WorldWideScience

Sample records for profile modification laterally

  1. [Somatometry and lipid profile in smokers. Modifications after smoking withdrawal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparici, M; Fernández González, A L; Alegría, E

    1991-06-15

    The purpose of this work was to determine the somatometric and lipidic profile in a group of 90 smokers and to carry out a prospective study on modifications due to smoking withdrawal. A somatometric and lipidic profile was performed to 90 smokers and 30 non-smokers. Afterwards smokers were included in a smoking withdrawal program. One year later all subjects who stopped smoking as well as 10 of the smokers who failed in smoking withdrawal underwent a new blood analysis and somatometric study. Initial somatometry showed that smokers had a significantly higher (p less than 0.05) overweight and endomorphic index, based on somatometric characteristics. In addition, smokers showed significant lower level of HDL-cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein) than non-smokers (p less than 0.001). Somatometric and lipidic profile performed one year after smoking cessation showed a statistically significant increase on HDL-cholesterol (p less than 0.05). Somatometric and lipidic profile of the subjects who failed in smoking withdrawal showed no significant changes in relation to the study made the previous year. From these data we suggest that modifications of lipidic profile induced by tobacco consumption can be reverted, at least in part, after smoking cessation. In addition smokers present higher overweight when theoretic weight is based on somatometric characteristics.

  2. A study of microbial profile modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, J.H.; Lee, H.O.

    1995-12-31

    A microbial profile modification method using spores was investigated. A halotolerant, spore-forming, biopolymer-producing mesophile was used in Berea cores with a specifically formulated nutrient package to reduce the permeability of the rock. The degree of permeability reduction varied widely depending on the stimulation protocols used. The incubation period had a significant impact on permeability reduction, and there appeared to be an optimum incubation time for maximum permeability reduction. The reduction persisted for many PV of brine injection and appeared very stable. For our microbes used in this study, the permeability reduction was about the same when the NaCl concentration was above 2 wt% in the range from 0 wt% to 10 wt%.

  3. Gene expression profiling of laterally spreading tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemura, Shoko; Tanaka, Takeshi; Arai, Makoto; Okimoto, Kenichiro; Oyamada, Arata; Saito, Keiko; Maruoka, Daisuke; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Kishimoto, Takashi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-06-06

    Laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) are generally defined as lesions >10 mm in diameter, are characterized by lateral expansion along the luminal wall with a low vertical axis. In contrast to other forms of tumor, LSTs are generally considered to have a superficial growth pattern and the potential for malignancy. We focused on this morphological character of LSTs, and analyzed the gene expression profile of LSTs. The expression of 168 genes in 41 colorectal tumor samples (17 LST-adenoma, 12 LST-carcinoma, 12 Ip [pedunculated type of the Paris classification)-adenoma, all of which were 10 mm or more in diameter] was analyzed by PCR array. Based on the results, we investigated the expression levels of genes up-regulated in LST-adenoma, compared to Ip-adenoma, by hierarchical and K-means clustering. To confirm the results of the array analysis, using an additional 60 samples (38 LST-adenoma, 22 Ip-adenoma), we determined the localization of the gene product by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of 129 genes differed in colorectal tumors from normal mucosa by PCR array analysis. As a result of K-means clustering, the expression levels of five genes, AKT1, BCL2L1, ERBB2, MTA2 and TNFRSF25, were found to be significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) in LST-adenoma, compared to Ip-adenoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the BCL2L1 protein was significantly and meaningfully up-regulated in LST-adenoma compared to Ip-adenoma (p = 0.010). With respect to apoptosis status in LST-Adenoma, it assumes that BCL2L1 is anti-apoptotic protein, the samples such as BCL2L1 positive and TUNEL negative, or BCL2L1 negative and TUNEL positive are consistent with the assumption. 63.2 % LST-adenoma samples were consistent with the assumption. LSTs have an unusual profile of gene expression compared to other tumors and BCL2L1 might be concerned in the organization of LSTs.

  4. Histone modification profiles characterize function-specific gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Inkyung; Kim, Dongsup

    2012-10-07

    Chromatin modification is ubiquitous in gene regulation. Despite much effort, a systematic investigation is needed to understand whether each modification has a unique property depending on the function of its associated genes. Here, we show that consideration of function-specific histone modification profiles is important for accurate prediction of gene expression levels, and is maintained across cell types. The performance improvement is thought to originate from the association between modifications and gene expression levels for each biological function. The varying relationship between histone modifications and gene expression levels can be partly explained by considering function-specific PolII recruitment mechanisms, and is supported by more accurate predictions of PolII occupancies with function-specific modification profiles. We suggest that the function-specific binding of transcription factors and chromatin regulators may explain similar gene regulatory mechanisms, such as function-specific PolII recruitment, in each functional gene set. Our study demonstrates that each histone modification has a different characteristic according to the function of its associated genes; thus, different combinations of histone modification profiles characterize function-specific gene regulation. The current analysis is available on our web server (biodb.kaist.ac.kr/impohis). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Planetary gear profile modification design based on load sharing modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Miguel; Fernández Del Rincón, Alfonso; De-Juan, Ana Magdalena; Garcia, Pablo; Diez, Alberto; Viadero, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    In order to satisfy the increasing demand on high performance planetary transmissions, an important line of research is focused on the understanding of some of the underlying phenomena involved in this mechanical system. Through the development of models capable of reproduce the system behavior, research in this area contributes to improve gear transmission insight, helping developing better maintenance practices and more efficient design processes. A planetary gear model used for the design of profile modifications ratio based on the levelling of the load sharing ratio is presented. The gear profile geometry definition, following a vectorial approach that mimics the real cutting process of gears, is thoroughly described. Teeth undercutting and hypotrochoid definition are implicitly considered, and a procedure for the incorporation of a rounding arc at the tooth tip in order to deal with corner contacts is described. A procedure for the modeling of profile deviations is presented, which can be used for the introduction of both manufacturing errors and designed profile modifications. An easy and flexible implementation of the profile deviation within the planetary model is accomplished based on the geometric overlapping. The contact force calculation and dynamic implementation used in the model are also introduced, and parameters from a real transmission for agricultural applications are presented for the application example. A set of reliefs is designed based on the levelling of the load sharing ratio for the example transmission, and finally some other important dynamic factors of the transmission are analyzed to assess the changes in the dynamic behavior with respect to the non-modified case. Thus, the main innovative aspect of the proposed planetary transmission model is the capacity of providing a simulated load sharing ratio which serves as design variable for the calculation of the tooth profile modifications.

  6. Leuconostoc mesenteroides growth kinetics with application to bacterial profile modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappan, R.E.; Fogler, H.S. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-04-15

    Bacterial profile modification (BPM) is being developed as an oil recovery technique that uses bacteria to selectively plug oil depleted zones within a reservoir to divert displacing fluids into oil-rich zones. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, which produces dextran when supplied with sucrose, is a bacterium that is technically feasible for use in profile modification. However, the technique requires controlled bacterial growth to produce selective plugging. A kinetic model for the production of cells and polysaccharides has been developed for L. mesenteroides bacteria. This model, based on data from batch growth experiments, predicts saccharide utilization, cell generation, and dextran production. The underlying mechanism is the extracellular breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose and the subsequent production of polysaccharide. The monosaccharides are then available for growth. Accompanying sucrose consumption is the utilization of yeast extract. The cell requires a complex media that is provided by yeast extract as a source of vitamins and amino acids. Varying the concentration ratio of yeast extract to sucrose in the growth media provides a means of controlling the amount of polymer produced per cell. Consequently, in situ bacteria growth can be controlled by the manipulation of nutrient media composition, thereby providing the ability to create an overall strategy for the use of L. mesenteroides bacteria for profile modification.

  7. Lateral pressure profile in lipid membranes with curvature: Analytical calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdova, A. A.; Mukhin, S. I.

    2017-08-01

    An analytical expression is obtained for the lateral pressure profile in the hydrophobic part of a lipid bilayer of finite curvature. Calculations are carried out within a microscopic model of a lipid bilayer, according to which the energy of a lipid chain represents the energy of a flexible string of finite thickness and the interaction between lipid chains is considered as a steric (entropic) repulsion. This microscopic model allows one to obtain an expression for the distribution of lateral pressure in membranes with given curvature if one considers the bending of a membrane as a small deviation from a flat conformation and applies perturbation theory in the small parameter L 0 J, where L 0 is the hydrophobic thickness of a monolayer and J is the mean curvature of the lipid bilayer. The resulting pressure profile depends on the microscopic parameters of the lipid chain: the bending modulus of the lipid chain, incompressible area per lipid chain, and the thickness of a flat monolayer. The coefficient of entropic repulsion between lipids is calculated self-consistently. The analytical results obtained for the lateral pressure distribution are in qualitative agreement with molecular dynamic simulations.

  8. Current profile modification experiments in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Spizzo, G.; Chapman, B. E.; Gravestjin, R. M.; Franz, P.; Piovesan, P.; Martin, P.; Drake, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    Pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) experiments have been conducted in the resistive shell EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch experiment. During the current profile modification phase, the fluctuation level of the m = 1 internally resonant tearing modes decreases, and the velocity of these modes increases. The m = 0 modes are not affected during PPCD, although termination occurs with a burst in the m = 0 amplitude. The PPCD phase is characterized by an increase in the central electron temperature (up to 380 eV) and in the soft x-ray signal. Spectroscopic observations confirm an increase in the central electron temperature. During PPCD, the plasma poloidal beta increases to 14%, and the estimated energy confinement time doubles, reaching 380 µs. The reduction in the fluctuation level and the corresponding increase in the energy confinement time are qualitatively consistent with a reduction in parallel transport along stochastic magnetic field lines.

  9. Prediction of transposable element derived enhancers using chromatin modification profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Huda

    Full Text Available Experimentally characterized enhancer regions have previously been shown to display specific patterns of enrichment for several different histone modifications. We modelled these enhancer chromatin profiles in the human genome and used them to guide the search for novel enhancers derived from transposable element (TE sequences. To do this, a computational approach was taken to analyze the genome-wide histone modification landscape characterized by the ENCODE project in two human hematopoietic cell types, GM12878 and K562. We predicted the locations of 2,107 and 1,448 TE-derived enhancers in the GM12878 and K562 cell lines respectively. A vast majority of these putative enhancers are unique to each cell line; only 3.5% of the TE-derived enhancers are shared between the two. We evaluated the functional effect of TE-derived enhancers by associating them with the cell-type specific expression of nearby genes, and found that the number of TE-derived enhancers is strongly positively correlated with the expression of nearby genes in each cell line. Furthermore, genes that are differentially expressed between the two cell lines also possess a divergent number of TE-derived enhancers in their vicinity. As such, genes that are up-regulated in the GM12878 cell line and down-regulated in K562 have significantly more TE-derived enhancers in their vicinity in the GM12878 cell line and vice versa. These data indicate that human TE-derived sequences are likely to be involved in regulating cell-type specific gene expression on a broad scale and suggest that the enhancer activity of TE-derived sequences is mediated by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms.

  10. tRNA modification profiles of the fast-proliferating cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chao; Niu, Leilei; Song, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Xianhua [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Yi; Yi, Fan [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology and Tumor Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Li-He [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhai, Suodi [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Hua, E-mail: huali88@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ye, Min, E-mail: yemin@bjmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Quan, E-mail: quan.du@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Despite the recent progress in RNA modification study, a comprehensive modification profile is still lacking for mammalian cells. Using a quantitative HPLC/MS/MS assay, we present here a study where RNA modifications are examined in term of the major RNA species. With paired slow- and fast-proliferating cell lines, distinct RNA modification profiles are first revealed for diverse RNA species. Compared to mRNAs, increased ribose and nucleobase modifications are shown for the highly-structured tRNAs and rRNAs, lending support to their contribution to the formation of high-order structures. This study also reveals a dynamic tRNA modification profile in the fast-proliferating cells. In addition to cultured cells, this unique tRNA profile has been further confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that tRNA is a actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells, and suggest that they may play a more active role in biological process than expected. -- Highlights: •RNA modifications were first examined in term of the major RNA species. •A dynamic tRNA modifications was characterized for the fast-proliferating cells. •The unique tRNA profile was confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. •tRNA was predicted as an actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells.

  11. Analysis of the pharyngoesophageal pressure profile in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, G; Wilson, J A; Pryde, A; Grant, R

    1995-02-01

    Treatment of dysphagia resulting from bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has included cricopharyngeal myotomy for many years but is successful in only a minority of cases. The purpose of this study was to explore the rationale for this procedure with modern manometric techniques. The results of pharyngoesophageal manometry in 13 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were compared with 13 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers by Mann-Whitney analysis. There was no significant difference between patients and control subjects in distal esophageal or lower esophageal sphincter motility nor any pressure parameter of pharyngoesophageal motility. Separate analysis of the seven significantly dysphagic subjects showed a significantly reduced upper esophageal sphincter after-contraction amplitude during water and bread swallows in patients than in control subjects. These data suggest that the dysphagia of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to upper esophageal sphincter spasm and that treatment by cricopharyngeal myotomy may be inappropriate.

  12. Aerofoil profile modification effects for improved performance of a vertical axis wind turbine blade

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Md. Farhad

    2014-01-01

    Due to the growing need of sustainable energy technologies, wind energy is gaining more popularity day by day. For micro power generation vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is preferred due to its simplicity and easy to install characteristics. This study investigates the effects of profile-modification on a NACA0015 aerofoil used in VAWTs. The profile-modifications being investigated consist of a combination of inward semi-circular dimple and Gurney flap at the lower surface of the aerofoil. ...

  13. Corrigendum to: Optimum profile modifications of spur gears by means of genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Marco; Bonori, Giorgio; Pellicano, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the present work is to correct some inaccuracies of the paper "Bonori, G., Barbieri, M., Pellicano, F., 2008, Optimum Profile Modifications of Spur Gears by Means of Genetic Algorithms, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 313, pp. 603-616"; in that work, the aim was the reduction of vibrations in spur gears by means of profile modifications. This goal was achieved by using an ad hoc genetic algorithm, where the objective function was the peak to peak or the harmonic content of the Static Transmission Error (STE) computed by Finite Element calculations. The efficiency in terms of vibration reduction of the optimized profile reliefs was checked using a one degree of freedom dynamic model. This dynamic model considers time varying mesh stiffness, backlash, and profile error. In the original paper the effect of intentional profile modifications was considered as part of the mesh stiffness, thus overestimating their effect in vibration reduction. In the present corrigendum, the dynamic model is updated, keeping into account profile deviations by means of an error function. Finally, the optimal profile modifications found in the original paper are checked using the updated model.

  14. Nuss procedure: Technical modifications to ease bending of the support bar and lateral stabilizer placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Zeki Karakus

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Preoperative bending of the support bar according to anthropometric measurements and fixation of the lateral stabilizers to the support bar in inverted position facilitates bar shaping and lateral stabilizer placement.

  15. Influence of ethanol on lipid membranes: from lateral pressure profiles to dynamics and partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terama, Emma; Ollila, O H Samuli; Salonen, Emppu; Rowat, Amy C; Trandum, Christa; Westh, Peter; Patra, Michael; Karttunen, Mikko; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2008-04-03

    We have combined experiments with atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations to consider the influence of ethanol on a variety of lipid membrane properties. We first employed isothermal titration calorimetry together with the solvent-null method to study the partitioning of ethanol molecules into saturated and unsaturated membrane systems. The results show that ethanol partitioning is considerably more favorable in unsaturated bilayers, which are characterized by their more disordered nature compared to their saturated counterparts. Simulation studies at varying ethanol concentrations propose that the partitioning of ethanol depends on its concentration, implying that the partitioning is a nonideal process. To gain further insight into the permeation of alcohols and their influence on lipid dynamics, we also employed molecular dynamics simulations to quantify kinetic events associated with the permeation of alcohols across a membrane, and to characterize the rotational and lateral diffusion of lipids and alcohols in these systems. The simulation results are in agreement with available experimental data and further show that alcohols have a small but non-vanishing effect on the dynamics of lipids in a membrane. The influence of ethanol on the lateral pressure profile of a lipid bilayer is found to be prominent: ethanol reduces the tension at the membrane-water interface and reduces the peaks in the lateral pressure profile close to the membrane-water interface. The changes in the lateral pressure profile are several hundred atmospheres. This supports the hypothesis that anesthetics may act by changing the lateral pressure profile exerted on proteins embedded in membranes.

  16. Hypoadiponectinemia in overweight children contributes to a negative metabolic risk profile 6 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Iben; Heitmann, Berit L; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2009-01-01

    follow-up data 6 years later (n = 169). Cardiometabolic risk profile was calculated using a continuous composite score derived from summing of 6 factors standardized to the sample means (Z scores): body mass index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, total serum cholesterol to serum high...

  17. Stage-specific histone modification profiles reveal global transitions in the Xenopus embryonic epigenome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias D Schneider

    Full Text Available Vertebrate embryos are derived from a transitory pool of pluripotent cells. By the process of embryonic induction, these precursor cells are assigned to specific fates and differentiation programs. Histone post-translational modifications are thought to play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of stable gene expression patterns underlying these processes. While on gene level histone modifications are known to change during differentiation, very little is known about the quantitative fluctuations in bulk histone modifications during development. To investigate this issue we analysed histones isolated from four different developmental stages of Xenopus laevis by mass spectrometry. In toto, we quantified 59 modification states on core histones H3 and H4 from blastula to tadpole stages. During this developmental period, we observed in general an increase in the unmodified states, and a shift from histone modifications associated with transcriptional activity to transcriptionally repressive histone marks. We also compared these naturally occurring patterns with the histone modifications of murine ES cells, detecting large differences in the methylation patterns of histone H3 lysines 27 and 36 between pluripotent ES cells and pluripotent cells from Xenopus blastulae. By combining all detected modification transitions we could cluster their patterns according to their embryonic origin, defining specific histone modification profiles (HMPs for each developmental stage. To our knowledge, this data set represents the first compendium of covalent histone modifications and their quantitative flux during normogenesis in a vertebrate model organism. The HMPs indicate a stepwise maturation of the embryonic epigenome, which may be causal to the progressing restriction of cellular potency during development.

  18. Profiling Changes in Histone Post-translational Modifications by Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Mowei; Wu, Si; Stenoien, David L.; Zhang, Zhaorui; Connolly, Lanelle; Freitag, Michael; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2016-11-11

    Top-down mass spectrometry is a valuable tool for charactering post-translational modifications on histones for understanding of gene control and expression. In this protocol, we describe a top-down workflow using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for fast global profiling of changes in histone proteoforms between a wild-type and a mutant of a fungal species. The proteoforms exhibiting different abundances can be subjected to further targeted studies by other mass spectrometric or biochemical assays. This method can be generally adapted for preliminary screening for changes in histone modifications between samples such as wild-type vs. mutant, and control vs. disease.

  19. Simple paper architecture modifications lead to enhanced sensitivity in nanoparticle based lateral flow immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolo, Claudio; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; de la Escosura-Muñiz, Alfredo; Merkoçi, Arben

    2013-02-07

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) are ideal biosensors to detect proteins, but their lack of sensitivity hinders their extensive use. We report a strategy that yields up to an 8-fold improvement in the sensitivity of a gold nanoparticles-based LFIA by changing the sizes of the pads. Theoretical flow simulations of the developed LFIA architectures are in accordance with the experimental results.

  20. Monitoring the Modifications of the Vitreous Humor Metabolite Profile after Death: An Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Maria Francesca; Scano, Paola; Noto, Antonio; Nioi, Matteo; Sanna, Roberta; Paribello, Francesco; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Locci, Emanuela; d’Aloja, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    We applied a metabolomic approach to monitor the modifications occurring in goat vitreous humor (VH) metabolite composition at different times (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours) after death. The 1H-NMR analysis of the VH samples was performed for the simultaneous determination of several metabolites (i.e., the metabolite profile) representative of the VH status at different times. Spectral data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and by Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures (OP...

  1. Profiling of integral membrane proteins and their post translational modifications using high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souda, Puneet; Ryan, Christopher M; Cramer, William A; Whitelegge, Julian

    2011-12-01

    Integral membrane proteins pose challenges to traditional proteomics approaches due to unique physicochemical properties including hydrophobic transmembrane domains that limit solubility in aqueous solvents. A well resolved intact protein molecular mass profile defines a protein's native covalent state including post-translational modifications, and is thus a vital measurement toward full structure determination. Both soluble loop regions and transmembrane regions potentially contain post-translational modifications that must be characterized if the covalent primary structure of a membrane protein is to be defined. This goal has been achieved using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with low-resolution mass analyzers for intact protein profiling, and high-resolution instruments for top-down experiments, toward complete covalent primary structure information. In top-down, the intact protein profile is supplemented by gas-phase fragmentation of the intact protein, including its transmembrane regions, using collisionally activated and/or electron-capture dissociation (CAD/ECD) to yield sequence-dependent high-resolution MS information. Dedicated liquid chromatography systems with aqueous/organic solvent mixtures were developed allowing us to demonstrate that polytopic integral membrane proteins are amenable to ESI-MS analysis, including top-down measurements. Covalent post-translational modifications are localized regardless of their position in transmembrane domains. Top-down measurements provide a more detail oriented high-resolution description of post-transcriptional and post-translational diversity for enhanced understanding beyond genomic translation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Individual Distinctive Features of Self-Regulation Processes Peculiar to Students of Different Profiles of Lateral Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneeva, Svetlana A.; Zherebnenko, Oksana A.; Mukhamedzyanova, Flera G.; Moskalenko, Svetlana V.; Gorelikova, Olga N.

    2016-01-01

    The research paper presents an analysis of the interrelation between the lateral organisation profiles' indicators and self-regulation features. The existence of significant distinctions in the processes of self-regulation among respondents with different variants of lateral profiles of the interhemispheric asymmetry is proved, as well as the…

  3. Can pyrene probes be used to measure lateral pressure profiles of lipid membranes? Perspective through atomistic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franova, M. D.; Vattulainen, I.; Ollila, O. H. S.

    2014-01-01

    simulations, since established methods to measure the lateral pressure profile experimentally have not been available. The only experiments that have attempted to gauge the lateral pressure profile have been done by using di-pyrenyl-phosphatidylcholine (di-pyr-PC) probes. In these experiments, the excimer...

  4. Molecular profiling of the lateral habenula in a rat model of depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Christensen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study systematically investigated the effect of chronic mild stress and response to antidepressant treatment in the lateral habenula at the whole genome level. METHODS: Rat whole genome expression chips (Affymetrix were used to detect gene expression regulations in the lateral habenula of rats subjected to chronic mild stress (mild stressors exchanged twice a day for 8 weeks. Some rats received antidepressant treatment during fifth to eights week of CMS. The lateral habenula gene expression profile was studied through the gene ontology and signal pathway analyses using bioinformatics. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to verify the microarray results and determine the expression of the Fcrla, Eif3k, Sec3l1, Ubr5, Abca8a, Ankrd49, Cyp2j10, Frs3, Syn2, and Znf503 genes in the lateral habenula tissue. RESULTS: In particular we found that stress and antidepressant treatment affected intracellular cascades like growth factor receptor signaling, G-protein-coupled receptor signaling, and Wnt signaling - processes involved in the neuroplastic changes observed during the progression of depression and antidepressant treatment. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests an important role of the lateral habenula in the development of depression-like conditions and correlates to previous studies demonstrating a significant role of the lateral habenula in depressive-like conditions and antidepressant treatment.

  5. Profiles of Dispositional Expectancies and Affectivity Predict Later Psychosocial Functioning in Children and Adolescents With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Howard Sharp, Katianne M; Tillery, Rachel; Long, Alanna M; Phipps, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Examined how individual differences in disposition among pediatric cancer patients predict their later psychosocial functioning. Patients aged 8-17 years (N = 223) reported on their disposition at baseline. One and three years later, self-reports and parent reports of patient psychosocial functioning were obtained. Latent profile analysis was used to identify subgroups that differed on baseline disposition and to compare them on later outcomes. Three groups were identified: The "Positive" group (59%) had high optimism and positive affectivity and low pessimism and negative affectivity; the "Moderate" group (39%) had a similar profile, with less exaggerated scores; a small, "Negative" group (2%) had the opposite profile (low optimism/positive affectivity; high pessimism/negative affectivity). These groups differed in psychosocial functioning at follow-up, generally in expected directions. Most patients have a disposition that may be protective. A small minority at high risk for maladjustment is distinguished by their disposition. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Gene expression profiling during intensive cardiovascular lifestyle modification: Relationships with vascular function and weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Blackburn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease and related sequelae are a leading cause of death and healthcare expenditure throughout the world. Although many patients opt for surgical interventions, lifestyle modification programs focusing on nutrition and exercise have shown substantial health benefits and are becoming increasing popular. We conducted a year-long lifestyle modification program to mediate cardiovascular risk through traditional risk factors and to investigate how molecular changes, if present, may contribute to long-term risk reduction. Here we describe the lifestyle intervention, including clinical and molecular data collected, and provide details of the experimental methods and quality control parameters for the gene expression data generated from participants and non-intervention controls. Our findings suggest successful and sustained modulation of gene expression through healthy lifestyle changes may have beneficial effects on vascular health that cannot be discerned from traditional risk factor profiles. The data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus, series GSE46097 and GSE66175.

  7. Laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy and laparoscopic Berne modification of Beger procedure for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis: the first UK experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Yazan S; Ammori, Basil J

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic resection and/or ductal drainage are common surgical options in the management of unremitting abdominal pain of chronic pancreatitis (CP). We describe the results of the largest UK series of laparoscopic approach to pancreatic duct drainage and head resection for CP. Patients with CP and intractable abdominal pain requiring duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (Berne modification of Beger procedure) or Puestow procedure were offered laparoscopic surgery by a single surgeon. The results shown represent median (range). Six patients (3 males) with CP (alcohol induced, n=4; idiopathic, n=2) underwent surgery between 2009 and 2012. The pancreatic duct diameter was 8.75 (6 to 11) mm. Five patients have had lateral pancreaticojejunostomy and 1 patient underwent Berne modification of Beger procedure, all of which were completed laparoscopically. The operating time was 277.5 (250 to 360) minutes. There were no deaths and 1 patient was readmitted 10 days postoperatively and had laparotomy for pancreatic bleeding after pancreaticojejunostomy (morbidity, 17%). The hospital stay was 5 (5 to 8) days. At a follow-up of 14.2 (10 to 35) months, 4 of the patients were pain free, whereas 2 patients required one third and half of the preoperative oral opioid dose for pain control. The laparoscopic approach to pancreatic duct drainage and duodenum-preserving head resection in carefully selected patients and in experienced hands is feasible and safe with good short-term results and potential advantages. Further expansion of experience and longer follow-up is required.

  8. Early childhood profiles of sleep problems and self-regulation predict later school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate E; Nicholson, Jan M; Walker, Sue; Berthelsen, Donna

    2016-06-01

    Children's sleep problems and self-regulation problems have been independently associated with poorer adjustment to school, but there has been limited exploration of longitudinal early childhood profiles that include both indicators. This study explores the normative developmental pathway for sleep problems and self-regulation across early childhood and investigates whether departure from the normative pathway is associated with later social-emotional adjustment to school. This study involved 2,880 children participating in the Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) - Infant Cohort from Wave 1 (0-1 years) to Wave 4 (6-7 years). Mothers reported on children's sleep problems, emotional, and attentional self-regulation at three time points from birth to 5 years. Teachers reported on children's social-emotional adjustment to school at 6-7 years. Latent profile analysis was used to establish person-centred longitudinal profiles. Three profiles were found. The normative profile (69%) had consistently average or higher emotional and attentional regulation scores and sleep problems that steadily reduced from birth to 5 years. The remaining 31% of children were members of two non-normative self-regulation profiles, both characterized by escalating sleep problems across early childhood and below mean self-regulation. Non-normative group membership was associated with higher teacher-reported hyperactivity and emotional problems, and poorer classroom self-regulation and prosocial skills. Early childhood profiles of self-regulation that include sleep problems offer a way to identify children at risk of poor school adjustment. Children with escalating early childhood sleep problems should be considered an important target group for school transition interventions. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Molecular classification of fatty liver by high-throughput profiling of protein post-translational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urasaki, Yasuyo; Fiscus, Ronald R; Le, Thuc T

    2016-04-01

    We describe an alternative approach to classifying fatty liver by profiling protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) with high-throughput capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) immunoassays. Four strains of mice were studied, with fatty livers induced by different causes, such as ageing, genetic mutation, acute drug usage, and high-fat diet. Nutrient-sensitive PTMs of a panel of 12 liver metabolic and signalling proteins were simultaneously evaluated with cIEF immunoassays, using nanograms of total cellular protein per assay. Changes to liver protein acetylation, phosphorylation, and O-N-acetylglucosamine glycosylation were quantified and compared between normal and diseased states. Fatty liver tissues could be distinguished from one another by distinctive protein PTM profiles. Fatty liver is currently classified by morphological assessment of lipid droplets, without identifying the underlying molecular causes. In contrast, high-throughput profiling of protein PTMs has the potential to provide molecular classification of fatty liver. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A novel method for predicting post-translational modifications on serine and threonine sites by using site-modification network profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghui; Jiang, Yujie; Xu, Xiaoyi

    2015-11-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate many aspects of biological behaviours including protein-protein interactions and cellular processes. Identification of PTM sites is helpful for understanding the PTM regulatory mechanisms. The PTMs on serine and threonine sites include phosphorylation, O-linked glycosylation and acetylation. Although a lot of computational approaches have been developed for PTM site prediction, currently most of them generate the predictive models by employing only local sequence information and few of them consider the relationship between different PTMs. In this paper, by adopting the site-modification network (SMNet) profiles that efficiently incorporate in situ PTM information, we develop a novel method to predict PTM sites on serine and threonine. PTM data are collected from various PTM databases and the SMNet is built to reflect the relationship between multiple PTMs, from which SMNet profiles are extracted to train predictive models based on SVM. Performance analysis of the SVM models shows that the SMNet profiles play an important role in accurately predicting PTM sites on serine and threonine. Furthermore, the proposed method is compared with existing PTM prediction approaches. The results from 10-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the proposed method with SMNet profiles performs remarkably better than existing methods, suggesting the power of SMNet profiles in identifying PTM sites.

  11. The relationships between the achievement motivations and temperaments of psychology students with different lateral organization profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobyeva E.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the motivational potential of psychology students using an egoskopiya method. Heart rate and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed the Mehrabian achievement motivation test. Thirty students of the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 20 and 30 years participated. The psychodiagnostic study involved 136 students from the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 18 and 49 years. To determine the lateral organization profiles of sensory and motor functions, a computer-based testing program termed “Profile” was used. The Compact Russian Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ-77 was used to evaluate the features of temperament. The results revealed that people with a strong motivation to succeed exhibited a predominance of right features in their lateral organization profiles. Their cardiovascular systems were in more activated states than those of the people who were extremely motivated to avoid failure. The observed temperament features of psychology students with different levels of achievement motivation indicated that the level of achievement motivation is related to the properties of temperament such that students with lower levels of achievement motivation (i.e., motivation to avoid failure exhibited the temperament traits of Neuroticism and Impulsivity in addition to low values on the scales for the Sensitivity to Sensations, Intellectual Ergonicity, and Sensitivity to Probabilities. High levels of achievement motivation (i.e., motivation to strive toward success corresponded to the psychology students’ propensities for Sensitivity to Sensations, high levels of Intellectual Ergonicity, high levels of Sensitivity to Probabilities and low values on the scales of Impulsivity and Neuroticism.

  12. On the lateral dose profile of4He beams in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embriaco, A; Bellinzona, V E; Fontana, A; Rotondi, A

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to improve the accuracy of the lateral dose profile for 4 He beams with a novel approach, by extending an already validated model for proton beams to heavier ions. The full Molière theory for the Coulomb multiple scattering is applied to the case of 4 He beams, with a complete separation of the electromagnetic and of the nuclear contributions in the calculation of the total dose. The latter is described with only three free parameters. The accuracy of the results compared with Monte Carlo predictions already validated with experimental data is comparable with other studies at low energy, but improves by a factor 2 at high energy. In addition the found solution is more stable with respect to (multi-) Gaussian and other parameterizations. This result makes this method of interest for applications to Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) in ion beam therapy. We propose a model, named MONETα (MOdel of ioN dosE for Therapy for α), for the calculation of the lateral dose of 4 He beams in water that allows fast and accurate dose calculations by requiring a small data base of parameters as input. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flying spot laser triangulation scanner using lateral synchronization for surface profile precision measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanlin; Ren, Yongjie; Liu, Changjie; Zhu, Jigui

    2014-07-10

    High-speed surface profile measurement with high precision is crucial for target inspection and quality control. In this study, a laser scanner based on a single point laser triangulation displacement sensor and a high-speed rotating polygon mirror is proposed. The autosynchronized scanning scheme is introduced to alleviate the trade-off between the field of view and the range precision, which is the inherent deficiency of the conventional triangulation. The lateral synchronized flying spot technology has excellent characteristics, such as programmable and larger field of view, high immunity to ambient light or secondary reflections, high optical signal-to-noise ratio, and minimum shadow effect. Owing to automatic point-to-point laser power control, high accuracy and superior data quality are possible when measuring objects featuring varying surface characteristics even in demanding applications. The proposed laser triangulation scanner is validated using a laboratory-built prototype and practical considerations for design and implementation of the system are described, including speckle noise reduction method and real-time signal processing. A method for rapid and accurate calibration of the laser triangulation scanner using lookup tables is also devised, and the system calibration accuracy is generally smaller than ±0.025  mm. Experimental results are presented and show a broad application prospect for fast surface profile precision measurement.

  14. Quantitative lateral flow strip assays as User-Friendly Tools To Detect Biomarker Profiles For Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooij, Anouk; Tjon Kon Fat, Elisa M.; Richardus, Renate; van den Eeden, Susan J. F.; Wilson, Louis; de Dood, Claudia J.; Faber, Roel; Alam, Korshed; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.; Geluk, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a debilitating, infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Despite the availability of multidrug therapy, transmission is unremitting. Thus, early identification of M. leprae infection is essential to reduce transmission. The immune response to M. leprae is determined by host genetics, resulting in paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) leprosy associated with dominant cellular or humoral immunity, respectively. This spectral pathology of leprosy compels detection of immunity to M. leprae to be based on multiple, diverse biomarkers. In this study we have applied quantitative user friendly lateral flow assays (LFAs) for four immune markers (anti-PGL-I antibodies, IL-10, CCL4 and IP-10) for whole blood samples from a longitudinal BCG vaccination field-trial in Bangladesh. Different biomarker profiles, in contrast to single markers, distinguished M. leprae infected from non-infected test groups, patients from household contacts (HHC) and endemic controls (EC), or MB from PB patients. The test protocol presented in this study merging detection of innate, adaptive cellular as well as humoral immunity, thus provides a convenient tool to measure specific biomarker profiles for M. leprae infection and leprosy utilizing a field-friendly technology. PMID:27682181

  15. Monitoring the Modifications of the Vitreous Humor Metabolite Profile after Death: An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francesca Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied a metabolomic approach to monitor the modifications occurring in goat vitreous humor (VH metabolite composition at different times (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after death. The 1H-NMR analysis of the VH samples was performed for the simultaneous determination of several metabolites (i.e., the metabolite profile representative of the VH status at different times. Spectral data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and by Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures (OPLS regression technique. PCA and OPLS suggested that different spectral regions were involved in time-related changes. The major time-related compositional changes, here detected, were the increase of lactate, hypoxanthine, alanine, total glutathione, choline/phosphocholine, creatine, and myo-inositol and the decrease of glucose and 3-hydroxybutyrate. We attempted a speculative interpretation of the biological mechanisms underlying these changes. These results show that multivariate statistical approach, based on 1H NMR metabolite profiling, is a powerful tool for detecting ongoing differences in VH composition and may be applied to investigate several physiological and pathological conditions.

  16. Monitoring the modifications of the vitreous humor metabolite profile after death: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria Francesca; Scano, Paola; Noto, Antonio; Nioi, Matteo; Sanna, Roberta; Paribello, Francesco; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Locci, Emanuela; d'Aloja, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    We applied a metabolomic approach to monitor the modifications occurring in goat vitreous humor (VH) metabolite composition at different times (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours) after death. The (1)H-NMR analysis of the VH samples was performed for the simultaneous determination of several metabolites (i.e., the metabolite profile) representative of the VH status at different times. Spectral data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and by Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures (OPLS) regression technique. PCA and OPLS suggested that different spectral regions were involved in time-related changes. The major time-related compositional changes, here detected, were the increase of lactate, hypoxanthine, alanine, total glutathione, choline/phosphocholine, creatine, and myo-inositol and the decrease of glucose and 3-hydroxybutyrate. We attempted a speculative interpretation of the biological mechanisms underlying these changes. These results show that multivariate statistical approach, based on (1)H NMR metabolite profiling, is a powerful tool for detecting ongoing differences in VH composition and may be applied to investigate several physiological and pathological conditions.

  17. Comparison of blood RNA extraction methods used for gene expression profiling in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhim Bayatti

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease that causes death within a mean of 2-3 years from symptom onset. There is no diagnostic test and the delay from symptom onset to diagnosis averages 12 months. The identification of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers in ALS would facilitate earlier diagnosis and faster monitoring of treatments. Gene expression profiling (GEP can help to identify these markers as well as therapeutic targets in neurological diseases. One source of genetic material for GEP in ALS is peripheral blood, which is routinely accessed from patients. However, a high proportion of globin mRNA in blood can mask important genetic information. A number of methods allow safe collection, storage and transport of blood as well as RNA stabilisation, including the PAXGENE and TEMPUS systems for the collection of whole blood and LEUKOLOCK which enriches for the leukocyte population. Here we compared these three systems and assess their suitability for GEP in ALS. We collected blood from 8 sporadic ALS patients and 7 controls. PAXGENE and TEMPUS RNA extracted samples additionally underwent globin depletion using GlobinClear. RNA was amplified and hybridised onto Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Lists of genes differentially regulated in ALS patients and controls were created for each method using the R package PUMA, and RT-PCR validation was carried out on selected genes. TEMPUS/GlobinClear, and LEUKOLOCK produced high quality RNA with sufficient yield, and consistent array expression profiles. PAXGENE/GlobinClear yield and quality were lower. Globin depletion for PAXGENE and TEMPUS uncovered the presence of over 60% more transcripts than when samples were not depleted. TEMPUS/GlobinClear and LEUKOLOCK gene lists respectively contained 3619 and 3047 genes differentially expressed between patients and controls. Real-time PCR validation revealed similar reliability between these two methods and gene ontology analyses

  18. A Super-SILAC Strategy for the Accurate and Multiplexed Profiling of Histone Posttranslational Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noberini, R; Bonaldi, T

    2017-01-01

    Histone posttranslational modifications (hPTMs) generate a complex combinatorial code that plays a critical role in the regulation of gene activity and nuclear architecture during physiological and pathological processes. Mass spectrometry (MS) offers an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view on hPTM patterns, and has emerged as a powerful tool in epigenetic research. Stable isotope labeling by amino acid in cell culture (SILAC) is a MS-based quantitative method that relies on the metabolic labeling of cell populations, which has been widely applied in global proteomic studies and can also be exploited for the accurate quantitation of hPTM changes among distinct functional states. However, the classical SILAC strategy has two main limits: it cannot be applied to more than three cell populations at the time and excludes samples that cannot be metabolically labeled, such as clinical samples. These limitations can be overcome by using a super-SILAC strategy, where a mix of heavy-labeled cell lines is used as a spike-in to analyze any types of samples with high accuracy and high multiplexing capabilities. In this chapter, we will provide a detailed description of a protocol to set up a histone-focused super-SILAC strategy and exploit it to accurately profile hPTMs across multiple samples. As a case study, we will describe a breast cancer-focused super-SILAC approach, which we used in a recent publication to profile hPTMs in frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human samples, revealing previously unknown marks that differentiate breast cancer subtypes. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Macroscopic Profile Modification and Microscopic Displacement Mechanism of Weak Gel Flowing in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the flowing mechanism and function on the macroscopic and microscopic scale in the porous media of a widely used weak gel of an acrylamide based polymer crosslinked with chromium(III were studied. Innovative microscopic plane visualization model was designed for microscopic scale experiment and sand pack physical model for macroscopic scale. The microscopic displacing experiments indicate that weak gel mainly intrudes into big pores rather than small ones, which can improve the conformance horizontally and increase the sweep efficiency benefiting from fluid diversion. Additionally, due to good viscoelasticity of weak gel, the negative pressure effect was formed enhancing oil recovery flow from small pore throats. Results of macroscopic physical sand pack flow experiment indicate positive influence of weak gel on vertical conformance control. Although the high permeable layer was not completely blocked, the oil recovery improved as a result of weak gel movement by continuous water flooding. Experiments results lead to conclusion, the primary function of weak gel is oil displacement, profile modification is secondary, and its effect is temporary.

  20. Use of a radial projection to reduce the statistical uncertainty of spot lateral profiles generated by Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoning; Liu, Wei; Shen, Jiajian; Anand, Aman; Stoker, Joshua B; Hu, Yanle; Bues, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has been used to generate commissioning data for the beam modeling of treatment planning system (TPS). We have developed a method called radial projection (RP) for postprocessing of MC-simulation-generated data. We used the RP method to reduce the statistical uncertainty of the lateral profile of proton pencil beams with axial symmetry. The RP method takes advantage of the axial symmetry of dose distribution to use the mean value of multiple independent scores as the representative score. Using the mean as the representative value rather than any individual score results in substantial reduction in statistical uncertainty. Herein, we present the concept and step-by-step implementation of the RP method, as well as show the advantage of the RP method over conventional measurement methods for generating lateral profile. Lateral profiles generated by both methods were compared to demonstrate the uncertainty reduction qualitatively, and standard error comparison was performed to demonstrate the reduction quantitatively. The comparisons showed that statistical uncertainty was reduced substantially by the RP method. Using the RP method to postprocess MC data, the corresponding MC simulation time was reduced by a factor of 10 without quality reduction in the generated result from the MC data. We concluded that the RP method is an effective technique to increase MC simulation efficiency for generating lateral profiles for axially symmetric pencil beams. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Subthreshold Current and Swing Modeling of Gate Underlap DG MOSFETs with a Source/Drain Lateral Gaussian Doping Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunal; Kumar, Sanjay; Goel, Ekta; Singh, Balraj; Kumar, Mirgender; Dubey, Sarvesh; Jit, Satyabrata

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model for the subthreshold current and swing of the short-channel symmetric underlap ultrathin double gate metal oxide field effect transistors with a source/drain lateral Gaussian doping profile. The channel potential model already reported earlier has been utilized to formulate the closed form expression for the subthreshold current and swing of the device. The effects of the lateral straggle and geometrical parameters such as the channel length, channel thickness, and oxide thickness on the off current and subthreshold slope have been demonstrated. The devices with source/drain lateral Gaussian doping profiles in the underlap structure are observed to be highly resistant to short channel effects while improving the current drive. The proposed model is validated by comparing the results with the numerical simulation data obtained by using the commercially available ATLAS™, a two-dimensional (2-D) device simulator from SILVACO.

  2. Constraints on post-depositional isotope modifications in East Antarctic firn from analysing temporal changes of isotope profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Thomas; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Freitag, Johannes; Meyer, Hanno; Laepple, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The isotopic composition of water in ice sheets is extensively used to infer past climate changes. In low-accumulation regions their interpretation is, however, challenged by poorly constrained effects that may influence the initial isotope signal during and after deposition of the snow. This is reflected in snow-pit isotope data from Kohnen Station, Antarctica, which exhibit a seasonal cycle but also strong interannual variations that contradict local temperature observations. These inconsistencies persist even after averaging many profiles and are thus not explained by local stratigraphic noise. Previous studies have suggested that post-depositional processes may significantly influence the isotopic composition of East Antarctic firn. Here, we investigate the importance of post-depositional processes within the open-porous firn (≳ 10 cm depth) at Kohnen Station by separating spatial from temporal variability. To this end, we analyse 22 isotope profiles obtained from two snow trenches and examine the temporal isotope modifications by comparing the new data with published trench data extracted 2 years earlier. The initial isotope profiles undergo changes over time due to downward advection, firn diffusion and densification in magnitudes consistent with independent estimates. Beyond that, we find further modifications of the original isotope record to be unlikely or small in magnitude (≪ 1 ‰ RMSD). These results show that the discrepancy between local temperatures and isotopes most likely originates from spatially coherent processes prior to or during deposition, such as precipitation intermittency or systematic isotope modifications acting on drifting or loose surface snow.

  3. STUDI KUAT TEKAN KOLOM BAJA PROFIL C GANDA DENGAN PENGAKU PELAT ARAH LATERAL

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnia, Aditya; Wigroho, Haryanto Yoso

    2012-01-01

    Steel is one of the many alternative building materials used in construction, because of the uniformity of the material and its properties that can be expected is quite appropriate, dimensional stability, ease of manufacture and faster implementation. During this steel profiles are widely used in building construction for the columns, beams and girder bridge is the profile of WF (wide flange) are heavy, this study attempted to use a lightweight steel C profiles for the column. This study uses...

  4. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    sampling modes ( p = 0.914 by R 2 = 0.09). Conclusion: A slight modification of sampling mode has minor effects corresponding to a natural variability in the microbiome profiles of healthy children. The inter-individual variability in subgingival microprints is greater than intra-individual differences. Statistical analyses of microbial populations should consider this baseline variability and move beyond mere quantification with input from visual analytics. Comparative results are difficult to summarize as methods for studying huge datasets are still evolving. Advanced approaches are needed for sample size calculations in clinical settings.

  5. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    grouping by sampling modes (p = 0.914 by R2 = 0.09). Conclusion: A slight modification of sampling mode has minor effects corresponding to a natural variability in the microbiome profiles of healthy children. The inter-individual variability in subgingival microprints is greater than intra-individual differences. Statistical analyses of microbial populations should consider this baseline variability and move beyond mere quantification with input from visual analytics. Comparative results are difficult to summarize as methods for studying huge datasets are still evolving. Advanced approaches are needed for sample size calculations in clinical settings. PMID:28149291

  6. Modification of SOL profiles and fluctuations with line-average density and divertor flux expansion in TCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, N.; Tsui, C.; Theiler, C.; Allan, S.; Boedo, J.; Labit, B.; Reimerdes, H.; Verhaegh, K.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; Walkden, N.; Costea, S.; Kovacic, J.; Ionita, C.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A. H.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Schneider, B.; Schrittwieser, R.; Spolaore, M.; Carralero, D.; Madsen, J.; Lipschultz, B.; Militello, F.; The TCV Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-11-01

    A set of Ohmic density ramp experiments addressing the role of parallel connection length in modifying scrape off layer (SOL) properties has been performed on the TCV tokamak. The parallel connection length has been modified by varying the poloidal flux expansion f x . It will be shown that this modification does not influence neither the detachment density threshold, nor the development of a flat SOL density profile which instead depends strongly on the increase of the core line average density. The modification of the SOL upstream profile, with the appearance of what is generally called a density shoulder, has been related to the properties of filamentary blobs. Blob size increases with density, without any dependence on the parallel connection length both in the near and far SOL. The increase of the density decay length, corresponding to a profile flattening, has been related to the variation of the divertor normalized collisionality Λ_div (Myra et al 2006 Phys. Plasmas 13 112502, Carralero et al, ASDEX Upgrade Team, JET Contributors and EUROfusion MST1 Team 2015 Phys. Rev. Let. 115 215002), showing that in TCV the increase of Λ_div is not sufficient to guarantee the SOL upstream profile flattening.

  7. Gene expression profiling during intensive cardiovascular lifestyle modification: Relationships with vascular function and weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Heather L.; McErlean, Seóna; Jellema, Gera L.; van Laar, Ryan; Vernalis, Marina N.; Ellsworth, Darrell L.

    2015-01-01

    Heart disease and related sequelae are a leading cause of death and healthcare expenditure throughout the world. Although many patients opt for surgical interventions, lifestyle modification programs focusing on nutrition and exercise have shown substantial health benefits and are becoming increasing popular. We conducted a year-long lifestyle modification program to mediate cardiovascular risk through traditional risk factors and to investigate how molecular changes, if present, may contribu...

  8. Molecular Profiling of the Lateral Habenula in a Rat Model of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Trine; Bouzinova, Elena; Wiborg, Ove

    2013-01-01

    and antidepressant treatment affected intracellular cascades like growth factor receptor signaling, G-protein-coupled receptor signaling, and Wnt signaling – processes involved in the neuroplastic changes observed during the progression of depression and antidepressant treatment. Conclusion. The present study...... suggests an important role of the lateral habenula in the development of depression-like conditions and correlates to previous studies demonstrating a significant role of the lateral habenula in depressive-like conditions and antidepressant treatment.......Objective. This study systematically investigated the effect of chronic mild stress and response to antidepressant treatment in the lateral habenula at the whole genome level. Methods. Rat whole genome expression chips (Affymetrix) were used to detect gene expression regulations in the lateral...

  9. Probabilistic pseudostatic analysis of pile in laterally spreading ground: Two layer soil profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Farag

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coupling the finite element model of pile under lateral spread with the Monte Carlo Simulation is frequently prohibited by excessive lengthily computations. In the present paper, a simplified pseudostatic method is integrated with an improved response surface scheme to evaluate the reliability of pile subjected to lateral spread. The pseudostatic model takes both geometric and soil nonlinearities into account, while, the response surface formulation takes; load, geometry, material and model uncertainties into consideration. First; the improved response surface scheme is suggested and validated with the help of a simple example. Then, the pseudostatic model of a full size pile under lateral spread is integrated with the improved response surface scheme in order to assess the pile reliability. In the considered example, for both operational and structural possible modes of failure, it has been found that the most influential random variables are lateral displacement, and pile radius, respectively.

  10. Comparative assessment of the polypeptide profiles from lateral and primary roots of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, J.; Odom, W. R.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    In Phaseolus vulgaris, primary roots show gravitational sensitivity soon after emerging from the seed. In contrast, lateral roots are agravitropic during early development, and become gravitropic after several cm growth. Primary and lateral root tissues were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, coupled with western blotting techniques, to compare proteins which may contribute to the acquisition of gravitational sensitivity. Root tips and zones of cell elongation were compared for each root type, using immunological probes for calmodulin, alpha-actin, alpha-tubulin, and proteins of the plastid envelope. Lateral roots contained qualitatively less calmodulin, and showed a slightly different pattern of actin-related epitope proteins, than did primary root tissues, suggesting that polypeptide differences may contribute to the gravitational sensitivity which these root types express.

  11. Profiling Histone Modifications in Synchronized Floral Tissues for Quantitative Resolution of Chromatin and Transcriptome Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhorn, Julia; Wellmer, Frank; Carles, Cristel C

    2018-01-01

    Covalent histone modifications and their effects on chromatin state and accessibility play a key role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. To gain insights into their functions during plant growth and development, the distribution of histone modifications can be analyzed at a genome-wide scale through chromatin immunoprecipitation assays followed by sequencing of the isolated genomic DNA. Here, we present a protocol for systematic analysis of the distribution and dynamic changes of selected histone modifications, during flower development in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This protocol utilizes a previously established floral induction system to synchronize flower development, which allows the collection of sufficient plant material for analysis by genomic technologies. In this chapter, we describe how to use this system to study, from the same set of samples, chromatin and transcriptome dynamics during early stages of flower formation.

  12. Modification of SOL profiles and fluctuations with line-average density and divertor flux expansion in TCV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, N.; Tsui, C.; Theiler, C.

    2017-01-01

    A set of Ohmic density ramp experiments addressing the role of parallel connection length in modifying scrape off layer (SOL) properties has been performed on the TCV tokamak. The parallel connection length has been modified by varying the poloidal flux expansion fx. It will be shown that this mo......A set of Ohmic density ramp experiments addressing the role of parallel connection length in modifying scrape off layer (SOL) properties has been performed on the TCV tokamak. The parallel connection length has been modified by varying the poloidal flux expansion fx. It will be shown...... that this modification does not influence neither the detachment density threshold, nor the development of a flat SOL density profile which instead depends strongly on the increase of the core line average density. The modification of the SOL upstream profile, with the appearance of what is generally called a density...... shoulder, has been related to the properties of filamentary blobs. Blob size increases with density, without any dependence on the parallel connection length both in the near and far SOL. The increase of the density decay length, corresponding to a profile flattening, has been related to the variation...

  13. Constraints on post-depositional isotope modifications in East Antarctic firn from analysing temporal changes of isotope profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Münch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of water in ice sheets is extensively used to infer past climate changes. In low-accumulation regions their interpretation is, however, challenged by poorly constrained effects that may influence the initial isotope signal during and after deposition of the snow. This is reflected in snow-pit isotope data from Kohnen Station, Antarctica, which exhibit a seasonal cycle but also strong interannual variations that contradict local temperature observations. These inconsistencies persist even after averaging many profiles and are thus not explained by local stratigraphic noise. Previous studies have suggested that post-depositional processes may significantly influence the isotopic composition of East Antarctic firn. Here, we investigate the importance of post-depositional processes within the open-porous firn (≳ 10 cm depth at Kohnen Station by separating spatial from temporal variability. To this end, we analyse 22 isotope profiles obtained from two snow trenches and examine the temporal isotope modifications by comparing the new data with published trench data extracted 2 years earlier. The initial isotope profiles undergo changes over time due to downward advection, firn diffusion and densification in magnitudes consistent with independent estimates. Beyond that, we find further modifications of the original isotope record to be unlikely or small in magnitude (≪ 1 ‰ RMSD. These results show that the discrepancy between local temperatures and isotopes most likely originates from spatially coherent processes prior to or during deposition, such as precipitation intermittency or systematic isotope modifications acting on drifting or loose surface snow.

  14. Features of the emotional status of schoolchildren with different profiles of lateral phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zaitseva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Success of school education depends on many factors, including the most important mental function of a child, namely the type of hemispheric asymmetry of the brain that determines the characteristics of perception, memory, thinking strategy and the emotional sphere. Accounting the patterns of mental functions of a child constitutes the basis for the individualization of learning processes with the focus on maintaining the health of children and adolescents. The type of the hemispheric asymmetry is determined by the lateral phenotype of the subject, which is the set of peripheral motorsensory asymmetries. Aim of the study: To evaluate emotional and personal characteristics of pupils with different lateral phenotypes. Material and methods: 227 schoolchildren (caucasians aged 7-15 years living in the city of Krasnoyarsk. The pupils were recognized clinically as healthy and they achieved the average physical and sexual development. Their lateral phenotype was assessed by the psychomotor tests for the guiding hand, the leading leg, eye and ear. The study aimed to explore the emotional personality traits, using child personality questionnaire G.U. Eysenck adapted to the childhood age and to estimate the level of intra - extraversion and neuroticisms in points. Results: Among schoolchildren of Krasnoyarsk city, there were numerous groups of children with right lateral and mixed phenotypes in combination with extroverted personality type and emotional stability. Among the children with left lateral and symmetric phenotypes almost half of the subjects recorded introverted personality type combined with high levels of neuroticism. Conclusions: the components of a child’s personality such as introverted personality type combined with high levels of neuroticism reduce the body’s adaptive capabilities of children and dictate the need for psycho-pedagogical correction. The results of the research can be used in psychology, age physiology and

  15. CoverageAnalyzer (CAn: A Tool for Inspection of Modification Signatures in RNA Sequencing Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hauenschild

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Combination of reverse transcription (RT and deep sequencing has emerged as a powerful instrument for the detection of RNA modifications, a field that has seen a recent surge in activity because of its importance in gene regulation. Recent studies yielded high-resolution RT signatures of modified ribonucleotides relying on both sequence-dependent mismatch patterns and reverse transcription arrests. Common alignment viewers lack specialized functionality, such as filtering, tailored visualization, image export and differential analysis. Consequently, the community will profit from a platform seamlessly connecting detailed visual inspection of RT signatures and automated screening for modification candidates. CoverageAnalyzer (CAn was developed in response to the demand for a powerful inspection tool. It is freely available for all three main operating systems. With SAM file format as standard input, CAn is an intuitive and user-friendly tool that is generally applicable to the large community of biomedical users, starting from simple visualization of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq data, up to sophisticated modification analysis with significance-based modification candidate calling.

  16. Early Childhood Profiles of Sleep Problems and Self-Regulation Predict Later School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Walker, Sue; Berthelsen, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children's sleep problems and self-regulation problems have been independently associated with poorer adjustment to school, but there has been limited exploration of longitudinal early childhood profiles that include both indicators. Aims: This study explores the normative developmental pathway for sleep problems and self-regulation…

  17. Energy deposition profile for modification proposal of ISOLDE’s HRS Beam Dump, from FLUKA simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, V

    2014-01-01

    The current ISOLDE HRS beam dump has been found to be unsuitable on previous simulations, due to thermomechanical stresses. In this paper a proposal for modifying HRS dump is studied using FLUKA. The energy deposited in this modified beam dump and the amount of neutrons streaming to the tunnel area are scored and compared with the simulation of current dump. Two versions of the modification have been assessed, determining which of them is more desirable in terms of influence of radiation on ISOLDE’s tunnel. Finally, a rough estimate of temperature raise in the modified dump is shown. Further conclusions on the adequacy of these modifications need to include the thermomechanical calculations’ results, based on those presented here.

  18. Dynamical Simulation and Calculation of the Load Factor of Spur Gears with Indexing Errors and Profile Modifications for Optimal Gear Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitas, C.; Spitas, V.; Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza; Dobre, George

    2013-01-01

    The exact geometry of tooth meshing is incorporated into a dynamical non-linear model of the considered gear system, in consideration of the effect of pitch errors, tooth separation, DOF-coupling, and profile modifications. Various possible combinations of error distributions and profile corrections

  19. Transgenic modification of gai or rg/1 causes dwarfing and alters gibberellins, root growth, and metabolite profiles in Populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Busov, V. [Michigan Technological University; Meilan, R [Purdue University; Pearce, D [University of Lethbridge; Rood, s [University of Lethbridge; Ma, C [Oregon State University; Strauss, S [Oregon State University

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis and other plants, gibberellin (GA)-regulated responses are mediated by proteins including GAI, RGA and RGL1-3 that contain a functional DELLA domain. Through transgenic modification, we found that DELLA-less versions of GAI (gai) and RGL1 (rgl1) in a Populus tree have profound, dominant effects on phenotype, producing pleiotropic changes in morphology and metabolic profiles. Shoots were dwarfed, likely via constitutive repression of GA-induced elongation, whereas root growth was promoted two- to threefold in vitro. Applied GA{sub 3} inhibited adventitious root production in wild-type poplar, but gai/rgl1 poplars were unaffected by the inhibition. The concentrations of bioactive GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 4} in leaves of gai- and rgl1-expressing plants increased 12- to 64-fold, while the C{sub 19} precursors of GA{sub 1} (GA{sub 53}, GA{sub 44} and GA{sub 19}) decreased three- to ninefold, consistent with feedback regulation of GA 20-oxidase in the transgenic plants. The transgenic modifications elicited significant metabolic changes. In roots, metabolic profiling suggested increased respiration as a possible mechanism of the increased root growth. In leaves, we found metabolite changes suggesting reduced carbon flux through the lignin biosynthetic pathway and a shift towards allocation of secondary storage and defense metabolites, including various phenols, phenolic glucosides, and phenolic acid conjugates.

  20. Lateral facial profile may reveal the risk for sleep disordered breathing in children--the PANIC-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikävalko, Tiina; Närhi, Matti; Lakka, Timo; Myllykangas, Riitta; Tuomilehto, Henri; Vierola, Anu; Pahkala, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the lateral view photography of the face as a tool for assessing morphological properties (i.e. facial convexity) as a risk factor for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children and to test how reliably oral health and non-oral healthcare professionals can visually discern the lateral profile of the face from the photographs. The present study sample consisted of 382 children 6-8 years of age who were participants in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study. Sleep was assessed by a sleep questionnaire administered by the parents. SDB was defined as apnoeas, frequent or loud snoring or nocturnal mouth breathing observed by the parents. The facial convexity was assessed with three different methods. First, it was clinically evaluated by the reference orthodontist (T.I.). Second, lateral view photographs were taken to visually sub-divide the facial profile into convex, normal or concave. The photos were examined by a reference orthodontist and seven different healthcare professionals who work with children and also by a dental student. The inter- and intra-examiner consistencies were calculated by Kappa statistics. Three soft tissue landmarks of the facial profile, soft tissue Glabella (G`), Subnasale (Sn) and soft tissue Pogonion (Pg`) were digitally identified to analyze convexity of the face and the intra-examiner reproducibility of the reference orthodontist was determined by calculating intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). The third way to express the convexity of the face was to calculate the angle of facial convexity (G`-Sn-Pg`) and to group it into quintiles. For analysis the lowest quintile (≤164.2°) was set to represent the most convex facial profile. The prevalence of the SDB in children with the most convex profiles expressed with the lowest quintile of the angle G`-Sn-Pg` (≤164.2°) was almost 2-fold (14.5%) compared to those with normal profile (8.1%) (p = 0.084). The inter-examiner Kappa values between the

  1. Gene expression profiling of epigenetic chromatin modification enzymes and histone marks by cigarette smoke: implications for COPD and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Isaac K; Rahman, Irfan

    2016-12-01

    Chromatin-modifying enzymes mediate DNA methylation and histone modifications on recruitment to specific target gene loci in response to various stimuli. The key enzymes that regulate chromatin accessibility for maintenance of modifications in DNA and histones, and for modulation of gene expression patterns in response to cigarette smoke (CS), are not known. We hypothesize that CS exposure alters the gene expression patterns of chromatin-modifying enzymes, which then affects multiple downstream pathways involved in the response to CS. We have, therefore, analyzed chromatin-modifying enzyme profiles and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). We also performed immunoblot analysis of targeted histone marks in C57BL/6J mice exposed to acute and subchronic CS, and of lungs from nonsmokers, smokers, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We found a significant increase in expression of several chromatin modification enzymes, including DNA methyltransferases, histone acetyltransferases, histone methyltransferases, and SET domain proteins, histone kinases, and ubiquitinases. Our qPCR validation data revealed a significant downregulation of Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Hdac2, Hdac4, Hat1, Prmt1, and Aurkb We identified targeted chromatin histone marks (H3K56ac and H4K12ac), which are induced by CS. Thus CS-induced genotoxic stress differentially affects the expression of epigenetic modulators that regulate transcription of target genes via DNA methylation and site-specific histone modifications. This may have implications in devising epigenetic-based therapies for COPD and lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. SU-E-T-232: Micro Diamonds - Determination of Their Lateral Response Function Via Gap-Beam Dose Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppinga, D; Looe, H; Chofor, N; Schoenfeld, A; Fischer, J; Meyners, J; Delfs, B; Stelljes, T; Poppe, B [University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Lower Saxony (Germany); Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Marinelli, M [Rome Tor Vergata University, Roma (Italy); Harder, D [Georg August University, Goettingen, Germany, Goettingen, Niedersachsen (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is the measurement of the lateral response function of microDiamonds by comparison with radiochromic film dose measurement. In this study a TM60019 microDiamond (PTW Freiburg, Germany) and a prototype synthetic diamond detector with smaller sensitive volume were investigated. Methods: Two lead blocks were positioned below the gantry head of an Elekta Synergy accelerator using a gantry mount. Between the blocks two sheets of paper were fixed. The water phantom was positioned below the gantry mount, so that the block to water distance was 20 cm. The gap beam profile was measured at 5 cm water depth by radiochromic EBT3 film and diamond detectors. The film was fixed on a RW3 plate, moved by the step motor system of the phantom and digitized by an Epson 10000XL scanner using the red color channel. Results: The lateral response of the prototype diamond detector is comparable to that of film measurements, i.e. has negligible width. This corresponds to the small detector volume of the prototype detector. In contrast to this the FWHM values of the gap-beam dose profiles measured with the TM60019 detector are somewhat larger, which corresponds to the larger sensitive detector volume. Conclusion: This study has illustrated the high spatial resolution of the diamond detectors. In comparison with filmmeasured narrow-beam dose profiles, the TM60019 has a spatial resolution function of about 2 mm FWHM, whereas the FWHM for the prototype is practically negligible. However due to the low signal caused by the small sensitive volume, measurements with the prototype in clinical routine are a challenge. On the other hand the TM60019 is a good compromise between detector volume and signal output and thus a well suited detector for most clinically relevant small field situations.

  3. Spatial profiling of the corticospinal tract in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John C T; Concha, Luis; Beaulieu, Christian; Johnston, Wendy; Allen, Peter S; Kalra, Sanjay

    2007-07-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used as a noninvasive method to evaluate the anatomy of the corticospinal tract (CST) and the pattern of its degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Fourteen patients with ALS and 15 healthy controls underwent DTI. Parameters reflecting coherence of diffusion (fractional anisotropy, FA), bulk diffusion (apparent diffusion coefficient, ADC), and directionality of diffusion (eigenvalues) parallel to (lambda( parallel)) or perpendicular to (lambda( perpendicular)) fiber tracts were measured along the intracranial course of the CST. FA and lambda( parallel) increased, and ADC and lambda( perpendicular) decreased progressively from the corona radiata to the cerebral peduncle in all subjects. The most abnormal finding in patients with ALS was reduced FA in the cerebral peduncle contralateral to the side of the body with the most severe upper motor neuron signs. lambda( parallel) was increased in the corona radiata. Internal capsule FA correlated positively with symptom duration, and cerebral peduncle ADC positively with the Ashworth spasticity score. There is a spatial dependency of diffusion parameters along the CST in healthy individuals. Evidence of intracranial CST degeneration in ALS was found with distinct diffusion changes in the rostral and caudal regions.

  4. Plasma peptide biomarker discovery for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Conraux

    Full Text Available The diagnostic of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS remains based on clinical and neurophysiological observations. The actual delay between the onset of the symptoms and diagnosis is about 1 year, preventing early inclusion of patients into clinical trials and early care of the disease. Therefore, finding biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity remains urgent. In our study, we looked for peptide biomarkers in plasma samples using reverse phase magnetic beads (C18 and C8 and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. From a set of ALS patients (n=30 and healthy age-matched controls (n=30, C18- or C8-SVM-based models for ALS diagnostic were constructed on the base of the minimum of the most discriminant peaks. These two SVM-based models end up in excellent separations between the 2 groups of patients (recognition capability overall classes > 97% and classify blinded samples (10 ALS and 10 healthy age-matched controls with very high sensitivities and specificities (>90%. Some of these discriminant peaks have been identified by Mass Spectrometry (MS analyses and correspond to (or are fragments of major plasma proteins, partly linked to the blood coagulation.

  5. 1H-NMR-based metabolomic profiling of CSF in early amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Blasco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathophysiological mechanisms involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS are complex and none has identified reliable markers useful in routine patient evaluation. The aim of this study was to analyze the CSF of patients with ALS by (1H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy in order to identify biomarkers in the early stages of the disease, and to evaluate the biochemical factors involved in ALS. METHODOLOGY: CSF samples were collected from patients with ALS at the time of diagnosis and from patients without neurodegenerative diseases. One and two-dimensional (1H NMR analyses were performed and metabolites were quantified by the ERETIC method. We compared the concentrations of CSF metabolites between both groups. Finally, we performed principal component (PCA and discriminant analyses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty CSF samples from ALS patients and 44 from controls were analyzed. We quantified 17 metabolites including amino-acids, organic acids, and ketone bodies. Quantitative analysis revealed significantly lower acetate concentrations (p = 0.0002 in ALS patients compared to controls. Concentration of acetone trended higher (p = 0.015, and those of pyruvate (p = 0.002 and ascorbate (p = 0.003 were higher in the ALS group. PCA demonstrated that the pattern of analyzed metabolites discriminated between groups. Discriminant analysis using an algorithm of 17 metabolites revealed that patients were accurately classified 81.6% of the time. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CSF screening by NMR spectroscopy could be a useful, simple and low cost tool to improve the early diagnosis of ALS. The results indicate a perturbation of glucose metabolism, and the need to further explore cerebral energetic metabolism.

  6. Elucidation of Relevant Neuroinflammation Mechanisms Using Gene Expression Profiling in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hui Won

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by damage of motor neurons. Recent reports indicate that inflammatory responses occurring within the central nervous system contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS. We aimed to investigate disease-specific gene expression associated with neuroinflammation by conducting transcriptome analysis on fibroblasts from three patients with sporadic ALS and three normal controls. Several pathways were found to be upregulated in patients with ALS, among which the toll-like receptor (TLR and NOD-like receptor (NLR signaling pathways are related to the immune response. Genes-toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP, mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 (MAPK9, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-8 (IL-8, and chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1-related to these two pathways were validated using western blotting. This study validated the genes that are associated with TLR and NLR signaling pathways from different types of patient-derived cells. Not only fibroblasts but also induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and neural rosettes from the same origins showed similar expression patterns. Furthermore, expression of TOLLIP, a regulator of TLR signaling pathway, decreased with cellular aging as judged by changes in its expression through multiple passages. TOLLIP expression was downregulated in ALS cells under conditions of inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide. Our data suggest that the TLR and NLR signaling pathways are involved in pathological innate immunity and neuroinflammation associated with ALS and that TOLLIP, MAPK9, IL-1β, IL-8, and CXCL1 play a role in ALS-specific immune responses. Moreover, changes of TOLLIP expression might be associated with progression of ALS.

  7. Profiling Speech and Pausing in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Yunusova

    Full Text Available This study examines reading aloud in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and those with frontotemporal dementia (FTD in order to determine whether differences in patterns of speaking and pausing exist between patients with primary motor vs. primary cognitive-linguistic deficits, and in contrast to healthy controls.136 participants were included in the study: 33 controls, 85 patients with ALS, and 18 patients with either the behavioural variant of FTD (FTD-BV or progressive nonfluent aphasia (FTD-PNFA. Participants with ALS were further divided into 4 non-overlapping subgroups--mild, respiratory, bulbar (with oral-motor deficit and bulbar-respiratory--based on the presence and severity of motor bulbar or respiratory signs. All participants read a passage aloud. Custom-made software was used to perform speech and pause analyses, and this provided measures of speaking and articulatory rates, duration of speech, and number and duration of pauses. These measures were statistically compared in different subgroups of patients.The results revealed clear differences between patient groups and healthy controls on the passage reading task. A speech-based motor function measure (i.e., articulatory rate was able to distinguish patients with bulbar ALS or FTD-PNFA from those with respiratory ALS or FTD-BV. Distinguishing the disordered groups proved challenging based on the pausing measures.This study demonstrated the use of speech measures in the identification of those with an oral-motor deficit, and showed the usefulness of performing a relatively simple reading test to assess speech versus pause behaviors across the ALS-FTD disease continuum. The findings also suggest that motor speech assessment should be performed as part of the diagnostic workup for patients with FTD.

  8. Single amino acid modification of adeno-associated virus capsid changes transduction and humoral immune profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwen; Diprimio, Nina; Bowles, Dawn E; Hirsch, Matthew L; Monahan, Paul E; Asokan, Aravind; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Samulski, R Jude

    2012-08-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have the potential to promote long-term gene expression. Unfortunately, humoral immunity restricts patient treatment and in addition provides an obstacle to the potential option of vector readministration. In this study, we describe a comprehensive characterization of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response to AAV type 1 (AAV1) through AAV5 both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that NAbs generated from one AAV type are unable to neutralize the transduction of other types. We extended this observation by demonstrating that a rationally engineered, muscle-tropic AAV2 mutant containing 5 amino acid substitutions from AAV1 displayed a NAb profile different from those of parental AAV2 and AAV1. Here we found that a single insertion of Thr from AAV1 into AAV2 capsid at residue 265 preserved high muscle transduction, while also changing the immune profile. To better understand the role of Thr insertion at position 265, we replaced all 20 amino acids and evaluated both muscle transduction and the NAb response. Of these variants, 8 mutants induced higher muscle transduction than AAV2. Additionally, three classes of capsid NAb immune profile were defined based on the ability to inhibit transduction from AAV2 or mutants. While no relationship was found between transduction, amino acid properties, and NAb titer or its cross-reactivity, these studies map a critical capsid motif involved in all steps of AAV infectivity. Our results suggest that AAV types can be utilized not only as templates to generate mutants with enhanced transduction efficiency but also as substrates for repeat administration.

  9. GAPP: A Proteogenomic Software for Genome Annotation and Global Profiling of Post-translational Modifications in Prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Yang, Ming-Kun; Zeng, Honghui; Ge, Feng

    2016-11-01

    Although the number of sequenced prokaryotic genomes is growing rapidly, experimentally verified annotation of prokaryotic genome remains patchy and challenging. To facilitate genome annotation efforts for prokaryotes, we developed an open source software called GAPP for genome annotation and global profiling of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in prokaryotes. With a single command, it provides a standard workflow to validate and refine predicted genetic models and discover diverse PTM events. We demonstrated the utility of GAPP using proteomic data from Helicobacter pylori, one of the major human pathogens that is responsible for many gastric diseases. Our results confirmed 84.9% of the existing predicted H. pylori proteins, identified 20 novel protein coding genes, and corrected four existing gene models with regard to translation initiation sites. In particular, GAPP revealed a large repertoire of PTMs using the same proteomic data and provided a rich resource that can be used to examine the functions of reversible modifications in this human pathogen. This software is a powerful tool for genome annotation and global discovery of PTMs and is applicable to any sequenced prokaryotic organism; we expect that it will become an integral part of ongoing genome annotation efforts for prokaryotes. GAPP is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gappproteogenomic/. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Usefulness of diffusion tensor imaging in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: potential biomarker and association with the cognitive profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Chaves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this preliminary study was to correlate diffusion tensor imaging (DTI alterations with the cognitive profile of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Methods This was a case-control study conducted from December 1, 2012 to December 1, 2014. Clinical and demographic data were recorded. A neuropsychological test battery adapted to ALS patients was used. An MRI with DTI was performed in all patients and fractional anisotropy (FA was analyzed in the white matter using the tract based spatial statistics program. Results Twenty-four patients with ALS (15 females, mean age 66.9 + -2.3 and 13 healthy controls (four females, average age 66.9 + - 2 were included. The DTI showed white matter damage in ALS patients vs. healthy controls (p < 0.001. Discussion In our preliminary study the alterations of white matter in DTI were significantly associated with cognitive impairment in patients with ALS.

  11. Modification of egg yolk fatty acids profile by using different oil sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Mohsen; Rahimi, Shaban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary oil sources supplementation on laying hens' performance and fatty acids profile of egg yolks. Seventy-two 23-week-old laying hens (Tetra-SL) divided into six experimental diets (four replicates and three birds per replication) in a completely randomized design for nine weeks. Experimental diets were included: 1) control (no oil), 2) 3.00% fish oil, 3) 3.00% olive oil, 4) 3.00% grape seed oil, 5) 3.00% canola oil, and 6) 3.00% soybean oil. The diets were similar in terms of energy and protein. Egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and fatty acid composition of egg yolk were determined at the end of the trial. The results indicated that the performance parameters were not significantly different between treatments in the entire period (p > 0.05). However, fatty acids profiles of yolk were affected by experimental diets (p oil significantly reduced omega-6 fatty acids and increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in egg yolk. Also canola oil increased linolenic acid content in the egg yolk. In conclusion, fish oil increased omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and decreased omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in eggs which may have beneficial effects on human health.

  12. A lateral cephalometric study of the hard- and soft tissue profile around the face in the mixed dentition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Rae; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Department of Dental Radiology, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-11-15

    A study was made investigate a relationship existing in the dentoskeletal framework and the soft tissue profile around the face, and compared the sexual differences between boys and girls having the normal occlusion in the mixed dentition. The lateral cephalograms were composed of 67 boys aged 10.3 years and 68 girls aged 10.4 years, respectively. By means of the lateral cephalograms, both the hard-and soft tissue structures were simultaneously analyzed, measured and evaluated by introducing the several reference items: S-N plane, palatal plane, mandibular plane, N-A line and A-P line for the dentoskeletal structures and N'-P' line for the soft tissue, and the 21 measuring points for the both structures. The significant findings were as follows: 1. In general the boys showed the larger nasal component dimension than did the girls, but the length and height of nose(N'-Prn and NA-Prn) showed the significant sexual difference among those when evaluated statistically. 2. The lip-thickness was found to be minimal in the region of nasion, greater in the region of pogonion, and much greater in the region of point A in the both sexes, but the only thickness over point A(A-A') showed the significant sexual difference statistically. 3. The upper and lower lip position were found to be located anteriorly to the esthetic line in the both sexes, but upper lip position showed the significant sexual difference when evaluated statistically. 4. The regions of nose and upper lip had a tendency not to be following the underlying skeletal profile.

  13. The dietary fiber profile of fruit peels and functionality modifications induced by high hydrostatic pressure treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Ortigoza, Viridiana; García-Amezquita, Luis Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Welti-Chanes, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and temperature on composition of non-conventional dietary fiber (DF) sources and functional properties were evaluated. Mango, orange, or prickly pear peels were processed at 600 MPa during 10 min at 22 ℃ and 55 ℃. Total (TDF), soluble (SDF), and insoluble (IDF) dietary fiber, water/oil holding, and retention capacity, solubility, swelling capacity, and bulk density were assayed. An increment in the SDF content was observed due to the effect of pressure with the greatest changes noticed in mango peel, increasing from 37.4% (control) to 45.7% (SDF/TDF) in the HHP-treated (55 ℃) sample. Constant values of TDF after the treatments suggest a conversion of IDF to SDF in mango (38.9%-40.5% dw) and orange (49.0%-50.8% dw) peels. The highest fiber solubility values were observed for mango peel ranging between 80.3% and 83.9%, but the highest increase, from 55.1% to 62.3%, due to treatment was displayed in orange peel processed at 22 ℃. A relationship between DF modifications induced by HHP treatment and changes in the functional properties of the materials was established. Application of HHP opens up the opportunity to modify non-conventional sources of DF and to obtain novel functional properties for different food applications.

  14. Fukushima, two years later, modification requirements in nuclear power plants; Fukushima, dos anos despues, requerimientos de modificacion en centrales nucleares de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, J.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Salmeron V, J. A., E-mail: jerson.sanchez@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The occurred events in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi as consequence of the strong earthquake of 9 grades in the Richter scale and the later tsunami with waves estimated in more than 14 meters high began a series of important questions about the safety of the nuclear power plants in operation and of the new designs. Firstly, have allowed to be questioned on the magnitudes and consequences of the extreme external natural events; that can put in risk the integrity of the safety barriers of a nuclear power plant when being presented in a multiple way. As consequence of the events of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the countries with NPPs in operation and /or construction carried out evaluations about their safety operation. They have also realized evaluations about accidents and their impact in the safety, analysis and studies too that have forced to the regulatory bodies to continue a systematic and methodical revision of their procedures and regulations, to identify the possible improvements to the safety in response to the events happened in Japan; everything has taken it to determine the necessity to incorporate additional requirements to the nuclear power plants to mitigate events Beyond the Design Base. Due to Mexico has the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, with two units of BWR-5 type with contention Mark III, some the modifications can be applicable to these units to administrate and/or to mitigate the consequences of the possible occurrence of an accident Beyond the Design Base and that could generate a severe accident. In this work an exposition is presented on the modification requirements to confront external natural events Beyond the Design Base, and its application in our country. (Author)

  15. Genetic modulation of lipid profiles following lifestyle modification or metformin treatment: the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni I Pollin

    Full Text Available Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04-1 × 10(-17. Except for total HDL particles (r = -0.03, P = 0.26, all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07-0.17, P = 5 × 10(-5-1 10(-19. The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8 × 10(-5, P(interaction = 0.02 in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35 or metformin (β = -0.03, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P(interaction = 0.64 groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE ± 0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P(interaction = 0.01 but not in the placebo (β = -0.002, SEE ± 0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74 or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE ± 0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P(interaction = 0.24 groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss.

  16. Genetic Modulation of Lipid Profiles following Lifestyle Modification or Metformin Treatment: The Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Kathleen A.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Taylor, Andrew; McAteer, Jarred; Pan, Qing; Horton, Edward S.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Altshuler, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Florez, Jose C.; Bray, George A.; Culbert, Iris W.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Eberhardt, Barbara; Greenway, Frank; Guillory, Fonda G.; Herbert, April A.; Jeffirs, Michael L.; Kennedy, Betty M.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Morris, Laura H.; Melancon, Lee E.; Ryan, Donna; Sanford, Deborah A.; Smith, Kenneth G.; Smith, Lisa L.; Amant, Julia A. St.; Tulley, Richard T.; Vicknair, Paula C.; Williamson, Donald; Zachwieja, Jeffery J.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.; Tobian, Janet; Ehrmann, David; Matulik, Margaret J.; Clark, Bart; Czech, Kirsten; DeSandre, Catherine; Hilbrich, Ruthanne; McNabb, Wylie; Semenske, Ann R.; Caro, Jose F.; Watson, Pamela G.; Goldstein, Barry J.; Smith, Kellie A.; Mendoza, Jewel; Liberoni, Renee; Pepe, Constance; Spandorfer, John; Donahue, Richard P.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Prineas, Ronald; Rowe, Patricia; Calles, Jeanette; Cassanova-Romero, Paul; Florez, Hermes J.; Giannella, Anna; Kirby, Lascelles; Larreal, Carmen; McLymont, Valerie; Mendez, Jadell; Ojito, Juliet; Perry, Arlette; Saab, Patrice; Haffner, Steven M.; Montez, Maria G.; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martinez, Arlene; Hamman, Richard F.; Nash, Patricia V.; Testaverde, Lisa; Anderson, Denise R.; Ballonoff, Larry B.; Bouffard, Alexis; Calonge, B. Ned; Delve, Lynne; Farago, Martha; Hill, James O.; Hoyer, Shelley R.; Jortberg, Bonnie T.; Lenz, Dione; Miller, Marsha; Price, David W.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Seagle, Helen; Smith, Carissa M.; Steinke, Sheila C.; VanDorsten, Brent; Horton, Edward S.; Lawton, Kathleen E.; Arky, Ronald A.; Bryant, Marybeth; Burke, Jacqueline P.; Caballero, Enrique; Callaphan, Karen M.; Ganda, Om P.; Franklin, Therese; Jackson, Sharon D.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Kula, Lyn M.; Kocal, Margaret; Malloy, Maureen A.; Nicosia, Maryanne; Oldmixon, Cathryn F.; Pan, Jocelyn; Quitingon, Marizel; Rubtchinsky, Stacy; Seely, Ellen W.; Schweizer, Dana; Simonson, Donald; Smith, Fannie; Solomon, Caren G.; Warram, James; Kahn, Steven E.; Montgomery, Brenda K.; Fujimoto, Wilfred; Knopp, Robert H.; Lipkin, Edward W.; Marr, Michelle; Trence, Dace; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Murphy, Mary E.; Applegate, William B.; Bryer-Ash, Michael; Frieson, Sandra L.; Imseis, Raed; Lambeth, Helen; Lichtermann, Lynne C.; Oktaei, Hooman; Rutledge, Lily M.K.; Sherman, Amy R.; Smith, Clara M.; Soberman, Judith E.; Williams-Cleaves, Beverly; Metzger, Boyd E.; Johnson, Mariana K.; Behrends, Catherine; Cook, Michelle; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Giles, Mimi M.; Heard, Deloris; Johnson, Cheryl K.H.; Larsen, Diane; Lowe, Anne; Lyman, Megan; McPherson, David; Molitch, Mark E.; Pitts, Thomas; Reinhart, Renee; Roston, Susan; Schinleber, Pamela A.; Nathan, David M.; McKitrick, Charles; Turgeon, Heather; Abbott, Kathy; Anderson, Ellen; Bissett, Laurie; Cagliero, Enrico; Florez, Jose C.; Delahanty, Linda; Goldman, Valerie; Poulos, Alexandra; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Carrion-Petersen, Mary Lou; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Edelman, Steven V.; Henry, Robert R.; Horne, Javiva; Janesch, Simona Szerdi; Leos, Diana; Mudaliar, Sundar; Polonsky, William; Smith, Jean; Vejvoda, Karen; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Lee, Jane E.; Allison, David B.; Aronoff, Nancy J.; Crandall, Jill P.; Foo, Sandra T.; Pal, Carmen; Parkes, Kathy; Pena, Mary Beth; Rooney, Ellen S.; Wye, Gretchen E.H. Van; Viscovich, Kristine A.; Marrero, David G.; Prince, Melvin J.; Kelly, Susie M.; Dotson, Yolanda F.; Fineberg, Edwin S.; Guare, John C; Hadden, Angela M.; Ignaut, James M.; Jackson, Marcia L.; Kirkman, Marion S.; Mather, Kieren J.; Porter, Beverly D.; Roach, Paris J.; Rowland, Nancy D.; Wheeler, Madelyn L.; Ratner, Robert E.; Youssef, Gretchen; Shapiro, Sue; Bavido-Arrage, Catherine; Boggs, Geraldine; Bronsord, Marjorie; Brown, Ernestine; Cheatham, Wayman W.; Cola, Susan; Evans, Cindy; Gibbs, Peggy; Kellum, Tracy; Levatan, Claresa; Nair, Asha K.; Passaro, Maureen; Uwaifo, Gabriel; Saad, Mohammed F.; Budget, Maria; Jinagouda, Sujata; Akbar, Khan; Conzues, Claudia; Magpuri, Perpetua; Ngo, Kathy; Rassam, Amer; Waters, Debra; Xapthalamous, Kathy; Santiago, Julio V.; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; White, Neil H.; Das, Samia; Santiago, Ana; Brown, Angela; Fisher, Edwin; Hurt, Emma; Jones, Tracy; Kerr, Michelle; Ryder, Lucy; Wernimont, Cormarie; Saudek, Christopher D.; Bradley, Vanessa; Sullivan, Emily; Whittington, Tracy; Abbas, Caroline; Brancati, Frederick L.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Charleston, Jeanne B.; Freel, Janice; Horak, Katherine; Jiggetts, Dawn; Johnson, Deloris; Joseph, Hope; Loman, Kimberly; Mosley, Henry; Rubin, Richard R.; Samuels, Alafia; Stewart, Kerry J.; Williamson, Paula; Schade, David S.; Adams, Karwyn S.; Johannes, Carolyn; Atler, Leslie F.; Boyle, Patrick J.; Burge, Mark R.; Canady, Janene L.; Chai, Lisa; Gonzales, Ysela; Hernandez-McGinnis, Doris A.; Katz, Patricia; King, Carolyn; Rassam, Amer; Rubinchik, Sofya; Senter, Willette; Waters, Debra; Shamoon, Harry; Brown, Janet O.; Adorno, Elsie; Cox, Liane; Crandall, Jill; Duffy, Helena; Engel, Samuel; Friedler, Allison; Howard-Century, Crystal J.; Kloiber, Stacey; Longchamp, Nadege; Martinez, Helen; Pompi, Dorothy; Scheindlin, Jonathan; Violino, Elissa; Walker, Elizabeth; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Zimmerman, Elise; Zonszein, Joel; Orchard, Trevor; Wing, Rena R.; Koenning, Gaye; Kramer, M. Kaye; Barr, Susan; Boraz, Miriam; Clifford, Lisa; Culyba, Rebecca; Frazier, Marlene; Gilligan, Ryan; Harrier, Susan; Harris, Louann; Jeffries, Susan; Kriska, Andrea; Manjoo, Qurashia; Mullen, Monica; Noel, Alicia; Otto, Amy; Semler, Linda; Smith, Cheryl F.; Smith, Marie; Venditti, Elizabeth; Weinzierl, Valarie; Williams, Katherine V.; Wilson, Tara; Arakaki, Richard F.; Latimer, Renee W.; Baker-Ladao, Narleen K.; Beddow, Ralph; Dias, Lorna; Inouye, Jillian; Mau, Marjorie K.; Mikami, Kathy; Mohideen, Pharis; Odom, Sharon K.; Perry, Raynette U.; Knowler, William C.; Cooeyate, Norman; Hoskin, Mary A.; Percy, Carol A.; Acton, Kelly J.; Andre, Vickie L.; Barber, Rosalyn; Begay, Shandiin; Bennett, Peter H.; Benson, Mary Beth; Bird, Evelyn C.; Broussard, Brenda A.; Chavez, Marcella; Dacawyma, Tara; Doughty, Matthew S.; Duncan, Roberta; Edgerton, Cyndy; Ghahate, Jacqueline M.; Glass, Justin; Glass, Martia; Gohdes, Dorothy; Grant, Wendy; Hanson, Robert L.; Horse, Ellie; Ingraham, Louise E.; Jackson, Merry; Jay, Priscilla; Kaskalla, Roylen S.; Kessler, David; Kobus, Kathleen M.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Manus, Catherine; Michaels, Sara; Morgan, Tina; Nashboo, Yolanda; Nelson, Julie A.; Poirier, Steven; Polczynski, Evette; Reidy, Mike; Roumain, Jeanine; Rowse, Debra; Sangster, Sandra; Sewenemewa, Janet; Tonemah, Darryl; Wilson, Charlton; Yazzie, Michelle; Bain, Raymond; Fowler, Sarah; Brenneman, Tina; Abebe, Solome; Bamdad, Julie; Callaghan, Jackie; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Gao, Yuping; Grimes, Kristina L.; Grover, Nisha; Haffner, Lori; Jones, Steve; Jones, Tara L.; Katz, Richard; Lachin, John M.; Mucik, Pamela; Orlosky, Robert; Rochon, James; Sapozhnikova, Alla; Sherif, Hanna; Stimpson, Charlotte; Temprosa, Marinella; Walker-Murray, Fredricka; Marcovina, Santica; Strylewicz, Greg; Aldrich, F. Alan; O'Leary, Dan; Stamm, Elizabeth; Rautaharju, Pentti; Prineas, Ronald J.; Alexander, Teresa; Campbell, Charles; Hall, Sharon; Li, Yabing; Mills, Margaret; Pemberton, Nancy; Rautaharju, Farida; Zhang, Zhuming; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Moran, Robert R.; Ganiats, Ted; David, Kristin; Sarkin, Andrew J.; Eastman, R.; Fradkin, Judith; Garfield, Sanford; Gregg, Edward; Zhang, Ping; Herman, William; Florez, Jose C.; Altshuler, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Franks, Paul W.; Hanson, Robert L.; Jablonski, Kathleen; Knowler, William C.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04–1×10−17). Except for total HDL particles (r = −0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07–0.17, P = 5×10−5–1×10−19). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8×10−5, P interaction = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (β = −0.03, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P interaction = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE±0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P interaction = 0.01) but not in the placebo (β = −0.002, SEE±0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE±0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P interaction = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss. PMID:22951888

  17. Efficacy of dietary modification following the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recommendation on lipid profiles among hyperlipidemia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengwiboonwong, Suruchsawadee; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Temcharoen, Paradee; Pandii, Wongdyan; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee

    2013-10-01

    Hyperlipidemia has adverse effects on atherosclerosis, causing it to develop into cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of hyperlipidemia has been increasing among those in the working-age group and may be caused by inappropriate dietary patterns. Dietary modification should form the basis of lipid management. Evaluate the effects of a dietary modification following the NCEP-ATP III recommendation on lipid profiles among hyperlipidemia subjects. The design was a quasi-experimental study, with a pre-test/post-test two-group design. Each group consisted of 31 hyperlipidemia subjects aged 30 to 59 years old with total cholesterol (TC) greater than or equal to 240 mg/dl or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) greater than or equal to 130 mg/dl. The present study was conducted between January and June 2009. The research procedure included 6-week nutrition counseling and a 2-week follow-up for 12 weeks. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire and a 3-day food record. Dietary and biological assessments were compared before and after the experiment. Statistical analysis was performed using means, standard deviations, independent and paired t-tests, Friedman test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intervention group had a significant reduction of TC and LDL-C at the end of the experiment (p < 0.05). Moreover this group had a significantly higher percentage reduction of TC and LDL-C than the control group (8.5% vs. 3.0%, and 10.8% vs. 2.4%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Distributions of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in the intervention group were significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). Distribution of saturated fatty acids (SFAs):MUFAs:polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were 12.0:13.4:6.3% in the intervention group and 12.3:9.2:5.6% in the control group. Neither group was able to reduce SFAs intake to < 7% as recommended. Neither the recommended one-third of vegetable protein nor two-thirds of complex

  18. Time course-changes in phosphatidylcholine profile during oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidized phosphatidylcholines (oxPC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) generated during the formation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are involved in atherosclerotic lesion development. We investigated the time course-changes in phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species during oxidation of LDL to determine how those atherogenic PCs are produced. Methods Human and rabbit LDLs were pretreated with or without a selective platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) inhibitor. LDL was oxidized by incubation with copper sulfate, and PC profiles were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results When human LDL was oxidized, the peak areas for polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-containing PC species dramatically decreased after a short lag period, concomitantly lysoPC species increased sharply. Although a variety of oxPC species containing oxidized fatty acyl groups or cleaved acyl chains are formed during LDL oxidation, only a few oxPC products accumulated in oxLDL: 1-palmitoyl-2-(9-oxo-nonanoyl) PC and long-chain oxPC with two double bonds. Pretreatment of LDL with the PAF-AH inhibitor greatly reduced lysoPC production while it had no effect on lipid peroxidation reactions and oxPC profiles. Rabbit LDL, which has a different composition of PC molecular species and needs a longer time to reach achieve full oxidation than human LDL, also accumulated lysoPC during oxidation. The increase in lysoPC in rabbit oxLDL was suppressed by pretreatment with the PAF-AH inhibitor. The major oxPC species formed in rabbit oxLDL were almost the same as human oxLDL. Conclusions These results suggest that lysoPC species are the major products and PAF-AH activity is crucial for lysoPC generation during oxidation of LDL. The oxPC species accumulated are limited when LDL is oxidized with copper ion in vitro. PMID:24625108

  19. Comprehensive immune profiling reveals substantial immune system alterations in a subset of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Gustafson

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with a median lifespan of 2-3 years after diagnosis. There are few meaningful treatments that alter progression in this disease. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that neuroinflammation may play a key role in the progression rate of ALS. Despite this, there are no validated biomarkers of neuroinflammation for use in clinical practice or clinical trials. Biomarkers of neuroinflammation could improve patient management, provide new therapeutic targets, and possibly help stratify clinical trial selection and monitoring. However, attempts to identify a singular cause of neuroinflammation have not been successful. Here, we performed multi-parameter flow cytometry to comprehensively assess 116 leukocyte populations and phenotypes from lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes in a cohort of 80 ALS patients. We identified 32 leukocyte phenotypes that were altered in ALS patients compared to age and gender matched healthy volunteers (HV that included phenotypes of both inflammation and immune suppression. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering and principle component analysis of ALS and HV immunophenotypes revealed two distinct immune profiles of ALS patients. ALS patients were clustered into a profile distinct from HVs primarily due to differences in a multiple T cell phenotypes, CD3+CD56+ T cells and HLA-DR on monocytes. Patients clustered into an abnormal immune profile were younger, more likely to have a familial form of the disease, and survived longer than those patients who clustered similarly with healthy volunteers (344 weeks versus 184 weeks; p = 0.012. The data set generated from this study establishes an extensive accounting of immunophenotypic changes readily suitable for biomarker validation studies. The extensive immune system changes measured in this study indicate that normal immune homeostatic mechanisms are disrupted in ALS patients, and that

  20. Changes in multidimensional pain inventory profile after a pain rehabilitation programme indicate the risk of receiving sick leave benefits one year later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Vanja E; Novo, Mehmed; Sjölund, Bengt H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether coping profile changes after rehabilitation, assessed with the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI), can predict which persons disabled by chronic musculoskeletal pain will be in receipt of sick leave benefits in the long term. METHODS: Study of MPI data from 2...... (from 57% to 50%). Persons with a DYS profile after rehabilitation had a low probability of having no or part-time sick leave. CONCLUSION: The number of persons with DYS profiles decreased after rehabilitation. Those with other profiles had less full-time sick leave one year later than those with DYS...

  1. [Lipid profile modifications in post-menopausal women treated with testosterone gel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carvajal, Johanna; Luz-Araujo, Hedy; Guerra-Velázquez, Mery; Reyna-Villasmil, Eduardo; Santos-Bolívar, Joel; Torres-Cepeda, Duly; Mejia-Montilla, Jorly; Reyna-Villasmil, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    To assess lipid profile changes in post-menopausal women treated with testosterone gel. Thirty-six oophorectomized women on estradiol treatment who received transdermal testosterone gel (5mg daily) were enrolled into our study. Cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density-lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and lipoprotein (a) were tested before and after 6 months of treatment. Selected participants had a mean age of 50.9±4.6 years and a body mass index of 30.1±3.8 kg/m(2). Significantly decreased cholesterol levels were found after 6 months of treatment (204.5±35.1 mg/dL before treatment as compared to 183.1±21.9 mg/dL after treatment; ptestosterona, asociado a tratamiento estrogénico en mujeres ooforectomizadas, produce disminución de las concentraciones de colesterol y LDL-C posterior a 6 meses de tratamiento, sin afectar las concentraciones de triglicéridos, HDL-C, VLDL-C y lipoproteína (a)Testosterone gel, associated to estrogen treatment in oophorectomized women, decreased cholesterol and LDL-C levels after 6 months of treatment, without affecting serum triglyceride, HDL-C, VLDL-C, and lipoprotein (a) levels. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Successful identification of key chemical structure modifications that lead to improved ADME profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurull-Sanchez, Lourdes

    2010-05-01

    The results of a new method developed to identify well defined structural transformations that are key to improve a certain ADME profile are presented in this work. In particular Naïve Bayesian statistics and SciTegic FCFP_6 molecular fingerprints have been used to extract, from a dataset of 1,169 compounds with known in vitro UGT glucuronidation clearance, those changes in chemical structure that lead to a significant increase in this property. The effectiveness in achieving that goal of the thus found 55,987 transformations has been quantified and compared to classical medicinal chemistry transformations. The conclusion is that on average the new transformations found via in silico methods induce increases of UGT clearance by twofold, whilst the classical transformations are on average unable to alter that endpoint significantly in any direction. When both types of transformations are combined via substructural searches (SSS) the average twofold increase in glucuronidation is maintained. The implications of these findings for the drug design process are also discussed, in particular when compared to other methods previously described in the literature to address the question `Which compound do I make next?'

  3. [Modification of the risk profile of obese essential hypertensive patients by the group "hypertension discussion" program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, H D; Baumann, H; Beckers, H H; Bergdolt, H; Deschner, W; Ebschner, K J; Hasper, M; Kies, H K; Nüssel, E; Wenzel, G

    1988-01-01

    The programme "Discussions on Hypertension" is a programme for group treatment of obese essential hypertensives in medical practices on the basis of behavioural therapy. A co-operation model was developed between the Department for General Medicine of the "Medizinische Hochschule Hannover", the Institute for Medical Psychology of the "Philipps-Universität Marburg" and the company Galenus Mannheim and was offered to doctors in general practice. The effects of the programme on the modifying of the risk profile for coronary heart disease was investigated in a controlled study in 137 patients by nine general practitioners. 81 patients were enrolled in the experimental group and 56 patients were assigned to a control group that was not using the programme. The experimental and control groups were comparable with respect to sociodemographic, psychological and medical parameters. Three months after completing the programme, the results of the study was shown in specific effect both on the psychological criteria of success (well-being, health knowledge, healthy behaviour, salt use and compliance) and in a reduction of the diastolic blood pressure in spite of a reduction of the antihypertensive drug treatment. The blood lipid levels (cholesterol and triglycerides) and the blood glucose level were also favourably affected. Patients in the experimental group had reduced their weight by an average of 5.6 kg. The patients in the control group only by 0.8 kg. Overall, there was a marked reduction in the proportion of patients with several risk factors in the experimental group, so that the programme can be attributed a preventive effect.

  4. Association between modification of phenolic profiling and development of wine color during alcohol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Liu, Pei-Tong; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Shi, Ying; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2015-04-01

    To solve the problem of wine color instability in western China, different additives (the maceration enzymes Vinozym G and Ex-color, yeasts VR5 and Red Star, and commercial tannins) were added during alcoholic fermentation of Syrah (Vitis vinifera L.). The phenolic profile and color characteristics of wine were examined using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and CIELAB, respectively. The results showed that the combination of the enzyme Ex-color with the Red Star yeast eased the release of non-anthocyanins from grape berries into wine, whereas the use of enzyme Vinozym G and VR5 yeast enhanced the concentration of anthocyanins and achieved a higher red hue (a* value) and a lower yellow hue (b* value) in the wine. The addition of commercial tannins greatly promoted the level of gallic acid in the wine and led to a relatively higher concentration of anthocyanins. Partial least-squares regression analysis was used to find out the major phenolics, which were in close relation with color parameters; principal component analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of different winemaking techniques to wine color. The combination of these 2 analytic methods indicated that Vinozym G and VR5 yeast together with commercial tannins should be an appropriate combination to enhance the stability of wine color during alcohol fermentation, which was related to a significant increase in cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, trans-peonidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, trans-malvidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside-pyruvic acid, all of which played an important role in stabilizing wine color. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zoratti

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L. and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L..The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness.The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period.Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  6. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.). The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy) under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness. The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period. Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  7. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.). Methods The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy) under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness. Results The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period. Conclusions Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species. PMID:26288240

  8. A depth-dependent profile of the lipid conformation and lateral packing order of the stratum corneum in vivo measured using Raman microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, ChunSik; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2016-03-21

    The intercellular lipid structure of the stratum corneum (SC) plays a key role in skin barrier function. A depth profile of the intercellular lipid conformation and the lipid lateral packing order were measured in vivo in the human SC using confocal Raman microscopy. The depth profiles of the 2880 cm(-1)/2850 cm(-1) peak ratio intensity, which represent the C-H stretching and lateral packing order of lipids, and the 1080 cm(-1)/(1130 cm(-1) + 1060 cm(-1)) peak ratio, which represents the C-C skeleton vibration and trans-gauche conformation order of lipids, were investigated. The influence of keratin on the lipid peaks at 2850 cm(-1) and 2880 cm(-1) was excluded by the developed mathematical algorithm. The results show that the trans-conformation and lateral packing order of the intercellular lipids reach their maximum value in the SC at 20-40% of its depth and then decrease towards the stratum granulosum. These results show that at a depth of 20-40% (normally corresponding to a depth of 4-8 μm) the SC exhibits the most ordered lipids and therefore the highest skin barrier function. The lateral packing of lipids is more disordered on the surface and in the deeper parts of the SC, which may be associated with a reduced skin barrier function.

  9. Lateral critical current distribution and self-field profile of Bi-2223/Ag conductors: measurements and calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demencik, E.; Usak, P.; Polak, M.; Piel, H.; Dhalle, Marc M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The lateral current distribution and the magnetic self-field induced by a transport current were measured independently in three multifilament Bi-2223/Ag tapes with qualitatively different filament layouts. The current and field data from these two experiments, magnetic knife and scanning Hall

  10. Resin-assisted enrichment of thiols as a general strategy for proteomic profiling of cysteine-based reversible modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jia [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gaffrey, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Su, Dian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Liu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Camp, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qian, Weijun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-12

    Reversible modifications on cysteine thiols play a significant role in redox signaling and regulation. A number of reversible redox modifications, including disulfide formation, S-nitrosylation, and S-glutathionylation, have been recognized for their significance in various physiological and pathological processes. Here we describe in detail a resin-assisted thiol-affinity enrichment protocol for both biochemical and proteomics applications. This protocol serves as a general approach for specific isolation of thiol-containing proteins or peptides derived from reversible redox-modified proteins. This approach utilizes thiol-affinity resins to directly capture thiol-containing proteins or peptides through a disulfide exchange reaction followed by on-resin protein digestion and on-resin multiplexed isobaric labeling to facilitate LC-MS/MS based quantitative site-specific analysis of redox modifications. The overall approach requires a much simpler workflow with increased specificity compared to the commonly used biotin switch technique. By coupling different selective reduction strategies, the resin-assisted approach provides the researcher with a useful tool capable of enriching different types of reversible modifications on protein thiols. Procedures for selective enrichment and analyses of S-nitrosylation and total reversible cysteine oxidation are presented to demonstrate the utility of this general strategy.

  11. Depth profiling of the modification induced by high-flux deuterium plasma in tungsten and tungsten–tantalum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zayachuk, Y.; Manhard, A.; Hoen, M. H. J. 't; Jacob, W.; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma; Van Oost, G.

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports the results of an experimental study of the depth distribution and fluence dependence of deuterium plasma-induced material modification of tungsten and tungsten–tantalum alloys. Plasma-induced damage was created by exposure to high-flux deuterium plasma in the plasma

  12. Profiling of Histone Post-Translational Modifications in Mouse Brain with High-Resolution Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Mowei; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Stenoien, David L.

    2016-12-21

    Histones play central roles in most chromosomal functions and both their basic biology and roles in disease have been the subject of intense study. Since multiple PTMs along the entire protein sequence are potential regulators of histones, a top-down approach, where intact proteins are analyzed, is ultimately required for complete characterization of proteoforms. However, significant challenges remain for top-down histone analysis primarily because of deficiencies in separation/resolving power and effective identification algorithms. Here, we used state of the art mass spectrometry and a bioinformatics workflow for targeted data analysis and visualization. The workflow uses ProMex for intact mass deconvolution, MSPathFinder as search engine, and LcMsSpectator as a data visualization tool. ProMex sums across retention time to maximize sensitivity and accuracy for low abundance species in MS1deconvolution. MSPathFinder searches the MS2 data against protein sequence databases with user-defined modifications. LcMsSpectator presents the results from ProMex and MSPathFinder in a format that allows quick manual evaluation of critical attributes for high-confidence identifications. When complemented with the open-modification tool TopPIC, this workflow enabled identification of novel histone PTMs including tyrosine bromination on histone H4 and H2A, H3 glutathionylation, and mapping of conventional PTMs along the entire protein for many histone subunits.

  13. Profiling of Histone Post-Translational Modifications in Mouse Brain with High-Resolution Top-Down Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mowei; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Stenoien, David L

    2017-02-03

    As histones play central roles in most chromosomal functions including regulation of DNA replication, DNA damage repair, and gene transcription, both their basic biology and their roles in disease development have been the subject of intense study. Because multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs) along the entire protein sequence are potential regulators of histones, a top-down approach, where intact proteins are analyzed, is ultimately required for complete characterization of proteoforms. However, significant challenges remain for top-down histone analysis primarily because of deficiencies in separation/resolving power and effective identification algorithms. Here we used state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and a bioinformatics workflow for targeted data analysis and visualization. The workflow uses ProMex for intact mass deconvolution, MSPathFinder as a search engine, and LcMsSpectator as a data visualization tool. When complemented with the open-modification tool TopPIC, this workflow enabled identification of novel histone PTMs including tyrosine bromination on histone H4 and H2A, H3 glutathionylation, and mapping of conventional PTMs along the entire protein for many histone subunits.

  14. Comparative LC-MS/MS profiling of free and protein-bound early and advanced glycation-induced lysine modifications in dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegele, Joerg [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland)], E-mail: joerg.hegele@rdls.nestle.com; Buetler, Timo; Delatour, Thierry [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland)

    2008-06-09

    Free and protein-bound forms of early and advanced glycation-induced lysine (Lys) modifications were quantified in dairy products by LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope dilution assay. The glycation profiles for N{sup {epsilon}}-fructoselysine (FL), N{sup {epsilon}}-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (Pyr) were monitored in raw and processed cow milk to investigate whether free glycation products could serve as fast and simple markers to assess the extent of protein glycation in dairy products. In all milk samples, the fraction of free glycation adducts was predominantly composed of advanced modifications, e.g. 8.34 {+-} 3.81 nmol CML per {mu}mol of free Lys (Lys{sub free}) and 81.5 {+-} 87.8 nmol Pyr {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub free}{sup -1} vs. 3.72 {+-} 1.29 nmol FL {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub free}{sup -1}. In contrast, the protein-bound early glycation product FL considerably outweighed the content of CML and Pyr in milk proteins of raw and processed cow milk, whereas severely heat treated milk products, e.g. condensed milk, contained a higher amount of protein-bound advanced glycation adducts. Typical values recorded for milk samples processed under mild conditions were 0.47 {+-} 0.08 nmol FL {mu}mol{sup -1} of protein-bound Lys (Lys{sub p-b}), 0.04 {+-} 0.03 nmol CML {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub p-b}{sup -1} and 0.06 {+-} 0.02 nmol Pyr {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub p-b}{sup -1}. It was particularly noticeable, however, that mild heat treatment of raw milk, i.e. pasteurization and UHT treatment, did not significantly increase the amount of both free and protein-bound Lys modifications. In conclusion, the profiles of free and protein-bound glycation-induced Lys modifications were found to be different and a screening of free glycation adducts does, therefore, not allow for a conclusion about the protein glycation status of dairy products.

  15. Investigations of physical processes affecting leaf temperature profiles and primary production in the red mangrove ecosystem. Modification 8 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.C.

    Profiles of carbon dioxide, air temperature, and vapor density were measured in a red mangrove canopy in south Florida. Results indicated that the microclimate model will predict profiles of air temperature within 2/sup 0/C, humidity within 1 g m/sup -3/, and CO/sub 2/ levels within 1 ppM through the vegetation canopy. Simulations of mangrove response to thermal additions indicate that in the subtropical climate photosynthesis is increased in winter and decreased in summer by thermal additions, but in tropical climates photosynthesis is decreased throughout the year. Studies on seedlings of South Florida mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Laguncularia racemosa, indicated that short-term effects of higher root temperatures cause less water stress than cooler root temperature. (HLW)

  16. Molecular and behavioral profiling of Dbx1-derived neurons in the arcuate, lateral and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Katie; Tran, Tuyen; Esumi, Shigeyuki; Kamal, Yasmin; Oboti, Livio; Lischinsky, Julieta; Goodrich, Meredith; Lam, Andrew; Carter, Margaret; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Corbin, Joshua G

    2016-05-21

    Neurons in the hypothalamus function to regulate the state of the animal during both learned and innate behaviors, and alterations in hypothalamic development may contribute to pathological conditions such as anxiety, depression or obesity. Despite many studies of hypothalamic development and function, the link between embryonic development and innate behaviors remains unexplored. Here, focusing on the embryonically expressed homeodomain-containing gene Developing Brain Homeobox 1 (Dbx1), we explored the relationship between embryonic lineage, post-natal neuronal identity and lineage-specific responses to innate cues. We found that Dbx1 is widely expressed across multiple developing hypothalamic subdomains. Using standard and inducible fate-mapping to trace the Dbx1-derived neurons, we identified their contribution to specific neuronal subtypes across hypothalamic nuclei and further mapped their activation patterns in response to a series of well-defined innate behaviors. Dbx1-derived neurons occupy multiple postnatal hypothalamic nuclei including the lateral hypothalamus (LH), arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the ventral medial hypothalamus (VMH). Within these nuclei, Dbx1 (+) progenitors generate a large proportion of the Pmch-, Nesfatin-, Cart-, Hcrt-, Agrp- and ERα-expressing neuronal populations, and to a lesser extent the Pomc-, TH- and Aromatase-expressing populations. Inducible fate-mapping reveals distinct temporal windows for development of the Dbx1-derived LH and Arc populations, with Agrp(+) and Cart(+) populations in the Arc arising early (E7.5-E9.5), while Pmch(+) and Hcrt(+) populations in the LH derived from progenitors expressing Dbx1 later (E9.5-E11.5). Moreover, as revealed by c-Fos labeling, Dbx1-derived cells in male and female LH, Arc and VMH are responsive during mating and aggression. In contrast, Dbx1-lineage cells in the Arc and LH have a broader behavioral tuning, which includes responding to fasting and predator odor cues. We define a novel

  17. Host Transcriptional Profiling at Early and Later Stages of the Compatible Interaction Between Phaseolus vulgaris and Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Luciane; Munhoz, Carla de Freitas; Bonfim, Mauro Ferreira; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Inomoto, Mário Massayuki; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro

    2016-03-01

    The root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is one of most devastating pathogens that attack the common bean crop. Although there is evidence that some cultivars have race-specific resistance against M. incognita, these resistance sources have not proved effective, and nematodes are able to circumvent the host's defense system. We constructed RNA-seq based libraries and used a high-throughput sequencing platform to analyze the plant responses to M. incognita. Assessments were performed at 4 and 10 days after inoculation corresponding to the stages of nematode penetration and giant cell development, respectively. Large-scale transcript mapping to the common bean reference genome (G19833) resulted in the identification of 27,195 unigenes. Of these, 797 host genes were found to be differentially expressed. The functional annotation results confirm the complex interplay between abiotic and biotic stress signaling pathways. High expression levels of the wounding-responsive genes were observed over the interaction. At early response, an overexpression of the N gene, a TIR-NBS-LRR resistance gene, was understood as a host attempt to overcome the pathogen attack. However, the repression of heat shock proteins resulted in a lack of reactive oxygen species accumulation and absence of a hypersensitive response. Furthermore, the host basal response was broken by the repression of the ethylene/jasmonate pathway later in the response, resulting in a continuous compatible process with consequent plant susceptibility.

  18. Fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) combined with gene expression microarrays for transcription enrichment profiling of zebrafish lateral line cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Viviana E; Behra, Martine

    2013-08-15

    Transgenic lines carrying fluorescent reporter genes like GFP have been of great value in the elucidation of developmental features and physiological processes in various animal models, including zebrafish. The lateral line (LL), which is a fish specific superficial sensory organ, is an emerging organ model for studying complex cellular processes in the context of the whole living animal. Cell migration, mechanosensory cell development/differentiation and regeneration are some examples. This sensory system is made of superficial and sparse small sensory patches called neuromasts, with less than 50 cells in any given patch. The paucity of cells is a real problem in any effort to characterize those cells at the transcriptional level. We describe here a method which we applied to efficiently separate subpopulation of cells of the LL, using two distinct stable transgenic zebrafish lines, Tg(cldnb:gfp) and Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP). In both cases, the GFP positive (GFP+) cells were separated from the remainder of the animal by using a Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). The transcripts of the GFP+ cells were subsequently analyzed on gene expression microarrays. The combination of FACS and microarrays is an efficient method to establish a transcriptional signature for discrete cell populations which would otherwise be masked in whole animal preparation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuronal activity in the lateral cerebellum of the cat related to visual stimuli at rest, visually guided step modification, and saccadic eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marple-Horvat, D E; Criado, J M; Armstrong, D M

    1998-01-01

    The discharge patterns of 166 lateral cerebellar neurones were studied in cats at rest and during visually guided stepping on a horizontal circular ladder. A hundred and twelve cells were tested against one or both of two visual stimuli: a brief full-field flash of light delivered during eating or rest, and a rung which moved up as the cat approached. Forty-five cells (40%) gave a short latency response to one or both of these stimuli. These visually responsive neurones were found in hemispheral cortex (rather than paravermal) and the lateral cerebellar nucleus (rather than nucleus interpositus).Thirty-seven cells (of 103 tested, 36%) responded to flash. The cortical visual response (mean onset latency 38 ms) was usually an increase in Purkinje cell discharge rate, of around 50 impulses s−1 and representing 1 or 2 additional spikes per trial (1.6 on average). The nuclear response to flash (mean onset latency 27 ms) was usually an increased discharge rate which was shorter lived and converted rapidly to a depression of discharge or return to control levels, so that there were on average only an additional 0.6 spikes per trial. A straightforward explanation of the difference between the cortical and nuclear response would be that the increased inhibitory Purkinje cell output cuts short the nuclear response.A higher proportion of cells responded to rung movement, sixteen of twenty-five tested (64%). Again most responded with increased discharge, which had longer latency than the flash response (first change in dentate output ca 60 ms after start of movement) and longer duration. Peak frequency changes were twice the size of those in response to flash, at 100 impulses s−1 on average and additional spikes per trial were correspondingly 3–4 times higher. Both cortical and nuclear responses were context dependent, being larger when the rung moved when the cat was closer than further away.A quarter of cells (20 of 84 tested, 24%) modulated their activity in advance

  20. Experimental determination of the lateral dose response functions of detectors to be applied in the measurement of narrow photon-beam dose profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, D.; Meyners, J.; Delfs, B.; Muru, A.; Harder, D.; Poppe, B.; Looe, HK

    2015-12-01

    This study aims at the experimental determination of the detector-specific 1D lateral dose response function K(x) and of its associated rotational symmetric counterpart K(r) for a set of high-resolution detectors presently used in narrow-beam photon dosimetry. A combination of slit-beam, radiochromic film, and deconvolution techniques served to accomplish this task for four detectors with diameters of their sensitive volumes ranging from 1 to 2.2 mm. The particular aim of the experiment was to examine the existence of significant negative portions of some of these response functions predicted by a recent Monte-Carlo-simulation (Looe et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 6585-607). In a 6 MV photon slit beam formed by the Siemens Artiste collimation system and a 0.5 mm wide slit between 10 cm thick lead blocks serving as the tertiary collimator, the true cross-beam dose profile D(x) at 3 cm depth in a large water phantom was measured with radiochromic film EBT3, and the detector-affected cross-beam signal profiles M(x) were recorded with a silicon diode, a synthetic diamond detector, a miniaturized scintillation detector, and a small ionization chamber. For each detector, the deconvolution of the convolution integral M(x)  =  K(x)  ∗  D(x) served to obtain its specific 1D lateral dose response function K(x), and K(r) was calculated from it. Fourier transformations and back transformations were performed using function approximations by weighted sums of Gaussian functions and their analytical transformation. The 1D lateral dose response functions K(x) of the four types of detectors and their associated rotational symmetric counterparts K(r) were obtained. Significant negative curve portions of K(x) and K(r) were observed in the case of the silicon diode and the diamond detector, confirming the Monte-Carlo-based prediction (Looe et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 6585-607). They are typical for the perturbation of the secondary electron field by a detector with

  1. Experimental determination of the lateral dose response functions of detectors to be applied in the measurement of narrow photon-beam dose profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, D; Meyners, J; Delfs, B; Muru, A; Harder, D; Poppe, B; Looe, H K

    2015-12-21

    This study aims at the experimental determination of the detector-specific 1D lateral dose response function K(x) and of its associated rotational symmetric counterpart K(r) for a set of high-resolution detectors presently used in narrow-beam photon dosimetry. A combination of slit-beam, radiochromic film, and deconvolution techniques served to accomplish this task for four detectors with diameters of their sensitive volumes ranging from 1 to 2.2 mm. The particular aim of the experiment was to examine the existence of significant negative portions of some of these response functions predicted by a recent Monte-Carlo-simulation (Looe et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 6585-607). In a 6 MV photon slit beam formed by the Siemens Artiste collimation system and a 0.5 mm wide slit between 10 cm thick lead blocks serving as the tertiary collimator, the true cross-beam dose profile D(x) at 3 cm depth in a large water phantom was measured with radiochromic film EBT3, and the detector-affected cross-beam signal profiles M(x) were recorded with a silicon diode, a synthetic diamond detector, a miniaturized scintillation detector, and a small ionization chamber. For each detector, the deconvolution of the convolution integral M(x)  =  K(x)  ∗  D(x) served to obtain its specific 1D lateral dose response function K(x), and K(r) was calculated from it. Fourier transformations and back transformations were performed using function approximations by weighted sums of Gaussian functions and their analytical transformation. The 1D lateral dose response functions K(x) of the four types of detectors and their associated rotational symmetric counterparts K(r) were obtained. Significant negative curve portions of K(x) and K(r) were observed in the case of the silicon diode and the diamond detector, confirming the Monte-Carlo-based prediction (Looe et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 6585-607). They are typical for the perturbation of the secondary electron field by a detector with

  2. Genome-wide profiling of histone modifications (H3K9me2 and H4K12ac) and gene expression in rust (uromyces appendiculatus) inoculated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyappan, Vasudevan; Kalavacharla, Venu (Kal); Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Bhide, Ketaki P; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.

    2015-01-01

    Histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation play a significant role in controlling gene expression in unstressed and stressed plants. Genome-wide analysis of such stress-responsive modifications and genes in non-model crops is limited. We report the genome-wide profiling of histone methylation (H3K9me2) and acetylation (H4K12ac) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) stress using two high-throughput approaches, chromatin immunoprecipitation s...

  3. Coordinate Changes in Histone Modifications, mRNA Levels, and Metabolite Profiles in Clonal INS-1 832/13 β-Cells Accompany Functional Adaptations to Lipotoxicity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmgren, Siri; Spégel, Peter; Danielsson, Anders P.H.; Nagorny, Cecilia L.; Andersson, Lotta E.; Nitert, Marloes Dekker; Ridderstråle, Martin; Mulder, Hindrik; Ling, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Lipotoxicity is a presumed pathogenetic process whereby elevated circulating and stored lipids in type 2 diabetes cause pancreatic β-cell failure. To resolve the underlying molecular mechanisms, we exposed clonal INS-1 832/13 β-cells to palmitate for 48 h. We observed elevated basal insulin secretion but impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in palmitate-exposed cells. Glucose utilization was unchanged, palmitate oxidation was increased, and oxygen consumption was impaired. Halting exposure of the clonal INS-1 832/13 β-cells to palmitate largely recovered all of the lipid-induced functional changes. Metabolite profiling revealed profound but reversible increases in cellular lipids. Glucose-induced increases in tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates were attenuated by exposure to palmitate. Analysis of gene expression by microarray showed increased expression of 982 genes and decreased expression of 1032 genes after exposure to palmitate. Increases were seen in pathways for steroid biosynthesis, cell cycle, fatty acid metabolism, DNA replication, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids; decreases occurred in the aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis pathway. The activity of histone-modifying enzymes and histone modifications of differentially expressed genes were reversibly altered upon exposure to palmitate. Thus, Insig1, Lss, Peci, Idi1, Hmgcs1, and Casr were subject to epigenetic regulation. Our analyses demonstrate that coordinate changes in histone modifications, mRNA levels, and metabolite profiles accompanied functional adaptations of clonal β-cells to lipotoxicity. It is highly likely that these changes are pathogenetic, accounting for loss of glucose responsiveness and perturbed insulin secretion. PMID:23476019

  4. The anabolic/androgenic steroid nandrolone exacerbates gene expression modifications induced by mutant SOD1 in muscles of mice models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbiati, Mariarita; Onesto, Elisa; Zito, Arianna; Crippa, Valeria; Rusmini, Paola; Mariotti, Raffaella; Bentivoglio, Marina; Bendotti, Caterina; Poletti, Angelo

    2012-02-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs that enhance muscle mass, and are often illegally utilized in athletes to improve their performances. Recent data suggest that the increased risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in male soccer and football players could be linked to AAS abuse. ALS is a motor neuron disease mainly occurring in sporadic (sALS) forms, but some familial forms (fALS) exist and have been linked to mutations in different genes. Some of these, in their wild type (wt) form, have been proposed as risk factors for sALS, i.e. superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene, whose mutations are causative of about 20% of fALS. Notably, SOD1 toxicity might occur both in motor neurons and in muscle cells. Using gastrocnemius muscles of mice overexpressing human mutant SOD1 (mutSOD1) at different disease stages, we found that the expression of a selected set of genes associated to muscle atrophy, MyoD, myogenin, atrogin-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)β1, is up-regulated already at the presymptomatic stage. Atrogin-1 gene expression was increased also in mice overexpressing human wtSOD1. Similar alterations were found in axotomized mouse muscles and in cultured ALS myoblast models. In these ALS models, we then evaluated the pharmacological effects of the synthetic AAS nandrolone on the expression of the genes modified in ALS muscle. Nandrolone administration had no effects on MyoD, myogenin, and atrogin-1 expression, but it significantly increased TGFβ1 expression at disease onset. Altogether, these data suggest that, in fALS, muscle gene expression is altered at early stages, and AAS may exacerbate some of the alterations induced by SOD1 possibly acting as a contributing factor also in sALS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of upper lateral cartilage in dorsal reconstruction after hump excision: section 1. Spreader flap modification with asymmetric mattress suture and extension of the spreading effect by cartilage graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavbaşı, Y Ilker; Başaran, Ihsan

    2011-08-01

    A spreader flap, or autospreader flap, is a flap used for dorsal reconstruction in primary rhinoplasty after cartilage dorsum excision. Despite its significant advantages, the spreader flap also has distinct shortcomings. The most common problem encountered in using a spreader flap is the technique's inability to provide adequate dorsal width compared with spreader grafts. Additionally, the use of a spreader flap has not been described for special cases such as crooked noses, cases with minimal dorsal humps, and secondary cases. This report presents the authors' modification of the spreader flap technique to expand its indications and extend the spreader effect down to the entire dorsum. This modification positions and fixes the medial borders of the upper lateral cartilages (ULCs) on both sides of the septum by asymmetric mattress sutures. Using the ULCs without folding affords the opportunity to restore a dorsum with sufficient width. Different entry and exit points of the suture help to maintain the cartilage substance horizontally rather than folded as in the conventional spreader flap technique. Another drawback of the spreader flap technique is its inability to address the lower third of the dorsum when ULCs do not extend down to the anterior septal angle (ASA). In these cases, attempts were made to extend the spreader effect by placing two small cartilage grafts on both sides of the ASA. Over a period of 2 years, the authors operated on 169 patients. For 81 of these patients, the modified spreader flap alone was used, and for the remaining 88 patients, both the modified spreader flap technique and ASA grafting (combined modification) were used. During a mean follow-up period of 17 months, no narrowing in the middle nasal dorsum and no inner valve deficiencies were seen in any of the cases.

  6. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  7. WE-D-17A-02: Evaluation of a Two-Dimensional Optical Dosimeter On Measuring Lateral Profiles of Proton Pencil Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi, W; Lee, T; Schultz, T; Arjomandy, B; Park, S [McLaren Cancer Institute, Flint, MI (United States); Gao, M; Pankuch, M [ProCure Treatment Centers, Warrenville, IL (United States); Boyer, S; Mah, D [Procure Treatment Center, Somerset, NJ (United States); Pillainayagam, M [Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Schreuder, A [Provision Healthcare Partners, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a two-dimensional optical dosimeter on measuring lateral profiles for spots and scanned fields of proton pencil beams. Methods: A digital camera with a color image senor was utilized to image proton-induced scintillations on Gadolinium-oxysulfide phosphor reflected by a stainless-steel mirror. Intensities of three colors were summed for each pixel with proper spatial-resolution calibration. To benchmark this dosimeter, the field size and penumbra for 100mm square fields of singleenergy pencil-scan protons were measured and compared between this optical dosimeter and an ionization-chamber profiler. Sigma widths of proton spots in air were measured and compared between this dosimeter and a commercial optical dosimeter. Clinical proton beams with ranges between 80 mm and 300 mm at CDH proton center were used for this benchmark. Results: Pixel resolutions vary 1.5% between two perpendicular axes. For a pencil-scan field with 302 mm range, measured field sizes and penumbras between two detection systems agreed to 0.5 mm and 0.3 mm, respectively. Sigma widths agree to 0.3 mm between two optical dosimeters for a proton spot with 158 mm range; having widths of 5.76 mm and 5.92 mm for X and Y axes, respectively. Similar agreements were obtained for others beam ranges. This dosimeter was successfully utilizing on mapping the shapes and sizes of proton spots at the technical acceptance of McLaren proton therapy system. Snow-flake spots seen on images indicated the image sensor having pixels damaged by radiations. Minor variations in intensity between different colors were observed. Conclusions: The accuracy of our dosimeter was in good agreement with other established devices in measuring lateral profiles of pencil-scan fields and proton spots. A precise docking mechanism for camera was designed to keep aligned optical path while replacing damaged image senor. Causes for minor variations between emitted color lights will be investigated.

  8. Improved oil production using economical biopolymer-surfactant blends for profile modification and mobility control. Final report, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabitto, J. [Prairie View A and M Univ., TX (United States); Barrufet, M.A.; Burnett, D.B. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-12-01

    In the past, starch hydrocolloids have not been effective alternates to partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides, copolymers, and xanthan gum polymers as water shutoff agents in fractures and in matrix flow configurations. Poor injectivity and questionable stability have usually prevented their use in profile control applications. However, in recent years, the demands of the oil and gas drilling industry have led to the development of new drilling, drill-in, and completion fluids with improved functionality. New types of modified starches have contributed to these new drill in fluid (DIF) products. It was felt that the properties of the new products would lend themselves to applications in improved recovery. The objective of this project has been to evaluate the use of agricultural starch biopolymers for gelled and polymer applications in oil recovery processes. The authors believe that there is great potential for finding new functional starch products because of their chemical and structural flexibility, low cost, and wide availability. The goals of this project have been, therefore, to systematically investigate how the physical properties and chemical composition of relatively inexpensive agricultural starch products will influence their use as effective selective permeability control agents or as gels for water shut-off.

  9. Improvement of Carbon Dioxide Sweep Efficiency by Utilization of Microbial Permeability Profile Modification to Reduce the Amount of Oil Bypassed During Carbon Dioxide Flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Darrel [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Brown, Lewis [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Lynch, F. Leo [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Kirkland, Brenda L. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Collins, Krystal M. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Funderburk, William K. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2010-12-31

    The objective of this project was to couple microbial permeability profile modification (MPPM), with carbon dioxide flooding to improve oil recovery from the Upper Cretaceous Little Creek Oil Field situated in Lincoln and Pike counties, MS. This study determined that MPPM technology, which improves production by utilizing environmentally friendly nutrient solutions to simulate the growth of the indigenous microflora in the most permeable zones of the reservoir thus diverting production to less permeable, previously unswept zones, increased oil production without interfering with the carbon dioxide flooding operation. Laboratory tests determined that no microorganisms were produced in formation waters, but were present in cores. Perhaps the single most significant contribution of this study is the demonstration that microorganisms are active at a formation temperature of 115°C (239°F) by using a specially designed culturing device. Laboratory tests were employed to simulate the MPPM process by demonstrating that microorganisms could be activated with the resulting production of oil in coreflood tests performed in the presence of carbon dioxide at 66°C (the highest temperature that could be employed in the coreflood facility). Geological assessment determined significant heterogeneity in the Eutaw Formation, and documented relatively thin, variably-lithified, well-laminated sandstone interbedded with heavily-bioturbated, clay-rich sandstone and shale. Live core samples of the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw Formation from the Heidelberg Field, MS were quantitatively assessed using SEM, and showed that during MPPM permeability modification occurs ubiquitously within pore and throat spaces of 10-20 μm diameter. Testing of the MPPM procedure in the Little Creek Field showed a significant increase in production occurred in two of the five production test wells; furthermore, the decline curve in each of the production wells became noticeably less steep. This project greatly

  10. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Histamine Regulates the Inflammatory Profile of SOD1-G93A Microglia and the Histaminergic System Is Dysregulated in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savina Apolloni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a late-onset motor neuron disease where activated glia release pro-inflammatory cytokines that trigger a vicious cycle of neurodegeneration in the absence of resolution of inflammation. Given the well-established role of histamine as a neuron-to-glia alarm signal implicated in brain disorders, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression and regulation of the histaminergic pathway in microglial activation in ALS mouse model and in humans. By examining the contribution of the histaminergic system to ALS, we found that particularly via H1 and H4 receptors, histamine promoted an anti-inflammatory profile in microglia from SOD1-G93A mice by modulating their activation state. A decrease in NF-κB and NADPH oxidase 2 with an increase in arginase 1 and P2Y12 receptor was induced by histamine only in the ALS inflammatory environment, but not in the healthy microglia, together with an increase in IL-6, IL-10, CD163, and CD206 phenotypic markers in SOD1-G93A cells. Moreover, histaminergic H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors, and histamine metabolizing enzymes histidine decarboxylase, histamine N-methyltransferase, and diamine oxidase were found deregulated in spinal cord, cortex, and hypothalamus of SOD1-G93A mice during disease progression. Finally, by performing a meta-analysis study, we found a modulated expression of histamine-related genes in cortex and spinal cord from sporadic ALS patients. Our findings disclose that histamine acts as anti-inflammatory agent in ALS microglia and suggest a dysregulation of the histaminergic signaling in ALS.

  12. Comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification by affinity zirconium oxide-silica composite monolithic column online solid-phase microextraction - Mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han-Peng; Chu, Jie-Mei; Lan, Meng-Dan; Liu, Ping; Yang, Na; Zheng, Fang; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-09-02

    More than 140 modified ribonucleosides have been identified in RNA. Determination of endogenous modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids may serve as non-invasive disease diagnostic strategy. However, detection of the modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids is challenging, especially for the low abundant modified ribonucleosides due to the serious matrix interferences of biological fluids. Here, we developed a facile preparation strategy and successfully synthesized zirconium oxide-silica (ZrO2/SiO2) composite capillary monolithic column that exhibited excellent performance for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing compounds. Compared with the boronate-based affinity monolith, the ZrO2/SiO2 monolith showed ∼2 orders of magnitude higher extraction capacity and can be used under physiological pH (pH 6.5-7.5). Using the prepared ZrO2/SiO2 composite monolith as the trapping column and reversed-phase C18 column as the analytical column, we further established an online solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (online SPME-LC-MS/MS) analysis for the comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification in human urine. Our results showed that 68 cis-diol-containing ribosylated compounds were identified in human urine, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest numbers of cis-diol-containing compounds were determined in a single analysis. It is worth noting that four modified ribonucleosides were discovered in the human urine for the first time. In addition, the quantification results from the pooled urine samples showed that compared to healthy controls, the contents of sixteen ribose conjugates in the urine of gastric cancer, eleven in esophagus cancer and seven in lymphoma increased more than two folds. Among these ribose conjugates, four ribose conjugates increased more than two folds in both gastric cancer and esophagus cancer; three ribose conjugates increased more than two

  13. Definition and Paleoseismology of the Active, Left-Lateral Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault Zone Based on High-Resolution Chirp Profiles: Lakes Azuey and Mirogoane, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Mann, P.; von Lignau, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    In July 2014, we obtained a total of 94 km of high-resolution Chirp profiles from the 129 km2, brackish Lake Azuey and 37 km of profiles from the 14 km2, fresh water Lake Mirogoane that both straddle the active trace of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) of Haiti. 80% of the grid on Azuey and 85% on Mirogoane was dedicated to north-south profiles of the EPGFZ. In Azuey we defined the linear and east-west-striking fault trace in deformed Holocene sediments along with its landfalls west of Lake Azuey in Haiti and east of Lake Azuey in the Dominican Republic. All profiles showed the fault to be a sub-vertical flower structure whose active traces could be traced on Chirp data to a depth of 30 m below the lake floor. Previous workers have suggested that this fault ruptured during a large November, 1751, earthquake with a parallel and elongate felt zone. We hypothesize the most recent break of the fault several meters below the lake floor to have formed during the 1751 event but plan a coring program to precisely constrain the timing of historical and prehistorical events based on syn-faulting colluvial wedges observed on Chirp profiles. Our survey of Mirogoane confirmed its rhomboidal pull-apart structure with the basin center at a depth of 42-8 m making this basin the deepest lake in the Caribbean region. Deformational features include active folds at the lake bottom, large oblique-slip normal faults at an angle to the bounding east-west faults, and 30 m of recognizable stratigraphy. The 7 m of Holocene cored in the basin center in 1988 is observed to be highly deformed and locally folded and overlies with angular unconformity a well stratified and more folded lower basinal unit. Historical events are proposed to have ruptured on or near this segment of the EPGFZ in 1701 and 1770.

  14. Later loont

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Uit een inventarisatie van de Animal Sciences Group van het hanenmanagement blijkt dat er geen verschillen zijn in technische resultaten tussen koppels vleeskuikenouderdieren die voor of na 20 weken leeftijd zijn overgeplaatst. Wel is later overplaatsen financieel aantrekkelijk voor de vermeerderaar

  15. Genome-Wide Profiling of Histone Modifications (H3K9me2 and H4K12ac and Gene Expression in Rust (Uromyces appendiculatus Inoculated Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudevan Ayyappan

    Full Text Available Histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation play a significant role in controlling gene expression in unstressed and stressed plants. Genome-wide analysis of such stress-responsive modifications and genes in non-model crops is limited. We report the genome-wide profiling of histone methylation (H3K9me2 and acetylation (H4K12ac in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under rust (Uromyces appendiculatus stress using two high-throughput approaches, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. ChIP-Seq analysis revealed 1,235 and 556 histone methylation and acetylation responsive genes from common bean leaves treated with the rust pathogen at 0, 12 and 84 hour-after-inoculation (hai, while RNA-Seq analysis identified 145 and 1,763 genes differentially expressed between mock-inoculated and inoculated plants. The combined ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analyses identified some key defense responsive genes (calmodulin, cytochrome p450, chitinase, DNA Pol II, and LRR and transcription factors (WRKY, bZIP, MYB, HSFB3, GRAS, NAC, and NMRA in bean-rust interaction. Differential methylation and acetylation affected a large proportion of stress-responsive genes including resistant (R proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and genes involved in ion flux and cell death. The genes identified were functionally classified using Gene Ontology (GO and EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOGs. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis identified a putative pathway with ten key genes involved in plant-pathogen interactions. This first report of an integrated analysis of histone modifications and gene expression involved in the bean-rust interaction as reported here provides a comprehensive resource for other epigenomic regulation studies in non-model species under stress.

  16. Genome-Wide Profiling of Histone Modifications (H3K9me2 and H4K12ac) and Gene Expression in Rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) Inoculated Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyappan, Vasudevan; Kalavacharla, Venu; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Bhide, Ketaki P; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Smolinski, Tomasz G; Manoharan, Muthusamy; Thurston, Yaqoob; Todd, Antonette; Kingham, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation play a significant role in controlling gene expression in unstressed and stressed plants. Genome-wide analysis of such stress-responsive modifications and genes in non-model crops is limited. We report the genome-wide profiling of histone methylation (H3K9me2) and acetylation (H4K12ac) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) stress using two high-throughput approaches, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed 1,235 and 556 histone methylation and acetylation responsive genes from common bean leaves treated with the rust pathogen at 0, 12 and 84 hour-after-inoculation (hai), while RNA-Seq analysis identified 145 and 1,763 genes differentially expressed between mock-inoculated and inoculated plants. The combined ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analyses identified some key defense responsive genes (calmodulin, cytochrome p450, chitinase, DNA Pol II, and LRR) and transcription factors (WRKY, bZIP, MYB, HSFB3, GRAS, NAC, and NMRA) in bean-rust interaction. Differential methylation and acetylation affected a large proportion of stress-responsive genes including resistant (R) proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and genes involved in ion flux and cell death. The genes identified were functionally classified using Gene Ontology (GO) and EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOGs). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis identified a putative pathway with ten key genes involved in plant-pathogen interactions. This first report of an integrated analysis of histone modifications and gene expression involved in the bean-rust interaction as reported here provides a comprehensive resource for other epigenomic regulation studies in non-model species under stress.

  17. IMPROVING OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PROTEOLYTIC PROFILE OF KASHKAVAL CHEESE BY MODIFICATION IN HEAT TREATMENTS OF COW'S MILK AND CHEDDARED CURD

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitar Dimitrov; Zhelyazko Simov; Zhechko Dimitrov; Assan Ospanov

    2015-01-01

    Model samples kashkaval cheese were made by the microwave processing of cow's milk in thermisation mode (62 - 67 °C) and direct microwave treatment of cheddared curd with subsequent dry salting. Control cheese samples were produced by the conventional approach with classical thermisation (62 - 67 °C) of cow's milk and classic hot brining in brine solution (72-74 °C, 14%NaCl). Samples were placed in ripening conditions (8 - 10 °C). The changes of microbiological and proteolytic profile on the ...

  18. Rapid whole monoclonal antibody analysis by mass spectrometry: An ultra scale-down study of the effect of harvesting by centrifugation on the post-translational modification profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, C Q; Tait, A; Baldascini, H; Mohindra, A; Racher, A; Bilsborough, S; Smales, C M; Hoare, M

    2010-09-01

    With the trend towards the generation and production of increasing numbers of complex biopharmaceutical (protein based) products, there is an increased need and requirement to characterize both the product and production process in terms of robustness and reproducibility. This is of particular importance for products from mammalian cell culture which have large molecular structures and more often than not complex post-translational modifications (PTMs) that can impact the efficacy, stability and ultimately the safety of the final product. It is therefore vital to understand how the operating conditions of a bioprocess affect the distribution and make up of these PTMs to ensure a consistent quality and activity in the final product. Here we have characterized a typical bioprocess and determined (a) how the time of harvest from a mammalian cell culture and, (b) through the use of an ultra scale-down mimic how the nature of the primary recovery stages, affect the distribution and make up of the PTMs observed on a recombinant IgG(4) monoclonal antibody. In particular we describe the use of rapid whole antibody analysis by mass spectrometry to analyze simultaneously the changes that occur to the cleavage of heavy chain C-terminal lysine residues and the glycosylation pattern, as well as the presence of HL dimers. The time of harvest was found to have a large impact upon the range of glycosylation patterns observed, but not upon C-terminal lysine cleavage. The culture age had a profound impact on the ratio of different glycan moieties found on antibody molecules. The proportion of short glycans increased (e.g., (G0F)(2) 20-35%), with an associated decrease in the proportion of long glycans with culture age (e.g., (G2F)(2) 7-4%, and G1F/G2F from 15.2% to 7.8%). Ultra scale-down mimics showed that subsequent processing of these cultures did not change the post-translational modifications investigated, but did increase the proportion of half antibodies present in the

  19. Modeling multi-lateral wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, H. J.; Fong, W. S. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A method for modeling multi-lateral wells by using a computational scheme embedded in a general-purpose, finite difference simulator was described. The calculation of wellbore pressure profile for each lateral included the frictional pressure drop along the wellbore and proper fluid mixing at lateral connection points. To obtain a good production profile the Beggs and Brill correlation, a homogenous flow model, and the model proposed by Ouyang et al, which includes an acceleration term and accounts for the lubrication effect due to radial influx, were implemented. Well performance prediction results were compared using the three models. The impact of different tubing sizes on the well performance and the prediction contribution from each lateral were also studied. Results of the study in the hypothetical example and under normal field operating conditions were reviewed. 7 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. Loss of anthocyanins and modification of the anthocyanin profiles in grape berries of Malbec and Bonarda grown under high temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosas, Inés; Ponce, María Teresa; Malovini, Emiliano; Deis, Leonor; Cavagnaro, Bruno; Cavagnaro, Pablo

    2017-05-01

    Malbec and Bonarda are the two most widely cultivated grape varieties in Argentina, and their derived red wines are recognized worldwide, being their intense color a major quality trait. The temperature during fruit ripening conditions berries color intensity. In the main viticulture region of Malbec and Bonarda a 2-3°C increase in temperature has been predicted for the upcoming years as consequence of the global climate change. In the present study, this predicted temperature raise was simulated under field-crop conditions, and its effect on anthocyanin pigmentation in berries of Malbec and Bonarda was monitored by HPLC analysis throughout the ripening process, in two growing seasons. Additionally, expression levels of regulatory (MYBA1 and MYB4) and structural (UFGT and Vv3AT) anthocyanin genes were monitored in Malbec berry skins. Although cultivar-dependent time-course variation was observed for total anthocyanin content, in general, the berries of both cultivars grown under high temperature (HT) conditions had significantly lower total anthocyanins (∼28-41% reduction), and a higher proportion of acylated anthocyanins, than their respective controls. Expression of MYBA1 and UFGT, but not MYB4, was correlated with anthocyanin pigmentation at half ripening and harvest, whereas overexpression of the acyltransferase gene Vv3AT was associated with higher anthocyanin acylation in HT berries. These results suggest that color development and pigment modifications in Malbec berries under HT are regulated at transcriptional level by MYBA1, UFGT, and Vv3AT genes. These data contribute to the general understanding on the effect of high temperatures on anthocyanin biochemistry and genetic regulation, and may have direct implications in the production of high-quality wines from Malbec and Bonarda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of controlled school-based multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventions on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, N; Misra, A; Shah, P; Gulati, S

    2010-04-01

    To study the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention model of nutrition and lifestyle education on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian-Indian adolescents in North India. Two schools matched for student strength and middle socioeconomic strata were randomly allocated to intervention and control group. Changes in nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, lifestyle practices, food frequency and body image of eleventh-grade students (15-17 years) in both schools were tested using a validated questionnaire. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were made using standard methods. Segmental body composition analysis was carried out using an 8-electrode multifrequency bioelectrical impedance method of body fat estimation. At 6 months follow-up, significant improvement in several domains of knowledge was observed in intervention children (n=99; males=60; females=39) as compared with control school children (n=102; males=61; females=41). In the intervention group, significantly lower proportion of children consumed aerated drinks (15.1%; Pfoods (8.9%; P=0.03), whereas significantly higher proportion brought tiffin (packed lunch) to school (14.9%; P=0.004) and brought a fruit in their tiffin (30.7%; Phabits and lifestyle practices, and resulted in beneficial changes in anthropometric and biochemical profiles of the Asian Indian adolescents. This model should be applied on countrywide basis to prevent obesity and diabetes.

  2. IMPROVING OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PROTEOLYTIC PROFILE OF KASHKAVAL CHEESE BY MODIFICATION IN HEAT TREATMENTS OF COW'S MILK AND CHEDDARED CURD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Dimitrov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Model samples kashkaval cheese were made by the microwave processing of cow's milk in thermisation mode (62 - 67 °C and direct microwave treatment of cheddared curd with subsequent dry salting. Control cheese samples were produced by the conventional approach with classical thermisation (62 - 67 °C of cow's milk and classic hot brining in brine solution (72-74 °C, 14%NaCl. Samples were placed in ripening conditions (8 - 10 °C. The changes of microbiological and proteolytic profile on the 5th, 15th, 30th and 45th day of ripening were studied. Higher survival levels of the starter culture responsible for ripening were established in kashkaval cheese produced by microwave treatment in comparison with classical cheese. It was found that the higher cell concentration of the starter culture leads to active and accelerate process of proteolysis with production of free amino acids in concentrations significantly exceeding the obtained in the classical cheese: 490,10±2,10 mg100g-1(microwave kashkaval cheese versus 216,50±2,00 mg100g-1 (classical kashkaval cheese.

  3. The Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 proteome, profiled in the host intestinal environment, reveals major metabolic modifications and increased expression of invasive proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Rembert; Zhang, Quanshun; Parmar, Prashanth P; Huang, Shih-Ting; Clark, David J; Alami, Hamid; Donohue-Rolfe, Arthur; Fleischmann, Robert D; Peterson, Scott N; Tzipori, Saul

    2009-11-01

    Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1) causes the most severe form of epidemic bacillary dysentery. We present the first comprehensive proteome analysis of this pathogen, profiling proteins from bacteria cultured in vitro and bacterial isolates from the large bowel of infected gnotobiotic piglets (in vivo). Overall, 1061 distinct gene products were identified. Differential display analysis revealed that SD1 cells switched to an anaerobic energy metabolism in vivo. High in vivo abundances of amino acid decarboxylases (GadB and AdiA) which enhance pH homeostasis in the cytoplasm and protein disaggregation chaperones (HdeA, HdeB and ClpB) were indicative of a coordinated bacterial survival response to acid stress. Several type III secretion system effectors were increased in abundance in vivo, including OspF, IpaC and IpaD. These proteins are implicated in invasion of colonocytes and subversion of the host immune response in S. flexneri. These observations likely reflect an adaptive response of SD1 to the hostile host environment. Seven proteins, among them the type III secretion system effectors OspC2 and IpaB, were detected as antigens in Western blots using piglet antisera. The outer membrane protein OmpA, the heat shock protein HtpG and OspC2 represent novel SD1 subunit vaccine candidates and drug targets.

  4. Impact of dietary modification of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on the hormonal and metabolic profile of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantalaki, Evangelia; Piperi, Christina; Livadas, Sarantis; Kollias, Anastasios; Adamopoulos, Christos; Koulouri, Aikaterini; Christakou, Charikleia; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of dietary intervention on Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs) intake on the hormonal and metabolic profile in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). After baseline evaluation, 23 women with PCOS [mean ± SD, age: 23.4 ± 5.7 years; body mass index (BMI): 26 ± 5.7 kg/m2] underwent the following consecutive 2-month dietary regimens: a hypocaloric diet with ad-libitum AGEs content (Hypo), an isocaloric diet with high AGEs (HA) and an isocaloric diet with low AGEs (LA). Metabolic, hormonal and oxidative stress status was assessed and AGEs levels were determined in all subjects after the completion of each dietary intervention. Serum levels of AGEs, testosterone, oxidative stress, insulin and HOMA-IR index were significantly increased on the HA compared to the Hypo diet and subsequently decreased on the LA diet (compared to HA) (pPCOS. These novel findings support recommendations for a low AGEs dietary content along with lifestyle changes in women with PCOS.

  5. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Changes and Lipid Profile Modifications Induced by Medicago truncatula N5 Overexpression at an Early Stage of the Symbiotic Interaction with Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Santi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs are small basic secreted proteins, which are characterized by lipid-binding capacity and are putatively involved in lipid trafficking. LTPs play a role in several biological processes, including the root nodule symbiosis. In this regard, the Medicago truncatula nodulin 5 (MtN5 LTP has been proved to positively regulate the nodulation capacity, controlling rhizobial infection and nodule primordia invasion. To better define the lipid transfer protein MtN5 function during the symbiosis, we produced MtN5-downregulated and -overexpressing plants, and we analysed the transcriptomic changes occurring in the roots at an early stage of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection. We also carried out the lipid profile analysis of wild type (WT and MtN5-overexpressing roots after rhizobia infection. The downregulation of MtN5 increased the root hair curling, an early event of rhizobia infection, and concomitantly induced changes in the expression of defence-related genes. On the other hand, MtN5 overexpression favoured the invasion of the nodules by rhizobia and determined in the roots the modulation of genes that are involved in lipid transport and metabolism as well as an increased content of lipids, especially galactolipids that characterize the symbiosome membranes. Our findings suggest the potential participation of LTPs in the synthesis and rearrangement of membranes occurring during the formation of the infection threads and the symbiosome membrane.

  6. Comparative proteomics, network analysis and post-translational modification identification reveal differential profiles of plasma Con A-bound glycoprotein biomarkers in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uen, Yih-Huei; Lin, Kai-Yuan; Sun, Ding-Ping; Liao, Chen-Chung; Hsieh, Ming-Song; Huang, Yung-Kai; Chen, Yen-Wei; Huang, Pei-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Jung; Tai, Chih-Chun; Lee, Kuan-Wei; Chen, You-Chia; Lin, Ching-Yu

    2013-05-27

    In the study, we used Con A affinity chromatography, 1-D gel electrophoresis, and nano-LC-MS/MS to screen biomarker candidates in plasma samples obtained from 30 patients with gastric cancer and 30 healthy volunteers. First, we pooled plasma samples matched by age and sex. We identified 17 differentially expressed Con A-bound glycoproteins, including 10 upregulated proteins and 7 downregulated proteins; these differences were significant (Student's t-test, p-valueresponse signaling, the complement system, LXR/RXR activation, hematopoiesis from pluripotent stem cells, and primary immunodeficiency signaling. Our results suggest that Con A-bound LRG1 and ITIH3 may not be practically applicable as a robust biomarker for the early detection of gastric cancer. Additionally, three novel PTMs in ITIH3 were identified and include hexose-N-acetyl-hexosamine at asparagine-(41), trimethylation at aspartic acid-(290), and flavin adenine dinucleotide at histidine-(335). Our study was to describe a combinatorial approach of Con A affinity chromatography, 1-D SDS-PAGE, and nano-LC/MS/MS that provides a label-free, comparative glycoproteomic quantification strategy for the investigation of glycoprotein profiles in plasma from gastric cancer patients versus healthy volunteers and to identify glycoprotein biomarkers for the early clinical detection of gastric cancer. Three novel PTMs, HexHexNAc, trimethylation and FAD, in Con A-bound ITIH3 were identified and built in molecular modeling. The aspartic acid-(290) trimethylation site was located in a metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS motif; (290)-DXSXS…T…D-(313)) that may influence important function for binding protein ligands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quaternary subsurface cumulative lateral deformations detected by seismic reflection profiling and microgravity survey in the Tanna basin struck by the Mj=7.3 1930 Kita-Izu earthquake, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, H.; Aoyagi, Y.; Sumita, T.; Fujiwara, A.; Noda, K.; Koike, T.; Watanabe, S.; Okada, S.; Higashimaru, N.

    2016-12-01

    It is more difficult to detect subsurface lateral deformations caused by strike-slip faulting than vertical deformations caused by normal or reverse faulting. A 2D cross-section often can infer vertical deformations however a 3D structure is required for understanding lateral deformations. Therefore, we conducted seismic reflection profiling and microgravity survey to reveal the 3D structure. For this case study, we investigated the Tanna fault zone which was a source of the Mj=7.3 1930 Kita-Izu earthquake. The N-S trending Tanna fault zone located in the Izu Peninsula, northern tip of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, consists of many sinistral strands and some conjugate dextral ones. The main strand runs across the Tanna basin and the sinistral component of the slip rate is about 2 mm/yr. The 1930 earthquake ruptured many strands in the basin and deformed the Tanna railway tunnel beneath the basin. We acquired seismic data using the four seismic survey lines with respective lengths of about 500-700 m, which were composed of 433 channels in total. The microgravity survey was conducted at 241 gravity stations distributed as almost grid pattern in the basin. After data processing, we obtained six 2D seismic reflection profiles and a 3D model based on microgravity anomaly distribution. The subsurface deformations revealed by these surveys are described as follows. (1) The strike-slip fault zone beneath the Tanna basin consists of some branching fault planes. The subsurface locations of the main and one of the branching strands are concordant with the locations where the Tanna railway tunnel was deformed. (2) The Tanna sedimentary basin has been deformed sinistrally along the main strand and the displacement is about 400 m. Because the age of the basement rock is about 0.4 Ma, the lowest part of the basin-fill sediment is younger than that. Therefore, the sinistral component of the slip rate of the main strand beneath the basin is over 1 mm/yr as the minimum value.

  8. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? ... I get more information? What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a group of ...

  9. Lateral human-structure interaction on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, several high-profile footbridges have suffered from unexpected excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations. There is a commonly accepted view that the synchronisation of pedestrians to the lateral movement of a structure is necessary for the onset of a form of instability whi...

  10. Behavior Modification in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.

    1979-01-01

    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  11. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When symptoms begin, PLS may be mistaken for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spastic paraplegia. Most neurologists follow an ... When symptoms begin, PLS may be mistaken for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spastic paraplegia. Most neurologists follow an ...

  12. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress is ...

  13. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  14. Characterization of high-dose and high-energy implanted gate and source diode and analysis of lateral spreading of p gate profile in high voltage SiC static induction transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onose, Hidekatsu; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Onuki, Jin

    2017-03-01

    The effect of the p gate dose on the characteristics of the gate-source diode in SiC static induction transistors (SIT) was investigated. It was found that a dose of 1.5 × 1014 cm-2 yields a pn junction breakdown voltage higher than 60 V and good forward characteristics. A normally on SiC SIT was fabricated and demonstrated. A blocking voltage higher than 2.0 kV at a gate-source voltage of -50 V and on-resistance of 70 mΩ cm2 were obtained. Device simulations were performed to investigate the effect of the lateral spreading. By comparing the measured I-V curves with simulation results, the lateral spreading factor was estimated to be about 0.5. The lateral spreading detrimentally affected the electrical properties of the SIT made using implantations at energies higher than 1 MeV.

  15. Tyrosine Modifications in Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Feeney, Maria B.; Schöneich, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Significance: The understanding of physiological and pathological processes involving protein oxidation, particularly under conditions of aging and oxidative stress, can be aided by proteomic identification of proteins that accumulate oxidative post-translational modifications only if these detected modifications are connected to functional consequences. The modification of tyrosine (Tyr) residues can elicit significant changes in protein structure and function, which, in some cases, may cont...

  16. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Robert; Skandarajah, Arunan; Gerver, Rachel E; Neira, Hector D; Fletcher, Daniel A; Herr, Amy E

    2015-03-21

    Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to selectively immobilize unmodified capture antigen along the microchannel in a barcode-like pattern. The channel-filling polyacrylamide hydrogel incorporates a photoactive moiety (benzophenone) to immobilize capture antigen to the hydrogel without a priori antigen modification. We report a heterogeneous sandwich assay using low-power electrophoresis to drive biospecimen through the capture antigen barcode. Fluorescence barcode readout is collected via a low-resource appropriate imaging system (CellScope). We characterize lateral e-flow assay performance and demonstrate a serum assay for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In a pilot study, the lateral e-flow assay positively identifies HCV+ human sera in 60 min. The lateral e-flow assay provides a flexible format for conducting multiplexed immunoassays relevant to confirmatory diagnosis in near-patient settings.

  17. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... system, after some modifications are introduced into the sestem, is analysed using two different databases: the modal database and the frequency response function database. The limitaions of the modal database are discussed. Structural modifications that can be accounted for are lumped masses, springs, dampers and ...

  18. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  19. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Neuroscience Director, NIH BRAIN Initiative® Health Scientist Administrator Channels Synapses Circuits Cluster Scientific Director, Division of Intramural Research Featured Director's Message menu search Enter Search Term Submit Search Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ( ...

  20. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a validation study of a previously published method of sex determination from the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle method for the internal acoustic canal for accurately determining the sex of human skeletal remains using...... measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability....... The mean lateral angle of the internal acoustic canal was found to be larger in females (46.5°) than in males (43.4°). However, the difference was not statistically significant and the sex differences reported in previous studies were not substantiated. In light of the observed results, the lateral angle...

  1. Tyrosine modifications in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Maria B; Schöneich, Christian

    2012-12-01

    The understanding of physiological and pathological processes involving protein oxidation, particularly under conditions of aging and oxidative stress, can be aided by proteomic identification of proteins that accumulate oxidative post-translational modifications only if these detected modifications are connected to functional consequences. The modification of tyrosine (Tyr) residues can elicit significant changes in protein structure and function, which, in some cases, may contribute to biological aging and age-related pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and cataracts. Studies characterizing proteins in which Tyr has been modified to 3-nitrotyrosine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3,3'-dityrosine and other cross-links, or 3-chlorotyrosine are reviewed, with an emphasis on structural and functional consequences. Distinguishing between inconsequential modifications and functionally significant ones requires careful biochemical and biophysical analysis of target proteins, as well as innovative methods for isolating the effects of the multiple modifications that often occur under oxidizing conditions. The labor-intensive task of isolating and characterizing individual modified proteins must continue, especially given the expanding list of known modifications. Emerging approaches, such as genetic and metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids, hold promise for additional focused studies of this kind.

  2. Pathways of lateral spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, U; Schanzer, S; Weigmann, H-J; Patzelt, A; Vergou, T; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2011-01-01

    In the case of topically applied substances, usually both lateral spreading and competitive penetration into the skin occur in parallel. In the present study, the pathways of lateral spreading were studied quantitatively and visually. The local distribution and lateral spreading of the UV filter substance butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane applied in an o/w emulsion was studied on the forearm and the back. The tape stripping procedure was used to determine the recovery rates inside and outside the area of application. The skin characteristics of transepidermal water loss, pH value, hydration of the stratum corneum and sebum rate were determined at both anatomic sites. Photography and laser scanning microscopy were used to visually investigate the lateral spreading of topically applied dyes. On the back, a preferred direction of lateral spreading parallel to the body axis was observed. This result was caused by differences in the network of furrows. The furrows functioned as a pathway for lateral spreading, whereas the follicles formed a reservoir for the topically applied substance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. In-Situ Extended Lateral Range Surface Metrology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an extended lateral range capability for a dynamic optical profiling system to enable non-contact, surface roughness measurement of large and...

  4. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  5. Laterality in living beings, hand dominance, and cerebral lateralization

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Sanja; Paunović Katarina; Kocijančić Dušica

    2016-01-01

    To date, lateralization in living beings is a phenomenon almost mythologically unexplored. Scientists have proved that lateralization is not exclusively a human feature. Investigations in molecular biology, protein structure, mobility of bacteria, and intracellular lateralization in ciliates, shows important and universal nature of lateralization in living systems. Dominant lateralization implies the appearance of a dominant extremity, or a dominant sense d...

  6. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) equipment; application for approval of modification; approval of plans for modification before modification... Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines...) equipment; application for approval of modification; approval of plans for modification before modification...

  7. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  8. GaAs MESFET with lateral non-uniform doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. C.; Bahrami, M.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model of the GaAs MESFET with arbitrary non-uniform doping is presented. Numerical results for linear lateral doping profile are given as a special case. Theoretical considerations predict that better device linearity and improved F(T) can be obtained by using linear lateral doping when doping density increases from source to drain.

  9. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...

  10. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  11. "Ictal" lateralized periodic discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen-Gupta, Indranil; Schuele, Stephan U; Macken, Micheal P; Kwasny, Mary J; Gerard, Elizabeth E

    2014-07-01

    Whether lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) represent ictal or interictal phenomena, and even the circumstances in which they may represent one or the other, remains highly controversial. Lateralized periodic discharges are, however, widely accepted as being ictal when they are time-locked to clinically apparent symptoms. We sought to investigate the characteristics of "ictal" lateralized periodic discharges (ILPDs) defined by time-locked clinical symptoms in order to explore the utility of using this definition to dichotomize LPDs into "ictal" and "nonictal" categories. Our archive of all continuous EEG (cEEG) reports of adult inpatients undergoing prolonged EEG monitoring for nonelective indications between 2007 and 2011 was searched to identify all reports describing LPDs. Lateralized periodic discharges were considered ILPDs when they were reported as being consistently time-locked to clinical symptoms; LPDs lacking a clear time-locked correlate were considered to be "nonictal" lateralized periodic discharges (NILPDs). Patient charts and available neuroimaging studies were also reviewed. Neurophysiologic localization of LPDs, imaging findings, presence of seizures, discharge outcomes, and other demographic factors were compared between patients with ILPDs and those with NILPDs. p-Values were adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR). One thousand four hundred fifty-two patients underwent cEEG monitoring at our institution between 2007 and 2011. Lateralized periodic discharges were reported in 90 patients, 10 of whom met criteria for ILPDs. Nine of the patients with ILPDs demonstrated motor symptoms, and the remaining patient experienced stereotyped sensory symptoms. Ictal lateralized periodic discharges had significantly increased odds for involving central head regions (odds ratio [OR]=11; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.16-62.6; p=0.018, FDR adjusted), with a trend towards higher proportion of lesions involving the primary sensorimotor cortex (p=0.09, FDR

  12. Magnetic field influences on the lateral dose response functions of photon-beam detectors: MC study of wall-less water-filled detectors with various densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looe, Hui Khee; Delfs, Björn; Poppinga, Daniela; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn

    2017-06-21

    The distortion of detector reading profiles across photon beams in the presence of magnetic fields is a developing subject of clinical photon-beam dosimetry. The underlying modification by the Lorentz force of a detector's lateral dose response function-the convolution kernel transforming the true cross-beam dose profile in water into the detector reading profile-is here studied for the first time. The three basic convolution kernels, the photon fluence response function, the dose deposition kernel, and the lateral dose response function, of wall-less cylindrical detectors filled with water of low, normal and enhanced density are shown by Monte Carlo simulation to be distorted in the prevailing direction of the Lorentz force. The asymmetric shape changes of these convolution kernels in a water medium and in magnetic fields of up to 1.5 T are confined to the lower millimetre range, and they depend on the photon beam quality, the magnetic flux density and the detector's density. The impact of this distortion on detector reading profiles is demonstrated using a narrow photon beam profile. For clinical applications it appears as favourable that the magnetic flux density dependent distortion of the lateral dose response function, as far as secondary electron transport is concerned, vanishes in the case of water-equivalent detectors of normal water density. By means of secondary electron history backtracing, the spatial distribution of the photon interactions giving rise either directly to secondary electrons or to scattered photons further downstream producing secondary electrons which contribute to the detector's signal, and their lateral shift due to the Lorentz force is elucidated. Electron history backtracing also serves to illustrate the correct treatment of the influences of the Lorentz force in the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code applied in this study.

  13. Toy Modification Note. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.; And Others

    Described are toy modifications which enable handicapped individuals to operate battery-powered toys. A battery interrupter is explained as a device which fits between the batteries in a toy and provides the ability to have a separate on-off switch which can be custom designed to fit a handicapped user's needs. Construction and use of three types…

  14. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no

  15. Lateral flow assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M; Gallotta, Andrea

    2016-06-30

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Lateral flow assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  17. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... of the obtained products and were correlated to properties of the starch substrates. It was found that the obtained products differed depending on both the conditions used and the properties of the starch. Products of starch from certain origins completely lost their granular structure during the enzyme treatment...

  18. SWP1 negatively regulates lateral root initiation and elongation in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sharmila; Singh, Archita; Roy, Shradha; Sarkar, Ananda K.

    2012-01-01

    The main root and continuously emerging lateral roots constitute the root architecture of an adult plant during its postembryonic development. Epigenetic modifications like methylation or deacetylation of histones have been suggested to regulate root development. SWP1/LDL1, a component of plant specific corepressor complex, has been implicated in the induction of flowers and root through histone modifications in Arabidopsis. However, molecular role of SWP1 in regulating the lateral root devel...

  19. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  20. End Group Modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Rasmus O; Sandberg-Schaal, Anne; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    modification with hydrophobic moieties led to increased activity towards the Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii. Despite increased cytotoxicity against murine fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the optimized peptide analogues exhibited significantly improved cell selectivity. Overall......, the most favorable hydrophobic activity-inducing moieties were found to be cyclohexylacetyl and pentafluorophenylacetyl groups, while the presence of a short PEG-like chain had no significant effect on activity. Introduction of cationic moieties conferred no effect or merely a moderate activity...

  1. Principles of ubiquitin and SUMO modifications in DNA repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergink, Steven; Jentsch, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    With the discovery in the late 1980s that the DNA-repair gene RAD6 encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, it became clear that protein modification by ubiquitin conjugation has a much broader significance than had previously been assumed. Now, two decades later, ubiquitin and its cousin SUMO are

  2. Behavior Modification in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Mryon; Whitman, Joan

    1971-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical rationale for behavior modification, principally through its comparison with traditional psychotherapies, and suggests some behavior modification techniques for the classroom management of maladaptive behavior. (Author)

  3. Lateral cervical meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V.; Newton, G.

    1992-01-01

    Lateral cervical meningocele is an extremely rare developmental anomaly. We could find only one such case protruding from an enlarged C2-3 intervertebral foramen. It may be confused with an extradural cyst or cystic hygroma. Direct needling may introduce infection and thereby pyogenic meningitis and so should be avoided. Similarly, incision and drainage may transform it into cerebrospinal fluid fistula. A computed tomography scan is the most fruitful form of investigation for confirmation and localization of the disease. A lumboperitoneal shunt or water tight closure of the dural sac at the neck is the recommended procedure of choice. PMID:1524732

  4. Magnetic field influences on the lateral dose response functions of photon-beam detectors: MC study of wall-less water-filled detectors with various densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khee Looe, Hui; Delfs, Björn; Poppinga, Daniela; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn

    2017-06-01

    The distortion of detector reading profiles across photon beams in the presence of magnetic fields is a developing subject of clinical photon-beam dosimetry. The underlying modification by the Lorentz force of a detector’s lateral dose response function—the convolution kernel transforming the true cross-beam dose profile in water into the detector reading profile—is here studied for the first time. The three basic convolution kernels, the photon fluence response function, the dose deposition kernel, and the lateral dose response function, of wall-less cylindrical detectors filled with water of low, normal and enhanced density are shown by Monte Carlo simulation to be distorted in the prevailing direction of the Lorentz force. The asymmetric shape changes of these convolution kernels in a water medium and in magnetic fields of up to 1.5 T are confined to the lower millimetre range, and they depend on the photon beam quality, the magnetic flux density and the detector’s density. The impact of this distortion on detector reading profiles is demonstrated using a narrow photon beam profile. For clinical applications it appears as favourable that the magnetic flux density dependent distortion of the lateral dose response function, as far as secondary electron transport is concerned, vanishes in the case of water-equivalent detectors of normal water density. By means of secondary electron history backtracing, the spatial distribution of the photon interactions giving rise either directly to secondary electrons or to scattered photons further downstream producing secondary electrons which contribute to the detector’s signal, and their lateral shift due to the Lorentz force is elucidated. Electron history backtracing also serves to illustrate the correct treatment of the influences of the Lorentz force in the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code applied in this study.

  5. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  6. Genetic modification and genetic determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-06-26

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  7. Statistical Mechanics Model for the Dynamics of Collective Epigenetic Histone Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Tian, Xiao-Jun; Mukhopadhyay, Abhishek; Kim, K. S.; Xing, Jianhua

    2014-02-01

    Epigenetic histone modifications play an important role in the maintenance of different cell phenotypes. The exact molecular mechanism for inheritance of the modification patterns over cell generations remains elusive. We construct a Potts-type model based on experimentally observed nearest-neighbor enzyme lateral interactions and nucleosome covalent modification state biased enzyme recruitment. The model can lead to effective nonlocal interactions among nucleosomes suggested in previous theoretical studies, and epigenetic memory is robustly inheritable against stochastic cellular processes.

  8. Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Kathryn H

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are a staple in the field of rapid diagnostics. These small handheld devices require no specialized training or equipment to operate, and generate a result within minutes of sample application. They are an ideal format for many types of home test kits, for emergency responders and for food manufacturers and producers looking for a quick evaluation of a given sample. LFIAs rely on high quality monoclonal antibodies that recognize the analyte of interest. As monoclonal antibody technology becomes more accessible to smaller laboratories, there has been increased interest in developing LFIA prototypes for potential commercial manufacture. In this chapter, the basics of designing and building an LFIA prototype are described.

  9. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin K [Albuquerque, NM; Carroll, Malcolm S [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  10. Aspirin, 110 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrono, C; Rocca, B

    2009-07-01

    Although conceived at the end of the 19th century as a synthetic analgesic agent with improved gastric tolerability vs. naturally occurring salicylates, acetylsalicylic acid (marketed as aspirin in 1899) turned out to be an ideal antiplatelet agent about 90 years later, following the understanding of its mechanism of action, the development of a mechanism-based biomarker for dose-finding studies, and the initiation of a series of appropriately sized, randomized clinical trials to test its efficacy and safety at low doses given once daily. At the turn of its 110th anniversary, aspirin continues to attract heated debates on a number of issues including (i) the optimal dose to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity; (ii) the possibility that some patients may be 'resistant' to its antiplatelet effects; and (iii) the balance of benefits and risks in primary vs. secondary prevention.

  11. Posttranslational Modification of Sodium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zifan; Pan, Yanling; Cummins, Theodore R

    2017-10-26

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are critical determinants of excitability. The properties of VGSCs are thought to be tightly controlled. However, VGSCs are also subjected to extensive modifications. Multiple posttranslational modifications that covalently modify VGSCs in neurons and muscle have been identified. These include, but are not limited to, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, palmitoylation, nitrosylation, glycosylation, and SUMOylation. Posttranslational modifications of VGSCs can have profound impact on cellular excitability, contributing to normal and abnormal physiology. Despite four decades of research, the complexity of VGSC modulation is still being determined. While some modifications have similar effects on the various VGSC isoforms, others have isoform-specific interactions. In addition, while much has been learned about how individual modifications can impact VGSC function, there is still more to be learned about how different modifications can interact. Here we review what is known about VGSC posttranslational modifications with a focus on the breadth and complexity of the regulatory mechanisms that impact VGSC properties.

  12. Creativity in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Research on the Design and Modification of Asymmetric Spur Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohe Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A design method for the geometric shape and modification of asymmetric spur gear was proposed, in which the geometric shape and modification of the gear can be obtained directly according to the rack-cutter profile. In the geometric design process of the gear, a rack-cutter with different pressure angles and fillet radius in the driving side and coast side was selected, and the generated asymmetric spur gear profiles also had different pressure angles and fillets accordingly. In the modification design of the gear, the pressure angle modification of rack-cutter was conducted firstly and then the corresponding modified involute gear profile was obtained. The geometric model of spur gears was developed using computer-aided design, and the meshing process was analyzed using finite element simulation method. Furthermore, the transmission error and load sharing ratio of unmodified and modified asymmetric spur gears were investigated. Research results showed that the proposed gear design method was feasible and desired spur gear can be obtained through one time rapid machining by the method. Asymmetric spur gear with better transmission characteristic can be obtained via involute modification.

  14. Intragenic modification of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeraya, Erika V; Sánchez-de-Jiménez, Estela

    2016-11-20

    The discovery of plant DNA recombination techniques triggered the development of a wide range of genetically modified crops. The transgenics were the first generation of modified plants; however, these crops were quickly questioned due to the artificial combination of DNA between different species. As a result, the second generation of modified plants known as cisgenic and/or intragenic crops arose as an alternative to genetic plant engineering. Cisgenic and/or intragenic crops development establishes the combination of DNA from the plant itself or related species avoiding the introduction of foreign genetic material, such as selection markers and/or reporter genes. Nowadays it has been made successful cisgenic and/or intragenic modifications in crops such as potato and apple. The present study shows the possibility of reaching similar approach in corn plants. This research was focused on achieve intragenic overexpression of the maize Rubisco activase (Rca) protein. The results were compared with changes in the expression of the same protein, in maize plants grown after 23 cycles of conventional selection and open field planting. Experimental evidence shows that maize intragenic modification is possible for increasing specific gene expression, preserving plant genome free of foreign DNA and achieving further significant savings in time and man labor for crop improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Lateral Rail Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    This report deals with the analysis of lateral rail strength using the results of experimental investigations and a nonlinear rail response model. Part of the analysis involves the parametric study of the influence of track parameters on lateral rail...

  16. Metabolite modifications in Solanum lycopersicum roots and leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) were investigated on growth and metabolite profiling in roots and leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Var. Ibiza F1) plants exposed for 3 and 10 days to various CdCl2 concentrations (0 - 300 ìM). The aim of this study was to describe metabolite modifications in response to Cd stress and ...

  17. Genetic modification in floriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Stephen F; Brugliera, Filippa

    2011-02-01

    Micro-propagation, embryo rescue, mutagenesis via chemical or irradiation means and in vitro inter-specific hybridisation methods have been used by breeders in the floriculture industry for many years. In the past 20 years these enabling technologies have been supplemented by genetic modification methods. Though many genes of potential utility to the floricultural industry have been identified, and much has been learnt of the genetic factors and molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypes of great importance to the industry, there are only flower colour modified varieties of carnation and rose in the marketplace. To a large extent this is due to unique financial barriers to market entry for genetically modified varieties of flower crops, including use of technology fees and costs of regulatory approval.

  18. Plasma modification of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-10-01

    Plasma is a medium of unbound negative and positive particles with the overall electrical charge being roughly zero. Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging green technology with great potential to improve the quality and microbial safety of various food materials. Starch is a major component of many food products and is an important ingredient for food and other industries. There has been increasing interest in utilizing plasma to modify the functionalities of starch through interactions with reactive species. This mini-review summarises the impact of plasma on composition, chemical and granular structures, physicochemical properties, and uses of starch. Structure-function relationships of starch components as affected by plasma modifications are discussed. Effect of plasma on the properties of wheat flour, which is a typical example of starch based complex food systems, is also reviewed. Future research directions on how to better utilise plasma to improve the functionalities of starch are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modification with SUMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Alexis; Perdomo, José; Crossley, Merlin

    2003-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a protein moiety that is ligated to lysine residues in a variety of target proteins. The addition of SUMO can modulate the ability of proteins to interact with their partners, alter their patterns of subcellular localization and control their stability. It is clear that SUMO influences many different biological processes, but recent data suggest that it is particularly important in the regulation of transcription. Indeed, several transcription factors, such as Sp3, c-Jun, c-Myb and various nuclear receptors, have recently been shown to be subject to sumoylation and, although this modification can have a positive influence, a growing body of evidence highlights its role in the negative regulation of transcription. This review summarizes recent experiments focusing on sumoylation and transcriptional repression. PMID:12612601

  20. On active current selection for Lagrangian profilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Zhou, Qiuyang; Zielinski, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    simple and computationally-efficient control strategies to actively select and use ocean currents so that a profiler can autonomously reach a desired destination. After briefly presenting a typical profiler and possible mechanical modifications for a coastal environment, we introduce simple mathematical...

  1. Dual Coordination of Post Translational Modifications in Human Protein Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodsmith, Jonathan; Kamburov, Atanas; Stelzl, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein activity, stability and interaction profiles and are critical for cellular functioning. Further regulation is gained through PTM interplay whereby modifications modulate the occurrence of other PTMs or act in combination. Integration of global acetylation, ubiquitination and tyrosine or serine/threonine phosphorylation datasets with protein interaction data identified hundreds of protein complexes that selectively accumulate each PTM, indicating coordinated targeting of specific molecular functions. A second layer of PTM coordination exists in these complexes, mediated by PTM integration (PTMi) spots. PTMi spots represent very dense modification patterns in disordered protein regions and showed an equally high mutation rate as functional protein domains in cancer, inferring equivocal importance for cellular functioning. Systematic PTMi spot identification highlighted more than 300 candidate proteins for combinatorial PTM regulation. This study reveals two global PTM coordination mechanisms and emphasizes dataset integration as requisite in proteomic PTM studies to better predict modification impact on cellular signaling. PMID:23505349

  2. Role of epigenetic modifications in luminal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafiz, Hany A; Horwitz, Kathryn B

    2015-08-01

    Luminal breast cancers represent approximately 75% of cases. Explanations into the causes of endocrine resistance are complex and are generally ascribed to genomic mechanisms. Recently, attention has been drawn to the role of epigenetic modifications in hormone resistance. We review these here. Epigenetic modifications are reversible, heritable and include changes in DNA methylation patterns, modification of histones and altered microRNA expression levels that target the receptors or their signaling pathways. Large-scale analyses indicate distinct epigenomic profiles that distinguish breast cancers from normal and benign tissues. Taking advantage of the reversibility of epigenetic modifications, drugs that target epigenetic modifiers, given in combination with chemotherapies or endocrine therapies, may represent promising approaches to restoration of therapy responsiveness in these cases.

  3. Role of epigenetic modifications in luminal breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafiz, Hany A; Horwitz, Kathryn B

    2015-01-01

    Luminal breast cancers represent approximately 75% of cases. Explanations into the causes of endocrine resistance are complex and are generally ascribed to genomic mechanisms. Recently, attention has been drawn to the role of epigenetic modifications in hormone resistance. We review these here. Epigenetic modifications are reversible, heritable and include changes in DNA methylation patterns, modification of histones and altered microRNA expression levels that target the receptors or their signaling pathways. Large-scale analyses indicate distinct epigenomic profiles that distinguish breast cancers from normal and benign tissues. Taking advantage of the reversibility of epigenetic modifications, drugs that target epigenetic modifiers, given in combination with chemotherapies or endocrine therapies, may represent promising approaches to restoration of therapy responsiveness in these cases. PMID:25689414

  4. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2009-08-28

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  5. SnapShot: histone modifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, He; Sabari, Benjamin R; Garcia, Benjamin A; Allis, C David; Zhao, Yingming

    2014-01-01

    Histone proteins are decorated by a variety of protein posttranslational modifications called histone marks that modulate chromatin structure and function, contributing to the cellular gene expression program...

  6. 76 FR 37835 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... normal speed approach profile currently limits the hoist to 200 feet per minute on approach to the work... speeds for hoisting persons in buckets). Modification Request: The petitioner requests a modification of... Nordberg hoist, capable of speeds up to 2,300 feet per minute. For mucking operations, traditional shaft...

  7. Laterality in living beings, hand dominance, and cerebral lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, lateralization in living beings is a phenomenon almost mythologically unexplored. Scientists have proved that lateralization is not exclusively a human feature. Investigations in molecular biology, protein structure, mobility of bacteria, and intracellular lateralization in ciliates, shows important and universal nature of lateralization in living systems. Dominant lateralization implies the appearance of a dominant extremity, or a dominant sense during the performance of complex psychomotor activities. Hand dominance is usually defined as a tendency to use one hand rather than another to perform most activities and this is considered to be the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and exclusive characteristic of humans. However, there are some exceptions in other species. The dominant hand is able to perform more complex and subtle manual tasks than the non-dominant hand, and this behavioral superiority is the absolute result of additional cerebral support. The asymmetry of brain organization was confirmed in rats, chimpanzees, dogs and birds, some fishes and lizards. The relationships between hand dominance with brain structure and function remain far from clear. For a long time, lateralization was considered unique to humans, but recently it has become clear that lateralization is a fundamental characteristic of the organization of brain and behavior in all vertebrates. It has been questioned to what extent lateralization in humans and other vertebrates may be comparable. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41020 i br. 175078

  8. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.

  9. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  10. Early Lung Cancer Detection via Global Protein Modification Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    human papillomavirus . Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 127: 978-83. 2. Jin B, Robertson KD., (2013). DNA methyltransferases, DNA damage repair, and cancer., Adv...shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number...modalities in individual patients. Our methodology overcomes several limitations of current technologies by targeting ubiquitous proteins that control

  11. Enzymatic Modification of Corn Starch Influences Human Fecal Fermentation Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Angela; Rose, Devin J; Rosell, Cristina M

    2017-06-14

    Enzymatically modified starches have been widely used in food applications to develop new products, but information regarding digestion and fecal fermentation of these products is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine the fermentation properties of corn starch modified with α-amylase, amyloglucosidase, or cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and the possible role of hydrolysis products. Samples differed in their digestibility and availability to be fermented by the microbiota, resulting in differences in microbial metabolites produced during in vitro fermentation. The presence or absence of hydrolysis products and gelatinization affected starch composition and subsequent metabolite production by the microbiota. Amyloglucosidase-treated starch led to the greatest production of short- and branched-chain fatty acid production by the microbiota. Results from this study could be taken into consideration to confirm the possible nutritional claims and potential health benefits of these starches as raw ingredients for food development.

  12. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  13. Data Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hladíková, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  14. BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION--A BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARNARD, JAMES W.; ORLANDO, ROBERT

    INTENDED FOR PERSONS HAVING DIRECT RESPONSIBILITY FOR BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT IN EDUCATIONAL AND CLINICAL SETTINGS, THE BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS 866 ENTRIES ON BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION. EACH ITEM LISTED DESCRIBES OR ILLUSTRATES SPECIFIC METHODS OF BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION AND IS CONCEIVED WITHIN SOME LEARNING FRAMEWORK THEORY. ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY BY AUTHOR,…

  15. Modification of Particle Distributions by MHD Instabilities II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscoe B. White

    2011-03-02

    The modification of particle distributions by low amplitude magnetohydrodynamic modes is an important topic for magnetically confined plasmas. Low amplitude modes are known to be capable of producing significant modification of injected neutral beam profiles, and the same can be expected in burning plasmas for the alpha particle distributions. Flattening of a distribution in an island due to phase mixing and portions of phase space becoming stochastic lead to modification of the particle distribution, a process extremely rapid in the time scale of an experiment but still very long compared to the time scale of guiding center simulations. Large amplitude modes can cause profile avalanche and particle loss. Thus it is very valuable to be able to predict the temporal evolution of a particle distribution produced by a given spectrum of magnetohydrodynamic modes. In this paper we further develop and investigate the use of a new method of determining domains of phase space in which good KAM surfaces do not exist and use this method to examine a well documented case of profile modification by instabilities.

  16. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  17. DNA Methylation Profiles of Selected Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolia, Vincenzina; Cavallaro, Rosaria A; López-González, Irene; Maccarrone, Mauro; Scarpa, Sigfrido; Ferrer, Isidre; Fuso, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    By means of functional genomics analysis, we recently described the mRNA expression profiles of various genes involved in the neuroinflammatory response in the brains of subjects with late-onset Alzheimer Disease (LOAD). Some of these genes, namely interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, showed distinct expression profiles with peak expression during the first stages of the disease and control-like levels at later stages. IL-1β and IL-6 genes are modulated by DNA methylation in different chronic and degenerative diseases; it is also well known that LOAD may have an epigenetic basis. Indeed, we and others have previously reported gene-specific DNA methylation alterations in LOAD and in related animal models. Based on these data, we studied the DNA methylation profiles, at single cytosine resolution, of IL-1β and IL-6 5'-flanking region by bisulphite modification in the cortex of healthy controls and LOAD patients at 2 different disease stages: Braak I-II/A and Braak V-VI/C. Our analysis provides evidence that neuroinflammation in LOAD is associated with (and possibly mediated by) epigenetic modifications. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. LATERAL DOWNFLOWS IN SUNSPOT PENUMBRAL FILAMENTS AND THEIR TEMPORAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban Pozuelo, S.; Rubio, L. R. Bellot [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apdo. 3004, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Rodríguez, J. de la Cruz, E-mail: sesteban@iaa.es [Institute for Solar Physics, Dept. of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-04-20

    We study the temporal evolution of downflows observed at the lateral edges of penumbral filaments in a sunspot located very close to the disk center. Our analysis is based on a sequence of nearly diffraction-limited scans of the Fe i 617.3 nm line taken with the CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter instrument at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. We compute Dopplergrams from the observed intensity profiles using line bisectors and filter the resulting velocity maps for subsonic oscillations. Lateral downflows appear everywhere in the center-side penumbra as small, weak patches of redshifts next to or along the edges of blueshifted flow channels. These patches have an intermittent life and undergo mergings and fragmentations quite frequently. The lateral downflows move together with the hosting filaments and react to their shape variations, very much resembling the evolution of granular convection in the quiet Sun. There is a good relation between brightness and velocity in the center-side penumbra, with downflows being darker than upflows on average, which is again reminiscent of quiet Sun convection. These results point to the existence of overturning convection in sunspot penumbrae, with elongated cells forming filaments where the flow is upward but very inclined, and weak lateral downward flows. In general, the circular polarization profiles emerging from the lateral downflows do not show sign reversals, although sometimes we detect three-lobed profiles that are suggestive of opposite magnetic polarities in the pixel.

  19. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail: hendrik.jansen@desy.de

    2016-09-21

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  20. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  1. On Active Current Selection for Lagrangian Profilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jouffroy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Lagrangian profilers are now widely used as measurement and monitoring platforms, notably in observation programs as Argo. In a typical mode of operation, the profilers drift passively at their parking depthbefore making a vertical profile to go back to the surface. This paperpresents simple and computationally-efficient control strategies to activelyselect and use ocean currents so that a profiler can autonomously reach adesired destination. After briefly presenting a typical profiler andpossible mechanical modifications for a coastal environment, we introducesimple mathematical models for the profiler and the currents it will use. Wethen present simple feedback controllers that, using the direction of thecurrents and taking into account the configuration of the environment(coastal or deep-sea, is able to steer the profiler to any desiredhorizontal location. To illustrate the approach, a few results are presentedusing both simulated currents and real current velocity profiles from theNorth Sea.

  2. Lateral Transorbital Neuroendoscopic Approach to the Lateral Cavernous Sinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bly, Randall A.; Ramakrishna, Rohan; Ferreira, Manuel; Moe, Kris S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To design and assess the quality of a novel lateral retrocanthal endoscopic approach to the lateral cavernous sinus. Design Computer modeling software was used to optimize the geometry of the surgical pathway, which was confirmed on cadaver specimens. We calculated trajectories and surgically accessible areas to the middle fossa while applying a constraint on the amount of soft tissue retraction. Setting Virtual computer model to simulate the surgical approach and cadaver laboratory. Participants The authors. Main Outcome Measures Adequate surgical access to the lateral cavernous sinus and adjacent regions as determined by operations on the cadaver specimens. Additionally, geometric limitations were imposed as determined by the model so that retraction on soft tissue structures was maintained at a clinically safe distance. Results Our calculations revealed adequate access to the lateral cavernous sinus, Meckel cave, orbital apex, and middle fossa floor. Cadaveric testing revealed sufficient access to these areas using cavernous sinus. PMID:24498584

  3. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p motor and speech laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:28408982

  5. Cell Signalling Through Covalent Modification and Allostery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Louise N.

    Phosphorylation plays essential roles in nearly every aspect of cell life. Protein kinases catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphate of ATP to a serine, threonine or tyrosine residue in protein substrates. This covalent modification allows activation or inhibition of enzyme activity, creates recognition sites for other proteins and promotes order/disorder or disorder/order transitions. These properties regulate ­signalling pathways and cellular processes that mediate metabolism, transcription, cell cycle progression, differentiation, cytoskeleton arrangement and cell movement, apoptosis, intercellular communication, and neuronal and immunological functions. In this lecture I shall review the structural consequences of protein phosphorylation using our work on glycogen phosphorylase and the cell cycle cyclin dependent protein kinases as illustrations. Regulation of protein phosphorylation may be disrupted in the diseased state and protein kinases have become high profile targets for drug development. To date there are 11 compounds that have been approved for clinical use in the treatment of cancer.

  6. Torn lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LCL), is an injury to the lateral collateral ligament, a ligament extending from the top-outside surface of the ... the bottom-outside surface of the femur. The ligament prevents the knee joint from side-to-side ( ...

  7. [Brain lateralization and seizure semiology: ictal clinical lateralizing signs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Réka; Kalmár, Zsuzsanna; Fehér, Nóra; Fogarasi, András; Gyimesi, Csilla; Janszky, József

    2008-07-30

    Clinical lateralizing signs are the phenomena which can unequivocally refer to the hemispheric onset of epileptic seizures. They can improve the localization of epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation, moreover, their presence can predict a success of surgical treatment. Primary sensory phenomena such as visual aura in one half of the field of vision or unilateral ictal somatosensory sensation always appear on the contralateral to the focus. Periictal unilateral headache, although it is an infrequent symptom, is usually an ipsilateral sign. Primary motor phenomena like epileptic clonic, tonic movements, the version of head ubiquitously appear contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Very useful lateralization sign is the ictal hand-dystonia which lateralizes to the contralateral hemisphere in nearly 100%. The last clonus of the secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure lateralizes to the ipsilateral hemisphere in 85%. The fast component of ictal nystagmus appears in nearly 100% on the contralateral side of the epileptic focus. Vegetative symptoms during seizures arising from temporal lobe such as spitting, nausea, vomiting, urinary urge are typical for seizures originating from non-dominant (right) hemisphere. Ictal pallor and cold shivers are dominant hemispheric lateralization signs. Postictal unilateral nose wiping refers to the ipsilateral hemispheric focus compared to the wiping hand. Ictal or postictal aphasia refers to seizure arising from dominant hemisphere. Intelligable speech during complex partial seizures appears in non-dominant seizures. Automatism with preserved consciousness refers to the seizures of non-dominant temporal lobe.

  8. Canonical sound speed profile for the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Sastry, J.S.; De Figueiredo, R.J.P.

    dependency of the acoustic field can be introduced with suitable modification. In the region where the channel axis is nearly symmetrical about the upper and lower bound, the canonical profile almost reproduces the computed one. The result of the exponential...

  9. Epigenetic Modifications and Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu A. Kowluru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy remains one of the most debilitating chronic complications, but despite extensive research in the field, the exact mechanism(s responsible for how retina is damaged in diabetes remains ambiguous. Many metabolic pathways have been implicated in its development, and genes associated with these pathways are altered. Diabetic environment also facilitates epigenetics modifications, which can alter the gene expression without permanent changes in DNA sequence. The role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy is now an emerging area, and recent work has shown that genes encoding mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 are epigenetically modified, activates of epigenetic modification enzymes, histone lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1, and DNA methyltransferase are increased, and the micro RNAs responsible for regulating nuclear transcriptional factor and VEGF are upregulated. With the growing evidence of epigenetic modifications in diabetic retinopathy, better understanding of these modifications has potential to identify novel targets to inhibit this devastating disease. Fortunately, the inhibitors and mimics targeted towards histone modification, DNA methylation, and miRNAs are now being tried for cancer and other chronic diseases, and better understanding of the role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy will open the door for their possible use in combating this blinding disease.

  10. Optineurin and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi

    2013-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating disease, and thus it is important to identify the causative gene and resolve the mechanism of the disease. We identified optineurin as a causative gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We found three types of mutations: a homozygous deletion of exon 5, a homozygous Q398X nonsense mutation and a heterozygous E478G missense mutation within its ubiquitin-binding domain. Optineurin negatively regulates the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Nonsense and missense mutations abolished this function. Mutations related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also negated the inhibition of interferon regulatory factor-3. The missense mutation showed a cyotoplasmic distribution different from that of the wild type. There are no specific clinical symptoms related to optineurin. However, severe brain atrophy was detected in patients with homozygous deletion. Neuropathologically, an E478G patient showed transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa-positive neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions in the spinal and medullary motor neurons. Furthermore, Golgi fragmentation was identified in 73% of this patient's anterior horn cells. In addition, optineurin is colocalized with fused in sarcoma in the basophilic inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with fused in sarcoma mutations, and in basophilic inclusion body disease. These findings strongly suggest that optineurin is involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Lateral extracavitary, costotransversectomy, and transthoracic thoracotomy approaches to the thoracic spine: review of techniques and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubelski, Daniel; Abdullah, Kalil G; Steinmetz, Michael P; Masters, Frank; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E; Shin, John H

    2013-06-01

    Systematic review. The authors review complications, as reported in the literature, associated with ventral and posterolateral approaches to the thoracic spine. The lateral extracavitary, costotransversectomy, and transthoracic thoracotomy techniques allow surgeons to access the ventral thoracic spine for a wide range of spinal disorders including tumor, degeneration, trauma, and infection. Although the transthoracic thoracotomy has been used traditionally to reach the ventral thoracic spine when access to the vertebral body is required, modifications to the various dorsal approaches have enabled surgeons to achieve goals of decompression, reconstruction, and stabilization through a single approach. A systematic Medline search from 1991 to 2011 was performed to identify series reporting clinical data related to these surgical approaches. The morbidity associated with each approach is reviewed and strategies for complications avoidance are discussed. Four thousand six hundred seventy-seven articles that assessed outcomes of the approaches to the thoracic spine were identified; of these 31 studies that consisted of 774 patients were selected for inclusion. A mean complication rate of 39%, 17%, and 15% for thoracotomy, lateral extracavitary, and costotransversectomy, respectively, was determined. The thoracotomy approach had the highest reoperation (3.5%) and mortality rates (1.5%). The specific complications and neurological outcomes were categorized. Outcomes of the surgical approaches to the thoracic spine have been reported with great detail in the literature. There are limited studies comparing the respective advantages and disadvantages and the differences in technique and outcome between these approaches. The present review suggests that in contrast to the historical experience of the laminectomy for thoracic spine disorders, these alternative approaches are safe and rarely associated with neurological deterioration. The differences between these approaches are

  12. Drug Addiction and DNA Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amber N; Feng, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex disorder which can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Research has shown that epigenetic modifications can translate environmental signals into changes in gene expression, suggesting that epigenetic changes may underlie the causes and possibly treatment of substance use disorders. This chapter will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA, which include DNA methylation and several recently defined additional DNA epigenetic changes. We will discuss the functions of DNA modifications and methods for detecting them, followed by a description of the research investigating the function and consequences of drug-induced changes in DNA methylation patterns. Understanding these epigenetic changes may provide us translational tools for the diagnosis and treatment of addiction in the future.

  13. Biophysical Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pregnancy High-risk pregnancy Biophysical profile About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  14. The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-Ain Nadir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model” is designed to instruct Emergency Medicine residents PGY 1-4, as well as Emergency Medicine-bound students. Introduction: Although uncommon, retrobulbar hemorrhage associated with facial trauma is a potential cause of permanent vision loss due to orbital compartment syndrome. To prevent vision loss, treatment with lateral canthotomy is time-sensitive and to perform this procedure in an emergent setting requires properly trained practitioners. Objectives: The purpose of the model is to teach residents and students how to perform lateral canthotomy and to achieve competency in their skills. Method: Lateral canthotomy is an important skill to be proficient in for any Emergency Medicine Physician, as it is an uncommon, sight-saving procedure. It is indicated in scenarios of facial trauma that cause a retrobulbar hemorrhage. Patients are at risk for permanent vision loss due to acute orbital compartment syndrome if the procedure is not done expeditiously.1 A less likely cause of retrobulbar hemorrhage is spontaneous hemorrhage due to a bleeding disorder or anticoagulant use.2 The features of retrobulbar hemorrhage include acute loss of visual acuity, relative afferent pupillary defect, proptosis with resistance to retropulsion, increased intraocular pressure, and limited extra ocular movement.3 While the diagnosis is clinical, it can be confirmed by computed tomography (CT and measurement of intraocular pressure.2 When the diagnosis is established, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis should be performed emergently. Cantholysis is contraindicated when a globe rupture is suspected or with an orbital blowout fracture. Potential complications of this procedure include iatrogenic injury to the globe or lateral rectus muscle, damage to the elevator aponeurosis resulting in ptosis, injury to the lacrimal gland and lacrimal artery, bleeding and infection.3 This task trainer uses affordable materials to let

  15. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  16. Bilateral Multiple Level Lateral Meningocoele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B E Panil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral meningocoele is a very rare disorder characterized by extensions of the dura and arachnoid through an enlarged neural foramen. We report a case of a 23-year-old female with deformity of spine who presented with low back pain and no neurological deficits. A whole spine magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple well-defined cystic masses involving dorsal, lumbar, and sacral spinal levels bilaterally, with dural ectasia and neural foraminal widening suggestive of bilateral multiple level lateral meningocoele. The patient is being managed conservatively and is on regular follow-up.

  17. Bilateral multiple level lateral meningocoele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B E Panil; Hegde, Kishor V; Kumari, G Lalitha; Agrawal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Lateral meningocoele is a very rare disorder characterized by extensions of the dura and arachnoid through an enlarged neural foramen. We report a case of a 23-year-old female with deformity of spine who presented with low back pain and no neurological deficits. A whole spine magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple well-defined cystic masses involving dorsal, lumbar, and sacral spinal levels bilaterally, with dural ectasia and neural foraminal widening suggestive of bilateral multiple level lateral meningocoele. The patient is being managed conservatively and is on regular follow-up.

  18. 49 CFR 230.105 - Lateral motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lateral motion. 230.105 Section 230.105... Tenders Running Gear § 230.105 Lateral motion. (a) Condemning limits. The total lateral motion or play... require additional lateral motion. (c) Non-interference with other parts. The lateral motion shall in all...

  19. Nutrition management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Daniel I

    2013-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurological disease with high risk of malnutrition. Symptoms of dysphagia, depression, cognitive impairment, difficulty with self-feeding and meal preparation, hypermetabolism, anxiety, respiratory insufficiency, and fatigue with meals increase the risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition negatively affects prognosis and quality of life, making early and frequent nutrition assessment and intervention essential. Implementation of an adequate calorie diet, dietary texture modification, use of adaptive eating utensils, and placement of a feeding tube aid in preventing malnutrition. When nutrition status is compromised by dysphagia and weight loss (5%-10% of usual body weight) or body mass index 50%, a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement is indicated. When forced vital capacity is respiratory risk. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is indicated only when enteral nutrition (EN) is contraindicated or impossible. This article reviews the background of ALS, nutrition implications and risk of malnutrition, treatment strategies to prevent malnutrition, the role of EN and PN, and feeding tube placement methods according to disease stage.

  20. Stem cell treatment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Letizia; Mareschi, Katia; Ferrero, Ivana; Vassallo, Elena; Oliveri, Giuseppe; Nasuelli, Nicola; Oggioni, Gaia Donata; Testa, Lucia; Fagioli, Franca

    2008-02-15

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a progressive fatal neurodegenerative disease that targets motor neurons. Its origin is unknown but a main role of reactive astrogliosis and microglia activation in the pathogenesis has been recently demonstrated. Surrounding neurons with healthy adjoining cells completely stops motor neuron death in some cases. Hence stem cell transplantation might represent a promising therapeutic strategy. In this study MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of 9 patients with definite ALS. Growth kinetics, immunophenotype, telomere length and karyotype were evaluated during in vitro expansion. No significant differences between donors or patients were observed. The patients received intraspinal injections of autologous MSCs at the thoracic level and monitored for 4 years. No significant acute or late side effects were evidenced. No modification of the spinal cord volume or other signs of abnormal cell proliferation were observed. Four patients show a significant slowing down of the linear decline of the forced vital capacity and of the ALS-FRS score. Our results seem to demonstrate that MSCs represent a good chance for stem cell cell-based therapy in ALS and that intraspinal injection of MSCs is safe also in the long term. A new phase 1 study is carried out to verify these data in a larger number of patients.

  1. Effects of Channel Modification on Detection and Dating of Fault Scarps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sare, R.; Hilley, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    Template matching of scarp-like features could potentially generate morphologic age estimates for individual scarps over entire regions, but data noise and scarp modification limits detection of fault scarps by this method. Template functions based on diffusion in the cross-scarp direction may fail to accurately date scarps near channel boundaries. Where channels reduce scarp amplitudes, or where cross-scarp noise is significant, signal-to-noise ratios decrease and the scarp may be poorly resolved. In this contribution, we explore the bias in morphologic age of a complex scarp produced by systematic changes in fault scarp curvature. For example, fault scarps may be modified by encroaching channel banks and mass failure, lateral diffusion of material into a channel, or undercutting parallel to the base of a scarp. We quantify such biases on morphologic age estimates using a block offset model subject to two-dimensional linear diffusion. We carry out a synthetic study of the effects of two-dimensional transport on morphologic age calculated using a profile model, and compare these results to a well- studied and constrained site along the San Andreas Fault at Wallace Creek, CA. This study serves as a first step towards defining regions of high confidence in template matching results based on scarp length, channel geometry, and near-scarp topography.

  2. Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests in the labor...

  3. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    the Gulf Stream warm core, Ro and Rig O(1) at the Gulf Stream north wall) allowed for efficient investigation of submesoscale mixing resulting from...Float and dye revealed energetic mixing in the negative PV region, with dye spreading indicating lateral mixing rates of ~100 m2/s. Please see

  4. Structural dynamic modifications via models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    consuming and expensive intuitive cut-and-try prototype testing including those cases where FEM has limitations. Accordingly it is desirable to devise methods by which proto- type modification cycles/design development time can be reduced. This is achieved in. SDM by first predicting accurately and quickly at computer ...

  5. A NEW "PROCESSABLE" POLYACETYLENE MODIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hocker, J.; Schneider, G.

    1983-01-01

    Using a special catalyst on the Ziegler-Natta basis and special reaction conditions it is possible to polymerize acetylene for obtaining a new polyacetylene modification with burr- or fibre-shaped particles which can be processed to foils, non-wovens and coatings.

  6. Structural dynamic modifications via models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural dynamic modification techniques attempt to reduce dynamic design time and can be implemented beginning with spatial models of structures, dynamic test data or updated models. The models assumed in this discussion are mathematical models, namely mass, stiffness, and damping matrices of the equations of ...

  7. Synthesis and Modification of Clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlina Ambrozova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinoptilolite is a natural mineral with exceptional physical characteristics resulting from its special crystal structure, mainstreamed into a large zeolite group called heulandites. An overall view of the research related to the synthesis, modification and application of synthetic clinoptilolite is presented. A single phase of clinoptilolite can be hydrothermally synthesized for 1–10 days in an autoclave from various silica, alumina, and alkali sources with initial Si/Al ratio from 3.0 to 5.0 at a temperature range from 120 to 195 °C. Crystallization rate and crystallinity of clinoptilolite can be improved by seeding. The modification of clinoptilolite has received noticeable attention from the research community, since modified forms have specific properties and therefore their area of application has been broadening. This paper provides a review of the use of organic compounds such as quarter alkyl ammonium, polymer, amine and inorganic species used in the modification process, discusses the processes and mechanisms of clinoptilolite modification, and identifies research gaps and new perspectives.

  8. Ultrasound therapy applicators for controlled thermal modification of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Lichtenstiger, Carol; Rund, Laurie; Keralapura, Mallika; Gossett, Chad; Stahlhut, Randy; Neubauer, Paul; Komadina, Bruce; Williams, Emery; Alix, Chris; Jensen, Tor; Schook, Lawrence; Diederich, Chris J.

    2011-03-01

    frequencies can achieve temperatures and dose distributions which concentrate in a depth profile that coincides with the location of maximum structural collagen content in skin tissues. Using an appropriate transducer configuration produces coverage of significant lateral area, thus making this a practical approach for treatment of skin disorders.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: lateral meningocele syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Lateral meningocele syndrome Lateral meningocele syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Lateral meningocele syndrome is a disorder that affects the nervous ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis is a rare disorder characterized by progressive weakness ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease that affects motor ...

  12. [Unintended effects of genetic modifications in plants and methods of their analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorochyns'kyĭ, B V; Burlaka, O M; Naumenko, V D; Sekan, A S

    2011-01-01

    The problem of unintended effects caused by genetic modification of plants is analysed. Factors that can provoke the unintended effects in genetically engineered plants, their consequences and possibility of the avoiding of unintended effects with use of current methods of genetic modification are discussed. Modern methodological approaches applied to analyse the unintended effects during the safety assessment of transgenic plants, in particular methods of molecular profiling with different "-omic"-technologies are described.

  13. Home modification to prevent falls by older ED patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Lowell W; Camargo, Carlos A; Wilber, Scott T

    2005-05-01

    This trial was conducted at 11 EDs to test the effectiveness of distributing fall prevention information to patients 65 years or older. Intervention patients were given 2 brochures and received a reminder call 2 weeks later. All patients were called at 1 month and asked if they made home safety modifications. Three hundred ninety-seven patients were enrolled (118 control, 279 intervention). Seventy-six percent had complete follow up interviews. Nine percent of control and 8% of intervention patients reported a home modification (95% confidence interval on difference, -8.1% to 5.5%). Patients who fell in the prior year had a 2.0 increased odds (95% confidence interval, 0.8-4.6) of making a home modification. The similar home modification rates in the 2 study groups suggest that even minimum discussion (eg, the informed consent procedure) may increase patients' fall prevention activities. The stronger association in patients who fell suggests that a targeted program may have added benefit.

  14. Alcohols reduce lateral membrane pressures: predictions from molecular theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Amalie L; Frink, Laura J Douglas

    2006-12-01

    We explore the effects of alcohols on fluid lipid bilayers using a molecular theory with a coarse-grained model. We show that the trends predicted from the theory in the changes in area per lipid, alcohol concentration in the bilayer, and area compressibility modulus, as a function of alcohol chain length and of the alcohol concentration in the solvent far from the bilayer, follow those found experimentally. We then use the theory to study the effect of added alcohol on the lateral pressure profile across the membrane, and find that added alcohol reduces the surface tensions at both the headgroup/solvent and headgroup/tailgroup interfaces, as well as the lateral pressures in the headgroup and tailgroup regions. These changes in lateral pressures could affect the conformations of membrane proteins, providing a nonspecific mechanism for the biological effects of alcohols on cells.

  15. Lateral Energy Transport in Laser-Produced Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Douglas Wade

    A study of lateral energy transport in planar targets irradiated by 0.53 μm laser light was conducted over an intensity range of 3 times 10^{12} -3 times 10^{14 } W/cm^2 and for laser pulse widths varying from 170 to 860 picoseconds. Spatially - and spectrally-resolving x-ray diagnostics were used to obtain the profiles of target emission in the energy bands from 60-250 eV and above 1 keV. The beam focus configurations adopted were of two basic types, consisting of (a) spatially modulated intensity spots (diameter ~300 μm) and (b) a tight focus spots (diameter ~100 mu m). In both cases the aim was to assess the degree of lateral energy transport which occurs outside the nominal laser focus. To this end, special targets were constructed which consisted of plastic substrates with buried tracer layers, or tracer patterns deposited onto the substrate outside the laser focus. The x-ray signature emission recorded from the tracer material allowed the determination of plasma conditions existing in the lateral regions of the target. Observations indicated that only a small fraction of the incident laser energy was available for heating of the lateral substrate. Lateral x-ray signals were dominated by a hot expanding underdense plasma which coupled weakly to the lateral substrate. Under spatially-modulated irradiation conditions, this plasma formed a collisional structure between the laser hot spots at early stages in the interaction which persisted throughout the laser pulse. A two dimensional particle-in-a-cell code was used to aid in interpreting the experiments. The code incorporated models for classical flux-limited electron thermal transport, average ion atomic physics, diffusion -approximated radiation transport, and transport inhibition by magnetic fields. The predicted electron temperatures, density scale lengths and x-ray emission profiles were in good agreement with experimental measurements done with both focal spot configurations.

  16. Sexual behavior in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLamater, John; Moorman, Sara M

    2007-12-01

    This research tests the influences of age, biological, and psychosocial factors on sexual expression in later life. The American Association of Retired Persons Modern Maturity Sexuality Survey collected data on diagnosed illnesses, treated illnesses, sexual desire, sexual attitudes, partner circumstances, and sexual behavior from 1,384 persons ages 45 and older. Ordered logistic regression models estimate the associations of age, biological, and psychosocial factors with the frequency of five sexual behaviors. Diagnosed illnesses and treatments are generally unrelated to frequency of sexual activity. Sexual attitudes are related to frequency of partnered behavior and sexual desire is related to frequency of masturbation among both women and men. Satisfaction with the physical relationship with a partner is strongly related to behavior. Age remains significant after all other factors are controlled. The authors conclude that the nature of sexual expression in later life reflects the interplay of body, mind, and social context.

  17. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  18. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2013-01-01

    ’ is to be understood according to the interpretations available in different knowledge perspectives in order to discipline the future knowledge production of ageing and control the processes of subjectification in later life as the disciplining of ‘Population Ageing’: Becoming a subject to active ageing. Dominant...... but it also raises questions as to what constitutes a ‘good’ and ‘active’ life in all societies. The conflicting aspect of the discursive battlefield on active ageing constitutes a fight for authority: Who has the ‘right’ to define the meaning of being ‘active’ and how can ‘activity’ be identified? ‘Active...... discourses on ‘active ageing’ are challenged by the focus of museums and archives on using heritage and participatory arts as an arena to performAGE in later life by craving creativity as a notion of age and opportunity....

  19. Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytkiewicz, Zbigniew R.

    The state of the art and recent developments of lateral overgrowth of compound semiconductors are reviewed. First we focus on the mechanism of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) from the liquid phase, highlighting the phenomena that are crucial for growing high-quality layers with large aspect ratio. Epitaxy from the liquid phase has been chosen since the equilibrium growth techniques such as liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) are the most suitable for lateral overgrowth. We then present numerous examples for which the defect filtration in the ELO procedure is very efficient and leads to significant progress in the development of high-performance semiconductor devices made of lattice-mismatched structures. Structural perfection of seams that appear when layers grown from neighboring seeds merge is also discussed. Next, we concentrate on strain commonly found in various ELO structures and arising due to the interaction of ELO layers with the mask. Its origin, and possible ways of its control, are presented. Then we show that the thermal strain in lattice-mismatched ELO structures can be relaxed by additional tilting of ELO wings while still preserving their high quality. Finally, recent progresses in the lateral overgrowth of semiconductors, including new mask materials and liquid-phase electroepitaxial growth on substrates coated by electrically conductive masks, are presented. New versions of the ELO technique from solution and from the vapor (growth from ridges and pendeo-epitaxy) are described and compared with standard ELO. A wide range of semiconductors, including III-V compounds grown from solution and vapor-grown GaN, are used to illustrate phenomena discussed. Very often, the similar behavior of various ELO structures reveals that the phenomena presented are not related to a specific group of compounds or their growth techniques, but have a much more general nature.

  20. Inconscious, brain lateralization and parapsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have tried to show that it is impossible to study and understand the language of parapsychology without knowing the problem of 'conscious' and 'unconscious' process and issues of brain lateralization. We tried to clarify the different concepts of the notion of the unconscious and to classify all parapsychological phenomena that can be explored. But the real survey of human creativity and those of physical and cognitive abilities of the human mind which are not sufficiently e...

  1. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  2. School readiness and later achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Dowsett, Chantelle J; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-11-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for cognitive, attention, and socioemotional skills measured prior to school entry, as well as a host of family background measures. Across all 6 studies, the strongest predictors of later achievement are school-entry math, reading, and attention skills. A meta-analysis of the results shows that early math skills have the greatest predictive power, followed by reading and then attention skills. By contrast, measures of socioemotional behaviors, including internalizing and externalizing problems and social skills, were generally insignificant predictors of later academic performance, even among children with relatively high levels of problem behavior. Patterns of association were similar for boys and girls and for children from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds. (c) 2007 APA.

  3. Fellow Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1971 Section: Chemistry. Narasimhan, Prof. Palliakaranai Thirumalai Ph.D. (Madras), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 28 July 1928. Date of death: 3 May 2013. Specialization: Theoretical Chemistry and Magnetic Resonance Last known address: 1013, Lupine Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, USA. YouTube ...

  4. Laterally positioned flap-revised technique along with platelet rich fibrin in the management of Miller class II gingival recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmohan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession is a complex phenomenon that may present numerous therapeutic challenges to the clinician. The laterally positioned flap is commonly used to cover isolated, denuded roots that have adequate donor tissue laterally and vestibular depth. Various modifications in laterally sliding flap have been proposed in order to avoid the reported undesirable results on the donor teeth. Recently, use of growth factors has been proposed in combination with surgical techniques. This article highlights the use of laterally positioned pedicle flap-revised technique as a modification of laterally sliding flap technique along with autologous suspension of growth factors, platelet rich fibrin membrane (PRF for the management of localized Miller class-II gingival recession. After 6 months of follow-up, the clinical condition was stable with 80% root coverage and satisfactory gingival tissue healing at both donor and recipient site with no signs of inflammation. An excellent esthetical outcome was achieved and the patient was satisfied with case resolution.

  5. Exploring oxidative modifications of tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houée-Lévin, C; Bobrowski, K; Horakova, L

    2015-01-01

    Protein oxidation is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of biochemical pathways controlling both physiological and pathological processes. While much attention has focused on cysteine modifications in reversible redox signalling, there is increasing evidence that other protein...... residues are oxidised in vivo with impact on cellular homeostasis and redox signalling pathways. A notable example is tyrosine, which can undergo a number of oxidative post-translational modifications to form 3-hydroxy-tyrosine, tyrosine crosslinks, 3-nitrotyrosine and halogenated tyrosine, with different...... effects on cellular functions. Tyrosine oxidation has been studied extensively in vitro, and this has generated detailed information about the molecular mechanisms that may occur in vivo. An important aspect of studying tyrosine oxidation both in vitro and in biological systems is the ability to monitor...

  6. Cognitive bias modification for depression

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, Ernst; Hoorelbeke, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed intense research on valence-specific information processing biases in depression. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a technique that attempts to experimentally modify processing biases through extended computerized training to understand their causal role in the maintenance of depression. Moreover, reducing maladaptive processing biases has clinical potential. The current paper discusses the current state-of-the-art on CBM at the level of attentional, interp...

  7. Hemoglobin: Modification, Crystallization, Polymerization (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Sergunova; E. A. Manchenko; O. Ye. Gudkova

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the most significant modifications and transformations of a hemoglobin molecule potentially related to developing a strategy of resuscitation and treatment of lifethreatening forms of anemia. Hemoglobin is one of the wellstudied proteins. The paper reviews the history of hemoglobin studies from 1839 untill present. Methodically, the hemoglobin studies included electrophoresis, spectrophotometric method, Xray diffraction method, atomicforce microscopy. ...

  8. [Advances in genetic modification technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baixue; Sun, Qixin; Li, Haifeng

    2015-08-01

    Genetic modification technology is a new molecular tool for targeted genome modification. It includes zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) technology, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) technology and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) (CRISPR-Cas) nucleases technology. All of these nucleases create DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) at chromosomal targeted sites and induce cell endogenous mechanisms that are primarily repaired by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathway, resulting in targeted endogenous gene knock-out or exogenous gene insertion. In recent years, genetic modification technologies have been successfully applied to bacteria, yeast, human cells, fruit fly, zebra fish, mouse, rat, livestock, cynomolgus monkey, Arabidopsis, rice, tobacco, maize, sorghum, wheat, barley and other organisms, showing its enormous advantage in gene editing field. Especially, the newly developed CRISPR-Cas9 system arose more attention because of its low cost, high effectiveness, simplicity and easiness. We reviewed the principles and the latest research progress of these three technologies, as well as prospect of future research and applications.

  9. 49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lateral motion. 229.63 Section 229.63....63 Lateral motion. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the total uncontrolled lateral motion... powered axles. (b) The total uncontrolled lateral motion may not exceed 11/4 inches on the center axle of...

  10. Comprehensive understanding of charge lateral migration in 3D SONOS memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lifang; Arreghini, Antonio; Van den bosch, Geert; Pan, Liyang; Van Houdt, Jan

    2016-02-01

    The effects and mechanisms responsible for charge lateral migration in 3D SONOS devices are studied in detail. We evaluated the electron lateral migration at room temperature and at 150 °C in 3D SONOS devices. Through interpretation of measurements and simulations, we found that lateral migration shows similar emission rates of Poole-Frenkel effect and therefore it is linked to the same trap energy profile. This feature should be included in a model to properly simulate 3D SONOS retention transients. Further experiments and simulations show no influence of SiN thickness nor P/E cycles on lateral migration.

  11. Exploring elements of fun to motivate youth to do cognitive bias modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boendermaker, W.J.; Boffo, M.; Wiers, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Heavy drinking among young adults poses severe health risks, including development of later addiction problems. Cognitive retraining of automatic appetitive processes related to alcohol (so-called cognitive bias modification [CBM]) may help to prevent escalation of use. Although effective

  12. Surface modification agents for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Belharouak, Ilias

    2017-11-21

    An active material for an electrochemical device wherein a surface of the active material is modified by a surface modification agent, wherein the surface modification agent is an organometallic compound.

  13. Memory recall and modifications by activating neurons with elevated CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jieun; Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Su; Josselyn, Sheena A; Han, Jin-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Memory is supported by a specific ensemble of neurons distributed in the brain that form a unique memory trace. We previously showed that neurons in the lateral amygdala expressing elevated levels of cAMP response-element binding protein are preferentially recruited into fear memory traces and are necessary for the expression of those memories. However, it is unknown whether artificially activating just these selected neurons in the absence of behavioral cues is sufficient to recall that fear memory. Using an ectopic rat vanilloid receptor TRPV1 and capsaicin system, we found that activating this specific ensemble of neurons was sufficient to recall established fear memory. Furthermore, this neuronal activation induced a reconsolidation-like reorganization process, or strengthening of the fear memory. Thus, our findings establish a direct link between the activation of specific ensemble of neurons in the lateral amygdala and the recall of fear memory and its subsequent modifications.

  14. Modification of nanofibrillated cellulose in aqueous media

    OpenAIRE

    Junka, Karoliina

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the modification of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was conducted both indirectly via polysaccharide adsorption and directly by chemical modification in aqueous media. Developing modification methods for NFC in aqueous media is of importance because NFC has a tendency for surface passivation and aggregation in any other solvent than water. All the NFC modifications described herein were carried out using anionic carboxyl groups as anchor groups. The adsorption and interaction...

  15. High content analysis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Federica; Motti, Dario; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Kaspar, Brian K

    2017-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. Neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglial cells all undergo pathological modifications in the onset and progression of ALS. A number of genes involved in the etiopathology of the disease have been identified, but a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ALS has yet to be determined. Currently, people affected by ALS have a life expectancy of only two to five years from diagnosis. The search for a treatment has been slow and mostly unsuccessful, leaving patients in desperate need of better therapies. Until recently, most pre-clinical studies utilized the available ALS animal models. In the past years, the development of new protocols for isolation of patient cells and differentiation into relevant cell types has provided new tools to model ALS, potentially more relevant to the disease itself as they directly come from patients. The use of stem cells is showing promise to facilitate ALS research by expanding our understanding of the disease and help to identify potential new therapeutic targets and therapies to help patients. Advancements in high content analysis (HCA) have the power to contribute to move ALS research forward by combining automated image acquisition along with digital image analysis. With modern HCA machines it is possible, in a period of just a few hours, to observe changes in morphology and survival of cells, under the stimulation of hundreds, if not thousands of drugs and compounds. In this article, we will summarize the major molecular and cellular hallmarks of ALS, describe the advancements provided by the in vitro models developed in the last few years, and review the studies that have applied HCA to the ALS field to date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumont, B.; Vennegues, P.; Gibart, P. [CNRS, Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne (France). CRHEA

    2001-09-01

    Since there is no GaN bulk single crystal available, the whole technological development of GaN based devices relies on heteroepitaxy. Numerous defects are generated in the heteroepitaxy of GaN on sapphire or 6H-SiC, mainly threading dislocations (TDs). Three types of TDs are currently observed, a type (with Burgers vector 1/3 left angle 11 anti 20 right angle); c type (with left angle 0001 right angle) and mixed a + c (1/3 left angle 11 anti 23 right angle). The epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) technology produces high quality GaN with TD densities in the mid 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}, linewidth of the low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) near-bandgap recombination peaks <1 meV and deep electron traps reduced below 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} (compared to mid 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} in standard GaN). Numerous modifications of the ELO process have been proposed in order either to avoid technological steps (mask-less ELO) or to improve it (pendeo-epitaxy). Basically developed on either sapphire or 6H-SiC, the ELO technology is also achievable on (111)Si or (111)3C-SiC/Si provided that an appropriate buffer layer is grown to avoid cracks. More sophisticated technologies have been implemented to further increase the useable part of the ELO GaN surface (two technological steps, three-step ELO). Unfortunately, in-depth understanding of the basic ELO process is still missing, i.e. of the growth anisotropy and bending of dislocations. (orig.)

  17. Surface Modification of Catalytic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev

    aggregation techniques. With the use of two different filter mechanisms, the Quadrupole and the Lateral Time Of Flight, the nanoparticles were mass selected. This was done to correlate nanoparticle size with reactivity. Selected key findings can be summarized as: 1) CO induced surface changes of Pt based...

  18. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeter, Jeremy S. M.; Hedrick, Tyson L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  19. Structure-activity relationships of proline modifications around the tetracyclic-indole class of NS5A inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ling; Yu, Wensheng; Coburn, Craig A; Chen, Lei; Selyutin, Oleg; Zeng, Qingbei; Dwyer, Michael P; Nair, Anilkumar G; Shankar, Bandarpalle B; Kim, Seong Heon; Yang, De-Yi; Rosenblum, Stuart B; Ruck, Rebecca T; Davies, Ian W; Hu, Bin; Zhong, Bin; Hao, Jinglai; Ji, Tao; Zan, Shuai; Liu, Rong; Agrawal, Sony; Carr, Donna; Curry, Stephanie; McMonagle, Patricia; Bystol, Karin; Lahser, Frederick; Ingravallo, Paul; Chen, Shiying; Asante-Appiah, Ernest; Kozlowski, Joseph A

    2016-11-01

    We describe the impact of proline modifications, in our tetracyclic-indole based series of nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitors, to their replicon profiles. This work identified NS5A inhibitors with an improved and flattened resistance profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  1. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...... of nail row, edge distance, fixed nail-plate, bending direction, unloading, and grain direction, plate and load direction on the load-displacement curves are analysed. Mean load-displacement curves from all the tests are given....

  2. Inconscious, brain lateralization and parapsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have tried to show that it is impossible to study and understand the language of parapsychology without knowing the problem of 'conscious' and 'unconscious' process and issues of brain lateralization. We tried to clarify the different concepts of the notion of the unconscious and to classify all parapsychological phenomena that can be explored. But the real survey of human creativity and those of physical and cognitive abilities of the human mind which are not sufficiently explained today, can not be possible without the cooperation of psychological sciences, clinical psychology, psychopathology, biochemistry, linguistics and quantum physics.

  3. Clinical Neurogenetics: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Matthew B.; Baloh, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, about which our understanding is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways for target for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS, provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

  4. Polymer surface modification by plasmas and photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C.-M.; Ko, T.-M.; Hiraoka, H.

    1996-05-01

    . This technology is still in its infancy, and the plasma chemical process is not fully understood. The films are prepared by vapor phase deposition and can be formed on practically any substrate with good adhesion between the film and the substrate. These films, which are usually highly cross-linked and pinhole-free, have very good barrier properties. Such films find great potential in biomaterial applications and in the microelectronics industry. Very high-power microwave-driven mercury lamps are available, and they are used in UV-hardening of photoresist patterns for image stabilization at high temperatures. Other applications of UV irradiation include surface photo-oxidation, increase of hydrophilicity, and photocuring of paintings. Pulsed UV-lasers are used in surface modification in many areas. Pulsed UV-laser irradiation can produce submicron periodic linear and dot patterns on polymer surfaces without photomask. These interference patterns can be used to increase surface roughness of inert polymers for improved adhesion. These images can also be transferred to silicon surfaces by reactive ion etching. Pulsed laser beams can be applied to inert polymer surfaces for increased hydrophilicity and wettability. Polymer surfaces treated by pulsed UV-laser irradiation can be positively or negatively charged to enhance chemical reactivity and processability. Pulsed UV-laser exposures with high fluence give rise to photoablation with a clean wall profile. There are many other practical applications of laser photoablation, including via-hole fabrication, and diamond-film deposition. The present review discusses all these current applications, especially in the biomedical and microelectronics areas.

  5. Early Word Recognition and Later Language Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Junge

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by assessing language performance relationships over a longer time span than previously tested. Results of Study 1 show that brain correlates of speech segmentation ability at 10 months are positively related to 16-month-olds’ target fixations in a looking-while-listening task. Results of Study 2 show that infant speech segmentation ability no longer directly predicts language profiles at the age of five. However, a meta-analysis across our results and those of similar studies (Study 3 reveals that age at follow-up does not moderate effect size. Together, the results suggest that infants’ ability to recognize words in speech certainly benefits early vocabulary development; further observed relationships of later language skills to early word recognition may be consequent upon this vocabulary size effect.

  6. Current Perspectives in Cardiac Laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Campione

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first organ to break symmetry in the developing embryo and onset of dextral looping is the first indication of this event. Looping is a complex process that progresses concomitantly to cardiac chamber differentiation and ultimately leads to the alignment of the cardiac regions in their final topology. Generation of cardiac asymmetry is crucial to ensuring proper form and consequent functionality of the heart, and therefore it is a highly regulated process. It has long been known that molecular left/right signals originate far before morphological asymmetry and therefore can direct it. The use of several animal models has led to the characterization of a complex regulatory network, which invariably converges on the Tgf-β signaling molecule Nodal and its downstream target, the homeobox transcription factor Pitx2. Here, we review current data on the cellular and molecular bases of cardiac looping and laterality, and discuss the contribution of Nodal and Pitx2 to these processes. A special emphasis will be given to the morphogenetic role of Pitx2 and to its modulation of transcriptional and functional properties, which have also linked laterality to atrial fibrillation.

  7. Epicondilite lateral do cotovelo Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A epicondilite lateral, também conhecida como cotovelo do tenista, é uma condição comum que acomete de 1 a 3% da população. O termo epicondilite sugere inflamação, embora a análise histológica tecidual não demonstre um processo inflamatório. A estrutura acometida com mais frequência é a origem do tendão extensor radial curto do carpo e o mecanismo de lesão está associado à sua sobrecarga. O tratamento incruento é o de escolha e inclui: repouso, fisioterapia, infiltração com cortisona ou plasma rico em plaquetas e a utilização de imobilização específica. O tratamento cirúrgico é recomendado quando persistem impotência funcional e dor. Tanto a técnica cirúrgica aberta quanto a artroscópica com ressecção da área tendinosa degenerada apresenta bons resultados na literatura.Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  8. Epigenetic modifications and diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marpadga A. Reddy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major complication associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Conventional therapeutic strategies are not fully efficacious in the treatment of DN, suggesting an incomplete understanding of the gene regulation mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Furthermore, evidence from clinical trials has demonstrated a “metabolic memory” of prior exposure to hyperglycemia that continues to persist despite subsequent glycemic control. This remains a major challenge in the treatment of DN and other vascular complications. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, nucleosomal histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs control gene expression through regulation of chromatin structure and function and post-transcriptional mechanisms without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Emerging evidence indicates that multiple factors involved in the etiology of diabetes can alter epigenetic mechanisms and regulate the susceptibility to diabetes complications. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of histone lysine methylation in the regulation of key fibrotic and inflammatory genes related to diabetes complications including DN. Interestingly, histone lysine methylation persisted in vascular cells even after withdrawal from the diabetic milieu, demonstrating a potential role of epigenetic modifications in metabolic memory. Rapid advances in high-throughput technologies in the fields of genomics and epigenomics can lead to the identification of genome-wide alterations in key epigenetic modifications in vascular and renal cells in diabetes. Altogether, these findings can lead to the identification of potential predictive biomarkers and development of novel epigenetic therapies for diabetes and its associated complications.

  9. Longitudinal neurochemical modifications in the aging mouse brain measured in vivo by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João M N; Do, Kim Q; Gruetter, Rolf

    2014-07-01

    Alterations to brain homeostasis during development are reflected in the neurochemical profile determined noninvasively by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We determined longitudinal biochemical modifications in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of C57BL/6 mice aged between 3 and 24 months . The regional neurochemical profile evolution indicated that aging induces general modifications of neurotransmission processes (reduced GABA and glutamate), primary energy metabolism (altered glucose, alanine, and lactate) and turnover of lipid membranes (modification of choline-containing compounds and phosphorylethanolamine), which are all probably involved in the frequently observed age-related cognitive decline. Interestingly, the neurochemical profile was different in male and female mice, particularly in the levels of taurine that may be under the control of estrogen receptors. These neurochemical profiles constitute the basal concentrations in cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of healthy aging male and female mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MPI Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D K; Jones, T R

    2005-02-11

    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the de facto message-passing standard for massively parallel programs. It is often the case that application performance is a crucial factor, especially for solving grand challenge problems. While there have been many studies on the scalability of applications, there have not been many focusing on the specific types of MPI calls being made and their impact on application performance. Using a profiling tool called mpiP, a large spectrum of parallel scientific applications were surveyed and their performance results analyzed.

  11. Germline modification of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; González, R; Dobrinski, I

    2015-01-01

    Genetically-modified domestic animal models are of increasing significance in biomedical research and agriculture. As authentic ES cells derived from domestic animals are not yet available, the prevailing approaches for engineering genetic modifications in those animals are pronuclear microinjection and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, also known as cloning). Both pronuclear microinjection and SCNT are inefficient, costly, and time-consuming. In animals produced by pronuclear microinjection, the exogenous transgene is usually inserted randomly into the genome, which results in highly variable expression patterns and levels in different founders. Therefore, significant efforts are required to generate and screen multiple founders to obtain animals with optimal transgene expression. For SCNT, specific genetic modifications (both gain-of-function and loss-of-function) can be engineered and carefully selected in the somatic cell nucleus before nuclear transfer. SCNT has been used to generate a variety of genetically modified animals such as goats, pigs, sheep and cattle; however, animals resulting from SCNT frequently suffer from developmental abnormalities associated with incomplete nuclear reprogramming. Other strategies to generate genetically-modified animals rely on the use of the spermatozoon as a natural vector to introduce genetic material into the female gamete. This sperm mediated DNA transfer (SMGT) combined with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has relatively high efficiency and allows the insertion of large DNA fragments, which, in turn, enhance proper gene expression. An approach currently being developed to complement SCNT for producing genetically modified animals is germ cell transplantation using genetically modified male germline stem cells (GSCs). This approach relies on the ability of GSCs that are genetically modified in vitro to colonize the recipient testis and produce donor derived sperm upon transplantation. As the genetic change

  12. Modulation of Membrane Protein Lateral Mobility by Polyphosphates and Polyamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Melvin; Koppel, Dennis E.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    1980-03-01

    The lateral mobility of fluorescein-labeled membrane glycoproteins was measured in whole unlysed erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts by the technique of ``fluorescence redistribution after fusion.'' Measurements were made on polyethylene glycol-fused cell pairs in which only one member of the couplet was initially fluorescently labeled. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from the rate of fluorescence redistribution determined from successive scans with a focused laser beam across individual fused pairs. This technique allows for the analysis of diffusion within cell membranes without the possible damaging photochemical events caused by photobleaching. It was found that lateral mobility of erythrocyte proteins can be increased by the addition of polyphosphates (i.e., ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) and decreased by the addition of organic polyamines (i.e., neomycin and spermine). This control is exerted by these molecules only when they contact the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and is not dependent upon high-energy phosphates. Microviscosity experiments employing diphenylhexatriene demonstrated no changes in membrane lipid state as a function of these reagents. Our results, in conjunction with data on the physical interactions of cytoskeletal proteins, suggest that the diffusion effector molecules alter the lateral mobility of erythrocyte membrane proteins through modifications of interactions in the shell, which is composed of spectrin, actin, and component 4.1.

  13. Primary Lateral Sclerosis : diagnostic boundaries and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, F.

    2010-01-01

    Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a diagnosis of exclusion in sporadic patients with an adult-onset gradually progressive upper motor neuron (UMN) syndrome. Differentiation between PLS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and sporadic presentation of hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) is

  14. histoneHMM : Differential analysis of histone modifications with broad genomic footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinig, Matthias; Colomé-Tatché, Maria; Taudt, Aaron; Rintisch, Carola; Schafer, Sebastian; Pravenec, Michal; Hubner, Norbert; Vingron, Martin; Johannes, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background: ChIP-seq has become a routine method for interrogating the genome-wide distribution of various histone modifications. An important experimental goal is to compare the ChIP-seq profiles between an experimental sample and a reference sample, and to identify regions that show differential

  15. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, R; Skandarajah, A; Gerver, RE; Neira, HD; Fletcher, DA; Herr, AE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to ...

  16. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsson, Einar Thor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...

  17. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...

  18. Lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Vaesel, M T; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1996-01-01

    The structure and kinematics of the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint were investigated in 10 cadaveric specimens. The lateral collateral ligament was observed to be a distinct part of the lateral collateral ligament complex. It contains posterior fibers that pass through the annular...

  19. Lateral gene transfer in phylogeny of azoreductase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafana, Amit; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2008-06-01

    This paper attempts to reconstruct the phylogeny of azoreductase enzyme from different organisms and compare it with the small subunit rRNA-based phylogeny of the organisms. The two phylogenies were found to be incongruent, indicating several events of lateral transfer of azoreductase gene between phylogenetically diverse organisms. However, the phylogenetic analysis methods have several limitations and a single method may not give the true pattern. Hence, it is necessary to corroborate the results with other complementary analysis tools. We used several tools to test our hypothesis of lateral transfer and found that it was supported not only by the analysis of the whole sequences, but also by the conserved motifs detected in these sequences. There were ample evidences for lateral transfer of azoreductase gene among enteric bacteria. There were also indications that azoreductase probably evolved in prokaryotes and then it was laterally transferred to eukaryotes in multiple events, resulting in some sequence variation among eukaryotic azoreductases. Finally, profile HMMs and conserved motifs extracted from these azoreductase sequences were found to provide sensitive tools for identifying potential azoreductases from the database. The analysis techniques used in this study can be extended to other gene trees to verify their evolutionary histories.

  20. Surface Modification for Microreactor Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladyslaw Torbicz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, methods of surface modification of different supports, i.e. glass andpolymeric beads for enzyme immobilisation are described. The developed method ofenzyme immobilisation is based on Schiff’s base formation between the amino groups onthe enzyme surface and the aldehyde groups on the chemically modified surface of thesupports. The surface of silicon modified by APTS and GOPS with immobilised enzymewas characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM, time-of-flight secondary ion massspectroscopy (ToF-SIMS and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The supports withimmobilised enzyme (urease were also tested in combination with microreactors fabricatedin silicon and Perspex, operating in a flow-through system. For microreactors filled withurease immobilised on glass beads (Sigma and on polymeric beads (PAN, a very high andstable signal (pH change was obtained. The developed method of urease immobilisationcan be stated to be very effective.

  1. Soy protein modification: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy protein products such as flour, concentrates and isolates are used in food formulation because of their functionality, nutritional value and low cost. To obtain their optimal nutritive and functional properties as well as desirable flavor different treatments are used. Soybean proteins can be modified by physical, chemical and enzymatic treatments. Different thermal treatments are most commonly used, while the most appropriate way of modifying soy proteins from the standpoint of safety is their limited proteolysis. These treatments cause physical and chemical changes that affect their functional properties. This review discusses three principal methods used for modification of soy protein products, their effects on dominant soy protein properties and some biologically active compounds.

  2. Phenomenological modification of horizon temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshudyan, M.; Khurshudyan, As.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a study of the accelerated expansion problem of the large scale universe is presented. To derive Friedmann like equations, describing the background dynamics of the recent universe, we take into account, that it is possible to interpret the spacetime dynamics as an emergent phenomenon. It is a consequence of the deep study of connection between gravitation and thermodynamics. The models considered are based on phenomenological modifications of the horizon temperature. In general, there are various reasons to modify the horizon temperature, one of which is related to the feedback from the spacetime on the horizon, generating additional heat. In order to constrain the parameters of the models, we use Om analysis and the constraints on this parameter at z = 0.0, z = 0.57 and z = 2.34.

  3. Hemoglobin: Modification, Crystallization, Polymerization (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sergunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present the most significant modifications and transformations of a hemoglobin molecule potentially related to developing a strategy of resuscitation and treatment of lifethreatening forms of anemia. Hemoglobin is one of the wellstudied proteins. The paper reviews the history of hemoglobin studies from 1839 untill present. Methodically, the hemoglobin studies included electrophoresis, spectrophotometric method, Xray diffraction method, atomicforce microscopy. The basic forms of hemoglobin include oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin. Data on protein crystallization and polymerization are discussed. Many forms of hemoglobin have the ability to form crystals or polymers in vitro, some pathological forms can be modified in vivo. The studies of structural features of various hemoglobin forms represent a contemporary task for fundamental researches.

  4. Textural modification of processing tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D M; Garcia, E; Wayne, J E

    1998-04-01

    Knowledge of the textural properties of processing tomatoes is crucial to ensuing product acceptability; measurement, control, and optimization of these properties through judicious selection of varieties and control of unit operations results in products that the consumer prefers. It is important to first define the terms texture, rheology, consistency, and viscosity prior to discussing principles of their measurement. The textural properties of processing tomatoes may be measured using both sensory and objective tests, and the latter may be either destructive or nondestructive in nature. The unique anatomy of tomato fruit (peel, pericarp, columella, and locules) in part dictates the method of texture measurement. Numerous factors, including variety, maturity, genetic modification, cultural particles, and environmental conditions, processing conditions, and calcium addition affect the textural integrity of tomatoes. Textural properties of raw tomatoes and most processed tomato products are reviewed in this article.

  5. [Genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcia, Philippe; Blasco, Hélène; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    Although the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains currently unknown, involvement of genetic factors is worldwide accepted as a key clue in the motor neuron death. Since 1993 and the discovery of mutation in the SOD1 gene, number of genes linked to or promoting ALS had always growing. Among them, only four (SOD1, TARDBP, FUS and C9ORF72 genes) are unanimously recognized as convincing causative genetic factors for more than 60% of familial and probably 10% of sporadic ALS cases. Geographic origin of the studied populations tends to become one of the major items in the gene-ALS relationship: this was extremely stressed for C9ORF72. Concerning susceptibility genes factors, an increase of the risk of ALS is clearly shown for SMN1 and ATXN2 genes and accepted for some VEGF haplotypes. Finally, some modulating effects might also exist as underline for the relationships between ApoE and ALS that differ between European and North American studies. In inherited ALS, The European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) edited rules that gave a legal frame to situations for which research of mutations were justified. Progress in the field of genetic raises major questions concerning the relevance of genetic studies from asymptomatic relatives. This first implies that the mutation identified in the proband case is perfectly characterized as a pathogenic mutation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Chimira: analysis of small RNA sequencing data and microRNA modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitsios, Dimitrios M; Enright, Anton J

    2015-10-15

    Chimira is a web-based system for microRNA (miRNA) analysis from small RNA-Seq data. Sequences are automatically cleaned, trimmed, size selected and mapped directly to miRNA hairpin sequences. This generates count-based miRNA expression data for subsequent statistical analysis. Moreover, it is capable of identifying epi-transcriptomic modifications in the input sequences. Supported modification types include multiple types of 3'-modifications (e.g. uridylation, adenylation), 5'-modifications and also internal modifications or variation (ADAR editing or single nucleotide polymorphisms). Besides cleaning and mapping of input sequences to miRNAs, Chimira provides a simple and intuitive set of tools for the analysis and interpretation of the results (see also Supplementary Material). These allow the visual study of the differential expression between two specific samples or sets of samples, the identification of the most highly expressed miRNAs within sample pairs (or sets of samples) and also the projection of the modification profile for specific miRNAs across all samples. Other tools have already been published in the past for various types of small RNA-Seq analysis, such as UEA workbench, seqBuster, MAGI, OASIS and CAP-miRSeq, CPSS for modifications identification. A comprehensive comparison of Chimira with each of these tools is provided in the Supplementary Material. Chimira outperforms all of these tools in total execution speed and aims to facilitate simple, fast and reliable analysis of small RNA-Seq data allowing also, for the first time, identification of global microRNA modification profiles in a simple intuitive interface. Chimira has been developed as a web application and it is accessible here: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/research/enright/software/chimira. aje@ebi.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Lateral excitonic switching in vertically stacked quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarzynka, Jarosław R.; McDonald, Peter G.; Galbraith, Ian [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Shumway, John [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    We show that the application of a vertical electric field to the Coulomb interacting system in stacked quantum dots leads to a 90° in-plane switching of charge probability distribution in contrast to a single dot, where no such switching exists. Results are obtained using path integral quantum Monte Carlo with realistic dot geometry, alloy composition, and piezo-electric potential profiles. The origin of the switching lies in the strain interactions between the stacked dots hence the need for more than one layer of dots. The lateral polarization and electric field dependence of the radiative lifetimes of the excitonic switch are also discussed.

  8. Polymer modification of bitumen : Advances and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jiqing; Birgisson, Björn; Kringos, Niki

    2014-01-01

    Advances and challenges in the field of bitumen polymer modification for road construction during the last 40 years are reviewed in this paper. The history of bitumen polymer modification is described chronologically. Some popular plastomers and thermoplastic elastomers in bitumen modification are discussed regarding their advantages and disadvantages, including polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), ethylene-butyl acrylate (EBA), styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS),...

  9. Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Matthias; Jensen, Ole N

    2003-01-01

    Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of most eukaryote proteins. Analysis of these modifications presents formidable challenges but their determination generates indispensable insight into biological function. Strategies developed to characterize individual proteins are now...... mass spectrometric peptide sequencing and analysis technologies hold tremendous potential. Finally, stable isotope labeling strategies in combination with mass spectrometry have been applied successfully to study the dynamics of modifications....

  10. The cortical signature of symptom laterality in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD often present with unilateral motor symptoms that eventually spread to the other side. This symptom lateralization is diagnostically important, as it serves to distinguish PD from other motor disorders with overlapping symptom profiles. Further, recent studies have shown that the side of symptom onset is important for prognosis, as there are differences in the rate of disease progression and the incidence of secondary symptoms between right- and left-dominant (RD, LD patients. Physiologically, previous studies have shown asymmetrical decline in structure and metabolism throughout the basal ganglia, although connecting this directly to motor function has been difficult. To identify the neurophysiological basis of symptom laterality in PD, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG during left- and right-hand movement paradigms in patients with PD who exhibited either RD or LD symptomatology. The beta oscillations serving these movements were then imaged using beamforming methods, and we extracted the time series of the peak voxel in the left and right primary motor cortices for each movement. In addition, each patient's symptom asymmetry was quantitated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, which allowed the relationship between symptom asymmetry and neural asymmetry to be assessed. We found that LD patients had stronger beta suppression during movement, as well as greater post-movement beta rebound compared to patients with RD symptoms, independent of the hand that was moved. Interestingly, the asymmetry of beta activity during right-hand movement uniquely correlated with symptom asymmetry, such that the more LD the symptom profile, the more left-lateralized (i.e., contralateral to movement the beta response; conversely, the more RD the symptom profile, the more right-lateralized (i.e., ipsilateral to movement the beta response. This study is the first to directly probe the relationship

  11. Replacing antibodies with aptamers in lateral flow immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailiang; Yang, Shuming

    2015-09-15

    Aptamers have been identified against various targets as a type of chemical or nucleic acid ligand by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) with high sensitivity and specificity. Aptamers show remarkable advantages over antibodies due to the nucleic acid nature and target-induced structure-switching properties and are widely used to design various fluorescent, electrochemical, or colorimetric biosensors. However, the practical applications of aptamer-based sensing and diagnostics are still lagging behind those of antibody-based tests. Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) represents a well established and appropriate technology among rapid assays because of its low cost and user-friendliness. The antibody-based platform is utilized to detect numerous targets, but it is always hampered by the antibody preparation time, antibody stability, and effect of modification on the antibody. Seeking alternatives to antibodies is an area of active research and is of tremendous importance. Aptamers are receiving increasing attention in lateral flow applications because of a number of important potential performance advantages. We speculate that aptamer-based LFIA may be one of the first platforms for commercial use of aptamer-based diagnosis. This review first gives an introduction to aptamer including the selection process SELEX with its focus on aptamer advantages over antibodies, and then depicts LFIA with its focus on aptamer opportunities in LFIA over antibodies. Furthermore, we summarize the recent advances in the development of aptamer-based lateral flow biosensing assays with the aim to provide a general guide for the design of aptamer-based lateral flow biosensing assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lewicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation are discussed. Properties of microwave radiation and its impact on starch (with particular regard to modifications described in literature are characterized.

  13. Application of Behavior Modification to Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Charles S.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Research and application of principles of behavior modification with visually impaired and blind children are reviewed with particular attention to lower functioning multiply impaired children. (Author)

  14. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  15. Fractal Analysis of Rock Joint Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    Surface reliefs of rock joints are analyzed in geotechnics when shear strength of rocky slopes is estimated. The rock joint profiles actually are self-affine fractal curves and computations of their fractal dimensions require special methods. Many papers devoted to the fractal properties of these profiles were published in the past but only a few of those papers employed a convenient computational method that would have guaranteed a sound value of that dimension. As a consequence, anomalously low dimensions were presented. This contribution deals with two computational modifications that lead to sound fractal dimensions of the self-affine rock joint profiles. These are the modified box-counting method and the modified yard-stick method sometimes called the compass method. Both these methods are frequently applied to self-similar fractal curves but the self-affine profile curves due to their self-affine nature require modified computational procedures implemented in computer programs.

  16. Therapeutic targeting of epigenetic components in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Ryu, H; Keum, G; Yoon, Y J; Kowall, N W; Ryu, H

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset motor neuron disease characterized by degeneration of motor neuron and glial activation followed by the progressive muscle loss and paralysis. Numerous distinct therapeutic interventions have been examined but currently ALS does not have a cure or an efficacious treatment for the disorder. Glutamate- induced excitotoxicity, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, protein aggregation, transcription deregulation, and epigenetic modifications are associated with the pathogenesis of ALS and known to be therapeutic targets in ALS. In this review, we discuss translational pharmacological studies targeting epigenetic components to ameliorate ALS. Understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms will provide novel insights that will further identify potential biological markers and therapeutic approaches for treating ALS. A combination of treatments that modulate epigenetic components and multiple targets may prove to be the most effective therapy for ALS.

  17. Lateral Tension-Induced Penetration of Particles into a Liposome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Shigyou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important that we understand the mechanism of the penetration of particles into a living cell to achieve advances in bionanotechnology, such as for treatment, visualization within a cell, and genetic modification. Although there have been many studies on the application of functional particles to cells, the basic mechanism of penetration across a biological membrane is still poorly understood. Here we used a model membrane system to demonstrate that lateral membrane tension drives particle penetration across a lipid bilayer. After the application of osmotic pressure, fully wrapped particles on a liposome surface were found to enter the liposome. We discuss the mechanism of the tension-induced penetration in terms of narrow constriction of the membrane at the neck part. The present findings are expected to provide insight into the application of particles to biological systems.

  18. The Later Wittgenstein and the Later Husserl on Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ricoeur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an edited version of lectures given by Paul Ricœur at Johns Hopkins University in April 1966. Ricœur offers a comparative analysis of Wittgenstein’s and Husserl’s late works, taking the problem of language as the common ground of investigation for these two central figures of phenomenology and analytic philosophy. Ricœur develops his study in two parts. The first part considers Husserl’s approach to language after the Logical Investigations and concentrates on Formal and Transcendental Logic; leaving a transcendental reflection on language behind it re-examines a phenomenological conception, according to which the sphere of logic is not separable from that of experience. The main focus of the second part is Wittgenstein’s later philosophy as it moved on from the conception of an isomorphic relation between language and the world, as set out in the picture theory in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, to the more pragmatic notion of a language-game in the Philosophical Investigations. In order to get beyond the irrevocable differences between the two philosophies and the unresolved theoretical issues on both sides, Ricœur suggests turning to a semiological paradigm based on the Saussurean distinction between “language” and “speaking.” Keywords: Analytic Philosophy, Husserl, Phenomenology, Semiology, Wittgenstein.Résumé Cet article est une version éditée de conférences données par Paul Ricœur à la Johns Hopkins University en avril 1966. Ricœur propose une analyse comparée des dernières œuvres de Wittgenstein et Husserl, avec le problème du langage comme sol commun d’investigations pour ces deux figures centrales de la phénoménologie et la philosophie analytique. Cette analyse de Ricœur se joue à travers deux parties. La première partie revient sur l'approche du langage chez Husserl depuis Recherches logiques avec une attention particulière aux développements de Logique formelle et

  19. Image Quality Degradation from Transmit Delay Profile Quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jonas; di Ianni, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    The investigated hypothesis is that quantization of the transmit delay profiles degrades the image quality in plane wave ultrasound imaging. Simulated point spread functions show that transmit delay profile quantization gives rise to artefacts behind the point target. The axial and lateral 6 dB r...

  20. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Vickers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how

  1. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  2. Lateral bias and temperament in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Louise J; Wells, Deborah L; Hepper, Peter G; Dempster, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Research points to a relationship between lateralization and emotional functioning in humans and many species of animal. The present study explored the association between paw preferences and emotional functioning, specifically temperament, in a species thus far overlooked in this area, the domestic cat. Thirty left-pawed, 30 right-pawed, and 30 ambilateral pet cats were recruited following an assessment of their paw preferences using a food-reaching challenge. The animals' temperament was subsequently assessed using the Feline Temperament Profile (FTP). Cats' owners also completed a purpose-designed cat temperament (CAT) scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between lateral bias and FTP and CAT scale scores. Ambilateral cats had lower positive (FTP+) scores, and were perceived as less affectionate, obedient, friendly, and more aggressive, than left or right-pawed animals. Left and right pawed cats differed significantly on 1 trait on the CAT scale, namely playfulness. The strength of the cats' paw preferences was related to the animals' FTP and CAT scores. Cats with a greater strength of paw preference had higher FTP+ scores than those with a weaker strength of paw preference. Animals with stronger paw preferences were perceived as more confident, affectionate, active, and friendly than those with weaker paw preferences. Results suggest that motor laterality in the cat is strongly related to temperament and that the presence or absence of lateralization has greater implications for the expression of emotion in this species than the direction of the lateralized bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Infections associated with body modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Sai-Yin Wong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus, and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures.

  4. Weather and Climate Modifications Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R. L.; Slinn, W. G.N.; Laulainen, N. S.; Kleckner, E. W.; Thorp, J. M.; Wolf, M. A.

    1976-03-01

    This section is comprised of seven papers. Human activity can change the average atmospheric temperature and humidity values, as well as the chemical composition of the air. These changes affect local and regional weather and climate, and may have a significant influence on global climate. Examples of human activity that produce these changes are the increase of CO/sub 2/ content of the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuel; the production of aerosols by industry, automobiles, home heating units and agricultural practices; the releases of large quantities of heat and water vapor from the cooling facilities of large fossil and nuclear power plants; and t modification of the earth's albedo due to urbanization, agricullture, deforestation reservoirs and soil spills. Research activities have resulted in an overview of the important natural and anthropogenic perturbations of weather and climate, and the resulting need for further climatic research; a theoretical study that may contribute to a better understanding of atmospheric electricity; atmospheric turbidity data at the Hanford site and their relationships to changes in the aerosol size distribution; initial efforts in determining the optical properties of aerosols such that we can better understand the radiative properties of the atmosphere; and the characterization of large power plant cooling tower plumes through the use of long exposure photography and instrumented aircraft. (auth)

  5. Epigenetic Modifications during Angiosperm Gametogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migicovsky, Zoë; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Angiosperms do not contain a distinct germline, but rather develop gametes from gametophyte initials that undergo cell division. These gametes contain cells that give rise to an endosperm and the embryo. DNA methylation is decreased in the vegetative nucleus (VN) and central cell nuclei (CCN) resulting in expression of transposable elements (TEs). It is thought that the siRNAs produced in response to TE expression are able to travel to the sperm cells and egg cells (EC) from VN and CCN, respectively, in order to enforce silencing there. Demethylation during gametogenesis helps ensure that even newly integrated TEs are expressed and therefore silenced by the resulting siRNA production. A final form of epigenetic control is modification of histones, which includes accumulation of the H3 variant HTR10 in mature sperm that is then completely replaced following fertilization. In females, the histone isoforms present in the EC and CCN differ, potentially helping to differentiate the two components during gametogenesis. PMID:22645573

  6. Gravity driven deterministic lateral displacement for suspended particles in a 3D obstacle array

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Siqi; Drazer, German

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple modification to enhance the separation ability of deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) systems by expanding the two-dimensional nature of these devices and driving the particles into size-dependent, fully three-dimensional trajectories. Specifically, we drive the particles through an array of long cylindrical posts, such that they not only move parallel to the basal plane of the posts as in traditional two-dimensional DLD systems (in-plane motion), but also along the a...

  7. Behavior Modification: Answers to Some Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Thomas P.; Cooke, Sharon

    1974-01-01

    This paper deals with several of the commonly stated ethical issues in behavior modification: (1) the dichotomy between symptoms and underlying causes; (2) symptom substitution; (3 certain behavior modification techniques such as electric shock, physical restraint, and deprivation; (4) the counselor-client relationship; and (5) principles of…

  8. 75 FR 31736 - Modifications of Debt Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ30 Modifications of Debt Instruments AGENCY: Internal.... SUMMARY: This document contains proposed regulations relating to the modification of debt instruments. The... into account to determine whether a modified debt instrument will be recharacterized as an instrument...

  9. Behavior Modification: A Classroom Clockwork Orange?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jeffry; Kiraly, John, Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Behavior modification, if used properly, is a powerful and useful tool. As with many tools, improper use can cause temporary or permanent damage. The educational program might include behavior modification as one tool in a battery of many tools used to promote healthy change in behavior. (CS)

  10. Histone modifications: Cycling with chromosomal replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thon, Genevieve

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications tend to be lost during chromosome duplication. Several recent studies suggest that the RNA interference pathway becomes active during the weakened transcriptional repression occurring at centromeres in S phase, resulting in the re-establishment of histone modifications that ...

  11. Oncoplastic technique for the elimination of the lateral "dog ear" during mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Krishna B; Massey, Eleanore J D; Mahadev, G K; Kaufman, Gabriel J; Nos, Claude; Sarfati, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Following a mastectomy, both the cosmetic and functional results can be impaired by the presence of a lateral "dog ear." This is a particular problem in women with a large body habitus giving an increased amount of adipose tissue lateral to the breast. The standard approaches to this operation of horizontal or oblique incisions often results in an uncomfortable, unsightly lateral "dog ear". We describe a modification to the standard mastectomy incision that allows extensive excision of the lateral adipose tissue, re-draping the skin over the chest wall, thus eliminating the "dog ear." The mastectomy is performed through two oblique incisions originating in the axillary skin crease encompassing the nipple areolar complex, followed by extensive lateral fat excision. A distance of 2-3 cm is kept between the superior limit of the two incisions. At closure the lateral skin flap is advanced superiomedially on the chest wall without tension. This simple and reproducible technique improves cosmesis and patient satisfaction following modified radical mastectomy by eliminating the lateral "dog ear." © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The RNA modification landscape in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkhout, Nicky; Tran, Julia; Smith, Martin A; Schonrock, Nicole; Mattick, John S; Novoa, Eva Maria

    2017-12-01

    RNA modifications have been historically considered as fine-tuning chemo-structural features of infrastructural RNAs, such as rRNAs, tRNAs, and snoRNAs. This view has changed dramatically in recent years, to a large extent as a result of systematic efforts to map and quantify various RNA modifications in a transcriptome-wide manner, revealing that RNA modifications are reversible, dynamically regulated, far more widespread than originally thought, and involved in major biological processes, including cell differentiation, sex determination, and stress responses. Here we summarize the state of knowledge and provide a catalog of RNA modifications and their links to neurological disorders, cancers, and other diseases. With the advent of direct RNA-sequencing technologies, we expect that this catalog will help prioritize those RNA modifications for transcriptome-wide maps. © 2017 Jonkhout et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  13. Arabidopsis lateral root development : an emerging story

    OpenAIRE

    Péret, B.; De Rybel, B.; Casimiro, I; Benkova, E.; Swarup, R; Laplaze, Laurent; Beeckman, T.; Bennett, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Lateral root formation is a major determinant of root systems architecture. The degree of root branching impacts the efficiency of water uptake, acquisition of nutrients and anchorage by plants. Understanding the regulation of lateral root development is therefore of vital agronomic importance. The molecular and cellular basis of lateral root formation has been most extensively studied in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Significant progress has recently been made in identi...

  14. REVIEW OF RULE MODIFICATION IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Arias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this qualitative review was to analyze the state of the bibliography about rule modification in sport. In the literature reviewed, there are few studies of rule modification and related aspects. Most studies omit mentioning the purpose of the modifications, but they do refer to the goals of their analysis (improving players' performance, attracting spectators and athletes, attending to commercial pressure, adapting the sport to children's needs and interests, preventing injuries. Eighty percent of the studies did not report the outcome of the previous modifications they analyzed. More than half of the studies (60% achieved the proposed goals. Nearly two-thirds (63.83% analyzed the effect of rule modification on game actions occurring during the game or through a test. Most of the studies (91.5% did not consult the participants. Three-fourths of the studies (74.46% examined the effect of rule modification without any knowledge of a previous analysis or without any previous analysis, and 74.47% studied rule modification related to internal logic. Modifications to be introduced in a sport should be analyzed through a reflective process before their final introduction. The following points should be considered: establishing goals, respecting the basic rules without modifying them, becoming familiar with players' and coaches' opinions, determining the effect of the modification on a wide spectrum of variables, elaborating useful proposals for the organizations that are responsible for competitions, using more than one type of data, modifying the internal logic and, preferably, the functional rules, and following some basic stages to consolidate rule modification.

  15. [Idiopathic loss of lateral tarsal suspension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyano, J; Martín, E; Genol-Saavedra, I; García-Sánchez, J

    2007-06-01

    A 53-year-old man who showed a loss of tarsal suspension in the lateral third of both lower eyelids underwent lateral canthoplasty with a good post-operative result. Disinsertion of the union of the inferior tarsus with the lateral canthus, of unknown cause, is a very uncommon finding that has almost never been reported in the world literature. There are two cases described of eyelid elastolysis with loss of lateral tarsal suspension, as in our case, but both showed eyelid skin atrophy and had histopathologic confirmation. Our case did not have skin atrophy.

  16. The enigma of the lateral canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, F S

    1984-10-01

    It is difficult to summarize an article of this type, in which the author is certain that his case has been presented fairly, but is aware that other views that are contrary could be stated and endorsed by pertinent clinical cases. Bearing this fact in mind, I wish to reiterate the following: Lateral canals are demonstrated in endodontic cases with much less frequency than they exist. This variance rarely, if ever, causes an endodontic failure. Some demonstrated lateral canals may really be other conditions. Preoperative evaluation should include examination of radiographs for lateral, as well as periapical, lesions. Lateral canals may be demonstrated by a variety of filling techniques. Careful canal preparation may enhance the frequency of such demonstration. Cases with necrotic pulps probably yield more frequent demonstration than do cases with vital pulps. Lateral canals harboring inflamed and/or infected material may cause pain during endodontic treatment. They may simulate periodontal disease and may cause problems with treatment if present when a tooth is left open for drainage. Periodontal disease may cause pulp exposure via lateral canals located coronally. Improper use of post room may lead to lateral failure from breakdown of tissue in a lateral canal. The enigma of the lateral canal has been the object of description and discussion in many articles, but no one is truly certain of their exact significance in endodontic therapy for the long haul.

  17. Acoustic reflex patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Andrea; Albera, Roberto; Lacilla, Michelangelo; Canosa, Antonio; Albera, Andrea; Sacco, Francesca; Chiò, Adriano; Calvo, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate acoustic reflex testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Amplitude, latency, and rise time of stapedial reflex were recorded for 500 and 1000 Hz contralateral stimulus. Statistical analysis was performed by the Wilcoxon test and the level of significance was set at 5 %. Fifty-one amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched control subjects were studied. Patients were further divided in two groups: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar (38 cases, with bulbar signs at evaluation) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal (13 cases, without bulbar signs at evaluation). Stapedial reflex was present in all patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean amplitude, latency, and rise time between the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients as compared with the controls. Amplitude was lower in both the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients than in the controls (p amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases with bulbar signs and, moreover, suggesting a possible subclinical involvement of the stapedial motor neuron even in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients. Amplitude and rise time seem to be good sensitive parameters for investigating subclinical bulbar involvement.

  18. Modifications to the INSPECT model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The prediction of iodine behaviour in the containment of a PWR following a loss of coolant accident requires a reliable model of the chemistry of iodine in aqueous solution. The INSPECT model, which was developed several years ago, contains a large number of the relevant chemical reactions of iodine and water radiation chemistry. Since the reactions set was first assembled, however, new data on rate constants and mechanisms have become available. In addition, the application of the model to various small-scale experiments has revealed problems in the modelling of some reactions, leading to an under-prediction of the iodine volatility at high pH, although the experiments have demonstrated that the high pH volatility remains satisfactory low. This paper describes the modifications which have been made to the INSPECT model to take account of new data and to improve the modelling where appropriate. The main changes which have been made to the reaction set are as follows: - The rate constants and activation energies for the reactions describing the radiolysis of water have been updated in with recent assessments, and the temperature dependence of the G value for the primary species have been accordance taken into account, - The mechanism and rates of I{sub 2} hydrolysis have been modified in accordance with the latest assessments of this reaction, - The mechanism for the reaction of I{sub 2} with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been changed to a form which produces a more realistic pH dependence under neutral and alkaline conditions, - An addition mechanism for the disproportionation of the O{sub 2} ion has been included, reflecting experimental observations that this reaction has a significant first-order component under all but the purest conditions, - Atomic I is treated as a volatile species, with a partition coefficient of 1.9 at 298 K. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. Profiling and Racial Profiling: An Interactive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Racial Profiling has been recognized as a serious problem that affects many segments of our society and is especially notable in law enforcement. Governments and police services have pronounced that racial profiling is not acceptable and will not be tolerated. They have gone to great lengths in trying to eradicate racial profiling through…

  20. Controlled nanopatterning & modifications of materials by energetic ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, O. P. [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Sector-125, NOIDA (India)

    2016-05-23

    Compound semiconductors (InP, InAs and GaSb) has been exposed to energetic 3 keV Ar{sup +} ions for a varying fluence range of 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} to 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Morphological modifications of the irradiated surfaces have been investigated by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) in UHV conditions. It is observed that InP and GaSb have fluence dependent nanopattering e.g. nanoneedle, aligned nanodots, superimposed nanodots ripple like structures while InAs has little fluence dependent behaviour indicating materials dependent growth of features on irradiated surfaces. Moreover, surface roughness and wavelength of the features are also depending on the materials and fluences. The RMS surface roughness has been found to be increased rapidly in the early stage of irradiation followed by slower escalate rate and later tends to saturate indicating influence of the nonlinear processes.

  1. Maillard reaction versus other nonenzymatic modifications in neurodegenerative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Reinald; Ilieva, Ekaterina; Ayala, Victoria; Bellmunt, Maria Josep; Cacabelos, Daniel; Dalfo, Esther; Ferrer, Isidre; Portero-Otin, Manuel

    2008-04-01

    Nonenzymatic protein modifications are generated from direct oxidation of amino acid side chains and from reaction of the nucleophilic side chains of specific amino acids with reactive carbonyl species. These reactions give rise to specific markers that have been analyzed in different neurodegenerative diseases sharing protein aggregation, such as Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Collectively, available data demonstrate that oxidative stress homeostasis, mitochondrial function, and energy metabolism are key factors in determining the disease-specific pattern of protein molecular damage. In addition, these findings suggest the lack of a "gold marker of oxidative stress," and, consequently, they strengthen the need for a molecular dissection of the nonenzymatic reactions underlying neurodegenerative processes.

  2. Dynamic behaviors of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected external feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a BAL with lateral-mode selected external feedback experimentally by measuring the far-field profile, intensity noise spectrum and time series of the output beam. The mode-selection is achieved by adjusting a stripe mirror at the pseudo far-field plan...

  3. Influence of interface recombination in light emission from lateral Si-based light emitting devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Minh, P.; Hoang, T.; Holleman, J.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2006-01-01

    The influence of interface recombination on the electroluminescence profile of a lateral p+/p/n+ light emitting diode fabricated on Silicon On Insulator (SOI) materials has been experimentally investigated. Our device resembles a MOSFET fabricated on SOI, except that the source region has opposite

  4. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  5. Diagnosing Dyslexia: The Screening of Auditory Laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kjeld

    A study investigated whether a correlation exists between the degree and nature of left-brain laterality and specific reading and spelling difficulties. Subjects, 50 normal readers and 50 reading disabled persons native to the island of Bornholm, had their auditory laterality screened using pure-tone audiometry and dichotic listening. Results…

  6. STABILITY MATRICES FOR LATERAL BUCKLING ANALYSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    functional to investigate the lateral buckling behaviour of a class of beams comprising bi- symmetric sections. While retaining the coupled modes of displacements at ... programmed either in basic or FORTRAN and with efficient programming, a saving in computer time can be made. 1.0 INTRODUCTION. Lateral buckling of ...

  7. Gender and Marital Happiness in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Gayle; Taniguchi, Hiromi

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the effect of gender ideology on marital happiness in later life. Studies of marital satisfaction in later life have tended to neglect such attitudes, although they have received increasing attention in the literature on younger marriages. The authors use data from married individuals who range in age from 51 to…

  8. Naphthyl azomesogens with lateral chloro groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2003-10-11

    Oct 11, 2003 ... Schiff's base esters containing the naphthalene moi- ety and studied the effect of lateral thiol and methoxy substituent on mesomorphism. We have also repor- ted the synthesis of mesogenic homologous series of azomesogens without lateral substituent,26 with lat- eral methyl27 and chloro28 groups and ...

  9. Lateral Pharyngeal Diverticulum presenting with Dysphagia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lateral pharyngeal diverticulum (Pharyngocele) is the protrusion of pharyngeal mucosa through the pharyngeal wall, usually through either of two weak areas in the pharyngeal wall as an acquired or congenital case. Lateral diverticula are very rare and not to be mistaken for the rather more frequent and abundantly ...

  10. Herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, O.; Kesek, P.

    Herniography frequently reveals clinically undetected groin hernia. Thereby herniography contributes to the clinical work-up in patients with obscure groin pain. However, the distinction between clinically important and unimportant abnormalities within the lateral inguinal fossa can be difficult. This study was therefore designed in order to elucidate the herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa in patients with obscure groin pain. Herniographic findings were compared with laterality of the patients' symptoms. The lateral umbilical fold was visible in only 47% of the groins. A triangular shaped outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa and a patent processus vaginalis were found with equal frequency on the left and right side. They were five times as frequent in men as in women. Their presence did not correlate with laterality of the patients' symptoms. Indirect hernias were almost twice as common on the symptomatic side as compared with the asymptomatic side. On the left side they were found twice as often in men as in women while there was no significant sex difference on the right side. Our results show that neither a patent processus vaginalis nor a triangular outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa correlate with the laterality of the patients' symptoms while true indirect hernias do.

  11. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    and the frequency of the lateral movement. These forces are self-excited in the sense that they are generated by the movement of the body’s centre of mass, which in turn is caused by the lateral acceleration of the underlying pavement. Due to the random nature of the human-induced loadings and a large scatter...

  12. DAMAGING BACKGROUNDS - LATER ADJUSTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ADOPTEES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERHULST, FC; ALTHAUS, M; VERSLUISDENBIEMAN, HJM

    In this study of 2,148 international adoptees aged 10 to 15 years, the influence of early adverse experiences on later adjustment was examined. It was found that early neglect, abuse, and the number of changes of caretaking environment increased the risk for later maladjustment. The older the age of

  13. Anatomy of the Lateral Ankle Ligaments

    OpenAIRE

    SİNDEL, Muzaffer

    1998-01-01

    The lateral ligaments of talocrural articulation, namely anterior talofibular ligament, posterior talofibular ligament and cal-caneofibular ligament, are important in an-atomic reconstruction. If reconstructed improperly, they are known to limit the movements of talocrural articulation and subtalar articulation (talocalcaneal articulation) Studies on anatomy of anterior talofibular ligament, posterior talofibular ligament and calcaneofibular ligament known as the lateral ligaments ...

  14. Self-caring in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine; Grut, Sara

    2015-01-01

    . The phenomenon of gerontopedagogicalisation is a process of becoming a juvenile and entrepreneurial self in later life, conceptualised as performAGE (Fristrup, 2012a). PerformAGE is an approach to understanding the different ways of performing age in later life which favours the performing of this juvenile...

  15. Lateral interception II : Predicting hand movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michaels, CF; Jacobs, DM; Bongers, RM

    D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2006) concluded that aspects of hand movements in lateral catching were predicted by the ratio of lateral optical velocity to expansion velocity. Their conclusions were based partly on a modified version of the required velocity model of catching (C. E. Peper, R. J.

  16. Lateral interception II: Predicting hand movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michaels, C.F.; Jacobs, D.M.; Bongers, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2006) concluded that aspects of hand movements in lateral catching were predicted by the ratio of lateral optical velocity to expansion velocity. Their conclusions were based partly on a modified version of the required velocity model of catching (C. E. Peper, R. J.

  17. Plasticity and function of cerebral lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lust, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Lateralization refers to the division of labour between the hemispheres. The studies presented in this thesis addressed the developmental plasticity and function of cerebral lateralization. The access to an unique dataset of prenatal testosterone (pT) levels and the use of fTCD to measure individual

  18. Conservative treatment of acute lateral ankle sprains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jason M; Maleski, Richard M

    2002-04-01

    Lateral ankle sprains are among the most common sports injuries. Although ankle sprains are treated conservatively at the present time, for years the treatment was based on acute repair of the ruptured ligaments. Several differing opinions currently exist as to the treatment of lateral ankle sprains. A review of the literature and explanation of the benefits and risks of each treatment protocol is undertaken.

  19. Effects of density profile of MDF on stiffness and strength of nailed joints

    OpenAIRE

    Sawata, Kei; Shibusawa, Tatsuya; Ohashi, Kazuo; Sotomayor Castellanos, Javier Ramon; Hatano, Yasunori

    2008-01-01

    Nail-head pull-through, lateral nail resistance, and single shear nailed joint tests were conducted on medium density fiberboard (MDF) with different density profiles, and the relations between the results of these tests and the density profiles of MDF were investigated. The maximum load of nail-head pull-through and the maximum load of nailed joints were little affected by the density profile. However, the ultimate strength of lateral nail resistance, the stiffness, and the yield strength of...

  20. Treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability: a modified broström technique using three suture anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busconi Brian D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ankle sprains are very common injuries seen in the athletic and young population. Majority of patients will improve with a course of rest and physical therapy. However, with conservative management about twenty percent of all patients will go on to develop chronic lateral ankle instability. This manuscript describes our detailed surgical technique of a modification to the original Broström procedure using three suture anchors to anatomically reconstruct the lateral ankle ligaments to treat high demand patients who have developed chronic lateral ankle instability. The rationale for this modification along with patient selection and workup are discussed. Both the functional outcomes at the two year follow up along with the complications and the detailed postoperative rehabilitation protocol for the high demand athletes are also presented. This modified Broström procedure is shown in both illustrative format and intra-operative photos.

  1. Physical modification of polyetheretherketone for orthopedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Li-Nan; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Ye, Xin; Gu, Hong-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Ping; Shang, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is regarded as one of the most potential candidates for replacing current implant applications. To obtain good bone-implant interfaces, many modification methods have been developed to enable PEEK and PEEK-based composites from bio-inert to bioactive. Among them, physical methods have aroused significant attention and been widely used to modify PEEK for orthopedic implants. This review summarizes current physical modification techniques of PEEK for orthopedic applications, which include composite strategies, surface coating methods and irradiation treatments. The positive consequences of those modification methods will encourage continuing investigations and stimulate the wide range of applications of PEEK-based implants in orthopedics.

  2. Lateral preference in Williams-Beuren syndrome is associated with cognition and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, D; Flores, R; Brun-Gasca, C; Pérez-Jurado, L A

    2015-09-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a genetically defined neurodevelopmental disorder presenting with intellectual disability associated with a specific neurocognitive profile characterized by anxiety, hypersociability, poor visuospatial skills and relatively preserved language. We have defined the lateral preference in 69 individuals (40 males and 29 females, age range 5-47 years) with WBS confirmed by molecular testing, and explored its correlation with cognition, behavior problems, the main aspects of the behavioral phenotype, and specific molecular variants (parental origin and size of the 7q11.23 deletion). Lateral preference (hand, foot, eye and ear) and neurobehavioral features [intelligence quotient (IQ), sociability, visuospatial construction, narrative skills and behavior] were assessed by a battery of tests and parental interviews. A large proportion of WBS individuals showed either left or mixed handedness (26 and 19%, respectively). Hand, foot and ear lateral preference showed significant association with IQ, with individuals with mixed lateral preference presenting lower general IQ, especially verbal IQ, with respect to subjects with well-defined laterality. Approachability, visuospatial ability, behavior problems or molecular variants were not associated with lateral preference. Our results indicate that, as in other neurodevelopmental disorders, laterality is poorly defined in a significant proportion of WBS individuals, and reinforces the idea that a correct definition of lateral preference is important for cognition and language.

  3. A LabVIEW program for determining confidence intervals of Abel-inverted radial emission profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, George C.-Y. [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Hieftje, Gary M. [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)]. E-mail: hieftje@indiana.edu

    2005-11-15

    A LabVIEW-based program for the determination of confidence intervals in Abel inversion is described in detail. Confidence intervals are determined from the noise level in the input lateral-emission profile. It is first assumed that the noise-free lateral profile is a smooth and continuous function which can be satisfactorily approximated by a polynomial fit. Random noise is then added to produce a profile that is statistically identical to the experimental lateral profile. Because the number of generated lateral profiles can be as large as desired, the corresponding Abel-inverted radial profiles provide a basis for determination of the confidence intervals. The program is capable of determining the optimal order of the fitting polynomial for the input lateral profile. Two methods for computing the Abel inversion calculation, the Nestor-Olsen and the Hankel-Fourier algorithms, are built into the program. If necessary, the input lateral profile can be smoothed by a built-in moving-average function. A detailed description of the program and its associated functions is presented, followed by a characterization of its performance in the determination of Abel-inversion confidence intervals for several test emission profiles.

  4. Structural dynamic modification using additive damping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some current trends for vibration control are also discussed. Keywords. Structural modifications; viscoelastic damping; perturbation; sensitivity analysis; optimization; vibration control. 1. Introduction. Vibrations in machines and structures, if not properly controlled, may cause component fatigue and human discomfort.

  5. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voolstra, Olaf; Huber, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role. PMID:24717323

  6. Similarity Arguments in the Genetic Modification Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In the ethical debate on genetic modification (GM), it is common to encounter the claim that some anti-GM argument would also apply an established, ethically accepted technology, and that the anti-GM argument is therefore unsuccessful. The paper discusses whether this argumentative strategy....... Finally, the paper discusses what conclusions we can draw from the fact that genetic modification and established technologies are similar for the ethical status of genetic modification....... transferability of reasons from one case to another; and (iii) it runs the risk of equivocations, especially in cases where the anti-genetic-modification argument relies on gradable features. The paper then shows how these issues play out in three specific Similarity Arguments that can be found in the literature...

  7. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  8. Diagonal chromatography to study plant protein modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walton, Alan; Tsiatsiani, Liana; Jacques, Silke; Stes, Elisabeth; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank; Goormachtig, Sofie; Gevaert, Kris

    An interesting asset of diagonal chromatography, which we have introduced for contemporary proteome research, is its high versatility concerning proteomic applications. Indeed, the peptide modification or sorting step that is required between consecutive peptide separations can easily be altered and

  9. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  10. Lateral Meningomyelocele in a Neonate: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G Raghavendra; Rashmi, TM

    2016-01-01

    Lateral presentation of meningocele and meningomyelocele is extremely rare. Most of the lateral meningocele described are associated with other syndromes. Isolated lateral meningomyelocele cases are rarer still. We herein report a neonate with isolated lateral gluteal meningomyelocele. PMID:26793596

  11. Surface assessment and modification of concrete using abrasive blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Lauren R.

    Composite systems are applied to concrete substrates to strengthen and extend the service life. Successful restoration or rehabilitation requires surface preparation prior to the application of the overlay. Surface coatings, waterproofing systems, and other external surface applications also require surface preparation prior to application. Abrasive blast media is often used to clean and uniformly roughen the substrate. The appropriate surface roughness is necessary to facilitate a strong bond between the existing substrate and overlay. Thus, surface modification using abrasive blast media (sand and dry ice), their respective environmental effects, surface roughness characterization prior to and after blasting, and the adhesion between the substrate and overlay are the focus of this dissertation. This dissertation is comprised of an introduction, a literature review, and four chapters, the first of which addresses the environmental effects due to abrasive blasting using sand, water, and dry ice. The assessment considered four response variables: carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel and energy consumption, and project duration. The results indicated that for sand blasting and water jetting, the primary factor contributing to environmental detriment was CO22 emissions from vehicular traffic near the construction site. The second chapter is an analysis of the International Concrete Repair Institute's (ICRI) concrete surface profiles (CSPs) using 3-D optical profilometry. The primary objective was to evaluate the suitability of approximating the 3-D surface (areal) parameters with those extracted from 2-D (linear) profiles. Four profile directions were considered: two diagonals, and lines parallel and transverse to the longitudinal direction of the mold. For any CSP mold, the estimation of the 3-D surface roughness using a 2-D linear profile resulted in underestimation and overestimation errors exceeding 50%, demonstrating the inadequacy of 2-D linear profiles to

  12. Function of lateral line canal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    Fish perceive water motions and pressure gradients with their lateral line. Lateral line information is used for prey detection, spatial orientation, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and station holding. The lateral line of most fishes consists of superficial neuromasts (SNs) and canal neuromasts (CNs). The distribution of SNs and CNs shows a high degree of variation among fishes. Researchers have speculated for decades about the functional significance of this diversity, often without any conclusive answers. Klein et al. (2013) examined how tubules, pore number and pore patterns affect the filter properties of lateral line canals in a marine teleost, the black prickleback (Xiphister atropurpureus). A preliminary mathematical model was formulated and biomimetic sensors were built. For the present study the mathematical model was extended to understand the major underlying principle of how canal dimensions influence the filter properties of the lateral line. Both the extended mathematical model and the sensor experiments show that the number and distribution of pores determine the spatial filter properties of the lateral line. In an environment with little hydrodynamic noise, simple and complex lateral line canals have comparable response properties. However, if exposed to highly turbulent conditions, canals with numerous widely spaced pores increase the signal to noise ratio significantly. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Posterior root tears of the lateral meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, Matthias J; Salzmann, Gian M; Bode, Gerrit; Pestka, Jan M; Kühle, Jan; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    To summarize and discuss the current knowledge on posterior lateral meniscus root tears. A comprehensive review of the MEDLINE database was carried out to identify relevant articles using different keywords (e.g. "meniscus root", "root tear", "meniscus avulsion", "radial tear" and "lateral meniscus"). The reference lists of the reviewed articles were searched for additional relevant articles. Posterior lateral meniscus root tears are found in 7-12% of patients with a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Biomechanical studies have found an increase in lateral compartment contact pressure of approximately 50% after creation of a posterior lateral meniscus root tear. There is some evidence that the biomechanical consequences of these injuries are significantly influenced by the presence and integrity of the meniscofemoral ligaments. Clinical studies have found encouraging results after repair of posterior lateral meniscus root tears. Whether root repair can prevent the development of osteoarthritis is currently unknown. A posterior lateral meniscus root tear is a clinical relevant but most likely underrecognized concomitant injury in patients with a tear of the ACL. This article may support clinicians in diagnosing and treating this unique type of meniscus tear. V.

  14. Covalent Surface Modifications of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavia Sanders, Adriana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); O' Bryan, Greg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    A report meant to document the chemistries investigated by the author for covalent surface modification of CNTs. Oxidation, cycloaddition, and radical reactions were explored to determine their success at covalently altering the CNT surface. Characterization through infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis was performed in order to determine the success of the chemistries employed. This report is not exhaustive and was performed for CNT surface modification exploration as it pertains to the "Next Gen" project.

  15. Post-translational modifications in neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Benetti; Alessandro Didonna

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications increase proteome functionality for managing all aspects of normal cell biology. They are based on the covalent attachment of functional groups, leading to phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation, acylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation and oxidation of protein targets. Post-translational modifications occur at any step of protein life cycle, modulating in time and space protein folding, subcellular localization and activity. Aberrant post-translational mod...

  16. Assays for Post-translational Modifications of Intermediate Filament Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omary, M. Bishr

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known to be regulated by a number of post-translational modifications (PTMs). Phosphorylation is the best studied IF PTM, whereas ubiquitination, sumoylation, acetylation, glycosylation, ADP-ribosylation, farnesylation and transamidation are less understood in functional terms but are known to regulate specific IFs under various contexts. The number and diversity of IF PTMs is certain to grow along with rapid advances in proteomic technologies. Therefore, the need for a greater understanding of the implications of PTMs to the structure, organization, and function of the IF cytoskeleton has become more apparent with the increased availability of data from global profiling studies of normal and diseased specimens. This chapter will provide information on established methods for the isolation and monitoring of IF PTMs along with the key reagents that are necessary to carry out these experiments. PMID:26795469

  17. Detection of histone modifications in plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskiewicz, Michal; Peterhansel, Christoph; Conrath, Uwe

    2011-09-23

    Chromatin structure is important for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. In this process, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, and covalent modifications on the amino-terminal tails of histones H3 and H4 play essential roles(1-2). H3 and H4 histone modifications include methylation of lysine and arginine, acetylation of lysine, and phosphorylation of serine residues(1-2). These modifications are associated either with gene activation, repression, or a primed state of gene that supports more rapid and robust activation of expression after perception of appropriate signals (microbe-associated molecular patterns, light, hormones, etc.)(3-7). Here, we present a method for the reliable and sensitive detection of specific chromatin modifications on selected plant genes. The technique is based on the crosslinking of (modified) histones and DNA with formaldehyde(8,9), extraction and sonication of chromatin, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with modification-specific antibodies(9,10), de-crosslinking of histone-DNA complexes, and gene-specific real-time quantitative PCR. The approach has proven useful for detecting specific histone modifications associated with C(4;) photosynthesis in maize(5,11) and systemic immunity in Arabidopsis(3).

  18. Post-translational modifications in neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Benetti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications increase proteome functionality for managing all aspects of normal cell biology. They are based on the covalent attachment of functional groups, leading to phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation, acylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation and oxidation of protein targets. Post-translational modifications occur at any step of protein life cycle, modulating in time and space protein folding, subcellular localization and activity. Aberrant post-translational modifications of one or more culprit proteins may lead to neurodegeneration, as shown in paradigmatic neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and prion diseases. In this review, we report the most important post-translational modifications found in neurodegenerative disorders, illustrating the pathophysiological mechanisms in which they are involved. This work highlights the lack of a global framework of post-translational modifications in terms of complexity and regulation. Therefore, in the next future many efforts are required to describe the interplay existing between post-translational modifications and their combinatorial patterns on protein targets.

  19. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Lateral Canthoplasty to Lengthen the Lateral Canthal Angle and Correct the Outer Tail of the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Wook Chae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many women who want larger and brighter eyes that will give a favorable impression. Surgical methods that make the eye larger and brighter include double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, as well as lateral canthoplasty. Double eyelidplasty produces changes in the vertical dimension of the eyes, whereas epicanthoplasty and lateral canthoplasty create changes in the horizontal dimension of the eyes. Epicanthoplasty, a surgical procedure which enlarges the eye horizontally, is performed at the inner corner of the eye, whereas lateral canthoplasty enlarges the outer edge of the eye. In particular, if the slant of the palpebral fissure is raised and the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure is short, adjusting the slant of the palpebral fissure through lateral canthoplasty can achieve an enlargement of eye width and smoother features. Depending on the patient's condition, even better results can be achieved if this procedure is performed in conjunction with other procedures, such as double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, eye roll formation surgery, fat graft, and facial bone contouring surgery. In this paper, the authors will introduce in detail their surgical method for a cosmetic lateral canthoplasty that lengthens the lateral canthal angle and corrects the outer tail of the eyes, in order to ease the unfavorable impression.

  20. Proteins and their modifications in a medieval mummy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedláková, Pavla; Pataridis, Statis; Bortolotti, Federica; Gottardo, Rossella

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Proteins and their modifications of the natural mummy of Cangrande della Scala (Prince of Verona, Northern Italy, 1291–1329) were studied. The nano‐LC‐Q‐TOF analysis of samples of rib bone and muscle from the mummy showed the presence of different proteins including Types I, III, IV, V, and XI collagen, hemoglobin (subunits alpha and beta), ferritin, biglycan, vitronectin, prothrombin, and osteocalcin. The structure of Type I and Type III collagen was deeply studied to evaluate the occurrence of modifications in comparison with Type I and Type III collagen coming from tissues of recently died people. This analysis showed high percentage of asparaginyl and glutaminyl deamidation, carbamylation and carboxymethylation of lysine, as well as oxidation and dioxidation of methionine. The most common reaction during the natural mummification process was oxidation—the majority of lysine and proline of collagen Type I was hydroxylated whereas methionine was oxidated (oxidated or dioxidated). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which reports the protein profile of a natural mummified human tissue and the first one which describes the carbamylation and carboxymethylation of lysine in mummified tissues. PMID:27543755

  1. Facial feminization - Surgical modification for Indian, European and African faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S M

    2016-01-01

    Gender reassignment surgery for facial feminization is being increasingly sought out by males with gender nonconformity issues. Noninvasive camouflage measures such as changing hairstyle, makeup, and filler inserts often do not fetch desired long lasting effects and surgery is sought as a last resort. The facial feminization surgery (FFS) for Indian faces, has no definitive protocol till date and largely remains as an arbitrary undertaking based on individual patient's perception, expectation, and surgeon's ability. This manuscript aims to present a series of the Indian FFS and compare the same with European and African counterparts to highlight the Indian expectation of FFS and thus its modifications. Seven patients confirming to gender nonconformity status, seeking FFS, aged between 21 and 36 years (mean 26.3 ± 4.2 years; median 25 years) were surgically treated during 2007-2014. Of them, five were of Indian origin and the rest two from the Europe and Africa. After investigation and para-clinical workup, FFS were carried out in stages with due modifications. Basic surgical guidelines were followed accommodating Indian parameters of facial profile as well as expectations. Various amounts of soft and hard tissue changes were required for individual patients, depending on their individual perception. All seven patients were satisfied with their feminine faces. The challenges and differences in planning and performing Indian FFS are described.

  2. Modification of Particle Distributions By MHD Instabilities I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.B. White

    2010-12-23

    The modification of particle distributions by low amplitude magnetohydrodynamic modes is an important topic for magnetically confined plasmas. Low amplitude modes are known to be capable of producing significant modification of injected neutral beam profiles, and the same can be expected in burning plasmas for the alpha particle distributions. Flattening of a distribution due to phase mixing in an island or due to portions of phase space becoming stochastic is a process extremely rapid on the time scale of an experiment but still very long compared to the time scale of guiding center simulations. Thus it is very valuable to be able to locate significant resonances and to predict the final particle distribution produced by a given spectrum of magnetohydrodynamic modes. In this paper we introduce a new method of determining domains of phase space in which good surfaces do not exist and use this method for quickly determining the final state of the particle distribution without carrying out the full time evolution leading to it.

  3. [Structural biology of post-translational modifications of proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A majority of proteins encoded in genomes of limited size are post-translationally diversified by covalent modifications such as glycosylation and ubiquitination. Although recent advances in structural proteomics have enabled high-throughput structure determination of proteins, structural analyses of post-translationally modified proteins remain challenging because of the lack of appropriate determination methods. Therefore, we developed methodologies for characterizing the post-translational modifications of proteins from the structural viewpoint, focusing especially on glycosylation and ubiquitination. For instance, we established a systematic method for structural glycomics to address broader issues, including glycosylation profiling and 3D structure analyses of glycoproteins. Our stable-isotope-assisted NMR techniques in conjunction with X-ray crystallographic approach provide valuable information at the atomic level on conformations, dynamics, and interactions of glycoproteins such as antibody and proteins involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. These studies provide the structural basis for improved efficacy of therapeutic antibodies on defucosylation of their Fc glycans and mechanistic insights into ubiquitination reactions in glycoprotein-fate determination in cells. These approaches will allow new possibilities for structural studies on post-translationally modified proteins of clinical, pathological, and pharmaceutical interests.

  4. Field Expedient Armor Modifications to US Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boal, Matthew A

    2006-01-01

    .... Some of the specific types of modifications analyzed are hedgerow cutters, sand bagging, addition or modification of ancillary weapons, communications improvements, camouflage, rocket propelled...

  5. Gait modification strategies for altering medial knee joint load: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Milena; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V; Bennell, Kim L; Hunt, Michael A

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of gait modification strategies on the external knee adduction moment (KAM), a marker of medial knee joint load; determine potentially adverse effects; assess the methodologic quality; and identify areas of future research. Five electronic databases were searched. Studies evaluating the effects of gait modifications on the KAM in either healthy individuals or those with knee osteoarthritis (OA) were included. Methodologic quality was evaluated by 2 reviewers using the Downs and Black checklist. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, exploring 14 different gait modifications of varying sample sizes, age groups, and OA classifications. Contralateral cane use, increased step width, medial knee thrust, increased hip internal rotation, weight transfer to the medial foot, and increased lateral trunk lean demonstrated KAM reductions. Tai Chi gait, ipsilateral cane use, Nordic walking poles, and increased knee flexion exhibited increases in the KAM, demonstrating a potential detriment to their use. The effects of reduced stride length, as well as increases and reductions in either toe-out or gait speed, were inconsistent across the studies and gait cycle. This review demonstrates that some gait modifications have the ability to alter knee load. Future research is required to determine the magnitude of modification required to maximize beneficial effects, the best method of training, long-term patient adherence, and if these biomechanical changes can translate into clinically relevant changes in symptoms or disease progression risk. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Waveform inversion of lateral velocity variation from wavefield source location perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2013-09-22

    It is challenge in waveform inversion to precisely define the deep part of the velocity model compared to the shallow part. The lateral velocity variation, or what referred to as the derivative of velocity with respect to the horizontal distance, with well log data can be used to update the deep part of the velocity model more precisely. We develop a waveform inversion algorithm to obtain the lateral velocity variation by inverting the wavefield variation associated with the lateral shot location perturbation. The gradient of the new waveform inversion algorithm is obtained by the adjoint-state method. Our inversion algorithm focuses on resolving the lateral changes of the velocity model with respect to a fixed reference vertical velocity profile given by a well log. We apply the method on a simple-dome model to highlight the methods potential.

  7. Individualized optimal surgical extent of the lateral neck in papillary thyroid cancer with lateral cervical metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Yong; Koo, Bon Seok

    2014-06-01

    Despite an excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node (LN) metastases are common in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The presence of metastasis is associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence, which significantly impairs quality of life and may decrease survival. Therefore, it has been an important determinant of the extent of lateral LN dissection in the initial treatment of PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. However, the optimal extent of therapeutic lateral neck dissection (ND) remains controversial. Optimizing the surgical extent of LN dissection is fundamental for balancing the surgical morbidity and oncological benefits of ND in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. We reviewed the currently available literature regarding the optimal extent of lateral LN dissection in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Even in cases with suspicion of metastatic LN at the single lateral level or isolated metastatic lateral LN, the application of ND including all sublevels from IIa and IIb to Va and Vb may be overtreatment, due to the surgical morbidity. When there is no suspicion of LN metastasis at levels II and V, or when multilevel aggressive neck metastasis is not found, sublevel IIb and Va dissection may not be necessary in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Thus consideration of the individualized optimal surgical extent of lateral ND is important when treating PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis.

  8. Improvement of vibroacoustic properties of toothed gears through constructional modifications of gear teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej WIECZOREK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper draws attention to methods of minimizing values of vibroacoustic factors by reducing the sources. In the case of toothed gears such causes include, first of all, deviations in workmanship, excitations generated when teeth move in and out of mesh, as well as mesh stiffness variations. The paper presents results of experimental research on vibroacoustic properties of gear wheels with modified and non-modified high-profile teeth. Basing on these results, it was determined that the best results in counteracting vibrations and noise are obtained by using jointly an increased gear contact ratio and a tooth profile modification.

  9. Lateral power transistors in integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Erlbacher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    This book details and compares recent advancements in the development of novel lateral power transistors (LDMOS devices) for integrated circuits in power electronic applications. It includes the state-of-the-art concept of double-acting RESURF topologies.

  10. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1.......2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of the response...... of a lateral loaded pile, namely the Winkler approach in which the pile is modelled as an elastic beam on an elastic foundation (section 1.5). The soil response and thereby the elastic foundation is represented by springs with nonlinear behaviour (p-y curves). In section 1.6 different types and formulations...

  11. Lateral meningocele and defect of abdominal wall.

    OpenAIRE

    Placzek, M M; MacKinnon, A E

    1980-01-01

    A case of lateral meningocele associated with deficiency of the thoraco-abdominal wall is reported. It is suggested that both of these defects are due to interference with the development of the paraxial mesoderm by a single injury.

  12. Management of missing maxillary lateral incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, R

    1999-01-01

    Missing maxillary lateral incisors create an esthetic problem with specific orthodontic and prosthetic considerations. The purpose of this article is to describe treatment protocols and problems encountered in the management of this disorder. The two common treatment options are orthodontic space opening for future restorations or orthodontic space closure using canines to replace the missing maxillary lateral incisors. The required amount of space opening and the various prosthetic options are discussed. The methods for reshaping canines in orthodontic space closure and building them up to simulate lateral incisors also are described. The indications, advantages and disadvantages of both treatment modalities are outlined to help clinicians make decisions in borderline situations. Teamwork between the orthodontist, general practitioner and restorative dentist is important when analyzing factors related to individual patients and establishing overall treatment plans. This also will allow treatment modalities and the various options for replacing missing maxillary lateral incisors in space opening to be discussed between team members and the patient.

  13. Laterally Coupled Distributed-Feedback Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Robert J.; Forouhar, Siamak; Tiberio, Richard C.; Porkolab, George

    1992-01-01

    Distributed-feedback semiconductor lasers of proposed design called "laterally coupled" features Bragg gratings located on top surfaces next to sides of ridge waveguides overlying gain regions of laser resonators.

  14. Cooling Therapy Helps Newborns Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... showed that treated babies had a lower risk of death and disability nearly 2 years later. The therapy is now used in many neonatal intensive care units. In the new study, scientists looked to see ...

  15. Lateral Patellofemoral Ligament: An Anatomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kalpit N; DeFroda, Steven F; Ware, James Kristopher; Koruprolu, Sarath C; Owens, Brett D

    2017-12-01

    Medial instability of the patellofemoral joint is a rare but known phenomenon that may result from an incompetent lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL). Surgical reconstruction of the LPFL has been described. However, anatomic details of the ligament have not been the subject of scrutiny. To describe the anatomic origin and insertion of the LPFL. Descriptive laboratory study. Ten fresh-frozen, unpaired human cadaveric knees (mean age, 57 years) were dissected to identify the LPFL. The dissection was carried out by elevating the iliotibial band to expose the deep capsular layer of the knee joint, followed by a medial parapatellar approach to the knee. Then the quadriceps and patellar tendons were sectioned, and the LPFL was isolated by visualization and palpation. The LPFL was dissected to reveal its origin and insertion; these were measured with respect to the lateral epicondyle and the superior-inferior axis of the lateral patella, respectively. On average, the LPFL had a variable point of origin in location as well as width about the lateral epicondyle. The LPFL originated, on average, 2.6 mm distal (range, 13.1 mm proximal to 11.4 mm distal) and 10.8 mm anterior (range, 7.3 mm posterior to 14.9 mm anterior) to the lateral epicondyle. The LPFL insertion on the patella was more reliably found to be about 45% (range, 23.7%-58.4%) of its lateral articular surface. The insertion on the patella was found to be in the middle third of the lateral patella. The LPFL has an origin that is variable but, on average, was found to be distal and anterior to the lateral epicondyle. The patella insertion was more reliably found to be in the middle third of the lateral patella. These anatomic relationships can help the surgeon reconstruct the LPFL in a more anatomic fashion. Surgeons who are tasked with reconstruction of the LPFL of a patient with idiopathic medial instability or a previous aggressive lateral release of the knee may reference this article to perform an anatomic

  16. Accuracy Improvement of Discharge Measurement with Modification of Distance Made Good Heading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongkook Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote control boats equipped with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP are widely accepted and have been welcomed by many hydrologists for water discharge, velocity profile, and bathymetry measurements. The advantages of this technique include high productivity, fast measurements, operator safety, and high accuracy. However, there are concerns about controlling and operating a remote boat to achieve measurement goals, especially during extreme events such as floods. When performing river discharge measurements, the main error source stems from the boat path. Due to the rapid flow in a flood condition, the boat path is not regular and this can cause errors in discharge measurements. Therefore, improvement of discharge measurements requires modification of boat path. As a result, the measurement errors in flood flow conditions are 12.3–21.8% before the modification of boat path, but 1.2–3.7% after the DMG modification of boat path. And it is considered that the modified discharges are very close to the observed discharge in the flood flow conditions. In this study, through the distance made good (DMG modification of the boat path, a comprehensive discharge measurement with high accuracy can be achieved.

  17. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina De Cosmi; Silvia Scaglioni; Carlo Agostoni

    2017-01-01

    Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. R...

  18. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  19. C-reactive protein and later preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Schlüssel, Michael M; Vaz, Juliana S

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration during pregnancy is associated with later preeclampsia and whether weight status (BMI) is a potential modifier of the relation between CRP and preeclampsia.......This study aims to determine whether high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration during pregnancy is associated with later preeclampsia and whether weight status (BMI) is a potential modifier of the relation between CRP and preeclampsia....

  20. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis. PMID:19726480

  1. Microscopic features of the lateral periodontal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, M; Pindborg, J J

    1975-03-01

    The lateral periodontal cyst is of developmental odontogenic origin and must be differentiated from the gingival cyst of adults, a primordial cyst in a lateral periodontal position, and a cyst of inflammatory origin. This paper is based on a histologic study of five cases. Four were in the mandibular premolar region and one in the lateral incisor-canine region of the maxilla. The cysts are lined by a thin non-keratinized epithelium which resembles the reduced enamel epithelium. Many of them arecharacterized by the presence of localized plaque-like thickenings of their epithelial linings, consisting of fusiform or large swollen, edematous cells. These epithelial thickenings appear to result from a localized proiferation of basal cells. The lateral periodontal cyst may arise initially as a dentigerous cyst which develops by expansion of the follicle along the lateral surface of the crown and comes to lie on the lateral aspect of the root if tooth eruption is normal. Alternatively, it may arise from the cell rests of Malassez.

  2. Displacing lateral meniscus masquerading as patella dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Elizabeth A; Fontboté, Cristián A; Rohr, Sara R

    2014-10-01

    To alert the treating clinician to an uncommon knee meniscal condition that often masquerades as a more common patella condition. Retrospective chart review of a series of cases was undertaken. A series of 12 knees in 11 patients were referred to an orthopaedic surgeon with a diagnosis of recurrent lateral patella dislocation. Three knees had undergone patella realignment surgery with continuance of symptoms. Eight patients had prior magnetic resonance images read as no meniscal pathology and no acute patella/patella retinacular injury. All patients presented for a consult with a similar history. Under anaesthesia, all knees had a stable patella as judged by physical examination. At the time of surgery, six patients had a frank tear in the lateral meniscus, all of which were readily displaceable. Six knees showed a displaceable lateral meniscus with attenuation but not a visible frank tear. Ten menisci were treated with repair, and two knees underwent partial lateral meniscectomies. Patient follow-up of minimally 18 months revealed no further episodes of "knee-cap dislocation" or symptoms of catching and locking. The clinician treating a patient with a history of a knee locking in flexion should have a high index of suspicion for a lateral meniscus tear or an unstable hypermobile lateral meniscus, despite patient report of perceived patella movement. History of symptoms occurring in knee flexion and attention to patella physical examination should be key factors in this diagnostic conundrum. Retrospective chart review, Level IV.

  3. Enzymatic modifications of exopolysaccharides enhance bacterial persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory B. Whitfield

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are surface-attached communities of bacterial cells embedded in a self-produced matrix that are found ubiquitously in nature. The biofilm matrix is composed of various extracellular polymeric substances, which confer advantages to the encapsulated bacteria by protecting them from eradication. The matrix composition varies between species and is dependent on the environmental niche that the bacteria inhabit. Exopolysaccharides play a variety of important roles in biofilm formation in numerous bacterial species. The ability of bacteria to thrive in a broad range of environmental settings is reflected in part by the structural diversity of the exopolysaccharides produced both within individual bacterial strains as well as by different species. This variability is achieved through polymerization of distinct sugar moieties into homo- or hetero-polymers, as well as post-polymerization modification of the polysaccharide. Specific enzymes that are unique to the production of each polymer can transfer or remove non-carbohydrate moieties, or in other cases, epimerize the sugar units. These modifications alter the physicochemical properties of the polymer, which in turn can affect bacterial pathogenicity, virulence, and environmental adaptability. Herein, we review the diversity of modifications that the exopolysaccharides alginate, the Pel polysaccharide (PEL, Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS, cepacian, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, and poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG undergo during biosynthesis. These are exopolysaccharides produced by human pathogenic bacteria for which studies have begun to unravel the effect modifications have on their physicochemical and biological properties. The biological advantages these polymer modifications confer to the bacteria that produce them will be discussed. The expanding list of identified modifications will allow future efforts to focus on linking these modifications to specific biosynthetic genes and biofilm phenotypes.

  4. Cardiometabolic health and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Hannah C; Saw, Wilfred; Cheah, Benjamin C; Lin, Cindy S Y; Vucic, Steve; Ahmed, Rebekah M; Kiernan, Matthew C; Park, Susanna B

    2017-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) generally have a limited medical history and a normal body mass index, raising the possibility of a premorbid ALS phenotype. The prevalence of cardiometabolic factors was analyzed in 58 ALS patients via comprehensive cardiovascular assessments and compared with Australian population norms. ALS patients had good cardiac fitness and no reported cardiovascular events. Average blood pressure, heart rate, PR interval, and corrected QT interval were in the normal range. There were significantly fewer obese women in the ALS cohort (13.6%, P ALS cohort (55.8%, P ≤ 0.001), and the prevalence of dyslipidemia was lower (38.7%) compared with the general population (74.4%, P ALS patients had good cardiometabolic health, with evidence of a reduced vascular risk profile. Muscle Nerve 56: 721-725, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Metabolomics: Clinical Implication and Therapeutic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is one of the most common motor neurodegenerative disorders, primarily affecting upper and lower motor neurons in the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord, resulting in paralysis due to muscle weakness and atrophy. The majority of patients die within 3–5 years of symptom onset as a consequence of respiratory failure. Due to relatively fast progression of the disease, early diagnosis is essential. Metabolomics offer a unique opportunity to understand the spatiotemporal metabolic crosstalks through the assessment of body fluids and tissue. So far, one of the most challenging issues related to ALS is to understand the variation of metabolites in body fluids and CNS with the progression of disease. In this paper we will review the changes in metabolic profile in response to disease progression condition and also see the therapeutic implication of various drugs in ALS patients.

  6. Endoscopic resection of advanced and laterally spreading duodenal papillary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Amir; Tutticci, Nicholas; Bourke, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Historically, neoplasia of the duodenal papilla has been managed surgically, which may be associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. In the absence of invasive cancer, even lesions with extensive lateral duodenal wall involvement, or limited intraductal extension may be cured endoscopically with a superior safety profile. Endoscopic papillectomy is associated with greater risks of adverse events such as bleeding than resection elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally site-specific complications such as pancreatitis exist. A structured approach to lesion assessment, adherence to technical aspects of resection, endoscopic management of complications and post-resection surveillance is required. Advances have been made in all facets of endoscopic papillary resection since its introduction in the 1980s; extending the boundaries of endoscopic cure, optimizing outcomes and enhancing patient safety. These will be the focus of the present review. © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  7. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Metabolomics: Clinical Implication and Therapeutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alok; Ghosh, Devlina; Singh, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most common motor neurodegenerative disorders, primarily affecting upper and lower motor neurons in the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord, resulting in paralysis due to muscle weakness and atrophy. The majority of patients die within 3–5 years of symptom onset as a consequence of respiratory failure. Due to relatively fast progression of the disease, early diagnosis is essential. Metabolomics offer a unique opportunity to understand the spatiotemporal metabolic crosstalks through the assessment of body fluids and tissue. So far, one of the most challenging issues related to ALS is to understand the variation of metabolites in body fluids and CNS with the progression of disease. In this paper we will review the changes in metabolic profile in response to disease progression condition and also see the therapeutic implication of various drugs in ALS patients. PMID:26317018

  8. Electrostatics of lateral p-n junctions in atomically thin materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipane, Ankur; Jayanti, Sirisha; Borah, Abhinandan; Teherani, James T.

    2017-11-01

    The lack of analytical expressions for the electrostatics of asymmetrically doped 2D lateral junctions complicates the design and analysis of devices based on atomically thin materials. In this work, we provide analytical expressions for the electric field, electrostatic potential, and depletion width across 2D lateral p-n junctions with arbitrary, but spatially uniform doping configurations. We also extend these expressions for use in lateral 3D metal-2D semiconductor junctions and lateral 2D heterojunctions. The results show a significantly larger depletion width (˜2 to 20×) for our 2D method compared to a conventional 3D approach due to the presence of a large out-of-plane electric field. For asymmetrically doped p-n junctions, the 2D depletion width shows a logarithmic dependence on the doping density of the highly doped side, in sharp contrast with conventional electrostatics for 3D junctions. Further, we show that 2D lateral depletion widths can be significantly modulated by changing the surrounding dielectric environment and, hence, can be tuned to realize optimum device structures. Finally, we show that even though the long depletion tails in 2D lateral p-n junctions carry a significant amount of total net charge, they do not significantly affect the electric field and electrostatic potential profiles, supporting the validity of the depletion approximation in analytical modeling of 2D lateral p-n junctions.

  9. Chromatin Modifications Associated With Diabetes and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schones, Dustin E; Leung, Amy; Natarajan, Rama

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of obesity across the globe has doubled over the past several decades, leading to escalating rates of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and other complications. Given this dramatic rise in disease incidence, understanding the cause of these diseases is therefore of paramount importance. Metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, result from a multitude of genetic and environmental factors. Although the genetic basis of these diseases has been extensively studied, the molecular pathways whereby environmental factors influence disease progression are only beginning to be understood. One manner by which environmental factors can contribute to disease progression is through modifications to chromatin. The highly structured packaging of the genome into the nucleus through chromatin has been shown to be fundamental to tissue-specific gene regulation. Modifications to chromatin can regulate gene expression and are involved in a myriad of biological functions, and hence, disruption of these modifications is central to many human diseases. These modifications can furthermore be epigenetic in nature, thereby contributing to prolonged disease risk. Recent work has demonstrated that modifications to chromatin are associated with the progression of both diabetes mellitus and obesity, which is the subject of this review. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Structural modification. Part 1: rotational receptances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottershead, John E.; Kyprianou, Andreas; Ouyang, Huajiang

    2005-06-01

    The inverse problem of assigning natural frequencies and antiresonances by a modification to the stiffness, mass and damping of a structure is addressed. Very simple modifications such as the addition of masses and grounded springs can be easily accommodated and require the measurement of translational receptances at the connection coordinates. Realistic modifications of practical usefulness, such as a modification by an added beam, require the measurement of rotational as well as translational receptances. Such data are difficult to obtain because of the practical problems of applying a pure moment. One method, the so-called 'T-block' approach, has received considerable attention in the literature, but the accompanying problem of ill-conditioning has not been fully addressed until now. The T-block is attached to the structure at the modification point, so that a force applied to the T-block generates a moment together with a force at the connection point between the T-block and the parent structure. Forces and linear displacements measured on the T-block, together with a mass and stiffness model of the T-block itself, allow the problem to be cast as a special case of excitation by multiple inputs. The resulting equations are generally ill-conditioned, but can be regularized by using a small number of independent measurements. The methodology and signal processing techniques required to estimate the rotational receptances are described. An experimental example is used to demonstrate the practical application of the method.

  11. Association of Lateral Crural Overlay Technique With Strength of the Lower Lateral Cartilages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insalaco, Louis; Rashes, Emma R; Rubin, Samuel J; Spiegel, Jeffrey H

    2017-12-01

    The lateral crural overlay technique is a powerful technique for altering nasal tip projection and rotation. By overlapping and thus shortening the lateral crura, the nasal tip is shortened and rotated upward, thus decreasing projection and increasing rotation. There is no data to show the association of this technique with the strength of the lower lateral cartilage. Strengthening of the lower lateral cartilages would presumably lead to resistance to external nasal valve collapse and improved airway. In this cadaver study, we set out to determine the differences in the strength and resilience of the lateral crura after performing lateral crural overlay using 2 different techniques. Seven individual lower lateral cartilages were harvested from 6 cadavers for analysis. Each of the 7 cartilages was included sequentially in 3 test groups in the following order: a preprocedure group (preP), a postprocedure group (postP) in which the lateral crural overlay technique was performed, and a postprocedure with glue group (postPG) in which cyanoacrylate glue was added to the postP cartilages to simulate cartilage healing. A force gauge was used to measure the force required to deflect the lower lateral cartilages distances from 1 to 6 mm. Differences measured in newtons (N) for strength and resilience of lateral crura between the preP, postP, and postPG groups. A statistically significant increase in lower lateral cartilage resilience was noted between the preP and postPG groups at all distances of tip deflection (1 mm, 0.20 vs 0.70 N; P strength and resilience to the lateral crura of the lower lateral cartilages, which should in turn decrease the likelihood of external nasal valve collapse postoperatively. NA.

  12. Characterization of neurohistone variants and post-translational modifications by electron capture dissociation mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Benjamin A.; Siuti, Nertila; Thomas, C. Eric; Mizzen, Craig A.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2007-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones are intimately involved in chromatin structure and thus have roles in cellular processes through their impact on gene activation or repression. At the forefront in histone PTM analysis are mass spectrometry-based techniques, which have capabilities to produce improved views of processes affected by chromatin remodeling via histone modifications. In this report, we take the first mass spectrometric look at histone variant expression and post-translational modifications from histones isolated from rat brain tissue. Analyses of whole rat brain identified specific histone H2A and H2B gene family members and several H4 and H3 post-translational modification sites by electron capture dissociation (ECD) mass spectrometry. We subsequently compared these results to selected rat brain regions. Major differences in the expression profiles of H2A and H2B gene family members or in the post-translational modifications on histone H4 were not observed from the different brain regions using a Top Down approach. However, "Middle Down" mass spectrometry facilitating improved characterization of the histone H3 tail (1-50 residues), revealed an enrichment of trimethylation on Lys9 from cerebellum tissue compared to H3 extracted from whole brain, cerebral cortex or hypothalamus tissue. We forward this study in honor of Professor Donald F. Hunt, whose pioneering efforts in protein and PTM analyses have spawned new eras and numerous careers, many exemplified in this special issue.

  13. Nonseptic and Septic Lateral Sinus Thrombosis: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanatha, B.; Thriveni, C. N.; Naseeruddin, Khaja

    2011-01-01

    Thrombosis of the lateral sinus can be classified into nonseptic lateral sinus thrombosis and septic lateral sinus thrombosis. Nonseptic lateral sinus thrombosis differs from septic lateral sinus thrombosis in that it is not associated with ear or sinus infection. Etiologies of these conditions are different and hence the management of these conditions is different. Nonseptic lateral sinus thrombosis requires medical line of management and anticoagulant therapy, where as septic lateral sinus ...

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis multiprotein biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nardo

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal progressive motor neuron disease, for which there are still no diagnostic/prognostic test and therapy. Specific molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate clinical studies and speed up the development of effective treatments.We used a two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis approach to identify in easily accessible clinical samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, a panel of protein biomarkers that are closely associated with ALS. Validations and a longitudinal study were performed by immunoassays on a selected number of proteins. The same proteins were also measured in PBMC and spinal cord of a G93A SOD1 transgenic rat model. We identified combinations of protein biomarkers that can distinguish, with high discriminatory power, ALS patients from healthy controls (98%, and from patients with neurological disorders that may resemble ALS (91%, between two levels of disease severity (90%, and a number of translational biomarkers, that link responses between human and animal model. We demonstrated that TDP-43, cyclophilin A and ERp57 associate with disease progression in a longitudinal study. Moreover, the protein profile changes detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ALS patients are suggestive of possible intracellular pathogenic mechanisms such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, nitrative stress, disturbances in redox regulation and RNA processing.Our results indicate that PBMC multiprotein biomarkers could contribute to determine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disease severity and progression, and may help to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms.

  15. Identification and Interrogation of Combinatorial Histone Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Karch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone proteins are dynamically modified to mediate a variety of cellular processes including gene transcription, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurs through the recruitment of non-histone proteins to chromatin by specific combinations of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs. Mass spectrometry has emerged as an essential tool to discover and quantify histone PTMs both within and between samples in an unbiased manner. Developments in mass spectrometry that allow for characterization of large histone peptides or intact protein has made it possible to determine which modifications occur simultaneously on a single histone polypeptide. A variety of techniques from biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical biology have been employed to determine the biological relevance of discovered combinatorial codes. This review first describes advancements in the field of mass spectrometry that have facilitated histone PTM analysis and then covers notable approaches to probe the biological relevance of these modifications in their nucleosomal context.

  16. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.

  17. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  18. Recalcitrant Lateral Premalleolar Bursitis of the Ankle Associated with Lateral Ankle Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Masashi Naito; Takumi Matsumoto; Song Ho Chang; Masachika Ikegami; Jun Hirose; Sakae Tanaka

    2017-01-01

    Lateral premalleolar bursitis of the ankle is a rarely reported disorder in the English literature although it is not uncommon in Asian countries where people commonly sit on their feet. Here, we present the case of a 66-year-old woman with recalcitrant lateral premalleolar bursitis associated with lateral ankle instability which was successfully treated with surgical resection of the bursa and repair of the anterior talofibular ligament. Operative findings revealed a communication between th...

  19. Assessment and analysis of human laterality for manipulation and communication using the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, Jacques; Barbu, Stéphanie; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    Despite significant scientific advances, the nature of the left-hemispheric systems involved in language (speech and gesture) and manual actions is still unclear. To date, investigations of human laterality focused mainly on non-communication functions. Although gestural laterality data have been published for infants and children, relatively little is known about laterality of human gestural communication. This study investigated human laterality in depth considering non-communication manipulation actions and various gesture types involving hands, feet, face and ears. We constructed an online laterality questionnaire including 60 items related to daily activities. We collected 317 594 item responses by 5904 randomly selected participants. The highest percentages of strong left-lateralized (6.76%) and strong right-lateralized participants (75.19%) were for manipulation actions. The highest percentages of mixed left-lateralized (12.30%) and ambidextrous (50.23%) participants were found for head-related gestures. The highest percentage of mixed right-lateralized participants (55.33%) was found for auditory gestures. Every behavioural category showed a significant population-level right-side bias. More precisely, participants were predominantly right-lateralized for non-communication manual actions, for visual iconic, visual symbolic, visual deictic (with and without speech), tactile and auditory manual gestures as well as for podial and head-related gestures. Our findings support previous studies reporting that humans have left-brain predominance for gestures and complex motor activities such as tool-use. Our study shows that the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire is a useful research instrument to assess and analyse human laterality for both manipulation and communication functions.

  20. Side of Limb-Onset Predicts Laterality of Gray Matter Loss in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Qiuli Zhang; Cuiping Mao; Jiaoting Jin; Chen Niu; Lijun Bai; Jingxia Dang; Ming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to asse...

  1. Surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Elizabeth V; Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning; Stevenson, Jeffry W; Surdoval, Wayne; Khaleel, Mohammad A

    2013-07-16

    A surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation is disclosed. The surface modification includes a ferritic stainless steel substrate having a modified surface. A cross-section of the modified surface exhibits a periodic morphology. The periodic morphology does not exceed a critical buckling length, which is equivalent to the length of a wave attribute observed in the cross section periodic morphology. The modified surface can be created using at least one of the following processes: shot peening, surface blasting and surface grinding. A coating can be applied to the modified surface.

  2. Chromatin proteins and modifications as drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, Kristian; Dhanak, Dashyant

    2013-01-01

    is a frequent event in disease, and the first epigenetic-based therapies for cancer treatment have been approved. A generation of new classes of potent and specific inhibitors for several chromatin-associated proteins have shown promise in preclinical trials. Although the biology of epigenetic regulation......A plethora of groundbreaking studies have demonstrated the importance of chromatin-associated proteins and post-translational modifications of histones, proteins and DNA (so-called epigenetic modifications) for transcriptional control and normal development. Disruption of epigenetic control...

  3. Disorders of emotional processing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative brain disease characterized by motor, behavioural and cognitive deficits. Only recently, emotional processing disorders have been shown in this disease. The interest in affective processing in ALS is growing given that basic emotion impairments could impact copying strategies and mood. Studies explore both basic emotion recognition and social cognition. Results are congruent on arousal and valence detection impairments, independently from the stimulus modality (verbal or visual). Further, recognition of facial expressions of anger, sadness and disgust is impaired in ALS, even when cognition is preserved. Clinical features such as type of onset and severity of the disease could be the cause of the heterogeneity in emotional deficits profiles between patients. Finally, a study employing diffusion tensor imaging showed that emotional dysfunctions in ALS are related to right hemispheric connective bundles impairments, involving the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the inferior frontal occipital fasciculus. Research on emotional processing in ALS is still in its infancy and results are mixed. Future research including more detailed clinical profiles of patients and measures of brain connectivity will provide useful information to understand heterogeneity of results in ALS.

  4. Anisotropic permeability in deterministic lateral displacement arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Vernekar, Rohan; Loutherback, Kevin; Morton, Keith; Inglis, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate anisotropic permeability of microfluidic deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. A DLD array can achieve high-resolution bimodal size-based separation of micro-particles, including bioparticles such as cells. Correct operation requires that the fluid flow remains at a fixed angle with respect to the periodic obstacle array. We show via experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations that subtle array design features cause anisotropic permeability. The anisotropy, which indicates the array's intrinsic tendency to induce an undesired lateral pressure gradient, can lead to off-axis flows and therefore local changes in the critical separation size. Thus, particle trajectories can become unpredictable and the device useless for the desired separation duty. We show that for circular posts the rotated-square layout, unlike the parallelogram layout, does not suffer from anisotropy and is the preferred geometry. Furthermore, anisotropy becomes severe for arrays with unequal axial and lateral gaps...

  5. Does antero-lateral ankle impingement exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinier, F; Benoist, J; Colin, F; Padiolleau, J; Guillo, S; Stone, J; Bauer, T

    2017-12-01

    Antero-lateral ankle impingement syndrome (ALAIS) is a well-established clinical entity that is a common consequence of ankle sprains. Injury to the anterior talo-fibular ligament plays a key role in the genesis of ALAIS. Arthroscopic antero-lateral synovectomy is the standard of care. However, this treatment approach may deserve to be challenged, as it does not include any procedure on the ligaments, despite the presence in some patients of lateral rotational micro-instability of the ankle, without objective laxity. Consequently, we reviewed current data on ALAIS and its links to ankle instability, from the dual perspective of diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. GLL RPT IONOSPHERE PROFILES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Galileo Radio Propagation Team Ionosphere Profile data set is small number of electron density profiles derived from radio occultation data collected while...

  7. GHGRP Industrial Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. These profiles contain detailed analyses. This page hosts data highlights for all sectors.

  8. HOPWA Performance Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOPWA Performance Profiles are generated quarterly for all agencies receiving HOPWA formula or competitive grants. Performance Profiles are available at the national...

  9. Proximity of the Lateral Calcaneal Artery With a Modified Extensile Lateral Approach Compared to Standard Extensile Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, John Y; Gonzalez, Tyler; Riedel, Matthew D; Nazarian, Ara; Ghorbanhoseini, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    The extensile lateral approach (EL) has been associated with increased wound complications such as apical necrosis which may be due partially from violation of the lateral calcaneal artery (LCA). Traditionally, the vertical limb has been placed half-way between the fibula and Achilles tendon, which may be suboptimal given the proximity to the LCA. We hypothesized that placing the vertical limb further posterior (ie, modified EL [MEL]) would increase the distance from the LCA. The purposes of this study were to quantify the location of the LCA in relation to the vertical limb of the traditional EL approach and to determine if utilizing the MEL approach endangered the LCA to a lesser extent. 20 cadavers were used. For the EL approach, the fibula and Achilles tendon were palpated and a line parallel to the plantar foot was drawn between the two. A vertical line (VL), representing the vertical limb of the approach, was drawn at the midway point as a perpendicular extending proximally from the junction of the glabrous/non-glabrous skin (JGNG). For the MEL approach, the anterior border of the Achilles tendon was palpated and a similar vertical line (MVL) was drawn 0.75 cm anterior. Dissection was performed and if the LCA was identified crossing the line VL/MVL, the distance from the JGNG was documented. For the EL approach, the LCA was identified in 17/20 (85%) cadavers at an average distance of 5.0 cm (range 3-7 cm, SD = 1.3 cm) from JGNG. For the ML approach, the LCA was identified in 4/20 (20%) cadavers at an average distance of 5.9 cm (range 3-6.5 cm, SD = 1.7 cm) from the JGNG ( P LCA was encountered 4 times more often during the EL approach as compared to the MEL approach. A modification of the EL approach may decrease iatrogenic injury to the LCA and may decrease wound complications.

  10. Recent advances of histone modification in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics play important roles during development progress of tumor. The histone modifications are the most important constituted field. Recently, accumulating research focused on exploring the roles of those modifications in regulating tumorigenesis. Moreover, the dysregulation of histone modifications is supposed to have vital clinical significance. Numerous histone modifications have the potential to be prognostic biomarkers, monitoring response of therapy, early diagnostic markers. Herein, we review the recent advances of histone modifications involving development of gastric cancer.

  11. Lateral jet injection into swirling combustor flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, David G.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to ascertain the effects of the number of lateral jets, the jet velocity ratio, and the crossflow swirl strength, on the isothermal flowfield patterns in jets injected normally to a round-section crossflow. Attention has been given to the trajectory, penetration, and mixing efficiency of the lateral injection, using flow visualization, pitot-probe and hot-wire methods. In addition, such predictive techniques as a simple, explicit, fully three-dimensional turbulent computer code have been employed.

  12. Clinical seizure lateralization in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Silvia Beatrice; Lurger, Stefanie; Zimprich, Fritz; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Assem-Hilger, Eva; Baumgartner, Christoph

    2007-03-01

    We systematically analyzed the lateralizing value of clinical seizure semiology in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). We studied the incidence, positive predictive value (PPV), and the lateralizing significance of various clinical symptoms in 228 seizures (s) of 31 patients (p) with medically refractory FLE (17 with left-sided and 14 with right-sided seizure onset). Seizures recorded during prolonged video-EEG monitoring were assessed by two independent reviewers blinded for the patient's clinical data. Analysis was performed both for patients and seizures. Version [16 p (52%); PPV, 94%; p=0.001; 47 s (21%); PPV, 75%; p=0.001], unilateral clonic movements [16 p (52%); PPV, 81%; p=0.021; 32 s (14%); PPV, 81%; p=0.001], unilateral dystonic posturing [eight p (26%); PPV, 75%; p=0.289; 46 s (20%); PPV, 80%; p=0.001], unilateral tonic posturing [10 p (32%); PPV, 80%; p=0.109; 19 s (7.4%); PPV, 79%; p=0.019], and unilateral grimacing [10 p (32%); PPV, 100%; p=0.002; 19 s (8%); PPV, 100%; p=0.001] were of lateralizing significance, indicating a contralateral seizure onset. Asymmetric ending [five p (16%); PPV, 80%; p=0.375; nine s (4%); PPV, 89%; p=0.039] after secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures was significantly associated with an ipsilateral seizure onset. Pure ictal vocalizations occurred significantly more frequently in seizures of right hemispheric onset [13 p (42%); PPV, 62%; p=0.581; 63 s (28%); PPV, 73%; p=0. 001], whereas in individual patients, this symptom showed no lateralizing significance. The remaining clinical symptoms (figure 4 sign, unilateral hand automatisms, early head turning, postictal nose wiping, and unilateral eye blinking) were not of lateralizing significance in our patients. The results of clinical seizure lateralization corresponded with the final lateralization of the seizure-onset zone in 81% of our patients. Clinical seizure semiology can provide correct information on the lateralization of the seizure-onset zone in >80

  13. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan S; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    This article looks back in time to see where the foundational basis for the understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis originated. This foundation was created primarily in France by Jean-Martin Charcot and his fellow countrymen and disciples, along with key contributions from early clinicians in England and Germany. The early work on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis provides a useful foundation for today's clinicians with respect to tying together genetic and biologic aspects of the disorder that have been discovered over the past few decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. PROFILER: 1D galaxy light profile decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambur, Bogdan C.

    2017-05-01

    Written in Python, PROFILER analyzes the radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies. It accurately models a wide range of galaxies and galaxy components, such as elliptical galaxies, the bulges of spiral and lenticular galaxies, nuclear sources, discs, bars, rings, and spiral arms with a variety of parametric functions routinely employed in the field (Sérsic, core-Sérsic, exponential, Gaussian, Moffat and Ferrers). In addition, Profiler can employ the broken exponential model (relevant for disc truncations or antitruncations) and two special cases of the edge-on disc model: namely along the major axis (in the disc plane) and along the minor axis (perpendicular to the disc plane).

  15. Vehicular Causation Factors and Conceptual Design Modifications to Reduce Aortic Strain in Numerically Reconstructed Real World Nearside Lateral Automotive Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwadi, Aditya; Yang, King H

    2015-01-01

    Aortic injury (AI) leading to disruption of the aorta is an uncommon but highly lethal consequence of trauma in modern society. Most recent estimates range from 7,500 to 8,000 cases per year from a variety of causes. It is observed that more than 80% of occupants who suffer an aortic injury die at the scene due to exsanguination into the chest cavity. It is evident that effective means of substantially improving the outcome of motor vehicle crash-induced AIs is by preventing the injury in the first place. In the current study, 16 design of computer experiments (DOCE) were carried out with varying levels of principal direction of force (PDOF), impact velocity, impact height, and impact position of the bullet vehicle combined with occupant seating positions in the case vehicle to determine the effects of these factors on aortic injury. Further, a combination of real world crash data reported in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database, Finite Element (FE) vehicle models, and the Wayne State Human Body Model-II (WSHBM-II) indicates that occupant seating position, impact height, and PDOF, in that order play, a primary role in aortic injury.

  16. Nucleus pulposus deformation in response to lumbar spine lateral flexion: an in vivo MRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazey, Peter J; Takasaki, Hiroshi; Singer, Kevin P

    2010-07-01

    Whilst there are numerous studies examining aspects of sagittal plane motion in the lumbar spine, few consider coronal plane range of motion and there are no in vivo reports of nucleus pulposus (NP) displacement in lateral flexion. This study quantified in vivo NP deformation in response to side flexion in healthy volunteers. Concomitant lateral flexion and axial rotation range were also examined to evaluate the direction and extent of NP deformation. Axial T2- and coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained from 21 subjects (mean age, 24.8 years) from L1 to S1 in the neutral and left laterally flexed position. Images were evaluated for intersegmental ranges of lateral flexion and axial rotation. A novel methodology derived linear pixel samples across the width of the disc from T2 images, from which the magnitude and direction of displacement of the NP was determined. This profiling technique represented the relative hydration pattern within the disc. The NP was displaced away from the direction of lateral flexion in 95/105 discs (p < 0.001). The extent of NP displacement was associated strongly with lateral flexion at L2-3 (p < 0.01). The greatest range of lateral flexion occurred at L2-3, L3-4 and L4-5. Small intersegmental ranges of axial rotation occurred at all levels, but were not associated with NP displacement. The direction of NP deformation was highly predictable in laterally flexed healthy lumbar spines; however, the magnitude of displacement was not consistent with the degree of intersegmental lateral flexion or rotation.

  17. [Single fibre electromyography in 18 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca-Avarvarei, L; Patrignani-Ochoa, J H; Castilla-Garrido, J M; Jiménez-Castellano Ballesteros, R; Ugarte-Monasterio, J

    Single fibre electromyography (SFEMG) is a method that complements conventional electromyography and studies the activity of individual muscle fibres and of the neuromuscular junction. AIMS. We attempt to demonstrate the presence of reinnervation disorders by studying Jitter, fibre density (FD) and the presence of neurogenic blocks in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). SFEMG was carried out on 18 patients diagnosed with ALS. All the patients were submitted to a voluntary SFEMG in the extensor digitorum communis muscle of the fingers on the most affected side. The SFEMG in the extensor digitorum communis muscle of the fingers showed alterations in 13 out of the 18 patients studied (72%). FD was the most reliable parameter for translation of the motor neuron instability and increased in all cases. This was followed by the mean and the maximum individual (62%) Jitter and, lastly, the percentage of blocks (38%). In ALS, the parameters studied with SFEMG were modified in 72% of the cases studied. There is an overall correlation between the length of time the patient has had the disease and the modifications in the SFEMG (21.5 versus 13.7 months). The degree of clinical involvement is higher (6.5/13) in those who present an altered SFEMG compared to those who present a normal SFEMG (5.3/13).

  18. A Classroom Modification of the Ames Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavornitzky, Joseph; Trzeciak, Victor

    1979-01-01

    A modification of the Ames test for detecting carcinogens and mutagens using a strain of bacteria is described. A suggestion is given for checking the correctness of procedures by using particular hair dyes which have been shown to be mutogenic. (Author/SA)

  19. Some peculiarities of bitumen emulsion modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Batyrbayev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymer modification of bitumen emulsions obtained from bitumen of domestic production with the use of several commercial emulsifiers was studied. The influence of the polymer modifier concentration on bitumen emulsion physical-mechanical properties was considered. Possibility of obtaining of modified bitumen emulsion with high impact resistance was shown.

  20. Some peculiarities of bitumen emulsion modification

    OpenAIRE

    A. Batyrbayev; Sergey Rodivilov; B. Myrzakhmetov

    2013-01-01

    Polymer modification of bitumen emulsions obtained from bitumen of domestic production with the use of several commercial emulsifiers was studied. The influence of the polymer modifier concentration on bitumen emulsion physical-mechanical properties was considered. Possibility of obtaining of modified bitumen emulsion with high impact resistance was shown.

  1. 24 CFR 203.616 - Mortgage modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage modification. 203.616... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Servicing Responsibilities Mortgagee Action and Forbearance § 203.616...

  2. 24 CFR 203.342 - Mortgage modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage modification. 203.342... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Continuation of Insurance § 203.342...

  3. Covalent Surface Modification of Oxide Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujari, S.P.; Scheres, L.M.W.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2014-01-01

    The modification of surfaces by the deposition of a robust overlayer provides an excellent handle with which to tune the properties of a bulk substrate to those of interest. Such control over the surface properties becomes increasingly important with the continuing efforts at down-sizing the active

  4. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 2. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification - The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007. Mitradas M Panicker. General Article Volume 13 Issue 2 February 2008 pp 172-180 ...

  5. Epigenetics: from covalent modifications to small RNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaij, L.J.T.

    2013-01-01

    The role of epigenetic modifications, for instance DNA methylation, in cell fate transition is tremendous. In this thesis we present two studies in which we present genome wide in vivo methylomes of the small intestinal (SI) stem cell, a close descendent and villus and of 4 stages during zebrafish

  6. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  7. Structural dynamic modification using additive damping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to control dynamic response in structures and machines, modofications using additive viscoelastic damping materials are highlighted. The techniques described for analysis include analytical methods for structural elements, FEM and perturbation methods for reanalysis or structural dynamic modifications for ...

  8. Starch--value addition by modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N

    2005-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important but flexible food ingredients possessing value added attributes for innumerable industrial applications. Its various chemically modified derivatives offer a great scope of high technological value in both food and non-food industries. Modified starches are designed to overcome one or more of the shortcomings, such as loss of viscosity and thickening power upon cooking and storage, particularly at low pH, retrogradation characteristics, syneresis, etc., of native starches. Oxidation, esterification, hydroxyalkylation, dextrinization, and cross-linking are some of the modifications commonly employed to prepare starch derivatives. In a way, starch modification provides desirable functional attributes as well as offering economic alternative to other hydrocolloid ingredients, such as gums and mucilages, which are unreliable in quality and availability. Resistant starch, a highly retrograded starch fractionformed upon food processing, is another useful starch derivative. It exhibits the beneficial physiological effects of therapeutic and nutritional values akin to dietary fiber. There awaits considerable opportunity for future developments, especially for tailor-made starch derivatives with multiple modifications and with the desired functional and nutritional properties, although the problem of obtaining legislative approval for the use of novel starch derivatives in processed food formulations is still under debate. Nevertheless, it can be predicted that new ventures in starch modifications and their diverse applications will continue to be of great interest in applied research.

  9. Modification of Behavior: Application in Classroom Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ille, Sister Janiece; Bezzi, D. R.

    The emphasis of this research report was on modification of classroom behavior. After a brief introduction, the two main learning theories of Gestalt-field psychology and stimulus-response association were investigated. The importance of the individual in modifying his own behavior was stressed in Gestalt-field psychology. The importance of…

  10. Hexagonal metal modifications and thin film ferromagnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueger, E.; Wormeester, Herbert; Bauer, E.

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxial strain-stabilized hexagonal modifications can occur in many metal films grown on (100) surfaces of cubic crystals and can have a strong influence on their magnetic properties. The necessary conditions for the formation of hcp crystals, identification criteria, examples and implications for

  11. 40 CFR 60.14 - Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES General Provisions § 60.14 Modification. (a) Except as provided under... emission factors determined by the Administrator to be superior to AP-42 emission factors, in cases where... operational change will either clearly increase or clearly not increase. (2) Material balances, continuous...

  12. Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

    2013-10-09

    In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 μm for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 μm for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process.

  13. Protein covalent modification by biologically active quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV J. GASIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The avarone/avarol quinone/hydroquinone couple shows considerable antitumor activity. In this work, covalent modification of b-lactoglobulin by avarone and its derivatives as well as by the synthetic steroidal quinone 2,5(10-estradiene-1,4,17-trione and its derivatives were studied. The techniques for studying chemical modification of b-lactoglobulin by quinones were: UV/Vis spectrophotometry, SDS PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. SDS PAGE results suggest that polymerization of the protein occurs. It could be seen that the protein of 18 kD gives the bands of 20 kD, 36 kD, 40 kD, 45 kD, 64 kD and 128 kD depending on modification agent. The shift of the pI of the protein (5.4 upon modification toward lower values (from pI 5.0 to 5.3 indicated that lysine amino groups are the principal site of the reaction of b-lactoglobulin with the quinones.

  14. Surface Modification Of Implants For Bone Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the methods of surface modification methods for AISAI 316 L steel and Ti6Al4V ELI titanium alloy, dedicated to complex design implants used in bone surgery. Results of structural tests have been presented along with those evaluating the physicochemical properties of the formed surface layers. Clinical feasibility of the surface layers has also been evaluated.

  15. Genetic modifications for personal enhancement: a defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-04-01

    Bioconservative commentators argue that parents should not take steps to modify the genetics of their children even in the name of enhancement because of the damage they predict for values, identities and relationships. Some commentators have even said that adults should not modify themselves through genetic interventions. One commentator worries that genetic modifications chosen by adults for themselves will undermine moral agency, lead to less valuable experiences and fracture people's sense of self. These worries are not justified, however, since the effects of modification will not undo moral agency as such. Adults can still have valuable experiences, even if some prior choices no longer seem meaningful. Changes at the genetic level will not always, either, alienate people from their own sense of self. On the contrary, genetic modifications can help amplify choice, enrich lives and consolidate identities. Ultimately, there is no moral requirement that people value their contingent genetic endowment to the exclusion of changes important to them in their future genetic identities. Through weighing risks and benefits, adults also have the power to consent to, and assume the risks of, genetic modifications for themselves in a way not possible in prenatal genetic interventions.

  16. Environmental modifications for improved grassland production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most important environmental limitations to grassland production are set by the moisture regime, the physiography, soil conditions, temperature, vegetation present, entomological and microbiological factors of the environment. The significant features of these factors are discussed. Modification which can be applied to ...

  17. Structural Study and Modification of Support Layer for Forward Osmosis Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Meixia

    2016-06-01

    Water scarcity is a serious global issue, due to the increasing population and developing economy, and membrane technology is an essential way to address this problem. Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane process, due to its low energy consumption (not considering the draw solute regeneration). A bottleneck to advance this technology is the design of the support layer for FO membranes to minimize the internal concentration polarization. In this dissertation, we focus on the structural study and modification of the support layer for FO membranes. Firstly, we digitally reconstruct different membrane morphologies in 3D and propose a method for predicting performance in ultrafiltration operations. Membranes with analogous morphologies are later used as substrate for FO membranes. Secondly, we experimentally apply substrates with different potentially suitable morphologies as an FO support layer. We investigate their FO performance after generating a selective polyamide layer on the top, by interfacial polymerization. Among the different substrates we include standard asymmetric porous membranes prepared from homopolymers, such as polysulfone. Additionally block copolymer membrane and Anodisc alumina membrane are chosen based on their exceptional structures, with cylindrical pores at least in part. 3D digitally reconstructed porous substrates, analogous to those investigated for ultrafiltration, are then used to model the performance in FO operation. Finally, we analyze the effect of intermediate layers between the porous substrate and the interfacial polymerized layer. We investigate two materials including chitosan and hydrogel. The main results are the following. Pore-scale modeling for digital membrane generation effectively predicts the velocity profile in different layers of the membrane and the performance in UF experiments. Flow simulations confirm the advantage of finger-like substrates over sponge-like ones, when high water permeance is sought

  18. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF MEDIAL TO LATERAL TAPING WITH EXERCISE PROGRAMME IN SUBJECTS WITH LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Dattaram Desai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial to lateral tapping and exercise programme has been found to be effective in Lateral epicondylitis. The purpose to find the combined effect of Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme for subjects with lateral epicondylitis on pain intensity and functional ability. Method: An experimental study design, selected 40 subjects with Lateral epicondylitis randomized 20 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received only exercise programme while study group received combined medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme thrice a week for 4 weeks. Pain intensity was measured using Visual analogue scale and functional ability was measured using Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation questionnaire before and after 4 weeks of treatment. Results: When the post-intervention means were compared between Study and Control group after 4 weeks of treatment found statistically significant difference in the improvement in outcomes measures in means of VAS and PRTEE before and after intervention within the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme is more effective than the exercise programme in reduction of pain and improve functional abilities for subjects with Lateral epicondylitis.

  20. Motor neuron disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) arising from longstanding primary lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, R. P.; Koelman, J. H.; Troost, D.; de Jong, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Three men were initially diagnosed as having primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), but eventually developed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after 7.5, 9, and at least 27 years. Non-familial ALS and PLS might be different manifestations of a single disease or constitute completely distinct entities.

  1. Genomewide analysis of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES Domain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The investigation of transcription factor (TF) families is a major focus of postgenomic research. The plant-specific ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2-LIKE (ASL) / LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES Domain (LBD) proteins constitute a major zincfinger-like-domain transcription factor family, and regulate diverse biological processes in ...

  2. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  3. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation.

  4. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerhuis, A.P.; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the

  5. Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Sang, M; Gociman, B; Almaroof, B; Fath, J; Cason, F

    2009-06-01

    A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia defect was through the transversus abdominis and the internal oblique, with the inferior aspect of the 11th rib forming part of the superior border of the defect. A 4-cm bony spur from the inferior aspect of the rib formed part of the lateral margin of the defect. The hernia sac was contained within a space underneath the external oblique muscle. The association of the hernia defect with a bony spur was highly suggestive of a congenital etiology. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically with Parietex mesh (Sofradim, Lyons, France), and the patient had resolution of the symptoms on discharge and follow-up visits.

  6. CASE REPORT Spontaneous lateral sphenoid cerebrospinal fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report. We present the case of a 53-year-old man who presented with a primary complaint of a lateral tongue tumour. During admission for surgery, a large lesion was noticed on his occiput. An MRI revealed a large occipital meningioma for which he had a subtotal resection. Postoperatively he presented with an ...

  7. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  8. Religion and depression in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, A.W.; Beekman, A.T.F.; van Tilburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    The recent increase in number of psychiatric epidemiological studies on the role of religion in late life depression suggests that its scientifical and clinical relevance is being re-evaluated. Most studies show that following religion is negatively associated with depression in later life, and

  9. Lateral meningocele and defect of abdominal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, M. M.; MacKinnon, A. E.

    1980-01-01

    A case of lateral meningocele associated with deficiency of the thoraco-abdominal wall is reported. It is suggested that both of these defects are due to interference with the development of the paraxial mesoderm by a single injury. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6446707

  10. Simulation of lateral flow with SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calibration of the SWAT model for the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) showed that percolation through the restrictive claypan layer, lateral flow above that layer, and redistribution of excess moisture up to the ground surface were not correctly simulated. In addition, surface runoff a...

  11. Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social…

  12. Medial ankle pain after lateral ligament rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C. N.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Marti, R. K.

    1996-01-01

    After a severe ankle sprain the incidence of residual complaints, particularly on the medial side of the joint, is high. We studied a consecutive series of 30 patients who had operative repair of acute ruptures of lateral ligaments. During operation, arthroscopy revealed a fresh injury to the

  13. Rates of Lateral Gene Transfer in Prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Michiel; Hesselman, M.C.; Beek, te T.A.; Passel, van M.W.J.; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Lateral gene transfer is of fundamental importance to the evolution of prokaryote genomes and has important practical consequences, as evidenced by the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants. Relatively little effort has so far been devoted to explicitly

  14. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eWelniarz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital mirror movements and model rodents with a hopping gait. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the hopping gait. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: i lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and ii unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output.

  15. Traces of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraete, E.

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease of the motor system involving both upper motor neurons in the brain and lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. Patients suffer from progressive wasting and weakness of limb, bulbar and respiratory muscles. Onset and disease course in ALS

  16. Clinical psychology and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pagnini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a fatal and progressive disease, characterized by progressive muscles weakness, with consequent loss of physical capacities. Psychologists can play an important role in ALS care, by providing clinical activities in every step of the disease, including support and counseling activities directed to patients, their caregivers and to physicians.

  17. Towards gene therapy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, Liselijn Agatha Barendina

    2004-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a paralytic neurodegenerative disorder, characterised by a specific loss of motoneurons. Although the exact pathogenesis is largely enigmatic, it is known that glutamate excitotoxicity plays an important role in motoneuron cell death. Glutamate is one of the

  18. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... buoys. (b) Sidemarks are lateral marks which advise the mariner to stay to one side of the mark. Their.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks.... Preferred channel marks have red and green horizontal bands with the color of the topmost band indicating...

  19. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with

  20. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple...

  1. Sleep and Fasciculations in Amyothropic Lateral Sclerosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šonka, K.; Fiksa, J.; Horváth, E.; Kemlink, D.; Süssová, J.; Böhm, J.; Šebesta, Václav; Volná, J.; Nevšímalová, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2004), s. 25-30 ISSN 1432-9123 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF5999 Keywords : amyothropic lateral sclerosis ALS * fasciculation * fragmentary myoclonus * periodic leg movements in sleep PLMS * polysomnography PSG * electromyography EMG * REM sleep Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  2. Impact of Interfacial Defects on the Properties of Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Lateral Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Zhen

    2017-03-25

    We explored the impact of interfacial defects on the stability and optoelectronic properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide lateral heterojunctions using a density functional theory approach. As a prototype, we focused on the MoS2-WSe2 system and found that even a random alloy-like interface with a width of less than 1 nm has only a minimal impact on the band gap and alignment compared to the defect-less interface. The largest impact is on the evolution of the electrostatic potential across the monolayer. Similar to defect-less interfaces, a small number of defects results in an electrostatic potential profile with a sharp change at the interface, which facilitates exciton dissociation. Differently, a large number of defects results in an electrostatic potential profile switching smoothly across the interface, which is expected to reduce the capability of the heterojunction to promote exciton dissociation. These results are generalizable to other transition metal dichalcogenide lateral heterojunctions.

  3. Unusual Case of Extraction of Maxillary Lateral Incisors and Mandibular Central Incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa-María Yañez-Vico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article’s purpose is to report a case where maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular central incisors are extracted and a canine substitution was performed as the best therapeutic option in order to obtain symmetry in a malocclusion with an upper lateral incisor with poor prognostic, solve moderate crowding, get enough space for the permanent dentition, and provide stability to the results. Case Report. An 11-year-old boy with straight profile with acute-to-normal nasolabial angle and protruded lips, mixed dentition, lower and upper severe crowding, and a bilateral molar angle Class I. The left maxillary lateral incisor failed endodontic treatment secondary to an intrusive traumatic lesion in the primary and permanent dentition. The treatment of choice was the extraction of both upper lateral incisors and both central lower incisors. The patient finished with molar and canine angle Class I and coincident midlines and was functionally stable; both lateral and protrusive jaw movements were effectively made by the first premolars and central incisors and canines without improper contacts of the rest of the teeth. Overbite of one-third and correct overjet were also achieved, and the esthetic outcome was satisfactory due to the composed material restorations of both the central and lateral incisors, as well as recontouring of the first maxillary premolars.

  4. variability of the lateral ligamentous complex of the knee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ligaments on the lateral aspect of the knee namely lateral collateral ligament, anterolateral and triradiate collateral ... lateral knee stability and prevention of excessive internal ... anterior cruciate ligaments were repaired. It therefore becomes ...

  5. Freed Lower Lateral Cartilages with Intact Lateral Attachments: A Versatile Approach in Tip Plasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaş, Hayati; Yagmur, Caglayan

    2016-08-01

    Tip plasty is an important procedure that contributes much to obtaining an aesthetically pleasant nose. To increase precision during the tip plasty procedure, control over the lower lateral cartilages should be maximized. This can be accomplished by extending the exposure of the cartilage framework. We present our "Freed Lower Lateral Cartilages With Intact Lateral Attachments" approach through which inferior lateral cartilages are being dissected free from their attachments, while only their lateral bases (lateral crural parts) are left intact. A total of 1752 consecutive patients operated on with this approach were included. All patients were cosmetic rhinoplasty patients operated on between the years 1999 and 2014. During tip plasty, the lower lateral cartilages of all patients were totally dissected from all their attachments, while the lateral bases were left intact. The suture and graft techniques for the tip plasty procedure were then applied to reconfigure the tip region. The approach was used successfully in 1752 patients in a 15-year period. The mean age of patients was 33.5 years. The complication rate was 6.4 % and the revision rate was 4.7 % for the patients. Only 1.2 % of patients needed a revision surgery for tip and/or alar region. None of these patients needed further revision. The aesthetic and functional outcomes revealed high satisfaction rates. The "Freed Lower Lateral Cartilages With Intact Lateral Attachments" approach in tip plasty facilitates manipulation of the tip region while maintaining precise control to provide definition in terms of symmetry and three-dimensional configuration. Furthermore, it constitutes an autologous and practical platform on which nondestructive techniques can be performed in a combined and synergistic fashion. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online

  6. Lateral border zone: quantitation of lateral extension of subendocardial infarction in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, R; Cho, S; Factor, S M; Kirk, E S

    1985-05-01

    This study was undertaken to quantitate the lateral extension that occurs concomitantly with the transmural extension of a subendocardial infarction. A subendocardial infarct was produced in 12 dogs by a 40 minute temporary coronary artery occlusion. Infarct extension was induced 7 days later by permanent occlusion of the same vessel. Regional myocardial blood flows confirmed that ischemia had been produced with both coronary artery occlusions. The vascular boundaries between the normally perfused and ischemic beds were defined by perfusion with different-colored Microfil solutions. The extent of subendocardial infarction and subsequent transmural and lateral extensions were assessed by point counting of histologic specimens. The initial temporary occlusion produced a 30.0 +/- 4.2% transmural infarct and the subsequent permanent occlusion a 29.2 +/- 3.5% transmural extension in a risk region of 39 +/- 4 g. Lateral extension was not measured in four dogs because the initial subendocardial infarct was patchy with markedly irregular lateral borders. In eight dogs the size of the measured lateral infarct extension from each lateral margin from two histologic sections was 0.63 +/- 0.013 cm2. The area of both lateral extensions was 1.7 +/- 0.1% of the cross-sectional area of its risk region as determined by planimetry. Using a model of the risk region, the mass of the lateral extension was estimated to be 1.4 +/- 0.3 g or 3.5 +/- 0.6% of the region at risk. Thus, at the lateral margin of a subendocardial infarct there is a border zone that is small relative to the size of the region at risk and infarcted myocardium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. CATCHprofiles: Clustering and Alignment Tool for ChIP Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. G. Nielsen, Fiona; Galschiøt Markus, Kasper; Møllegaard Friborg, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin Immuno Precipitation (ChIP) profiling detects in vivo protein-DNA binding, and has revealed a large combinatorial complexity in the binding of chromatin associated proteins and their post-translational modifications. To fully explore the spatial and combinatorial patterns in ChIP-profil......Chromatin Immuno Precipitation (ChIP) profiling detects in vivo protein-DNA binding, and has revealed a large combinatorial complexity in the binding of chromatin associated proteins and their post-translational modifications. To fully explore the spatial and combinatorial patterns in Ch......IP-profiling data and detect potentially meaningful patterns, the areas of enrichment must be aligned and clustered, which is an algorithmically and computationally challenging task. We have developed CATCHprofiles, a novel tool for exhaustive pattern detection in ChIP profiling data. CATCHprofiles is built upon...... a computationally efficient implementation for the exhaustive alignment and hierarchical clustering of ChIP profiling data. The tool features a graphical interface for examination and browsing of the clustering results. CATCHprofiles requires no prior knowledge about functional sites, detects known binding patterns...

  8. Role of lateral forces on atom manipulation process on Si(111)-(7 ×7 ) surface in dynamic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Ayhan; Abe, Masayuki; Morita, Seizo; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the role of lateral force components on the lateral manipulation of intrinsic Si adatoms toward a vacancy site on a Si(111)-(7 ×7 ) surface using noncontact atomic force microscopy at room temperature. Lateral atom manipulation was accomplished via constant-height scans using a set of tips with varying chemical reactivities. We determined the vertical and lateral force as well as the interaction energy profiles associated with the lateral manipulation of a Si adatom on a Si(111)-(7 ×7 ) surface. Our results demonstrate that lateral forces do not play a decisive role in the manipulation process while the vertical force component is key for the manipulation process, and the ability to manipulate the Si adatom depends primarily on the chemical nature of the tip apex. Our results further reveal that the tips that exhibit high chemical reactivity with Si adatoms have a sharper interaction energy profile above Si adatoms than tips with less chemical reactivity, indicating the stronger atom-trapping ability of the chemically reactive tips. This characteristic property gives tips the ability to create localized reductions in the energy barrier required for adatom movement, thereby enabling thermally induced adatom hopping toward the tip. These findings can enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in the lateral manipulation of intrinsic adatoms of semiconductor surfaces, as well as adsorbate atoms/molecules forming covalent bonds with tip-surface systems, i.e., chemisorption systems.

  9. Stability of an external gravity wave in a stratified basic flow with lateral shear

    OpenAIRE

    Tomizuka, Akira

    2005-01-01

    The author investigates the stability of an external gravity wave progressing horizontally in an inviscid and incompressible stratified basic flow with lateral shear. (1) In the model which basic flow has a Helmholtz velocity profile, there exist no neutral solutions contrary to internal gravity waves. Perturbations are always unstable independent of the coefficient of vertical wave mode m or the wave number k_y. (2) In the model which basic flow is composed of unbounded layers with the centr...

  10. Histone modification pattern evolution after yeast gene duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Yangyun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication and subsequent functional divergence especially expression divergence have been widely considered as main sources for evolutionary innovations. Many studies evidenced that genetic regulatory network evolved rapidly shortly after gene duplication, thus leading to accelerated expression divergence and diversification. However, little is known whether epigenetic factors have mediated the evolution of expression regulation since gene duplication. In this study, we conducted detailed analyses on yeast histone modification (HM, the major epigenetics type in this organism, as well as other available functional genomics data to address this issue. Results Duplicate genes, on average, share more common HM-code patterns than random singleton pairs in their promoters and open reading frames (ORF. Though HM-code divergence between duplicates in both promoter and ORF regions increase with their sequence divergence, the HM-code in ORF region evolves slower than that in promoter region, probably owing to the functional constraints imposed on protein sequences. After excluding the confounding effect of sequence divergence (or evolutionary time, we found the evidence supporting the notion that in yeast, the HM-code may co-evolve with cis- and trans-regulatory factors. Moreover, we observed that deletion of some yeast HM-related enzymes increases the expression divergence between duplicate genes, yet the effect is lower than the case of transcription factor (TF deletion or environmental stresses. Conclusions Our analyses demonstrate that after gene duplication, yeast histone modification profile between duplicates diverged with evolutionary time, similar to genetic regulatory elements. Moreover, we found the evidence of the co-evolution between genetic and epigenetic elements since gene duplication, together contributing to the expression divergence between duplicate genes.

  11. Golgi structure formation, function, and post-translational modifications in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shijiao; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2017-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is a central membrane organelle for trafficking and post-translational modifications of proteins and lipids in cells. In mammalian cells, it is organized in the form of stacks of tightly aligned flattened cisternae, and dozens of stacks are often linked laterally into a ribbon-like structure located in the perinuclear region of the cell. Proper Golgi functionality requires an intact architecture, yet Golgi structure is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle and under disease conditions. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the relationship between Golgi structure formation, function, and regulation, with focus on how post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and ubiquitination regulate Golgi structure and on how Golgi unstacking affects its functions, in particular, protein trafficking, glycosylation, and sorting in mammalian cells.

  12. Texture Modification of the Shuttle Landing Facility Runway at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Yager, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the test procedures and the criteria used in selecting an effective runway-surface-texture modification at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) to reduce Orbiter tire wear. The new runway surface may ultimately result in an increase of allowable crosswinds for launch and landing operations. The modification allows launch and landing operations in 20-knot crosswinds, if desired. This 5-knot increase over the previous 15-knot limit drastically increases landing safety and the ability to make on-time launches to support missions in which Space Station rendezvous are planned. The paper presents the results of an initial (1988) texture modification to reduce tire spin-up wear and then describes a series of tests that use an instrumented ground-test vehicle to compare tire friction and wear characteristics, at small scale, of proposed texture modifications placed into the SLF runway surface itself. Based on these tests, three candidate surfaces were chosen to be tested at full-scale by using a highly modified and instrumented transport aircraft capable of duplicating full Orbiter landing profiles. The full-scale Orbiter tire testing revealed that tire wear could be reduced approximately by half with either of two candidates. The texture-modification technique using a Humble Equipment Company Skidabrader(trademark) shotpeening machine proved to be highly effective, and the entire SLF runway surface was modified in September 1994. The extensive testing and evaluation effort that preceded the selection of this particular surface-texture-modification technique is described herein.

  13. The relationships between the achievement motivations and temperaments of psychology students with different lateral organization profiles

    OpenAIRE

    VOROBYEVA ELENA V.; ERMAKOV PAVEL N.; SAAKYAN OKSANA S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the motivational potential of psychology students using an egoskopiya method. Heart rate and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed the Mehrabian achievement motivation test. Thirty students of the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 20 and 30 years participated. The psychodiagnostic study involved 136 students from the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between...

  14. Quantitative lateral flow strip assays as user-friendly tools to detect biomarker profiles for leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hooij, A. (Anouk); Tjon Kon Fat, E.M. (Elisa M.); R. Richardus (Renate); S.J.F. van den Eeden (Susan); L. Wilson (Lindsay); De Dood, C.J. (Claudia J.); R. Faber (Roel); Alam, K. (Korshed); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); Corstjens, P.L.A.M. (Paul L. A. M.); A. Geluk (Annemieke)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractLeprosy is a debilitating, infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Despite the availability of multidrug therapy, transmission is unremitting. Thus, early identification of M. leprae infection is essential to reduce transmission. The immune response to M. leprae is determined

  15. DNA methylation profiles of elderly individuals subjected to indentured childhood labor and trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Zoya; Maercker, Andreas; Küffer, Andreas; Robinson, Mark D; Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Walitza, Susanne; Grünblatt, Edna; Burri, Andrea

    2017-02-27

    Childhood trauma is associated with increased vulnerability to mental and somatic disorders later in life. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation are one potential mechanism through which such long-lasting impairments/consequences can be explained. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether childhood trauma is associated with long-term DNA methylation alterations in old age. We assessed genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in a cohort of former indentured child laborers ("Verdingkinder") who suffered severe childhood adversities (N = 30; M age = 75.9 years), and compared them to control group with similar demographic characteristics (N = 15, M age = 72.8 years). DNA was isolated from epithelial buccal cells and hybridized to the Illumina Infinium 450 k DNA methylation array, which provides coverage of 485,000 methylation sites. After accounting for batch effects, age, gender and multiple testing, 71 differentially methylated CpG positions were identified between the two groups. They were annotated among others to genes involved in neuronal projections and neuronal development. Some of the identified genes with differential methylation (DLG associated protein 2, mechanistic target of rapamycin) have previously been associated with traumatic stress. The results indicate specific epigenetic alterations in elderly individuals who were subjected to childhood adversities. Psychiatric and somatic comorbidities as well as differences in buccal epithelial cells proportion may contribute to the observed epigenetic differences.

  16. Observing the subsurface thermal signature of the Black Sea cold intermediate layer with Argo profiling floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Anil; Fach, Bettina A.; Oguz, Temel

    2017-06-01

    Cold intermediate layers (CILs) constitute a key indicator of the subsurface thermal signature in many marginal and subarctic seas. Towards better understanding the impacts of natural and anthropogenic climate variability in the Black Sea, the present study elucidates processes leading to the observed changes of CIL characteristics at mesoscale and monthly-to-interannual scales by analyzing weekly temperature-salinity profiles provided by Argo floats for 2002-2015. The continuous time series data allowed to elucidate different types of CIL formation episodes. For the first time, it was possible to trace their subsequent evolution depending on the number and intensity of successive, but often intermittent, autumn-winter cooling events in addition to the ambient flow and stratification characteristics within the cyclonic interior and anticyclonic coastal eddies/gyres. The spatial distribution of CIL formation in the cold years 2003, 2006 and 2012 covered much of the Black Sea, even coastal anticyclonic eddies as a new feature which has not been documented before. The data also recorded modification of CIL during the rest of the year in terms of its thickness, position, temperature and salinity ranges in response to advective transport by the circulation system, interior turbulent mixing, and quasi-lateral intrusions associated with mesoscale features.

  17. An integrative analysis of post-translational histone modifications in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Rastogi, Achal; Lin, Xin; Lombard, Bérangère; Murik, Omer; Thomas, Yann; Dingli, Florent; Rivarola, Maximo; Ott, Sandra; Liu, Xinyue; Sun, Yezhou; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; McCarthy, James; Allen, Andrew E; Loew, Damarys; Bowler, Chris; Tirichine, Leïla

    2015-05-20

    Nucleosomes are the building blocks of chromatin where gene regulation takes place. Chromatin landscapes have been profiled for several species, providing insights into the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation of gene expression. However, knowledge is missing for several major and deep-branching eukaryotic groups, such as the Stramenopiles, which include the diatoms. Diatoms are highly diverse and ubiquitous species of phytoplankton that play a key role in global biogeochemical cycles. Dissecting chromatin-mediated regulation of genes in diatoms will help understand the ecological success of these organisms in contemporary oceans. Here, we use high resolution mass spectrometry to identify a full repertoire of post-translational modifications on histones of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, including eight novel modifications. We map five histone marks coupled with expression data and show that P. tricornutum displays both unique and broadly conserved chromatin features, reflecting the chimeric nature of its genome. Combinatorial analysis of histone marks and DNA methylation demonstrates the presence of an epigenetic code defining activating or repressive chromatin states. We further profile three specific histone marks under conditions of nitrate depletion and show that the histone code is dynamic and targets specific sets of genes. This study is the first genome-wide characterization of the histone code from a stramenopile and a marine phytoplankton. The work represents an important initial step for understanding the evolutionary history of chromatin and how epigenetic modifications affect gene expression in response to environmental cues in marine environments.

  18. Nucleosome Density ChIP-Seq Identifies Distinct Chromatin Modification Signatures Associated with MNase Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorzadeh, Alireza; Bilenky, Misha; Hammond, Colin; Knapp, David J H F; Li, Luolan; Miller, Paul H; Carles, Annaick; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Gakkhar, Sitanshu; Moksa, Michelle; Eaves, Connie J; Hirst, Martin

    2016-11-15

    Nucleosome position, density, and post-translational modification are widely accepted components of mechanisms regulating DNA transcription but still incompletely understood. We present a modified native ChIP-seq method combined with an analytical framework that allows MNase accessibility to be integrated with histone modification profiles. Application of this methodology to the primitive (CD34+) subset of normal human cord blood cells enabled genomic regions enriched in one versus two nucleosomes marked by histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and/or histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) to be associated with their transcriptional and DNA methylation states. From this analysis, we defined four classes of promoter-specific profiles and demonstrated that a majority of bivalent marked promoters are heterogeneously marked at a single-cell level in this primitive cell type. Interestingly, extension of this approach to human embryonic stem cells revealed an altered relationship between chromatin modification state and nucleosome content at promoters, suggesting developmental stage-specific organization of histone methylation states. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Descriptive Study on the Neonatal Morbidity Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Including a Comparison with Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atladóttir, H. Ó.; Schendel, D. E.; Parner, E. T.; Henriksen, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the profile of specific neonatal morbidities in children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to compare this profile with the profile of children with hyperkinetic disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy or intellectual disability. This is a Danish population based cohort study, including all…

  20. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  1. Lateral cephalometric radiograph versus lateral nasopharyngeal radiograph for quantitative evaluation of nasopharyngeal airway space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Cristina da Costa Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study compared lateral radiographs of the nasopharynx (LN and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LC used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One examiner measured the nasopharyngeal space of 15 oral breathing patients aged between 5 and 11 years old by using LN and LC. Both assessments were made twice with a 15-day interval in between. Intergroup comparison was performed with t-tests (P < 0.05. RESULTS: Comparison between LN and LC measurements showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION: Lateral cephalometric radiograph is an acceptable method used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space.

  2. Perceptual learning via modification of cortical top-down signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Schäfer

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary visual cortex (V1 is pre-wired to facilitate the extraction of behaviorally important visual features. Collinear edge detectors in V1, for instance, mutually enhance each other to improve the perception of lines against a noisy background. The same pre-wiring that facilitates line extraction, however, is detrimental when subjects have to discriminate the brightness of different line segments. How is it possible to improve in one task by unsupervised practicing, without getting worse in the other task? The classical view of perceptual learning is that practicing modulates the feedforward input stream through synaptic modifications onto or within V1. However, any rewiring of V1 would deteriorate other perceptual abilities different from the trained one. We propose a general neuronal model showing that perceptual learning can modulate top-down input to V1 in a task-specific way while feedforward and lateral pathways remain intact. Consistent with biological data, the model explains how context-dependent brightness discrimination is improved by a top-down recruitment of recurrent inhibition and a top-down induced increase of the neuronal gain within V1. Both the top-down modulation of inhibition and of neuronal gain are suggested to be universal features of cortical microcircuits which enable perceptual learning.

  3. Nursing researchers' modifications of Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singsuriya, Pagorn

    2015-12-01

    Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology has proved to be very helpful in guiding nursing researchers' qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Modifying Ricoeur's philosophy, a number of nursing researchers have developed their own interpretive methods and shared them, along with their experience, with research community. Major contributors who published papers directly presenting their modifications of Ricoeur's theory include Rene Geanellos (2000), Lena Wiklund, Lisbet Lindholm and Unni Å. Lindström (2002), Anders Lindseth and Astrid Norberg (2004) and Pia Sander Dreyer and Birthe D Pedersen (2009). The aim of this article was to delineate differences among these methods. Descriptive presentation of each method side by side makes clear the differences among them. In addition, Ricoeur's hermeneutic theory is portrayed and compared with the modifications. It is believed that differences that are found can stimulate further thoughts on how to apply Ricoeur's theory in qualitative research in nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. PREVIEW Behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5...... of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. OBJECTIVE: To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT) that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described...... and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. METHODS: The program...

  5. Video Playback Modifications for a DSpace Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Gilbertson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on modifications to an institutional repository system using the open source DSpace software to support playback of digital videos embedded within item pages. The changes were made in response to the formation and quick startup of an event capture group within the library that was charged with creating and editing video recordings of library events and speakers. This paper specifically discusses the selection of video formats, changes to the visual theme of the repository to allow embedded playback and captioning support, and modifications and bug fixes to the file downloading subsystem to enable skip-ahead playback of videos via byte-range requests. This paper also describes workflows for transcoding videos in the required formats, creating captions, and depositing videos into the repository.

  6. Amalyse modifications during production and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Connie

    affect the activity and wash performance. The focus of the present project is on a-amylases fromBacillus species used in the detergent industry. The thesis begins with an introduction to Bacillus a-amylases, modifications which could cause the multiple forms varying in pI value and mass spectrometry (MS......, where all the forms were observed already early on in the process. Characterisation of the wash performance of the multiple forms from three different Bacillus amylases showed tendencies of decreasing wash performance with decreasing pI values. A more thorough characterisation of pools of Bacillus...... licheniformis a-amylase (BLA) varying in pI revealed that the pools containing the forms with the lowest pI values had slightly lower catalytic efficiency on maltoheptaose and amylose. Identification of the modifications responsible for the multiple forms of BLA was performed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS...

  7. Ethical aspects of paternal preconception lifestyle modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, Boukje; de Wert, Guido; Steegers, Eric A; de Beaufort, Inez D

    2013-07-01

    This Clinical Opinion points to a potential conflict between the scarcity of evidence on paternal preconception risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and the view that preconception care should be also directed at men. We argue that from an ethical perspective, responsible fatherhood starts already before conception, as long as the evidence increases on the benefits of paternal preconception lifestyle (modification). Our explorative study suggests that the strength of the evidence for paternal preconception lifestyle modification is important for men. We argue that 5 aspects together determine the moral responsibility of prospective fathers to modify their behavior: the strength of the evidence of the risk factor, the modifiability of the risk, the efforts necessary to eliminate or diminish the risk factor, the severity of harm, and the probability that harm will occur and that it will be prevented by modifying the risk factor. The case of paternal preconception smoking illustrates the analysis. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical modifications and reactions in DNA nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology has the power to form self-assembled and well-defined nanostructures, such as DNA origami, where the relative positions of each atom are known with subnanometer precision. Our ability to synthesize oligonucleotides with chemical modifications in almost any desired position...... provides rich opportunity to incorporate molecules, biomolecules, and a variety of nanomaterials in specific positions on DNA nanostructures. Several standard modifications for oligonucleotides are available commercially, such as dyes, biotin, and chemical handles, and such modified oligonucleotides can...... be applied directly for integration in DNA nanostructures. In another approach, various molecules and nanomaterials have been functionalized with DNA for incorporation in DNA nanostructures by hybridization to staple strands extending from the origami structure. Multiple copies of functionalities...

  9. Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1 enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2 the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3 synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy.

  10. Adaptive Control with Reference Model Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to improve transient performance of the input and output signals of uncertain systems. A simple modification of the reference model is proposed by feeding back the tracking error signal. It is shown that the proposed approach guarantees tracking of the given reference command and the reference control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient. Moreover, it prevents generation of high frequency oscillations, which are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference commands of any magnitude from any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated with a simulation example

  11. Handedness and Lateralization of the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Teimournezhad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The present study is a review of the key concepts in relation to the nature of handedness and in line with that, the phenomenon of brain lateralization. To this end, a number of articles have been overviewed and the critical concepts such as handedness and its main features, the theoretical bases for this phenomenon, the nature and functions of lateralization, and the relationship between these two concepts have been shed light on for a better understanding. Finally, the general differences between the left-handers vs. right-handers have been drawn into consideration.

  12. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina De Cosmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia. While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  13. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cosmi, Valentina; Scaglioni, Silvia; Agostoni, Carlo

    2017-02-04

    Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia). While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children's willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  14. Lateral force transmission between human tendon fascicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, Bjarki T; Aagaard, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Whether adjacent collagen fascicles transmit force in parallel is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude of lateral force transmission between adjacent collagen fascicles from the human patellar and Achilles tendon. From each sample two adjacent strands of fascicles...... was transversally cut while the other fascicle and the fascicular membrane were kept intact. Cycle 3: both fascicles were cut in opposite ends while the fascicular membrane was left intact. A decline in peak force of 45% and 55% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and 93% and 92% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed...... in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. A decline in stiffness of 39% and 60% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and of 93% and 100% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. The present data demonstrate that lateral force transmission between...

  15. Nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-González, Daniel; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-11-15

    Lateral flow biosensors (LFBs) are paper-based devices which permit the performance of low-cost and fast diagnostics with good robustness, specificity, sensitivity and low limits of detection. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) as labels play an important role in the design and fabrication of a lateral flow strip (LFS). The choice of NPs and the corresponding detection method directly affect the performance of these devices. This review discusses aspects related to the application of different nanomaterials (e.g. gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, up-converting phosphor technologies, and latex beads, between others) in LFBs. Moreover, different detection methods (colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, magnetic, etc.) and signal enhancement strategies (affording secondary reactions or modifying the architecture of the LFS) as well as the use of devices such as smartphones to mediate the response of LFSs will be analyzed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Iglesias-Freire

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic force microscopy (MFM is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm topographic (magnetic lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market.

  17. Induced axial and lateral color surface contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Andrea; Nobis, Thomas; Gross, Herbert

    2017-05-01

    Induced aberrations in general are higher-order aberrations caused by ray perturbations of lower order, picked up in the preceding optical system. Therefore, in the case of color aberrations, induced influences can already be observed at the second order. They are generated by the preexisting first-order axial and lateral color. The analysis of relevant designs surface by surface to identify performance dominating lenses is a key method for understanding and optimizing those systems. Hence, in this paper a formula for the surface contribution of axial and lateral color including second-order terms is derived and discussed differentiating between intrinsic and induced parts. It is also shown how this can be used to deduce a thick-lens contribution of the second order. All of the approaches are based on the Seidel concept, which characterizes any arbitrary optical system only by the paraxial marginal and chief ray of the primary wavelength.

  18. LATERAL SINUS THROMBOSIS IN OTOLOGY: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Visavanatha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lateral sinus thrombosis (LST is usually occurs as a complication of middle ear infection .The involvement of lateral sinus during the course of ear infection was a well known complication in preantibiotic days .The decrease in the incidence of LST is due to the introduction of broad-spectrum antibiotics, early diagnosis and surgical treatment. Now, it is a rare complication of otitis media and poses a serious threat that warrants immediate medical and surgical treatment. The classical clinical picture is often changed by previous antibiotic therapy. An awareness of this rare potentially devastating condition and its varied presentations is necessary for early diagnosis and treatment. LST can also occur after head injury.

  19. Validity of the Microsoft Kinect for providing lateral trunk lean feedback during gait retraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Pua, Yong-Hao; Bryant, Adam L; Hunt, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Gait retraining programs are prescribed to assist in the rehabilitation process of many clinical conditions. Using lateral trunk lean modification as the model, the aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of kinematic data recorded using a marker-based 3D motion analysis (3DMA) system and a low-cost alternative, the Microsoft Kinect™ (Kinect), during a gait retraining session. Twenty healthy adults were trained to modify their gait to obtain a lateral trunk lean angle of 10°. Real-time biofeedback of the lateral trunk lean angle was provided on a computer screen in front of the subject using data extracted from the Kinect skeletal tracking algorithm. Marker coordinate data were concurrently recorded using the 3DMA system, and the similarity and equivalency of the trunk lean angle data from each system were compared. The lateral trunk lean angle data obtained from the Kinect system without any form of calibration resulted in errors of a high (>2°) magnitude (mean error=3.2±2.2°). Performing global and individualized calibration significantly (PKinect can be used to create a real-time biofeedback system for gait retraining. Given that this system is low-cost, portable and does not require any sensors to be attached to the body, it could provide numerous advantages when compared to laboratory-based gait retraining systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Regioselective chemical modification of monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranadive, Girish; Rosenzweig, Howard S.; Epperly, Michael; Bloomer, William

    1993-01-01

    A method of selectively modifying an immunoglobulin having at least one Fab region and at least one Fc region, each region having an isoelectric point wherein said isoelectric point of the Fab fragment of said immunoglobulin is different than the isoelectric point of the Fc fragment of the immunoglobulin, said method comprising modification of the immunoglobulin at a pH between the respective isoelectric points of the Fab and Fc fragments of the immunoglobulin.