or mixed-type dementia (MD. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was performed in 156 patients followed up at the Memory Diagnostic Center of Bertinot Juel Hospital (France. The inclusion criteria were known occupation(s, a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score ≥10 at the first visit, a neuropsychological evaluation performed and a diagnosis established in our Memory Diagnostic Center. The diagnostics were crossed with 9 solvents belonging to two classes of solvents. Exposure was evaluated using French national job-exposure matrices. Results: Certain petroleum-based solvents and fuels (i.e. mineral turpentine, diesel fuel, fuel oil and kerosene were associated with a diagnosis of AD or MD. This association was still significant after adjustment for age, sex and education (adjusted OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2-20. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to mineral turpentine and heavy fuels may be a risk factor for AD and MD.

  11. Occupational Health Impacts Due to Exposure to Organic Chemicals over an Entire Product Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijko, Gaël; Jolliet, Olivier; Margni, Manuele

    2016-12-06

    This article presents an innovative approach to include occupational exposures to organic chemicals in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) by building on the characterization factors set out in Kijko et al. (2015) to calculate the potential impact of occupational exposure over the entire supply chain of product or service. Based on an economic input-output model and labor and economic data, the total impacts per dollar of production are provided for 430 commodity categories and range from 0.025 to 6.6 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per million dollar of final economic demand. The approach is applied on a case study assessing human health impacts over the life cycle of a piece of office furniture. It illustrates how to combine monitoring data collected at the manufacturing facility and averaged sector specific data to model the entire supply chain. This paper makes the inclusion of occupational exposure to chemicals fully compatible with the LCA framework by including the supply chain of a given production process and will help industries focus on the leading causes of human health impacts and prevent impact shifting.

  12. Occupational blood exposure among health care workers: II. Exposure mechanisms and universal precautions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1993-01-01

    We investigated mechanisms of mucocutaneous exposure (MCE) and percutaneous exposure (PCE) to blood, and compliance with protective barriers among all former and presently employed medical staff at a Danish Department of Infectious Diseases. All subjects were asked to complete an anonymous...... of protective barriers. To further reduce the frequency of blood exposure, the development of safer instruments and unceasing education in safer technique and use of protective barriers are of major importance....

  13. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and sex-differential risk of uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Thomas; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian; Sabroe, Svend; Lutz, Jean-Michel; Afonso, Noemia; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Merletti, Franco; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Stengrevics, Aivars; Févotte, Joëlle; Llopis-González, Agustin; Gorini, Giuseppe; Sharkova, Galina; Hardell, Lennart; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries. Incident cases of uveal melanoma and population as well as hospital controls were included and frequency matched by country, 5-year birth cohort and sex. Subjects were asked whether they had worked close to high-voltage electrical transmission installations, computer screens and various electrical machines, or in complex electrical environments. Measurements of two Scandinavian job-exposure matrices were applied to estimate lifelong cumulative EMF exposure. Unconditional logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex and eye colour were calculated, adjusting for several potential confounders. 293 patients with uveal melanoma and 3198 control subjects were interviewed. Women exposed to electrical transmission installations showed elevated risks (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.72 to 19.66). Positive associations with exposure to control rooms were seen among men and women, but most risk increases were restricted to subjects with dark iris colour. Application of published EMF measurements revealed stronger risk increases among women compared to men. Again, elevated risks were restricted to subjects with dark eye colour. Although based on a low prevalence of exposure to potential occupational sources of EMF, our data indicate that exposed dark-eyed women may be at particular risk for uveal melanoma.

  14. The Occupational Exposure Limit for Fluid Aerosol Generated in Metalworking Operations: Limitations and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donguk Park

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to assess current knowledge related to the occupational exposure limit (OEL for fluid aerosols including either mineral or chemical oil that are generated in metalworking operations, and to discuss whether their OEL can be appropriately used to prevent several health risks that may vary among metalworking fluid (MWF types. The OEL (time-weighted average; 5 mg/m3, short-term exposure limit ; 15 mg/m3 has been applied to MWF aerosols without consideration of different fluid aerosol-size fractions. The OEL, is also based on the assumption that there are no significant differences in risk among fluid types, which may be contentious. Particularly, the health risks from exposure to water-soluble fluids may not have been sufficiently considered. Although adoption of The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's recommended exposure limit for MWF aerosol (0.5 mg/m3 would be an effective step towards minimizing and evaluating the upper respiratory irritation that may be caused by neat or diluted MWF, this would fail to address the hazards (e.g., asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by microbial contaminants generated only by the use of water-soluble fluids. The absence of an OEL for the water-soluble fluids used in approximately 80-90 % of all applicants may result in limitations of the protection from health risks caused by exposure to those fluids.

  15. Case studies of hydrogen sulphide occupational exposure incidents in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kate

    2014-12-15

    The UK Health and Safety Executive has investigated several incidents of workplace accidents involving hydrogen sulphide exposure in recent years. Biological monitoring has been used in some incidents to determine the cause of unconsciousness resulting from these incidents and as a supporting evidence in regulatory enforcement. This paper reports on three case incidents and discusses the use of biological monitoring in such cases. Biological monitoring has a role in identifying hydrogen sulphide exposure in incidents, whether these are occupational or in the wider environment. Sample type, time of collection and sample storage are important factors in the applicability of this technique. For non-fatal incidents, multiple urine samples are recommended at two or more time points between the incident and 15 h post-exposure. For routine occupational monitoring, post-shift samples should be adequate. Due to endogenous levels of urinary thiosulphate, it is likely that exposures in excess of 12 ppm for 30 min (or 360 ppm/min equivalent) would be detectable using biological monitoring. This is within the Acute Exposure Guideline Level 2 (the level of the chemical in air at or above which there may be irreversible or other serious long-lasting effects or impaired ability to escape) for hydrogen sulphide. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Annette C.; Campleman, Sharan L.; Long, Christopher M.; Peterson, Michael K.; Weatherstone, Susan; Quick, Will; Lewis, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S) concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended. PMID:26206568

  17. External occupational exposures in some NORM industries located at the South-West of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, J. P.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    Detailed mappings of the external exposures which can be received by the workers in two NORM industrial factories located at the South-West of Spain have been performed: one devoted to the production of phosphoric acid, and the other devoted to the production of titanium dioxide pigments. In most places of the analyzed factories, the external exposures are moderated, although in some specific points, and associated to the presence of scales, their values are clearly higher. Nevertheless, under normal running conditions, the contribution of the external exposures to the effective doses received by the workers is lower than 1 mSv/y because the worker occupancy factors values are very low in the places with the highest external exposures.

  18. Occupational Noise Exposure of Employees at Locally-Owned Restaurants in a College Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Deirdre R; Anthony, T Renée

    2015-01-01

    While many restaurant employees work in loud environments, in both dining and food preparation areas, little is known about worker exposures to noise. The risk of hearing loss to millions of food service workers around the country is unknown. This study evaluated full-shift noise exposure to workers at six locally-owned restaurants to examine risk factors associated with noise exposures during the day shift. Participants included cooks, counter attendants, bartenders, and waiters at full-service restaurants with bar service and at limited-service restaurants that provided counter service only. Assessments were made on weekdays and weekends, both during the summer and the fall (with a local university in session) to examine whether the time of week or year affects noise exposures to this population in a college town. In addition, the relationships between noise exposures and the type of restaurant and job classification were assessed. One-hundred eighty full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were assessed, using both Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) criteria. No TWA measurements exceeded the 90 dBA OSHA 8 hr permissible exposure limit, although six projected TWAs exceeded the 85 dBA OSHA hearing conservation action limit. Using NIOSH criteria, TWAs ranged from 69-90 dBA with a mean of 80 dBA (SD = 4 dBA). Nearly 8% (14) of the exposures exceeded the NIOSH 8-hr 85 dBA. Full-shift exposures were larger for all workers in full-service restaurants (p exposures were louder than summer and weekdays. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that the combination of restaurant type, job classification, and season had a significant effect on restaurant worker noise exposures (p exposures, where noise exposures may be anticipated to be louder, were not assessed, this study identified that restaurant type, job classification, time of week, and season significantly affected

  19. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Motor Exhaust and Lung Cancer: A Dose-Response Relationship Hidden by Asbestos Exposure Adjustment? The ICARE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrat, Mireille; Guida, Florence; Cénée, Sylvie; Févotte, Joelle; Carton, Matthieu; Cyr, Diane; Menvielle, Gwenn; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Radoï, Loredana; Schmaus, Annie; Bara, Simona; Velten, Michel; Luce, Danièle; Stücker, Isabelle; The Icare Study Group

    2015-01-01

    Background. In a French large population-based case-control study we investigated the dose-response relationship between lung cancer and occupational exposure to diesel motor exhaust (DME), taking into account asbestos exposure. Methods. Exposure to DME was assessed by questionnaire. Asbestos was taken into account through a global indicator of exposure to occupational carcinogens or by a specific JEM. Results. We found a crude dose response relationship with most of the indicators of DME exposure, including with the cumulative exposure index. All results were affected by adjustment for asbestos exposure. The dose response relationships between DME and lung cancer were observed among subjects never exposed to asbestos. Conclusions. Exposure to DME and to asbestos is frequently found among the same subjects, which may explain why dose-response relationships in previous studies that adjusted for asbestos exposure were inconsistent. PMID:26425123

  20. Varied exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic (CMR) chemicals in occupational settings in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havet, Nathalie [Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (France). Lab. SAF; Penot, Alexis [Lyon Univ. (France). ENS Lyon, GATE-UMR 5824-CNRS; Morelle, Magali; Perrier, Lionel [Lyon Univ. (France). Direction de la Recherche Clinique et de l' Innovation; Charbotel, Barbara [Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (France). Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud Service des Maladies Professionnelles; Fervers, Beatrice [Lyon Univ. (France). Dept. Cancer and Environment

    2017-02-15

    To explore varied exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic chemicals (CMR) for French employees. Our study assessed data from the French national cross-sectional survey of occupational risks (SUMER) that was conducted in 2010 in a national representative sample of employees. We selected 28 CMR agents that were classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer or European Union as being known or presumed to have CMR potential in humans. The association of individual and job characteristics with exposure prevalence, duration, and intensity of the CMR agents during a 1-week period was examined using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Overall, 10.4% of employees in 2010 were exposed to one or more CMR agents at their workplace, and 3.4% were subjected to multiple CMR exposures. Blue-collar workers, night-shift workers and workers with short-term employment contracts experienced higher exposure prevalence (p < 0.01) and intensity (p < 0.05). Bluecollar workers and shift workers experienced also longer exposure duration (p < 0.001). Conversely, managers, workers of large companies, and women were less exposed to CMR agents (p < 0.001). The presence of a Committee for Health, Safety, and Working Conditions, and intervention by Occupational Health and Safety officers were significantly associated with reduced exposure intensities (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05). Establishment of European CMR regulations and the existence of an applicable substitution principle reduced the exposure duration (p < 0.001) and intensity (p < 0.05). Our results point out disparities in CMR exposure and identify high-priority targets for prevention measures to help reducing social health discrepancies.

  1. Developing an occupational skills profile for the emerging profession of "big-data-enabled professional"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, K. A.; Malyn-Smith, J.; Ippolito, J.; Krumhansl, R.

    2014-12-01

    In August of 2014, the Oceans of Data Institute at Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) is convening an expert panel to begin the process of developing an occupational skills profile for the "big-data-enabled professional." We define such a professional as an "individual who works with large complex data sets on a regular basis, asking and answering questions, analyzing trends, and finding meaningful patterns, in order to increase the efficiency of processes, make decisions and predictions, solve problems, generate hypotheses, and/or develop new understandings." The expert panel includes several geophysicists, as well as data professionals from engineering, higher education, analytical journalism, forensics, bioinformatics, and telecommunications. Working with experienced facilitators, the expert panel will create a detailed synopsis of the tasks and responsibilities characteristic of their profession, as well as the skills, knowledge and behaviors that enable them to succeed in the workplace. After the panel finishes their work, the task matrix and associated narrative will be vetted and validated by a larger group of additional professionals, and then disseminated for use by educators and employers. The process we are using is called DACUM (Developing a Curriculum), adapted by EDC and optimized for emergent professions, such as the "big-data-enabled professional." DACUM is a well-established method for analyzing jobs and occupations, commonly used in technical fields to develop curriculum and training programs that reflect authentic work tasks found in scientific and technical workplaces. The premises behind the DACUM approach are that: expert workers are better able to describe their own occupation than anyone else; any job can be described in terms of the tasks that successful workers in the occupation perform; all tasks have direct implications for the knowledge, skills, understandings and attitudes that must be taught and learned in preparation for the

  2. Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M.; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W.; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0–12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels. PMID:24043814

  3. Occupational Radiation Exposure of Anesthesia Providers: A Summary of Key Learning Points and Resident-Led Radiation Safety Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rachel R; Kumar, Amanda H; Tanaka, Pedro; Macario, Alex

    2017-06-01

    Anesthesia providers are frequently exposed to radiation during routine patient care in the operating room and remote anesthetizing locations. Eighty-two percent of anesthesiology residents (n = 57 responders) at our institution had a "high" or "very high" concern about the level of ionizing radiation exposure, and 94% indicated interest in educational materials about radiation safety. This article highlights key learning points related to basic physical principles, effects of ionizing radiation, radiation exposure measurement, occupational dose limits, considerations during pregnancy, sources of exposure, factors affecting occupational exposure such as positioning and shielding, and monitoring. The principle source of exposure is through scattered radiation as opposed to direct exposure from the X-ray beam, with the patient serving as the primary source of scatter. As a result, maximizing the distance between the provider and the patient is of great importance to minimize occupational exposure. Our dosimeter monitoring project found that anesthesiology residents (n = 41) had low overall mean measured occupational radiation exposure. The highest deep dose equivalent value for a resident was 0.50 mSv over a 3-month period, less than 10% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection occupational limit, with the eye dose equivalent being 0.52 mSv, approximately 4% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommended limit. Continued education and awareness of the risks of ionizing radiation and protective strategies will reduce exposure and potential for associated sequelae.

  4. Differences in exposure to occupational health risks in Spanish and foreign-born workers in Spain (ITSAL Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Elena; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; García, Ana M; López-Jacob, Maria José; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; Benavides, Fernando G

    2013-02-01

    Migrant workers usually show higher rates of work-related health problems than natives. However, little information is available about their exposure to occupational risks. We describe self-reported working exposure in Spanish and foreign-born workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted as part of the ITSAL Project. Data on sociodemographic and self-reported occupational exposure in 1,841 foreign-born and 509 Spanish workers were collected through face-to-face interviews. Prevalence and adjusted odds ratios-aOR- (by age, education, type of contract) were calculated. Foreign-born men in non-services sectors and those in manual occupations perceived exposure to occupational risks with lower prevalence than Spanish workers. Foreign-born women reported higher prevalence of exposure than Spanish female workers. By occupation, foreign-born female workers were more likely than Spanish workers to report working many hours/day (aOR2.68; 95 % CI 1.06-6.78) and exposure to extreme temperatures (aOR2.19; 95 % CI 1.10-4.38). Some groups of migrant workers may need increased protection regarding some occupational exposures.

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