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Sample records for profile modification laterally

  1. The influence of lateral beam profile modifications in scanned proton and carbon ion therapy: a Monte Carlo study

    CERN Document Server

    Parodi, K; Kraemer, M; Sommerer, F; Naumann, J; Mairani, A; Brons, S

    2010-01-01

    Scanned ion beam delivery promises superior flexibility and accuracy for highly conformal tumour therapy in comparison to the usage of passive beam shaping systems. The attainable precision demands correct overlapping of the pencil-like beams which build up the entire dose distribution in the treatment field. In particular, improper dose application due to deviations of the lateral beam profiles from the nominal planning conditions must be prevented via appropriate beam monitoring in the beamline, prior to the entrance in the patient. To assess the necessary tolerance thresholds of the beam monitoring system at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, Germany, this study has investigated several worst-case scenarios for a sensitive treatment plan, namely scanned proton and carbon ion delivery to a small target volume at a shallow depth. Deviations from the nominal lateral beam profiles were simulated, which may occur because of misaligned elements or changes of the beam optic in the beamline. Data have been an...

  2. Lateral pressure profiles in lipid monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baoukina, Svetlana; Marrink, Siewert J.; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations with coarse-grained and atomistic models to study the lateral pressure profiles in lipid monolayers. We first consider simple oil/air and oil/water interfaces, and then proceed to lipid monolayers at air/water and oil/water interfaces. The results are

  3. A study of microbial profile modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, J.H.; Lee, H.O.

    1995-12-31

    A microbial profile modification method using spores was investigated. A halotolerant, spore-forming, biopolymer-producing mesophile was used in Berea cores with a specifically formulated nutrient package to reduce the permeability of the rock. The degree of permeability reduction varied widely depending on the stimulation protocols used. The incubation period had a significant impact on permeability reduction, and there appeared to be an optimum incubation time for maximum permeability reduction. The reduction persisted for many PV of brine injection and appeared very stable. For our microbes used in this study, the permeability reduction was about the same when the NaCl concentration was above 2 wt% in the range from 0 wt% to 10 wt%.

  4. Fukushima, two years later, modification requirements in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez J, J.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Salmeron V, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    The occurred events in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi as consequence of the strong earthquake of 9 grades in the Richter scale and the later tsunami with waves estimated in more than 14 meters high began a series of important questions about the safety of the nuclear power plants in operation and of the new designs. Firstly, have allowed to be questioned on the magnitudes and consequences of the extreme external natural events; that can put in risk the integrity of the safety barriers of a nuclear power plant when being presented in a multiple way. As consequence of the events of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the countries with NPPs in operation and /or construction carried out evaluations about their safety operation. They have also realized evaluations about accidents and their impact in the safety, analysis and studies too that have forced to the regulatory bodies to continue a systematic and methodical revision of their procedures and regulations, to identify the possible improvements to the safety in response to the events happened in Japan; everything has taken it to determine the necessity to incorporate additional requirements to the nuclear power plants to mitigate events Beyond the Design Base. Due to Mexico has the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, with two units of BWR-5 type with contention Mark III, some the modifications can be applicable to these units to administrate and/or to mitigate the consequences of the possible occurrence of an accident Beyond the Design Base and that could generate a severe accident. In this work an exposition is presented on the modification requirements to confront external natural events Beyond the Design Base, and its application in our country. (Author)

  5. Effect of tooth profile modification on wear in internal gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunalioglu, M. S.; Tuc, B.

    2018-05-01

    Internal gears are often used in the automotive industry when two gears are required to rotate in the same direction. Tooth shapes, slippage speeds at the beginning and end of meshing are different according to the external gears. Manufacturing of internal gears is more difficult than external gears. Thus, it is necessary to determine the working conditions and wear behavior of internal gears carefully. The profile modification method in terms of strength and surface tension of the gear mechanism are performed in order to increase the load-carrying capability. In this study, profile modification method was performed in the internal gears to reduce the wear on the teeth. For this purpose, the wear of the internal gears was theoretically investigated by adapting the Archard wear equation to the internal gears. Closed circuit power circulation system was designed and manufactured to experimentally investigate the wear in internal gears. With this system, wear tests of gears made of St 50 material without profile modification and different profile modifications were made and the results were compared. Experimental study was performed in the same loading and cycle time conditions to validate the theoretical results and it was seen that the results are compatible. According to the experimental results, it is seen that in the internal gears, when profile modification done the wear is decreased in the teeth tip region.

  6. Risk-profile modification of energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.O.

    1992-01-01

    The commodity futures and swaps markets are thought to be the invention of speculators, the bane of the oil business, or possibly something confined to finance departments of major corporations. In actuality, they should be considered more as an insurance vehicle and can be used at the project level to modify the risk profile of a property. In this context, an increased familiarity with them can be useful for an engineer. Either futures of swaps can be used to guarantee or modify product prices. While this does not necessarily maximize cash flow or present worth, it can protect a project or company for several years from downside price risk, thereby reducing the risk of the venture. This can be particularly important if lower product prices would cause unacceptable cash flows or net incomes. This paper reports that reducing risk by limiting downside price exposure could alter budgeting decisions, allow continued or expanded operations of a particular property, or increase debt capacity

  7. Risk profile modification of energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.O.

    1992-01-01

    The commodity futures and swaps markets are thought by some to be the invention of speculators, the bane of the oil business, or possibly something confined to finance departments of major corporations. In actuality, they should be considered more as insurance and can be utilized at the project level to modify the risk profile of a property. In this context, an increased familiarity with them can be useful for an engineer. This paper reports that either futures or swaps can be used to guarantee or modify product prices, an accomplishment very difficult or impossible to duplicate through other means, particularly with such integrity. Participation in futures or swaps does not necessarily maximize cashflow or present worth, it can either guarantee the price, put a minimum price in place or offer a combination of the above. A project or company can be protected for several years from downside price risk using swaps. Not being subject to market price swings substantially reduces the risk of the venture. This can be particularly important if lower product prices would cause unacceptable cashflows or net incomes

  8. Simulations of embedded lateral stress gauge profiles in shocked targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, R E; Harris, E J

    2008-01-01

    In principle, stress gauges mounted to measure lateral stresses in a shocked matrix allow the shear strength of the material to be determined. However, interpreting the resistance profiles from lateral stress gauges is hindered by the fact that the stress field in the vicinity of the insulating layer in which the gauges are embedded can differ significantly from the stress field that would be generated in the sample if no gauge were present. A series of high resolution Eulerian hydrocode simulations have been run which suggest that the stresses in the insulating layer vary with distance and time in a way that depends on the thickness of the layer, the shock strength and the elastic and plastic properties of both the layer and the matrix. In particular, if the shock velocity in the matrix material is high the stress at a typical gauge position initially rises to a sharp peak then falls with time, but when the shock velocity in the matrix is low the stress rises relatively gradually throughout the time of interest. The shapes of the stress versus time profiles predicted by the hydrocode compare well with the results of lateral gauge experiments on several different materials. It is concluded that lateral gauges can be used to measure the dynamic strength of materials provided high resolution computer simulation is used to take account of the perturbation of the stress field in the shocked sample caused by the gauges

  9. Measurements of edge density profile modifications during IBW on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.R.; Bush, C.E.; Wilgen, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Ion Bernstein wave (IBW) antennas are known to have substantial localized effects on the plasma edge. To allow better understanding and measurement of these effects, the TFTR edge reflectometer has been relocated to the new IBW antenna. This move was facilitated by the incorporation of a diagnostic access tube in the IBW antenna identical to the original diagnostic tube in the fast-wave (FW) antenna. This allowed the reflectometer launcher to simply be moved from the old FW antenna to the new IBW antenna. Only a moderate extension of the waveguide transmission line was required to reconnect the reflectometer to the launcher in its new location. Edge density profile modification during IBW experiments has been observed. Results from IBW experiments will be presented and contrasted to the edge density modifications previously observed during FW heating experiments

  10. The characterization of beam profile by modification of electrode shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Young; Lee, Jae Sang

    2010-01-01

    Ion sources have been used for variety of industrial application over the past few decades and our research group has been studied about high current and large dimension ion source to meet the requirement from beam user. For a mass production in industry, a wide beam divergence and a beam profile of a broadly Gaussian shape is very needed. Generally, the production process like roll-to-roll or in-line system is need one-meter in diameter, ±5% in uniformity. Therefore it is difficult to apply with present system like 0.3-meter in diameter, ±20% in uniformity and needed new type ion source. In this study, it is approached with modification of electrode grid shape without fabrication of new type ion source. We modified from parallel type to hemispherical type electrode grid to secure large dimension ion beam and were discussed with respect to beam profile calculated with IGUN code simulation. Also, we identified beam profile before and after modification of electrode grid system(cathode, Acelldecel grid) with measurement of faraday cup

  11. Scrape-off layer profile modifications by convective cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J.R.; DIppolito, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Convective cells (CC close-quote s) are important in understanding density profile modifications induced by ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) antennas. This has motivated the present work in which the effect of CC close-quote s on transport in the scrape-off layer is studied, in the regime where the density gradient scale length L n and the cell size L are comparable. Monte Carlo simulations show that closed cell convection acts to flatten the density profile, and that open cells enhance the particle flow to the wall, depleting the density and yielding profiles similar to those measured near ICRF antennas. A new one-dimensional, two-branch model of CC transport is shown to agree well with the simulations. The model gives rise to two characteristic scale lengths, only one of which is retained in the enhanced diffusion models that are applicable for L n >L. The two-branch model is expected to be useful in analyzing ICRF experiments. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Current profile modification experiments in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Spizzo, G.; Chapman, B. E.; Gravestjin, R. M.; Franz, P.; Piovesan, P.; Martin, P.; Drake, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    Pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) experiments have been conducted in the resistive shell EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch experiment. During the current profile modification phase, the fluctuation level of the m = 1 internally resonant tearing modes decreases, and the velocity of these modes increases. The m = 0 modes are not affected during PPCD, although termination occurs with a burst in the m = 0 amplitude. The PPCD phase is characterized by an increase in the central electron temperature (up to 380 eV) and in the soft x-ray signal. Spectroscopic observations confirm an increase in the central electron temperature. During PPCD, the plasma poloidal beta increases to 14%, and the estimated energy confinement time doubles, reaching 380 µs. The reduction in the fluctuation level and the corresponding increase in the energy confinement time are qualitatively consistent with a reduction in parallel transport along stochastic magnetic field lines.

  13. The Optimal Design Method and Standardized Mathematical Model of Tooth Profile Modification of Spur Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Mei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a tooth profile modification method of spur gear. After establishing a standardized mathematical model for optimized tooth profile and simulating meshing process with ANSYS finite element analysis, we obtained 625 groups of gear models with different modification parameters. The group with minimum transmission errors owns the optimal parameters. Genetic algorithm was adopted in the entire process for the purpose of reducing the variation of transmission errors in meshing process. The arc and parabolic modification were doing the same processing. After comparing the transmission errors fluctuation produced by the meshing process of gear of nonmodification with arc modification and parabolic modification, we found that the best modification effects of arc modification and parabolic modification were both reduced by 90%. The modification method makes the gear drive process more stable and efficient, and it is also promising in general application for gear drive.

  14. tRNA modification profiles of the fast-proliferating cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chao; Niu, Leilei; Song, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Xianhua [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Yi; Yi, Fan [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology and Tumor Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Li-He [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhai, Suodi [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Hua, E-mail: huali88@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ye, Min, E-mail: yemin@bjmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Quan, E-mail: quan.du@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Despite the recent progress in RNA modification study, a comprehensive modification profile is still lacking for mammalian cells. Using a quantitative HPLC/MS/MS assay, we present here a study where RNA modifications are examined in term of the major RNA species. With paired slow- and fast-proliferating cell lines, distinct RNA modification profiles are first revealed for diverse RNA species. Compared to mRNAs, increased ribose and nucleobase modifications are shown for the highly-structured tRNAs and rRNAs, lending support to their contribution to the formation of high-order structures. This study also reveals a dynamic tRNA modification profile in the fast-proliferating cells. In addition to cultured cells, this unique tRNA profile has been further confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that tRNA is a actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells, and suggest that they may play a more active role in biological process than expected. -- Highlights: •RNA modifications were first examined in term of the major RNA species. •A dynamic tRNA modifications was characterized for the fast-proliferating cells. •The unique tRNA profile was confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. •tRNA was predicted as an actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells.

  15. tRNA modification profiles of the fast-proliferating cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Chao; Niu, Leilei; Song, Wei; Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Xianhua; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Yi; Yi, Fan; Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan; Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Li-He; Zhai, Suodi; Li, Hua; Ye, Min; Du, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent progress in RNA modification study, a comprehensive modification profile is still lacking for mammalian cells. Using a quantitative HPLC/MS/MS assay, we present here a study where RNA modifications are examined in term of the major RNA species. With paired slow- and fast-proliferating cell lines, distinct RNA modification profiles are first revealed for diverse RNA species. Compared to mRNAs, increased ribose and nucleobase modifications are shown for the highly-structured tRNAs and rRNAs, lending support to their contribution to the formation of high-order structures. This study also reveals a dynamic tRNA modification profile in the fast-proliferating cells. In addition to cultured cells, this unique tRNA profile has been further confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that tRNA is a actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells, and suggest that they may play a more active role in biological process than expected. -- Highlights: •RNA modifications were first examined in term of the major RNA species. •A dynamic tRNA modifications was characterized for the fast-proliferating cells. •The unique tRNA profile was confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. •tRNA was predicted as an actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells.

  16. Profile modification and hot electron temperature from resonant absorption at modest intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albritton, J.R.; Langdon, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    Resonant absorption is investigated in expanding plasmas. The momentum deposition associated with the ejection of hot electrons toward low density via wavebreaking readily exceeds that of the incident laser radiation and results in significant modification of the density profile at critical. New scaling of hot electron temperature with laser and plasma parameters is presented

  17. Active core profile and transport modification by application of ion Bernstein wave power in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, B.; Batha, S.; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Blush, L.; de la Luna, E.; Doerner, R.; Dunlap, J.; England, A.; Garcia, I.; Ignat, D.; Isler, R.; Jones, S.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kugel, H.; Levinton, F.; Luckhardt, S.; Mutoh, T.; Okabayashi, M.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Paul, S.; Petravich, G.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Sauthoff, N.; Schmitz, L.; Sesnic, S.; Takahashi, H.; Talvard, M.; Tighe, W.; Tynan, G.; von Goeler, S.; Woskov, P.; Zolfaghari, A.

    1995-03-01

    Application of Ion Bernstein Wave Heating (IBWH) into the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M) [Phys. Fluids B 2, 1271 (1990)] tokamak stabilizes sawtooth oscillations and generates peaked density profiles. A transport barrier, spatially correlated with the IBWH power deposition profile, is observed in the core of IBWH-assisted neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges. A precursor to the fully developed barrier is seen in the soft x-ray data during edge localized mode (ELM) activity. Sustained IBWH operation is conducive to a regime where the barrier supports large ∇ne, ∇Te, ∇νφ, and ∇Ti, delimiting the confinement zone. This regime is reminiscent of the H(high) mode, but with a confinement zone moved inward. The core region has better than H-mode confinement while the peripheral region is L(low)-mode-like. The peaked profile enhances NBI core deposition and increases nuclear reactivity. An increase in central Ti results from χi reduction (compared to the H mode) and better beam penetration. Bootstrap current fractions of up to 0.32-0.35 locally and 0.28 overall were obtained when an additional NBI burst is applied to this plasma.

  18. Active core profile and transport modification by application of ion Bernstein wave power in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B.; Batha, S.; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Blush, L.; de la Luna, E.; Doerner, R.; Dunlap, J.; England, A.; Garcia, I.; Ignat, D.; Isler, R.; Jones, S.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kugel, H.; Levinton, F.; Luckhardt, S.; Mutoh, T.; Okabayashi, M.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Paul, S.; Petravich, G.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Sauthoff, N.; Schmitz, L.; Sesnic, S.; Takahashi, H.; Talvard, M.; Tighe, W.; Tynan, G.; von Goeler, S.; Woskov, P.; Zolfaghari, A.

    1995-01-01

    Application of Ion Bernstein Wave Heating (IBWH) into the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M) [Phys. Fluids B 2, 1271 (1990)] tokamak stabilizes sawtooth oscillations and generates peaked density profiles. A transport barrier, spatially correlated with the IBWH power deposition profile, is observed in the core of IBWH-assisted neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges. A precursor to the fully developed barrier is seen in the soft x-ray data during edge localized mode (ELM) activity. Sustained IBWH operation is conducive to a regime where the barrier supports large ∇n e , ∇T e , ∇ν φ , and ∇T i , delimiting the confinement zone. This regime is reminiscent of the H(high) mode, but with a confinement zone moved inward. The core region has better than H-mode confinement while the peripheral region is L(low)-mode-like. The peaked profile enhances NBI core deposition and increases nuclear reactivity. An increase in central T i results from χ i reduction (compared to the H mode) and better beam penetration. Bootstrap current fractions of up to 0.32--0.35 locally and 0.28 overall were obtained when an additional NBI burst is applied to this plasma

  19. Stage-specific histone modification profiles reveal global transitions in the Xenopus embryonic epigenome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias D Schneider

    Full Text Available Vertebrate embryos are derived from a transitory pool of pluripotent cells. By the process of embryonic induction, these precursor cells are assigned to specific fates and differentiation programs. Histone post-translational modifications are thought to play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of stable gene expression patterns underlying these processes. While on gene level histone modifications are known to change during differentiation, very little is known about the quantitative fluctuations in bulk histone modifications during development. To investigate this issue we analysed histones isolated from four different developmental stages of Xenopus laevis by mass spectrometry. In toto, we quantified 59 modification states on core histones H3 and H4 from blastula to tadpole stages. During this developmental period, we observed in general an increase in the unmodified states, and a shift from histone modifications associated with transcriptional activity to transcriptionally repressive histone marks. We also compared these naturally occurring patterns with the histone modifications of murine ES cells, detecting large differences in the methylation patterns of histone H3 lysines 27 and 36 between pluripotent ES cells and pluripotent cells from Xenopus blastulae. By combining all detected modification transitions we could cluster their patterns according to their embryonic origin, defining specific histone modification profiles (HMPs for each developmental stage. To our knowledge, this data set represents the first compendium of covalent histone modifications and their quantitative flux during normogenesis in a vertebrate model organism. The HMPs indicate a stepwise maturation of the embryonic epigenome, which may be causal to the progressing restriction of cellular potency during development.

  20. Profiling Changes in Histone Post-translational Modifications by Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Mowei; Wu, Si; Stenoien, David L.; Zhang, Zhaorui; Connolly, Lanelle; Freitag, Michael; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2016-11-11

    Top-down mass spectrometry is a valuable tool for charactering post-translational modifications on histones for understanding of gene control and expression. In this protocol, we describe a top-down workflow using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for fast global profiling of changes in histone proteoforms between a wild-type and a mutant of a fungal species. The proteoforms exhibiting different abundances can be subjected to further targeted studies by other mass spectrometric or biochemical assays. This method can be generally adapted for preliminary screening for changes in histone modifications between samples such as wild-type vs. mutant, and control vs. disease.

  1. Analytical models of lateral power devices with arbitrary vertical doping profiles in the drift region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Ting-Ting; Guo Yu-Feng; Yu Ying; Jian Tong; Yao Jia-Fei; Sheu Gene

    2013-01-01

    By solving the 2D Poisson's equation, analytical models are proposed to calculate the surface potential and electric field distributions of lateral power devices with arbitrary vertical doping profiles. The vertical and the lateral breakdown voltages are formulized to quantify the breakdown characteristic in completely-depleted and partially-depleted cases. A new reduced surface field (RESURF) criterion which can be used in various drift doping profiles is further derived for obtaining the optimal trade-off between the breakdown voltage and the on-resistance. Based on these models and the numerical simulation, the electric field modulation mechanism and the breakdown characteristics of lateral power devices are investigated in detail for the uniform, linear, Gaussian, and some discrete doping profiles along the vertical direction in the drift region. Then, the mentioned vertical doping profiles of these devices with the same geometric parameters are optimized, and the results show that the optimal breakdown voltages and the effective drift doping concentrations of these devices are identical, which are equal to those of the uniform-doped device, respectively. The analytical results of these proposed models are in good agreement with the numerical results and the previous experimental results, confirming the validity of the models presented here. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  2. Analytical models of lateral power devices with arbitrary vertical doping profiles in the drift region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ting-Ting; Guo, Yu-Feng; Yu, Ying; Gene, Sheu; Jian, Tong; Yao, Jia-Fei

    2013-05-01

    By solving the 2D Poisson's equation, analytical models are proposed to calculate the surface potential and electric field distributions of lateral power devices with arbitrary vertical doping profiles. The vertical and the lateral breakdown voltages are formulized to quantify the breakdown characteristic in completely-depleted and partially-depleted cases. A new reduced surface field (RESURF) criterion which can be used in various drift doping profiles is further derived for obtaining the optimal trade-off between the breakdown voltage and the on-resistance. Based on these models and the numerical simulation, the electric field modulation mechanism and the breakdown characteristics of lateral power devices are investigated in detail for the uniform, linear, Gaussian, and some discrete doping profiles along the vertical direction in the drift region. Then, the mentioned vertical doping profiles of these devices with the same geometric parameters are optimized, and the results show that the optimal breakdown voltages and the effective drift doping concentrations of these devices are identical, which are equal to those of the uniform-doped device, respectively. The analytical results of these proposed models are in good agreement with the numerical results and the previous experimental results, confirming the validity of the models presented here.

  3. Profile modification computations for LHCD experiments on PBX-M using the TSC/LSC model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Ignat, D.W.; Jardin, S.C.; Okabayashi, M.; Sun, Y.C.

    1996-01-01

    The TSC-LSC computational model of the dynamics of lower hybrid current drive has been exercised extensively in comparison with data from a Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M) discharge where the measured q(0) attained values slightly above unity. Several significant, but plausible, assumptions had to be introduced to keep the computation from behaving pathologically over time, producing singular profiles of plasma current density and q. Addition of a heuristic current diffusion estimate, or more exactly, a smoothing of the rf-driven current with a diffusion-like equation, greatly improved the behavior of the computation, and brought theory and measurement into reasonable agreement. The model was then extended to longer pulse lengths and higher powers to investigate performance to be expected in future PBX-M current profile modification experiments. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. Effects of Shear Fracture on In-depth Profile Modification of Weak Gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xianjie; Song Xinwang; Yue Xiang'an; Hou Jirui; Fang Lichun; Zhang Huazhen

    2007-01-01

    Two sand packs were filled with fine glass beads and quartz sand respectively. The characteristics of crosslinked polymer flowing through the sand packs as well as the influence of shear fracture of porous media on the in-depth profile modification of the weak gel generated from the crosslinked polymer were investigated. The results indicated that under the dynamic condition crosslinking reaction happened in both sand packs,and the weak gels in these two cases became small gel particles after water flooding. The differences were:the dynamic gelation time in the quartz sand pack was longer than that in the glass bead pack. Residual resistance factor (FRR) caused by the weak gel in the quartz sand pack was smaller than that in the glass bead pack. The weak gel became gel particles after being scoured by subsequent flood water. A weak gel with uniform apparent viscosity and sealing characteristics was generated in every part of the glass bead pack,which could not only move deeply into the sand pack but also seal the high capacity channels again when it reached the deep part. The weak gel performed in-depth profile modification in the glass bead pack,while in the quartz sand pack,the weak gel was concentrated with 100 cm from the entrance of the sand pack. When propelled by the subsequent flood water,the weak gel could move towards the deep part of the sand pack but then became tiny gel particles and could not effectively seal the high capacity channels there. The in-depth profile modification of the weak gel was very weak in the quartz sand pack. It was the shear fracture of porous media that mainly affected the properties and weakened the in-depth profile modification of the weak gel.

  5. On the parametrization of lateral dose profiles in proton radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Embriaco, A

    2015-01-01

    Hadrontherapy requires a good knowledge of the physical interactions of the particles when they cross the biological tissue: one of the aspects that determine the characterization of the beam is the study of the lateral profile. We study different parametrizations for the lateral dose profile of protons beam in water considering different energies at different depth. We compare six functions: we start from the well known Gaussian and Double Gaussian parametrizations and also analyse more recent parametrization obtained with Triple Gaussian and Double Gaussian Lorentz-Cauchy functions. Finally we propose alternative parametrizations based on the Gauss-Rutherford and Gauss-Levy functions. The goal is to improve the performances of the actual treatment planning used in proton beam therapy by suggesting alternative approaches to the Gaussian description typically employed.

  6. Hypoadiponectinemia in overweight children contributes to a negative metabolic risk profile 6 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Iben; Heitmann, Berit L; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2009-01-01

    follow-up data 6 years later (n = 169). Cardiometabolic risk profile was calculated using a continuous composite score derived from summing of 6 factors standardized to the sample means (Z scores): body mass index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, total serum cholesterol to serum high...... adiponectin at baseline was inversely associated with metabolic risk score 6 years later (P = .04). In childhood, both hypoadiponectinemia and hyperleptinemia accompany a negative metabolic risk profile. In addition, circulating plasma adiponectin may be a useful biomarker to identify overweight children......Prognostic biomarkers are needed to identify children at increased cardiometabolic risk. The objective was to study whether markers of metabolism and inflammation, for example, circulating plasma adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-8, and hepatocyte growth factor, are associated with cardiometabolic...

  7. Molecular profiling of the lateral habenula in a rat model of depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Christensen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study systematically investigated the effect of chronic mild stress and response to antidepressant treatment in the lateral habenula at the whole genome level. METHODS: Rat whole genome expression chips (Affymetrix were used to detect gene expression regulations in the lateral habenula of rats subjected to chronic mild stress (mild stressors exchanged twice a day for 8 weeks. Some rats received antidepressant treatment during fifth to eights week of CMS. The lateral habenula gene expression profile was studied through the gene ontology and signal pathway analyses using bioinformatics. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to verify the microarray results and determine the expression of the Fcrla, Eif3k, Sec3l1, Ubr5, Abca8a, Ankrd49, Cyp2j10, Frs3, Syn2, and Znf503 genes in the lateral habenula tissue. RESULTS: In particular we found that stress and antidepressant treatment affected intracellular cascades like growth factor receptor signaling, G-protein-coupled receptor signaling, and Wnt signaling - processes involved in the neuroplastic changes observed during the progression of depression and antidepressant treatment. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests an important role of the lateral habenula in the development of depression-like conditions and correlates to previous studies demonstrating a significant role of the lateral habenula in depressive-like conditions and antidepressant treatment.

  8. Individual Distinctive Features of Self-Regulation Processes Peculiar to Students of Different Profiles of Lateral Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneeva, Svetlana A.; Zherebnenko, Oksana A.; Mukhamedzyanova, Flera G.; Moskalenko, Svetlana V.; Gorelikova, Olga N.

    2016-01-01

    The research paper presents an analysis of the interrelation between the lateral organisation profiles' indicators and self-regulation features. The existence of significant distinctions in the processes of self-regulation among respondents with different variants of lateral profiles of the interhemispheric asymmetry is proved, as well as the…

  9. Profiling of integral membrane proteins and their post translational modifications using high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souda, Puneet; Ryan, Christopher M.; Cramer, William A.; Whitelegge, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins pose challenges to traditional proteomics approaches due to unique physicochemical properties including hydrophobic transmembrane domains that limit solubility in aqueous solvents. A well resolved intact protein molecular mass profile defines a protein’s native covalent state including post-translational modifications, and is thus a vital measurement toward full structure determination. Both soluble loop regions and transmembrane regions potentially contain post-translational modifications that must be characterized if the covalent primary structure of a membrane protein is to be defined. This goal has been achieved using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with low-resolution mass analyzers for intact protein profiling, and high-resolution instruments for top-down experiments, toward complete covalent primary structure information. In top-down, the intact protein profile is supplemented by gas-phase fragmentation of the intact protein, including its transmembrane regions, using collisionally activated and/or electroncapture dissociation (CAD/ECD) to yield sequence-dependent high-resolution MS information. Dedicated liquid chromatography systems with aqueous/organic solvent mixtures were developed allowing us to demonstrate that polytopic integral membrane proteins are amenable to ESI-MS analysis, including top-down measurements. Covalent post-translational modifications are localized regardless of their position in transmembrane domains. Top-down measurements provide a more detail oriented high-resolution description of post-transcriptional and post-translational diversity for enhanced understanding beyond genomic translation. PMID:21982782

  10. Gene expression profiling during intensive cardiovascular lifestyle modification: Relationships with vascular function and weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Blackburn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease and related sequelae are a leading cause of death and healthcare expenditure throughout the world. Although many patients opt for surgical interventions, lifestyle modification programs focusing on nutrition and exercise have shown substantial health benefits and are becoming increasing popular. We conducted a year-long lifestyle modification program to mediate cardiovascular risk through traditional risk factors and to investigate how molecular changes, if present, may contribute to long-term risk reduction. Here we describe the lifestyle intervention, including clinical and molecular data collected, and provide details of the experimental methods and quality control parameters for the gene expression data generated from participants and non-intervention controls. Our findings suggest successful and sustained modulation of gene expression through healthy lifestyle changes may have beneficial effects on vascular health that cannot be discerned from traditional risk factor profiles. The data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus, series GSE46097 and GSE66175.

  11. Angiogenin induces modifications in the astrocyte secretome: relevance to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupa, Alexandra; Urbach, Serge; Vigy, Oana; King, Matthew A; Chaumont-Dubel, Séverine; Prehn, Jochen H M; Marin, Philippe

    2013-10-08

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting lower and upper motoneurons. Recent studies have shown that both motor neurons and non-neuronal neighbouring cells such as astrocytes and microglia contribute to disease pathology. Loss-of-function mutations in the angiogenin (ANG) gene have been identified in ALS patients. Angiogenin is enriched in motor neurons and exerts neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. We have recently shown that motoneurons secrete angiogenin, and that secreted angiogenin is exclusively taken up by astrocytes, suggesting a paracrine mechanism of neuroprotection. To gain insights into astrocyte effectors of angiogenin-induced neuroprotection, we examined alterations in the astrocyte secretome induced by angiogenin treatment using quantitative proteomics based on Stable Isotope Labelling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC). We identified 2128 proteins in conditioned media from primary cultured mouse astrocytes, including 1247 putative secreted proteins. Of these, 60 proteins showed significant regulation of secretion in response to angiogenin stimulation. Regulated proteins include chemokines and cytokines, proteases and protease inhibitors as well as proteins involved in reorganising the extracellular matrix. In conclusion, this proteomic analysis increases our knowledge of the astrocyte secretome and reveals potential molecular substrates underlying the paracrine, neuroprotective effects of angiogenin. This study provides the most extensive list of astrocyte-secreted proteins available and reveals novel potential molecular substrates of astrocyte-neuron communication. It also identifies a set of astrocyte-derived proteins that might slow down ALS disease progression. It should be relevant to a large readership of neuroscientists and clinicians, in particular those with an interest in the physiological and pathological roles of astrocytes and in the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying

  12. Laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy and laparoscopic Berne modification of Beger procedure for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis: the first UK experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Yazan S; Ammori, Basil J

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic resection and/or ductal drainage are common surgical options in the management of unremitting abdominal pain of chronic pancreatitis (CP). We describe the results of the largest UK series of laparoscopic approach to pancreatic duct drainage and head resection for CP. Patients with CP and intractable abdominal pain requiring duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (Berne modification of Beger procedure) or Puestow procedure were offered laparoscopic surgery by a single surgeon. The results shown represent median (range). Six patients (3 males) with CP (alcohol induced, n=4; idiopathic, n=2) underwent surgery between 2009 and 2012. The pancreatic duct diameter was 8.75 (6 to 11) mm. Five patients have had lateral pancreaticojejunostomy and 1 patient underwent Berne modification of Beger procedure, all of which were completed laparoscopically. The operating time was 277.5 (250 to 360) minutes. There were no deaths and 1 patient was readmitted 10 days postoperatively and had laparotomy for pancreatic bleeding after pancreaticojejunostomy (morbidity, 17%). The hospital stay was 5 (5 to 8) days. At a follow-up of 14.2 (10 to 35) months, 4 of the patients were pain free, whereas 2 patients required one third and half of the preoperative oral opioid dose for pain control. The laparoscopic approach to pancreatic duct drainage and duodenum-preserving head resection in carefully selected patients and in experienced hands is feasible and safe with good short-term results and potential advantages. Further expansion of experience and longer follow-up is required.

  13. Can pyrene probes be used to measure lateral pressure profiles of lipid membranes? Perspective through atomistic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franova, M. D.; Vattulainen, I.; Ollila, O. H. S.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral pressure profile of lipid bilayers has gained a lot of attention, since changes in the pressure profile have been suggested to shift the membrane protein conformational equilibrium. This relation has been mostly studied with theoretical methods, especially with molecular dynamics....../monomer fluorescence ratio has been assumed to represent the lateral pressure in the location of the pyrene moieties. Here, we consider the validity of this assumption through atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in a DOPC (dioleoylphosphatidylcholine) membrane, which hosts di-pyr-PC probes with different acyl...... simulations, since established methods to measure the lateral pressure profile experimentally have not been available. The only experiments that have attempted to gauge the lateral pressure profile have been done by using di-pyrenyl-phosphatidylcholine (di-pyr-PC) probes. In these experiments, the excimer...

  14. Modification of K-line emission profiles in laser-created solid-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengebusch, A.; Reinholz, H.; Roepke, G.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. X-ray emissions in the keV energy range have shown to be suitable radiation to investigate the properties of laser-created solid-density plasmas. We use the modifications of inner shell transitions due to the environment to characterize these plasmas. A theoretical treatment of spectral line profiles based on a self-consistent ion sphere model is applied on moderately ionized mid-Z materials, such as titanium, silicon and chlorine. We observe large contributions of satellite transitions due to M-shell ionization and excitation. To determine the composition a mixture of various excited and ionized ionic states embedded in a plasma has to be considered. Plasma polarization effects that cause shifts of the emission and ionization energies are taken into account. K-line profiles are calculated for bulk temperatures up to 100 eV and free electron densities up to 10 24 cm -3 in order to analyze recent measurements with respect to the plasma parameters of electron heated target regions. Moreover, in high-intensity laser-matter interactions, inevitable prepulses are likely to create preplasma and shocks within the target before the main pulse arrives. We investigate the influence of density gradients due to prepulses on the spectral profiles. Further, radial bulk temperature distributions as well the composition of the created warm dense matter are inferred.

  15. Molecular classification of fatty liver by high-throughput profiling of protein post-translational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urasaki, Yasuyo; Fiscus, Ronald R; Le, Thuc T

    2016-04-01

    We describe an alternative approach to classifying fatty liver by profiling protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) with high-throughput capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) immunoassays. Four strains of mice were studied, with fatty livers induced by different causes, such as ageing, genetic mutation, acute drug usage, and high-fat diet. Nutrient-sensitive PTMs of a panel of 12 liver metabolic and signalling proteins were simultaneously evaluated with cIEF immunoassays, using nanograms of total cellular protein per assay. Changes to liver protein acetylation, phosphorylation, and O-N-acetylglucosamine glycosylation were quantified and compared between normal and diseased states. Fatty liver tissues could be distinguished from one another by distinctive protein PTM profiles. Fatty liver is currently classified by morphological assessment of lipid droplets, without identifying the underlying molecular causes. In contrast, high-throughput profiling of protein PTMs has the potential to provide molecular classification of fatty liver. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The relationships between the achievement motivations and temperaments of psychology students with different lateral organization profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobyeva E.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the motivational potential of psychology students using an egoskopiya method. Heart rate and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed the Mehrabian achievement motivation test. Thirty students of the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 20 and 30 years participated. The psychodiagnostic study involved 136 students from the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 18 and 49 years. To determine the lateral organization profiles of sensory and motor functions, a computer-based testing program termed “Profile” was used. The Compact Russian Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ-77 was used to evaluate the features of temperament. The results revealed that people with a strong motivation to succeed exhibited a predominance of right features in their lateral organization profiles. Their cardiovascular systems were in more activated states than those of the people who were extremely motivated to avoid failure. The observed temperament features of psychology students with different levels of achievement motivation indicated that the level of achievement motivation is related to the properties of temperament such that students with lower levels of achievement motivation (i.e., motivation to avoid failure exhibited the temperament traits of Neuroticism and Impulsivity in addition to low values on the scales for the Sensitivity to Sensations, Intellectual Ergonicity, and Sensitivity to Probabilities. High levels of achievement motivation (i.e., motivation to strive toward success corresponded to the psychology students’ propensities for Sensitivity to Sensations, high levels of Intellectual Ergonicity, high levels of Sensitivity to Probabilities and low values on the scales of Impulsivity and Neuroticism.

  17. The child behavior checklist dysregulation profile predicts adolescent DSM-5 pathological personality traits 4 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caluwé, Elien; Decuyper, Mieke; De Clercq, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Emotional dysregulation in childhood has been associated with various forms of later psychopathology, although no studies have investigated the personality related adolescent outcomes associated with early emotional dysregulation. The present study uses a typological approach to examine how the child behavior checklist-dysregulation profile (CBCL-DP) predicts DSM-5 pathological personality traits (as measured with the personality inventory for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5 or PID-5 by Krueger et al. (Psychol Med 2012)) across a time span of 4 years in a sample of 243 children aged 8-14 years (57.2 % girls). The results showed that children assigned to the CBCL-DP class are at risk for elevated scores on a wide range of DSM-5 personality pathology features, including higher scores on hostility, risk taking, deceitfulness, callousness, grandiosity, irresponsibility, impulsivity and manipulativeness. These results are discussed in the context of identifying early manifestations of persistent regulation problems, because of their enduring impact on a child's personality development.

  18. Profiles of Motor Laterality in Young Athletes' Performance of Complex Movements: Merging the MOTORLAT and PATHoops Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañer, Marta; Andueza, Juan; Hileno, Raúl; Puigarnau, Silvia; Prat, Queralt; Camerino, Oleguer

    2018-01-01

    Laterality is a key aspect of the analysis of basic and specific motor skills. It is relevant to sports because it involves motor laterality profiles beyond left-right preference and spatial orientation of the body. The aim of this study was to obtain the laterality profiles of young athletes, taking into account the synergies between the support and precision functions of limbs and body parts in the performance of complex motor skills. We applied two instruments: (a) MOTORLAT, a motor laterality inventory comprising 30 items of basic, specific, and combined motor skills, and (b) the Precision and Agility Tapping over Hoops (PATHoops) task, in which participants had to perform a path by stepping in each of 14 hoops arranged on the floor, allowing the observation of their feet, left-right preference and spatial orientation. A total of 96 young athletes performed the PATHoops task and the 30 MOTORLAT items, allowing us to obtain data about limb dominance and spatial orientation of the body in the performance of complex motor skills. Laterality profiles were obtained by means of a cluster analysis and a correlational analysis and a contingency analysis were applied between the motor skills and spatial orientation actions performed. The results obtained using MOTORLAT show that the combined motor skills criterion (for example, turning while jumping) differentiates athletes' uses of laterality, showing a clear tendency toward mixed laterality profiles in the performance of complex movements. In the PATHoops task, the best spatial orientation strategy was “same way” (same foot and spatial wing) followed by “opposite way” (opposite foot and spatial wing), in keeping with the research assumption that actions unfolding in a horizontal direction in front of an observer's eyes are common in a variety of sports. PMID:29930527

  19. Differential profiles of direct and indirect modification of vector feeding behaviour by a plant virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Bo; Li, Jie; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-08

    Plant viruses interact with their insect vectors directly and indirectly via host plants, and this tripartite interaction may produce fitness benefits to both the vectors and the viruses. Our previous studies show that the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex improved its performance on tobacco plants infected by the Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), which it transmits, although virus infection of the whitefly per se reduced its performance. Here, we use electrical penetration graph recording to investigate the direct and indirect effects of TYLCCNV on the feeding behaviour of MEAM1. When feeding on either cotton, a non-host of TYLCCNV, or uninfected tobacco, a host of TYLCCNV, virus-infection of the whiteflies impeded their feeding. Interestingly, when viruliferous whiteflies fed on virus-infected tobacco, their feeding activities were no longer negatively affected; instead, the virus promoted whitefly behaviour related to rapid and effective sap ingestion. Our findings show differential profiles of direct and indirect modification of vector feeding behaviour by a plant virus, and help to unravel the behavioural mechanisms underlying a mutualistic relationship between an insect vector and a plant virus that also has features reminiscent of an insect pathogen.

  20. Subthreshold Current and Swing Modeling of Gate Underlap DG MOSFETs with a Source/Drain Lateral Gaussian Doping Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunal; Kumar, Sanjay; Goel, Ekta; Singh, Balraj; Kumar, Mirgender; Dubey, Sarvesh; Jit, Satyabrata

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model for the subthreshold current and swing of the short-channel symmetric underlap ultrathin double gate metal oxide field effect transistors with a source/drain lateral Gaussian doping profile. The channel potential model already reported earlier has been utilized to formulate the closed form expression for the subthreshold current and swing of the device. The effects of the lateral straggle and geometrical parameters such as the channel length, channel thickness, and oxide thickness on the off current and subthreshold slope have been demonstrated. The devices with source/drain lateral Gaussian doping profiles in the underlap structure are observed to be highly resistant to short channel effects while improving the current drive. The proposed model is validated by comparing the results with the numerical simulation data obtained by using the commercially available ATLAS™, a two-dimensional (2-D) device simulator from SILVACO.

  1. Defining Swallowing-Related Quality of Life Profiles in Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziano, Joy; Watts, Stephanie; Robison, Raele; Plowman, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is known that dysphagia contributes to significant malnutrition, pneumonia, and mortality in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), it remains unclear how swallowing impairment impacts quality of life in this vulnerable patient population. The aim of the current study was to (1) delineate swallow-related quality of life (SR-QOL) profiles in individuals with ALS and (2) evaluate relationships between SR-QOL, degree of swallowing impairment, and ALS global disease progression. Eighty-one ALS patients underwent a standardized videofluoroscopic swallow study and completed the swallowing quality of life (SWAL-QOL) instrument and ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R). Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores were derived by a blinded rater. Correlation analyses and a between groups ANOVA (safe vs. penetrators vs. aspirators) were performed. Mean SWAL-QOL score for this cohort was 75.94 indicating a moderate degree of SR-QOL impairment with fatigue, eating duration, and communication representing the most affected domains. Correlations were revealed between the SWAL-QOL and (1) PAS (r = −0.39, p < 0.001) and (2) ALSFRS-R (r = 0.23, p < 0.05). Mean (SD) SWAL-QOL scores for safe versus penetrator versus aspirator groups were 81.2 (2.3) versus 77 (3.4) versus 58.7 (5.9), respectively, with a main effect observed [F(2,78) = 9.71, p < 0.001]. Post hoc testing revealed lower SWAL-QOL scores for aspirators versus safe swallowers (p < 0.001) and aspirators versus penetrators (p < 0.001). Overall, SR-QOL was moderately reduced in this cohort of ALS patients and profoundly impacted in ALS aspirators and individuals with advanced disease. These findings highlight the importance of early multidisciplinary intervention to not only avoid malnutrition, weight loss, and pulmonary sequelae but also the associated reduced QOL seen in these individuals. PMID:26837611

  2. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    grouping by sampling modes (p = 0.914 by R2 = 0.09). Conclusion: A slight modification of sampling mode has minor effects corresponding to a natural variability in the microbiome profiles of healthy children. The inter-individual variability in subgingival microprints is greater than intra-individual differences. Statistical analyses of microbial populations should consider this baseline variability and move beyond mere quantification with input from visual analytics. Comparative results are difficult to summarize as methods for studying huge datasets are still evolving. Advanced approaches are needed for sample size calculations in clinical settings. PMID:28149291

  3. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    sampling modes ( p = 0.914 by R 2 = 0.09). Conclusion: A slight modification of sampling mode has minor effects corresponding to a natural variability in the microbiome profiles of healthy children. The inter-individual variability in subgingival microprints is greater than intra-individual differences. Statistical analyses of microbial populations should consider this baseline variability and move beyond mere quantification with input from visual analytics. Comparative results are difficult to summarize as methods for studying huge datasets are still evolving. Advanced approaches are needed for sample size calculations in clinical settings.

  4. Molecular Profiling of the Lateral Habenula in a Rat Model of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Trine; Bouzinova, Elena; Wiborg, Ove

    2013-01-01

    bioinformatics. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to verify the microarray results and determine the expression of the Fcrla, Eif3k, Sec3l1, Ubr5, Abca8a, Ankrd49, Cyp2j10, Frs3, Syn2, and Znf503 genes in the lateral habenula tissue. Results. In particular we found that stress...... and antidepressant treatment affected intracellular cascades like growth factor receptor signaling, G-protein-coupled receptor signaling, and Wnt signaling – processes involved in the neuroplastic changes observed during the progression of depression and antidepressant treatment. Conclusion. The present study...... suggests an important role of the lateral habenula in the development of depression-like conditions and correlates to previous studies demonstrating a significant role of the lateral habenula in depressive-like conditions and antidepressant treatment....

  5. Features of the emotional status of schoolchildren with different profiles of lateral phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zaitseva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Success of school education depends on many factors, including the most important mental function of a child, namely the type of hemispheric asymmetry of the brain that determines the characteristics of perception, memory, thinking strategy and the emotional sphere. Accounting the patterns of mental functions of a child constitutes the basis for the individualization of learning processes with the focus on maintaining the health of children and adolescents. The type of the hemispheric asymmetry is determined by the lateral phenotype of the subject, which is the set of peripheral motorsensory asymmetries. Aim of the study: To evaluate emotional and personal characteristics of pupils with different lateral phenotypes. Material and methods: 227 schoolchildren (caucasians aged 7-15 years living in the city of Krasnoyarsk. The pupils were recognized clinically as healthy and they achieved the average physical and sexual development. Their lateral phenotype was assessed by the psychomotor tests for the guiding hand, the leading leg, eye and ear. The study aimed to explore the emotional personality traits, using child personality questionnaire G.U. Eysenck adapted to the childhood age and to estimate the level of intra - extraversion and neuroticisms in points. Results: Among schoolchildren of Krasnoyarsk city, there were numerous groups of children with right lateral and mixed phenotypes in combination with extroverted personality type and emotional stability. Among the children with left lateral and symmetric phenotypes almost half of the subjects recorded introverted personality type combined with high levels of neuroticism. Conclusions: the components of a child’s personality such as introverted personality type combined with high levels of neuroticism reduce the body’s adaptive capabilities of children and dictate the need for psycho-pedagogical correction. The results of the research can be used in psychology, age physiology and

  6. Early Childhood Profiles of Sleep Problems and Self-Regulation Predict Later School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Walker, Sue; Berthelsen, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children's sleep problems and self-regulation problems have been independently associated with poorer adjustment to school, but there has been limited exploration of longitudinal early childhood profiles that include both indicators. Aims: This study explores the normative developmental pathway for sleep problems and self-regulation…

  7. CoverageAnalyzer (CAn: A Tool for Inspection of Modification Signatures in RNA Sequencing Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hauenschild

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Combination of reverse transcription (RT and deep sequencing has emerged as a powerful instrument for the detection of RNA modifications, a field that has seen a recent surge in activity because of its importance in gene regulation. Recent studies yielded high-resolution RT signatures of modified ribonucleotides relying on both sequence-dependent mismatch patterns and reverse transcription arrests. Common alignment viewers lack specialized functionality, such as filtering, tailored visualization, image export and differential analysis. Consequently, the community will profit from a platform seamlessly connecting detailed visual inspection of RT signatures and automated screening for modification candidates. CoverageAnalyzer (CAn was developed in response to the demand for a powerful inspection tool. It is freely available for all three main operating systems. With SAM file format as standard input, CAn is an intuitive and user-friendly tool that is generally applicable to the large community of biomedical users, starting from simple visualization of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq data, up to sophisticated modification analysis with significance-based modification candidate calling.

  8. Silhouette and spectral line profiles in the special modification of the Kerr black hole geometry generated by quintessential fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schee, Jan; Stuchlik, Zdenek [Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics and Research Centre for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    We study optical effects in quintessential Kerr black hole spacetimes corresponding to the limiting case of the equation-of-state parameter ω{sub q} = -1/3 of the quintessence. In dependence on the dimensionless quintessential field parameter c, we determine the black hole silhouette and the spectral line profiles of Keplerian disks generated in this special quintessential Kerr geometry, representing an extension of the general modifications of the Kerr geometry introduced recently by Ghasemi-Nodehi and Bambi (Eur. Phys. J. C 56:290, 2016). We demonstrate that due to the influence of the parameter c, the silhouette is almost homogeneously enlarged, and the spectral line profiles are redshifted with almost conserved shape. (orig.)

  9. Lateral energy band profile modulation in tunnel field effect transistors based on gate structure engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing novel materials and structures is important for enhancing the on-state current in tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs. In this paper, we reveal that the on-state performance of TFETs is mainly determined by the energy band profile of the channel. According to this interpretation, we present a new concept of energy band profile modulation (BPM achieved with gate structure engineering. It is believed that this approach can be used to suppress the ambipolar effect. Based on this method, a Si TFET device with a symmetrical tri-material-gate (TMG structure is proposed. Two-dimensional numerical simulations demonstrated that the special band profile in this device can boost on-state performance, and it also suppresses the off-state current induced by the ambipolar effect. These unique advantages are maintained over a wide range of gate lengths and supply voltages. The BPM concept can serve as a guideline for improving the performance of nanoscale TFET devices.

  10. Lateral facial profile may reveal the risk for sleep disordered breathing in children--the PANIC-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikävalko, Tiina; Närhi, Matti; Lakka, Timo; Myllykangas, Riitta; Tuomilehto, Henri; Vierola, Anu; Pahkala, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the lateral view photography of the face as a tool for assessing morphological properties (i.e. facial convexity) as a risk factor for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children and to test how reliably oral health and non-oral healthcare professionals can visually discern the lateral profile of the face from the photographs. The present study sample consisted of 382 children 6-8 years of age who were participants in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study. Sleep was assessed by a sleep questionnaire administered by the parents. SDB was defined as apnoeas, frequent or loud snoring or nocturnal mouth breathing observed by the parents. The facial convexity was assessed with three different methods. First, it was clinically evaluated by the reference orthodontist (T.I.). Second, lateral view photographs were taken to visually sub-divide the facial profile into convex, normal or concave. The photos were examined by a reference orthodontist and seven different healthcare professionals who work with children and also by a dental student. The inter- and intra-examiner consistencies were calculated by Kappa statistics. Three soft tissue landmarks of the facial profile, soft tissue Glabella (G`), Subnasale (Sn) and soft tissue Pogonion (Pg`) were digitally identified to analyze convexity of the face and the intra-examiner reproducibility of the reference orthodontist was determined by calculating intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). The third way to express the convexity of the face was to calculate the angle of facial convexity (G`-Sn-Pg`) and to group it into quintiles. For analysis the lowest quintile (≤164.2°) was set to represent the most convex facial profile. The prevalence of the SDB in children with the most convex profiles expressed with the lowest quintile of the angle G`-Sn-Pg` (≤164.2°) was almost 2-fold (14.5%) compared to those with normal profile (8.1%) (p = 0.084). The inter-examiner Kappa values between the

  11. Energy deposition profile for modification proposal of ISOLDE’s HRS Beam Dump, from FLUKA simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, V

    2014-01-01

    The current ISOLDE HRS beam dump has been found to be unsuitable on previous simulations, due to thermomechanical stresses. In this paper a proposal for modifying HRS dump is studied using FLUKA. The energy deposited in this modified beam dump and the amount of neutrons streaming to the tunnel area are scored and compared with the simulation of current dump. Two versions of the modification have been assessed, determining which of them is more desirable in terms of influence of radiation on ISOLDE’s tunnel. Finally, a rough estimate of temperature raise in the modified dump is shown. Further conclusions on the adequacy of these modifications need to include the thermomechanical calculations’ results, based on those presented here.

  12. Modification of Turbulent Pipe Flow Equations to Estimate the Vertical Velocity Profiles Under Woody Debris Jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervania, A.; Knack, I. M. W.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of woody debris (WD) jams in rivers and streams increases the risk of backwater flooding and reduces the navigability of a channel, but adds fish and macroinvertebrate habitat to the stream. When designing river engineering projects engineers use hydraulic models to predict flow behavior around these obstructions. However, the complexities of flow through and beneath WD jams are still poorly understood. By increasing the ability to predict flow behavior around WD jams, landowners and engineers are empowered to develop sustainable practices regarding the removal or placement of WD in rivers and flood plains to balance the desirable and undesirable effects to society and the environment. The objective of this study is to address some of this knowledge gap by developing a method to estimate the vertical velocity profile of flow under WD jams. When flow passes under WD jams, it becomes affected by roughness elements on all sides, similar to turbulent flows in pipe systems. Therefore, the method was developed using equations that define the velocity profiles of turbulent pipe flows: the law of the wall, the logarithmic law, and the velocity defect law. Flume simulations of WD jams were conducted and the vertical velocity profiles were measured along the centerline. A calculated velocity profile was fit to the measured profile through the calibration of eight parameters. An optimal value or range of values have been determined for several of these parameters using cross-validation techniques. The results indicate there may be some promise to using this method in hydraulic models.

  13. Spatiotemporal profiles of receptive fields of neurons in the lateral posterior nucleus of the cat LP-pulvinar complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piché, Marilyse; Thomas, Sébastien; Casanova, Christian

    2015-10-01

    The pulvinar is the largest extrageniculate thalamic visual nucleus in mammals. It establishes reciprocal connections with virtually all visual cortexes and likely plays a role in transthalamic cortico-cortical communication. In cats, the lateral posterior nucleus (LP) of the LP-pulvinar complex can be subdivided in two subregions, the lateral (LPl) and medial (LPm) parts, which receive a predominant input from the striate cortex and the superior colliculus, respectively. Here, we revisit the receptive field structure of LPl and LPm cells in anesthetized cats by determining their first-order spatiotemporal profiles through reverse correlation analysis following sparse noise stimulation. Our data reveal the existence of previously unidentified receptive field profiles in the LP nucleus both in space and time domains. While some cells responded to only one stimulus polarity, the majority of neurons had receptive fields comprised of bright and dark responsive subfields. For these neurons, dark subfields' size was larger than that of bright subfields. A variety of receptive field spatial organization types were identified, ranging from totally overlapped to segregated bright and dark subfields. In the time domain, a large spectrum of activity overlap was found, from cells with temporally coinciding subfield activity to neurons with distinct, time-dissociated subfield peak activity windows. We also found LP neurons with space-time inseparable receptive fields and neurons with multiple activity periods. Finally, a substantial degree of homology was found between LPl and LPm first-order receptive field spatiotemporal profiles, suggesting a high integration of cortical and subcortical inputs within the LP-pulvinar complex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Active core profile and transport modification by application of Ion Bernstein Wave power in PBX-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B.; Bell, R.

    1995-01-01

    Application of Ion Bernstein Wave Heating (IBWH) into the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M) tokamak stabilizes sawtooth oscillations and generates peaked density profiles. A transport barrier, spatially correlated with the IBWH power deposition profile, is observed in the core of IBWH assisted neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges. A precursor to the fully developed barrier is seen in the soft x-ray data during edge localized mode (ELM) activity. Sustained IBWH operation is conducive to a regime where the barrier supports large triangledown n e , triangledown T e , triangledown v phi , and triangledown T i , delimiting the confinement zone. This regime is reminiscent of the H(high)-mode but with a confinement zone moved inwards. The core region has better than H-mode confinement while the peripheral region is L(low)-mode-like. The peaked profile enhanced NBI core deposition and increases nuclear reactivity. An increase in central T i results from χ i reduction (compared to H-mode) and better beam penetration. Bootstrap current fractions of up to 0.32--0.35 locally and 0.28 overall were obtained when an additional NBI burst is applied to this plasma

  15. Profiling Speech and Pausing in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Graham, Naida L.; Shellikeri, Sanjana; Phuong, Kent; Kulkarni, Madhura; Rochon, Elizabeth; Tang-Wai, David F.; Chow, Tiffany W.; Black, Sandra E.; Zinman, Lorne H.; Green, Jordan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examines reading aloud in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and those with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in order to determine whether differences in patterns of speaking and pausing exist between patients with primary motor vs. primary cognitive-linguistic deficits, and in contrast to healthy controls. Design 136 participants were included in the study: 33 controls, 85 patients with ALS, and 18 patients with either the behavioural variant of FTD (FTD-BV) or progressive nonfluent aphasia (FTD-PNFA). Participants with ALS were further divided into 4 non-overlapping subgroups—mild, respiratory, bulbar (with oral-motor deficit) and bulbar-respiratory—based on the presence and severity of motor bulbar or respiratory signs. All participants read a passage aloud. Custom-made software was used to perform speech and pause analyses, and this provided measures of speaking and articulatory rates, duration of speech, and number and duration of pauses. These measures were statistically compared in different subgroups of patients. Results The results revealed clear differences between patient groups and healthy controls on the passage reading task. A speech-based motor function measure (i.e., articulatory rate) was able to distinguish patients with bulbar ALS or FTD-PNFA from those with respiratory ALS or FTD-BV. Distinguishing the disordered groups proved challenging based on the pausing measures. Conclusions and Relevance This study demonstrated the use of speech measures in the identification of those with an oral-motor deficit, and showed the usefulness of performing a relatively simple reading test to assess speech versus pause behaviors across the ALS—FTD disease continuum. The findings also suggest that motor speech assessment should be performed as part of the diagnostic workup for patients with FTD. PMID:26789001

  16. Profiling Speech and Pausing in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Yunusova

    Full Text Available This study examines reading aloud in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and those with frontotemporal dementia (FTD in order to determine whether differences in patterns of speaking and pausing exist between patients with primary motor vs. primary cognitive-linguistic deficits, and in contrast to healthy controls.136 participants were included in the study: 33 controls, 85 patients with ALS, and 18 patients with either the behavioural variant of FTD (FTD-BV or progressive nonfluent aphasia (FTD-PNFA. Participants with ALS were further divided into 4 non-overlapping subgroups--mild, respiratory, bulbar (with oral-motor deficit and bulbar-respiratory--based on the presence and severity of motor bulbar or respiratory signs. All participants read a passage aloud. Custom-made software was used to perform speech and pause analyses, and this provided measures of speaking and articulatory rates, duration of speech, and number and duration of pauses. These measures were statistically compared in different subgroups of patients.The results revealed clear differences between patient groups and healthy controls on the passage reading task. A speech-based motor function measure (i.e., articulatory rate was able to distinguish patients with bulbar ALS or FTD-PNFA from those with respiratory ALS or FTD-BV. Distinguishing the disordered groups proved challenging based on the pausing measures.This study demonstrated the use of speech measures in the identification of those with an oral-motor deficit, and showed the usefulness of performing a relatively simple reading test to assess speech versus pause behaviors across the ALS-FTD disease continuum. The findings also suggest that motor speech assessment should be performed as part of the diagnostic workup for patients with FTD.

  17. Genetic variability in MCF-7 sublines: evidence of rapid genomic and RNA expression profile modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugoli, Mélanie; Theillet, Charles; Chuchana, Paul; Vendrell, Julie; Orsetti, Béatrice; Ursule, Lisa; Nguyen, Catherine; Birnbaum, Daniel; Douzery, Emmanuel JP; Cohen, Pascale

    2003-01-01

    Both phenotypic and cytogenetic variability have been reported for clones of breast carcinoma cell lines but have not been comprehensively studied. Despite this, cell lines such as MCF-7 cells are extensively used as model systems. In this work we documented, using CGH and RNA expression profiles, the genetic variability at the genomic and RNA expression levels of MCF-7 cells of different origins. Eight MCF-7 sublines collected from different sources were studied as well as 3 subclones isolated from one of the sublines by limit dilution. MCF-7 sublines showed important differences in copy number alteration (CNA) profiles. Overall numbers of events ranged from 28 to 41. Involved chromosomal regions varied greatly from a subline to another. A total of 62 chromosomal regions were affected by either gains or losses in the 11 sublines studied. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of CGH profiles using maximum parsimony in order to reconstruct the putative filiation of the 11 MCF-7 sublines. The phylogenetic tree obtained showed that the MCF-7 clade was characterized by a restricted set of 8 CNAs and that the most divergent subline occupied the position closest to the common ancestor. Expression profiles of 8 MCF-7 sublines were analyzed along with those of 19 unrelated breast cancer cell lines using home made cDNA arrays comprising 720 genes. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the expression data showed that 7/8 MCF-7 sublines were grouped forming a cluster while the remaining subline clustered with unrelated breast cancer cell lines. These data thus showed that MCF-7 sublines differed at both the genomic and phenotypic levels. The analysis of CGH profiles of the parent subline and its three subclones supported the heteroclonal nature of MCF-7 cells. This strongly suggested that the genetic plasticity of MCF-7 cells was related to their intrinsic capacity to generate clonal heterogeneity. We propose that MCF-7, and possibly the breast tumor it was derived from, evolved

  18. Usefulness of diffusion tensor imaging in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: potential biomarker and association with the cognitive profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Chaves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this preliminary study was to correlate diffusion tensor imaging (DTI alterations with the cognitive profile of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Methods This was a case-control study conducted from December 1, 2012 to December 1, 2014. Clinical and demographic data were recorded. A neuropsychological test battery adapted to ALS patients was used. An MRI with DTI was performed in all patients and fractional anisotropy (FA was analyzed in the white matter using the tract based spatial statistics program. Results Twenty-four patients with ALS (15 females, mean age 66.9 + -2.3 and 13 healthy controls (four females, average age 66.9 + - 2 were included. The DTI showed white matter damage in ALS patients vs. healthy controls (p < 0.001. Discussion In our preliminary study the alterations of white matter in DTI were significantly associated with cognitive impairment in patients with ALS.

  19. Single Amino Acid Modification of Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid Changes Transduction and Humoral Immune Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprimio, Nina; Bowles, Dawn E.; Hirsch, Matthew L.; Monahan, Paul E.; Asokan, Aravind; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2012-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have the potential to promote long-term gene expression. Unfortunately, humoral immunity restricts patient treatment and in addition provides an obstacle to the potential option of vector readministration. In this study, we describe a comprehensive characterization of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response to AAV type 1 (AAV1) through AAV5 both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that NAbs generated from one AAV type are unable to neutralize the transduction of other types. We extended this observation by demonstrating that a rationally engineered, muscle-tropic AAV2 mutant containing 5 amino acid substitutions from AAV1 displayed a NAb profile different from those of parental AAV2 and AAV1. Here we found that a single insertion of Thr from AAV1 into AAV2 capsid at residue 265 preserved high muscle transduction, while also changing the immune profile. To better understand the role of Thr insertion at position 265, we replaced all 20 amino acids and evaluated both muscle transduction and the NAb response. Of these variants, 8 mutants induced higher muscle transduction than AAV2. Additionally, three classes of capsid NAb immune profile were defined based on the ability to inhibit transduction from AAV2 or mutants. While no relationship was found between transduction, amino acid properties, and NAb titer or its cross-reactivity, these studies map a critical capsid motif involved in all steps of AAV infectivity. Our results suggest that AAV types can be utilized not only as templates to generate mutants with enhanced transduction efficiency but also as substrates for repeat administration. PMID:22593151

  20. A lateral cephalometric study of the hard- and soft tissue profile around the face in the mixed dentition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Rae; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1978-01-01

    A study was made investigate a relationship existing in the dentoskeletal framework and the soft tissue profile around the face, and compared the sexual differences between boys and girls having the normal occlusion in the mixed dentition. The lateral cephalograms were composed of 67 boys aged 10.3 years and 68 girls aged 10.4 years, respectively. By means of the lateral cephalograms, both the hard-and soft tissue structures were simultaneously analyzed, measured and evaluated by introducing the several reference items: S-N plane, palatal plane, mandibular plane, N-A line and A-P line for the dentoskeletal structures and N'-P' line for the soft tissue, and the 21 measuring points for the both structures. The significant findings were as follows: 1. In general the boys showed the larger nasal component dimension than did the girls, but the length and height of nose(N'-Prn and NA-Prn) showed the significant sexual difference among those when evaluated statistically. 2. The lip-thickness was found to be minimal in the region of nasion, greater in the region of pogonion, and much greater in the region of point A in the both sexes, but the only thickness over point A(A-A') showed the significant sexual difference statistically. 3. The upper and lower lip position were found to be located anteriorly to the esthetic line in the both sexes, but upper lip position showed the significant sexual difference when evaluated statistically. 4. The regions of nose and upper lip had a tendency not to be following the underlying skeletal profile.

  1. Profile modifications in laser-driven temperature fronts using flux-limiters and delocalization models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombant, Denis; Manheimer, Wallace; Busquet, Michel

    2004-11-01

    A simple steady-state model using flux-limiters by Day et al [1] showed that temperature profiles could formally be double-valued. Stability of temperature profiles in laser-driven temperature fronts using delocalization models was also discussed by Prasad and Kershaw [2]. We have observed steepening of the front and flattening of the maximum temperature in laser-driven implosions [3]. Following the simple model first proposed in [1], we solve for a two-boundary value steady-state heat flow problem for various non-local heat transport models. For the more complicated models [4,5], we obtain the steady-state solution as the asymptotic limit of the time-dependent solution. Solutions will be shown and compared for these various models. 1.M.Day, B.Merriman, F.Najmabadi and R.W.Conn, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 36, 419 (1996) 2.M.K.Prasad and D.S.Kershaw, Phys. Fluids B3, 3087 (1991) 3.D.Colombant, W.Manheimer and M.Busquet, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 48, 326 (2003) 4.E.M.Epperlein and R.W.Short, Phys. Fluids B3, 3092 (1991) 5.W.Manheimer and D.Colombant, Phys. Plasmas 11, 260 (2004)

  2. The dietary fiber profile of fruit peels and functionality modifications induced by high hydrostatic pressure treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Ortigoza, Viridiana; García-Amezquita, Luis Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Welti-Chanes, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and temperature on composition of non-conventional dietary fiber (DF) sources and functional properties were evaluated. Mango, orange, or prickly pear peels were processed at 600 MPa during 10 min at 22 ℃ and 55 ℃. Total (TDF), soluble (SDF), and insoluble (IDF) dietary fiber, water/oil holding, and retention capacity, solubility, swelling capacity, and bulk density were assayed. An increment in the SDF content was observed due to the effect of pressure with the greatest changes noticed in mango peel, increasing from 37.4% (control) to 45.7% (SDF/TDF) in the HHP-treated (55 ℃) sample. Constant values of TDF after the treatments suggest a conversion of IDF to SDF in mango (38.9%-40.5% dw) and orange (49.0%-50.8% dw) peels. The highest fiber solubility values were observed for mango peel ranging between 80.3% and 83.9%, but the highest increase, from 55.1% to 62.3%, due to treatment was displayed in orange peel processed at 22 ℃. A relationship between DF modifications induced by HHP treatment and changes in the functional properties of the materials was established. Application of HHP opens up the opportunity to modify non-conventional sources of DF and to obtain novel functional properties for different food applications.

  3. Genetic Modulation of Lipid Profiles following Lifestyle Modification or Metformin Treatment: The Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Kathleen A.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Taylor, Andrew; McAteer, Jarred; Pan, Qing; Horton, Edward S.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Altshuler, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Florez, Jose C.; Bray, George A.; Culbert, Iris W.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Eberhardt, Barbara; Greenway, Frank; Guillory, Fonda G.; Herbert, April A.; Jeffirs, Michael L.; Kennedy, Betty M.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Morris, Laura H.; Melancon, Lee E.; Ryan, Donna; Sanford, Deborah A.; Smith, Kenneth G.; Smith, Lisa L.; Amant, Julia A. St.; Tulley, Richard T.; Vicknair, Paula C.; Williamson, Donald; Zachwieja, Jeffery J.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.; Tobian, Janet; Ehrmann, David; Matulik, Margaret J.; Clark, Bart; Czech, Kirsten; DeSandre, Catherine; Hilbrich, Ruthanne; McNabb, Wylie; Semenske, Ann R.; Caro, Jose F.; Watson, Pamela G.; Goldstein, Barry J.; Smith, Kellie A.; Mendoza, Jewel; Liberoni, Renee; Pepe, Constance; Spandorfer, John; Donahue, Richard P.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Prineas, Ronald; Rowe, Patricia; Calles, Jeanette; Cassanova-Romero, Paul; Florez, Hermes J.; Giannella, Anna; Kirby, Lascelles; Larreal, Carmen; McLymont, Valerie; Mendez, Jadell; Ojito, Juliet; Perry, Arlette; Saab, Patrice; Haffner, Steven M.; Montez, Maria G.; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martinez, Arlene; Hamman, Richard F.; Nash, Patricia V.; Testaverde, Lisa; Anderson, Denise R.; Ballonoff, Larry B.; Bouffard, Alexis; Calonge, B. Ned; Delve, Lynne; Farago, Martha; Hill, James O.; Hoyer, Shelley R.; Jortberg, Bonnie T.; Lenz, Dione; Miller, Marsha; Price, David W.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Seagle, Helen; Smith, Carissa M.; Steinke, Sheila C.; VanDorsten, Brent; Horton, Edward S.; Lawton, Kathleen E.; Arky, Ronald A.; Bryant, Marybeth; Burke, Jacqueline P.; Caballero, Enrique; Callaphan, Karen M.; Ganda, Om P.; Franklin, Therese; Jackson, Sharon D.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Kula, Lyn M.; Kocal, Margaret; Malloy, Maureen A.; Nicosia, Maryanne; Oldmixon, Cathryn F.; Pan, Jocelyn; Quitingon, Marizel; Rubtchinsky, Stacy; Seely, Ellen W.; Schweizer, Dana; Simonson, Donald; Smith, Fannie; Solomon, Caren G.; Warram, James; Kahn, Steven E.; Montgomery, Brenda K.; Fujimoto, Wilfred; Knopp, Robert H.; Lipkin, Edward W.; Marr, Michelle; Trence, Dace; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Murphy, Mary E.; Applegate, William B.; Bryer-Ash, Michael; Frieson, Sandra L.; Imseis, Raed; Lambeth, Helen; Lichtermann, Lynne C.; Oktaei, Hooman; Rutledge, Lily M.K.; Sherman, Amy R.; Smith, Clara M.; Soberman, Judith E.; Williams-Cleaves, Beverly; Metzger, Boyd E.; Johnson, Mariana K.; Behrends, Catherine; Cook, Michelle; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Giles, Mimi M.; Heard, Deloris; Johnson, Cheryl K.H.; Larsen, Diane; Lowe, Anne; Lyman, Megan; McPherson, David; Molitch, Mark E.; Pitts, Thomas; Reinhart, Renee; Roston, Susan; Schinleber, Pamela A.; Nathan, David M.; McKitrick, Charles; Turgeon, Heather; Abbott, Kathy; Anderson, Ellen; Bissett, Laurie; Cagliero, Enrico; Florez, Jose C.; Delahanty, Linda; Goldman, Valerie; Poulos, Alexandra; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Carrion-Petersen, Mary Lou; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Edelman, Steven V.; Henry, Robert R.; Horne, Javiva; Janesch, Simona Szerdi; Leos, Diana; Mudaliar, Sundar; Polonsky, William; Smith, Jean; Vejvoda, Karen; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Lee, Jane E.; Allison, David B.; Aronoff, Nancy J.; Crandall, Jill P.; Foo, Sandra T.; Pal, Carmen; Parkes, Kathy; Pena, Mary Beth; Rooney, Ellen S.; Wye, Gretchen E.H. Van; Viscovich, Kristine A.; Marrero, David G.; Prince, Melvin J.; Kelly, Susie M.; Dotson, Yolanda F.; Fineberg, Edwin S.; Guare, John C; Hadden, Angela M.; Ignaut, James M.; Jackson, Marcia L.; Kirkman, Marion S.; Mather, Kieren J.; Porter, Beverly D.; Roach, Paris J.; Rowland, Nancy D.; Wheeler, Madelyn L.; Ratner, Robert E.; Youssef, Gretchen; Shapiro, Sue; Bavido-Arrage, Catherine; Boggs, Geraldine; Bronsord, Marjorie; Brown, Ernestine; Cheatham, Wayman W.; Cola, Susan; Evans, Cindy; Gibbs, Peggy; Kellum, Tracy; Levatan, Claresa; Nair, Asha K.; Passaro, Maureen; Uwaifo, Gabriel; Saad, Mohammed F.; Budget, Maria; Jinagouda, Sujata; Akbar, Khan; Conzues, Claudia; Magpuri, Perpetua; Ngo, Kathy; Rassam, Amer; Waters, Debra; Xapthalamous, Kathy; Santiago, Julio V.; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; White, Neil H.; Das, Samia; Santiago, Ana; Brown, Angela; Fisher, Edwin; Hurt, Emma; Jones, Tracy; Kerr, Michelle; Ryder, Lucy; Wernimont, Cormarie; Saudek, Christopher D.; Bradley, Vanessa; Sullivan, Emily; Whittington, Tracy; Abbas, Caroline; Brancati, Frederick L.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Charleston, Jeanne B.; Freel, Janice; Horak, Katherine; Jiggetts, Dawn; Johnson, Deloris; Joseph, Hope; Loman, Kimberly; Mosley, Henry; Rubin, Richard R.; Samuels, Alafia; Stewart, Kerry J.; Williamson, Paula; Schade, David S.; Adams, Karwyn S.; Johannes, Carolyn; Atler, Leslie F.; Boyle, Patrick J.; Burge, Mark R.; Canady, Janene L.; Chai, Lisa; Gonzales, Ysela; Hernandez-McGinnis, Doris A.; Katz, Patricia; King, Carolyn; Rassam, Amer; Rubinchik, Sofya; Senter, Willette; Waters, Debra; Shamoon, Harry; Brown, Janet O.; Adorno, Elsie; Cox, Liane; Crandall, Jill; Duffy, Helena; Engel, Samuel; Friedler, Allison; Howard-Century, Crystal J.; Kloiber, Stacey; Longchamp, Nadege; Martinez, Helen; Pompi, Dorothy; Scheindlin, Jonathan; Violino, Elissa; Walker, Elizabeth; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Zimmerman, Elise; Zonszein, Joel; Orchard, Trevor; Wing, Rena R.; Koenning, Gaye; Kramer, M. Kaye; Barr, Susan; Boraz, Miriam; Clifford, Lisa; Culyba, Rebecca; Frazier, Marlene; Gilligan, Ryan; Harrier, Susan; Harris, Louann; Jeffries, Susan; Kriska, Andrea; Manjoo, Qurashia; Mullen, Monica; Noel, Alicia; Otto, Amy; Semler, Linda; Smith, Cheryl F.; Smith, Marie; Venditti, Elizabeth; Weinzierl, Valarie; Williams, Katherine V.; Wilson, Tara; Arakaki, Richard F.; Latimer, Renee W.; Baker-Ladao, Narleen K.; Beddow, Ralph; Dias, Lorna; Inouye, Jillian; Mau, Marjorie K.; Mikami, Kathy; Mohideen, Pharis; Odom, Sharon K.; Perry, Raynette U.; Knowler, William C.; Cooeyate, Norman; Hoskin, Mary A.; Percy, Carol A.; Acton, Kelly J.; Andre, Vickie L.; Barber, Rosalyn; Begay, Shandiin; Bennett, Peter H.; Benson, Mary Beth; Bird, Evelyn C.; Broussard, Brenda A.; Chavez, Marcella; Dacawyma, Tara; Doughty, Matthew S.; Duncan, Roberta; Edgerton, Cyndy; Ghahate, Jacqueline M.; Glass, Justin; Glass, Martia; Gohdes, Dorothy; Grant, Wendy; Hanson, Robert L.; Horse, Ellie; Ingraham, Louise E.; Jackson, Merry; Jay, Priscilla; Kaskalla, Roylen S.; Kessler, David; Kobus, Kathleen M.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Manus, Catherine; Michaels, Sara; Morgan, Tina; Nashboo, Yolanda; Nelson, Julie A.; Poirier, Steven; Polczynski, Evette; Reidy, Mike; Roumain, Jeanine; Rowse, Debra; Sangster, Sandra; Sewenemewa, Janet; Tonemah, Darryl; Wilson, Charlton; Yazzie, Michelle; Bain, Raymond; Fowler, Sarah; Brenneman, Tina; Abebe, Solome; Bamdad, Julie; Callaghan, Jackie; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Gao, Yuping; Grimes, Kristina L.; Grover, Nisha; Haffner, Lori; Jones, Steve; Jones, Tara L.; Katz, Richard; Lachin, John M.; Mucik, Pamela; Orlosky, Robert; Rochon, James; Sapozhnikova, Alla; Sherif, Hanna; Stimpson, Charlotte; Temprosa, Marinella; Walker-Murray, Fredricka; Marcovina, Santica; Strylewicz, Greg; Aldrich, F. Alan; O'Leary, Dan; Stamm, Elizabeth; Rautaharju, Pentti; Prineas, Ronald J.; Alexander, Teresa; Campbell, Charles; Hall, Sharon; Li, Yabing; Mills, Margaret; Pemberton, Nancy; Rautaharju, Farida; Zhang, Zhuming; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Moran, Robert R.; Ganiats, Ted; David, Kristin; Sarkin, Andrew J.; Eastman, R.; Fradkin, Judith; Garfield, Sanford; Gregg, Edward; Zhang, Ping; Herman, William; Florez, Jose C.; Altshuler, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Franks, Paul W.; Hanson, Robert L.; Jablonski, Kathleen; Knowler, William C.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04–1×10−17). Except for total HDL particles (r = −0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07–0.17, P = 5×10−5–1×10−19). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8×10−5, P interaction = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (β = −0.03, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P interaction = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE±0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P interaction = 0.01) but not in the placebo (β = −0.002, SEE±0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE±0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P interaction = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss. PMID:22951888

  4. Genetic modulation of lipid profiles following lifestyle modification or metformin treatment: the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni I Pollin

    Full Text Available Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04-1 × 10(-17. Except for total HDL particles (r = -0.03, P = 0.26, all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07-0.17, P = 5 × 10(-5-1 10(-19. The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8 × 10(-5, P(interaction = 0.02 in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35 or metformin (β = -0.03, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P(interaction = 0.64 groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE ± 0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P(interaction = 0.01 but not in the placebo (β = -0.002, SEE ± 0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74 or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE ± 0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P(interaction = 0.24 groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss.

  5. Fukushima, two years later, modification requirements in nuclear power plants; Fukushima, dos anos despues, requerimientos de modificacion en centrales nucleares de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, J.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Salmeron V, J. A., E-mail: jerson.sanchez@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The occurred events in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi as consequence of the strong earthquake of 9 grades in the Richter scale and the later tsunami with waves estimated in more than 14 meters high began a series of important questions about the safety of the nuclear power plants in operation and of the new designs. Firstly, have allowed to be questioned on the magnitudes and consequences of the extreme external natural events; that can put in risk the integrity of the safety barriers of a nuclear power plant when being presented in a multiple way. As consequence of the events of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the countries with NPPs in operation and /or construction carried out evaluations about their safety operation. They have also realized evaluations about accidents and their impact in the safety, analysis and studies too that have forced to the regulatory bodies to continue a systematic and methodical revision of their procedures and regulations, to identify the possible improvements to the safety in response to the events happened in Japan; everything has taken it to determine the necessity to incorporate additional requirements to the nuclear power plants to mitigate events Beyond the Design Base. Due to Mexico has the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, with two units of BWR-5 type with contention Mark III, some the modifications can be applicable to these units to administrate and/or to mitigate the consequences of the possible occurrence of an accident Beyond the Design Base and that could generate a severe accident. In this work an exposition is presented on the modification requirements to confront external natural events Beyond the Design Base, and its application in our country. (Author)

  6. Proteomic profiling and post-translational modifications in human keratinocytes treated with Mucuna pruriens leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelazzo, Alessio; Lampariello, Raffaella L; Sticozzi, Claudia; Guerranti, Roberto; Mirasole, Cristiana; Zolla, Lello; Sacchetti, Gianni; Hajek, Joussef; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2014-02-03

    Mucuna pruriens (Mp) is a plant belonging to the Fabaceae family, with several medicinal properties among which its potential to treat diseases where reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogeneses. The aim was to investigate the effects of Mp leaf methanolic extract (MPME) on human keratinocytes protein expression and its role in preventing proteins oxidation after oxidative stress (OS) exposure. The effects of MPME on HaCaT cells protein expression were evaluated treating cells with different concentrations of MPME, with glucose oxidase (GO, source of OS) and with MPME subsequently treated with GO. The protein patterns of treated HaCaT cells are analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and compared with that of untreated HaCaT. Immunoblotting was then used to evaluate the role of MPME in preventing the 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts (4-HNE PAs) formation (marker of OS). Eighteen proteins, identified by mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-CID-MS/MS), were modulated distinctly by MPME in HaCaT. Overall, MPME counteract GO effect, reducing the GO-induced overexpression of several proteins involved in stress response (T-complex protein 1, Protein disulfide-isomerase A3, Protein DJ-1, and Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1), in cell energy methabolism (Inorganic pyrophosphatase, Triosephosphate isomerase isoform 1, 2-phosphopyruvate-hydratase alpha-enolase, and Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A isoform 1), in cytoskeletal organization (Cytokeratins 18, 9, 2, Cofilin-1, Annexin A2 and F-actin-capping protein subunit beta isoform 1) and in cell cycle progression (Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 isoform B). In addition, MPME decreased the 4-HNE PAs levels, in particular on 2-phosphopyruvate-hydratase alpha-enolase and Cytokeratin 9. Our findings show that MPME might be helpful in the treatment of OS-related skin diseases by preventing protein post-translational modifications (4-HNE PAs). © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Microarray-based analysis of plasma cirDNA epigenetic modification profiling in xenografted mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Cortese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia (IH during sleep is one of the major abnormalities occurring in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, a highly prevalent disorder affecting 6–15% of the general population, particularly among obese people. IH has been proposed as a major determinant of oncogenetically-related processes such as tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. During the growth and expansion of tumors, fragmented DNA is released into the bloodstream and enters the circulation. Circulating tumor DNA (cirDNA conserves the genetic and epigenetic profiles from the tumor of origin and can be isolated from the plasma fraction. Here we report a microarray-based epigenetic profiling of cirDNA isolated from blood samples of mice engrafted with TC1 epithelial lung cancer cells and controls, which were exposed to IH during sleep (XenoIH group, n = 3 or control conditions, (i.e., room air (RA; XenoRA group, n = 3 conditions. To prepare the targets for microarray hybridization, we applied a previously developed method that enriches the modified fraction of the cirDNA without amplification of genomic DNA. Regions of differential cirDNA modification between the two groups were identified by hybridizing the enriched fractions for each sample to Affymetrix GeneChip Human Promoter Arrays 1.0R. Microarray raw and processed data were deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database (accession number: GSE61070.

  8. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L Frelinger

    Full Text Available Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma.To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity.PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, endothelial growth factor (EGF and platelet factor 4 (PF4, and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin.PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the presence of platelet

  9. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, Andrew L; Gerrits, Anja J; Garner, Allen L; Torres, Andrew S; Caiafa, Antonio; Morton, Christine A; Berny-Lang, Michelle A; Carmichael, Sabrina L; Neculaes, V Bogdan; Michelson, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF) to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF) pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma. To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF) bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity. PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF) and platelet factor 4 (PF4), and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin. PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the presence of platelet

  10. Association between modification of phenolic profiling and development of wine color during alcohol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Liu, Pei-Tong; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Shi, Ying; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2015-04-01

    To solve the problem of wine color instability in western China, different additives (the maceration enzymes Vinozym G and Ex-color, yeasts VR5 and Red Star, and commercial tannins) were added during alcoholic fermentation of Syrah (Vitis vinifera L.). The phenolic profile and color characteristics of wine were examined using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and CIELAB, respectively. The results showed that the combination of the enzyme Ex-color with the Red Star yeast eased the release of non-anthocyanins from grape berries into wine, whereas the use of enzyme Vinozym G and VR5 yeast enhanced the concentration of anthocyanins and achieved a higher red hue (a* value) and a lower yellow hue (b* value) in the wine. The addition of commercial tannins greatly promoted the level of gallic acid in the wine and led to a relatively higher concentration of anthocyanins. Partial least-squares regression analysis was used to find out the major phenolics, which were in close relation with color parameters; principal component analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of different winemaking techniques to wine color. The combination of these 2 analytic methods indicated that Vinozym G and VR5 yeast together with commercial tannins should be an appropriate combination to enhance the stability of wine color during alcohol fermentation, which was related to a significant increase in cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, trans-peonidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, trans-malvidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside-pyruvic acid, all of which played an important role in stabilizing wine color. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zoratti

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L. and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L..The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness.The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period.Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  12. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.). The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy) under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness. The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period. Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  13. Multidimensional protein fractionation using ProteomeLab PF 2D™ for profiling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis immunity: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosley R Lee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ProteomeLab™ PF 2D platform is a relatively new approach to global protein profiling. Herein, it was used for investigation of plasma proteome changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS patients before and during immunization with glatiramer acetate (GA in a clinical trial. Results The experimental design included immunoaffinity depletion of 12 most abundant proteins from plasma samples with the ProteomeLab™ IgY-12 LC10 column kit as first dimension separation, also referred to as immuno-partitioning. Second and third dimension separations of the enriched proteome were performed on the PF 2D platform utilizing 2D isoelectric focusing and RP-HPLC with the resulting fractions collected for analysis. 1D gel electrophoresis was added as a fourth dimension when sufficient protein was available. Protein identification from collected fractions was performed using nano-LC-MS/MS approach. Analysis of differences in the resulting two-dimensional maps of fractions obtained from the PF 2D and the ability to identify proteins from these fractions allowed sensitivity threshold measurements. Masked proteins in the PF 2D fractions are discussed. Conclusion We offer some insight into the strengths and limitations of this emerging proteomic platform.

  14. Maternal deprivation affects the neuromuscular protein profile of the rat colon in response to an acute stressor later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luísa V; Marvin-Guy, Laure F; Fuerholz, Andreas; Affolter, Michael; Ramadan, Ziad; Kussmann, Martin; Fay, Laurent B; Bergonzelli, Gabriela E

    2008-04-30

    Early life stress as neonatal maternal deprivation (MD) predisposes rats to alter gut functions in response to acute psychological stressors in adulthood, mimicking features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We applied proteomics to investigate whether MD permanently changes the protein profile of the external colonic neuromuscular layer that may condition the molecular response to an acute stressor later in life. Male rat pups were separated 3 h/day from their mothers during the perinatal period and further submitted to water avoidance (WA) stress during adulthood. Proteins were extracted from the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle of control (C), WA and MD+WA rat colon, separated on 2D gels, and identified by mass spectrometry. MD amplified the WA-induced protein changes involved in muscle contractile function, suggesting that stress accumulation along life imbalances the muscle tone towards hypercontractility. Our results also propose a stress dependent regulation of gluconeogenesis. Secretogranin II - the secretoneurin precursor - was induced by MD. The presence of secretoneurin in myenteric ganglia may partially explain the stress-mediated modulation of gastrointestinal motility and/or mucosal inflammation previously described in MD rats. In conclusion, our findings suggest that neonatal stress alters the responses to acute stress in adulthood in intestinal smooth muscle and enteric neurons.

  15. Changes in multidimensional pain inventory profile after a pain rehabilitation programme indicate the risk of receiving sick leave benefits one year later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Vanja E; Novo, Mehmed; Sjölund, Bengt H.

    2014-01-01

    ,784 patients (709 men and 2,075 women) collected from the Swedish Quality Register for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP) before and at the end of rehabilitation and compared with independent sick leave data for 1 year later. RESULTS: After rehabilitation there was a significantly decreased share of Dysfunctional...... profiles (DYS) among both men (44% before, 31% after) and women (39% before, 26% after), but an increased share of Adaptive Coper profiles (men 15% before, 24% after, women 14% before, 24% after). The number of patients on full-time sick leave decreased significantly among men (from 57% to 46%) and women......OBJECTIVES: To determine whether coping profile changes after rehabilitation, assessed with the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI), can predict which persons disabled by chronic musculoskeletal pain will be in receipt of sick leave benefits in the long term. METHODS: Study of MPI data from 2...

  16. The relationship between profiles of plagiogravitropism and morphometry of columella cells during the development of lateral roots of Vigna angularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuya, Noriyuki; Sato, Seiichi

    2011-02-01

    There has been no convincing explanation on a mechanism inducing plagiogravitropism of lateral roots. The present work deals with gravitropic features of Vignaangularis lateral roots during the course of their growth and morphometric analysis of root caps, columella cells and amyloplasts. Regardless of the magnitude of deviation of the primary root axis from the gravity vector, the newly emerging lateral roots tended to keep a constant angle to the gravity vector. They modified gravireaction several times during the course of their development: a first horizontal-growth stage when they grow in the cortex of primary roots (stage I), a sloping-down growth stage from their emergence to a length of about 1 mm (stage II), a second horizontal-growth stage from a length of about 1 mm to that of over 4 mm (stage III) and a curving-down stage thereafter (stage IV). The columella cells with amyloplasts large enough to sediment were not fully differentiated in the stage I but the turning point from the stage I to II was associated with the development of amyloplasts which were able to sediment toward the distal part of the cell. Amyloplasts were significantly small in the lateral roots over 10 mm long compared with those in ones 0-10 mm long, suggesting that they rapidly develop immediately after the lateral roots emerge from primary roots and then gradually decrease their size when the lateral roots grow over 10 mm long. This dimensional decrease of amyloplasts may be partially involved in weak gravireaction in the stage III. Evidence was not presented indicating that a switchover from the stage III to IV was connected with the dimension of root caps, the number of columella cells and the development of amyloplasts. Some factors at the molecular level rather than at the cellular and tissue levels are probably dominant to induce the stage IV.

  17. Radial profiles of temperature and viscosity in the Earth's mantle inferred from the geoid and lateral seismic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadek, O.; Berg, A.P. van den

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of dynamical modelling of the geoid, we have estimated basic features of the radial profile of temperature in the mantle. The applied parameterization of the geotherm directly characterizes thermal boundary layers and values of the thermal gradient in the upper and lower mantle.

  18. Spectrally and spatially resolved photoluminescence. Lateral fluctuations and depth profiles of Cu(In,Ga)Se2-absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the development and refinement of photoluminescence (PL) methods for inhomogeneous absorbers to identify lateral fluctuations and depth-dependent variations of spectroscopic, optical and opto-electronic properties in the submicron/micron range. The first approach deals with the spectral investigation of PL emission from the front and the rear side of an absorber, whereas the second idea is about the analysis of PL spectra from the front side of the absorber for different absorber thicknesses. Another technique for determination of depth-dependent variations are confocal PL measurements at cross sections of absorbers. The last concept pursues the study of lateral fluctuations with an optical near-field microscope on specially prepared absorbers. These four strategies are demonstrated with samples based on Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 .

  19. Proteomic Investigation of Protein Profile Changes and Amino Acid Residue Level Modification in Cooked Lamb Meat: The Effect of Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2015-10-21

    Hydrothermal treatment (heating in water) is a common method of general food processing and preparation. For red-meat-based foods, boiling is common; however, how the molecular level effects of this treatment correlate to the overall food properties is not yet well-understood. The effects of differing boiling times on lamb meat and the resultant cooking water were here examined through proteomic evaluation. The longer boiling time was found to result in increased protein aggregation involving particularly proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as well as truncation in proteins such as in α-actinin-2. Heat-induced protein backbone cleavage was observed adjacent to aspartic acid and asparagine residues. Side-chain modifications of amino acid residues resulting from the heating, including oxidation of phenylalanine and formation of carboxyethyllysine, were characterized in the cooked samples. Actin and myoglobin bands from the cooked meat per se remained visible on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, even after significant cooking time. These proteins were also found to be the major source of observed heat-induced modifications. This study provides new insights into molecular-level modifications occurring in lamb meat proteins during boiling and a protein chemistry basis for better understanding the effect of this common treatment on the nutritional and functional properties of red-meat-based foods.

  20. Proteomic investigation of protein profile changes and amino acid residue-level modification in cooked lamb longissimus thoracis et lumborum: The effect of roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2016-09-01

    Protein modifications of meat cooked by typical dry-heat methods (e.g., roasting) are currently not well understood. The present study utilised a shotgun proteomic approach to examine the molecular-level effect of roasting on thin lamb longissimus thoracis et lumborum patties, in terms of changes to both the protein profile and amino acid residue side-chain modifications. Cooking caused aggregation of actin, myosin heavy chains and sarcoplasmic proteins. Longer roasting time resulted in significantly reduced protein extractability as well as protein truncation involving particularly a number of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins, e.g., 6-phosphofructokinase, beta-enolase, l-lactate dehydrogenase A chain, alpha-actinin-3, actin and possibly myosin heavy chains. Modifications that have potential influence on nutritional properties, including carboxyethyllysine and a potentially glucose-derived N-terminal Amadori compound, were observed in actin and myoglobin after roasting. This study provided new insights into molecular changes resulting from the dry-heat treatment of meat, such as commonly used in food preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro profiling of epigenetic modifications underlying heavy metal toxicity of tungsten-alloy and its components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Ranjana; Xu, Xiufen; Jaiswal, Manoj K.; Olsen, Cara; Mears, David; Caretti, Giuseppina; Galdzicki, Zygmunt

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten-alloy has carcinogenic potential as demonstrated by cancer development in rats with intramuscular implanted tungsten-alloy pellets. This suggests a potential involvement of epigenetic events previously implicated as environmental triggers of cancer. Here, we tested metal induced cytotoxicity and epigenetic modifications including H3 acetylation, H3-Ser10 phosphorylation and H3-K4 trimethylation. We exposed human embryonic kidney (HEK293), human neuroepithelioma (SKNMC), and mouse myoblast (C2C12) cultures for 1-day and hippocampal primary neuronal cultures for 1-week to 50-200 μg/ml of tungsten-alloy (91% tungsten/6% nickel/3% cobalt), tungsten, nickel, and cobalt. We also examined the potential role of intracellular calcium in metal mediated histone modifications by addition of calcium channel blockers/chelators to the metal solutions. Tungsten and its alloy showed cytotoxicity at concentrations > 50 μg/ml, while we found significant toxicity with cobalt and nickel for most tested concentrations. Diverse cell-specific toxic effects were observed, with C2C12 being relatively resistant to tungsten-alloy mediated toxic impact. Tungsten-alloy, but not tungsten, caused almost complete dephosphorylation of H3-Ser10 in C2C12 and hippocampal primary neuronal cultures with H3-hypoacetylation in C2C12. Dramatic H3-Ser10 dephosphorylation was found in all cobalt treated cultures with a decrease in H3 pan-acetylation in C2C12, SKNMC and HEK293. Trimethylation of H3-K4 was not affected. Both tungsten-alloy and cobalt mediated H3-Ser10 dephosphorylation were reversed with BAPTA-AM, highlighting the role of intracellular calcium, confirmed with 2-photon calcium imaging. In summary, our results for the first time reveal epigenetic modifications triggered by tungsten-alloy exposure in C2C12 and hippocampal primary neuronal cultures suggesting the underlying synergistic effects of tungsten, nickel and cobalt mediated by changes in intracellular calcium homeostasis and

  2. Density and temperature profile modifications with electron cyclotron power injection in quiescent double barrier discharges on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, T A; Burrell, K H; Doyle, E J; Gohil, P; Lasnier, C J; Leonard, A W; Moller, J M; Osborne, T H; Snyder, P B; Thomas, D M; Weiland, J; West, W P

    2006-01-01

    Quiescent double barrier (QDB) conditions often form when an internal transport barrier is created with high-power neutral-beam injection into a quiescent H-mode (QH) plasma. These QH-modes offer an attractive, high-performance operating scenario for burning plasma experiments due to their quasi-stationarity and lack of edge localized modes. Our initial experiments and modelling using ECH/ECCD in QDB shots were designed to control the current profile and, indeed, we have observed a strong dependence on the q-profile when EC-power is used inside the core transport barrier region. While strong electron heating is observed with EC power injection, we also observe a drop in the other core parameters, namely ion temperature and rotation, electron density and impurity concentration. At onset and termination of the EC pulse, dynamically changing conditions are induced that provide a rapid evolution of T e /T i profiles accessible with 0.3 e /T i ) axis e /T i ratio as the ion temperature and density profiles flatten with this change in transport. The change in transport is consistent with a destabilization of ITG turbulence as inferred from the reduction of the stability threshold due to the change in T e /T i

  3. Modification of SRIM-calculated dose and injected ion profiles due to sputtering, injected ion buildup and void swelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing, E-mail: jing.wang@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Toloczko, Mychailo B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Bailey, Nathan [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Garner, Frank A.; Gigax, Jonathan; Shao, Lin [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    In radiation effects on materials utilizing self-ion irradiations, it is necessary to calculate the local displacement damage level and ion injection profile because of the short distance that self-ions travel in a material and because of the strong variation of displacement rate with depth in a specimen. The most frequently used tool for this is the software package called Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM). A SRIM-calculated depth-dependent dose level is usually determined under the implicit assumption that the target does not undergo any significant changes in volume during the process, in particular SRIM ignores the effect of sputtering, injected ions, and void swelling on the redistribution of the dose and injected ion profiles. This approach become increasingly invalid as the ion fluence reaches ever higher levels, especially for low energy ion irradiations. The original surface is not maintained due to sputter-induced erosion, while within the irradiated region of the specimen, injected ions are adding material, and if void swelling is occurring, it is creating empty space. An iterative mathematical treatment of SRIM outputs to produce corrected dose and injected ion profiles based on these phenomenon and without regard to diffusion is presented along with examples of differences between SRIM-calculated values and corrected values over a range of typical ion energies. The intent is to provide the reader with a convenient tool for more accurately calculating dose and injected ion profiles for heavy-ion irradiations.

  4. Effects of laterality and sex on cognitive strategy in a water maze place learning task and modification by nicotine and nitric oxide synthase inhibition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanit, L; Koylu, E O; Erdogan, O; Pogun, S

    2005-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate sex differences in learning strategies and to elucidate the mechanisms, which may underlie these differences. In two separate experiments, rats were presented with different strategies that could be employed to learn the position of a platform in a water maze (WM); furthermore, rats received treatments that could influence these strategies. In the first experiment, we demonstrated that the response-learning paradigm can be applied to the WM and can be compared with visually cued learning and reversal learning. Naïve rats of either sex could acquire this protocol relatively easily. On the probe trial, where the rats are presented with a choice between using response versus visually cued learning, initially response learning was preferred, however, during these experiments, laterality emerged as a significant factor and rats trained to turn right had difficulty in reversing the learned pattern to find the platform. The second part of our study evaluated the effects of nicotine and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the aforementioned parameters. Drug treatments impaired acquisition compared to saline treatments and the effect was more pronounced with NOS inhibition. During the probe trial, while NOS inhibition enhanced the right-side bias in both sexes, nicotine treatment had the same effect only in males. In conclusion, naïve rats can acquire place learning using visible cues or response learning; however, there is a right side bias in both sexes and the laterality effect is more pronounced in male rats. In drug-treated animals, while NOS inhibition enhances laterality (right bias) in both sexes similarly, nicotine modifies the cognitive strategy in a sexually dimorphic manner by augmenting the right bias only in male rats.

  5. Profiling of Histone Post-Translational Modifications in Mouse Brain with High-Resolution Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Mowei; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Stenoien, David L.

    2016-12-21

    Histones play central roles in most chromosomal functions and both their basic biology and roles in disease have been the subject of intense study. Since multiple PTMs along the entire protein sequence are potential regulators of histones, a top-down approach, where intact proteins are analyzed, is ultimately required for complete characterization of proteoforms. However, significant challenges remain for top-down histone analysis primarily because of deficiencies in separation/resolving power and effective identification algorithms. Here, we used state of the art mass spectrometry and a bioinformatics workflow for targeted data analysis and visualization. The workflow uses ProMex for intact mass deconvolution, MSPathFinder as search engine, and LcMsSpectator as a data visualization tool. ProMex sums across retention time to maximize sensitivity and accuracy for low abundance species in MS1deconvolution. MSPathFinder searches the MS2 data against protein sequence databases with user-defined modifications. LcMsSpectator presents the results from ProMex and MSPathFinder in a format that allows quick manual evaluation of critical attributes for high-confidence identifications. When complemented with the open-modification tool TopPIC, this workflow enabled identification of novel histone PTMs including tyrosine bromination on histone H4 and H2A, H3 glutathionylation, and mapping of conventional PTMs along the entire protein for many histone subunits.

  6. Changes in serum lipid profile of obese or overweight children and adolescents following a lifestyle modification course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Considering rapid global increase in children obesity and high prevalence of dyslipidemia in obese and overweight children, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of an educational course on changes of lipid profile in children.    METHODS: This non-pharmacological clinical trial study was performed on 4-18 year-old children attending outpatient clinics of Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center (Iran. Anthropometric measurements were conducted for all children. Fasting blood samples were taken from right hand of the participants at the first laboratory visit. Biochemical tests including measurement of total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were also carried out. Children took part in one educational session in which they were taught about ways and benefits of having regular physical activity once a day and having healthy foods. All children were followed up for about four months and anthropometrics and biochemical tests were repeated. Data was analyzed using SPSS16.    RESULTS: A total number of 412 children (245 girls and 167 boys were divided into four age groups of under 6, 6-9, 10-13, and 14-18 years old. Baseline anthropometric measures were significantly higher in boys. However, there was no difference between boys and girls in baseline lipid profile. Children's body mass index (BMI z-score increased in all age groups except for 14-18 year-old boys. In boys older than 10 years, there were significant reductions in LDL-C and TC. In girls over 10 years of age, there was a significant increase in HDL-C. Although anthropometric measurements did not change in children (except for 14-18 year-old-boys, there was a significant reduction in children's lipid profile after the study.    CONCLUSION: Our study showed that although one session of interventional education had no significant effects on children's anthropometric

  7. Comparative LC-MS/MS profiling of free and protein-bound early and advanced glycation-induced lysine modifications in dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegele, Joerg; Buetler, Timo; Delatour, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Free and protein-bound forms of early and advanced glycation-induced lysine (Lys) modifications were quantified in dairy products by LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope dilution assay. The glycation profiles for N ε -fructoselysine (FL), N ε -carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (Pyr) were monitored in raw and processed cow milk to investigate whether free glycation products could serve as fast and simple markers to assess the extent of protein glycation in dairy products. In all milk samples, the fraction of free glycation adducts was predominantly composed of advanced modifications, e.g. 8.34 ± 3.81 nmol CML per μmol of free Lys (Lys free ) and 81.5 ± 87.8 nmol Pyr μmol -1 Lys free -1 vs. 3.72 ± 1.29 nmol FL μmol -1 Lys free -1 . In contrast, the protein-bound early glycation product FL considerably outweighed the content of CML and Pyr in milk proteins of raw and processed cow milk, whereas severely heat treated milk products, e.g. condensed milk, contained a higher amount of protein-bound advanced glycation adducts. Typical values recorded for milk samples processed under mild conditions were 0.47 ± 0.08 nmol FL μmol -1 of protein-bound Lys (Lys p-b ), 0.04 ± 0.03 nmol CML μmol -1 Lys p-b -1 and 0.06 ± 0.02 nmol Pyr μmol -1 Lys p-b -1 . It was particularly noticeable, however, that mild heat treatment of raw milk, i.e. pasteurization and UHT treatment, did not significantly increase the amount of both free and protein-bound Lys modifications. In conclusion, the profiles of free and protein-bound glycation-induced Lys modifications were found to be different and a screening of free glycation adducts does, therefore, not allow for a conclusion about the protein glycation status of dairy products

  8. Comparative LC-MS/MS profiling of free and protein-bound early and advanced glycation-induced lysine modifications in dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegele, Joerg [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland)], E-mail: joerg.hegele@rdls.nestle.com; Buetler, Timo; Delatour, Thierry [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland)

    2008-06-09

    Free and protein-bound forms of early and advanced glycation-induced lysine (Lys) modifications were quantified in dairy products by LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope dilution assay. The glycation profiles for N{sup {epsilon}}-fructoselysine (FL), N{sup {epsilon}}-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (Pyr) were monitored in raw and processed cow milk to investigate whether free glycation products could serve as fast and simple markers to assess the extent of protein glycation in dairy products. In all milk samples, the fraction of free glycation adducts was predominantly composed of advanced modifications, e.g. 8.34 {+-} 3.81 nmol CML per {mu}mol of free Lys (Lys{sub free}) and 81.5 {+-} 87.8 nmol Pyr {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub free}{sup -1} vs. 3.72 {+-} 1.29 nmol FL {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub free}{sup -1}. In contrast, the protein-bound early glycation product FL considerably outweighed the content of CML and Pyr in milk proteins of raw and processed cow milk, whereas severely heat treated milk products, e.g. condensed milk, contained a higher amount of protein-bound advanced glycation adducts. Typical values recorded for milk samples processed under mild conditions were 0.47 {+-} 0.08 nmol FL {mu}mol{sup -1} of protein-bound Lys (Lys{sub p-b}), 0.04 {+-} 0.03 nmol CML {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub p-b}{sup -1} and 0.06 {+-} 0.02 nmol Pyr {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub p-b}{sup -1}. It was particularly noticeable, however, that mild heat treatment of raw milk, i.e. pasteurization and UHT treatment, did not significantly increase the amount of both free and protein-bound Lys modifications. In conclusion, the profiles of free and protein-bound glycation-induced Lys modifications were found to be different and a screening of free glycation adducts does, therefore, not allow for a conclusion about the protein glycation status of dairy products.

  9. Profile of medical care costs in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Medicare programme and under commercial insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lisa; Bian, Amy; Jordan, Scott; Wolff, Andrew; Shefner, Jeremy M; Andrews, Jinsy

    2018-02-01

    To determine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated costs incurred by patients covered by Medicare and/or commercial insurance before, during and after diagnosis and provide cost details. Costs were calculated from the Medicare Standard Analytical File 5% sample claims data from Parts A and B from 2009, 2010 and 2011 for ALS Medicare patients aged ≥70 years (monthly costs) and ≥65 years (costs associated with disability milestones). Commercial insurance patients aged 18-63 years were selected based on the data provided in the Coordination of Benefits field from Truven MarketScan® in 2008-2010. Monthly costs increased nine months before diagnosis, peaked during the index month (Medicare: $10,398; commercial: $9354) and decreased but remained high post-index. Costs generally shifted from outpatient to inpatient and private nursing after diagnosis; prescriptions and durable medical equipment costs were much higher for commercial patients post-diagnosis. Patients appeared to progress to disability milestones more rapidly as their disease progressed in severity (14.4 months to non-invasive ventilation [NIV] vs. 16.6 months to hospice), and their costs increased accordingly (NIV: $58,973 vs. hospice: $76,179). For newly diagnosed ALS patients in the U.S., medical costs are substantial and increase rapidly and substantially with each disability milestone.

  10. [Calcaneo-fibular ligament surgery for chronic lateral instability of the upper ankle : Broström technique with modification by Wille. Video article].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiol, J; Wille, M; Putzer, D; Biedermann, R

    2015-11-01

    An acute ligament rupture of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle joint is treated without surgery. Treatment failure may lead to a chronically unstable situation of the ankle joint, in which case surgery is an effective procedure for stabilizing the ruptured ligaments. Anatomical reconstruction is the best operative technique if the ligament tissue is of good quality. In our video we demonstrate a new possibility for the positioning of an anchor to tighten the calcaneo-fibular ligament. Modified Broström repairs are described in the literature in which the calcaneo-fibular ligament is released and reattached to the fibula to tighten it. We present the option to release the ligament at the calcaneus and reattach it using a suture anchor. This offers the advantage of preventing the possible dislocation of the peroneal tendons.

  11. Experimental determination of the lateral dose response functions of detectors to be applied in the measurement of narrow photon-beam dose profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, D; Meyners, J; Delfs, B; Muru, A; Harder, D; Poppe, B; Looe, H K

    2015-12-21

    This study aims at the experimental determination of the detector-specific 1D lateral dose response function K(x) and of its associated rotational symmetric counterpart K(r) for a set of high-resolution detectors presently used in narrow-beam photon dosimetry. A combination of slit-beam, radiochromic film, and deconvolution techniques served to accomplish this task for four detectors with diameters of their sensitive volumes ranging from 1 to 2.2 mm. The particular aim of the experiment was to examine the existence of significant negative portions of some of these response functions predicted by a recent Monte-Carlo-simulation (Looe et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 6585-607). In a 6 MV photon slit beam formed by the Siemens Artiste collimation system and a 0.5 mm wide slit between 10 cm thick lead blocks serving as the tertiary collimator, the true cross-beam dose profile D(x) at 3 cm depth in a large water phantom was measured with radiochromic film EBT3, and the detector-affected cross-beam signal profiles M(x) were recorded with a silicon diode, a synthetic diamond detector, a miniaturized scintillation detector, and a small ionization chamber. For each detector, the deconvolution of the convolution integral M(x)  =  K(x)  ∗  D(x) served to obtain its specific 1D lateral dose response function K(x), and K(r) was calculated from it. Fourier transformations and back transformations were performed using function approximations by weighted sums of Gaussian functions and their analytical transformation. The 1D lateral dose response functions K(x) of the four types of detectors and their associated rotational symmetric counterparts K(r) were obtained. Significant negative curve portions of K(x) and K(r) were observed in the case of the silicon diode and the diamond detector, confirming the Monte-Carlo-based prediction (Looe et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 6585-607). They are typical for the perturbation of the secondary electron field by a detector with

  12. Ultrastructural characterization of noradrenergic- and beta-adrenergic receptor-containing profiles in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Farb

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Norepinephrine (NE is thought to play a key role in fear and anxiety, but its role in amygdala-dependent Pavlovian fear conditioning, a major model for understanding the neural basis of fear, is poorly understood. The lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA is a critical brain region for fear learning and regulating the effects of stress on memory. To understand better the cellular mechanisms of NE and its adrenergic receptors in the LA, we used antibodies directed against dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH, the synthetic enzyme for NE, or against two different isoforms of the beta-adrenergic receptors (βARs, one that predominately recognizes neurons (βAR 248 and the other astrocytes (βAR 404, to characterize the microenvironments of DβH and βAR. By electron microscopy, most DβH terminals did not make synapses, but when they did, they formed both asymmetric and symmetric synapses. By light microscopy, βARs were present in both neurons and astrocytes. Confocal microscopy revealed that both excitatory and inhibitory neurons express βAR248. By electron microscopy, βAR 248 was present in neuronal cell bodies, dendritic shafts and spines, and some axon terminals and astrocytes. When in dendrites and spines, βAR 248 was frequently concentrated along plasma membranes and at post-synaptic densities of asymmetric (excitatory synapses. βAR 404 was expressed predominately in astrocytic cell bodies and processes. These astrocytic processes were frequently interposed between unlabeled terminals or ensheathed asymmetric synapses. Our findings provide a morphological basis for understanding ways in which NE may modulate transmission by acting via synaptic or non-synaptic mechanisms in the LA.

  13. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  14. Modification of the Current Profile in DIII-D by Off-Axis Electron Cyclotron Current Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Harvey, R.W.; Giruzzi, G.; Lohr, J.M.; Petty, C.C.; Politzer, P.A.; Prater; Rice, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    Localized non-inductive currents due to electron cyclotron wave absorption have been measured on the DIII-D tokamak. Clear evidence of the non-inductive currents is seen on the internal magnetic field measurements by motional Stark effect spectroscopy. The magnitude and location of the non-inductive current is evaluated by comparing the total and Ohmic current profiles of discharges with and without electron cyclotron wave power. The measured current agrees with Fokker-Planck calculations near the magnetic axis, but exceeds the predicted value as the location of the current drive is moved to the half radius

  15. Modification of NUR II neutron beam profile of MINT TRIGA MARK II research reactor for digital neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Rawi Mohamed Zin; Azali Muhammad; Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Rafhayudi Jamro; Syed Nasaruddin Syed Idris; Ng Aik Hao; Rosly Jaafar

    2006-01-01

    A cone neutron beam collimated by a 5.4 cm aperture produced in the Neutron Radiography II (NUR II) via a step divergence collimator had to be modified to fulfill 5 cm x 6 cm dimension of the scintillation screen placed in the charge couple device (ccd) camera. The required convergence neutron beam was obtained by a simple collimator-beam plug plugged in front of the NUR II beam port. The calculations involved in designing the collimator-beam plug had to take into account not only the neutron beam profiling but also the neutron and gamma shielding and are discussed in this article. (Author)

  16. Direct Profiling the Post-Translational Modification Codes of a Single Protein Immobilized on a Surface Using Cu-free Click Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Lock; Park, Kyeng Min; Murray, James; Kim, Kimoon; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2018-05-23

    Combinatorial post-translational modifications (PTMs), which can serve as dynamic "molecular barcodes", have been proposed to regulate distinct protein functions. However, studies of combinatorial PTMs on single protein molecules have been hindered by a lack of suitable analytical methods. Here, we describe erasable single-molecule blotting (eSiMBlot) for combinatorial PTM profiling. This assay is performed in a highly multiplexed manner and leverages the benefits of covalent protein immobilization, cyclic probing with different antibodies, and single molecule fluorescence imaging. Especially, facile and efficient covalent immobilization on a surface using Cu-free click chemistry permits multiple rounds (>10) of antibody erasing/reprobing without loss of antigenicity. Moreover, cumulative detection of coregistered multiple data sets for immobilized single-epitope molecules, such as HA peptide, can be used to increase the antibody detection rate. Finally, eSiMBlot enables direct visualization and quantitative profiling of combinatorial PTM codes at the single-molecule level, as we demonstrate by revealing the novel phospho-codes of ligand-induced epidermal growth factor receptor. Thus, eSiMBlot provides an unprecedentedly simple, rapid, and versatile platform for analyzing the vast number of combinatorial PTMs in biological pathways.

  17. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  18. Epigenetic modifications and chromatin loop organization explain the different expression profiles of the Tbrg4, WAP and Ramp3 genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montazer-Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Hue-Beauvais, Cathy; Droineau, Stephanie; Ballester, Maria; Coant, Nicolas; Aujean, Etienne; Petitbarat, Marie; Rijnkels, Monique; Devinoy, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Whey Acidic Protein (WAP) gene expression is specific to the mammary gland and regulated by lactogenic hormones to peak during lactation. It differs markedly from the more constitutive expression of the two flanking genes, Ramp3 and Tbrg4. Our results show that the tight regulation of WAP gene expression parallels variations in the chromatin structure and DNA methylation profile throughout the Ramp3-WAP-Tbrg4 locus. Three Matrix Attachment Regions (MAR) have been predicted in this locus. Two of them are located between regions exhibiting open and closed chromatin structures in the liver. The third, located around the transcription start site of the Tbrg4 gene, interacts with topoisomerase II in HC11 mouse mammary cells, and in these cells anchors the chromatin loop to the nuclear matrix. Furthermore, if lactogenic hormones are present in these cells, the chromatin loop surrounding the WAP gene is more tightly attached to the nuclear structure, as observed after a high salt treatment of the nuclei and the formation of nuclear halos. Taken together, our results point to a combination of several epigenetic events that may explain the differential expression pattern of the WAP locus in relation to tissue and developmental stages

  19. Metabolic profile modifications in milk after enrofloxacin administration studied by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junza, A; Saurina, J; Barrón, D; Minguillón, C

    2016-08-19

    High resolution accurate mass spectrometry (HRMS) operating in full scan MS mode was used in the search and identification of metabolites in raw milk from cows medicated with enrofloxacin. Data consisting of m/z features were taken throughout the entire chromatogram of milk samples from medicated animals and were compared with blank samples. Twenty six different compounds were identified. Some of them were attributed to structures related to enrofloxacin while others were dipeptides or tripeptides. Additionally, enrofloxacin was administered in a controlled treatment for three days. Milk was collected daily from the first day of treatment and until four days after in the search for the identified compounds. The obtained data were chemometrically treated by Principal Component Analysis. Samples were classified by this method into three different groups corresponding to days 1-2, day 3 and days 4-7 considering the different concentration profile evolution of metabolites during the days studied. Tentative metabolic pathways were designed to rationalize the presence of the newly identified compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvement of Carbon Dioxide Sweep Efficiency by Utilization of Microbial Permeability Profile Modification to Reduce the Amount of Oil Bypassed During Carbon Dioxide Flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Darrel [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Brown, Lewis [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Lynch, F. Leo [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Kirkland, Brenda L. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Collins, Krystal M. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Funderburk, William K. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2010-12-31

    The objective of this project was to couple microbial permeability profile modification (MPPM), with carbon dioxide flooding to improve oil recovery from the Upper Cretaceous Little Creek Oil Field situated in Lincoln and Pike counties, MS. This study determined that MPPM technology, which improves production by utilizing environmentally friendly nutrient solutions to simulate the growth of the indigenous microflora in the most permeable zones of the reservoir thus diverting production to less permeable, previously unswept zones, increased oil production without interfering with the carbon dioxide flooding operation. Laboratory tests determined that no microorganisms were produced in formation waters, but were present in cores. Perhaps the single most significant contribution of this study is the demonstration that microorganisms are active at a formation temperature of 115°C (239°F) by using a specially designed culturing device. Laboratory tests were employed to simulate the MPPM process by demonstrating that microorganisms could be activated with the resulting production of oil in coreflood tests performed in the presence of carbon dioxide at 66°C (the highest temperature that could be employed in the coreflood facility). Geological assessment determined significant heterogeneity in the Eutaw Formation, and documented relatively thin, variably-lithified, well-laminated sandstone interbedded with heavily-bioturbated, clay-rich sandstone and shale. Live core samples of the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw Formation from the Heidelberg Field, MS were quantitatively assessed using SEM, and showed that during MPPM permeability modification occurs ubiquitously within pore and throat spaces of 10-20 μm diameter. Testing of the MPPM procedure in the Little Creek Field showed a significant increase in production occurred in two of the five production test wells; furthermore, the decline curve in each of the production wells became noticeably less steep. This project greatly

  1. Assessment of changes in the aroma and sensory profile of dawadawa due to modification in fermentation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyei-Baoteng, R.

    2013-07-01

    Dawadawa is the most popular traditional condiment in West Africa and is produced by the fermentation of African locust bean seeds. Though the alkaline fermentation results in the production of a tasty condiment, it has a strong ammoniacal odour which some consumers find unattractive and offensive. This work was carried out to develop procedures for reducing the pungent odour of dawadawa in order to increase its popularity and market value especially amongst non-traditional users. Various treatments were applied to the fermenting locust bean seeds 15 hours into the fermentation which lasted for a total of 96 hours. Some treatments were also tested on the beans after fermentation. Treatments which were applied during fementation were fementation under conditions of limited oxygen, low temperature fermentation, irradiation by gamma radiation and steaming. Post-fermentation treatments were partial frying and roasting after fermentation. Samples were taken during fermentation and analyzed for Bacillus count on Nutrient Agar, pH, percentage titratable acidity, moisture content by the oven dry method, crude protein content by the kjeldhal method and texture by the texture analyzer. The final product was analyzed for aroma profile by GC-MS analysis using the Dynamic Headspace Sampling (DHS) method and also by descriptive sensory analysis by a semi-trained panel. Application of all the treatments applied during fermentation resulted in a ten to a hundredfold lower Bacillus counts compared to the control sample at various stages of fermentation. The reduction in the Bacillus activities resulted in a lower rise in pH giving final pH values of 6.8 to 7.53 compared to 8.37 in the control. The rise in pH was due to the proteolytic activity of the Bacillus species which break down the proteins into peptides and amino acids and subsequently utilize the amino acids to produce ammonia leading to the rise in pH. All the samples recorded a simultaneous increase in titratable acidity

  2. Histamine Regulates the Inflammatory Profile of SOD1-G93A Microglia and the Histaminergic System Is Dysregulated in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savina Apolloni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a late-onset motor neuron disease where activated glia release pro-inflammatory cytokines that trigger a vicious cycle of neurodegeneration in the absence of resolution of inflammation. Given the well-established role of histamine as a neuron-to-glia alarm signal implicated in brain disorders, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression and regulation of the histaminergic pathway in microglial activation in ALS mouse model and in humans. By examining the contribution of the histaminergic system to ALS, we found that particularly via H1 and H4 receptors, histamine promoted an anti-inflammatory profile in microglia from SOD1-G93A mice by modulating their activation state. A decrease in NF-κB and NADPH oxidase 2 with an increase in arginase 1 and P2Y12 receptor was induced by histamine only in the ALS inflammatory environment, but not in the healthy microglia, together with an increase in IL-6, IL-10, CD163, and CD206 phenotypic markers in SOD1-G93A cells. Moreover, histaminergic H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors, and histamine metabolizing enzymes histidine decarboxylase, histamine N-methyltransferase, and diamine oxidase were found deregulated in spinal cord, cortex, and hypothalamus of SOD1-G93A mice during disease progression. Finally, by performing a meta-analysis study, we found a modulated expression of histamine-related genes in cortex and spinal cord from sporadic ALS patients. Our findings disclose that histamine acts as anti-inflammatory agent in ALS microglia and suggest a dysregulation of the histaminergic signaling in ALS.

  3. Comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification by affinity zirconium oxide-silica composite monolithic column online solid-phase microextraction - Mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han-Peng; Chu, Jie-Mei; Lan, Meng-Dan; Liu, Ping; Yang, Na; Zheng, Fang; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-09-02

    More than 140 modified ribonucleosides have been identified in RNA. Determination of endogenous modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids may serve as non-invasive disease diagnostic strategy. However, detection of the modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids is challenging, especially for the low abundant modified ribonucleosides due to the serious matrix interferences of biological fluids. Here, we developed a facile preparation strategy and successfully synthesized zirconium oxide-silica (ZrO2/SiO2) composite capillary monolithic column that exhibited excellent performance for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing compounds. Compared with the boronate-based affinity monolith, the ZrO2/SiO2 monolith showed ∼2 orders of magnitude higher extraction capacity and can be used under physiological pH (pH 6.5-7.5). Using the prepared ZrO2/SiO2 composite monolith as the trapping column and reversed-phase C18 column as the analytical column, we further established an online solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (online SPME-LC-MS/MS) analysis for the comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification in human urine. Our results showed that 68 cis-diol-containing ribosylated compounds were identified in human urine, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest numbers of cis-diol-containing compounds were determined in a single analysis. It is worth noting that four modified ribonucleosides were discovered in the human urine for the first time. In addition, the quantification results from the pooled urine samples showed that compared to healthy controls, the contents of sixteen ribose conjugates in the urine of gastric cancer, eleven in esophagus cancer and seven in lymphoma increased more than two folds. Among these ribose conjugates, four ribose conjugates increased more than two folds in both gastric cancer and esophagus cancer; three ribose conjugates increased more than two

  4. Primary care in a post-communist country 10 years later: comparison of service profiles of Lithuanian primary care physicians in 1994 and GPs in 2004.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liseckiene, I.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Milasauskiene, Z.; Valius, L.; Miseviciene, I.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study aimed, firstly, to assess changes in the service profile of primary care physicians between 1994, when features of the Soviet health system prevailed, and 2004, when retraining of GPs was completed. Secondly, to compare service profiles among current GPs, taking into account

  5. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  6. Determination of hoop direction effective elastic moduli of non-circular profile, fiber reinforced polymer composite sewer liner pipes from lateral ring compression tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czél, Gergely; Takács, Dénes

    2015-01-01

    A new material property determination method is presented for the calculation of effective elastic moduli of non-circular ring specimens cut from filament wound oval profile polymer composite sewer liner pipes. The hoop direction elastic moduli was determined using the test results obtained from ring compression tests, which is a very basic setup, and requires no special equipment. Calculations were executed for many different oval profiles, and diagrams were constructed, from which the cross section dependent C_e_f_f constants can be taken. The new method was validated by the comparison of tests and finite element analysis results. The calculation method and the diagrams are essential design tools for engineers, and a big step forward in sizing non-circular profile liner pipes. - Highlights: • A simple modulus measurement method is presented for non-circular ring specimens. • The evaluation method is validated against a finite element model. • Profile shape dependent constants are presented for a wide range of cross-sections. • A set of charts with the constants are provided to aid design engineers.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis and Expression Profiles of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN Gene Family in Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianquan Yang

    Full Text Available The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD gene family has been well-studied in Arabidopsis and play crucial roles in the diverse growth and development processes including establishment and maintenance of boundary of developmental lateral organs. In this study we identified and characterized 38 LBD genes in Lotus japonicus (LjLBD and 57 LBD genes in Medicago truncatula (MtLBD, both of which are model legume plants that have some specific development features absent in Arabidopsis. The phylogenetic relationships, their locations in the genome, genes structure and conserved motifs were examined. The results revealed that all LjLBD and MtLBD genes could be distinctly divided into two classes: Class I and II. The evolutionary analysis showed that Type I functional divergence with some significantly site-specific shifts may be the main force for the divergence between Class I and Class II. In addition, the expression patterns of LjLBD genes uncovered the diverse functions in plant development. Interestingly, we found that two LjLBD proteins that were highly expressed during compound leaf and pulvinus development, can interact via yeast two-hybrid assays. Taken together, our findings provide an evolutionary and genetic foundation in further understanding the molecular basis of LBD gene family in general, specifically in L. japonicus and M. truncatula.

  8. Histone modification profiles are predictive for tissue/cell-type specific expression of both protein-coding and microRNA genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Michael Q

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression is regulated at both the DNA sequence level and through modification of chromatin. However, the effect of chromatin on tissue/cell-type specific gene regulation (TCSR is largely unknown. In this paper, we present a method to elucidate the relationship between histone modification/variation (HMV and TCSR. Results A classifier for differentiating CD4+ T cell-specific genes from housekeeping genes using HMV data was built. We found HMV in both promoter and gene body regions to be predictive of genes which are targets of TCSR. For example, the histone modification types H3K4me3 and H3K27ac were identified as the most predictive for CpG-related promoters, whereas H3K4me3 and H3K79me3 were the most predictive for nonCpG-related promoters. However, genes targeted by TCSR can be predicted using other type of HMVs as well. Such redundancy implies that multiple type of underlying regulatory elements, such as enhancers or intragenic alternative promoters, which can regulate gene expression in a tissue/cell-type specific fashion, may be marked by the HMVs. Finally, we show that the predictive power of HMV for TCSR is not limited to protein-coding genes in CD4+ T cells, as we successfully predicted TCSR targeted genes in muscle cells, as well as microRNA genes with expression specific to CD4+ T cells, by the same classifier which was trained on HMV data of protein-coding genes in CD4+ T cells. Conclusion We have begun to understand the HMV patterns that guide gene expression in both tissue/cell-type specific and ubiquitous manner.

  9. Chip-carrier thermal barrier and its impact on lateral thermal lens profile and beam parameter product in high power broad area lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieprich, J.; Winterfeldt, M.; Kernke, R.; Tomm, J. W.; Crump, P.

    2018-03-01

    High power broad area diode lasers with high optical power density in a small focus spot are in strong commercial demand. For this purpose, the beam quality, quantified via the beam parameter product (BPP), has to be improved. Previous studies have shown that the BPP is strongly affected by current-induced heating and the associated thermal lens formed within the laser stripe. However, the chip structure and module-assembly related factors that regulate the size and the shape of the thermal lens are not well known. An experimental infrared thermographic technique is used to quantify the thermal lens profile in diode lasers operating at an emission wavelength of 910 nm, and the results are compared with finite element method simulations. The analysis indicates that the measured thermal profiles can best be explained when a thermal barrier is introduced between the chip and the carrier, which is shown to have a substantial impact on the BPP and the thermal resistance. Comparable results are observed in further measurements of samples from multiple vendors, and the barrier is only observed for junction-down (p-down) mounting, consistent with the barrier being associated with the GaAs-metal transition.

  10. MicroRNA Profiling in the Medial and Lateral Habenula of Rats Exposed to the Learned Helplessness Paradigm: Candidate Biomarkers for Susceptibility and Resilience to Inescapable Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsen, Katrine; Venø, Morten T; Henningsen, Kim; Mallien, Anne S; Jensen, Line; Christensen, Trine; Kjems, Jørgen; Vollmayr, Barbara; Wiborg, Ove

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a highly heterogeneous disorder presumably caused by a combination of several factors ultimately causing the pathological condition. The genetic liability model of depression is likely to be of polygenic heterogeneity. miRNAs can regulate multiple genes simultaneously and therefore are candidates that align with this model. The habenula has been linked to depression in both clinical and animal studies, shifting interest towards this region as a neural substrate in depression. The goal of the present study was to search for alterations in miRNA expression levels in the medial and lateral habenula of rats exposed to the learned helplessness (LH) rat model of depression. Ten miRNAs showed significant alterations associating with their response to the LH paradigm. Of these, six and four miRNAs were significantly regulated in the MHb and LHb, respectively. In the MHb we identified miR-490, miR-291a-3p, MiR-467a, miR-216a, miR-18b, and miR-302a. In the LHb miR-543, miR-367, miR-467c, and miR-760-5p were significantly regulated. A target gene analysis showed that several of the target genes are involved in MAPK signaling, neutrophin signaling, and ErbB signaling, indicating that neurotransmission is affected in the habenula as a consequence of exposure to the LH paradigm.

  11. Modification of the mean near-wall velocity profile of a high-Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer with the injection of drag-reducing polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R.; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2013-08-01

    The current study explores the influence of polymer drag reduction on the near-wall velocity distribution in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) and its dependence on Reynolds number. Recent moderate Reynolds number direct numerical simulation and experimental studies presented in White et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 021701 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3681862 have challenged the classical representation of the logarithmic dependence of the velocity profile for drag-reduced flows, especially at drag reduction levels above 40%. In the present study, high Reynolds number data from a drag reduced TBL is presented and compared to the observations of White et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 021701 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3681862. Data presented here were acquired in the TBL flow on a 12.9-m-long flat plate at speeds to 20.3 m s-1, achieving momentum thickness based Reynolds number to 1.5 × 105, which is an order of magnitude greater than that available in the literature. Polyethylene oxide solutions with an average molecular weight of 3.9 × 106 g mol-1 were injected into the flow at various concentrations and volumetric fluxes to achieve a particular level of drag reduction. The resulting mean near-wall velocity profiles show distinctly different behavior depending on whether they fall in the low drag reduction (LDR) or the high drag reduction (HDR) regimes, which are nominally divided at 40% drag reduction. In the LDR regime, the classical view that the logarithmic slope remains constant at the Newtonian value and the intercept constant increases with increasing drag reduction appears to be valid. However, in the HDR regime the behavior is no longer universal. The intercept constant continues to increase linearly in proportion to the drag reduction level until a Reynolds-number-dependent threshold is achieved, at which point the intercept constant rapidly decreases to that predicted by the ultimate profile. The rapid decrease in the intercept constant is due to the corresponding increase in the

  12. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  13. Loss of anthocyanins and modification of the anthocyanin profiles in grape berries of Malbec and Bonarda grown under high temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosas, Inés; Ponce, María Teresa; Malovini, Emiliano; Deis, Leonor; Cavagnaro, Bruno; Cavagnaro, Pablo

    2017-05-01

    Malbec and Bonarda are the two most widely cultivated grape varieties in Argentina, and their derived red wines are recognized worldwide, being their intense color a major quality trait. The temperature during fruit ripening conditions berries color intensity. In the main viticulture region of Malbec and Bonarda a 2-3°C increase in temperature has been predicted for the upcoming years as consequence of the global climate change. In the present study, this predicted temperature raise was simulated under field-crop conditions, and its effect on anthocyanin pigmentation in berries of Malbec and Bonarda was monitored by HPLC analysis throughout the ripening process, in two growing seasons. Additionally, expression levels of regulatory (MYBA1 and MYB4) and structural (UFGT and Vv3AT) anthocyanin genes were monitored in Malbec berry skins. Although cultivar-dependent time-course variation was observed for total anthocyanin content, in general, the berries of both cultivars grown under high temperature (HT) conditions had significantly lower total anthocyanins (∼28-41% reduction), and a higher proportion of acylated anthocyanins, than their respective controls. Expression of MYBA1 and UFGT, but not MYB4, was correlated with anthocyanin pigmentation at half ripening and harvest, whereas overexpression of the acyltransferase gene Vv3AT was associated with higher anthocyanin acylation in HT berries. These results suggest that color development and pigment modifications in Malbec berries under HT are regulated at transcriptional level by MYBA1, UFGT, and Vv3AT genes. These data contribute to the general understanding on the effect of high temperatures on anthocyanin biochemistry and genetic regulation, and may have direct implications in the production of high-quality wines from Malbec and Bonarda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. One-stage closure of isolated cleft palate with the Veau-Wardill-Kilner V to Y pushback procedure or the Cronin modification. III. Comparison of lateral craniofacial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heliövaara, A; Ranta, R

    1993-10-01

    The craniofacial morphology of 116 consecutive patients with isolated cleft palate was studied by means of lateral cephalograms at 17 to 20 years of age. One-stage hard- and soft-palate closure had been carried out at the mean age of 1.8 years by using the Veau-Wardill-Kilner or the Cronin mucoperiosteal palatal V-Y pushback technique. In the Veau-Wardill-Kilner group the cranial base was longer, the cranial base angle was larger, and the mandible longer and its ramus higher but less backward rotated. The patients with originally the most extensive clefts showed the most marked deviations in craniofacial morphology at adult age.

  15. Modeling multi-lateral wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, H. J.; Fong, W. S. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A method for modeling multi-lateral wells by using a computational scheme embedded in a general-purpose, finite difference simulator was described. The calculation of wellbore pressure profile for each lateral included the frictional pressure drop along the wellbore and proper fluid mixing at lateral connection points. To obtain a good production profile the Beggs and Brill correlation, a homogenous flow model, and the model proposed by Ouyang et al, which includes an acceleration term and accounts for the lubrication effect due to radial influx, were implemented. Well performance prediction results were compared using the three models. The impact of different tubing sizes on the well performance and the prediction contribution from each lateral were also studied. Results of the study in the hypothetical example and under normal field operating conditions were reviewed. 7 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Highly Sensitive and High-Throughput Analysis of Plant Hormones Using MS-Probe Modification and Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry: An Application for Hormone Profiling in Oryza sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Mikiko; Kamada-Nobusada, Tomoe; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Takei, Kentaro; Kuroha, Takeshi; Mizutani, Masaharu; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Suzuki, Koji; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a highly sensitive and high-throughput method for the simultaneous analysis of 43 molecular species of cytokinins, auxins, ABA and gibberellins. This method consists of an automatic liquid handling system for solid phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer (qMS/MS) equipped with an electrospray interface (ESI; UPLC-ESI-qMS/MS). In order to improve the detection limit of negatively charged compounds, such as gibberellins, we chemically derivatized fractions containing auxin, ABA and gibberellins with bromocholine that has a quaternary ammonium functional group. This modification, that we call ‘MS-probe’, makes these hormone derivatives have a positive ion charge and permits all compounds to be measured in the positive ion mode with UPLC-ESI-qMS/MS in a single run. Consequently, quantification limits of gibberellins increased up to 50-fold. Our current method needs 180 plant samples simultaneously. Application of this method to plant hormone profiling enabled us to draw organ distribution maps of hormone species in rice and also to identify interactions among the four major hormones in the rice gibberellin signaling mutants, gid1-3, gid2-1 and slr1. Combining the results of hormone profiling data with transcriptome data in the gibberellin signaling mutants allows us to analyze relationships between changes in gene expression and hormone metabolism. PMID:19369275

  17. Effects of controlled school-based multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventions on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, N; Misra, A; Shah, P; Gulati, S

    2010-04-01

    To study the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention model of nutrition and lifestyle education on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian-Indian adolescents in North India. Two schools matched for student strength and middle socioeconomic strata were randomly allocated to intervention and control group. Changes in nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, lifestyle practices, food frequency and body image of eleventh-grade students (15-17 years) in both schools were tested using a validated questionnaire. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were made using standard methods. Segmental body composition analysis was carried out using an 8-electrode multifrequency bioelectrical impedance method of body fat estimation. At 6 months follow-up, significant improvement in several domains of knowledge was observed in intervention children (n=99; males=60; females=39) as compared with control school children (n=102; males=61; females=41). In the intervention group, significantly lower proportion of children consumed aerated drinks (15.1%; Phabits and lifestyle practices, and resulted in beneficial changes in anthropometric and biochemical profiles of the Asian Indian adolescents. This model should be applied on countrywide basis to prevent obesity and diabetes.

  18. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Changes and Lipid Profile Modifications Induced by Medicago truncatula N5 Overexpression at an Early Stage of the Symbiotic Interaction with Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Santi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs are small basic secreted proteins, which are characterized by lipid-binding capacity and are putatively involved in lipid trafficking. LTPs play a role in several biological processes, including the root nodule symbiosis. In this regard, the Medicago truncatula nodulin 5 (MtN5 LTP has been proved to positively regulate the nodulation capacity, controlling rhizobial infection and nodule primordia invasion. To better define the lipid transfer protein MtN5 function during the symbiosis, we produced MtN5-downregulated and -overexpressing plants, and we analysed the transcriptomic changes occurring in the roots at an early stage of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection. We also carried out the lipid profile analysis of wild type (WT and MtN5-overexpressing roots after rhizobia infection. The downregulation of MtN5 increased the root hair curling, an early event of rhizobia infection, and concomitantly induced changes in the expression of defence-related genes. On the other hand, MtN5 overexpression favoured the invasion of the nodules by rhizobia and determined in the roots the modulation of genes that are involved in lipid transport and metabolism as well as an increased content of lipids, especially galactolipids that characterize the symbiosome membranes. Our findings suggest the potential participation of LTPs in the synthesis and rearrangement of membranes occurring during the formation of the infection threads and the symbiosome membrane.

  19. Wind profiler observations on orographic effects of typhoon wind structure modification over Taiwan (120.38 E, 22.6 N)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, C.J.; Yang, S.S. [National Central Univ., Taiwan (China). Inst. of Space Science; Krishna Reddy, K. [Yogi Vemana Univ., Kadapa (India). Dept. of Physics; Lai, H.C. [Chang Jung Christian Univ., Taiwan (China). Dept. of Engineering and Management Advanced Technology; Wong, C.J. [Universiti Sains Malaysia (Malaysia). School of Physics

    2010-07-01

    The interaction of the storm circulation with the Central Mountain Range (CMR) of Taiwan is studied with a wind profiler located at the leeside during the invasions of two (Kaemi (200605) and Bopha (200609)) typhoons. The moderate typhoon Kaemi upgraded from a tropical depression on 21 July 2006. It then was made landfall at 15:45 UTC on 24 July 2006 near Cheng-Kung. The weak typhoon Bopha formed at about 12:00 UTC on 5 August 2006 and also landed near Cheng-Kung at around 19:20 UTC on 8 August. A new finding from both typhoons is the vortex splitting into upper and lower parts with the two typhoons that have passed the observation site nearly. For the typhoon Kaemi, demarcation height of the upper-level vortex and lower level is at 2.8 km and passed the site about 3 h earlier than the low-level one. For the typhoon Bopha, the center of the lower-level vortex at 3.5 km locates to the north of the upper-level one at 5.2 km. The re-organization of the split vortexes is found in typhoon Kaemi but not for typhoon Bopha. (orig.)

  20. Wind profiler observations on orographic effects of typhoon wind structure modification over Taiwan (120.38° E, 22.6° N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of the storm circulation with the Central Mountain Range (CMR of Taiwan is studied with a wind profiler located at the leeside during the invasions of two (Kaemi (200605 and Bopha (200609 typhoons. The moderate typhoon Kaemi upgraded from a tropical depression on 21 July 2006. It then was made landfall at 15:45 UTC on 24 July 2006 near Cheng-Kung. The weak typhoon Bopha formed at about 12:00 UTC on 5 August 2006 and also landed near Cheng-Kung at around 19:20 UTC on 8 August. A new finding from both typhoons is the vortex splitting into upper and lower parts with the two typhoons that have passed the observation site nearly. For the typhoon Kaemi, demarcation height of the upper-level vortex and lower level is at 2.8 km and passed the site about 3 h earlier than the low-level one. For the typhoon Bopha, the center of the lower-level vortex at 3.5 km locates to the north of the upper-level one at 5.2 km. The re-organization of the split vortexes is found in typhoon Kaemi but not for typhoon Bopha.

  1. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  3. Behavior Modification in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.

    1979-01-01

    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  4. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  5. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Picado, Alfonso; Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A

    2016-11-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as 'tennis elbow', is a very common condition affecting mainly middle-aged patients.The pathogenesis remains unknown but there appears to be a combination of local tendon pathology, alteration in pain perception and motor impairment.The diagnosis is usually clinical but some patients may benefit from additional imaging for a specific differential diagnosis.The disease has a self-limiting course of between 12 and 18 months, but in some patients, symptoms can be persistent and refractory to treatment.Most patients are well-managed with non-operative treatment and activity modification. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for patients with refractory symptoms.New non-operative treatment alternatives with promising results have been developed in recent years. Cite this article: Vaquero-Picado A, Barco R, Antuña SA. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:391-397. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000049.

  6. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  7. The management of modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.

    1992-01-01

    Description of the management methods of modifications at EDF. To maintain safety standards of the nuclear power station the 'Direction de l'Equipment' and the 'Direction du Parc en Exploitation' have jointly fixed the modalities of management for all modifications and recorded them in a 'Practical Guide'

  8. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils

  9. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  10. Later zaaien kost opbrengst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, J.

    2000-01-01

    Onderzoek naar de gevolgen van het uitstellen van het zaaitijdstip op de gewasproductie en op opbrengstderving, bijvoorbeeld doordat de grond later bewerkt kan worden door een hogere grondwaterstand als gevolg van peilverhoging

  11. Modifications to POISSON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    At MSU we have used the POISSON family of programs extensively for magnetic field calculations. In the presently super-saturated computer situation, reducing the run time for the program is imperative. Thus, a series of modifications have been made to POISSON to speed up convergence. Two of the modifications aim at having the first guess solution as close as possible to the final solution. The other two aim at increasing the convergence rate. In this discussion, a working knowledge of POISSON is assumed. The amount of new code and expected time saving for each modification is discussed

  12. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  13. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  14. In-Situ Extended Lateral Range Surface Metrology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an extended lateral range capability for a dynamic optical profiling system to enable non-contact, surface roughness measurement of large and...

  15. Accommodating for plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirich, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    Modification to a nuclear power plant may have different causes: 1) new instructions by the authorities; 2) changes of the marginal conditions on the construction site; 3) progress in the technological development. - Examples from different plants are supposed to demonstrate how such changes influence the planning or the construction and how they are integrated in the process of preparation. A distinction can be made between modifications before the completion of the submission of the order, during the phase of preparatory planning and during the construction phase. Of great importance are especially modifications made after the beginning of the construction works, since, in general, there is little scope for technical modifications and since consequences for the time schedule are to be expected. (orig.) [de

  16. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and stiffness matrices) andaor modal parameters, in order to acquire some ... For the above reasons, another modification approach is presented here ... The data necessary to solve the direct problem are dynamic behaviour of the original.

  17. Pragmatic Graph Rewriting Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia

    1999-01-01

    We present new pragmatic constructs for easing programming in visual graph rewriting programming languages. The first is a modification to the rewriting process for nodes the host graph, where nodes specified as 'Once Only' in the LHS of a rewrite match at most once with a corresponding node in the host graph. This reduces the previously common use of tags to indicate the progress of matching in the graph. The second modification controls the application of LHS graphs, where those specified a...

  18. Modification of JRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    1978-01-01

    This report gives an outline of some of the main modifications carried out around the Reactor Core on the Research Reactor JRR-2, at the Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. The JRR-2 was shut down in December 1973, to improve it in heavy water leakage from the metal packing between core tank and support ring, corrosion of the lower shielding plug, and fault in the control-rod mechanism. Main modifications were a standing seal weld at the support ring to stop heavy water leakage, replacement of the reactor top shield and improvement of the helium system. The control-rod assemblies and the refueling devices were replaced by the newly designed ones also. In addition to the modification plan, the irradiated air exhaust system was improved to reduce radioactive argon gas release through the stack. Works were completed successfully in September 1975. But a light water leakage occurred at the stand pipe below the light water tank on November 11, 1975, which was repaired in about 4 months. When considering the operation of above 5,000 hours after the modification, however, the quality of the modification work may be said to be quite satisfactory. The present report in which works to the completion are described may be valuable as a record of reactor modification which is a new experience at JAERI. (auth.)

  19. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  20. HMCan-diff: a method to detect changes in histone modifications in cells with different genetic characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham; Louis-Brennetot, Caroline; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Boeva, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Comparing histone modification profiles between cancer and normal states, or across different tumor samples, can provide insights into understanding cancer initiation, progression and response to therapy. ChIP-seq histone modification data of cancer

  1. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  2. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  3. Stamina in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colerick, E J

    1985-01-01

    Patterns of aging raise a number of important questions concerning the paths to successful adaptation. What gives some older individuals their staying power in the face of misfortune? What causes others to function less effectively when stressed, to resist change? Clearly, the margin of safety, the degree of elasticity and resilience varies across individuals in the later years. This study focuses on event histories and current behavior of 62 elderly men and women (Phase I) and reports by their confidants (N = 62; Phase II). A central proposition, that stamina in later life depends, in part, on the appraisal of previous events involving loss is investigated using a model that incorporates aspects of earlier life, cognitive appraisal and clinically judged dimensions of stamina in old age. Multivariate (particularly path analytic) techniques are used to test the links between variable foci. Results suggest that antecedents of stamina involve the interaction of social resources and cognitive orientations. Specifically, stamina in later life is contingent, for the most part, on a triumphant, positive outlook during periods of adversity. Elderly so oriented are also those with robust health histories and marked educational accomplishments. Conversely, persons who view situations involving loss as threatening, overwhelming and potentially defeating experience no such outcome; low levels of stamina mark their later years. Interestingly, quality childhood ties matter for stamina in old age only by increasing the likelihood of perceptions of a supportive environment during hard times. The findings corroborate the general pattern of research documenting the importance of cognitive orientations in adaptive processes.

  4. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  5. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic field influences on the lateral dose response functions of photon-beam detectors: MC study of wall-less water-filled detectors with various densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looe, Hui Khee; Delfs, Björn; Poppinga, Daniela; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn

    2017-06-21

    The distortion of detector reading profiles across photon beams in the presence of magnetic fields is a developing subject of clinical photon-beam dosimetry. The underlying modification by the Lorentz force of a detector's lateral dose response function-the convolution kernel transforming the true cross-beam dose profile in water into the detector reading profile-is here studied for the first time. The three basic convolution kernels, the photon fluence response function, the dose deposition kernel, and the lateral dose response function, of wall-less cylindrical detectors filled with water of low, normal and enhanced density are shown by Monte Carlo simulation to be distorted in the prevailing direction of the Lorentz force. The asymmetric shape changes of these convolution kernels in a water medium and in magnetic fields of up to 1.5 T are confined to the lower millimetre range, and they depend on the photon beam quality, the magnetic flux density and the detector's density. The impact of this distortion on detector reading profiles is demonstrated using a narrow photon beam profile. For clinical applications it appears as favourable that the magnetic flux density dependent distortion of the lateral dose response function, as far as secondary electron transport is concerned, vanishes in the case of water-equivalent detectors of normal water density. By means of secondary electron history backtracing, the spatial distribution of the photon interactions giving rise either directly to secondary electrons or to scattered photons further downstream producing secondary electrons which contribute to the detector's signal, and their lateral shift due to the Lorentz force is elucidated. Electron history backtracing also serves to illustrate the correct treatment of the influences of the Lorentz force in the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code applied in this study.

  7. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-07-01

    The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no influences observed on the root apical meristem

  8. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no

  9. Lateral Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline C.

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  11. Advantages of later motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, M; Barclay, K; Goisis, A

    2017-01-01

    In high-income countries childbearing has been increasingly postponed since the 1970s and it is crucial to understand the consequences of this demographic shift. The literature has tended to characterize later motherhood as a significant health threat for children and parents. We contribute to this debate by reviewing recent evidence suggesting that an older maternal age can also have positive effects. Literature linking the age at parenthood with the sociodemographic characteristics of the parents, with macrolevel interactions, and with subjective well-being. Comprehensive review of the existing literature. Recent studies show that there can also be advantages associated with later motherhood. First, whilst in past older mothers had low levels of education and large families, currently older mothers tend to have higher education and smaller families than their younger peers. Consequently, children born to older mothers in the past tended to have worse outcomes than children born to younger mothers, whilst the opposite is true in recent cohorts. Second, postponement of childbearing means that the child is born at a later date and in a later birth cohort, and may benefit from secular changes in the macroenvironment. Evidence shows that when the positive trends in the macroenvironment are strong they overweigh the negative effects of reproductive ageing. Third, existing studies show that happiness increases around and after childbirth among older mothers, whereas for younger mothers the effect does not exist or is short-lived. There are important sociodemographic pathways associated with postponement of childbearing which might compensate or even more than compensate for the biological disadvantages associated with reproductive ageing.

  12. Laparoscopic Puestow: lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteman, Benjamin R; Harr, Jeffrey N; Brody, Fred

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a painful inflammatory disease that leads to progressive and irreversible destruction of pancreatic parenchyma [1]. A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy, also known as the Puestow procedure, is performed for symptomatic chronic pancreatitis associated with a dilated pancreatic duct secondary to calcifications or strictures [4]. An open approach is used traditionally due to the complexity of the case, and there have only been a handful of laparoscopic case reports [2]. This video depicts a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis. A 45-year-old gentleman with a 20-year history of chronic alcohol abuse presented with diffuse abdominal pain. His pain was worse postprandially and associated with loose stools. A computed tomography scan revealed multiple calcified deposits within the body and tail of the pancreas, and a dilated pancreatic duct measuring 1.4 cm with a proximal obstructing calcified stone. A 5-port foregut technique was used, and a 15-cm pancreatic ductotomy was performed with an ultrasonic scalpel. Calcified stones were cleared from the duct, and a roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy was performed using a hand-sewn technique. The patient had a relatively uncomplicated hospital course with return of bowel function on postoperative day 4. His patient-controlled analgesic device was discontinued on post operative day 3. He was ambulating, tolerating a regular diet and discharged home on postoperative day 5. At 12- and 26-month follow-up, he remains off narcotics, but still requires 1-2 tabs of pancreatic enzyme replacement per meal. Most importantly, he has not had any alcohol for over 2 years. The two primary goals in treating chronic pancreatitis include long-term pain relief and improvements in quality of life [3]. For patients with chronic pancreatitis and a dilated pancreatic duct, a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy may be an effective approach to decrease pain and improve quality of life.

  13. Modified puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Eugene P; Pappas, Theodore N

    2009-05-01

    There are various surgical options for the treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis. The modified Puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy has been proven to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle while maintaining a low rate of morbidity and mortality. However, the debate regarding which surgical treatment provides the best outcomes is controversial. The aims of this manuscript are to identify the patient population for which the Puestow benefits the most and discuss the pertinent technical aspects of the surgical procedure.

  14. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... substrate concentration (30-40% dry matter (DM)) and high enzyme activity (750-2250 BE units (BEU)/g sample). Starches from various botanical sources, representing a broad range of properties, were used as substrates. The effects of the used conditions on the BE-reaction were evaluated by characterization...

  15. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. Radiation modification of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Industrial and radiation chemical processes of material modification based on cross-linking of polymers as a result of radiation are considered. Among them are production of cables and rods with irradiated modified insulation, production of hardened and thermo-shrinkaging polymer products (films, tubes, fashioned products), production of radiation cross-linked polyethylene foam, technology of radiation vulcanization of elastomers. Attention is paid to radiation plants on the basis of γ-sources and electron acceleratos as well as to radiation conditions

  17. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  18. Principles of ubiquitin and SUMO modifications in DNA repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergink, Steven; Jentsch, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    With the discovery in the late 1980s that the DNA-repair gene RAD6 encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, it became clear that protein modification by ubiquitin conjugation has a much broader significance than had previously been assumed. Now, two decades later, ubiquitin and its cousin SUMO are

  19. 78 FR 57336 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications AGENCY: Office of the... Business Enterprise (DBE) Program. In a later notice published on October 25, 2012, the Department extended... writing on specific aspects of the NPRM noted below. DATES: A public listening session will be held on...

  20. Imaging the neural effects of cognitive bias modification training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, C.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    Cognitive bias modification (CBM) was first developed as an experimental tool to examine the causal role of cognitive biases, and later developed into complementary interventions in experimental psychopathology research. CBM involves the "re-training" of implicit biases by means of multiple trials

  1. Behavior Modification in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Mryon; Whitman, Joan

    1971-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical rationale for behavior modification, principally through its comparison with traditional psychotherapies, and suggests some behavior modification techniques for the classroom management of maladaptive behavior. (Author)

  2. Conserved gene regulatory module specifies lateral neural borders across bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbin; Zhao, Di; Horie, Takeo; Chen, Geng; Bao, Hongcun; Chen, Siyu; Liu, Weihong; Horie, Ryoko; Liang, Tao; Dong, Biyu; Feng, Qianqian; Tao, Qinghua; Liu, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    The lateral neural plate border (NPB), the neural part of the vertebrate neural border, is composed of central nervous system (CNS) progenitors and peripheral nervous system (PNS) progenitors. In invertebrates, PNS progenitors are also juxtaposed to the lateral boundary of the CNS. Whether there are conserved molecular mechanisms determining vertebrate and invertebrate lateral neural borders remains unclear. Using single-cell-resolution gene-expression profiling and genetic analysis, we present evidence that orthologs of the NPB specification module specify the invertebrate lateral neural border, which is composed of CNS and PNS progenitors. First, like in vertebrates, the conserved neuroectoderm lateral border specifier Msx/vab-15 specifies lateral neuroblasts in Caenorhabditis elegans Second, orthologs of the vertebrate NPB specification module ( Msx/vab-15 , Pax3/7/pax-3 , and Zic/ref-2 ) are significantly enriched in worm lateral neuroblasts. In addition, like in other bilaterians, the expression domain of Msx/vab-15 is more lateral than those of Pax3/7/pax-3 and Zic/ref- 2 in C. elegans Third, we show that Msx/vab-15 regulates the development of mechanosensory neurons derived from lateral neural progenitors in multiple invertebrate species, including C. elegans , Drosophila melanogaster , and Ciona intestinalis We also identify a novel lateral neural border specifier, ZNF703/tlp-1 , which functions synergistically with Msx/vab- 15 in both C. elegans and Xenopus laevis These data suggest a common origin of the molecular mechanism specifying lateral neural borders across bilaterians.

  3. Biomaterials modification by ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tonghe; Yi Zhongzhen; Zhang Xu; Wu Yuguang

    2001-01-01

    Ion beam technology is one of best ways for the modification of biomaterials. The results of ion beam modification of biomaterials are given. The method and results of improved biocompatibility are indicated by ion beam technology. The future development of ion beam modification of biomaterials is discussed

  4. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  5. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  6. Lateral Control”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Veierskov, Bjarke; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In a conifer tree, such as Nordmann fir, Abies nordmanniana Spach, the leader bud and its immediate surroundings play a decisive role in crown architecture. As subapical branch buds are segregated from the leader meristem, resource allocation between ortho- and plagiotropic growth is determined....... The relationship between treetop buds in young trees was studied in the natural state and after surgical removal in early July of either the leader bud (decapitation) or the subapical whorl branch buds (destipitation). The two bud types showed consistent cytokinin profile differences but similar seasonal dynamics...... in cytokinins and auxin (IAA). After bud excision, ZRP increased dramatically in the subapical stem within 1 h, followed by ZR within 1 week. Supernormal levels of ZR were maintained through autumn and persisted in spring in the destipitated trees, but had returned to normal in the decapitated trees...

  7. Robotic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, John J; Sawin, Robert

    2011-06-01

    A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ), also known as the Puestow procedure, is a complex procedure performed for chronic pancreatitis when the pancreatic duct is dilated and unable to drain properly. Traditionally, these procedures are performed with open surgery. A minimally invasive approach to the LPJ using rigid handheld nonarticulating instruments is tedious and rarely performed. In fact, there are no prior laparoscopic case reports for LPJ in children and only a small handful of cases in the adult literature. This lack of laparoscopic information may be an indication of the difficulty in performing this complex operation with nonarticulating laparoscopic instruments. The advantages of robotic surgery may help overcome these difficulties. We present the first robotic LPJ ever reported in a 14-year-old child with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. This case demonstrates the utility of this advanced surgical technology and may lead to a new minimally invasive option for both adults and children with chronic pancreatitis requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  9. Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation: one year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernard, T.A.; Sofer, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    About one year ago, after 18 years of business as a wholly owned affiliate of Exxon Corporation, Exxon Nuclear Company was acquired by Siemens/KWU and its name was changed to Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation (ANF). This profile describes the status of ANF one year later, principally from the European perspective but with some mention of ANF's worldwide operations to provide a balanced picture. After one year of operation as an affiliate of Siemens/KWU, ANF's role remains as an independent international supplier of nuclear fuel and services to utilities in Europe, the USA and the Far East, but with substantially augmented capabilities resulting from the new affiliation

  10. Surface modifications of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, C M

    2008-06-01

    Dental implant surface technologies have been evolving rapidly to enhance a more rapid bone formation on their surface and hold a potential to increase the predictability of expedited implant therapy. While implant outcomes have become highly predictable, there are sites and conditions that result in elevated implant loss. This paper reviews the impact of macro-retentive features which includes approaches to surface oxide modification, thread design, press-fit and sintered-bead technologies to increase predictability of outcomes. Implant designs that lead to controlled lateral compression of the bone can improve primary stability as long as the stress does not exceed the localized yield strength of the cortical bone. Some implant designs have reduced crestal bone loss by use of multiple cutting threads that are closely spaced, smoothed on the tip but designed to create a hoop-stress stability of the implant as it is completely seated in the osteotomy. Following the placement of the implant, there is a predictable sequence of bone turnover and replacement at the interface that allows the newly formed bone to adapt to microscopic roughness on the implant surface, and on some surfaces, a nanotopography (<10(-9) m scale) that has been shown to preferably influence the formation of bone. Newly emerging studies show that bone cells are exquisitely sensitive to these topographical features and will upregulate the expression of bone related genes for new bone formation when grown on these surfaces. We live in an exciting time of rapid changes in the modalities we can offer patients for tooth replacement therapy. Given this, it is our responsibility to be critical when claims are made, incorporate into our practice what is proven and worthwhile, and to continue to support and provide the best patient care possible.

  11. Coupled lateral-torsional response of equipment mounted in CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishac, M.F.; Heidebrecht, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, a coupled lateral torsional model (CLTM) is developed as a modification of the uncoupled lateral torsional model (ULTM) by including the torsional degree of freedom for each mass point and taking into consideration the effect of eccentricities between the centers of mass and rigidity at each floor level. The lateral and rotational time-histories at each floor level are characterized by lateral and rotational floor response spectra at the mass centroid. These time-histories are also combined to determine the lateral floor response spectra at the extreme edges of each floor mass. (orig.)

  12. Data Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hladíková, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  13. Enzymatic Modification of Sphingomyelin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due to its major role in maintaining the water-retaining properties of the epidermis, ceramide is of great commercial potential in cosmetic and pharmaceuticals such as hair and skin care products. Currently, chemical synthesis of ceramide is a costly process, and developments of alternative cost......-efficient, high yield production methods are of great interest. In the present study, the potential of producing ceramide through the enzymatic hydrolysis of sphingomyelin have been studied. sphingomyelin is a ubiquitous membrane-lipid and rich in dairy products or by-products. It has been verified...... that sphingomyelin modification gives a feasible approach to the potential production of ceramide. The reaction system has been improved through system evaluation and the optimization of several important factors, and phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens shows higher activity towards the hydrolysis reaction...

  14. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.

  15. Enzymatic Modification of Corn Starch Influences Human Fecal Fermentation Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Angela; Rose, Devin J; Rosell, Cristina M

    2017-06-14

    Enzymatically modified starches have been widely used in food applications to develop new products, but information regarding digestion and fecal fermentation of these products is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine the fermentation properties of corn starch modified with α-amylase, amyloglucosidase, or cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and the possible role of hydrolysis products. Samples differed in their digestibility and availability to be fermented by the microbiota, resulting in differences in microbial metabolites produced during in vitro fermentation. The presence or absence of hydrolysis products and gelatinization affected starch composition and subsequent metabolite production by the microbiota. Amyloglucosidase-treated starch led to the greatest production of short- and branched-chain fatty acid production by the microbiota. Results from this study could be taken into consideration to confirm the possible nutritional claims and potential health benefits of these starches as raw ingredients for food development.

  16. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  17. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  18. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  19. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2009 – 12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Lateral Mixing Experiment (LATMIX) focused on mixing and...anomalies. LATMIX2 targeted the wintertime Gulf Stream, where deep mixed layers, strong lateral density gradients (Gulf Stream north wall) and the

  20. Karolinske psychodynamic profile (KAPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Birgit Bork; Søgaard, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil......psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil...

  1. Integrated vehicle's lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  2. Integrated vehicle’s lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  3. Modification of Particle Distributions by MHD Instabilities II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Roscoe B.

    2011-01-01

    The modification of particle distributions by low amplitude magnetohydrodynamic modes is an important topic for magnetically confined plasmas. Low amplitude modes are known to be capable of producing significant modification of injected neutral beam profiles, and the same can be expected in burning plasmas for the alpha particle distributions. Flattening of a distribution in an island due to phase mixing and portions of phase space becoming stochastic lead to modification of the particle distribution, a process extremely rapid in the time scale of an experiment but still very long compared to the time scale of guiding center simulations. Large amplitude modes can cause profile avalanche and particle loss. Thus it is very valuable to be able to predict the temporal evolution of a particle distribution produced by a given spectrum of magnetohydrodynamic modes. In this paper we further develop and investigate the use of a new method of determining domains of phase space in which good KAM surfaces do not exist and use this method to examine a well documented case of profile modification by instabilities.

  4. On Active Current Selection for Lagrangian Profilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jouffroy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Lagrangian profilers are now widely used as measurement and monitoring platforms, notably in observation programs as Argo. In a typical mode of operation, the profilers drift passively at their parking depthbefore making a vertical profile to go back to the surface. This paperpresents simple and computationally-efficient control strategies to activelyselect and use ocean currents so that a profiler can autonomously reach adesired destination. After briefly presenting a typical profiler andpossible mechanical modifications for a coastal environment, we introducesimple mathematical models for the profiler and the currents it will use. Wethen present simple feedback controllers that, using the direction of thecurrents and taking into account the configuration of the environment(coastal or deep-sea, is able to steer the profiler to any desiredhorizontal location. To illustrate the approach, a few results are presentedusing both simulated currents and real current velocity profiles from theNorth Sea.

  5. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  6. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  7. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail: hendrik.jansen@desy.de

    2016-09-21

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  8. Hydrocode analysis of lateral stress gauges in shocked tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E. J.; Winter, R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Experiments published by other workers, on the resistance change of manganin stress gauges embedded in a lateral orientation in tantalum targets shocked to a range of stresses, have been analysed using an adaptive mesh refinement hydrocode. It was found that for all of the four experiments the shape of the time profile of the computed lateral stress in the mounting layer closely matched the shape of the experimental lateral stress profiles. However, the calculated lateral stresses at the gauge location in the mounting layer are significantly less than the lateral stresses that would have been produced in the target if no gauge had been present. The perturbation caused by the gauge increased as the strength of the applied shock increased. When the perturbations are taken into account values of flow stress that are significantly smaller than those reported in the original research paper are derived. The work shows that the lateral gauge technique can give valuable information on strength provided high resolution simulation is used to compensate for the perturbations caused by the gauges

  9. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.

    2004-05-01

    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  10. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Silicon-on-Insulator Lateral-Insulated-Gate-Bipolar-Transistor with Built-in Self-anti-ESD Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Power SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator devices have an inherent sandwich structure of MOS (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor gate which is very easy to suffer ESD (Electro-Static Discharge overstress. To solve this reliability problem, studies on design and modification of a built-in self-anti-ESD diode for a preliminarily optimized high voltage SOI LIGBT (Lateral-Insulated-Gate-Bipolar-Transistor were carried out on the Silvaco TCAD (Technology-Computer-Aided-Design platform. According to the constrains of the technological process, the new introduction of the N+ doped region into P-well region that form the built-in self-anti-ESD diode should be done together with the doping of source under the same mask. The modifications were done by adjusting the vertical impurity profile in P-well into retrograde distribution and designing a cathode plate with a proper length to cover the forward depletion terminal and make sure that the thickness of the cathode plate is the same as that of the gate plate. The simulation results indicate that the modified device structure is compatible with the original one in process and design, the breakdown voltage margin of the former was expanded properly, and both the transient cathode voltages are clamped low enough very quickly. Therefore, the design and optimization results of the modified device structure of the built-in self-anti-ESD diode for the given SOI LIGBT meet the given requirements.

  12. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  13. On active current selection for Lagrangian profilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Zhou, Qiuyang; Zielinski, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    simple and computationally-efficient control strategies to actively select and use ocean currents so that a profiler can autonomously reach a desired destination. After briefly presenting a typical profiler and possible mechanical modifications for a coastal environment, we introduce simple mathematical...... models for the profiler and the currents it will use. We then present simple feedback controllers that, using the direction of the currents and taking into account the configuration of the environment (coastal or deep-sea), is able to steer the profiler to any desired horizontal location. To illustrate...

  14. Structural dynamic modifications via models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study shows that as many as half of the matrix ... the dynamicist's analytical modelling skill which would appear both in the numerator as. Figure 2. ..... Brandon J A 1990 Strategies for structural dynamic modification (New York: John Wiley).

  15. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  16. Standard approach to plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecredy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Organizational and management approaches to the design, installation, and turnover of nuclear plant modifications have changed dramatically in the last 10 to 15 yr. In response to these changes, organizational and individual responsibilities have been defined and management systems have been established at Rochester Gas and Electric (RG and E) Corporation to ensure that high-quality plant modifications are installed in a timely manner that satisfies user needs at minimal cost

  17. [Brain lateralization and seizure semiology: ictal clinical lateralizing signs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Réka; Kalmár, Zsuzsanna; Fehér, Nóra; Fogarasi, András; Gyimesi, Csilla; Janszky, József

    2008-07-30

    Clinical lateralizing signs are the phenomena which can unequivocally refer to the hemispheric onset of epileptic seizures. They can improve the localization of epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation, moreover, their presence can predict a success of surgical treatment. Primary sensory phenomena such as visual aura in one half of the field of vision or unilateral ictal somatosensory sensation always appear on the contralateral to the focus. Periictal unilateral headache, although it is an infrequent symptom, is usually an ipsilateral sign. Primary motor phenomena like epileptic clonic, tonic movements, the version of head ubiquitously appear contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Very useful lateralization sign is the ictal hand-dystonia which lateralizes to the contralateral hemisphere in nearly 100%. The last clonus of the secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure lateralizes to the ipsilateral hemisphere in 85%. The fast component of ictal nystagmus appears in nearly 100% on the contralateral side of the epileptic focus. Vegetative symptoms during seizures arising from temporal lobe such as spitting, nausea, vomiting, urinary urge are typical for seizures originating from non-dominant (right) hemisphere. Ictal pallor and cold shivers are dominant hemispheric lateralization signs. Postictal unilateral nose wiping refers to the ipsilateral hemispheric focus compared to the wiping hand. Ictal or postictal aphasia refers to seizure arising from dominant hemisphere. Intelligable speech during complex partial seizures appears in non-dominant seizures. Automatism with preserved consciousness refers to the seizures of non-dominant temporal lobe.

  18. Cell Signalling Through Covalent Modification and Allostery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Louise N.

    Phosphorylation plays essential roles in nearly every aspect of cell life. Protein kinases catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphate of ATP to a serine, threonine or tyrosine residue in protein substrates. This covalent modification allows activation or inhibition of enzyme activity, creates recognition sites for other proteins and promotes order/disorder or disorder/order transitions. These properties regulate ­signalling pathways and cellular processes that mediate metabolism, transcription, cell cycle progression, differentiation, cytoskeleton arrangement and cell movement, apoptosis, intercellular communication, and neuronal and immunological functions. In this lecture I shall review the structural consequences of protein phosphorylation using our work on glycogen phosphorylase and the cell cycle cyclin dependent protein kinases as illustrations. Regulation of protein phosphorylation may be disrupted in the diseased state and protein kinases have become high profile targets for drug development. To date there are 11 compounds that have been approved for clinical use in the treatment of cancer.

  19. Lateral automobile impacts and the risk of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Fisher, Susan Gross; Flesher, William; Lillis, Robert; Knox, Kerry L; Pearson, Thomas A

    2004-08-01

    We determine the relative risk and severity of traumatic brain injury among occupants of lateral impacts compared with occupants of nonlateral impacts. This was a secondary analysis of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's National Automotive Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data Systems for 2000. Analysis was restricted to occupants of vehicles in which at least 1 person experienced an injury with Abbreviated Injury Scale score greater than 2. Traumatic brain injury was defined as an injury to the head or skull with an Abbreviated Injury Scale score greater than 2. Outcomes were analyzed using the chi2 test and multivariate logistic regression, with adjustment of variance to account for weighted probability sampling. Of the 1,115 occupants available for analysis, impact direction was lateral for 230 (18.42%) occupants and nonlateral for 885 (81.58%) occupants. One hundred eighty-seven (16.07%) occupants experienced a traumatic brain injury, 14.63% after lateral and 16.39% after nonlateral impact. The unadjusted relative risk of traumatic brain injury after lateral impact was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 1.56). After adjusting for several important crash-related variables, the relative risk of traumatic brain injury was 2.60 (95% CI 1.1 to 6.0). Traumatic brain injuries were more severe after lateral impact according to Abbreviated Injury Scale and Glasgow Coma Scale scores. The proportion of fatal or critical crash-related traumatic brain injuries attributable to lateral impact was 23.5%. Lateral impact is an important independent risk factor for the development of traumatic brain injury after a serious motor vehicle crash. Traumatic brain injuries incurred after lateral impact are more severe than those resulting from nonlateral impact. Vehicle modifications that increase head protection could reduce crash-related severe traumatic brain injuries by up to 61% and prevent up to 2,230 fatal or critical traumatic brain injuries each year

  20. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  1. Lateral topological crystalline insulator heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Ma, Yandong; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks brings many exciting realms in material science and device physics. Enriching available nanomaterials for creating such heterostructures and enabling the underlying new physics is highly coveted for the integration of next-generation devices. Here, we report a breakthrough in lateral heterostructure based on the monolayer square transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M  =  W, X  =  S/Se) modules. Our results reveal that the MX2 lateral heterostructure (1S-MX2 LHS) can possess excellent thermal and dynamical stability. Remarkably, the highly desired two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase is confirmed by the calculated mirror Chern number {{n}\\text{M}}=-1 . A nontrivial band gap of 65 meV is obtained with SOC, indicating the potential for room-temperature observation and applications. The topologically protected edge states emerge at the edges of two different nanoribbons between the bulk band gap, which is consistent with the mirror Chern number. In addition, a strain-induced topological phase transition in 1S-MX2 LHS is also revealed, endowing the potential utilities in electronics and spintronics. Our predictions not only introduce new member and vitality into the studies of lateral heterostructures, but also highlight the promise of lateral heterostructure as appealing topological crystalline insulator platforms with excellent stability for future devices.

  2. Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon; Okuno, Yae L.; Bowers, John E.; Jayaraman, Vijay

    2001-09-01

    A technique for achieving large-scale monolithic integration of lattice-mismatched materials in the vertical direction and the lateral integration of dissimilar lattice-matched structures has been developed. The technique uses a single nonplanar direct-wafer-bond step to transform vertically integrated epitaxial structures into lateral epitaxial variation across the surface of a wafer. Nonplanar wafer bonding is demonstrated by integrating four different unstrained multi-quantum-well active regions lattice matched to InP on a GaAs wafer surface. Microscopy is used to verify the quality of the bonded interface, and photoluminescence is used to verify that the bonding process does not degrade the optical quality of the laterally integrated wells. The authors propose this technique as a means to achieve greater levels of wafer-scale integration in optical, electrical, and micromechanical devices.

  3. Audiometric asymmetry and tinnitus laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Betty S; Sweetow, Robert W; Cheung, Steven W

    2012-05-01

    To identify an optimal audiometric asymmetry index for predicting tinnitus laterality. Retrospective medical record review. Data from adult tinnitus patients (80 men and 44 women) were extracted for demographic, audiometric, tinnitus laterality, and related information. The main measures were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Three audiometric asymmetry indices were constructed using one, two, or three frequency elements to compute the average interaural threshold difference (aITD). Tinnitus laterality predictive performance of a particular index was assessed by increasing the cutoff or minimum magnitude of the aITD from 10 to 35 dB in 5-dB steps to determine its ROC curve. Single frequency index performance was inferior to the other two (P .05). Two adjoining frequency elements with aITD ≥ 15 dB performed optimally for predicting tinnitus laterality (sensitivity = 0.59, specificity = 0.71, and PPV = 0.76). Absolute and relative magnitudes of hearing loss in the poorer ear were uncorrelated with tinnitus distress. An optimal audiometric asymmetry index to predict tinnitus laterality is one whereby 15 dB is the minimum aITD of two adjoining frequencies, inclusive of the maximal ITD. Tinnitus laterality dependency on magnitude of interaural asymmetry may inform design and interpretation of neuroimaging studies. Monaural acoustic tinnitus therapy may be an initial consideration for asymmetric hearing loss meeting the criterion of aITD ≥ 15 dB. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-Ain Nadir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model” is designed to instruct Emergency Medicine residents PGY 1-4, as well as Emergency Medicine-bound students. Introduction: Although uncommon, retrobulbar hemorrhage associated with facial trauma is a potential cause of permanent vision loss due to orbital compartment syndrome. To prevent vision loss, treatment with lateral canthotomy is time-sensitive and to perform this procedure in an emergent setting requires properly trained practitioners. Objectives: The purpose of the model is to teach residents and students how to perform lateral canthotomy and to achieve competency in their skills. Method: Lateral canthotomy is an important skill to be proficient in for any Emergency Medicine Physician, as it is an uncommon, sight-saving procedure. It is indicated in scenarios of facial trauma that cause a retrobulbar hemorrhage. Patients are at risk for permanent vision loss due to acute orbital compartment syndrome if the procedure is not done expeditiously.1 A less likely cause of retrobulbar hemorrhage is spontaneous hemorrhage due to a bleeding disorder or anticoagulant use.2 The features of retrobulbar hemorrhage include acute loss of visual acuity, relative afferent pupillary defect, proptosis with resistance to retropulsion, increased intraocular pressure, and limited extra ocular movement.3 While the diagnosis is clinical, it can be confirmed by computed tomography (CT and measurement of intraocular pressure.2 When the diagnosis is established, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis should be performed emergently. Cantholysis is contraindicated when a globe rupture is suspected or with an orbital blowout fracture. Potential complications of this procedure include iatrogenic injury to the globe or lateral rectus muscle, damage to the elevator aponeurosis resulting in ptosis, injury to the lacrimal gland and lacrimal artery, bleeding and infection.3 This task trainer uses affordable materials to let

  5. Epigenetic Modifications and Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu A. Kowluru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy remains one of the most debilitating chronic complications, but despite extensive research in the field, the exact mechanism(s responsible for how retina is damaged in diabetes remains ambiguous. Many metabolic pathways have been implicated in its development, and genes associated with these pathways are altered. Diabetic environment also facilitates epigenetics modifications, which can alter the gene expression without permanent changes in DNA sequence. The role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy is now an emerging area, and recent work has shown that genes encoding mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 are epigenetically modified, activates of epigenetic modification enzymes, histone lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1, and DNA methyltransferase are increased, and the micro RNAs responsible for regulating nuclear transcriptional factor and VEGF are upregulated. With the growing evidence of epigenetic modifications in diabetic retinopathy, better understanding of these modifications has potential to identify novel targets to inhibit this devastating disease. Fortunately, the inhibitors and mimics targeted towards histone modification, DNA methylation, and miRNAs are now being tried for cancer and other chronic diseases, and better understanding of the role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy will open the door for their possible use in combating this blinding disease.

  6. The surface modification of polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremlett, C.

    2000-03-01

    Polymers have ideal bulk properties for many applications. However, adhesion to many polymers is poor without surface pretreatment. This can result, for example, in peeling paint and printing, adhesive joint failure and bio-incompatibility. In applications such as painting, printing, adhesive bonding and biocompatibility, various cleaning or surface chemical modifications may be employed. A commodity polymer where pretreatment is sometimes needed is polystyrene. This project investigated, in detail, the effects of a novel method of modification namely mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO), as a mode of surface modification on polystyrene and a comparison was made with other polymers. The resulting modification was investigated using a range of surface analysis techniques to obtain complementary information. These included, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angles, static secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, chemical derivatization, scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and composite lap shear joint testing. It has been shown that MEO modifies the surface of polystyrene introduced oxygen mainly as hydroxyl groups, and a small number of carbonyl groups, that are positioned only on the backbone hydrocarbon chain. This modification improved adhesion, was stable and samples could be stored in aqueous media. The resulting hydroxylation was further derivatized using an amino acid to provide a specialised surface. This was very different from the multiple oxygen functionalities introduced in the comparison studies by UV/ozone and plasma treatments. (author)

  7. Computerized lateral-shear interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegan, Sorin A.; Jianu, Angela; Vlad, Valentin I.

    1998-07-01

    A lateral-shear interferometer, coupled with a computer for laser wavefront analysis, is described. A CCD camera is used to transfer the fringe images through a frame-grabber into a PC. 3D phase maps are obtained by fringe pattern processing using a new algorithm for direct spatial reconstruction of the optical phase. The program describes phase maps by Zernike polynomials yielding an analytical description of the wavefront aberration. A compact lateral-shear interferometer has been built using a laser diode as light source, a CCD camera and a rechargeable battery supply, which allows measurements in-situ, if necessary.

  8. Crystal modifications and dissolution rate of piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Lim Yee; Sze, Huan Wen; Rajendran, Adhiyaman; Adinarayana, Gorajana; Dua, Kamal; Garg, Sanjay

    2011-12-01

    Piroxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with low aqueous solubility which exhibits polymorphism. The present study was carried out to develop polymorphs of piroxicam with enhanced solubility and dissolution rate by the crystal modification technique using different solvent mixtures prepared with PEG 4000 and PVP K30. Physicochemical characteristics of the modified crystal forms of piroxicam were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry, FT-IR spectrophotometry and differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution and solubility profiles of each modified crystal form were studied and compared with pure piroxicam. Solvent evaporation method (method I) produced both needle and cubic shaped crystals. Slow crystallization from ethanol with addition of PEG 4000 or PVP K30 at room temperature (method II) produced cubic crystal forms. Needle forms produced by method I improved dissolution but not solubility. Cubic crystals produced by method I had a dissolution profile similar to that of untreated piroxicam but showed better solubility than untreated piroxicam. Cubic shaped crystals produced by method II showed improved dissolution, without a significant change in solubility. Based on the XRPD results, modified piroxicam crystals obtained by method I from acetone/benzene were cube shaped, which correlates well with the FTIR spectrum; modified needle forms obtained from ethanol/methanol and ethanol/acetone showed a slight shift of FTIR peak that may be attributed to differences in the internal structure or conformation.

  9. Drug Addiction and DNA Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amber N; Feng, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex disorder which can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Research has shown that epigenetic modifications can translate environmental signals into changes in gene expression, suggesting that epigenetic changes may underlie the causes and possibly treatment of substance use disorders. This chapter will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA, which include DNA methylation and several recently defined additional DNA epigenetic changes. We will discuss the functions of DNA modifications and methods for detecting them, followed by a description of the research investigating the function and consequences of drug-induced changes in DNA methylation patterns. Understanding these epigenetic changes may provide us translational tools for the diagnosis and treatment of addiction in the future.

  10. Minimal modification to tribimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaogang; Zee, A.

    2011-01-01

    We explore some ways of minimally modifying the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal, characterized by introducing at most one mixing angle and a CP violating phase thus extending our earlier work. One minimal modification, motivated to some extent by group theoretic considerations, is a simple case with the elements V α2 of the second column in the mixing matrix equal to 1/√(3). Modifications by keeping one of the columns or one of the rows unchanged from tribimaximal mixing all belong to the class of minimal modification. Some of the cases have interesting experimentally testable consequences. In particular, the T2K and MINOS collaborations have recently reported indications of a nonzero θ 13 . For the cases we consider, the new data sharply constrain the CP violating phase angle δ, with δ close to 0 (in some cases) and π disfavored.

  11. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  12. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  13. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-04-03

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS.

  14. MRI of discoid lateral meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yutaka; Ootani, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Tadatsuka; Tomoda, Kaname; Tsukaguchi, Isao; Mitomo, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the MR examinations of 10 patients (17 knees) with surgically documented discoid lateral meniscus of the knee joint. As MRI of the knee is being used more often, the criteria for diagnosis of this entity with MRI need to be established. We tried to define MRI criteria for the detection of discoid menisci by performing numerical measurements of MR images on a display screen. The transverse diameter of the midbody of a discoid lateral meniscus averaged 21.9 mm (normal control: 8.6 mm), and its proportion to the transverse width of the tibia averaged 29.4% (normal control: 12.0%). The measurable difference in height between the discoid and the medial meniscus was negligible. The number of sagittal sections on which the anterior and posterior horns connected varied from two to five in cases of discoid lateral meniscus, and from zero to two in normal controls. Among these parameters, the transverse diameter and its proportion of the transverse width of the tibia proved to be the most reliable. We concluded that a discoid meniscus is indicated if a transverse diameter of a lateral meniscus exceeds 15 mm (proportion to the tibia: 20%). (author)

  15. DNA modification by alkylating compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglyakova, E.E.

    1985-09-01

    Results are given for research on the physico-chemical properties of alkylating compounds - nitroso alkyl ureas (NAU) which possess a broad spectrum of biological activity, such as mutagenic, carcinogenic, and anti-tumor action that is due to the alkylation and carbamoylation of DNA as well as other cellular components. Identified chemical products of NAU interaction with DNA and its components are cited. Structural conversions of a DNA macromolecule resulting from its chemical modification are examined. NAU are used to discuss possible biological consequences of DNA modification. 148 references.

  16. Corrosion principles and surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter examines the important strategies provided by the newer ideas of corrosion science and engineering that surface modification techniques must utilize to help prevent corrosion, especially the most damaging kind of aqueous corrosion, localized corrosion. Provides a brief introduction to the principles underlying the phenomenon of corrosion in order to use them to discuss surface modification strategies to combat corrosion. Discusses the electrochemistry of corrosion; the thermodynamics of corrosion; the kinetics of corrosion; thermodynamic strategies; and kinetic strategies (formation of more protective passive films; resistance to breakdown; ductility; repassivation)

  17. Sensitivity profiles calculated with the UNISENS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, L.H.; Menezes, A.

    1985-01-01

    Sensitivity profiles of the multiplication factor and several central reaction ratios for benchmarks ZPR 6/7, ZPR 3/11, FLATTOP-25, GODIVA and BIG-TEN, are presented in grafic form. A possible utilization is showed throught some modification to the ENDF/B-IV data file proposed for version ENDF/B-V. (Author) [pt

  18. Dynamic Surface Control and Its Application to Lateral Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsob Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the design and analysis methodology of dynamic surface control (DSC in Song and Hedrick, 2011, for a more general class of nonlinear systems. When rotational mechanical systems such as lateral vehicle control and robot control are considered for applications, sinusoidal functions are easily included in the equation of motions. If such a sinusoidal function is used as a forcing term for DSC, the stability analysis faces the difficulty due to highly nonlinear functions resulting from the low-pass filter dynamics. With modification of input variables to the filter dynamics, the burden of mathematical analysis can be reduced and stability conditions in linear matrix inequality form to guarantee the quadratic stability via DSC are derived for the given class of nonlinear systems. Finally, the proposed design and analysis approach are applied to lateral vehicle control for forward automated driving and backward parallel parking at a low speed as well as an illustrative example.

  19. Ultrasound therapy applicators for controlled thermal modification of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Lichtenstiger, Carol; Rund, Laurie; Keralapura, Mallika; Gossett, Chad; Stahlhut, Randy; Neubauer, Paul; Komadina, Bruce; Williams, Emery; Alix, Chris; Jensen, Tor; Schook, Lawrence; Diederich, Chris J.

    2011-03-01

    frequencies can achieve temperatures and dose distributions which concentrate in a depth profile that coincides with the location of maximum structural collagen content in skin tissues. Using an appropriate transducer configuration produces coverage of significant lateral area, thus making this a practical approach for treatment of skin disorders.

  20. Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available the treatment with fluorinated or silicon compounds)1-4 and by enhancing the surface roughness with a fractal structure5-8. Cotton, a cellulose-based material, that is greatly hydrophilic, is more benefited when made hydrophobic. Modification of cotton...

  1. Caprine Butchery and Bone Modification Templates: A step towards standardisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Popkin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Widely accepted zooarchaeological procedure for recording butchery marks and other types of bone modification involves two processes: Drawing the bone showing the exact location and orientation of the modification and recording all of the information about the bone and its modification into an electronic database. No recording templates have ever been published, however, resulting in individual zooarchaeologists repeating the effort of developing their own templates or drawings for each bone in an assemblage showing a modification. Both of these tasks are time consuming and lead to inconsistencies in recording and quantification methods. To help alleviate this problem a series of caprine (sheep and goat bone templates have been created. These templates show every bone in a goat skeleton, apart from the skull, from six views at life-size when printed on A4 paper. They have intentionally been produced with a minimum of detail (without shading or stippling etc. so that the recorded butchery marks and bone modifications will be clearly visible. Because the skeletal morphology of sheep and goats is so similar these templates may be used interchangeably for either species. They may also be used for many other artiodactyl species such as cattle and deer as no scale has been indicated. The study of butchery marks and bone modification has the potential to provide zooarchaeologists with information about taphonomy, site formation processes, burial/ritual practices, human behaviour, ancient technologies and possibly ethnicity amongst other things, but only if the recording of these bone modifications is undertaken in a standardised fashion across the field. While much effort has been directed towards standardising the recognition and classification of various bone modifications, the recording of these modifications regularly occurs in various ways. Using standardised recording templates will save valuable time and help to alleviate problems of data

  2. Surface modification of polyethylene by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin O, E.

    2003-01-01

    The products made of polyethylene (PE) go from construction materials, electric insulating until packing material. The films for bags and pack occupy 83.6% of the distribution of the market of PE approximately. The enormous quantity of PE that is generated by its indiscriminate use brings as consequence a deterioration to the atmosphere, due to the long life that they present as waste. This work is a study on the modification of low density polyethylene films. In this type of thin materials, the changes in the surface meet with largely on the conformation of the rest of the material. To induce changes that modify the surface of PE, plasmas were used with reactive atmospheres of air, oxygen and nitrogen. The experimentation that was carries out went to introduce the PE to a cylindrical reactor where it was generated the plasma of air, oxygen and nitrogen to different times of exposure. After having carried out the exposure to the plasma, it was found that in the polyethylene it modifies their morphology, crystallinity, hydrophobicity, composition and electric conductivity. The analytical techniques that were used to characterize later to the polyethylene of being in contact with the plasma were: X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Infrared spectroscopy, Electric conductivity, Angle of contact and finally Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. The content of this work it is presented in five chapters: In the chapter 1 there are presented some general concepts of plasma and of the one polymer in study PE. In the chapter 2 it is made a general revision on modification of surfaces, as well as the properties that were modified in polymeric materials that were exposed to plasma in previous works. In the chapter 3 the experimental part and the conditions used are described in the modification of the PE. Also in this chapter a brief description it is made of the used characterization techniques. The results and discussion are presented in the chapter 4. These results

  3. Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests...... in the laboratory show ultimate resistances close to the estimated limits and p - y curves close to curves based on test results from full-scale piles. Rough and smooth piles with circular and square cross sections are investigated....

  4. RNomics and Modomics in the halophilic archaea Haloferax volcanii: identification of RNA modification genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decatur Wayne A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturally occurring RNAs contain numerous enzymatically altered nucleosides. Differences in RNA populations (RNomics and pattern of RNA modifications (Modomics depends on the organism analyzed and are two of the criteria that distinguish the three kingdoms of life. If the genomic sequences of the RNA molecules can be derived from whole genome sequence information, the modification profile cannot and requires or direct sequencing of the RNAs or predictive methods base on the presence or absence of the modifications genes. Results By employing a comparative genomics approach, we predicted almost all of the genes coding for the t+rRNA modification enzymes in the mesophilic moderate halophile Haloferax volcanii. These encode both guide RNAs and enzymes. Some are orthologous to previously identified genes in Archaea, Bacteria or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but several are original predictions. Conclusion The number of modifications in t+rRNAs in the halophilic archaeon is surprisingly low when compared with other Archaea or Bacteria, particularly the hyperthermophilic organisms. This may result from the specific lifestyle of halophiles that require high intracellular salt concentration for survival. This salt content could allow RNA to maintain its functional structural integrity with fewer modifications. We predict that the few modifications present must be particularly important for decoding, accuracy of translation or are modifications that cannot be functionally replaced by the electrostatic interactions provided by the surrounding salt-ions. This analysis also guides future experimental validation work aiming to complete the understanding of the function of RNA modifications in Archaeal translation.

  5. Professional assessment of facial profile attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Jen; Chew, Ming Tak; Wong, Hwee Bee

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the assessments of Chinese facial profile attractiveness by orthodontists and oral surgeons. The sample comprised 31 dental professionals (20 orthodontists, 11 oral surgeons) in an Asian community. Facial profile photographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 2 Chinese adults (1 man, 1 woman) with normal profiles, Class I incisor relationships, and Class I skeletal patterns were digitized. The digital images were modified by altering cephalometric skeletal and dental hard tissue Chinese normative values in increments of 2 standard deviations in the anteroposterior plane to obtain 7 facial profiles for each sex. The images were bimaxillary protrusion, protrusive mandible, retrusive mandible, normal profile (Class I incisor with Class I skeletal pattern), retrusive maxilla, protrusive maxilla, and bimaxillary retrusion. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine professional differences in assessment. Multiple regression analysis was performed with age, professional status, sex, and number of years in practice as independent variables. A strong correlation was found in the profile assessment between orthodontists and oral surgeons. Normal and bimaxillary retrusive Chinese male and female profiles were judged to be highly attractive by orthodontists and oral surgeons. Chinese male and female profiles with protrusive mandibles were judged the least attractive. There was a difference in professional opinion about the most attractive male profile (P profile and oral surgeons preferring a fuller normal Chinese profile. Sex of dental professionals and number of years in clinical practice were found to affect profile rankings.

  6. Laterally positioned flap-revised technique along with platelet rich fibrin in the management of Miller class II gingival recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmohan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession is a complex phenomenon that may present numerous therapeutic challenges to the clinician. The laterally positioned flap is commonly used to cover isolated, denuded roots that have adequate donor tissue laterally and vestibular depth. Various modifications in laterally sliding flap have been proposed in order to avoid the reported undesirable results on the donor teeth. Recently, use of growth factors has been proposed in combination with surgical techniques. This article highlights the use of laterally positioned pedicle flap-revised technique as a modification of laterally sliding flap technique along with autologous suspension of growth factors, platelet rich fibrin membrane (PRF for the management of localized Miller class-II gingival recession. After 6 months of follow-up, the clinical condition was stable with 80% root coverage and satisfactory gingival tissue healing at both donor and recipient site with no signs of inflammation. An excellent esthetical outcome was achieved and the patient was satisfied with case resolution.

  7. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks.

  8. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    An historical overview of the main advances in the understanding of bombardment-induced surface topography is presented. The implantation and sputtering mechanisms which are relevant to ion bombardment modification of surfaces and consequent structural, electronic and compositional changes are described. Descriptions of plasma and ion-beam sputtering-induced film formation, primary ion-beam deposition, dual beam techniques, cluster of molecule ion-beam deposition, and modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition are presented. A detailed account is given of the analytical and computational modelling of topography from the viewpoint of first erosion theory. Finally, an account of the possible application and/or importance of textured surfaces in technologies and/or experimental techniques not considered in previous chapters is presented. refs.; figs.; tabs

  9. Epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Judes, Gaelle; Pajon, Amaury; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique J

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in France. Apart from the genetic alterations in prostate cancer, epigenetics modifications are involved in the development and progression of this disease. Epigenetic events are the main cause in gene regulation and the three most epigenetic mechanisms studied include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression. In this review, we summarized epigenetic mechanisms in prostate cancer. Epigenetic drugs that inhibit DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation might be able to reactivate silenced gene expression in prostate cancer. However, further understanding of interactions of these enzymes and their effects on transcription regulation in prostate cancer is needed and has become a priority in biomedical research. In this study, we summed up epigenetic changes with emphasis on pharmacologic epigenetic target agents.

  10. Exploring oxidative modifications of tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houée-Lévin, C; Bobrowski, K; Horakova, L

    2015-01-01

    residues are oxidised in vivo with impact on cellular homeostasis and redox signalling pathways. A notable example is tyrosine, which can undergo a number of oxidative post-translational modifications to form 3-hydroxy-tyrosine, tyrosine crosslinks, 3-nitrotyrosine and halogenated tyrosine, with different...... effects on cellular functions. Tyrosine oxidation has been studied extensively in vitro, and this has generated detailed information about the molecular mechanisms that may occur in vivo. An important aspect of studying tyrosine oxidation both in vitro and in biological systems is the ability to monitor...... residues modified and the nature of the modification. These approaches have helped understanding of the consequences of tyrosine oxidation in biological systems, especially its effects on cell signalling and cell dysfunction, linking to roles in disease. There is mounting evidence that tyrosine oxidation...

  11. Diagnosis of laterality in the school environment

    OpenAIRE

    Šnajdrová, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis contains theoretical principals of expressions of the dominance of the brain hemispheres - laterality. It solves the development of laterality, its genotype and phenotype, levels, laterality types and species, refers to the educational consequences of the improper educational influence on genotype laterality and subsequent corrections. It also deals with the diagnosis of laterality, especially from a position of a teacher. The basic idea of this work is to support the nat...

  12. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70 degrees and 90 degrees)

  13. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  14. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    Ion bombardment-induced modification of surfaces may be considered one of the significant scientific and technological developments of the last two decades. The understanding acquired concerning the underlying mechanisms of several phenomena occurring during ion-surface interactions has led to applications within different modern technologies. These include microelectronics, surface acoustical and optical technologies, solar energy conversion, thin film technology, ion implantation metallurgy, nuclear track technology, thermonuclear fusion, vacuum technology, cold welding technology, biomedicine (implantology). It has become clear that information on many relevant advances, regarding ion bombardment modification of surfaces is dispersed among journals involving fields sometimes not clearly related. This may result, in some cases, in a loss of the type of interdisciplinary exchange of ideas, which has proved to be so fruitful for the advancement of science and technology. This book has been planned in an attempt to collect at least some of today's relevant information about the experimental and theoretical knowledge related to surface modification and its application to technology. (Auth.)

  15. Clinical neurogenetics: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Matthew B; Baloh, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease, is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways as targets for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS and provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical Neurogenetics: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Matthew B.; Baloh, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, about which our understanding is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways for target for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS, provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

  17. Inconscious, brain lateralization and parapsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have tried to show that it is impossible to study and understand the language of parapsychology without knowing the problem of 'conscious' and 'unconscious' process and issues of brain lateralization. We tried to clarify the different concepts of the notion of the unconscious and to classify all parapsychological phenomena that can be explored. But the real survey of human creativity and those of physical and cognitive abilities of the human mind which are not sufficiently explained today, can not be possible without the cooperation of psychological sciences, clinical psychology, psychopathology, biochemistry, linguistics and quantum physics.

  18. Exploring elements of fun to motivate youth to do cognitive bias modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boendermaker, W.J.; Boffo, M.; Wiers, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Heavy drinking among young adults poses severe health risks, including development of later addiction problems. Cognitive retraining of automatic appetitive processes related to alcohol (so-called cognitive bias modification [CBM]) may help to prevent escalation of use. Although effective

  19. Histone modifications: Cycling with chromosomal replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thon, Genevieve

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications tend to be lost during chromosome duplication. Several recent studies suggest that the RNA interference pathway becomes active during the weakened transcriptional repression occurring at centromeres in S phase, resulting in the re-establishment of histone modifications...

  20. Epicondilite lateral do cotovelo Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A epicondilite lateral, também conhecida como cotovelo do tenista, é uma condição comum que acomete de 1 a 3% da população. O termo epicondilite sugere inflamação, embora a análise histológica tecidual não demonstre um processo inflamatório. A estrutura acometida com mais frequência é a origem do tendão extensor radial curto do carpo e o mecanismo de lesão está associado à sua sobrecarga. O tratamento incruento é o de escolha e inclui: repouso, fisioterapia, infiltração com cortisona ou plasma rico em plaquetas e a utilização de imobilização específica. O tratamento cirúrgico é recomendado quando persistem impotência funcional e dor. Tanto a técnica cirúrgica aberta quanto a artroscópica com ressecção da área tendinosa degenerada apresenta bons resultados na literatura.Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  1. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF DWARF GALAXIES. I. PROFILES AND STATISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Hunter, Deidre A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2013-01-01

    Radial surface brightness profiles of spiral galaxies are classified into three types: (I) single exponential, or the light falls off with one exponential to a break before falling off (II) more steeply, or (III) less steeply. Profile breaks are also found in dwarf disks, but some dwarf Type IIs are flat or increasing out to a break before falling off. Here we re-examine the stellar disk profiles of 141 dwarfs: 96 dwarf irregulars (dIms), 26 Blue Compact Dwarfs (BCDs), and 19 Magellanic-type spirals (Sms). We fit single, double, or even triple exponential profiles in up to 11 passbands: GALEX FUV and NUV, ground-based UBVJHK and Hα, and Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm. We find that more luminous galaxies have brighter centers, larger inner and outer scale lengths, and breaks at larger radii; dwarf trends with M B extend to spirals. However, the V-band break surface brightness is independent of break type, M B , and Hubble type. Dwarf Type II and III profiles fall off similarly beyond the breaks but have different interiors and IIs break ∼twice as far as IIIs. Outer Type II and III scale lengths may have weak trends with wavelength, but pure Type II inner scale lengths clearly decrease from the FUV to visible bands whereas Type III inner scale lengths increase with redder bands. This suggests the influence of different star formation histories on profile type, but nonetheless the break location is approximately the same in all passbands. Dwarfs continue trends between profile and Hubble types such that later-type galaxies have more Type II but fewer Type I and III profiles than early-type spirals. BCDs and Sms are over-represented as Types III and II, respectively, compared to dIms

  2. Modification of membrane sulfhydryl groups in bacteriostatic action of nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchman, G.W. III; Hansen, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism by which nitrite inhibits outgrowing spores of bacillus cereus T was examined by using techniques developed earlier for nitrite analogs. The morphological stage of inhibition, cooperativity effects, effect of pH on inhibition, kinetics of protection against tritiated iodoacetate incorporation into membrane sulfhydryl groups, and protection against the bacteriocidal effect of carboxymethylation of iodoacetate indicate that nitrite acts as a membrane-directed sulfhydryl agent. The mechanism by which nitrite modifies the chemical reactivity of the sulfhyrdyl group could be either direct covalent modification or inactivation through communication with another modified membrane component. Profiles of pH effects suggest that the active agent is the protonated form of nitrite. The nitrite concentrations which modify membrane sulfhydryl activity coincide with those which have a bacteriostatic effect. These results are consistent with membrane sulfhydryl modification as a component of the mechanism of nitrite-induced bacteriostasis in this aerobic sporeformer

  3. BIOCHAR MODIFICATION, THERMAL STABILITY AND TOXICITY OF PRODUCTS MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana FRIEDRICHOVÁ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is a product obtained from processing of waste biomass. The main application of biochar is in soil and environment remediation. Some new applications of this carbonaceous material take advantage of its adsorption capacity use it as a heterogeneous catalyst for energy storage and conversion etc. This contribution describes thermal stability of the original biochar. It discusses biochar modified by chemical and physical methods including a new compound of biochar-graphene oxide. The purpose of the modifications is to increase its active surface to introduce active functional groups into the carbon structure of biochar in relation to fire safety and toxicity of those products.

  4. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  5. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2013-01-01

    The societal norms of ageing and old age are changing in society today, due to demographic changes that favour a pedagogicalization of society, focusing on the management of human resources throughout the entire lifespan. The discourse on active ageing mot only reveals ‘better’ ways of ageing...... discourses on ‘active ageing’ are challenged by the focus of museums and archives on using heritage and participatory arts as an arena to performAGE in later life by craving creativity as a notion of age and opportunity....... but it also raises questions as to what constitutes a ‘good’ and ‘active’ life in all societies. The conflicting aspect of the discursive battlefield on active ageing constitutes a fight for authority: Who has the ‘right’ to define the meaning of being ‘active’ and how can ‘activity’ be identified? ‘Active...

  6. Relativism in Feyerabend's later writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism. In the last six years of his life, Feyerabend often criticizes a peculiar radical form of relativism that arguably no-one has ever proposed or defended. In the same context, Feyerabend sketches an "ontological" form of relativism. It combines "Kantian humility", metaphysical pluralism and constructivism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Epigenetic modifications and diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marpadga A. Reddy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major complication associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Conventional therapeutic strategies are not fully efficacious in the treatment of DN, suggesting an incomplete understanding of the gene regulation mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Furthermore, evidence from clinical trials has demonstrated a “metabolic memory” of prior exposure to hyperglycemia that continues to persist despite subsequent glycemic control. This remains a major challenge in the treatment of DN and other vascular complications. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, nucleosomal histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs control gene expression through regulation of chromatin structure and function and post-transcriptional mechanisms without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Emerging evidence indicates that multiple factors involved in the etiology of diabetes can alter epigenetic mechanisms and regulate the susceptibility to diabetes complications. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of histone lysine methylation in the regulation of key fibrotic and inflammatory genes related to diabetes complications including DN. Interestingly, histone lysine methylation persisted in vascular cells even after withdrawal from the diabetic milieu, demonstrating a potential role of epigenetic modifications in metabolic memory. Rapid advances in high-throughput technologies in the fields of genomics and epigenomics can lead to the identification of genome-wide alterations in key epigenetic modifications in vascular and renal cells in diabetes. Altogether, these findings can lead to the identification of potential predictive biomarkers and development of novel epigenetic therapies for diabetes and its associated complications.

  8. Modification Propagation in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouronte, Mary Luz; Vargas, María Luisa; Moyano, Luis Gregorio; Algarra, Francisco Javier García; Del Pozo, Luis Salvador

    To keep up with rapidly changing conditions, business systems and their associated networks are growing increasingly intricate as never before. By doing this, network management and operation costs not only rise, but are difficult even to measure. This fact must be regarded as a major constraint to system optimization initiatives, as well as a setback to derived economic benefits. In this work we introduce a simple model in order to estimate the relative cost associated to modification propagation in complex architectures. Our model can be used to anticipate costs caused by network evolution, as well as for planning and evaluating future architecture development while providing benefit optimization.

  9. Surface modification of yttria stabilized zirconia by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of investigations of surface modification by ion implantation in zirconia are described. As dopant material, iron was investigated thoroughly. The depth distribution of implanted ions depends on implantation parameters and the dopant-matrix system. The investigations of thermal stability of some implanted iron profiles by RBS and AES are described. Special interest lies in the thermal stability under working conditions of the zirconia material (400-1000 0 C). Radiation damage introduced in the implanted layer was investigated using transmission electron microscopy on polycrystalline material and channeling experiments on a single crystal implanted with iron. 179 refs.; 87 figs.; 20 tabs

  10. Modulation of Membrane Protein Lateral Mobility by Polyphosphates and Polyamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Melvin; Koppel, Dennis E.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    1980-03-01

    The lateral mobility of fluorescein-labeled membrane glycoproteins was measured in whole unlysed erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts by the technique of ``fluorescence redistribution after fusion.'' Measurements were made on polyethylene glycol-fused cell pairs in which only one member of the couplet was initially fluorescently labeled. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from the rate of fluorescence redistribution determined from successive scans with a focused laser beam across individual fused pairs. This technique allows for the analysis of diffusion within cell membranes without the possible damaging photochemical events caused by photobleaching. It was found that lateral mobility of erythrocyte proteins can be increased by the addition of polyphosphates (i.e., ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) and decreased by the addition of organic polyamines (i.e., neomycin and spermine). This control is exerted by these molecules only when they contact the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and is not dependent upon high-energy phosphates. Microviscosity experiments employing diphenylhexatriene demonstrated no changes in membrane lipid state as a function of these reagents. Our results, in conjunction with data on the physical interactions of cytoskeletal proteins, suggest that the diffusion effector molecules alter the lateral mobility of erythrocyte membrane proteins through modifications of interactions in the shell, which is composed of spectrin, actin, and component 4.1.

  11. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  12. Lateralization of visual learning in the honeybee

    OpenAIRE

    Letzkus, Pinar; Boeddeker, Norbert; Wood, Jeff T; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2007-01-01

    Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate lateralization of another sensory modality, vision. By training honeybees on a modified version of a visual proboscis extension reflex ta...

  13. Laser surface modification of PEEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveiro, A., E-mail: ariveiro@uvigo.es [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo ETSII, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Centro Universitario de la Defensa, Escuela Naval Militar, Plaza de Espana 2, 36920 Marin (Spain); Soto, R.; Comesana, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Val, J. del; Quintero, F.; Lusquinos, F.; Pou, J. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo ETSII, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface modification of PEEK (polyether-ether-ketone) was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adequate processing conditions to improve wettability, roughness, and cell adhesion characteristics are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A design of experiments (DOE) methodology was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV (355 nm) radiation is the most promising laser radiation for improving the adhesive surface properties of PEEK. - Abstract: Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is a synthetic thermoplastic polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties, which make it attractive for the field of reconstructive surgery. Nevertheless, this material has a poor interfacial biocompatibility due to its large chemical stability which induces poor adhesive bonding properties. The possibilities of enhancing the PEEK adhesive properties by laser treatments have been explored in the past. This paper presents a systematic approach to discern the role of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface modification of PEEK under three laser wavelengths ({lambda} = 1064, 532, and 355 nm) with the aim to determine the most adequate processing conditions to increase the roughness and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants. Overall results show that the ultraviolet ({lambda} = 355 nm) laser radiation is the most suitable one to enhance surface wettability of PEEK.

  14. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  15. Modification of the colony tower for the Rio Blanco detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.; Freeman, S.A.; Honda, K.K.; Lee, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    Supplemental structural bracing was designed and installed for the 180-ft-tall Colony Tower, an experimental oil shale processing retort structure, in anticipation of its lateral response to the Rio Blanco detonation. The tower is a steel structure with both horizontal and vertical diagonal bracing. Data obtained from the earlier Project Rulison detonation indicated that an evaluation study was necessary. Design criteria that would provide an adequate margin of safety were developed based on predicted Rio Blanco ground motion. The evaluation of the unmodified structure showed that several bracing members would be subjected to forces exceeding their yield strength, and some would reach a level at which failure could occur. Further analyses were made with assumed modified bracing members. A final scheme for modified vertical bracing was established and installed. After modification, the response of the tower during the Rio Blanco detonation was measured by instruments on the ground and at various locations on the tower, and no evidence of damage was discovered. The modification of the Colony Tower and the procedures used to determine these modifications show the usefulness of current ground motion and structural response prediction technology for forecasting dynamic behavior of important structures subjected to ground motion from underground nuclear explosions. (auth)

  16. Parachute and lateral propping reactions in preterm children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlweiler Lygia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A non-controlled, prognostic cohort study was performed with the aim of establishing markers of neurological development and defining a clinical and epidemiological profile of preterm newborns at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of gestation-corrected age in terms of parachute and lateral propping reactions. Newborns with gestational age of up to 36 weeks and 6 days, weighing 2,000 g or less at birth, were included in the study At 6 months of age, parachute and lateral propping reactions were present in 8.1% of the patients. At 9 months, the parachute reaction was present in 87.5%, and the lateral propping reaction was present in 90% of the children. It was possible to assess parachute and lateral propping reactions in preterm children in the first year of life. Alterations in trunk-limb coordination may be evidenced in the 1st year of life through postural reactions, which are maintained as prematurity markers until school age.

  17. The RIASEC Profile of Foreign Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    Vocational choice appears to crystallize during adolescence and one's career aspirations begin to take shape later. Over 40 years ago Holland studied incoming freshman to match vocational aspirations to vocational preference profiles. Individuals seeking to become foreign language teachers were assigned a Social, Artistic, Enterprising vocational…

  18. LATER RETIREMENT? PATTERNS, PREFERENCES, POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  19. Lateral type of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Gotoh, Yasunobu; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Niijima, Kyo; Handa, Hajime.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracerebral hemorrhages (lateral type) was studied. The strength of the magnetic field was 0.2 Tesla. Four cases were studied with inversion recovery (IR) and saturation recovery (SR) images. The findings of the acute stage (within 1 week) were a central isointensity and a peripheral low intensity on the IR image. On the SR image we recognized a central isointensity and a peripheral high intensity holding a faintly high intensity area around the hematoma. The findings of the subacute stage (from 1 to 3 weeks) were characterized by a central isointensity and a peripheral high-intensity ring, with a low-intensity area outside the hematoma on the IR image. A widespread high-intensity area including the hematoma itself and the surrounding white matter was observed on the SR image. The findings of the chronic stage (over 3 weeks) were the disapperance of a high-intensity ring and a change to a low-intensity area on the IR image. The hematoma itself and surrounding white matter had a high intensity, which has decreased in size in comparison with that of the subacute stage. The hypointensity rim was found in the immediately adjacent part of the original hematoma on the SR image. The MRI of a small hematoma 70 days from the onset showed an almost normal brain structure. Some magnetic resonance findings of intracerebral hemorrhage were reviewed. (author)

  20. Fractal Analysis of Rock Joint Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    Surface reliefs of rock joints are analyzed in geotechnics when shear strength of rocky slopes is estimated. The rock joint profiles actually are self-affine fractal curves and computations of their fractal dimensions require special methods. Many papers devoted to the fractal properties of these profiles were published in the past but only a few of those papers employed a convenient computational method that would have guaranteed a sound value of that dimension. As a consequence, anomalously low dimensions were presented. This contribution deals with two computational modifications that lead to sound fractal dimensions of the self-affine rock joint profiles. These are the modified box-counting method and the modified yard-stick method sometimes called the compass method. Both these methods are frequently applied to self-similar fractal curves but the self-affine profile curves due to their self-affine nature require modified computational procedures implemented in computer programs.

  1. The cortical signature of symptom laterality in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD often present with unilateral motor symptoms that eventually spread to the other side. This symptom lateralization is diagnostically important, as it serves to distinguish PD from other motor disorders with overlapping symptom profiles. Further, recent studies have shown that the side of symptom onset is important for prognosis, as there are differences in the rate of disease progression and the incidence of secondary symptoms between right- and left-dominant (RD, LD patients. Physiologically, previous studies have shown asymmetrical decline in structure and metabolism throughout the basal ganglia, although connecting this directly to motor function has been difficult. To identify the neurophysiological basis of symptom laterality in PD, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG during left- and right-hand movement paradigms in patients with PD who exhibited either RD or LD symptomatology. The beta oscillations serving these movements were then imaged using beamforming methods, and we extracted the time series of the peak voxel in the left and right primary motor cortices for each movement. In addition, each patient's symptom asymmetry was quantitated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, which allowed the relationship between symptom asymmetry and neural asymmetry to be assessed. We found that LD patients had stronger beta suppression during movement, as well as greater post-movement beta rebound compared to patients with RD symptoms, independent of the hand that was moved. Interestingly, the asymmetry of beta activity during right-hand movement uniquely correlated with symptom asymmetry, such that the more LD the symptom profile, the more left-lateralized (i.e., contralateral to movement the beta response; conversely, the more RD the symptom profile, the more right-lateralized (i.e., ipsilateral to movement the beta response. This study is the first to directly probe the relationship

  2. Surface Modification for Microreactor Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladyslaw Torbicz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, methods of surface modification of different supports, i.e. glass andpolymeric beads for enzyme immobilisation are described. The developed method ofenzyme immobilisation is based on Schiff’s base formation between the amino groups onthe enzyme surface and the aldehyde groups on the chemically modified surface of thesupports. The surface of silicon modified by APTS and GOPS with immobilised enzymewas characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM, time-of-flight secondary ion massspectroscopy (ToF-SIMS and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The supports withimmobilised enzyme (urease were also tested in combination with microreactors fabricatedin silicon and Perspex, operating in a flow-through system. For microreactors filled withurease immobilised on glass beads (Sigma and on polymeric beads (PAN, a very high andstable signal (pH change was obtained. The developed method of urease immobilisationcan be stated to be very effective.

  3. Ion beam modification of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofield, C.J.; Sugden, S.; Ing, J.; Bridwell, L.B.; Wang, Y.Q.

    1993-01-01

    The implantation of polymers has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily to examine doping of conducting polymers and to increase the surface conductivity (by many orders of magnitude) of highly insulating polymers. The interest in these studies was partly motivated by possible applications to microelectronic device fabrication. More recently it has been observed that ion implantation can under some conditions lead to the formation of a hard (e.g. as hard as steel, ca. 3 MPa) and conducting surface layer. This paper will review the ion beam modification of polymers resulting from ion implantation with reference to fundamental ion-solid interactions. This leads us to examine whether or not implantation of polymers is a contradiction in terms. (Author)

  4. Soy protein modification: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy protein products such as flour, concentrates and isolates are used in food formulation because of their functionality, nutritional value and low cost. To obtain their optimal nutritive and functional properties as well as desirable flavor different treatments are used. Soybean proteins can be modified by physical, chemical and enzymatic treatments. Different thermal treatments are most commonly used, while the most appropriate way of modifying soy proteins from the standpoint of safety is their limited proteolysis. These treatments cause physical and chemical changes that affect their functional properties. This review discusses three principal methods used for modification of soy protein products, their effects on dominant soy protein properties and some biologically active compounds.

  5. Fabrication and Modification of Nanoporous Silicon Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mauro; Liu, Xuewu

    2010-01-01

    Silicon-based nanoporous particles as biodegradable drug carriers are advantageous in permeation, controlled release, and targeting. The use of biodegradable nanoporous silicon and silicon dioxide, with proper surface treatments, allows sustained drug release within the target site over a period of days, or even weeks, due to selective surface coating. A variety of surface treatment protocols are available for silicon-based particles to be stabilized, functionalized, or modified as required. Coated polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains showed the effective depression of both plasma protein adsorption and cell attachment to the modified surfaces, as well as the advantage of long circulating. Porous silicon particles are micromachined by lithography. Compared to the synthesis route of the nanomaterials, the advantages include: (1) the capability to make different shapes, not only spherical particles but also square, rectangular, or ellipse cross sections, etc.; (2) the capability for very precise dimension control; (3) the capacity for porosity and pore profile control; and (4) allowance of complex surface modification. The particle patterns as small as 60 nm can be fabricated using the state-of-the-art photolithography. The pores in silicon can be fabricated by exposing the silicon in an HF/ethanol solution and then subjecting the pores to an electrical current. The size and shape of the pores inside silicon can be adjusted by the doping of the silicon, electrical current application, the composition of the electrolyte solution, and etching time. The surface of the silicon particles can be modified by many means to provide targeted delivery and on-site permanence for extended release. Multiple active agents can be co-loaded into the particles. Because the surface modification of particles can be done on wafers before the mechanical release, asymmetrical surface modification is feasible. Starting from silicon wafers, a treatment, such as KOH dipping or reactive ion

  6. Isotope-beam modification of materials at eV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, C.; Radtke, C.; Stedile, F.C.; Baumvol, I.J.R.

    2001-01-01

    We developed a low energy ion beam deposition system for isotope-selective modification of materials. It consists of a conventional ion implanter (HVEE 500 kV) and an attachable deceleration system. 29 (N 2 ) + ion beams were used for the nitridation of Si(0 0 1) and the resulting 15 N retained doses and profiles were determined by narrow nuclear resonance profiling. 29 Si was deposited on amorphous carbon films on Si(0 0 1) and the doses evaluated by channeled α particle beams with detection of scattered α at grazing angles. 29 Si was also deposited on Si(0 0 1) and the resulting profiles determined by narrow nuclear resonance

  7. Lateral Tension-Induced Penetration of Particles into a Liposome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Shigyou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important that we understand the mechanism of the penetration of particles into a living cell to achieve advances in bionanotechnology, such as for treatment, visualization within a cell, and genetic modification. Although there have been many studies on the application of functional particles to cells, the basic mechanism of penetration across a biological membrane is still poorly understood. Here we used a model membrane system to demonstrate that lateral membrane tension drives particle penetration across a lipid bilayer. After the application of osmotic pressure, fully wrapped particles on a liposome surface were found to enter the liposome. We discuss the mechanism of the tension-induced penetration in terms of narrow constriction of the membrane at the neck part. The present findings are expected to provide insight into the application of particles to biological systems.

  8. Chimira: analysis of small RNA sequencing data and microRNA modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitsios, Dimitrios M; Enright, Anton J

    2015-10-15

    Chimira is a web-based system for microRNA (miRNA) analysis from small RNA-Seq data. Sequences are automatically cleaned, trimmed, size selected and mapped directly to miRNA hairpin sequences. This generates count-based miRNA expression data for subsequent statistical analysis. Moreover, it is capable of identifying epi-transcriptomic modifications in the input sequences. Supported modification types include multiple types of 3'-modifications (e.g. uridylation, adenylation), 5'-modifications and also internal modifications or variation (ADAR editing or single nucleotide polymorphisms). Besides cleaning and mapping of input sequences to miRNAs, Chimira provides a simple and intuitive set of tools for the analysis and interpretation of the results (see also Supplementary Material). These allow the visual study of the differential expression between two specific samples or sets of samples, the identification of the most highly expressed miRNAs within sample pairs (or sets of samples) and also the projection of the modification profile for specific miRNAs across all samples. Other tools have already been published in the past for various types of small RNA-Seq analysis, such as UEA workbench, seqBuster, MAGI, OASIS and CAP-miRSeq, CPSS for modifications identification. A comprehensive comparison of Chimira with each of these tools is provided in the Supplementary Material. Chimira outperforms all of these tools in total execution speed and aims to facilitate simple, fast and reliable analysis of small RNA-Seq data allowing also, for the first time, identification of global microRNA modification profiles in a simple intuitive interface. Chimira has been developed as a web application and it is accessible here: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/research/enright/software/chimira. aje@ebi.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. TWO MODIFICATIONS OF SCALERS FOR RATE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, T. S.; Gordon, B. E.

    1964-04-15

    Two simple modifications to nuclear scalers have been developed. The first involves an automatic stepping switch which permits a single scaler to be actuated by up to four Geiger counters in sequence and to record the time to reach a preset count for each. The second modification is designed to pick a pulse off a conventional scaler when a preset count has been reached and to use the pulse to actuate a recorder. Both modifications considerably extend the utility of conventional scalers.

  10. Modification of metallic corrosion by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    This review will consider some of the properties of surface alloys, formed by ion implantation, which are effective in modifying corrosion behaviour. Examples will be given of the modification of the corrosion behaviour of pure metals, steels and other engineering alloys, resulting from implantation with metals and metalloids. Emphasis will be given to the modification of anodic processes produced by ion implantation since a review will be given elsewhere in the proceedings concerning the modification of cathodic processes. (orig.)

  11. Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Matthias; Jensen, Ole N

    2003-01-01

    Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of most eukaryote proteins. Analysis of these modifications presents formidable challenges but their determination generates indispensable insight into biological function. Strategies developed to characterize individual proteins are now...... systematically applied to protein populations. The combination of function- or structure-based purification of modified 'subproteomes', such as phosphorylated proteins or modified membrane proteins, with mass spectrometry is proving particularly successful. To map modification sites in molecular detail, novel...

  12. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicka, Kamila; Siemion, Przemysław; Kurcok, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation ...

  13. The Later Wittgenstein and the Later Husserl on Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ricoeur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an edited version of lectures given by Paul Ricœur at Johns Hopkins University in April 1966. Ricœur offers a comparative analysis of Wittgenstein’s and Husserl’s late works, taking the problem of language as the common ground of investigation for these two central figures of phenomenology and analytic philosophy. Ricœur develops his study in two parts. The first part considers Husserl’s approach to language after the Logical Investigations and concentrates on Formal and Transcendental Logic; leaving a transcendental reflection on language behind it re-examines a phenomenological conception, according to which the sphere of logic is not separable from that of experience. The main focus of the second part is Wittgenstein’s later philosophy as it moved on from the conception of an isomorphic relation between language and the world, as set out in the picture theory in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, to the more pragmatic notion of a language-game in the Philosophical Investigations. In order to get beyond the irrevocable differences between the two philosophies and the unresolved theoretical issues on both sides, Ricœur suggests turning to a semiological paradigm based on the Saussurean distinction between “language” and “speaking.” Keywords: Analytic Philosophy, Husserl, Phenomenology, Semiology, Wittgenstein.Résumé Cet article est une version éditée de conférences données par Paul Ricœur à la Johns Hopkins University en avril 1966. Ricœur propose une analyse comparée des dernières œuvres de Wittgenstein et Husserl, avec le problème du langage comme sol commun d’investigations pour ces deux figures centrales de la phénoménologie et la philosophie analytique. Cette analyse de Ricœur se joue à travers deux parties. La première partie revient sur l'approche du langage chez Husserl depuis Recherches logiques avec une attention particulière aux développements de Logique formelle et

  14. Chemical profiling of gaharu oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Mohd Fajri Osman; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abd Wahab; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Shaiful Azuar Mohamad

    2006-01-01

    Gaharu oil from Aquilaria agallocha and Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk has been reported to contain different phytochemicals components (Ishihara et al., 1993). There are also differences reported by gaharu oil suppliers. The differences suggested they originate from varied of sources of gaharu wood, oleoresin maturity and extraction technology employed. In this study, gaharu oil purchased from different sources were initially analysed and later cross-examined against chemical components of oil extracted from wood sources systematically graded. The gaharu oil components obtained from this work will be presented and discussed. Initiative to profile oil provides impetus to database development and standardisation of gaharu oil. (Author)

  15. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lewicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation are discussed. Properties of microwave radiation and its impact on starch (with particular regard to modifications described in literature are characterized.

  16. Lateral and medial epicondylitis: role of occupational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2011-02-01

    Epicondylitis is a common upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorder. It is most common at the age of 40-60 years. Epicondylitis seems to affect women more frequently than men. Diagnosis of epicondylitis is clinical and based on symptoms and findings of physical examination. The prevalence of lateral epicondylitis in the general populations is approximately 1.0-1.3% in men and 1.1-4.0% in women and that of medial epicondylitis is nearly 0.3-0.6% in men and 0.3-1.1% in women. The incidence rate of medical consultations has been estimated at 0.3-1.1 for lateral and 0.1 for medial epicondylitis per year per 100 subjects of general practice populations. Of occupational risk factors, forceful activities, high force combined with high repetition or awkward posture and awkward postures are associated with epicondylitis. The number of studies is limited to work-related psychosocial factors and the effects are not as consistent as those of physical load factors. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections and acupuncture provide short-term beneficial effects. Workload modification should be considered, especially in manually strenuous jobs. According to clinical case series, surgical treatment has shown fair to good results; however, the efficacy of surgical treatment has not been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Poorer prognosis of epicondylitis has been reported for individuals with high level of physical strain at work, non-neutral wrist postures during work activity and for those with the condition on the dominant elbow. Modification of physical factors could reduce the risk or improve the prognosis of epicondylitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  18. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Vickers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how

  19. CT recognition of lateral lumbar disk herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.; Thornton, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Although computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be useful in diagnosing posterolateral and central lumbar disk herniations, its effectiveness in demonstrating lateral herniated disks has not been emphasized. The myelographic recognition of those herniations may be difficult because root sheaths or dural sacs may not be deformed. A total of 274 CT scans interpreted as showing lumbar disk herniation was reviewed. Fourteen (5%) showed a lateral disk herniation. The CT features of a lateral herniated disk included: (1) focal protrusion of the disk margin within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen: (2) displacement of epidural fat within the intervertebral foramen; (3) absence of dural sac deformity; and (4) soft-tissue mass within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen. Because it can image the disk margin and free disk fragments irrespective of dural sac or root sheath deformity, CT may be more effective than myelography for demonstrating the presence and extent of lateral disk herniation

  20. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked de...

  1. Lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichsel, H.; Hanson, K.M.; Schillaci, K.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1982-07-01

    Values have been calculated for the average lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering of protons with energies of several hundred MeV. The calculations incorporate the Moliere distribution which does not make the gaussian approximations of the distribution in projected angle and lateral deflections. Compared to other published data, such approximations can lead to errors in the lateral displacement of up to 10% in water.

  2. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American Profile: Asian Americans Asian American Profile (Map of the US with the top 10 states displaying the largest Asian American population according to the Census Bureau) CA - ...

  3. Inferior hilar window on lateral chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.K.; Webb, W.R.; Klein, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the accuracy of lateral chest radiography in the detection of masses in the inferior hilar window, a normally avascular hilar region anterior to the lower lobe bronchi. Fifty patients with normal thoracic CT scans and 25 with hilar masses/adenopathy were selected retrospectively. The 75 corresponding lateral chest radiographs were blindly evaluated for visibility of the anterior walls of the lower lobe bronchi and the presence and laterality of abnormal soft tissue (>1 cm) in the inferior hilar window. Only a 7 x 7-cm square of the lateral radiograph was viewed

  4. Laterality of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Daigo; Ikeuchi, Kazuma; Kojima, Toshihisa; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Amano, Takafumi; Tsuboi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu

    2017-05-01

    There are few reports of the laterality in radiological knee osteoarthritis (ROA). This study aimed to evaluate laterality in terms of the minimum joint space width (mJSW) and osteophyte areas (OFs) in a cross-sectorial general population screen and elucidate the association between laterality and risk of osteoarthritis. We enrolled 330 participants (mean age 64.6 years) and examined the presence of ROA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≧ 2) laterality in terms of the mJSW and OF on the medial tibia using auto-measuring software. Moreover, we examined the association between laterality and leg dominance. The right and left medial mJSWs were 4.02 ± 0.98 mm and 4.05 ± 1.01 mm, respectively, showing no laterality; the laterals were also similar. The participants who had osteophytes ≥1 mm 2 in the right, left, and bilateral knees were 15, 37, and 57 respectively, with osteophytes being significantly more common in the left knee. The OF was significantly larger in the left knee. Conversely, the medial and lateral mJSWs and OF did not differ according to leg dominance. The prevalence of ROA was higher and the OF was more pronounced in the left knee. However, the mJSW showed no laterality. Additionally, the mJSW and OF showed no differences according to leg dominance.

  5. Vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization using active suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobný V.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.

  6. Simplified analysis of laterally loaded pile groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Abdrabbo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of laterally loaded pile groups is a complicated soil–structure interaction problem. Although fairly reliable methods are developed to predicate the lateral behavior of single piles, the lateral response of pile groups has attracted less attention due to the required high cost and complication implication. This study presents a simplified method to analyze laterally loaded pile groups. The proposed method implements p-multiplier factors in combination with the horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction. Shadowing effects in closely spaced piles in a group were taken into consideration. It is proven that laterally loaded piles embedded in sand can be analyzed within the working load range assuming a linear relationship between lateral load and lateral displacement. The proposed method estimates the distribution of lateral loads among piles in a pile group and predicts the safe design lateral load of a pile group. The benefit of the proposed method is in its simplicity for the preliminary design stage with a little computational effort.

  7. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsson, Einar Thor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  8. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  9. Lateralization of visual learning in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzkus, Pinar; Boeddeker, Norbert; Wood, Jeff T; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2008-02-23

    Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate lateralization of another sensory modality, vision. By training honeybees on a modified version of a visual proboscis extension reflex task, we find that bees learn a colour stimulus better with their right eye.

  10. Infections associated with body modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Sai-Yin Wong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus, and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures.

  11. Quality planning for major plant design modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulee, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the approach and activities undertaken by Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE and G's) nuclear quality assurance (QA) department to support major plant design modifications conducted during refueling outages at Salem Generating Station. It includes the planning and implementation of quality plans developed to provide both QA and quality control (QC) coverage of modification performed by contracted service organizations

  12. Modification of the perturbative QCD towards confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodz, H.

    1981-01-01

    Modification of the low momentum behaviour of the perturbative SU(2) gauge theory is proposed. The modification is closely related (although not equivalent) to a nonstandard choice of boundary condition for the Euclidean 2-point gluonic Green function. In the resulting theory already single graphs lead to the confining potential between heavy, static quarks, V(r) = ar 2 for r → infinity. (author)

  13. 75 FR 41529 - Petitions for Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... application of existing mandatory safety standards published in Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of petitions for modification of existing...

  14. 75 FR 29784 - Petitions for Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... application of existing mandatory safety standards published in Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of petitions for modification of existing...

  15. 75 FR 34486 - Petitions for Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... application of existing mandatory safety standards published in Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of petitions for modification of existing...

  16. Drug delivery from hydrophobic-modified mesoporous silicas: Control via modification level and site-selective modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Qunli; Chen Yuxi; Chen Jianghua; Li Jin; Xu Yao; Wu Dong; Sun Yuhan

    2010-01-01

    Dimethylsilyl (DMS) modified mesoporous silicas were successfully prepared via co-condensation and post-grafting modification methods. The post-grafting modification was carried out by the reaction of the as-synthesized MCM-41 material (before CTAB removal) with diethoxydimethylsinale (DEDMS). N 2 adsorption-desorption and 29 Si MAS NMR characterization demonstrated that different amount of DMS groups were successfully incorporated into the co-condensation modified samples, and the functional DMS groups were placed selectively on the pore openings and external pore surfaces in the post-grafting modified samples. Subsequently, the controlled drug delivery properties from the resulting DMS-modified mesoporous silicas were investigated in detail. The drug adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption capacities were mainly depended on the content of silanol group (CSG) in the corresponding carriers. The in vitro tests exhibited that the incorporation of DMS groups greatly retarded the ibuprofen release rate. Moreover, the ibuprofen release profiles could be well modulated by varying DMS modification levels and site-selective distribution of functional groups in mesoporous carriers. - The distribution of DMS groups on the pore surfaces of the mesostructures strongly affects the drug release rate. The P-M41-1 and the P-M41-2 possess the close DMS modification levels as the C-M41-10, but the ibuprofen release rates from the P-M41-1 and P-M41-2 are much slower than that from the C-M41-10.

  17. Comparative transcriptional profiling of the axolotl limb identifies a tripartite regeneration-specific gene program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Knapp

    Full Text Available Understanding how the limb blastema is established after the initial wound healing response is an important aspect of regeneration research. Here we performed parallel expression profile time courses of healing lateral wounds versus amputated limbs in axolotl. This comparison between wound healing and regeneration allowed us to identify amputation-specific genes. By clustering the expression profiles of these samples, we could detect three distinguishable phases of gene expression - early wound healing followed by a transition-phase leading to establishment of the limb development program, which correspond to the three phases of limb regeneration that had been defined by morphological criteria. By focusing on the transition-phase, we identified 93 strictly amputation-associated genes many of which are implicated in oxidative-stress response, chromatin modification, epithelial development or limb development. We further classified the genes based on whether they were or were not significantly expressed in the developing limb bud. The specific localization of 53 selected candidates within the blastema was investigated by in situ hybridization. In summary, we identified a set of genes that are expressed specifically during regeneration and are therefore, likely candidates for the regulation of blastema formation.

  18. Aptamer-Phage Reporters for Ultrasensitive Lateral Flow Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Meena; Strych, Ulrich; Kim, Jinsu; Goux, Heather; Dhamane, Sagar; Poongavanam, Mohan-Vivekanandan; Hagström, Anna E V; Kourentzi, Katerina; Conrad, Jacinta C; Willson, Richard C

    2015-12-01

    We introduce the modification of bacteriophage particles with aptamers for use as bioanalytical reporters, and demonstrate the use of these particles in ultrasensitive lateral flow assays. M13 phage displaying an in vivo biotinylatable peptide (AviTag) genetically fused to the phage tail protein pIII were used as reporter particle scaffolds, with biotinylated aptamers attached via avidin-biotin linkages, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reporter enzymes covalently attached to the pVIII coat protein. These modified viral nanoparticles were used in immunochromatographic sandwich assays for the direct detection of IgE and of the penicillin-binding protein from Staphylococcus aureus (PBP2a). We also developed an additional lateral flow assay for IgE, in which the analyte is sandwiched between immobilized anti-IgE antibodies and aptamer-bearing reporter phage modified with HRP. The limit of detection of this LFA was 0.13 ng/mL IgE, ∼100 times lower than those of previously reported IgE assays.

  19. Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Most real-world databases record time-varying information. In such databases, the notion of ??the current time,?? or NOW, occurs naturally and prominently. For example, when capturing the past states of a relation using begin and end time columns, tuples that are part of the current state have some...... past time as their begin time and NOW as their end time. While the semantics of such variable databases has been described in detail and is well understood, the modification of variable databases remains unexplored. This paper defines the semantics of modifications involving the variable NOW. More...... specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW...

  20. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...... the guidelines. The importance of exploratory analysis and an iterative approach in developing accident modification functions is stressed. The example shows that strict compliance with all the guidelines may be difficult, but represents a level of stringency that should be strived for. Currently the main...

  1. Application of radiation technology in starch modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huiyuan; Peng Zhigang; Ding Zhongmin; Lu Jiajiu

    2007-01-01

    In order to commercialize the radiation modification of starch, corn starch was irradiated with different dose of 60 Co gamma radiations. Some basic physical and chemical properties of the resulted modified starch paste were measured with emphasis on the viscosity stability and tensile strength. The results indicate that irradiation of corn starch with a dose of 4-10 kGy can decrease its viscosity to 5-14 mPa·s, and the tensile strength can meet the standard set up for textile paste. In comparison with chemical modification for starch, radiation modification is simpler in technology, more convenient in operation, more stable in modification quality, and easier to control. The mechanism of radiation modification of starch was also discussed. (authors)

  2. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  3. Herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.; Kesek, P.

    1987-01-01

    Herniography frequently reveals clinically undetected groin hernia. Thereby herniography contributes to the clinical work-up in patients with obscure groin pain. However, the distinction between clinically important and unimportant abnormalities within the lateral inguinal fossa can be difficult. This study was therefore designed in order to elucidate the herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa in patients with obscure groin pain. Herniographic findings were compared with laterality of the patients' symptoms. The lateral umbilical fold was visible in only 47% of the groins. A triangular shaped outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa and a patent processus vaginalis were found with equal frequency on the left and right side. They were five times as frequent in men as in women. Their presence did not correlate with laterality of the patients' symptoms. Indirect hernias were almost twice as common on the symptomatic side as compared with the asymptomatic side. On the left side they were found twice as often in men as in women while there was no significant sex difference on the right side. Our results show that neither a patent processus vaginalis nor a triangular outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa correlate with the laterality of the patients' symptoms while true indirect hernias do. (orig.)

  4. Diagnosing Dyslexia: The Screening of Auditory Laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kjeld

    A study investigated whether a correlation exists between the degree and nature of left-brain laterality and specific reading and spelling difficulties. Subjects, 50 normal readers and 50 reading disabled persons native to the island of Bornholm, had their auditory laterality screened using pure-tone audiometry and dichotic listening. Results…

  5. Self-caring in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine; Grut, Sara

    2015-01-01

    . The phenomenon of gerontopedagogicalisation is a process of becoming a juvenile and entrepreneurial self in later life, conceptualised as performAGE (Fristrup, 2012a). PerformAGE is an approach to understanding the different ways of performing age in later life which favours the performing of this juvenile...

  6. Lateral Pharyngeal Diverticulum presenting with Dysphagia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lateral pharyngeal diverticulum (Pharyngocele) is the protrusion of pharyngeal mucosa through the pharyngeal wall, usually through either of two weak areas in the pharyngeal wall as an acquired or congenital case. Lateral diverticula are very rare and not to be mistaken for the rather more frequent and abundantly ...

  7. Modifications to the INSPECT model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, S [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Sims, H E [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The prediction of iodine behaviour in the containment of a PWR following a loss of coolant accident requires a reliable model of the chemistry of iodine in aqueous solution. The INSPECT model, which was developed several years ago, contains a large number of the relevant chemical reactions of iodine and water radiation chemistry. Since the reactions set was first assembled, however, new data on rate constants and mechanisms have become available. In addition, the application of the model to various small-scale experiments has revealed problems in the modelling of some reactions, leading to an under-prediction of the iodine volatility at high pH, although the experiments have demonstrated that the high pH volatility remains satisfactory low. This paper describes the modifications which have been made to the INSPECT model to take account of new data and to improve the modelling where appropriate. The main changes which have been made to the reaction set are as follows: - The rate constants and activation energies for the reactions describing the radiolysis of water have been updated in with recent assessments, and the temperature dependence of the G value for the primary species have been accordance taken into account, - The mechanism and rates of I{sub 2} hydrolysis have been modified in accordance with the latest assessments of this reaction, - The mechanism for the reaction of I{sub 2} with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been changed to a form which produces a more realistic pH dependence under neutral and alkaline conditions, - An addition mechanism for the disproportionation of the O{sub 2} ion has been included, reflecting experimental observations that this reaction has a significant first-order component under all but the purest conditions, - Atomic I is treated as a volatile species, with a partition coefficient of 1.9 at 298 K. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Associations between schizotypy and cerebral laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E

    2017-03-01

    Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.

  9. Lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Vaesel, M T; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1996-01-01

    The structure and kinematics of the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint were investigated in 10 cadaveric specimens. The lateral collateral ligament was observed to be a distinct part of the lateral collateral ligament complex. It contains posterior fibers that pass through the annular....... Division of the posterolateral capsule caused no further laxity. Cutting the lateral collateral ligament induced a maximum laxity of 11.8 degrees at 110 degrees of flexion in forced varus and a maximum laxity of 20.6 degrees at 110 degrees of flexion in forced external rotation. The corresponding maximal...... posterior radial head translation was observed at 80 degrees to 100 degrees of flexion and was 5.7 mm in forced varus and 8.1 mm in forced external rotation. This study suggests the lateral collateral ligament to be an important stabilizer of the humeroulnar joint and the radial head in forced varus...

  10. Modification of Core Model for KNTC 2 Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.K.; Lee, J.G.; Park, J.E.; Bae, S.N.; Chin, H.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    KNTC 2 simulator was developed in 1986 referencing YGN 1. Since the YGN 1 has changed its fuel cycle to long term cycle(cycle 9), the data such as rod worth, boron worth, moderator temperature coefficient, and etc. of the simulator and those of the YGN 1 became different. To incorporate these changes into the simulator and make the simulator more close to the reference plant, core model upgrade became a necessity. During this research, core data for the simulator was newly generated using APA of the WH. And to make it easy tuning and verification of the key characteristics of the reactor model, PC-Based tool was also developed. And to facilitate later core model upgrade, two procedures-`the Procedures for core characteristic generation` and `the Procedures for core characteristic modification`-were also developed. (author). 16 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Maillard reaction versus other nonenzymatic modifications in neurodegenerative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Reinald; Ilieva, Ekaterina; Ayala, Victoria; Bellmunt, Maria Josep; Cacabelos, Daniel; Dalfo, Esther; Ferrer, Isidre; Portero-Otin, Manuel

    2008-04-01

    Nonenzymatic protein modifications are generated from direct oxidation of amino acid side chains and from reaction of the nucleophilic side chains of specific amino acids with reactive carbonyl species. These reactions give rise to specific markers that have been analyzed in different neurodegenerative diseases sharing protein aggregation, such as Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Collectively, available data demonstrate that oxidative stress homeostasis, mitochondrial function, and energy metabolism are key factors in determining the disease-specific pattern of protein molecular damage. In addition, these findings suggest the lack of a "gold marker of oxidative stress," and, consequently, they strengthen the need for a molecular dissection of the nonenzymatic reactions underlying neurodegenerative processes.

  12. Modification of Sr on 4004 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Erjun; Cao, Guojian; Feng, Yicheng; Wang, Liping; Wang, Guojun; Lv, Xinyu

    2013-05-01

    As a brazing foil, 4004 Al alloy has good welding performance. However, the high Si content decreases the plasticity of the alloy. To improve the plasticity of 4004 Al alloy and subsequently improve the productivity of 4004 Al foil or 434 composite foil, 4004 Al alloy was modified by Al-10%Sr master alloy. Modification effects of an additional amount of Sr, modification temperature, and holding time on 4004 aluminum alloy were studied by orthogonal design. The results showed that the greatest impact parameter of 4004 aluminum alloy modification was the additional amount of Sr, followed by holding time and modification temperature. The optimum modification parameters obtained by orthogonal design were as follows: Sr addition of 0.04%, holding time of 60 min, and modification temperature of 760°C. The effect of Sr addition on modification was analyzed in detail based on orthogonal results. With increasing of Sr addition, elongation of 4004 alloy increased at first, and decreased after reaching the maximum value.

  13. Phase modification induced drying shrinkage reduction on Na2CO3 activated slag by incorporating Na2SO4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, B.; Yu, Q.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to study the phase modification, reaction kinetics, mechanical properties and drying shrinkage of sodium carbonate activated slag by incorporating sodium sulfate in the activator. The results show that the reaction process is firstly controlled by CO32− anions, and later runs similar

  14. Epigenetic Modifications: Therapeutic Potential in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sachan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications and alterations in chromatin structure and function contribute to the cumulative changes observed as normal cells undergo malignant transformation. These modifications and enzymes (DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and demethylases related to them have been deeply studied to develop new drugs, epigenome-targeted therapies and new diagnostic tools. Epigenetic modifiers aim to restore normal epigenetic modification patterns through the inhibition of epigenetic modifier enzymes. Four of them (azacitidine, decitabine, vorinostat and romidepsin are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This article provides an overview about the known functional roles of epigenetic enzymes in cancer development.

  15. Radiographic and Clinical Analysis of Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillito, Matthew; Soong, Maximillian; Martin, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    The literature suggests that radiographs may be unnecessary in the initial evaluation of lateral epicondylitis because treatment is rarely altered as a result of the radiographic findings. The most commonly reported radiographic finding is calcification at the lateral epicondyle. Our goal was to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of this finding to determine its importance and possible relationship with various clinical factors and patient-reported measures. All patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis by a single surgeon during a 5-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Age, sex, laterality, hand dominance, pain visual analog scale, duration of symptoms, Quick-Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire score, and history of steroid injection were recorded. Calcifications on standard elbow radiographs, acquired digitally and viewed at 200% magnification on a 24-inch monitor, were characterized by size and relationship with the lateral epicondyle. We reviewed 245 patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis. A total of 115 elbows (47%) demonstrated lateral epicondyle calcifications. Patients with and without calcifications were similar with regard to clinical factors, as were patients with larger or smaller lesions. Eighty-five elbows (35%) had additional radiographic findings. Treatment was not altered by the radiographic findings in any case. Lateral epicondyle calcifications are much more common in lateral epicondylitis than previously reported, possibly owing to modern digital radiography and magnification, although they do not appear to be related to clinical factors including patient-reported measures. Thus, patients and surgeons should be careful to avoid overinterpretation of such findings. Although radiographs may be helpful in ruling out additional pathology, we did not find other clinically important contributions to the initial evaluation and management of this condition, and thus we do not recommend their routine use

  16. Bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi

    failure envelopes. A jacked installation test is successfully compared with existing models. Tests of bucket foundations under lateral loading applied at different loading rates are analysed. As expected, the bearing capacity of bucket foundations under transient lateral loading increases dramatically...... documents on bearing capacity and installation of bucket foundations are reviewed and the results from the models found in literature are compared to the experimental results obtained in the current study. Monotonic tests of bucket foundations under lateral loading until failure are compared with existing...

  17. Lateral cervical puncture for cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1985-01-01

    Eleven cervical myelograms were performed by lateral cervical puncture using Metrizamide. So, following results were obtained: 1. Site of lateral cervical puncture; Posterior one third of bony cervical canal at C 1-2 level. 2. Advantages as compared with lumbar puncture for cervical myelograms; 1) Small amount of contrast media 2) Excellent image 3) Less position charge 4) Short time 5) Well visualization of superior margin of obstructive lesion in spinal canal 3. Cessation of lateral cervical puncture, when; 1) Pain during injection of contrast media 2) Localized collection of contrast media

  18. Lateral cervical puncture for cervical myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Eleven cervical myelograms were performed by lateral cervical puncture using Metrizamide. So, following results were obtained: 1. Site of lateral cervical puncture; Posterior one third of bony cervical canal at C 1-2 level. 2. Advantages as compared with lumbar puncture for cervical myelograms; 1) Small amount of contrast media 2) Excellent image 3) Less position charge 4) Short time 5) Well visualization of superior margin of obstructive lesion in spinal canal 3. Cessation of lateral cervical puncture, when; 1) Pain during injection of contrast media 2) Localized collection of contrast media.

  19. Laterality and Lateralization in Autism Spectrum Disorder, Using a Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, A; Golse, B; Girard, M; Olliac, B; Vaivre-Douret, L

    2017-01-01

    A detailed assessment of laterality in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was realized, including handedness and other measures (muscle tone, manual performance, dominant eye), using a standardized battery for the developmental assessment of neuro-psychomotor functions. The results of the laterality tests relating to cerebral hemisphere organization (spontaneous gestural laterality and tonic laterality) were different in ASD children, and indicate that the cerebral organization could be disrupted. These assessments, added to the observations of usual laterality most often reported in the literature, provide better understanding of the developmental organization from the pathophysiological point of view in children with ASD.

  20. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  1. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of nonwoven based flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. The effect of zein modification on flax fibres is also reported. Flax nonwovens were treated...

  2. Modifications of the Weibull distribution: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almalki, Saad J.; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the Weibull distribution is the most popular and the most widely used distribution in reliability and in analysis of lifetime data. Unfortunately, its hazard function cannot exhibit non-monotonic shapes like the bathtub shape or the unimodal shape. Since 1958, the Weibull distribution has been modified by many researchers to allow for non-monotonic hazard functions. This paper gives an extensive review of some discrete and continuous versions of the modifications of the Weibull distribution. - Highlights: • A comprehensive review of known discrete modifications and generalizations of the Weibull distribution. • A comprehensive review of known continuous modifications and generalizations of the Weibull distribution. • Over 110 references on modifications/generalizations of the Weibull distribution. • More than 55% of the cited references appeared in the last 5 years

  3. ENDF/B-5 modifications 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, P.K.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes the modifications made to the ENDF/B-5 evaluated neutron data files in 1986. The new versions of the files are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section upon request, costfree, on magnetic tape. (author)

  4. The computational nature of memory modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Monfils, Marie-H; Norman, Kenneth A; Niv, Yael

    2017-03-15

    Retrieving a memory can modify its influence on subsequent behavior. We develop a computational theory of memory modification, according to which modification of a memory trace occurs through classical associative learning, but which memory trace is eligible for modification depends on a structure learning mechanism that discovers the units of association by segmenting the stream of experience into statistically distinct clusters (latent causes). New memories are formed when the structure learning mechanism infers that a new latent cause underlies current sensory observations. By the same token, old memories are modified when old and new sensory observations are inferred to have been generated by the same latent cause. We derive this framework from probabilistic principles, and present a computational implementation. Simulations demonstrate that our model can reproduce the major experimental findings from studies of memory modification in the Pavlovian conditioning literature.

  5. Chemical modification and characterization of quaternized polysulfones.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) using polysulfones is described. The modification process of polysulfones involves two steps: Firstly, by introducing chloromethyl groups followed by quaternization reaction...

  6. Formal Design Review Foot Clamp Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OTEN, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Design Review performed for the foot clamp modification. The report documents the acceptability of the design, identifies the documents that were reviewed, the scope of the review and the members of the review team

  7. The computational nature of memory modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Monfils, Marie-H; Norman, Kenneth A; Niv, Yael

    2017-01-01

    Retrieving a memory can modify its influence on subsequent behavior. We develop a computational theory of memory modification, according to which modification of a memory trace occurs through classical associative learning, but which memory trace is eligible for modification depends on a structure learning mechanism that discovers the units of association by segmenting the stream of experience into statistically distinct clusters (latent causes). New memories are formed when the structure learning mechanism infers that a new latent cause underlies current sensory observations. By the same token, old memories are modified when old and new sensory observations are inferred to have been generated by the same latent cause. We derive this framework from probabilistic principles, and present a computational implementation. Simulations demonstrate that our model can reproduce the major experimental findings from studies of memory modification in the Pavlovian conditioning literature. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23763.001 PMID:28294944

  8. 75 FR 3253 - Petitions for Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... face equipment; maintenance) and 30 CFR 18.35 (Portable trailing cables and cords). Modification...) Limit the speed of the machine to 10 miles per hour (MPH) by permanently blocking out any gear that...

  9. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines,

  10. Covalent Surface Modifications of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavia Sanders, Adriana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); O' Bryan, Greg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    A report meant to document the chemistries investigated by the author for covalent surface modification of CNTs. Oxidation, cycloaddition, and radical reactions were explored to determine their success at covalently altering the CNT surface. Characterization through infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis was performed in order to determine the success of the chemistries employed. This report is not exhaustive and was performed for CNT surface modification exploration as it pertains to the "Next Gen" project.

  11. Septum formation of the lateral ventricles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Hakan H.; Aldur, Mustafa M.; Tatar, I.; Tascioglu, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    In an MRI study examining anomalies of the septum pellucidum in 505 cases, we detected bilateral septum formation of the lateral ventricles in a 17-months-old-baby. In this study, we evaluate 505 (242 males and 263 females) patients referred to the Emaray Imaging Center, Ankara, Turkey with various prediagnoses. We specially selected all the cases from a non-psychotic population. We obtained MRI scans on a 1-Tesla imager (Picker International, Highland Heights, Ohio, USA), with slices of 5 and 6 mm thickness. In the axial and coronal sections, we observed septum formation laterally between the anterior horn and the ventricular body of the lateral ventricles. Radio opaque septum formations started from the caudate nucleus and stretched to the genu of the corpus callosum. There was a second septum formation between the posterior horn and the ventricular body of the right lateral ventricle. It started from the caudate nucleus and stretched to the cavum vergae. (author)

  12. Projectile Aerodynamic Jump Due to Lateral Impulsives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Gene

    2003-01-01

    .... The formulation shows for sufficiently long-range target interception; lateral impulse trajectory response for a guided projectile is independent of when the impulse is activated during the yaw cycle...

  13. -MoS2 Lateral Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming-yang; Pu, Jiang; Huang, Jing-Kai; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Matsuda, Kazunari; Takenobu, Taishi; Li, Lain-Jong

    2018-01-01

    2D layered heterostructures have attracted intensive interests due to their unique optical, transport, and interfacial properties. The laterally stitched heterojunction based on dissimilar 2D transition metal dichalcogenides forms an intrinsic p

  14. Carrier illumination measurement of dopant lateral diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiarto, E.; Segovia, M.; Borden, P.; Felch, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the carrier illumination technique to non-destructively measure the lateral diffusion of implanted dopants after annealing. Experiments to validate the feasibility of this method employed test structures with a constant line width of 300 nm and varying undoped spaces of 100-5000 nm. The test patterns were implanted with a p-type dopant and annealed in a 3 x 3 matrix. For each implant condition, the measured lateral diffusion was found to increase with annealing temperature, as expected. More interestingly, the lateral diffusion was not observed to relate to the vertical diffusion by a fixed proportionality factor, as is usually assumed. The ratio of lateral to vertical diffusion varies with annealing temperature, with a trend that depends on the implant condition

  15. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    .2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of the response......The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1...... of a lateral loaded pile, namely the Winkler approach in which the pile is modelled as an elastic beam on an elastic foundation (section 1.5). The soil response and thereby the elastic foundation is represented by springs with nonlinear behaviour (p-y curves). In section 1.6 different types and formulations...

  16. C-reactive protein and later preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Schlüssel, Michael M; Vaz, Juliana S

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration during pregnancy is associated with later preeclampsia and whether weight status (BMI) is a potential modifier of the relation between CRP and preeclampsia....

  17. Lateral power transistors in integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Erlbacher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    This book details and compares recent advancements in the development of novel lateral power transistors (LDMOS devices) for integrated circuits in power electronic applications. It includes the state-of-the-art concept of double-acting RESURF topologies.

  18. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    by pedestrians during walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33 – 1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5 – 48mm). The experimental campaign involved...... is triggered. This disproportionate increase in the lateral vibration response is caused by a dynamic interaction between the pedestrian and the laterally moving structure, although the governing mechanism which generates the load is still disputed. In this thesis, a comprehensive literature review...... 71 test subjects who covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed on almost 5000 individual tests. An in-depth analysis of the movement of the pedestrians that participated in the experimental campaign reveal that synchronisation is not a pre-condition for the ix development of large amplitude...

  19. Waveform inversion of lateral velocity variation from wavefield source location perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2013-09-22

    It is challenge in waveform inversion to precisely define the deep part of the velocity model compared to the shallow part. The lateral velocity variation, or what referred to as the derivative of velocity with respect to the horizontal distance, with well log data can be used to update the deep part of the velocity model more precisely. We develop a waveform inversion algorithm to obtain the lateral velocity variation by inverting the wavefield variation associated with the lateral shot location perturbation. The gradient of the new waveform inversion algorithm is obtained by the adjoint-state method. Our inversion algorithm focuses on resolving the lateral changes of the velocity model with respect to a fixed reference vertical velocity profile given by a well log. We apply the method on a simple-dome model to highlight the methods potential.

  20. Oxidative modifications of conjugated and unconjugated linoleic acid during heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giua, L; Blasi, F; Simonetti, M S; Cossignani, L

    2013-10-15

    The oxidative stability of conjugated linoleic (CLA) and linoleic (LA) acids in different chemical forms (free acids, methyl esters and homogeneous triacylglycerols) was compared. All model systems were heated at 180°C for different times (15, 30, 45 and 60min). The primary oxidation products were evaluated by spectrophometric analysis, while the volatile compounds were determined by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS). The isomer profile modifications were investigated by silver-ion high performance liquid chromatography (Ag(+)-HPLC) equipped with an UV detector. Generally, peroxide values decreased during the heating time. Among the volatiles, saturated aldehydes were the most represented compounds. Isomerization of cis,trans and trans,cis CLA to trans,trans isomers was observed mainly for the methyl form of CLA. The three different chemical forms of LA never showed isomerization phenomena. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illu...

  2. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illus...

  3. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-12-11

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  4. The equine flexed lateral fetlock radiographic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Recommendations for obtaining the flexed lateral radiographic view of the equine fetlock are provided. By tilting the X-ray tube in a 10-degrees dorsal direction, the angle of the flexed lateral fetlock joint is matched. While this view will not be effective on all horses, utilizing the flexed view aids in evaluating those horses that present an abnormal conformation when the fetlock joint is flexed

  5. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  6. Analisis Tekuk Lateral Pipa Gas Bawah Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrotul Laeli Hidayaturrohmah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To prevent solidification on the pipeline, hydrocarbon is transferred in high temperature and high pressure. High presure and temperature lead to axial tension appearence along the pipeline. Interaction between soil and the surface of pipeline trigering frictional resistance which holding axial force on the pipeline and could cause the occurence of global buckling. According to DNV RP F110, global buckling may occur in several directions which one of them is in the lateral direction. Lateral buckling usually occurs only in the exposed pipe which occurs when the compressive force on the pipe imperfection released at one point so that the excess force in the slip zone turn into buckling. According to DNV RP F 110, there are three methods of analysis that can be used to perform the analysis of lateral buckling the pipe. Those are methods of Hobbs, Van GAF, and Spinazle. In this paper, lateral buckling analysis performed on a 7.67 km subsea gas pipeline by using Hobbs method which concluded that the pipeline has the potential to lateral buckling. Analysis by using software ABAQUS was also carried out to determine the location of the lateral buckling which is the location where overstressed occur.

  7. Possible evolutionary origins of cognitive brain lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Rogers, L J; Bisazza, A

    1999-08-01

    Despite the substantial literature on the functional architecture of the asymmetries of the human brain, which has been accumulating for more than 130 years since Dax and Broca's early reports, the biological foundations of cerebral asymmetries are still poorly understood. Recent advances in comparative cognitive neurosciences have made available new animal models that have started to provide unexpected insights into the evolutionary origins and neuronal mechanisms of cerebral asymmetries. Animal model-systems, particularly those provided by the avian brain, highlight the interrelations of genetic, hormonal and environmental events to produce neural and behavioural asymmetries. Novel evidences showing that functional and structural lateralization of the brain is widespread among vertebrates (including fish, reptiles and amphibians) have accumulated rapidly. Perceptual asymmetries, in particular, seem to be ubiquitous in everyday behaviour of most species of animals with laterally placed eyes; in organisms with wider binocular overlap (e.g., amphibians), they appear to be retained for initial detection of stimuli in the extreme lateral fields. We speculate that adjustment of head position and eye movements may play a similar role in mammals with frontal vision as does the choice for right or left lateral visual fields in animals with laterally placed eyes. A first attempt to trace back the origins of brain asymmetry to early vertebrates is presented, based on the hypothesis that functional incompatibility between the logical demands associated with very basic cognitive functions is central to the phenomenon of cerebral lateralization.

  8. Modification of Particle Distributions By MHD Instabilities I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    The modification of particle distributions by low amplitude magnetohydrodynamic modes is an important topic for magnetically confined plasmas. Low amplitude modes are known to be capable of producing significant modification of injected neutral beam profiles, and the same can be expected in burning plasmas for the alpha particle distributions. Flattening of a distribution due to phase mixing in an island or due to portions of phase space becoming stochastic is a process extremely rapid on the time scale of an experiment but still very long compared to the time scale of guiding center simulations. Thus it is very valuable to be able to locate significant resonances and to predict the final particle distribution produced by a given spectrum of magnetohydrodynamic modes. In this paper we introduce a new method of determining domains of phase space in which good surfaces do not exist and use this method for quickly determining the final state of the particle distribution without carrying out the full time evolution leading to it.

  9. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  10. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  11. Control of the radial electric field shear by modification of the magnetic field configuration in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yokoyama, M.

    2005-01-01

    Control of the radial electric field, E γ , is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. In general, the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, and positive or negative electric field have been obtained by decreasing or increasing the electron density, respectively. Although the sign of the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, modification of the magnetic field is required to achieve further control of the radial electric field, especially producing a strong radial electric field shear. In the Large Helical Device (LHD) the radial electric field profiles are shown to be controlled by the modification of the magnetic field by 1) changing the radial profile of the helical ripples, ε h , 2) creating a magnetic island with an external perturbation field coil and 3) changing the local island divertor coil current. (author)

  12. Control of the radial electric field shear by modification of the magnetic field configuration in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yokoyama, M.

    2005-01-01

    Control of the radial electric field, E r , is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. In general, the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, and positive or negative electric fields have been obtained by decreasing or increasing the electron density, respectively. Although the sign of the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, modification of the magnetic field is required to achieve further control of the radial electric field, especially to produce a strong radial electric field shear. In the Large Helical Device (LHD) the radial electric field profiles are shown to be controlled by the modification of the magnetic field by (1) changing the radial profile of the effective helical ripples, ε h (2) creating a magnetic island with an external perturbation field coil and (3) changing the local island divertor coil current

  13. Segmental sensory disturbance in brain stem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Imai, Terukuni; Okuda, Bungo.

    1987-01-01

    We reported on seven cases of brainstem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla, the sensory deficit manifested over the trunk or the leg namely segmental sensory disturbances. All patients showed dissociated sensory disturbance of pain and temperature with retained deep sensations except two cases in which touch was also slightly impaired. The sensory distribution was classified into two types. The first ''crossed type'', ipsilatral face and contralateral trunk and leg below the level was involved in 4 cases, and the second ''unilateral type'' contralateral face and trunk above the level in 3 cases. Clinico-anatomical evaluation was executed by MRI. Lesions were detected in the lateral lower pons in two cases and in the lateral medulla in one case. The location of lesions by MRI revealed more lateral lesions showed ''crossed type'' of segmental sensory disturbance and more medial lesions ''unilateral type''. It was shown that the segmental sensory disturbance could be explained by the partial involvement of the lateral spinothalamic tract, which is arranged with the fibers from the sacral segments most lateral. We considered it very important to differentiate the segmental sensory disturbance by brainstem lesion in practical clinical diagnosis. We also emphasize the type of segmental sensory disturbance could be a localizing sign in the lateral brainstem as such, ''crossed type'' indicating the lesion of the lateral portion and ''unilateral type'' the medial portion of the lateral lower brainstem. (author)

  14. Usefulness of a Lateral Thoracodorsal Flap after Breast Conserving Surgery in Laterally Located Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dug Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBreast-conserving surgery is widely accepted as an appropriate method in breast cancer, and the lateral thoracodorsal flap provides a simple, reliable technique, especially when a mass is located in the lateral breast. This study describes the usefulness of a lateral thoracodorsal flap after breast conserving surgery in laterally located breast cancer.MethodsFrom September 2008 to February 2013, a lateral thoracodorsal flap was used in 20 patients with laterally located breast cancer treated at our institution. The technique involves a local medially based, wedge shaped, fasciocutaneous transposition flap from the lateral region of the thoracic area. Overall satisfaction and aesthetic satisfaction surveys were conducted with the patients during a 6-month postoperative follow-up period. Aesthetic results in terms of breast shape and symmetry were evaluated by plastic surgeons.ResultsThe average specimen weight was 76.8 g. The locations of the masses were the upper lateral quadrant (n=15, the lower lateral quadrant (n=2, and the central lateral area (n=3. Complications developed in four of the cases, partial flap necrosis in one, wound dehiscence in one, and fat necrosis in two. The majority of the patients were satisfied with their cosmetic outcomes.ConclusionsPartial breast reconstruction using a lateral thoracodorsal flap is well matched with breast color and texture, and the surgery is less aggressive than other techniques with few complications. Therefore, the lateral thoracodorsal flap can be a useful, reliable technique in correcting breast deformity after breast conserving surgery, especially in laterally located breast cancer.

  15. Usefulness of a Lateral Thoracodorsal Flap after Breast Conserving Surgery in Laterally Located Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Yong Park

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast-conserving surgery is widely accepted as an appropriate method in breast cancer, and the lateral thoracodorsal flap provides a simple, reliable technique, especially when a mass is located in the lateral breast. This study describes the usefulness of a lateral thoracodorsal flap after breast conserving surgery in laterally located breast cancer.Methods From September 2008 to February 2013, a lateral thoracodorsal flap was used in 20 patients with laterally located breast cancer treated at our institution. The technique involves a local medially based, wedge shaped, fasciocutaneous transposition flap from the lateral region of the thoracic area. Overall satisfaction and aesthetic satisfaction surveys were conducted with the patients during a 6-month postoperative follow-up period. Aesthetic results in terms of breast shape and symmetry were evaluated by plastic surgeons.Results The average specimen weight was 76.8 g. The locations of the masses were the upper lateral quadrant (n=15, the lower lateral quadrant (n=2, and the central lateral area (n=3. Complications developed in four of the cases, partial flap necrosis in one, wound dehiscence in one, and fat necrosis in two. The majority of the patients were satisfied with their cosmetic outcomes.Conclusions Partial breast reconstruction using a lateral thoracodorsal flap is well matched with breast color and texture, and the surgery is less aggressive than other techniques with few complications. Therefore, the lateral thoracodorsal flap can be a useful, reliable technique in correcting breast deformity after breast conserving surgery, especially in laterally located breast cancer.

  16. Accuracy Improvement of Discharge Measurement with Modification of Distance Made Good Heading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongkook Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote control boats equipped with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP are widely accepted and have been welcomed by many hydrologists for water discharge, velocity profile, and bathymetry measurements. The advantages of this technique include high productivity, fast measurements, operator safety, and high accuracy. However, there are concerns about controlling and operating a remote boat to achieve measurement goals, especially during extreme events such as floods. When performing river discharge measurements, the main error source stems from the boat path. Due to the rapid flow in a flood condition, the boat path is not regular and this can cause errors in discharge measurements. Therefore, improvement of discharge measurements requires modification of boat path. As a result, the measurement errors in flood flow conditions are 12.3–21.8% before the modification of boat path, but 1.2–3.7% after the DMG modification of boat path. And it is considered that the modified discharges are very close to the observed discharge in the flood flow conditions. In this study, through the distance made good (DMG modification of the boat path, a comprehensive discharge measurement with high accuracy can be achieved.

  17. Ultrasonographic findings of lateral epicondylitis of humerus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Ha, Doo Heo

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of lateral epicondylitis and their relationship with clinical outcome. The findings of ultrasonographic examinations of eighteen elbow joints in 15 patients (M:F=5:10; age:38-65(mean, 47.6) years) with lateral epicondylitis were reviewed. Two patients underwent surgery, two were not treated, and the remaining 11 were treated conservatively. Symptomatic improvement was noted 1 week after conservative treatment in two cases, at 2 weeks in five cases, at 3 weeks in three cases, and at 5 weeks in one case. With patients in the 90 degree flexed elbow position and in a supinated wrist, weexamined the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon around the lateral epicondyle using ultrasound equipment with a 7-11 MHz linear transducer. The findings were assessed in terms of swelling of the tendon, changes in its echotexture, the presence of calcification of cystic degeneration, loss of the hypoechoic band between the tendon and bony cortex of the lateral epicondyle, cortical irregularity of the lateral epicondyle, and fluid collection around the tendon. Any relationships between each ultrasonographic finding and the treatment interval after which symptomatic improvement was noted were evaluated. In the 18 joints, change was heterogeneous hypoechogenicity in 13, and heterogeneous mixed echogenicity in three. Other ultrasonographic findings were swelling of the tendon in ten cases, loss of the hypoechoic band in 14, cortical irregularity in five, calcification in four, cystic degeneration in nine, and fluid collection around the tendon in four. In patients treated conservatively, there was no statistically significant difference between each ultrasonographic finding and the treatment interval after which symptomatic improvement was noted. Ultrasonography can be used to assess changes in the ECRB tendon and lateral epicondyle occurring in lateral epicondylitis, but fails to provide information on the rapidity of symptomatic

  18. Ultrasonographic findings of lateral epicondylitis of humerus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Ha, Doo Heo [Pundang CHA Univ., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of lateral epicondylitis and their relationship with clinical outcome. The findings of ultrasonographic examinations of eighteen elbow joints in 15 patients (M:F=5:10; age:38-65(mean, 47.6) years) with lateral epicondylitis were reviewed. Two patients underwent surgery, two were not treated, and the remaining 11 were treated conservatively. Symptomatic improvement was noted 1 week after conservative treatment in two cases, at 2 weeks in five cases, at 3 weeks in three cases, and at 5 weeks in one case. With patients in the 90 degree flexed elbow position and in a supinated wrist, weexamined the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon around the lateral epicondyle using ultrasound equipment with a 7-11 MHz linear transducer. The findings were assessed in terms of swelling of the tendon, changes in its echotexture, the presence of calcification of cystic degeneration, loss of the hypoechoic band between the tendon and bony cortex of the lateral epicondyle, cortical irregularity of the lateral epicondyle, and fluid collection around the tendon. Any relationships between each ultrasonographic finding and the treatment interval after which symptomatic improvement was noted were evaluated. In the 18 joints, change was heterogeneous hypoechogenicity in 13, and heterogeneous mixed echogenicity in three. Other ultrasonographic findings were swelling of the tendon in ten cases, loss of the hypoechoic band in 14, cortical irregularity in five, calcification in four, cystic degeneration in nine, and fluid collection around the tendon in four. In patients treated conservatively, there was no statistically significant difference between each ultrasonographic finding and the treatment interval after which symptomatic improvement was noted. Ultrasonography can be used to assess changes in the ECRB tendon and lateral epicondyle occurring in lateral epicondylitis, but fails to provide information on the rapidity of symptomatic

  19. HOPWA Performance Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOPWA Performance Profiles are generated quarterly for all agencies receiving HOPWA formula or competitive grants. Performance Profiles are available at the national...

  20. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis multiprotein biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nardo

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal progressive motor neuron disease, for which there are still no diagnostic/prognostic test and therapy. Specific molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate clinical studies and speed up the development of effective treatments.We used a two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis approach to identify in easily accessible clinical samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, a panel of protein biomarkers that are closely associated with ALS. Validations and a longitudinal study were performed by immunoassays on a selected number of proteins. The same proteins were also measured in PBMC and spinal cord of a G93A SOD1 transgenic rat model. We identified combinations of protein biomarkers that can distinguish, with high discriminatory power, ALS patients from healthy controls (98%, and from patients with neurological disorders that may resemble ALS (91%, between two levels of disease severity (90%, and a number of translational biomarkers, that link responses between human and animal model. We demonstrated that TDP-43, cyclophilin A and ERp57 associate with disease progression in a longitudinal study. Moreover, the protein profile changes detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ALS patients are suggestive of possible intracellular pathogenic mechanisms such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, nitrative stress, disturbances in redox regulation and RNA processing.Our results indicate that PBMC multiprotein biomarkers could contribute to determine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disease severity and progression, and may help to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms.

  1. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the dominant lateral waveguiding mechanism in 975 nm high power broad area diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, P; Böldicke, S; Schultz, C M; Ekhteraei, H; Wenzel, H; Erbert, G

    2012-01-01

    For maximum fibre-coupled power, high power broad area diode lasers must operate with small lateral far field angles at high continuous wave (CW) powers. However, these structures are laterally multi-moded, with low beam quality and wide emission angles. In order to experimentally determine the origin of the low beam quality, spectrally resolved near and far field measurements were performed for a diode laser with 50 µm stripe width. Within the range measured (CW optical output powers to 1.5 W) the laser is shown to operate in just six stable lateral modes, with spatially periodic profiles. Comparisons of the measured profiles with the results of two-dimensional modal simulation demonstrate that current-induced thermal lensing dominates the lateral waveguiding, in spite of the presence of both strong built-in index guiding and gain guiding. No evidence is seen for filamentation. Building on the diagnosis, proposals are presented for improvements to beam quality. (paper)

  2. Tyre-road friction coefficient estimation based on tyre sensors and lateral tyre deflection: modelling, simulations and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Erdogan, Gurkan; Hedrick, Karl; Borrelli, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    The estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient is fundamental for vehicle control systems. Tyre sensors enable the friction coefficient estimation based on signals extracted directly from tyres. This paper presents a tyre-road friction coefficient estimation algorithm based on tyre lateral deflection obtained from lateral acceleration. The lateral acceleration is measured by wireless three-dimensional accelerometers embedded inside the tyres. The proposed algorithm first determines the contact patch using a radial acceleration profile. Then, the portion of the lateral acceleration profile, only inside the tyre-road contact patch, is used to estimate the friction coefficient through a tyre brush model and a simple tyre model. The proposed strategy accounts for orientation-variation of accelerometer body frame during tyre rotation. The effectiveness and performance of the algorithm are demonstrated through finite element model simulations and experimental tests with small tyre slip angles on different road surface conditions.

  3. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  4. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  5. Absence of lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Goold

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Lucy Goold1, Hirohiko Kakizaki1,2,3, Raman Malhotra3, Dinesh Selva11South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology and Discipline of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; 3Corneoplastic Unit and Eye Bank, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, West Sussex, United KingdomAbstract: Classical anatomical teaching reports the presence of the lateral palpebral raphe formed at the union in the preseptal and orbital parts of the orbicularis oculi muscle, or by the tendon adhering these to the underlying zygomatic bone. The lateral palpebral raphe has been shown to be absent in Asian cadavers. The current study uses both evidence from the anatomical dissection of five eyelids from three Caucasian cadavers, and histological assessment of the lateral canthus of 13 eyelids from seven Caucasian cadavers to illustrate the absence of the lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasian population.Keywords: lateral palpebral raphe, orbicularis oculi muscle, Caucasian, cadavers

  6. -MoS2 Lateral Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming-yang

    2018-02-28

    2D layered heterostructures have attracted intensive interests due to their unique optical, transport, and interfacial properties. The laterally stitched heterojunction based on dissimilar 2D transition metal dichalcogenides forms an intrinsic p–n junction without the necessity of applying an external voltage. However, no scalable processes are reported to construct the devices with such lateral heterostructures. Here, a scalable strategy, two-step and location-selective chemical vapor deposition, is reported to synthesize self-aligned WSe2–MoS2 monolayer lateral heterojunction arrays and demonstrates their light-emitting devices. The proposed fabrication process enables the growth of high-quality interfaces and the first successful observation of electroluminescence at the WSe2–MoS2 lateral heterojunction. The electroluminescence study has confirmed the type-I alignment at the interface rather than commonly believed type-II alignment. This self-aligned growth process paves the way for constructing various 2D lateral heterostructures in a scalable manner, practically important for integrated 2D circuit applications.

  7. Sequence tagging reveals unexpected modifications in toxicoproteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Codreanu, Simona G.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Collins, Ben C.; Pennington, Stephen R.; Gallagher, William M.; Tabb, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicoproteomic samples are rich in posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. Identifying these modifications via standard database searching can incur significant performance penalties. Here we describe the latest developments in TagRecon, an algorithm that leverages inferred sequence tags to identify modified peptides in toxicoproteomic data sets. TagRecon identifies known modifications more effectively than the MyriMatch database search engine. TagRecon outperformed state of the art software in recognizing unanticipated modifications from LTQ, Orbitrap, and QTOF data sets. We developed user-friendly software for detecting persistent mass shifts from samples. We follow a three-step strategy for detecting unanticipated PTMs in samples. First, we identify the proteins present in the sample with a standard database search. Next, identified proteins are interrogated for unexpected PTMs with a sequence tag-based search. Finally, additional evidence is gathered for the detected mass shifts with a refinement search. Application of this technology on toxicoproteomic data sets revealed unintended cross-reactions between proteins and sample processing reagents. Twenty five proteins in rat liver showed signs of oxidative stress when exposed to potentially toxic drugs. These results demonstrate the value of mining toxicoproteomic data sets for modifications. PMID:21214251

  8. Modifications at operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, T.J.; Gazda, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications at operating nuclear power plants offer the structural engineer many challenges in the areas of scheduling of work, field adjustments, and engineering staff planning. The scheduling of structural modification work for operating nuclear power plants is normally closely tied to planned or unplanned outages of the plant. Coordination between the structural engineering effort, the operating plant staff, and the contractor who will be performing the modifications is essential to ensure that all work can be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inaccessibility of some areas in operating nuclear power plants or the short time available to perform the structural engineering in the case of an unscheduled outrage, field verification of a design is not always possible prior to initiating the construction of the modification. This requires the structural engineer to work closely with the contractor to promptly resolve problems due to unanticipated interferences or material procurement problems that may arise during the course of construction. The engineering staff planning for structural modifications at an operating nuclear power plant must be flexible enough to permit rapid response to the common ''fire drills,'' but controlled enough to ensure technically correct designs and to minimize the expenditure of man-hours and the resulting engineering cost

  9. Prospects for steady-state tokamak reactor operation through feedback control of the current density profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, D

    1994-12-31

    A brief overview of the most relevant experiments on current profile modifications, strong improvements with respect to the usual L-mode scaling laws and Troyon beta limit is presented, as relevant issues for most tokamaks. Practical means and scenarios for producing and maintaining the optimum current profiles in the various phases of the thermonuclear discharge (profile formation, current ramp-up, burn phase) are proposed. (author). 34 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  11. Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function.

  12. Recovery of Dysphagia in lateral medullary stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function.

  13. Lateral human-structure interaction on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    generated by pedestrians during walking on an instrumented moving treadmill. The treadmill was driven sinusoidally in a lateral motion at various vibration frequencies and amplitudes. Visual observations made during the experiments and testimonies from the walkers, as well as subsequent analysis of video...... recordings, suggested that synchronisation is not as pronounced as generally believed. To confirm this, further analyses were undertaken on the walking patterns of 10 test subjects that were instrumented with waist-mounted tri-axial accelerometers. In this paper, the results from these tests are presented....... The tests reveal that synchronisation is not a pre-condition for the development of large amplitude lateral vibrations on footbridges, as walking frequencies and phase angles remain largely unaffected by lateral motion at most frequencies and amplitudes. Instead, large amplitude vibrations are the result...

  14. Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function. PMID:25045555

  15. Scanning Auger microscopy for high lateral and depth elemental sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, E., E-mail: eugenie.martinez@cea.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Yadav, P. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bouttemy, M. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Renault, O.; Borowik, Ł.; Bertin, F. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Chabli, A. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •SAM performances and limitations are illustrated on real practical cases such as the analysis of nanowires and nanodots. •High spatial elemental resolution is shown with the analysis of reference semiconducting Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs multilayers. •High in-depth elemental resolution is also illustrated. Auger depth profiling with low energy ion beams allows revealing ultra-thin layers (∼1 nm). •Analysis of cross-sectional samples is another effective approach to obtain in-depth elemental information. -- Abstract: Scanning Auger microscopy is currently gaining interest for investigating nanostructures or thin multilayers stacks developed for nanotechnologies. New generation Auger nanoprobes combine high lateral (∼10 nm), energy (0.1%) and depth (∼2 nm) resolutions thus offering the possibility to analyze the elemental composition as well as the chemical state, at the nanometre scale. We report here on the performances and limitations on practical examples from nanotechnology research. The spatial elemental sensitivity is illustrated with the analysis of Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs heterostructures, Si nanowires and SiC nanodots. Regarding the elemental in-depth composition, two effective approaches are presented: low energy depth profiling to reveal ultra-thin layers (∼1 nm) and analysis of cross-sectional samples.

  16. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  17. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70-94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21-58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spectral backward radiation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung Duck; Lee, Keun Hyun; Kim, Bo Ra; Yoon, Suk Soo

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic backward radiation profile is frequency-dependent when incident region has deptional gradient of acoustical properties or multi-layers. Until now, we have measured the profiles of principal frequencies of used transducers so that it was not easy to understand the change of the frequency component and spectrum of backward radiation from the profile. We tried to measure the spectral backward radiation profiles using DFP(digital filer package) Lecroy DSO. The very big changes in the shape and pattern of spectral backward radiation profiles leads to the conclusion that this new try could be very effective tool to evaluate frequency dependent surface area.

  19. Proposed Modification of the Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    After discussion at TREF on 29 October 2003, the Management proposes in this document a modification affecting one of the general principles of the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), decided by the Council in December 1996 and introduced in April 1997. This modification would authorise the Director-General, in exceptional cases, as indicated in section 3 below, and, with the staff member's consent, to cancel his or her participation in the PRP and to reinstate the staff member in his or her original contractual situation. No modifications to the Staff Rules and Regulations are required. The proposal set out in section 3 of the present document is submitted by the Management, after consultation of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund, for recommendation by the Finance Committee to the Council and for approval by the Council, to enter into force as of 1 January 2004.

  20. Identification and Interrogation of Combinatorial Histone Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Karch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone proteins are dynamically modified to mediate a variety of cellular processes including gene transcription, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurs through the recruitment of non-histone proteins to chromatin by specific combinations of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs. Mass spectrometry has emerged as an essential tool to discover and quantify histone PTMs both within and between samples in an unbiased manner. Developments in mass spectrometry that allow for characterization of large histone peptides or intact protein has made it possible to determine which modifications occur simultaneously on a single histone polypeptide. A variety of techniques from biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical biology have been employed to determine the biological relevance of discovered combinatorial codes. This review first describes advancements in the field of mass spectrometry that have facilitated histone PTM analysis and then covers notable approaches to probe the biological relevance of these modifications in their nucleosomal context.

  1. Three Sisters Dam modifications and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courage, L.J.R. [Monenco AGRA Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Recent modifications and maintenance carried out at the Three Sisters Dam, in the Alberta Rockies south of the town of Canmore, were described. A detailed account was given of the dam`s geological setting, its abnormally high leakage through the foundation and its sinkhole activity. Results of studies aimed at finding the cause of leakage and sinkhole occurrences were reviewed. Modifications made to the dam since 1951 were detailed, as were modifications to handle probable maximum flood levels. Three approaches for estimating failure probabilities after identification of failure modes were described. The overall conclusion was that based on constant leakage, no settlement in the dam, penstocks, or the powerhouse since construction, the Three Sisters Dam was stable. 1 ref.

  2. Nanofibrillated Cellulose Surface Modification: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bras

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC has increased notably over recent decades. This bio-based nanomaterial has been used essentially in bionanocomposites or in paper thanks to its high mechanical reinforcement ability or barrier property respectively. Its nano-scale dimensions and its capacity to form a strong entangled nanoporous network have encouraged the emergence of new high-value applications. It is worth noting that chemical surface modification of this material can be a key factor to achieve a better compatibility with matrices. In order to increase the compatibility in different matrices or to add new functions, surface chemical modification of NFC appears to be the prior choice to conserve its intrinsic nanofibre properties. In this review, the authors have proposed for the first time an overview of all chemical grafting strategies used to date on nanofibrillated cellulose with focus on surface modification such as physical adsorption, molecular grafting or polymer grafting.

  3. Characteristic measurements of JRR-2 after modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    JRR-2 was shut down in December 1973, to improve it in heavy water leakage from the metal packing between core tank and support ring, corrosion of the lower shielding plug, and fault in the control-rod mechanism. Modification was on a standing seal to stop heavy water leakage at the support ring, replacement of the reactor top shield, replacement of the control-rod mechanism, improvement of the helium system, improvement of the irradiated air system to reduce radioactive argon gas release from the stack. Works were completed in September 1975. Functional tests and characteristic measurements then followed, to show good results of the modification. Described are; modification, critical experiments, calibration of the control rods, reactor thermal power, measurements of the neutron flux distribution, core heavy water flow distribution, heavy water decomposition rate, helium leak rate and tritium concentration in the thermal shielding light water, radioactive argon gas release from the stack, and effect of the reactor top shield. (auth.)

  4. Reversible transinsular herniation of the lateral ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holodny, Andrei I. [UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Department of Radiology, Newark, NJ (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, The Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Gor, Devang M.; Thaver, Hussain; Millian, Brian R. [UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Department of Radiology, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2004-11-01

    We present a 7-year-old boy, with a history of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, leading to hydrocephalus with multiple shunt revisions. The current presentation of shunt failure and resultant hydrocephalus was complicated by herniation of the trigone of the lateral ventricle into the posterior fossa. Despite the dramatic radiological appearance, this herniation of the lateral ventricle was not accompanied by any additional clinical signs or symptoms other than those usually attributed to hydrocephalus. Following successful shunt revision, the patient returned to his baseline clinically with the trigone reverting back to its normal position. We also present a second companion case. (orig.)

  5. Later Wittgenstein and the Philosophy of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stig Børsen

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out by distinguishing Wittgenstein’s own views in the philosophy of religion from a school of thought in the philosophy of religion that relies on later Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language. After a survey of distinguishing features of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy, the third...... section explores Wittgenstein’s treatment of Frazer’s account of magic among primitive peoples. The following section offers an account of Wittgensteinian philosophy of religion, including the use of the notions of a language game and superstition. I conclude by criticizing a very influential argument...

  6. Imaging modes for potential mapping in semiconductor devices by electron holography with improved lateral resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sickmann, Jan, E-mail: jan.sickmann@triebenberg.de [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Formanek, Petr; Linck, Martin [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Muehle, Uwe [Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Lichte, Hannes [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Electron holography is the highest resolving tool for dopant profiling at nanometre-scale resolution. In order to measure the object areas of interest in a hologram, both a wide field of view and a sufficient lateral resolution are required. The usual path of rays for recording holograms with an electron biprism using the standard objective lens does not meet these requirements, because the field of view amounts to some 10 nm only, however, at a resolution of 0.1 nm better than needed here. Therefore, instead of the standard objective lens, the Lorentz lens is widely used for holography of semiconductors, since it provides a field of view up to 1000 nm at a sufficient lateral resolution of about 10 nm. Since the size of semiconductor structures is steadily shrinking, there is now a need for better lateral resolution at an appropriate field of view. Therefore, additional paths of rays for recording holograms are studied with special emphasis on the parameters field of view and lateral resolution. The findings allow an optimized scheme with a field of view of 200 nm and a lateral resolution of 3.3 nm filling the gap between the existing set-ups. In addition, the Lorentz lens is no longer required for investigation of non-magnetic materials, since the new paths of rays are realized with the standard objective lens and diffraction lens. An example proves the applicability of this arrangement for future semiconductor technology. -- Research highlights: {yields} Imaging modes for potential mapping in semiconductor devices by electron holography. {yields} Using objective and diffraction lens for imaging instead of Lorentz lens. {yields} Detailed investigation of four different paths of rays and its basic parameters for holographic application: field of view, lateral resolution, signal resolution. {yields} Measuring the phase profile of a field effect transistor with 3 nm lateral resolution at field of view of 200 nm.

  7. Disassembling and modification of RA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarizzo, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the partial disassembling and modification of RA-3, called the Modernization Project. It comprises all the technical and administrative steps directly related with this task. The improvement of RA-3 is a result of the lack of 90% enriched uranium obliging a change over to 20% enriched uranium. This brought about design modifications both in fuel elements and the reactor. The presentation of documents for the licensing authority as well as are detailed separately. The modernization project was divided in 25 tasks: 1) changing fuel element support table, 2) changing heat exchanger, 3) repairing of cooling towers, 4) repairing of primary circuit valves, 5) repairing of irradiation channels, 6) construction of a new sampler, 7) changing tangential channel, 8) cleaning and disassembling of reactor (inside), 9) changing continuous demineralizer (ion exchange column), 10) detection of failure in fuel elements, 11) modification of nuclear instrumentation, 12) modification of conventional instrumentation, 13) modification of electrical system, 14) changing telemanipulators, 15) construction of mechanism bridge, 16) changing a primary circuit valve when the heat exchanger is changed too, 17) painting ground floor, hall floor, and pump room floor with epoxy resin levelling, 18) installation of fire alarm system, 19) radioactive liquid discharge, 20) modification of secondary circuit (This task involves: a) installation of a third secondary pump, b) extension of this piping, c) installation of two 12 inch valves to the present cooling towers pools independent, d) installation of filtering system), 21) optimization hot water bed, 22) changing detector support table, 23) removal, decontamination and reinstallation of shielding, 25) changing pneumatic system

  8. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells: clinical applications in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Letizia; Mareschi, Katia; Ferrero, Ivana; Vassallo, Elena; Oliveri, Giuseppe; Boccaletti, Riccardo; Testa, Lucia; Livigni, Sergio; Fagioli, Franca

    2006-07-01

    Our study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of intraspinal cord implantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a few well-monitored amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Seven patients affected by definite ALS were enrolled in the study and two patients were treated for compassionate use and monitored for at least 3 years. Bone marrow was collected from the posterior iliac crest according to the standard procedure and MSCs were expanded ex vivo according to Pittenger's protocol. The cells were suspended in 2 ml autologous cerebrospinal fluid and transplanted into the spinal cord by a micrometric pump injector. The in vitro expanded MSCs did not show any bacterial o fungal contamination, hemopoietic cell contamination, chromosomic alterations and early cellular senescence. No patient manifested major adverse events such as respiratory failure or death. Minor adverse events were intercostal pain irradiation and leg sensory dysesthesia, both reversible after a mean period of 6 weeks. No modification of the spinal cord volume or other signs of abnormal cell proliferation were observed. A significant slowing down of the linear decline of the forced vital capacity was evident in four patients 36 months after MSCs transplantation. Our results demonstrate that direct injection of autologous expanded MSCs into the spinal cord of ALS patients is safe, with no significant acute or late toxicity, and well tolerated. The clinical results seem to be encouraging.

  9. Surgical treatment of AVN of the fibular (lateral) sesamoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waizy, Hazibullah; Jäger, Marcus; Abbara-Czardybon, Mona; Schmidt, Troy G; Frank, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    Despite the fact that the hallucal sesamoids play a crucial role in forefoot mechanics, disorders resulting from pathology of these structures are often overlooked or misdiagnosed. Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the hallucal sesamoids is a rare condition that must be differentiated from other pathologies, such as fractures, pseudarthrosis or osteomyelitis. We report on two patients with AVN of the fibular (lateral) hallucal sesamoid (Morbus Renander). In both patients the necrotic part of the fibular sesamoid was excised surgically after failed conservative therapy. The followup was 29 and 26 months. The clinical and radiological results showed a complete relief of pain in both patients without any complications or forefoot deformities. Recent literature and own experiences support non-operative initial management including anti-inflammatory medications, shoe modification and temporary limited weight bearing. If symptoms persist, surgical treatment with excision of the necrotic part of the sesamoid may be an alternative. Consideration by the surgeon should be given to protecting the neurovascular bundle and reattaching intrinsic tendons and ligaments if necessary. Satisfying results can be achieved by surgical removal.

  10. Experimental and numerical study of radial lateral fracturing for coalbed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xuan; Li, Gensheng; Huang, Zhongwei; Liang, Yuesong; Xu, Zhengming; Jin, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Drilling ultra-short radius horizontal laterals in a vertical well and then operating hydraulic fracturing (radial lateral fracturing, abbreviated as RLF) is proposed as a prospective novel method to increase the single-well productivity for coalbed methane (CBM) development. The objective of this article is to find the best fracture network profile RLF can generate and what kind of formation is suitable for this fracturing technique. Experiments using a true tri-axial fracturing simulation system are designed to analyse the influence of different lateral length, count and azimuth on the fracturing initiation and propagation. A numerical simulation is also carried out to study the sensitivity of the coal integrity and in situ stress state on the fracture initiation type. Our work shows that: the best effect of RLF is achieved when it initiates from the bedding plane where the laterals lie and forms a fracture network with one main horizontal fracture connecting multiple vertical fractures; the breakdown and injection pressure will be decreased by increasing the lateral length and count; increasing the lateral length can enlarge the horizontal fracture area; the optimal lateral design for horizontal initiation is four laterals with the phase of 90° and each lateral is at 45° from the horizontal stress; RLF is suitable for the intact coal seams in which cracks or cleats are not well developed and the overburden stress should be close to or less than the maximum horizontal stress. This paper will provide the experimental support and theoretical bases for CBM RLF design. (paper)

  11. X-ray studies on piroxicam modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reck, G.; Bannier, G.; Hoehne, E.

    1988-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam, 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-car-boxamide-1,1-dioxide, crystallizes in three different forms, two anhydrates and one monohydrate. Crystal structure analyses of the monohydrate and one of the anhydrate were carried out by Bordner et al. and Kojic-Prodic et al., respectively. The results of the analysis of the third piroxicam modification and of an independently performed structure determination of the monohydrate are reported. Molecular structures and hydrogen bonding of all modifications are discussed. (author)

  12. Histone modifications in response to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Mohammed; Saksouk, Nehme; Cote, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The packaging of the eukaryotic genome into highly condensed chromatin makes it inaccessible to the factors required for gene transcription, DNA replication, recombination and repair. Eukaryotes have developed intricate mechanisms to overcome this repressive barrier imposed by chromatin. Histone modifying enzymes and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes play key roles here as they regulate many nuclear processes by altering the chromatin structure. Significantly, these activities are integral to the process of DNA repair where histone modifications act as signals and landing platforms for various repair proteins. This review summarizes the recent developments in our understanding of histone modifications and their role in the maintenance of genome integrity

  13. Chromatin proteins and modifications as drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, Kristian; Dhanak, Dashyant

    2013-01-01

    A plethora of groundbreaking studies have demonstrated the importance of chromatin-associated proteins and post-translational modifications of histones, proteins and DNA (so-called epigenetic modifications) for transcriptional control and normal development. Disruption of epigenetic control...... is a frequent event in disease, and the first epigenetic-based therapies for cancer treatment have been approved. A generation of new classes of potent and specific inhibitors for several chromatin-associated proteins have shown promise in preclinical trials. Although the biology of epigenetic regulation...

  14. Modification to the lower hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormezano, C.

    1989-01-01

    The main modifications which have to be done to the Lower Hybrid system are related in the change of the plasma shape in front of the grill mouth. In effect, the theoretical coupling efficiency of the LHCD grill depends only upon the density at the grill mouth and upon the launched wave index. In order to minimize the number of modifications to the launcher it is proposed to modify the length of the vacuum waveguides connecting the multijunctions to the vacuum windows. To obtain the new poloidal contour, it is proposed to recover the L1 multijunctions and to remachine their mouth. (U.K.)

  15. EG and G electron linac modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, N.J.; Detch, J.L.; Kocimski, S.M.; Sawyer, C.R.; Hudson, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The electron linear accelerator at EG and G/EM, Santa Barbara Operations, installed in 1963, has been subsequently modified to produce short, intense beam pulses used in the test, calibration and development of many types of fast radiation detectors and systems. The first practical use of the single RF pulse operation, now used in many accelerators, was demonstrated on this accelerator in the late 60s. A major three-year modification, to replace obsolete equipment and bring all the subsystems up to the current state of the art, has increased the beam intensity, stability and reliability. These modifications are discussed

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF MEDIAL TO LATERAL TAPING WITH EXERCISE PROGRAMME IN SUBJECTS WITH LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Dattaram Desai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial to lateral tapping and exercise programme has been found to be effective in Lateral epicondylitis. The purpose to find the combined effect of Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme for subjects with lateral epicondylitis on pain intensity and functional ability. Method: An experimental study design, selected 40 subjects with Lateral epicondylitis randomized 20 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received only exercise programme while study group received combined medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme thrice a week for 4 weeks. Pain intensity was measured using Visual analogue scale and functional ability was measured using Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation questionnaire before and after 4 weeks of treatment. Results: When the post-intervention means were compared between Study and Control group after 4 weeks of treatment found statistically significant difference in the improvement in outcomes measures in means of VAS and PRTEE before and after intervention within the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme is more effective than the exercise programme in reduction of pain and improve functional abilities for subjects with Lateral epicondylitis.

  17. Motor neuron disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) arising from longstanding primary lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, R. P.; Koelman, J. H.; Troost, D.; de Jong, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Three men were initially diagnosed as having primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), but eventually developed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after 7.5, 9, and at least 27 years. Non-familial ALS and PLS might be different manifestations of a single disease or constitute completely distinct entities.

  18. Lateral restraint assembly in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.J.; Gorholt, W.

    1977-01-01

    A lateral restraint assembly is described for a reactor of, for example, the high temperature gas-cooled type which commonly includes a reactor core of relatively complex construction supported within a shell or vessel providing a shielded cavity for containing the reactor core. (U.K.)

  19. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerhuis, A.P.; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the

  20. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning moment, cyclic horizontal loading and constant vertical loading, acting on the same plane for thousands...

  1. Laterality of Symptomatic Recurrent Calcium Nephrolithiasis | Ketata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Although it is presumed that both kidneys excrete similar urinary constituents, it is a general observation that the majority of patients present with unilateral stone disease. The aim of this work was to study the laterality of recurrence in calcium stone formers. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective study of 154 ...

  2. Traces of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraete, E.

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease of the motor system involving both upper motor neurons in the brain and lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. Patients suffer from progressive wasting and weakness of limb, bulbar and respiratory muscles. Onset and disease course in ALS

  3. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  4. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    . Following the unexpected serviceability failures of Paris’ Solférino and London’s Millennium footbridges in 1999 and 2000, a new tract of research was initiated, focused on understanding the phenomenon which has become known as Synchronous Lateral Excitation (SLE). In this paper, a comprehensive review...

  5. The Advantages of Lateral Tarsal Strip Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally in surgery, an ideal operation should be effective, cause minimal discomfort and morbidity, give an aesthetic result, and have a lasting effect.[4]. Lateral strip procedure (LSP) has those characteristics and it does restore normal lid function and give a rapid rehabilitation with few complications and excellent.

  6. Laterally and longitudinally dispersive recoil mass separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollnik, H.

    1987-01-01

    Principles of laterally dispersive and time-of-flight mass separators are outlined. Special emphasis is given to separators for very energetic recoils for which electrostatic fields would be technologically impossible. The principle of energy isochronous time-of-flight mass separators is shown to be applicable to storage rings. (orig.)

  7. Lateral Transpsoas Fusion: Indications and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal C. Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal fusion historically has been used extensively, and, recently, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Recent literature on this approach has elucidated its advantage over more traditional anterior and posterior approaches, which include a smaller tissue dissection, potentially lower blood loss, no need for an access surgeon, and a shorter hospital stay. Indications for the procedure have now expanded to include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, degenerative scoliosis, nonunion, trauma, infection, and low-grade spondylolisthesis. Lateral interbody fusion has a similar if not lower rate of complications compared to traditional anterior and posterior approaches to interbody fusion. However, lateral interbody fusion has unique complications that include transient neurologic symptoms, motor deficits, and neural injuries that range from 1 to 60% in the literature. Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short- and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of lateral transpsoas procedures.

  8. A review of lateral driver support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, Martijn; van der Voort, Mascha C.; van Arem, Bart; Tillema, Frans; Dailey, D.

    2007-01-01

    Lateral driver support systems have the potential to reduce the number of accidents associated with -both intentional and unintentional -lane departures. Additionally, such systems may increase driving comfort and stimulate a more efficient traffic flow, thereby reducing traffic emissions and the

  9. Quantitative muscle ultrasonography in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.M.P.; Rooij, F.G. van; Overeem, S.; Pillen, S.; Janssen, H.M.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether quantitative muscle ultrasonography can detect structural muscle changes in early-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Bilateral transverse scans were made of five muscles or muscle groups (sternocleidomastoid, biceps brachii/brachialis, forearm flexor group,

  10. Clinical psychology and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pagnini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a fatal and progressive disease, characterized by progressive muscles weakness, with consequent loss of physical capacities. Psychologists can play an important role in ALS care, by providing clinical activities in every step of the disease, including support and counseling activities directed to patients, their caregivers and to physicians.

  11. Lateral root organogenesis - from cell to organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benková, Eva; Bielach, Agnieszka

    2010-12-01

    Unlike locomotive organisms capable of actively approaching essential resources, sessile plants must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. This involves root-mediated underground interactions allowing plants to adapt to soils of diverse qualities. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure that modulates primary root growth and root branching by continuous integration of environmental inputs, such as nutrition availability, soil aeration, humidity, or salinity. Root branching is an extremely flexible means to rapidly adjust the overall surface of the root system and plants have evolved efficient control mechanisms, including, firstly initiation, when and where to start lateral root formation; secondly lateral root primordia organogenesis, during which the development of primordia can be arrested for a certain time; and thirdly lateral root emergence. Our review will focus on the most recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root initiation and organogenesis with the main focus on root system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep and Fasciculations in Amyothropic Lateral Sclerosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šonka, K.; Fiksa, J.; Horváth, E.; Kemlink, D.; Süssová, J.; Böhm, J.; Šebesta, Václav; Volná, J.; Nevšímalová, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2004), s. 25-30 ISSN 1432-9123 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF5999 Keywords : amyothropic lateral sclerosis ALS * fasciculation * fragmentary myoclonus * periodic leg movements in sleep PLMS * polysomnography PSG * electromyography EMG * REM sleep Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  13. Arthroscopic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte-Real, Nuno M; Moreira, Rodrigo M

    2009-03-01

    The current "gold standard'' for treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability is the Broström-Gould procedure. Most authors recommend this type of operation even after an arthroscopic inspection of the joint. We review our results with an arthroscopic method of lateral ankle ligament repair. A method of arthroscopic lateral ligament repair with an anchor placed in the fibula is described. We used this technique on 31 consecutive patients (28 were available for followup). Twenty-one patients had work or traffic accidents, four suffered casual falls. and three had sport-related lesions. The patients were evaluated after 24.5 month average followup. The average postoperative AOFAS score was 85.3 (82.3 in the workers-compensation group and 94.4 in the others) and average satisfaction was 3.8 (3.5 to workers-compensation and 4.6 for the others). Complications occurred in nine patients (29%), but only three cases had ongoing problems. We had two recurrences (another sprain without instability on the stress radiograph). Three patients had some wound healing problems and three had injuries of the superficial peroneal nerve, one of which is persistent. One patient developed a deep venous thrombosis postoperatively. With this method, we achieved good clinical results. We had several complications but most of them were minor. It was a simple procedure with less morbidity to most patients. We believe it produced an anatomical repair of the lateral ligament with clinical and functional results similar to other techniques.

  14. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.C.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with

  15. Lateralization of the human mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Koski, Lisa; Zaidel, Eran; Mazziotta, John; Iacoboni, Marco

    2006-03-15

    A cortical network consisting of the inferior frontal, rostral inferior parietal, and posterior superior temporal cortices has been implicated in representing actions in the primate brain and is critical to imitation in humans. This neural circuitry may be an evolutionary precursor of neural systems associated with language. However, language is predominantly lateralized to the left hemisphere, whereas the degree of lateralization of the imitation circuitry in humans is unclear. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of imitation of finger movements with lateralized stimuli and responses. During imitation, activity in the inferior frontal and rostral inferior parietal cortex, although fairly bilateral, was stronger in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the visual stimulus and response hand. This ipsilateral pattern is at variance with the typical contralateral activity of primary visual and motor areas. Reliably increased signal in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was observed for both left-sided and right-sided imitation tasks, although subthreshold activity was also observed in the left STS. Overall, the data indicate that visual and motor components of the human mirror system are not left-lateralized. The left hemisphere superiority for language, then, must be have been favored by other types of language precursors, perhaps auditory or multimodal action representations.

  16. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eWelniarz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital mirror movements and model rodents with a hopping gait. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the hopping gait. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: i lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and ii unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output.

  17. Modification of the IAN-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaime, J.; Ahumada, S.; Spin, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The IAN-R1 reactor is the only nuclear reactor operating in Colombia; it is installed at the Institute of Nuclear Affairs (AIN) in Bogota, which is an official body coming under the Ministry of Mining and Energy. This reactor started operation in January 1965 with a rated power of 10 kW and was modified a year later to operate at 20 kW, which has been its rated power up to the present. Given its importance for the application of nuclear technology in Columbia for various purposes, principally in the areas of neutron activation analysis, determination of uranium content in minerals using the delayed neutron counting method, production of certain radioisotopes such as 198 Au and 82 Br for engineering applications, and production of radioactive material for teaching and research purposes, research has been in progress for some years into ways of increasing its power. The study on experimental requirements and on the demand for locally produced radioisotopes came to the conclusion that its power should be increased to 1000 kW, which would allow the facility to remain on the same site. The modification includes conversion of the core to low-enriched fuel, operation up to 1 MW, modification of the shielding, renovation of instrumentation and installation of a radioisotope processing plant. When the reactor is modified we will be able to produce other radioisotopes for applications in nuclear medicine, industry and engineering; at the same time, the safety of the facility will be optimized and the experimental facilities improved

  18. Lateralized Feeding Behavior is Associated with Asymmetrical Neuroanatomy and Lateralized Gene Expressions in the Brain in Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk Je; Schneider, Ralf F; Manousaki, Tereza; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Lein, Etienne; Franchini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lateralized behavior (“handedness”) is unusual, but consistently found across diverse animal lineages, including humans. It is thought to reflect brain anatomical and/or functional asymmetries, but its neuro-molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis show pronounced asymmetry in their jaw morphology as well as handedness in feeding behavior—biting scales preferentially only from one or the other side of their victims. This makes them an ideal model in which to investigate potential laterality in neuroanatomy and transcription in the brain in relation to behavioral handedness. After determining behavioral handedness in P. microlepis (preferred attack side), we estimated the volume of the hemispheres of brain regions and captured their gene expression profiles. Our analyses revealed that the degree of behavioral handedness is mirrored at the level of neuroanatomical asymmetry, particularly in the tectum opticum. Transcriptome analyses showed that different brain regions (tectum opticum, telencephalon, hypothalamus, and cerebellum) display distinct expression patterns, potentially reflecting their developmental interrelationships. For numerous genes in each brain region, their extent of expression differences between hemispheres was found to be correlated with the degree of behavioral lateralization. Interestingly, the tectum opticum and telencephalon showed divergent biases on the direction of up- or down-regulation of the laterality candidate genes (e.g., grm2) in the hemispheres, highlighting the connection of handedness with gene expression profiles and the different roles of these brain regions. Hence, handedness in predation behavior may be caused by asymmetric size of brain hemispheres and also by lateralized gene expressions in the brain. PMID:29069363

  19. Lateralized Feeding Behavior is Associated with Asymmetrical Neuroanatomy and Lateralized Gene Expressions in the Brain in Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk Je; Schneider, Ralf F; Manousaki, Tereza; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Lein, Etienne; Franchini, Paolo; Meyer, Axel

    2017-11-01

    Lateralized behavior ("handedness") is unusual, but consistently found across diverse animal lineages, including humans. It is thought to reflect brain anatomical and/or functional asymmetries, but its neuro-molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis show pronounced asymmetry in their jaw morphology as well as handedness in feeding behavior-biting scales preferentially only from one or the other side of their victims. This makes them an ideal model in which to investigate potential laterality in neuroanatomy and transcription in the brain in relation to behavioral handedness. After determining behavioral handedness in P. microlepis (preferred attack side), we estimated the volume of the hemispheres of brain regions and captured their gene expression profiles. Our analyses revealed that the degree of behavioral handedness is mirrored at the level of neuroanatomical asymmetry, particularly in the tectum opticum. Transcriptome analyses showed that different brain regions (tectum opticum, telencephalon, hypothalamus, and cerebellum) display distinct expression patterns, potentially reflecting their developmental interrelationships. For numerous genes in each brain region, their extent of expression differences between hemispheres was found to be correlated with the degree of behavioral lateralization. Interestingly, the tectum opticum and telencephalon showed divergent biases on the direction of up- or down-regulation of the laterality candidate genes (e.g., grm2) in the hemispheres, highlighting the connection of handedness with gene expression profiles and the different roles of these brain regions. Hence, handedness in predation behavior may be caused by asymmetric size of brain hemispheres and also by lateralized gene expressions in the brain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Impact of Interfacial Defects on the Properties of Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Lateral Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Zhen

    2017-03-25

    We explored the impact of interfacial defects on the stability and optoelectronic properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide lateral heterojunctions using a density functional theory approach. As a prototype, we focused on the MoS2-WSe2 system and found that even a random alloy-like interface with a width of less than 1 nm has only a minimal impact on the band gap and alignment compared to the defect-less interface. The largest impact is on the evolution of the electrostatic potential across the monolayer. Similar to defect-less interfaces, a small number of defects results in an electrostatic potential profile with a sharp change at the interface, which facilitates exciton dissociation. Differently, a large number of defects results in an electrostatic potential profile switching smoothly across the interface, which is expected to reduce the capability of the heterojunction to promote exciton dissociation. These results are generalizable to other transition metal dichalcogenide lateral heterojunctions.

  1. Kinesio taping in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Banu; Batmaz, Ibrahim; Sarıyıldız, Mustafa Akif; Sahin, Ebru; Ilter, Leman; Gulbahar, Selmin; Cevik, Remzi; Nas, Kemal

    2016-11-21

    Lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a painful condition that affects the tendinous tissue of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and leads to loss of function of the affected limb. Therefore it can have a major impact on the patient's social and personal life. Many treatments are recommended for lateral epicondylitis; unfortunately the evidence is limited. The aim of study was to investigate the effect of kinesio taping (KT) on pain, grip strength and function in patients LE. Thirty-one (23 females, 8 males) patients with LE were included. KT was applied twice a week for 2 weeks. Pain at rest, activity of daily living (ADL), night and palpation on lateral epicondyle was evaluated with the visual analog scale (VAS 0-10 cm), and the grip strength was measured with a hand held dynamometer. The stage of the disease was evaluated by the Nirschl score and the functional status was assessed with Patient-Rated Forearm Evaluation Questionnaire (PRTEQ) score. These parameters were evaluated before, at 2 weeks and 6 weeks after treatment. Patients' satisfaction was also recorded on a Likert scale after treatment at 2 weeks and 6 weeks. The average age of the patients was 43.58 ± 9.02. The dominant limb was affected in 64.5% (20) of the patients. After the application of KT on lateral epicondyle, there was a significant improvement in all parameters in terms of pain, Nirschl score, hand grip strength, patient satisfaction, and PRTEQ scores at 2 and 6 weeks. Kinesio taping can be an effective treatment method in LE. This application improves pain, grip strength and functional status of the patients with LE.

  2. Mapping of the lateral flow field in typical subchannels of a support grid with vanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClusky, Heather L.; Holloway, Mary V.; Conover, Timothy A.; Beasley, Donald E.; Conner, Michael E.; Smith III, L. David

    2003-01-01

    Lateral flow fields in four subchannels of a model rod bundle fuel assembly are measured using particle image velocimetry. Vanes (split-vane pairs) are located on the downstream edge of the support grids in the rod bundle fuel assembly and generate swirling flow. Measurements are acquired at a nominal Reynolds number of 28,000 and for seven streamwise locations ranging from 1.4 to 17.0 hydraulic diameters downstream of the grid. The streamwise development of the lateral flow field is divided into two regions based on the lateral flow structure. In Region I, multiple vortices are present in the flow field and vortex interactions occur. Either a single circular vortex or a hairpin shaped flow structure is formed in Region II. Lateral kinetic energy, maximum lateral velocity, centroid of vorticity, radial profiles of azimuthal velocity, and angular momentum are employed as measures of the streamwise development of the lateral flow field. The particle image velocimetry measurements of the present study are compared with laser doppler velocimetry measurements taken for the identical support grids and flow condition. (author)

  3. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  4. Potential profile and photovoltaic effect in nanoscale lateral pn junction observed by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Roland; Moraru, Daniel; Mizuno, Takeshi; Jablonski, Ryszard; Tabe, Michiharu

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale pn junctions have been investigated by Kelvin probe force microscopy and several particular features were found. Within the depletion region, a localized noise area is observed, induced by temporal fluctuations of dopant states. Electronic potential landscape is significantly affected by dopants with ground-state energies deeper than in bulk. Finally, the effects of light illumination were studied and it was found that the depletion region shifts its position as a function of light intensity. This is ascribed to charge redistribution within the pn junction as a result of photovoltaic effect and due to the impact of deepened-level dopants. - Highlights: • In pn nano-junctions, temporal potential fluctuations are found in depletion layer. • Fluctuations are due to frequent capture and emission of free carriers by dopants. • Depletion layer position shifts as a function of the intensity of irradiated light. • The depletion layer shifts are due to changes of deep-level dopants' charge states

  5. Structural Study and Modification of Support Layer for Forward Osmosis Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Meixia

    2016-06-01

    Water scarcity is a serious global issue, due to the increasing population and developing economy, and membrane technology is an essential way to address this problem. Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane process, due to its low energy consumption (not considering the draw solute regeneration). A bottleneck to advance this technology is the design of the support layer for FO membranes to minimize the internal concentration polarization. In this dissertation, we focus on the structural study and modification of the support layer for FO membranes. Firstly, we digitally reconstruct different membrane morphologies in 3D and propose a method for predicting performance in ultrafiltration operations. Membranes with analogous morphologies are later used as substrate for FO membranes. Secondly, we experimentally apply substrates with different potentially suitable morphologies as an FO support layer. We investigate their FO performance after generating a selective polyamide layer on the top, by interfacial polymerization. Among the different substrates we include standard asymmetric porous membranes prepared from homopolymers, such as polysulfone. Additionally block copolymer membrane and Anodisc alumina membrane are chosen based on their exceptional structures, with cylindrical pores at least in part. 3D digitally reconstructed porous substrates, analogous to those investigated for ultrafiltration, are then used to model the performance in FO operation. Finally, we analyze the effect of intermediate layers between the porous substrate and the interfacial polymerized layer. We investigate two materials including chitosan and hydrogel. The main results are the following. Pore-scale modeling for digital membrane generation effectively predicts the velocity profile in different layers of the membrane and the performance in UF experiments. Flow simulations confirm the advantage of finger-like substrates over sponge-like ones, when high water permeance is sought

  6. Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

    2013-10-09

    In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 μm for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 μm for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process.

  7. Similarity Arguments in the Genetic Modification Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In the ethical debate on genetic modification (GM), it is common to encounter the claim that some anti-GM argument would also apply an established, ethically accepted technology, and that the anti-GM argument is therefore unsuccessful. The paper discusses whether this argumentative strategy, the ...

  8. A Logic of Modification and Creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard R.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, MCL (modification and creation logic) is presented, a variant of quantified dynamic logic (QDL) with enhanced expressivity. In MCL, functions and predicates can be modified by actions f := λx.t and p := λx.φ, respectively, and new objects can be created by the action Create. This

  9. Surface Modification Of Implants For Bone Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the methods of surface modification methods for AISAI 316 L steel and Ti6Al4V ELI titanium alloy, dedicated to complex design implants used in bone surgery. Results of structural tests have been presented along with those evaluating the physicochemical properties of the formed surface layers. Clinical feasibility of the surface layers has also been evaluated.

  10. [Advances in microbial genome reduction and modification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2013-08-01

    Microbial genome reduction and modification are important strategies for constructing cellular chassis used for synthetic biology. This article summarized the essential genes and the methods to identify them in microorganisms, compared various strategies for microbial genome reduction, and analyzed the characteristics of some microorganisms with the minimized genome. This review shows the important role of genome reduction in constructing cellular chassis.

  11. 7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ecological and economic values to the United States. ... the program so long as the modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for... of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no additional cost to the...

  12. Oxidative Modification of Tryptophan-Containing Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jonas; Christensen, Pia Katrine; Nielsen, Mathias T

    2018-01-01

    We herein present a broadly useful method for the chemoselective modification of a wide range of tryptophan-containing peptides. Exposing a tryptophan-containing peptide to 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) resulted in a selective cyclodehydration between the peptide backbone...

  13. Debye screening modifications in ponderomotive effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Subbarao, D.

    1979-01-01

    The effective Debye screening length is shown to be increased in the presence of a high-power electromagnetic wave. The consequent modifications in ponderomotive redistributive effects and strong violations of charge neutrality have been shown to be in agreement with recent laser-plasma experiments

  14. Cooling tower modification for intermittent operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midkiff, W.S.

    1975-03-01

    One of the cooling towers at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is being operated intermittently. The cooling tower has been modified to restrict air flow and to keep the tower from drying out. The modifications are relatively inexpensive, simple to operate, and have proved effective. (U.S.)

  15. The Pomeranchuk theorem and its modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Saly, R.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the various modifications and improvements of the Pomeranchuk theorem and also of related statements is given. The present status of the Pomeranchuk relation based on dispersion relation is discussed. Numerous problems related to the Pomeranchuk theorem and some answers to these problems are collected in a clear table

  16. Alignment modification for pencil eye shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.D.; Pla, M.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate alignment of pencil beam eye shields to protect the lens of the eye may be made easier by means of a simple modification of existing apparatus. This involves drilling a small hole through the center of the shield to isolate the rayline directed to the lens and fabricating a suitable plug for this hole

  17. Protein covalent modification by biologically active quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV J. GASIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The avarone/avarol quinone/hydroquinone couple shows considerable antitumor activity. In this work, covalent modification of b-lactoglobulin by avarone and its derivatives as well as by the synthetic steroidal quinone 2,5(10-estradiene-1,4,17-trione and its derivatives were studied. The techniques for studying chemical modification of b-lactoglobulin by quinones were: UV/Vis spectrophotometry, SDS PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. SDS PAGE results suggest that polymerization of the protein occurs. It could be seen that the protein of 18 kD gives the bands of 20 kD, 36 kD, 40 kD, 45 kD, 64 kD and 128 kD depending on modification agent. The shift of the pI of the protein (5.4 upon modification toward lower values (from pI 5.0 to 5.3 indicated that lysine amino groups are the principal site of the reaction of b-lactoglobulin with the quinones.

  18. Proposal for a modification of SPICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobeldijk, C.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Griffioen, A.C.; D'Ippolito, D.A.

    1978-10-01

    Results and conclusions of recent experimental and theoretical screw-pinch research at Jutphaas are summarized. Based on these conclusions a modification of the toroidal vacuum chamber and the conducting shell of SPICA is proposed. The physics objectives of the modified experiment (SPICA II) as well as the planning are described. More detailed information can be obtained from the appendices. (Auth.)

  19. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 2. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification - The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007. Mitradas M Panicker. General Article Volume 13 Issue 2 February 2008 pp 172-180 ...

  20. Histone modifications and nuclear architecture: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártová, Eva; Kroupová, Jana; Harničarová, Andrea; Galiová-Šustáčková, Gabriela; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 8 (2008), s. 711-721 ISSN 0722-186X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/06/0978; GA MŠk(CZ) LC535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : histones * histone modifications * nuclear architecture Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  1. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  2. 14 CFR 1274.938 - Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL... the term of this agreement and in the interest of achieving program objectives, the parties may agree... agreement. Any changes to this agreement will be accomplished by a written bilateral modification. [End of...

  3. Albumin modification and fragmentation in renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadio, Carlo; Tognotti, Danika; Donadio, Elena

    2012-02-18

    Albumin is the most important antioxidant substance in plasma and performs many physiological functions. Furthermore, albumin is the major carrier of endogenous molecules and exogenous ligands. This paper reviews the importance of post-translational modifications of albumin and fragments thereof in patients with renal disease. First, current views and controversies on renal handling of proteins, mainly albumin, will be discussed. Post-translational modifications, namely the fragmentation of albumin found with proteomic techniques in nephrotic patients, diabetics, and ESRD patients will be presented and discussed. It is reasonable to hypothesize that proteolytic fragmentation of serum albumin is due to a higher susceptibility to proteases, induced by oxidative stress. The clinical relevance of the fragmentation of albumin has not yet been established. These modifications could affect some physiological functions of albumin and have a patho-physiological role in uremic syndrome. Proteomic analysis of serum allows the identification of over-expressed proteins and can detect post-translational modifications of serum proteins, hitherto hidden, using standard laboratory techniques. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural dynamic modification using additive damping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elements, FEM and perturbation methods for reanalysis or structural dynamic modification ... to a system changes its mass, stiffness and damping. Thus ... due to the phase difference between stress ' and strain or 'a И E1 З iE2 for direct strain.

  5. Radiation modification of glass fiber - reinforced plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allayarov, S.R.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Lesnichaya, V.A.; Ol'khov, Yu.A.; Belov, G.P.; Dixon, D.A.; Kispert, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    Modification of glass fiber - reinforced plastics (GFRPs) by gamma-irradiation has been researched to receipt of polymeric composite materials. They were produced by the film - technology method and the cheapest thermoplastics (polythene, polyamide were used as polymeric matrixes for their manufacture. GFRPs were irradiated with Co 60 gamma-rays from a Gammatok-100 source in air and in vacuum. The strength properties of GFRPs and initial polymeric matrixes were investigated before and after radiolysis. Molecular - topological structure of the polymeric matrixes were tested by the method of thermomechanical spectroscopy. The strength properties of GFRPs depend on a parity of speeds of structural (physical) and chemical modification of the polymeric matrixes. These two processes proceed simultaneously. The structural modification includes physical transformation of polymers at preservation of their chemical structure. Covalent bonds between various macromolecules or between macromolecules and surface of fiberglasses are formed at the chemical modification of polymeric matrixes induced by radiation. Action of ionizing radiation on the used polymeric matrix results to its structurization (polythene) or to destruction (polyamide). Increasing of durability of GFRPs containing polythene is caused by formation of the optimum molecular topological structure of the polymeric matrix. (authors)

  6. Aberration of miRNAs Expression in Leukocytes from Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, YongPing; Wei, QianQian; Chen, XuePing; Li, ChunYu; Cao, Bei; Ou, RuWei; Hadano, Shinji; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNAs play an important role in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Most of previous studies on miRNA dysregulation in ALS focused on the alterative expression in ALS animal model or in limited samples from European patients with ALS. In the present study, the miRNA expression profiles were investigated in Chinese ALS patients to explore leukocytes miRNAs as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of ALS. Methods: We ana...

  7. Are women with polycystic ovary syndrome at increased cardiovascular disease risk later in life?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunning, M. N.; Fauser, B. C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world’s leading cause of death amongst women is cardiovascular disease. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic profile in early life. Apart from dyslipidemia, obesity and onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, androgens are thought to influence cardiovascular health. The question rises whether women with PCOS are truly at risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. In this review paper, we aim to reflect on this assumed relation based on...

  8. Tryptophan 32 potentiates aggregation and cytotoxicity of a copper/zinc superoxide dismutase mutant associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David M; Gibbs, Bernard F; Kabashi, Edor; Minotti, Sandra; Durham, Heather D; Agar, Jeffrey N

    2007-06-01

    One familial form of the neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD-1). This study provides in vivo evidence that normally occurring oxidative modification to SOD-1 promotes aggregation and toxicity of mutant proteins. The oxidation of Trp-32 was identified as a normal modification being present in both wild-type enzyme and SOD-1 with the disease-causing mutation, G93A, isolated from erythrocytes. Mutating Trp-32 to a residue with a slower rate of oxidative modification, phenylalanine, decreased both the cytotoxicity of mutant SOD-1 and its propensity to form cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons of dissociated mouse spinal cord cultures.

  9. The ethics of molecular memory modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Katrina; Fisher, Carl E

    2015-07-01

    Novel molecular interventions have recently shown the potential to erase, enhance and alter specific long-term memories. Unique features of this form of memory modification call for a close examination of its possible applications. While there have been discussions of the ethics of memory modification in the literature, molecular memory modification (MMM) can provide special insights. Previously raised ethical concerns regarding memory enhancement, such as safety issues, the 'duty to remember', selfhood and personal identity, require re-evaluation in light of MMM. As a technology that exploits the brain's updating processes, MMM helps correct the common misconception that memory is a static entity by demonstrating how memory is plastic and subject to revision even in the absence of external manipulation. Furthermore, while putatively safer than other speculative technologies because of its high specificity, MMM raises notable safety issues, including potential insidious effects on the agent's emotions and personal identity. Nonetheless, MMM possesses characteristics of a more permissible form of modification, not only because it is theoretically safer, but because its unique mechanism of action requires a heightened level of cooperation from the agent. Discussions of memory modification must consider the specific mechanisms of action, which can alter the weight and relevance of various ethical concerns. MMM also highlights the need for conceptual accuracy regarding the term 'enhancement'; this umbrella term will have to be differentiated as new technologies are applied to a widening array of purposes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Response format, magnitude of laterality effects, and sex differences in laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the evidence for the claim that response format might affect the magnitude of laterality effects by means of a meta-analysis. The analysis included the 396 effect sizes drawn from 266 studies retrieved by Voyer (1996) and relevant to the main effect of laterality and sex differences in laterality for verbal and non-verbal tasks in the auditory, tactile, and visual sensory modality. The response format used in specific studies was the only moderator variable of interest in the present analysis, resulting in four broad response categories (oral, written, computer, and pointing). A meta-analysis analogue to ANOVA showed no significant influence of response format on either the main effect of laterality or sex differences in laterality when all sensory modalities were combined. However, when modalities were considered separately, response format affected the main effect of laterality in the visual modality, with a clear advantage for written responses. Further pointed analyses revealed some specific differences among response formats. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the measurement of laterality.

  11. A Descriptive Study on the Neonatal Morbidity Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Including a Comparison with Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atladóttir, H. Ó.; Schendel, D. E.; Parner, E. T.; Henriksen, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the profile of specific neonatal morbidities in children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to compare this profile with the profile of children with hyperkinetic disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy or intellectual disability. This is a Danish population based cohort study, including all…

  12. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  13. Offset-electrode profile acquisition strategy for electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Austin R.; Plattner, Alain

    2018-04-01

    We present an electrode layout strategy that allows electrical resistivity profiles to image the third dimension close to the profile plane. This "offset-electrode profile" approach involves laterally displacing electrodes away from the profile line in an alternating fashion and then inverting the resulting data using three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography software. In our synthetic and field surveys, the offset-electrode method succeeds in revealing three-dimensional structures in the vicinity of the profile plane, which we could not achieve using three-dimensional inversions of linear profiles. We confirm and explain the limits of linear electrode profiles through a discussion of the three-dimensional sensitivity patterns: For a homogeneous starting model together with a linear electrode layout, all sensitivities remain symmetric with respect to the profile plane through each inversion step. This limitation can be overcome with offset-electrode layouts by breaking the symmetry pattern among the sensitivities. Thanks to freely available powerful three-dimensional resistivity tomography software and cheap modern computing power, the requirement for full three-dimensional calculations does not create a significant burden and renders the offset-electrode approach a cost-effective method. By offsetting the electrodes in an alternating pattern, as opposed to laying the profile out in a U-shape, we minimize shortening the profile length.

  14. Surface glycosylation profiles of urine extracellular vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Q Gerlach

    Full Text Available Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs are released by cells throughout the nephron and contain biomolecules from their cells of origin. Although uEV-associated proteins and RNA have been studied in detail, little information exists regarding uEV glycosylation characteristics. Surface glycosylation profiling by flow cytometry and lectin microarray was applied to uEVs enriched from urine of healthy adults by ultracentrifugation and centrifugal filtration. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin microarray profiles was confirmed by competitive sugar inhibition and carbohydrate-specific enzyme hydrolysis. Glycosylation profiles of uEVs and purified Tamm Horsfall protein were compared. In both flow cytometry and lectin microarray assays, uEVs demonstrated surface binding, at low to moderate intensities, of a broad range of lectins whether prepared by ultracentrifugation or centrifugal filtration. In general, ultracentrifugation-prepared uEVs demonstrated higher lectin binding intensities than centrifugal filtration-prepared uEVs consistent with lesser amounts of co-purified non-vesicular proteins. The surface glycosylation profiles of uEVs showed little inter-individual variation and were distinct from those of Tamm Horsfall protein, which bound a limited number of lectins. In a pilot study, lectin microarray was used to compare uEVs from individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to those of age-matched controls. The lectin microarray profiles of polycystic kidney disease and healthy uEVs showed differences in binding intensity of 6/43 lectins. Our results reveal a complex surface glycosylation profile of uEVs that is accessible to lectin-based analysis following multiple uEV enrichment techniques, is distinct from co-purified Tamm Horsfall protein and may demonstrate disease-specific modifications.

  15. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury.

  16. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina De Cosmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia. While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  17. Lateral force transmission between human tendon fascicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, Bjarki T; Aagaard, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Whether adjacent collagen fascicles transmit force in parallel is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude of lateral force transmission between adjacent collagen fascicles from the human patellar and Achilles tendon. From each sample two adjacent strands of fascicles...... was transversally cut while the other fascicle and the fascicular membrane were kept intact. Cycle 3: both fascicles were cut in opposite ends while the fascicular membrane was left intact. A decline in peak force of 45% and 55% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and 93% and 92% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed...... in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. A decline in stiffness of 39% and 60% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and of 93% and 100% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. The present data demonstrate that lateral force transmission between...

  18. Tonoplast aquaporins facilitate lateral root emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels allowing fast and passive diffusion of water across cell membranes. It was hypothesized that AQPs contribute to cell elongation processes by allowing water influx across the plasma membrane and the tonoplast to maintain adequate turgor pressure. Here, we report...... mutants showed no or minor reduction in growth of the main root. This phenotype was due to the retardation of LRP emergence. Live cell imaging revealed that tight spatiotemporal control of TIP abundance in the tonoplast of the different LRP cells is pivotal to mediating this developmental process. While...... lateral root emergence is correlated to a reduction of AtTIP1;1 and AtTIP1;2 protein levels in LRPs, expression of AtTIP2;1 is specifically needed in a restricted cell population at the base, then later at the flanks, of developing LRPs. Interestingly, the LRP emergence phenotype of the triple tip mutants...

  19. Handedness and Lateralization of the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Teimournezhad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The present study is a review of the key concepts in relation to the nature of handedness and in line with that, the phenomenon of brain lateralization. To this end, a number of articles have been overviewed and the critical concepts such as handedness and its main features, the theoretical bases for this phenomenon, the nature and functions of lateralization, and the relationship between these two concepts have been shed light on for a better understanding. Finally, the general differences between the left-handers vs. right-handers have been drawn into consideration.

  20. Lateral resolution of eddy current imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, W.; Blodgett, M.; Nagy, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical, finite element simulation, and experimental methods were used to investigate the lateral resolution of eddy current microscopy. It was found that the lateral resolution of eddy current imaging is ultimately limited by the probe-coil geometry and dimensions, but both the inspection frequency and the phase angle can be used to optimize the resolution, to some degree, at the expense of sensitivity. Electric anisotropy exhibited by noncubic crystallographic classes of materials such as titanium alloys can play a very similar role in electromagnetic materials characterization of polycrystalline metals to that of elastic anisotropy in ultrasonic materials characterization. Our results demonstrate that eddy current microscopy can be enhanced via a high-resolution, small diameter probe-coil which delivers a unique materials characterization tool well suited for the evaluation of Ti alloys

  1. The management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phukan, Julie

    2009-02-01

    The terms amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neuron disease (MND) refer to a condition characterized by motor system degeneration with relative preservation of other pathways. Although there have been advances in symptomatic treatment, ALS remains an incurable condition. Advances in ALS management prolong survival but simultaneously raise challenging ethical dilemmas for physicians, patients and their families. Here, we review current practice in the management of ALS including pharmacological treatment, nutritional management, respiratory care, and evolving strategies in the management of cognitive impairment.

  2. Formal Research Writing - Organizations using Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi D. Butterfield

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  3. Arthroscopic treatment for chronic lateral epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Barcellos Terra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and functional results from arthroscopic release of the short radial extensor of the carpus (SREC in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis that was refractory to conservative treatment. METHODS: Over the period from January 2012 to November 2013, 15 patients underwent arthroscopic treatment. The surgical technique used was the one described by Romeo and Cohen, based on anatomical studies on cadavers. The inclusion criteria were that the patients needed to present lateral epicondylitis and that conservative treatment (analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, corticoid infiltration or physiotherapy had failed over a period of more than six months. The patients were evaluated based on the elbow functional score of the Mayo Clinic, Nirschl's staging system and a visual analog scale (VAS for pain. RESULTS: A total of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women were included. The mean Mayo elbow functional score after the operation was 95 (ranging from 90 to 100. The pain VAS improved from a mean of 9.2 before the operation to 0.64 after the operation. On Nirschl's scale, the patients presented an improvement from a mean of 6.5 before the operation to approximately one. There were significant differences from before to after the surgery for the three functional scores used ( p 0.05. CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic treatment for lateral epicondylitis was shown to be a safe and effective therapeutic option when appropriately indicated and performed, in refractory cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. It also allowed excellent viewing of the joint space for diagnosing and treating associated pathological conditions, with a minimally invasive procedure.

  4. School Psychologists' Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, Travis G.

    2004-01-01

    School Psychologistsâ Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later (ABSTRACT) This study was designed to replicate nationwide surveys completed in 1982 and 1992. The purpose was to examine and describe the levels of job satisfaction and the relationship between the variables in a national sample of school psychologists belonging to the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). The sample for this study consisted of respondents who reported being full-time school practitioners. ...

  5. Lateral resistance of plybamboo wall-panels

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Beltran, G.E.; Herwijnen, van, F.; Janssen, J.J.A.; Moonen, S.P.G.; Gutierrez, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental and theoretical behavior of plybamboo (kind of plywood made out of bamboo) wall-panels subjected to lateral load. The wall-panels are part of a house design method proposed in the author's PhD thesis for prefabricated social housing in developing countries. Sixteen fullscaled wallpanels with or without window and door openings were tested and their theoretical capacities estimated. Design wind and seismic loads were determined according to the Internatio...

  6. Lateral medullary syndrome after a scorpion sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeth Varghese Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion bites are a common problem in Southern parts of India. The sting of Mesobuthus tamulus belonging to the Buthidae family is known for being fatal. The toxidrome of scorpion sting is known for its effect on the cardiovascular system, and there have been rare reports of cerebrovascular accidents as well. We describe a case of lateral medullary syndrome secondary to scorpion sting. As per the knowledge of the authors, this is the first case report of the same.

  7. Irreducible lateral dislocation of the elbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhaparwal M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of an irreducible post-traumatic lateral dislocation of elbow is presented. The mechanism of injury was fall on a flexed elbow with trauma on its medial aspect resulting in pronation of the forearm. At open reduction, the brachialis muscle was in the form of a tight band which prevented reduction. The ulnar nerve was entrapped in the joint.

  8. Arthroscopic treatment for chronic lateral epicondylitis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Rodrigues, Leandro Marano; Filho, Anis Nahssen; de Almeida, Gustavo Dalla Bernardina; Cavatte, José Maria; De Nadai, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the clinical and functional results from arthroscopic release of the short radial extensor of the carpus (SREC) in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis that was refractory to conservative treatment. Methods Over the period from January 2012 to November 2013, 15 patients underwent arthroscopic treatment. The surgical technique used was the one described by Romeo and Cohen, based on anatomical studies on cadavers. The inclusion criteria were that the patients needed to present lateral epicondylitis and that conservative treatment (analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, corticoid infiltration or physiotherapy) had failed over a period of more than six months. The patients were evaluated based on the elbow functional score of the Mayo Clinic, Nirschl's staging system and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Results A total of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women) were included. The mean Mayo elbow functional score after the operation was 95 (ranging from 90 to 100). The pain VAS improved from a mean of 9.2 before the operation to 0.64 after the operation. On Nirschl's scale, the patients presented an improvement from a mean of 6.5 before the operation to approximately one. There were significant differences from before to after the surgery for the three functional scores used (p  0.05). Conclusion Arthroscopic treatment for lateral epicondylitis was shown to be a safe and effective therapeutic option when appropriately indicated and performed, in refractory cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. It also allowed excellent viewing of the joint space for diagnosing and treating associated pathological conditions, with a minimally invasive procedure. PMID:26401498

  9. Arthroscopic treatment for chronic lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Rodrigues, Leandro Marano; Filho, Anis Nahssen; de Almeida, Gustavo Dalla Bernardina; Cavatte, José Maria; De Nadai, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    To report the clinical and functional results from arthroscopic release of the short radial extensor of the carpus (SREC) in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis that was refractory to conservative treatment. Over the period from January 2012 to November 2013, 15 patients underwent arthroscopic treatment. The surgical technique used was the one described by Romeo and Cohen, based on anatomical studies on cadavers. The inclusion criteria were that the patients needed to present lateral epicondylitis and that conservative treatment (analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, corticoid infiltration or physiotherapy) had failed over a period of more than six months. The patients were evaluated based on the elbow functional score of the Mayo Clinic, Nirschl's staging system and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. A total of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women) were included. The mean Mayo elbow functional score after the operation was 95 (ranging from 90 to 100). The pain VAS improved from a mean of 9.2 before the operation to 0.64 after the operation. On Nirschl's scale, the patients presented an improvement from a mean of 6.5 before the operation to approximately one. There were significant differences from before to after the surgery for the three functional scores used (p  0.05). Arthroscopic treatment for lateral epicondylitis was shown to be a safe and effective therapeutic option when appropriately indicated and performed, in refractory cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. It also allowed excellent viewing of the joint space for diagnosing and treating associated pathological conditions, with a minimally invasive procedure.

  10. Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia...

  11. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES... having jurisdiction at the mine where such equipment is to be operated stating the modifications which...

  12. Golgi structure formation, function, and post-translational modifications in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shijiao; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2017-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is a central membrane organelle for trafficking and post-translational modifications of proteins and lipids in cells. In mammalian cells, it is organized in the form of stacks of tightly aligned flattened cisternae, and dozens of stacks are often linked laterally into a ribbon-like structure located in the perinuclear region of the cell. Proper Golgi functionality requires an intact architecture, yet Golgi structure is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle and under disease conditions. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the relationship between Golgi structure formation, function, and regulation, with focus on how post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and ubiquitination regulate Golgi structure and on how Golgi unstacking affects its functions, in particular, protein trafficking, glycosylation, and sorting in mammalian cells.

  13. Childhood and later life stressors and psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie J. Roper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of psychosis consists of a complex integration of several risk factors including genetic vulnerability, adverse life events and trauma, and substance use. This review discusses the current theories of the genesis of psychosis, with an emphasis on the importance of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs and later life events. ACEs in particular have a profound impact on an individual’s health later in life; and specifically, those who have experienced ACEs are at an increased risk for psychosis. In addition, stressful life events later in life may be relevant for onset and relapse of psychotic episodes. Associations between types of life adversity and specific symptomatology of a psychotic episode have also been suggested. A multi-factorial approach is suggested for linking genetic and environmental contributors to the onset of psychosis. This approach may have an advantage over a purely bio-medical model by focusing less on disability and more on underlying contributors that may be responsive to intervention.

  14. Upper Blepharoplasty and Lateral Wound Dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Jamshidian-Tehrani, Mansooreh; Sharzad, Sahab; Sanjari, Mostafa Soltan

    2015-01-01

    To report the frequency of lateral wound dehiscence (LWD) after upper blepharoplasty (UB), a technique and its outcome to prevent LWD. A retrospective review was performed for cases of LWD after UB presenting between 2003 and 2009, and then a prospective comparative study was performed between February 2009 and March 2013. For the comparison, subjects were divided into two groups based on intraoperative assessment of lateral wound tension (same technique and surgeon). Group 1 received 1-3 orbicularis/subcutaneous buried sutures (6-0 polyglactin) before interrupted 6-0 nylon skin closure. Group 2 underwent skin closure only. Subjects, who had re-operation, skin healing disorders, and incomplete follow-up (LWD with a mean age of 36.2 years in the audit (2003-2009). The prospective study included 68 subjects (68/293, 23.2%) in Group 1 and 225 in Group 2. Gender and simultaneous forehead and eyebrow procedures were similar between groups (P = 0.3 and P = 0.4 respectively). Group 1 was statistically significantly younger at mean age of 41.4 years, compared to Group 2 at 56.1 years (P = 0.000). The frequency of LWD significantly (P = 0.04) decreased to 0.3% (1/293). In the presence of wound tension on skin closure (intraoperative assessment), tension relieving buried orbicularis/subcutaneous 6-0 polyglactin suturing of the lateral UB incision could prevent LWD.

  15. Autologous proliferative therapies in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetschke, Elisa; Rudolf, Margit; Lohmann, Christoph H; Stärke, Christian

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the clinical effects of autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) injections and low-level laser application as therapy options for chronic lateral epicondylitis. A total of 52 patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis were evaluated in this study; 26 of these patients received three ACP injections and the control group, with 26 patients, received 12 laser applications, with standardized physical therapy for all patients afterward. Control examinations took place before treatment, after 2 and 6 mos, and in the 1 yr final follow-up. The control examination included the visual analog scale for pain and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand outcome measure scores. The analysis at final follow-up after 1 yr showed that both treatment options resulted in successful therapy outcome for the patients. In total, 63.5 % were successfully treated. Successful treatment was defined as more than 30% improvement in the visual analog score and more than 10.2 points in the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score. Both groups showed a significant improvement in time response. This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of autologous proliferative therapies in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. The data show that laser application and ACP therapy lead to a clinical improvement in epicondylopathia. Especially the new treatment with ACP can be highlighted as an alternative and as an easy-to-apply therapy option for clinical practice.

  16. Lateralization of cortical negative motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggraefe, Ingo; Catarino, Claudia B; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Peraud, Aurelia; Winkler, Peter A; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-10-01

    The lateral and mesial aspects of the central and frontal cortex were studied by direct electrical stimulation of the cortex in epilepsy surgery candidates in order to determine the localization of unilateral and bilateral negative motor responses. Results of electrical cortical stimulation were examined in epilepsy surgery candidates in whom invasive electrodes were implanted. The exact localization of subdural electrodes was defined by fusion of 3-dimensional reconstructed MRI and CT images in 13 patients and by analysis of plane skull X-rays and intraoperative visual localization of the electrodes in another 7 patients. Results of electrical stimulation of the cortex were evaluated in a total of 128 patients in whom invasive electrodes were implanted for planning resective epilepsy surgery. Twenty patients, in whom negative motor responses were obtained, were included in the study. Bilateral upper limb negative motor responses were more often elicited from stimulation of the mesial frontal cortex whereas stimulation of the lateral central cortex leads to contralateral upper limb negative motor responses (pfrontal gyrus whereas contralateral negative motor responses localized predominantly in the anterior part of the precentral gyrus (pgyrus and the mesial fronto-central cortex showing functional differences with regard to unilateral and bilateral upper limb representation. The lateral fronto-central negative motor area serves predominantly contralateral upper limb motor control whereas the mesial frontal negative motor area represents bilateral upper limb movement control. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lateral rigidity of cracked concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, A.; Chesi, C.

    1979-01-01

    Numerical results are discussed on the lateral rigidity of reinforced concrete structures with a given crack distribution. They have been favourably checked with experimental results for cylindrical shells under the effect of a thermal gradient producing vertical cracking or vertical plus horizontal cracking. The main effects characterizing the concrete behaviour are: (1) The shear transfer across a crack; (2) The shear transfer degradation after cyclic loading; (3) The tension stiffening provided by the concrete between crack and crack, in the normal stress transfer; (4) The temperature effect on the elastic moduli of concrete, when cracks are of thermal origin. Only the 1st effect is discussed on an experimental basis. Two broad cathegories of reinforced concrete structures have been investigated in this respect: shear walls of buildings and cylindrical containment structures. The main conclusions so far reached are: (1) Vertical cracks are unlikely to decrease the lateral rigidity to less than 80% of the original one, and to less than 90% when they do not involve the entire thickness of the wall; (2) The appearence of horizontal cracks can reduce the lateral rigidity by some 30% or more; (3) A noticeable but not yet evaluated influence is shown by cyclic loading. (orig.)

  18. Validity of the Microsoft Kinect for providing lateral trunk lean feedback during gait retraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Pua, Yong-Hao; Bryant, Adam L; Hunt, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Gait retraining programs are prescribed to assist in the rehabilitation process of many clinical conditions. Using lateral trunk lean modification as the model, the aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of kinematic data recorded using a marker-based 3D motion analysis (3DMA) system and a low-cost alternative, the Microsoft Kinect™ (Kinect), during a gait retraining session. Twenty healthy adults were trained to modify their gait to obtain a lateral trunk lean angle of 10°. Real-time biofeedback of the lateral trunk lean angle was provided on a computer screen in front of the subject using data extracted from the Kinect skeletal tracking algorithm. Marker coordinate data were concurrently recorded using the 3DMA system, and the similarity and equivalency of the trunk lean angle data from each system were compared. The lateral trunk lean angle data obtained from the Kinect system without any form of calibration resulted in errors of a high (>2°) magnitude (mean error=3.2±2.2°). Performing global and individualized calibration significantly (Psystem for gait retraining. Given that this system is low-cost, portable and does not require any sensors to be attached to the body, it could provide numerous advantages when compared to laboratory-based gait retraining systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of halo doping profiles on MOS transistor mismatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andricciola, P.; Tuinhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    Halo implants are used in modern CMOS technology to reduce the short channel effect. However, the lateral non-uniformity of the channel doping has been proven to degenerate the mismatch performance. With this paper we want to discuss the influence of the halo profile on MOS transistor mismatch. The

  20. The role of extracellular matrix in lateral transmission of force in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingxin

    This dissertation describes the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the lateral transmission of force. It consists of an experimental studies of the ECM and mathematical modeling of lateral transmission of force. The effect of aging on the structural and mechanical properties of the epimysium of muscle of the rats were examined. No statistically significant differences were found in the ultrastructure, or the thickness of the epimysium. However, from the tensile stress-strain tests, it was found that the epimysium of muscles from old rats was much stiffer than that of the young rats. Based on these observations. It was concluded that the differences in the mechanical properties of the epimysium of the muscles from the old compared with young rats were not associated with the arrangement and size of collagen fibers in the epimysium. Consequently, other methods will be required to identify the structural bases of the mechanical differences. The stress-strain relationships for the epimysiums of the skeletal muscles from both the young and old rats were found to be nonlinear. A mathematical model was developed that showed that the nonlinear behavior results from the waviness and the reorientation of the collagen fibers in the epimysium. The ECM plays an important role in lateral transmission of force in skeletal muscle by providing shear stress between the muscle fibers or fascicles. A mathematical model was developed to investigate the mechanisms of lateral transmission. It was a modification of the shear lag theory for chopped fiber composite materials used in engineering applications. The modified shear lag theory includes an activation strain to account for muscle contraction and a myofibrils-endomysium interfaces that accounts for the molecular lateral linkages. The model was used to simulate the classic experiments of Street. It was demonstrated that lateral transmission of force in the skeletal muscle is affected by the mechanical and structural properties of

  1. Recalcitrant Lateral Premalleolar Bursitis of the Ankle Associated with Lateral Ankle Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Naito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral premalleolar bursitis of the ankle is a rarely reported disorder in the English literature although it is not uncommon in Asian countries where people commonly sit on their feet. Here, we present the case of a 66-year-old woman with recalcitrant lateral premalleolar bursitis associated with lateral ankle instability which was successfully treated with surgical resection of the bursa and repair of the anterior talofibular ligament. Operative findings revealed a communication between the bursa and articular cavity of the ankle joint via the sheath of the extensor digitorum longus tendon, which was considered to act as a check valve leading to a large and recalcitrant bursitis. This report provides a novel concept about the etiology of recalcitrant lateral premalleolar bursitis of the ankle.

  2. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Magid H

    2014-01-01

    Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). High similarities

  3. CSF glial markers correlate with survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssmuth, S D; Sperfeld, A D; Hinz, A; Brettschneider, J; Endruhn, S; Ludolph, A C; Tumani, H

    2010-03-23

    In neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), CSF biomarkers are increasingly studied to evaluate their relevance for differential diagnosis, disease progression, and understanding of pathophysiologic processes. To identify a biomarker profile of neuronal and glial CSF proteins to discriminate ALS from other motor neuron diseases (MND) and to assess whether baseline levels of CSF measures in ALS are associated with the course of the disease. A total of 122 consecutive subjects with MND were included in this cross-sectional study (ALS, n = 75; lower motor neuron syndrome, n = 39; upper motor neuron diseases, n = 8). Clinical follow-up included 76 patients. We determined baseline levels of protein tau and astroglial S100beta in CSF and microglial sCD14 in CSF and serum in relation to diagnosis, duration of disease, and survival. CSF tau was significantly elevated in ALS and upper motor neuron diseases as compared to lower motor neuron diseases and controls. CSF S100beta levels were significantly lower in lower motor neuron diseases as compared to other MND. CSF concentrations of S100beta and sCD14 correlated with the survival time in patients with ALS. In motor neuron diseases, CSF tau elevation indicates the degeneration of upper motor neurons, while S100 beta and sCD14 may indicate the activation of CNS glial cells. Because S100beta and sCD14 concentrations correlate with survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we suppose that the combination of both markers may be useful to obtain prognostic information in patients with ALS.

  4. The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gronowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

  5. Diagonal chromatography to study plant protein modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Alan; Tsiatsiani, Liana; Jacques, Silke; Stes, Elisabeth; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank; Goormachtig, Sofie; Gevaert, Kris

    2016-08-01

    An interesting asset of diagonal chromatography, which we have introduced for contemporary proteome research, is its high versatility concerning proteomic applications. Indeed, the peptide modification or sorting step that is required between consecutive peptide separations can easily be altered and thereby allows for the enrichment of specific, though different types of peptides. Here, we focus on the application of diagonal chromatography for the study of modifications of plant proteins. In particular, we show how diagonal chromatography allows for studying proteins processed by proteases, protein ubiquitination, and the oxidation of protein-bound methionines. We discuss the actual sorting steps needed for each of these applications and the obtained results. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive Control with Reference Model Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to improve transient performance of the input and output signals of uncertain systems. A simple modification of the reference model is proposed by feeding back the tracking error signal. It is shown that the proposed approach guarantees tracking of the given reference command and the reference control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient. Moreover, it prevents generation of high frequency oscillations, which are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference commands of any magnitude from any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated with a simulation example

  7. Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1 enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2 the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3 synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy.

  8. Chemical modifications and reactions in DNA nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    such as hydrocarbons or steroids have been introduced to change the surface properties of DNA origami structures, either to protect the DNA nanostructure or to dock it into membranes and other hydrophobic surfaces. DNA nanostructures have also been used to control covalent chemical reactions. This article provides......DNA nanotechnology has the power to form self-assembled and well-defined nanostructures, such as DNA origami, where the relative positions of each atom are known with subnanometer precision. Our ability to synthesize oligonucleotides with chemical modifications in almost any desired position...... provides rich opportunity to incorporate molecules, biomolecules, and a variety of nanomaterials in specific positions on DNA nanostructures. Several standard modifications for oligonucleotides are available commercially, such as dyes, biotin, and chemical handles, and such modified oligonucleotides can...

  9. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotnis, Nikhil A.; Chiavaras, Mary M.; Harish, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotnis, Nikhil A. [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Department of Medical Physics and Medical Imaging, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Chiavaras, Mary M. [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Harish, Srinivasan [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Prolonged lateral steep position impairs respiratory mechanics during continuous lateral rotation therapy in respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellongowski, Peter; Losert, Heidrun; Locker, Gottfried J; Laczika, Klaus; Frass, Michael; Holzinger, Ulrike; Bojic, Andja; Staudinger, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    To establish whether prolonged lateral steep position during continuous rotation therapy leads to improvement on pulmonary gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Twelve consecutive patients suffering from acute lung injury or adult respiratory distress syndrome undergoing continuous rotation therapy. Blood gas analysis, static lung compliance, blood pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary shunt fraction were measured in supine as well as in left and right lateral steep position at 62 degrees during continuous rotation therapy (phase I). Rotation was then stopped for 30 min with the patients in supine position, left and right lateral steep position, and the same measurements were performed every 10 min (phase II). Phase I and II revealed no significant changes in PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio, mean arterial blood pressure, pulmonary shunt fraction, or cardiac index. Significantly lower static compliance was observed in lateral steep position than in supine position (pposition than in left and right lateral steep position (ppositioning impairs the compliance of the respiratory system. Prolonged lateral steep position does not lead to benefits with respect to oxygenation or hemodynamics. Individual response to the different positions is unpredictable. The pauses in "extreme" positions should be as short as possible.

  12. Polar measurements on profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, D.

    1985-03-01

    Wind tunnel models with a profile depth of t=0.5 m were measured in a laminar wind tunnel by the usual measuring processes. The profile resistance was determined by integration along the width of span. The smooth profiles were examined at Re=0.7/1.0 and 1.5 million. At Re=1.0 million, the position of the changeover points were determined with a stethoscope. Also at this Reynolds number measurements were taken with a trip wire of d=2 mm diameter, directly on the profile nose. The tables contain the co-ordinates of the profiles, the contours, the theoretical speed distributions for 4 different angles of attack, the csub(a)-csub(w) polar measurements and changeover points, and the torque coefficients around the t/4 point. (BR).

  13. Implicit User Interest Profile

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, K

    2002-01-01

    User interest profile presents items that the users are interested in. Typically those items can be listed or grouped. Listing is good but it does not possess interests at different abstraction levels - the higher-level interests are more general, while the lower-level ones are more specific. Furthermore, more general interests, in some sense, correspond to longer-term interests, while more specific interests correspond to shorter-term interests. This hierarchical user interest profile has obvious advantages: specifying user's specific interests and general interests and representing their relationships. Current user interest profile structures mostly do not use implicit method, nor use an appropriate clustering algorithm especially for conceptually hierarchical structures. This research studies building a hierarchical user interest profile (HUIP) and the hierarchical divisive algorithm (HDC). Several users visit hundreds of web pages and each page is recorded in each users profile. These web pages are used t...

  14. Modification of plastic by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalager, P.

    1974-01-01

    Very few of the modifications of plastic materials have got industrial status. Nearly all of the succesful industrial irradiations processes are performed with polyethylene. Irradiated polyethylene has been used in industries and products such as wire, cables, foams and heat shrinkable products, i.e. films, tubings and molded parts. Also the irradiation of finished products, i.e. improvement on a thermoplastic material into thermosetting material, has been developed in this field. (M.S.)

  15. Tipping the balance by manipulating posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Christopher A.; Orth, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Summary Bacteria use a variety of mechanisms during infection to ensure their survival including the delivery of virulence factors via a type III secretion system into the infected cell. The factors exhibit diverse activities that in many cases mimic eukaryotic mechanisms used by the host to defend against infection. Herein we describe a class of effectors that use posttranslational modifications, some reversible and others irreversible, to manipulate host signaling systems to subvert the host response. PMID:20071215

  16. Screening vector field modifications of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Delvas Fróes, André Luís; Mota, David F.

    2013-01-01

    A screening mechanism for conformal vector–tensor modifications of general relativity is proposed. The conformal factor depends on the norm of the vector field and makes the field to vanish in high dense regions, whereas drives it to a non-null value in low density environments. Such process occurs due to a spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism and gives rise to both the screening of fifth forces as well as Lorentz violations. The cosmology and local constraints are also computed

  17. The experimental modification of sonorous breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, S C; Rosen, R C

    1980-01-01

    Loud snoring is a noxious habit and potential personal health risk. We are reporting the first experimental study of simple behavioral techniques for the modification of chronic snoring. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a repeated measures, randomized group design over 2 weeks of intervention and one-month follow-up. Treatment groups included a contingent-awakening and breathing retraining (self-control) condition. Both treatment groups were compared to a no-treatment control. Despite c...

  18. Dietary modification of human macular pigment density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, B R; Johnson, E J; Russell, R M; Krinsky, N I; Yeum, K J; Edwards, R B; Snodderly, D M

    1997-08-01

    The retinal carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) that form the macular pigment (MP) may help to prevent neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MP density in the retina could be raised by increasing dietary intake of L and Z from foods. Macular pigment was measured psychophysically for 13 subjects. Serum concentrations of L, Z, and beta-carotene were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven subjects modified their usual daily diets by adding 60 g of spinach (10.8 mg L, 0.3 mg Z, 5 mg beta-carotene) and ten also added 150 g of corn (0.3 mg Z, 0.4 mg L); two other subjects were given only corn. Dietary modification lasted up to 15 weeks. For the subjects fed spinach or spinach and corn, three types of responses to dietary modification were identified: Eight "retinal responders" had increases in serum L (mean, 33%; SD, 22%) and in MP density (mean, 19%; SD, 11%); two "retinal nonresponders" showed substantial increases in serum L (mean, 31%) but not in MP density (mean, -11%); one "serum and retinal nonresponder" showed no changes in serum L, Z, or beta-carotene and no change in MP density. For the two subjects given only corn, serum L changed little (+11%, -6%), but in one subject serum Z increased (70%) and MP density increased (25%). Increases in MP density were obtained within 4 weeks of dietary modification for most, but not all, subjects. When MP density increased with dietary modification, it remained elevated for at least several months after resuming an unmodified diet. Augmentation of MP for both experimental and clinical investigation appears to be feasible for many persons.

  19. Repair-modification of radiodamaged genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, P.; Institute of Experimental Medicine, Rome; Eremenko, T.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that through repair-modification, the modified base 5mC may have facilitated the divergent evolution of coding (hypomethylated exon) and uncoding (hypermethylated promoter and intron) sequences in eukaryotic genes. The radioinduced repair patches appearing in regions lacking 5mC are fully reconstructed by excision-repair, whereas those appearing in regions containing 5mC are incompletely reconstructed by this conventional mechanism. Such a second class of repair patches may, however, become fully reconstructed, in the S phase, by repair-modification. In fact, while DNA polymerase β - which is a key enzyme of excision-repair - is active through the whole interphase. DNA methylase - which is responsible for post-synthetic DNA modification - is essentially active in S. Uncoupling of these two enzyme systems, outside S, might explain why in unsynchronised cells repair patches of non-replicating strands are hypomethylated when compared with specific methylation of replicating strands. In other words, excision-repair would always be able to re-establish the primary ATGC language of both damaged unmethylated and methylated regions, while repair-modification would be able to re-establish the modified ATGC(5mC) language of the damaged methylated regions, only in S, but not in G 1 or G 2 . In these two phases, when DNA methylation is inversely correlated with pre-mRNA transcription (as in the case of many tissue-specific genes), such demethylation might induce a silent transcriptional unit to become active. (Author)

  20. Surface Modification of Mg and Mg Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Turhan, Can Metehan

    2012-01-01

    Progressively, the well explored and studied mechanical properties of a bulk metal are compared with the corrosion behaviour obtained from its surface, which enables promising improvements in desired applications. An example is magnesium metal: where, by developing new types of surface modifications by understanding its inconsistent corrosion behaviour, it would be possible to apply this engineering metal safely as a biocompatible metal, in addition to its widely used application areas such a...