WorldWideScience

Sample records for profile measuring device

  1. Measurement of inner and/or outer profiles of pipes using ring beam devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, T.; Yoshizawa, T.

    2009-11-01

    Inner profile measurement is an important matter in such fields as medicine, dentistry and anthropology as well as mechanical engineering and industry. Here we propose a measurement method for inner diameter of pipes and/or holes. The key device in this technique is a ring beam device which consists of a conical mirror and a laser diode. And the fundamental principle is based on optical sectioning without any contact probe. The optically sectioned profile of an inner wall of a pipe-like object is analyzed to give the inner profile in addition to the inner diameter. This optical instrument with a simple and small configuration is now under development for practical uses. In the hitherto-tried experimental works, the availability of this instrument has been highly evaluated and usability for practical applications is expected, especially, for measurement and inspection of mechanical components and elements besides pipes. This ring beam device consisting of a conical mirror and a LD is assembled to form a disklike light beam sheet. We show measurement result of pipes and holes, and, at the same time, report a compact inner profile measuring instrument. Both the ring beam device and a miniaturized CCD camera are fabricated in a glass tube. Availability of this instrument is shown by measuring the inner profiles of various pipes. In response to this trial, there appeared a strong request that not only the internal but external profiles should be measured simultaneously. Therefore we propose an improved method for measuring the external profile in addition to the internal profile. In our arrangement, one pair of concaved conical mirrors is used for the external profile measurement. In combination with the inner profile measurement technique, simultaneous measurement of the inner and outer profiles becomes attainable. A measurement result on a bevel gear shows availability of newly proposed principle. Now we are aiming to realize simultaneous measurement of the internal

  2. Development of an inner profile measurement instrument using a ring beam device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, T.; Wakayama, T.

    2010-11-01

    Inner profile measurement is an important matter in such fields as medicine, dentistry and anthropology as well as mechanical engineering and other industrial applications. Here we describe recent development of our measurement principle for inner diameter of pipes and/or holes. The key device in this technique is a ring beam device which consists of a conical mirror and a laser diode. And the fundamental principle is based on optical sectioning without using any contact type stylus. The optically sectioned profile of an inner wall of a pipe-like object is analyzed to give the inner profile in addition to the inner diameter. This optical instrument with a simple and small configuration is now under development for practical uses. In our hitherto trial experimental works, the availability of this instrument has been evaluated in many cases and availability for practical applications is expected, especially, for measurement and inspection of mechanical components and elements besides pipes. This ring beam device consisting of a conical mirror and a LD is assembled to form a disk-like light sheet. We show measurement result of pipes and holes, and, at the same time, report a compact inner profile measuring instrument at this point. Both the ring beam device and a miniaturized CCD camera are fabricated into a glass tube. Availability of this instrument is shown by measuring the inner profiles of various pipes. In response to this trial, there appeared a strong request that not only the internal but external profiles should be measured simultaneously. Therefore we propose potentially possible method for measurement of external profile at the same time with internal profile. If one pair of concave mirrors are used in our arrangement, external profile is captured. In combination with inner profile measurement technique, simultaneous measurement of inner and outer profiles becomes attainable. A measurement result on a bevel gear shows availability of here proposed

  3. Modeling and Experimental Tests of a Mechatronic Device to Measure Road Profiles Considering Impact Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza, A.; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    Vehicles travel at different speeds and, as a consequence, experience a broad spectrum of vibrations. One of the most important source of vehicle vibration is the road profile. Hence the knowledge of the characteristics of a road profile enables engineers to predict the dynamic behavior...... of a vehicle and to test its components in laboratory. In this framework a mechanism to measure road profiles is designed and presented. Such a mechanism is composed of two rolling wheels and two long beams attached to the vehicles by means of four Kardan joints. The wheels are kept in contact to the ground...... profile by means of gravitational and spring forces. Accelerometers are attached above the rolling wheels and the wheels follow the profiles of a rough ground. After integrating the acceleration signal twice and measuring the vehicle displacement the road profiles can be achieved. It is important...

  4. 2D spatial profile measurements of potential fluctuation with heavy ion beam probe on the Large Helical Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, A; Ido, T; Nishiura, M; Kato, S; Ogawa, K; Takahashi, H; Igami, H; Yoshimura, Y; Kubo, S; Shimozuma, T

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional spatial profiles of potential fluctuation were measured with the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) in the Large Helical Device (LHD). For 2D spatial profile measurements, the probe beam energy has to be changed, which requires the adjustment of many deflectors in the beam transport line to optimize the beam trajectory, since the transport line of LHD-HIBP system is long. The automatic beam adjustment system was developed, which allows us to adjust the beam trajectory easily. By analyzing coherence between potential fluctuation and magnetic probe signal, the noise level of the mode power spectrum of the potential fluctuation can be reduced. By using this method, the 2D spatial profile of potential fluctuation profile was successfully obtained.

  5. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, D C; Boris, D R; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F; Piefer, G R

    2013-03-01

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage (∼100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  6. Incore measuring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimiya, Akira

    1997-01-28

    In an incore measuring device comprising a first function for controlling a state of a neutron flux distribution in a reactor core and a second function for analyzing, displaying and memorizing information of a state such as of a neutron flux distribution, the second function is separated from the main processing device and it is constituted in other processing device, and further a display device is connected to the other processing device. In addition, a tool for performing maintenance of memory device, touch panel, and software is disposed. Then, load on the main processing device can be reduced, high speed control of the neutron distribution state measuring and controlling portion is enabled, and high speed control of the device for displaying information on the recognized and analyzed state is also enabled. Further, it is possible for high speed data memorizing processing, and improvement of safety of indication operation such as for incore measurement and workability of the maintenance of control softwares. (N.H.)

  7. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of axial velocity, velocity shear, and parallel ion temperature profiles during the route to plasma turbulence in a linear magnetized plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Adriany, K.; Gosselin, J. J.; McKee, J.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S. H.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-11-01

    We report experimental measurements of the axial plasma flow and the parallel ion temperature in a magnetized linear plasma device. We used laser induced fluorescence to measure Doppler resolved ion velocity distribution functions in argon plasma to obtain spatially resolved axial velocities and parallel ion temperatures. We also show changes in the parallel velocity profiles during the transition from resistive drift wave dominated plasma to a state of weak turbulence driven by multiple plasma instabilities.

  8. High temperature measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  9. Vehicle frame measurement device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarauer, A.J.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a vehicle frame and body measurement apparatus for use in realigning the structure of a damaged unibody vehicle the device having a longitudinal axis utilized in a horizontal plane the apparatus comprising means for measuring the vehicle body and frame comprising, (a) means for supporting a damaged motor vehicle in a fixed position, (b) an elongated rail on each side of the supporting means spaced apart a distance greater than the width of the supporting means and the width of the vehicle, (c) a vertical upright of a length exceeding the height of the motor vehicle slidably supported by each of the rails and having a vertical axis substantially perpendicular to the horizontal plane of the vehicle, (d) a vertically adjustable horizontal bar attached to each of the uprights, substantially perpendicular to both the longitudinal axis of the rails and the vertical axis of the uprights, (e) means for affixing the horizontal bar to the uprights so that the bar is vertically adjustable, the affixing means being provided with releasable means to permit adjustable horizontal extension of the horizontal bar and (f) at least one extendable measuring means attached to each vertical upright at its junction with its associated horizontal rail and adjustably extending along the horizontal rail, the free end of the measuring means having to releasably affix it to the rail.

  10. Temperature Measurement and Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    feasibility based on potential usefulness in clinical medicine ’ias explored. All information herein wasn obtained from literature rrv’iew only. No...measurements, applications for temperature measuring devices, and description of several modern body temperature monitoring devices (techniques). Finally...gynecology, drug therapy, and ophthalmology. TEMPERATURE SENSING DEVICES Hippocrates is believed to be the first person Lo associate body temperature as

  11. Device for measuring electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S. H.; Harrison, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Measurement of low-intensity electric fields in space and in presence of weak magnetic fields is accomplished by utilizing a device which permits determination of the extent a beam of cesium ions is deflected by an electric field.

  12. Unsupervised Power Profiling for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Today, power consumption is a main limitation for mobile phones. To minimize the power consumption of popular and traditionally power-hungry location-based services requires knowledge of how individual phone features consume power, so that those features can be utilized intelligently for optimal...... power savings while at the same time maintaining good quality of service. This paper proposes an unsupervised API-level method for power profiling mobile phones based on genetic algorithms. The method enables accurate profiling of the power consumption of devices and thereby provides the information...

  13. Unsupervised Power Profiling for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik

    Today, power consumption is a main limitation for mobile phones. To minimize the power consumption of popular and traditionally power-hungry location-based services requires knowledge of how individual phone features consume power, so that those features can be utilized intelligently for optimal...... power savings while at the same time maintaining good quality of service. This paper proposes an unsupervised API-level method for power profiling mobile phones based on genetic algorithms. The method enables accurate profiling of the power consumption of devices and thereby provides the information...

  14. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  15. Carbon nanotube oscillator surface profiling device and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Adrian [Tampa, FL; Woods, Lilia M [Tampa, FL; Bondarev, Igor V [Fuquay Varina, NC

    2011-11-15

    The proposed device is based on a carbon nanotube oscillator consisting of a finite length outer stationary nanotube and a finite length inner oscillating nanotube. Its main function is to measure changes in the characteristics of the motion of the carbon nanotube oscillating near a sample surface, and profile the roughness of this surface. The device operates in a non-contact mode, thus it can be virtually non-wear and non-fatigued system. It is an alternative to the existing atomic force microscope (AFM) tips used to scan surfaces to determine their roughness.

  16. A device for measuring electron beam characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Andreev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a device intended for diagnostics of electron beams and the results obtained with this device. The device comprises a rotating double probe operating in conjunction with an automated probe signal collection and processing system. This provides for measuring and estimating the electron beam characteristics such as radius, current density, power density, convergence angle, and brightness.

  17. Device and method for measuring biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedemair, Justyna; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for the measurement of hydrogen peroxide and optionally other biomarkers in a gaseous mixture, and in particular to a microfabricated device. The device comprises hydrogen peroxide capturing means and an electromechanical sensor comprising a sensing element in

  18. Device and method for measuring biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedemair, Justyna; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for the measurement of hydrogen peroxide and optionally other biomarkers in a gaseous mixture, and in particular to a microfabricated device. The device comprises hydrogen peroxide capturing means and an electromechanical sensor comprising a sensing element in

  19. A Portable, High Resolution, Surface Measurement Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Burns, Bradley M.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution, portable, surface measurement device has been demonstrated to provide micron-resolution topographical plots. This device was specifically developed to allow in-situ measurements of defects on the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows, but is versatile enough to be used on a wide variety of surfaces. This paper discusses the choice of an optical sensor and then the decisions required to convert a lab bench optical measurement device into an ergonomic portable system. The necessary trade-offs between performance and portability are presented along with a description of the device developed to measure Orbiter window defects.

  20. Zero G Mass Measurement Device (ZGMMD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zero Gravity Mass Measurement Device (ZGMMD) provides the ability to measure the mass of samples in a microgravity environment, like that found on the...

  1. DIMENSION MEASURING OPTICAL SIGHTING DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, G.E.

    1959-08-01

    A sighting device to check the uniformity of thickness of a lining applied to a container is presented. The sighting devlce comprises two tubular members having their ends in threaded connection with one another and a lens lying within the outer end of one of the tubular members. A ground glass inscribed with two concentric circles is located at the outer end of the other tubular section so that the image of the circular junctures, with and without the lining at the closed end of the container, can be focused on the proper circle inscribed in the ground glass so as to determine whether the lining has uniformity and whether there are thin spots.

  2. Amplitude modulation reflectometry for density profile measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, V.; Sanchez, J.; Luna, E. de la; Estrada, T.; Branas, B.; Frances, M. [Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Hirsch, M.; Geist, T.; Hartfuss, H.J. [Max Plank Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom-Ass, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hanson, G.R.; Wilgen, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8072 (United States); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) reflectometry is a technique for density profile measurements in magnetic fusion plasmas based on the measurement of the phase delay of the modulation in the amplitude of a microwave beam launched and reflected at the plasma. Results from AM experiments in the PBX-M tokamak and the W7-AS stellarator are presented. A general analysis of the capabilities of the technique is performed, particularly centered in the effects of spatial turbulence. Simulations of the effects of two-dimensional turbulence have been performed for medium size (W7-AS) and large devices (LHD stellarator, ITER), showing the capability of the AM technique to operate in turbulent plasmas. Finally, possible solutions to the problem of parasitic reflections in AM systems are presented as development options. (orig.) 4 refs.

  3. Zero G Mass Measurement Device (ZGMMD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zero G Mass Measurement Device (ZGMMD) will provide the ability to quantify the mass of objects up to 2,000 grams, including live animal specimens in a zero G...

  4. Measuring key parameters of intense pulsed light (IPL) devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Godfrey; Ash, Caerwyn; Eadie, Ewan; Moseley, Harry

    2007-09-01

    Unlike medical lasers, intense pulsed light (IPL) devices are largely unregulated and unclassified as to degree of safety hazard. With the exception of most of the USA, the United Kingdom and parts of Europe, the Far East and Australia, the sale of IPLs is generally unrestricted, with the majority being sold into the beauty therapy and spa markets. Standards are only imposed on manufacturers for technical performance data and operating tolerances determined by CE-compliance under electrical safety standards or the EU Medical Device Directive. Currently, there is no requirement for measurement of key IPL performance characteristics. To identify the key IPL parameters, emphasize their importance in terms of safe and effective treatment and provide examples of preliminary measurement methods. These measurements can highlight changes in an IPL device's performance, improving patient safety and treatment efficacy. Five key parameters were identified as having an important role to play in the way light interacts with the skin, and therefore an important role in patient safety and effective treatment. Simple methods were devised to measure the parameters, which include fluence, pulse duration, pulse profile, spectral output and time-resolved spectral output. The measurement methods permitted consistent and comparable measurements to be made by two of the authors at working clinic locations on 18 popular IPL devices and allowed assessment of output variations. Results showed discrepancies between the measured IPL device outputs and those values displayed on the system or claimed by the manufacturers. The importance of these discrepancies and their impact is discussed. This study, of 18 popular devices in regular daily use in England and Wales, provides example methods for measuring key IPL device parameters and highlights the need for regular measurement of at least those five key parameters measured in this study. These methods can help service technicians to check

  5. DCM: device correlated metrology for overlay measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charlie; Huang, George K. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Wu, Jimmy C. H.; Cheng, Yu Wei; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Yu, Chun Chi; Amir, Nuriel; Choi, Dongsub; Itzkovich, Tal; Tarshish-Shapir, Inna; Tien, David C.; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Kato, Takeshi; Inoue, Osamu; Kawada, Hiroki; Okagawa, Yutaka; Huang, Luis; Hsu, Matthew; Su, Amei

    2013-04-01

    One of the main issues with overlay error metrology accuracy is the bias between results based on overlay (OVL) targets and actual device overlay error. In this study, we introduce the concept of Device Correlated Metrology (DCM), which is a systematic approach to quantifying and overcoming the bias between target-based overlay results and device overlay issues. For systematically quantifying the bias components between target and device, we introduce a new hybrid target integrating an optical OVL target with a device mimicking CD-SEM (Critical Dimension - Scanning Electron Microscope) target. The hybrid OVL target is designed to accurately represent the process influence found on the real device. In the general case, the CD-SEM can measure the bias between target and device on the same layer at AEI (After Etch Inspection) for all layers, the OVL between layers at AEI for most cases and at ADI (After Develop Inspection) for limited cases such as DPL (Double Patterning Lithography). The results shown demonstrate that for the new process compatible hybrid targets the bias between target and device is small, of the order of CD-SEM measurement uncertainty. Direct OVL measurements by CD-SEM show excellent correlation with optical OVL measurements in certain conditions. This correlation helps verify the accuracy of the optical measurement results and is applicable for imaging based OVL metrology methods using AIM or AIMid OVL targets, and scatterometry-based overlay methods such as SCOL (Scatterometry OVL). Future plans include broadening the hybrid target design to better mimic each layer's process conditions such as pattern density. We are also designing hybrid targets for memory devices.

  6. "A High Speed Laser Profiling Device for Refractory Lininig Thickness Measurements In a Gasifier with Cross-Cut to the Metals, Forest Products, Chemical and Power Generation Industries"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel Bonin; Tom Harvill; Jared Hoog; Don Holve; Alan Alsing; Bob Clark; Steve Hrivnak

    2007-11-01

    Process Metrix began this project with the intent of modifying an existing ranging system and combining the same with a specially designed optical scanner to yield three dimensional range images that could be used to determine the refractory lining thickness in a gasifier. The goal was to make these measurements during short outages while the gasifier was at or near operating temperature. Our initial estimates of the photon counts needed for the modulation-based range finder were optimistic, and we were forced to undertake a redesign of the range finder portion of the project. This ultimately created significant and unanticipated time delays that were exacerbated when Acuity Technologies, the subcontractor responsible for delivering the redesigned range finder, failed to deliver electrical components capable of meeting the specific range error requirements needed for accurate lining thickness measurement. An extensive search for an alternate, off-the-shelf solution was unsuccessful, and Process Metrix was forced to undertake the electronics development internally without project funds. The positive outcome of this effort is a documented set of range finder electronics that have exceptional accuracy, simplicity, temperature stability and detection limit; in sum a package perfectly suited to the measurement requirements and within our control. It is unfortunate yet understandable, given the time delays involved in reaching this milestone, that the Department of Energy decided not to continue the project to completion. The integration of this electronics set into the optomechanical hardware also developed within the scope of the project remains as follow-on project that Process Metrix will finish within the calendar year 2008. Testing in the gasifier is, at this point, not certain pending the award of additional funding needed for field trials. Eastman, our industrial partner in this project, remains interested in evaluating a finished system, and working together we

  7. Device-correlated metrology for overlay measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charlie; Huang, George K. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Wu, Jimmy C. H.; Cheng, Yu Wei; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Yu, Chun Chi; Amir, Nuriel; Choi, Dongsub; Itzkovich, Tal; Tarshish-Shapir, Inna; Tien, David C.; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Kato, Takeshi; Inoue, Osamu; Kawada, Hiroki; Okagawa, Yutaka; Huang, Luis; Hsu, Matthew; Su, Amei

    2014-10-01

    One of the main issues with accuracy is the bias between the overlay (OVL) target and actual device OVL. In this study, we introduce the concept of device-correlated metrology (DCM), which is a systematic approach to quantify and overcome the bias between target-based OVL results and device OVL values. In order to systematically quantify the bias components between target and device, we introduce a new hybrid target integrating an optical OVL target with a device mimicking critical dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) target. The hybrid OVL target is designed to accurately represent the process influence on the actual device. In the general case, the CD-SEM can measure the bias between the target and device on the same layer after etch inspection (AEI) for all layers, the OVL between layers at AEI for most cases and after develop inspection for limited cases such as double-patterning layers. The results have shown that for the innovative process compatible hybrid targets the bias between the target and device is small, within the order of CD-SEM noise. Direct OVL measurements by CD-SEM show excellent correlation between CD-SEM and optical OVL measurements at certain conditions. This correlation helps verify the accuracy of the optical measurement results and is applicable for the imaging base OVL method using several target types advance imaging metrology, advance imaging metrology in die OVL, and the scatterometrybase OVL method. Future plans include broadening the hybrid target design to better mimic each layer process conditions such as pattern density. Additionally, for memory devices we are developing hybrid targets which enable other methods of accuracy verification.

  8. Macroscopic superpositions require tremendous measurement devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Skotiniotis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider fundamental limits on the detectable size of macroscopic quantum superpositions. We argue that a full quantum mechanical treatment of system plus measurement device is required, and that a (classical reference frame for phase or direction needs to be established to certify the quantum state. When taking the size of such a classical reference frame into account, we show that to reliably distinguish a quantum superposition state from an incoherent mixture requires a measurement device that is quadratically bigger than the superposition state. Whereas for moderate system sizes such as generated in previous experiments this is not a stringent restriction, for macroscopic superpositions of the size of a cat the required effort quickly becomes intractable, requiring measurement devices of the size of the Earth. We illustrate our results using macroscopic superposition states of photons, spins, and position. Finally, we also show how this limitation can be circumvented by dealing with superpositions in relative degrees of freedom.

  9. Measuring ionizing radiation with a mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsburg, Matthias; Fehrenbach, Thomas; Puente León, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    In cases of nuclear disasters it is desirable to know one's personal exposure to radioactivity and the related health risk. Usually, Geiger-Mueller tubes are used to assess the situation. Equipping everyone with such a device in a short period of time is very expensive. We propose a method to detect ionizing radiation using the integrated camera of a mobile consumer device, e.g., a cell phone. In emergency cases, millions of existing mobile devices could then be used to monitor the exposure of its owners. In combination with internet access and GPS, measured data can be collected by a central server to get an overview of the situation. During a measurement, the CMOS sensor of a mobile device is shielded from surrounding light by an attachment in front of the lens or an internal shutter. The high-energy radiation produces free electrons on the sensor chip resulting in an image signal. By image analysis by means of the mobile device, signal components due to incident ionizing radiation are separated from the sensor noise. With radioactive sources present significant increases in detected pixels can be seen. Furthermore, the cell phone application can make a preliminary estimate on the collected dose of an individual and the associated health risks.

  10. Soundgate: A sound device to measure time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Takeco Gobara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available At  the  present  article  we  refer  to  the  pedagogical  use  and the construction of an experimental device whose cost is minimum to measure periods, specifically of a simple pendulum. In this case the low-cost instruments are  available to the teachers at schools. Its operation is similar to the Photogate, an electronics device that contains  emission  and  reception  of  infrared  light.  The  new suggested device changes light into sound during its operation so we denominated it, Soundgate.

  11. A novel measuring device for step gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Shen, Xueping; Zou, Lingding; Gao, Hongtang; Ye, Xiaoyou

    2014-08-01

    Combining laser interferometric comparator with high precision inductance sensor, a novel measuring device for step gauge was developed. A high precision laser interferometer system was used for a length standard; a zero-crossing trigger signal of inductance sensor output voltage was used for the aiming signal. In order to improve the measuring accuracy, several high precision sensors were installed to measure environmental parameters for compensating the laser wavelength according to the Edlén empirical equation. A rotating mechanism was designed. Two key problems, probe obstacle avoidance and aiming repeatability, were solved. Experimental analysis of the contact force and speed of influence on measuring probe repeatability, and a segmented control method of the movement speed was established. The experiment indicates that the system has a high accuracy of measurement, which can be used for contact measurement of other one dimension length standard.

  12. Measurement of electron density profile by microwave reflectometry on tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonet, F.

    1985-05-01

    A new method for measuring the electron density spatial profile has been successfully tested on the tokamak of Fontenay aux Roses (TFR). This method is based on the total reflection experienced by a wave of frequency F on the layer where F = F/sub p/e(r). The experimental results show that the maximum electron density in the discharge is also easily measured and that accurate determination of a density profile can be obtained with a time resolution of 5 ms. This diagnostic is well adapted to all fusion devices where access to the total plasma cross section is limited, particularly for large tokamaks.

  13. Digital Camera as Gloss Measurement Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihálik A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays digital cameras with both high resolution and the high dynamic range (HDR can be considered as parallel multiple sensors producing multiple measurements at once. In this paper we describe a technique for processing the captured HDR data and than fit them to theoretical surface reflection models in the form of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF. Finally, the tabular BRDF can be used to calculate the gloss reflection of the surface. We compare the captured glossiness by digital camera with gloss measured with the industry device and conclude that the results fit well in our experiments.

  14. An underwater blood pressure measuring device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Arne; Kuch, Benjamin; L'abbate, Antonio; Wagner, Matthias; Dario, Paolo; Bedini, Remo

    2008-09-01

    Measurement of arterial blood pressure is an important vital sign for monitoring the circulation. However, up to now no instrument has been available that enables the measurement of blood pressure underwater. The present paper details a novel, oscillometric, automatic digital blood pressure (BP) measurement device especially designed for this purpose. It consists mainly of analogue and digital electronics in a lexan housing that is rated to a depth of up to 200 metres' sea water, a cuff and a solenoid for inflation of the cuff with air supplied from a scuba tank. An integrated differential pressure sensor, exposed to the same ambient pressure as the cuff, allows accurate BP measurement. Calculation of systolic and diastolic pressures is based on the analysis of pressure oscillations recorded during the deflation. In hyperbaric chamber tests to pressures up to 405 kPa, BP measurements taken with the prototype were comparable to those obtained with established manual and automated methods. Swimming pool tests confirmed the correct functioning of the system underwater. The quality of the recorded pressure oscillations was very good even at 10 metres' fresh water, and allowed determination of diastolic and systolic pressure values. Based on these results we envisage that this device will lead to a better understanding of human cardiovascular physiology in underwater and hyperbaric environments.

  15. Measurement-Device-Independent Approach to Entanglement Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Farid; Hall, Michael J. W.; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2017-04-01

    Within the context of semiquantum nonlocal games, the trust can be removed from the measurement devices in an entanglement-detection procedure. Here, we show that a similar approach can be taken to quantify the amount of entanglement. To be specific, first, we show that in this context, a small subset of semiquantum nonlocal games is necessary and sufficient for entanglement detection in the local operations and classical communication paradigm. Second, we prove that the maximum payoff for these games is a universal measure of entanglement which is convex and continuous. Third, we show that for the quantification of negative-partial-transpose entanglement, this subset can be further reduced down to a single arbitrary element. Importantly, our measure is measurement device independent by construction and operationally accessible. Finally, our approach straightforwardly extends to quantify the entanglement within any partitioning of multipartite quantum states.

  16. Measurement-device-independent quantum digital signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthoor, Ittoop Vergheese; Amiri, Ryan; Wallden, Petros; Curty, Marcos; Andersson, Erika

    2016-08-01

    Digital signatures play an important role in software distribution, modern communication, and financial transactions, where it is important to detect forgery and tampering. Signatures are a cryptographic technique for validating the authenticity and integrity of messages, software, or digital documents. The security of currently used classical schemes relies on computational assumptions. Quantum digital signatures (QDS), on the other hand, provide information-theoretic security based on the laws of quantum physics. Recent work on QDS Amiri et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 032325 (2016);, 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032325 Yin, Fu, and Zeng-Bing, Phys. Rev. A 93, 032316 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032316 shows that such schemes do not require trusted quantum channels and are unconditionally secure against general coherent attacks. However, in practical QDS, just as in quantum key distribution (QKD), the detectors can be subjected to side-channel attacks, which can make the actual implementations insecure. Motivated by the idea of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), we present a measurement-device-independent QDS (MDI-QDS) scheme, which is secure against all detector side-channel attacks. Based on the rapid development of practical MDI-QKD, our MDI-QDS protocol could also be experimentally implemented, since it requires a similar experimental setup.

  17. Friction measuring device for control rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tomomi.

    1994-03-18

    In the present invention, judgment for friction of control rods conducted upon periodical inspection of a BWR type power plant is conducted by automatic analysis and evaluation by digitalizing data of an operation pressure and an differential pressure of control rods. That is, a differential pressure detection means detects a pressure and a differential pressure of driving water of a control rod driving source. A data processing device conducts digital analysis and store data from the differential pressure detection means, as well as compares the data with set values to automatically judge the friction of the control rod to diagnose abnormality based on the changing trend of the analyzed data. According to the device of the present invention, data measured for the friction of a great number of control rods can be analyzed and judged automatically in a short period of time. Accordingly, evaluation can be conducted accurately even by less skilled operators. Further, when an abnormality is detected, the diagnosis thereof is conducted, so that the operation is simplified and an operator's burden upon inspection can be mitigated. (I.S.).

  18. Objective measurement of inhaler inhalation flow profile using acoustic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacalle, H.; Taylor, T.E.; Marco, S.; Reilly, R.B.

    2016-07-01

    Patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are mostly treated with inhalers that deliver medication directly to their airways. Drug delivery from dry powder inhalers (DPIs) is very much reliant on the inhalation manoeuvre, specifically the peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR), inspiratory capacity (IC) and inhalation rise time (IRT) of the inhalation. It has been widely reported that patients may not follow correct inhalation technique while using their inhaler. In this study, a novel acoustic method is proposed to accurately estimate inhalation flow profile using only one inhalation recording for calibration. An Ellipta DPI was placed inside an airtight container with a spirometer connected in order to measure inhalation flow parameters. An acoustic recording device (Inhaler Compliance Assessment (INCA)) was also attached to the DPI. Inhalation audio and flow signals were recorded simultaneously. The data were collected from 20 healthy subjects while performing inhaler inhalations at a range of inspiratory flow rates. A power law regression model was computed to obtain the relationship between the acoustic envelope of the inhalation and flow profile of each recording. Each model was tested on the remaining audio signals to estimate flow profile. The average estimation error was found to be 10.5±0.3% for estimating flow profile from audio signals. Inhalation flow profile parameters (PIFR, IC and IRT) could then be measured from the estimated flow profile with high accuracy giving information on user inhalation technique. This method may assist in improving patient inhaler adherence and overall disease control. (Author)

  19. Measurement device-independent quantum dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Arpita

    2017-12-01

    Very recently, the experimental demonstration of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory has been reported (Zhang et al. in Phys Rev Lett 118:220501, 2017). Quantum dialogue (QD) falls under QSDC where the secrete messages are communicated simultaneously between two legitimate parties. The successful experimental demonstration of QSDC opens up the possibilities for practical implementation of QD protocols. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the practical security issues of QD protocols for future implementation. Since the very first proposal for QD by Nguyen (Phys Lett A 328:6-10, 2004), a large number of variants and extensions have been presented till date. However, all of those leak half of the secret bits to the adversary through classical communications of the measurement results. In this direction, motivated by the idea of Lo et al. (Phys Rev Lett 108:130503, 2012), we propose a measurement device-independent quantum dialogue scheme which is resistant to such information leakage as well as side-channel attacks. In the proposed protocol, Alice and Bob, two legitimate parties, are allowed to prepare the states only. The states are measured by an untrusted third party who may himself behave as an adversary. We show that our protocol is secure under this adversarial model. The current protocol does not require any quantum memory, and thus, it is inherently robust against memory attacks. Such robustness might not be guaranteed in the QSDC protocol with quantum memory (Zhang et al. 2017).

  20. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the...

  1. Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiyuan

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables two legitimate parties to share a secret key even in the presence of an eavesdropper. The unconditional security of QKD is based on the fundamental laws of quantum physics. Original security proofs of QKD are based on a few assumptions, e.g., perfect single photon sources and perfect single-photon detectors. However, practical implementations of QKD systems do not fully comply with such assumptions due to technical limitations. The gap between theory and implementations leads to security loopholes in most QKD systems, and several attacks have been launched on sophisticated QKD systems. Particularly, the detectors have been found to be the most vulnerable part of QKD. Much effort has been put to build side-channel-free QKD systems. Solutions such as security patches and device-independent QKD have been proposed. However, the former are normally ad-hoc, and cannot close unidentified loopholes. The latter, while having the advantages of removing all assumptions on devices, is impractical to implement today. Measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD) turns out to be a promising solution to the security problem of QKD. In MDI-QKD, all security loopholes, including those yet-to-be discovered, have been removed from the detectors, the most critical part in QKD. In this thesis, we investigate issues related to the practical implementation and security of MDI-QKD. We first present a demonstration of polarization-encoding MDI-QKD. Taking finite key effect into account, we achieve a secret key rate of 0.005 bit per second (bps) over 10 km spooled telecom fiber, and a 1600-bit key is distributed. This work, together with other demonstrations, shows the practicality of MDI-QKD. Next we investigate a critical assumption of MDI-QKD: perfect state preparation. We apply the loss-tolerant QKD protocol and adapt it to MDI-QKD to quantify information leakage due to imperfect state preparation. We then present an experimental demonstration of

  2. Photocapacitance measurements on MOS light emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Michael; Buerger, Danilo; Rebohle, Lars; Skorupa, Wolfgang; Helm, Manfred; Schmidt, Heidemarie [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The photocapacitance (PC) has been probed on MOS diodes with an Eu-implanted SiO{sub 2} layer. In general, rare earth implanted SiO{sub 2} layers in MOS diodes are of great interest for possible applications in integrated metal-oxide-semiconductor light emitting devices (MOSLEDs). For example, green and ultraviolet electroluminescence has been probed on SiO{sub 2}:Tb-MOSLEDs and SiO{sub 2}:Gd-MOSLEDs, respectively. MOSLEDs reach external quantum efficiencies between 1% and 16%, and the electroluminescence peaks are typically ascribed to 4f-intrashell transitions of trivalent rare earth ions. A clear capacitance change has been observed for different wavelengths under monochromatic illumination. Some of the detected peaks correspond to the energies of 4f-intrashell transitions of the Eu ions. According to this, the number of active luminescence centers in MOSLEDs may be determined from PC measurements. Some 4f-intrashell transitions have been also observed by means of electroluminescence measurements on the same MOSLEDs. To emphasize the physical significance of the PC data recorded on SiO{sub 2}:Eu-MOSLEDs, we also compare PC data recorded on different MOSLEDs implanted with other rare earth ions.

  3. Measuring directional characteristics of in-ear recording devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    . The pinna and thereby also the natural sound transmission are altered by the inserted device. This paper presents a methodology for accurately measuring the directional dependent transfer functions of such in-ear devices. Pilot measurements on a commercial available device are presented and possibilities...

  4. Cross-Device Tracking: Measurement and Disclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brookman Justin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet advertising and analytics technology companies are increasingly trying to find ways to link behavior across the various devices consumers own. This cross-device tracking can provide a more complete view into a consumer’s behavior and can be valuable for a range of purposes, including ad targeting, research, and conversion attribution. However, consumers may not be aware of how and how often their behavior is tracked across different devices. We designed this study to try to assess what information about cross-device tracking (including data flows and policy disclosures is observable from the perspective of the end user. Our paper demonstrates how data that is routinely collected and shared online could be used by online third parties to track consumers across devices.

  5. Interdevice agreement of eight equivalent dental color measurement devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyhrauch, M; Igiel, C; Pabst, A M; Wentaschek, S; Scheller, H; Lehmann, K M

    2015-12-01

    The reproducibility of electronic color-measuring devices used in dentistry refers to the consistency of measurements of a single device and also that between identical devices. This in vitro study evaluated the short-term interdevice agreement of eight equivalent dental measurement devices. The short-term repeatability of eight identical VITA Easyshade Advance color measurement devices was evaluated. Each device was used to quantify the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* color coordinates of ceramic disks, designed in accordance with guidelines set by the VITA Toothguide 3D-Master shade tab organization. Statistical analysis involved calculating the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and color differences (ΔE*) for corresponding measurements taken by the devices. In addition, the mean color difference from the mean (MCDM) was calculated for each color. All devices showed high ICCs for the color coordinates (L = 0.996, a = 0.993, b = 0.999). The ΔE* by shade ranged from 0.62 to 1.67. The MCDM by color-measuring device ranged from 0.11 to 0.23. This in vitro study showed that the color-measuring devices used were suitable for determining shade with high repeatability. The high interdevice agreement of the VITA Easyshade Advance means that dental professionals can use this device independently, without compromising the consistency and quality of color measurements.

  6. THE INEXPENSIVE DEVICE FOR SEA LEVEL MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Annunziato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new mareograph device has been designed at the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission (EC in order improve the sea level network in use for the Tsunami Hazard monitoring in the Mediterranean Sea and in the North Atlantic area (NEAMTWS area of UNESCO. The instrument has the characteristic to be cheap and very effective but its reliability, duration and quality need to be determined and qualified. For this reason a number of experimental campaigns are being conducted, whose first results are presented here. In collaboration with the UNESCO/IOC (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, responsible of the definition of the Tsunami Warning System of this geographical area, a set of 20 devices has been offered by JRC for a period of 1 year of testing of the devices; the surveys for the installation of the devices is under way and the installation should be completed by the end of 2015.

  7. Pressure and Relative Humidity Measurement Devices for Mars 2020 Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieta, M.; Genzer, M.; Nikkanen, T.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    One of the scientific payloads onboard the NASA Mars 2020 rover mission is Mars Environmental Dynamic Analyzer (MEDA): a set of environmental sensors for Mars surface weather measurements. Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) provides a pressure measurement device (MEDA PS) and a relative humidity measurement device (MEDA HS) for MEDA.

  8. 3D-profile measurement of advanced semiconductor features by reference metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Iwaki, Yuuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Kawada, Hiroki; Ikota, Masami; Lorusso, Gian F.; Horiguchi, Naoto

    2016-03-01

    A method of sub-nanometer uncertainty for the 3D-profile measurement using TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) images is proposed to standardize 3D-profile measurement through reference metrology. The proposed method has been validated for profiles of Si lines, photoresist features and advanced-FinFET (Fin-shaped Field-Effect Transistor) features in our previous investigations. However, efficiency of 3D-profile measurement using TEM is limited by measurement time including processing of the sample. In this article, we demonstrate a novel on-wafer 3D-profile metrology as "FIB-to-CDSEM method" with FIB (Focused Ion Beam) slope cut and CD-SEM (Critical Dimension Secondary Electron Microscope) measuring. Using the method, a few micrometer wide on a wafer is coated and cut by 45 degree slope using FIB tool. Then, the wafer is transferred to CD-SEM to measure the cross section image by top down CD-SEM measurement. We apply FIB-to-CDSEM method to CMOS sensor device. 3D-profile and 3D-profile parameters such as top line width and side wall angles of CMOS sensor device are evaluated. The 3D-profile parameters also are measured by TEM images as reference metrology. We compare the 3D-profile parameters by TEM method and FIB-to-CDSEM method. The average values and correlations on the wafer are agreed well between TEM and FIB-to- CDSEM methods.

  9. Employing Beam-Gas Interaction Vertices for Transverse Profile Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rihl, Mariana; Baglin, Vincent; Barschel, Colin; Bay, Aurelio; Blanc, Frederic; Bravin, Enrico; Bregliozzi, Giuseppe; Chritin, Nicolas; Dehning, Bernd; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Gaspar, Clara; Gianì, Sebastiana; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Greim, Roman; Haefeli, Guido; Hopchev, Plamen; Jacobsson, Richard; Jensen, Lars; Jones, Owain Rhodri; Jurado, Nicolas; Kain, Verena; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kirn, Thomas; Kuhn, Maria; Luthi, Berengere; Magagnin, Paolo; Matev, Rosen; Nakada, Tatsuya; Neufeld, Niko; Panman, Jaap; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Salvant, Benoit; Schael, Stefan; Schneider, Olivier; Schwering, Georg; Tobin, Mark; Veness, Raymond; Veyrat, Quentin; Vlachos, Sotiris; Wlochal, Michael; Xu, Zhirui; von Dratzig, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of high-energy beam particles with residual gas offer a unique opportunity to measure the beam profile in a non-intrusive fashion. Such a method was successfully pioneered* at the LHCb experiment using a silicon microstrip vertex detector. During the recent Large Hadron Collider shutdown at CERN, a demonstrator Beam-Gas Vertexing system based on eight scintillating-fibre modules was designed**, constructed and installed on Ring 2 to be operated as a pure beam diagnostics device. The detector signals are read out and collected with LHCb-type front-end electronics and a DAQ system consisting of a CPU farm. Tracks and vertices will be reconstructed to obtain a beam profile in real time. Here, first commissioning results are reported. The advantages and potential for future applications of this technique are discussed.

  10. BOREAS RSS-17 Dielectric Constant Profile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); McDonald, Kyle C.; Zimmerman, Reiner; Way, JoBea

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-17 team acquired and analyzed imaging radar data from the ESA's ERS-1 over a complete annual cycle at the BOREAS sites in Canada in 1994 to detect shifts in radar backscatter related to varying environmental conditions. This data set consists of dielectric constant profile measurements from selected trees at various BOREAS flux tower sites. The relative dielectric constant was measured at C-band (frequency = 5 GHz) as a function of depth into the trunk of three trees at each site, Measurements were made during April 1994 with an Applied Microwave Corporation field PDP fitted with a 0.358-cm (0.141-inch) diameter coaxial probe tip. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  11. Brief communication "Snow profile associated measurements (SPAM) - a new instrument for quick snow profile measurements"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, P.

    2011-06-01

    A new instrument concept (SPAM) for snow profile associated measurements is presented. The potential of the concept is demonstrated by presenting preliminary results obtained with the prototype instrument. With this concept it is possible to retrieve rapid snow profiles of e.g. light extinction, reflectance, temperature and snow layer structure with high vertical resolution. As a side-product, also snow depth is retrieved.

  12. Vertical profile measurements of lower troposphere ionisation

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K.A.; Aplin, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Vertical soundings of the atmospheric ion production rate have been obtained from Geiger counters integrated with conventional meteorological radiosondes. In launches made from Reading (UK) during 2013-2014, the Regener-Pfotzer ionisation maximum was at an altitude equivalent to a pressure of (63.1±2.4) hPa, or, expressed in terms of the local air density, (0.101±0.005) kgm−3. The measured ionisation profiles have been evaluated against the Usoskin-Kovaltsov model and, separately, surface neu...

  13. 32 CFR 634.27 - Speed-measuring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... between excessive speed and accidents, deaths, and injuries, and describe the traffic safety benefits of... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.27 Speed-measuring devices. Speed-measuring devices will be used in traffic control studies and enforcement programs. Signs...

  14. Device for measuring elastic modulus of superconducting coils (See 7903169)

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This device was made to measure elastic modulus of the Po dipole superconducting coils. More elaborated devices, but based on the same concept, were later used to measure the apparent elastic moduli of the LHC superconducting magnet coils. See also 7903169, 7901386.

  15. Device to measure elastic modulus of superconducting windings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    This device was made to measure elastic modulus of the Po dipole superconducting coils. More elaborated devices, but based on the same concept, were later used to measure the apparent elastic moduli of the LHC superconducting magnet coils. See also 7903547X, 7901386.

  16. Correlation Measurements on Small Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan Radkov; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Christensen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Here, analysis of the antenna correlation at the design stage is done, with focus on measurement techniques. Various theoretical definitions of correlations are used with the corresponding measured data required. The problems related to the coaxial measurement cables, when calculating correlation...

  17. Investigation of Electronic Devices for Strain Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ričardas Masiulionis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Importance of strain measuring for safety of buildings is shown. The strain monitoring should be one of the buildings security systems. Often used balanced and non-balanced Wheatstone bridge strain measurement methods are analyzed. The Wheatstone bridge method with feedback is improved. A new method based on small resistance changes by the digital balancing currents is presented. Computer and experimental models of measurement are investigated. The received results confirm theoretical assumptions.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Direct Measurement of Built-in Electrical Potential in Photovoltaic Devices by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, C. S.; Mutinho, H. R.; Hasoon, F. S.; Al-Thani, H. A.; Friedman, D. J.; Geisz, J. F.; Wang, Q.; Romero, M. J.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2003-05-01

    We report on direct measurements of the built-in electrical potential in Cu(In,Ga)Se2, GaInP2 single-junction, and GaInP2/GaAs tandem-junction solar cells, by using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. Potential profiles on cross sections of the devices were measured quantitatively and spatially resolved in open and short circuit, under and without illuminations, with selective photon energies matching the band gaps of the junctions. The measurements provide valuable information about the electrical properties of the devices and are useful for understanding the performance and improving the design of solar cells.

  19. Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

    2014-03-04

    A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

  20. Biomechanical Measurement of Rabbit Cornea by a Modified Scheimpflug Device

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Zhang; Jianjun Gu; Xiaoxiao Zhang; Bin Yang; Zheng Wang; Danying Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the probability and variation in biomechanical measurements of rabbit cornea by a modified Scheimpflug device. Methods. A modified Scheimpflug device was developed by imaging anterior segment of the model imitating the intact eye at various posterior pressures. The eight isolated rabbit corneas were mounted on the Barron artificial chamber and images of the anterior segment were taken at posterior pressures of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 mmHg by the device. The repeatability an...

  1. Transverse Beam Profile Measurements Using Optical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, A; Weiss, A; Bank, A

    2001-01-01

    Two different systems are currently under development at GSI's heavy ion facility to measure transverse beam profiles using optical emitters. At the GSI-LINAC for energies up to 15 MeV/u residual gas fluorescence is investigated for pulsed high current beams. The fluorescence of N2 is monitored by an image intensified CCD camera. For all ion species with energies above 50 MeV/u slowly extracted from the synchrotron SIS a classical viewing screen system is used. Three different target materials have been investigated and their behavior concerning efficiency, saturation and timing performance is evaluated. Both systems (will) use CCD cameras with a digital read out using the IEEE 1394 standard.

  2. Methods and Devices used to Measure Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeswiet, Jack; Arentoft, Mogens; Henningsen, Poul

    2004-01-01

    . To gain a good understanding of the mechanisms at the interface and to be able to verify the friction and tribology models that exist, friction sensors are needed. Designing sensors to measure friction-stress in metal working has been pursued by many researchers. This paper surveys methods, which have...... been tried in the past and discusses some of the recent sensor designs, which can now be used to measure Friction in both production situations and for research purposes....

  3. Extended device profiles and testing procedures for the approval process of integrated medical devices using the IEEE 11073 communication standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janß, Armin; Thorn, Johannes; Schmitz, Malte; Mildner, Alexander; Dell'Anna-Pudlik, Jasmin; Leucker, Martin; Radermacher, Klaus

    2018-02-23

    Nowadays, only closed and proprietary integrated operating room systems (IORS) from big manufacturers are available on the market. Hence, the interconnection of components from third-party vendors is only possible with increased time and costs. In the context of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)-funded project OR.NET (2012-2016), the open integration of medical devices from different manufacturers was addressed. An integrated operating theater based on the open communication standard IEEE 11073 shall give clinical operators the opportunity to choose medical devices independently of the manufacturer. This approach would be advantageous especially for hospital operators and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) of medical devices. Actual standards and concepts regarding technical feasibility and the approval process do not cope with the requirements for a modular integration of medical devices in the operating room (OR), based on an open communication standard. Therefore, innovative approval strategies and corresponding certification and test procedures, which cover actual legal and normative standards, have to be developed in order to support the future risk management and the usability engineering process of open integrated medical devices in the OR. The use of standardized device and service profiles and a three-step testing procedure, including conformity, interoperability and integration tests are described in this paper and shall support the manufacturers to integrate their medical devices without disclosing the medical devices' risk analysis and related confidential expertise or proprietary information.

  4. Small Device For Short-Range Antenna Measurements Using Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan Radkov; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Christensen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a practical solution for implementing an antenna radiation pattern measurement device using optical fibers. It is suitable for anechoic chambers as well as short range channel sounding. The device is optimized for small size and provides a cheap and easy way to make optical antenna...

  5. Clinical use ofa portable electronic device to measure haematocrit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical use ofa portable electronic device to measure haematocrit. A. J. GROENEWALD, H. PIETERS, A. DE WAAL. Abstract A sIIIall portable device called the blood electro- meter (HEM) was developed to assist clinicians to distinguish patients with extreme blood loss from those with normal packed cell volwnes.

  6. A cryogenic measurement setup for characterization microwave devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    A cryogenic measurement setup for characterization microwave devices from room to cryogenic temperatures is presented. The setup allows testing microwave devices at variable temperatures ranging from 300 to 77 K. Frequency doubler (94/188 GHz) has been cooled to 77 K and peak efficiency of 32...

  7. Consistency of commercial devices for measuring elevation gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaspà, Paolo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Haakonssen, Eric C; Martin, David T; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-09-01

    To determine the consistency of commercially available devices used for measuring elevation gain in outdoor activities and sports. Two separate observational validation studies were conducted. Garmin (Forerunner 310XT, Edge 500, Edge 750, and Edge 800; with and without elevation correction) and SRM (Power Control 7) devices were used to measure total elevation gain (TEG) over a 15.7-km mountain climb performed on 6 separate occasions (6 devices; study 1) and during a 138-km cycling event (164 devices; study 2). TEG was significantly different between the Garmin and SRM devices (P Garmin devices (study 1: 0.2% and 1.5%, respectively). The use of the Garmin elevation-correction option resulted in a 5-10% increase in the TEG. While measurements of TEG were relatively consistent within each brand, the measurements differed between the SRM and Garmin devices by as much as 3%. Caution should be taken when comparing elevation-gain data recorded with different settings or with devices of different brands.

  8. Video integrated measurement system. [Diagnostic display devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.

    1982-06-01

    A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

  9. Variation in haemoglobin measurement across different HemoCue devices and device operators in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Aviva I; Barr, Susan I; Green, Timothy J; Karakochuk, Crystal D

    2017-07-01

    : Point-of-use haemoglobinometers, such as the HemoCue, are a common method to measure haemoglobin (Hb) concentration in field settings as the device is portable, requires only a small finger-prick capillary blood sample and computes an immediate Hb reading. The aim of this study was to compare Hb measurements across different HemoCue devices and across device operators using capillary blood samples collected from women during a trial in rural Cambodia. We compared mean±SD capillary Hb concentration (g/L) across n=12 different HemoCue Hb 301 devices and across n=9 device operators among 2846 Cambodian women. Significant variability in mean Hb concentration was observed across HemoCue devices (means ranged from 117 to 124 g/L) and across device operators (means ranged from 118 to 124 g/L). This variability is of particular concern when a single HemoCue device or device operator is used at different time points in surveys or research trials. NCT02481375. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Emitted vibration measurement device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, G. L.

    1986-10-01

    This invention is directed to a method and apparatus for measuring emitted vibrational forces produced by a reaction wheel assembly due to imbalances, misalignment, bearing defects and the like. The apparatus includes a low mass carriage supported on a large mass base. The carriage is in the form of an octagonal frame having an opening which is adapted for receiving the reaction wheel assembly supported thereon by means of a mounting ring. The carriage is supported on the base by means of air bearings which support the carriage in a generally frictionless manner when supplied with compressed air from a source. A plurality of carriage brackets and a plurality of base blocks provided for physical coupling of the base and carriage. The sensing axes of the load cells are arranged generally parallel to the base and connected between the base and carriage such that all of the vibrational forces emitted by the reaction wheel assembly are effectively transmitted through the sensing axes of the load cells. In this manner, a highly reliable and accurate measurment of the vibrational forces of the reaction wheel assembly can be had. The output signals from the load cells are subjected to a dynamical analyzer which analyzes and identifies the rotor and spin bearing components which are causing the vibrational forces.

  11. Accuracy of portable devices in measuring peak cough flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulnik, Stefan Tino; MacBean, Victoria; Birring, Surinder Singh; Moxham, John; Rafferty, Gerrard Francis; Kalra, Lalit

    2015-02-01

    Peak cough flow (PCF) measurements can be used as indicators of cough effectiveness. Portable peak flow meters and spirometers have been used to measure PCF, but little is known about their accuracy compared to pneumotachograph systems. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of four portable devices (Mini-Wright and Assess peak flow meters, SpiroUSB and Microlab spirometers) in measuring PCF with a calibrated laboratory based pneumotachograph system. Twenty healthy volunteers (mean (SD) age 45 (16) years) coughed through a pneumotachograph connected in series with each portable device in turn, and the differences in PCF readings were analysed. In addition, mechanically generated flow waves of constant peak flow were delivered through each device both independently and when connected in series with the pneumotachograph. Agreement between PCF readings obtained with the pneumotachograph and the portable devices was poor. Peak flow readings were on average lower by approximately 50 L min(-1) when measured using the portable devices; 95% limits of agreement spanned approximately 150 L min(-1). The findings highlight the potential for inaccuracy when using portable devices for the measurement of PCF. Depending on the measurement instrument used, absolute values of PCF reported in the literature may not be directly comparable.

  12. Evaluation of Strain Measurement Devices for Inflatable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litteken, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Inflatable structures provide a significant volume savings for future NASA deep space missions. The complexity of these structures, however, provides difficulty for engineers in designing, analyzing, and testing. Common strain measurement systems for metallic parts cannot be used directly on fabrics. New technologies must be developed and tested to accurately measure the strain of inflatable structures. This paper documents the testing of six candidate strain measurement devices for use on fabrics. The resistance devices tested showed significant hysteresis during creep and cyclic testing. The capacitive device, however, showed excellent results and little-to-no hysteresis. Because of this issue, only two out of the six proposed devices will continue in development. The resulting data and lessons learned from this effort provides direction for continued work to produce a structural health monitoring system for inflatable habitats.

  13. Autonomous profiling device to monitor remote water bodies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Prabhudesai, S.P.

    winch on the ship. As the system moves through the water column, sensor data are transmitted through the winch wire to a shipboard data logger, which also controls the sequence of closures of the sampling bottles on the rosette and the storage... of data. These devices are large, cumbersome and expensive to operate at TECHNICAL NOTE CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 102, NO. 2, 25 JANUARY 2012 170 sea, and in addition, face the problem of the motion of the ship being coupled into the winch wire...

  14. Modified measuring compass as an intraoral paralleling device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Pravinkumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a simple technique of useful modification of measuring compass, procured from a school compass box, to make an intraoral paralleling device. This device is useful in examining parallelism of tooth or implant abutment preparations for a common path of placement in fixed dental prostheses. It can be used to examine the parallelism of guiding planes in removable partial denture patients as well.

  15. ADC's Insertion Devices and Magnetic Measurement Systems Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhim, A.; Kulesza, J.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper Advance Design Consulting USA, Inc. (ADC) will discuss ADC's major improved capabilities for building Wiggler Insertion Devices, Undulator Planar Devices, Elliptical Polarizing Undulators (EPU), In-Vacuum Undulators (IVU), Cryogenically Cooled in-vacuum Undulators (CPMU), Super Conductive Undulator, and Insertion Device Magnetic Measurement Systems. ADC has designed, built and delivered Insertion Devices and Magnetic Measurement Systems to such facilities as MAX-lab (two EPUs, a Planar, and Measurement System), ALBA and ASP (Wigglers), BNL (CPMU), SSRF (two IVUs and a Measurement System), PAL (one IVU and Measurement System), NSRRC (one 4m EPU), and SRC (Planar and EPU). ADC's magnetic field measurement system is a sophisticated and sensitive machine for the measurement of magnetic fields in undulators (Planar and EPU), wigglers and in-vacuum ID units. The magnetic fields are measured using 3 axis hall-effect probes, mounted orthogonally, to a thin wand. The wand is mounted to a carriage that rides on vacuum air bearings. The base is granite. A flip coil is provided on two vertical towers with X, Y and Theta axes. Special software is provided to assist in homing, movement, and data collection and analysis.

  16. Urbmobi. A mobile measurement device for urban environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, E.J.; Mark, P.J. van der; Nieuwkoop, E.

    2014-01-01

    Within the Urbmobi research project, a novel mobile measurement device is developed for urban areas. It provides temporally and spatially distributed environmental data and fulfills the need for monitoring at various places without the costs for a large number of fixed measurement stations. Urbmobi

  17. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170... contents of tanks and other storage containers, and scales and measuring devices for weighing and measuring wine, spirits, volatile fruit-flavor concentrate, or materials received and used in the production or...

  18. Measurement of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Some Medical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Faisel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available     New medical devices such as surgery devices, physiotherapy devices, cosmetological devices and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI systems generate a complex electromagnetic fields, so they consider as a potential   hazard for medical personnel during surgical procedures. The aim of this research is to detect the EMFs emitted from medical devices and determine the safety ranges from these devices which emit EMF radiations in order to protect Medical staff from its risks. The research has been performed in two parts, numerical calculation and practical measurement. Practical measurements are done in Dijlah hospital at Tikrit city. Obtaining results shows that the practical measurements are consistent with the mathematical calculation results. Comparison of these results with the safety standard guideline limits shows that they   are within the acceptable exposure limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP and that means there is no health risk from exposure to these fields if the exposure is for a short and not continued periods and lay within the acceptable limits.    

  19. Validity and reliability of a new ankle dorsiflexion measurement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Alfred; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2013-08-01

    The assessment of the maximum ankle dorsiflexion angle is an important clinical examination procedure. Evidence shows that the traditional goniometer is highly unreliable, and various designs of goniometers to measure the maximum ankle dorsiflexion angle rely on the application of a known force to obtain reliable results. Hence, an innovative ankle dorsiflexion measurement device was designed to make this measurement more reliable by holding the foot in a selected posture without the application of a known moment. To report on the comprehensive validity and reliability testing carried out on the new device. Following validity testing, four different trials to test reliability of the ankle dorsiflexion measurement device were performed. These trials included inter-rater and intra-rater testings with a controlled moment, intra-rater reliability testing with knees flexed and extended without a controlled moment, intra-rater testing with a patient population, and inter-rater reliability testing between four raters of varying experience without controlling moment. All raters were blinded. A series of trials to test intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities. Intra-rater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98 and inter-rater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient (2,1) was 0.953 with a controlled moment. With uncontrolled moment, very high reliability for intra-tester was also achieved (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.94 with knees extended and intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95 with knees flexed). For the trial investigating test-retest reliability with actual patients, intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 was obtained. In the trial investigating four different raters with uncontrolled moment, intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.91 was achieved. The new ankle dorsiflexion measurement device is a valid and reliable device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion in both healthy subjects and patients, with both controlled and

  20. Profiling wrist pulse from skin surface by Advanced Vibrometer Interferometer Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hao-Xiang; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2017-02-01

    With global trends in population aging, the need to decrease and prevent the onset of cardiovascular disease has drawn a great attention. The traditional cuff-based upper arm sphygmomanometer is still the standard method to retrieve blood pressure information for diagnostics. However, this method is not easy to be adapted by patients and is not comfortable enough to perform a long term monitoring process. In order to correlate the beating profile of the arterial pulse on the wrist skin, an Advanced Vibrometer Interferometer Device (AVID) is adopted in this study to measure the vibration amplitude of skin and compare it with blood pressure measured from the upper arm. The AVID system can measure vibration and remove the directional ambiguity by using circular polarization interferometer technique with two orthogonal polarized light beams. The displacement resolution of the system is nearly 1.0 nm and the accuracy is experimentally verified. Using an optical method to quantify wrist pule, it provides a means to perform cuff-less, noninvasive and continuous measurement. In this paper, the correlations between the amplitude of skin vibration and the actual blood pressure is studied. The success of this method could potentially set the foundation of blood pressure monitor system based on optical approaches.

  1. Temporal accommodation response measured by photorefractive accommodation measurement device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Byoungsub; Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min-Chul

    2017-02-01

    Although accommodation response plays an important role in the human vision system for perception of distance, some three-dimensional (3D) displays offer depth stimuli regardless of the accommodation response. The consequence is that most observers watching 3D displays have complained about visual fatigue. The measurement of the accommodation response is therefore necessary to develop human-friendly 3D displays. However, only few studies about accommodation measurement have been reported. Most of the investigations have been focused on the measurement and analysis of monocular accommodation responses only because the accommodation response works individually in each eye. Moreover, a main eye perceives dominantly the object distance. However, the binocular accommodation response should be examined because both eyes are used to watch the 3D display in natural conditions. The ophthalmic instrument that we developed enabled to measure changes in the accommodation response of the two eyes simultaneously. Two cameras acquired separately the infrared images reflected from each eyes after the reflected beams passed through a cylindrical lens. The changes in the accommodation response could then be estimated from the changes in the astigmatism ratio of the infrared images that were acquired in real time. In this paper, we compared the accommodation responses of main eye between the monocular and the binocular conditions. The two eyes were measured one by one, with only one eye opened, during measurement for monocular condition. Then the two eyes were examined simultaneously for binocular condition. The results showed similar tendencies for main eye accommodation response in both cases.

  2. Measurement Devices and the Psychophysiology of Consumer Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    From the 1890s, psychophysiological measurement devices have played an important, but as yet under-theorized role in marketing and consumer research. Because of the recent advances made in neuromarketing, it is often assumed that these measurement devices ushered in a radically new understanding...... of neuromarketing back to the Fin-de-Siècle neurophysiological laboratory, I show that consumers' bodies and later on their brains became reconfigured as part of a dispositif made up of laboratory-based artefacts (measurement devices) and new ways of seeing the human brain and human behaviour. This dispositif......, the latest expression of which is neuromarketing, promised to empower marketing researchers and practitioners alike by fulfilling their dream of being able to bypass consumers' verbalized cognition and instead draw upon the 'truth' of their physiological reactions....

  3. Device- and service profiles for integrated or systems based on open standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildner Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated OR systems nowadays are closed and proprietary, so that the interconnection of components from third-party vendors is only possible with high time and cost effort. An integrated operating theatre with open interfaces, giving clinical operators the opportunity to choose individual medical devices from different manufacturers, is currently being developed in the framework of the BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Research funded project OR.NET [1]. Actual standards and concepts regarding technical feasibility and accreditation process do not cope with the requirements for modular integration based on an open standard. Therefore, strategies as well as service and device profiles to enable a procedure for risk management and certifiability are in the focus of the project work. Amongst others, a concept for User Interface Profiles (UI-Profiles has been conceived in order to describe medical device functions and the entire user interface regarding Human-Machine-Interaction (HMI characteristics with the aim to identify human-induced risks of central user interfaces. The use of standardized device and service profiles shall allow the manufacturers to integrate their medical devices in the OR.NET network, without disclosing the medical devices’ risk analysis and related confidential knowledge or proprietary information.

  4. Use of piezoelectric multicomponent force measuring devices in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Stefan, K.

    1979-01-01

    The characterisitics of piezoelectric multicomponent transducers are discussed, giving attention to the advantages of quartz over other materials. The main advantage of piezoelectric devices in aerodynamic studies is their ability to indicate rapid changes in the values of physical parameters. Problems in the accuracy of measurments by piezoelectric devices can be overcome by suitable design approaches. A practical example is given of how such can be utilized to measure rapid fluctuations of fluid forces exerted on a circular cylinder mounted in a water channel.

  5. An elutriation device to measure particle settling velocity in urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettler, Eric N; Gulliver, John S; Kayhanian, Masoud

    2011-11-15

    Urban runoff is primarily treated by settling particles. One important parameter in the design of these settling basins is particle settling velocity. Yet, this parameter is rarely measured. A modified elutriation device is developed to measure particle settling velocity distribution for use in stormwater runoff treatment design and performance evaluation. The elutriation device has distinct advantages over settling column measurement, including (1) less time requirement to make measurements, and (2) flexibility to operate at various flow rates to cover wide ranges of particle settling velocity. Major modifications of the existing elutriation devices include using a variable speed pump, changing the glass column to plastic, and adding screens at the flow inlet for more uniform velocity distribution while making the column shorter. The results of the experiments showed that the particles retained in each column of the modified elutriation device could be predicted by assuming a fully-developed, laminar velocity profile across the cross-section of each column. Operation of the device under two flow rates and multiple columns increased the range of settling velocities measured. The information presented in this paper may be used to develop standard protocols for the evaluation of particle settling velocity in stormwater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum random-number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, You-Qi; Guan, Jian-Yu; Zhou, Hongyi; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The randomness from a quantum random-number generator (QRNG) relies on the accurate characterization of its devices. However, device imperfections and inaccurate characterizations can result in wrong entropy estimation and bias in practice, which highly affects the genuine randomness generation and may even induce the disappearance of quantum randomness in an extreme case. Here we experimentally demonstrate a measurement-device-independent (MDI) QRNG based on time-bin encoding to achieve certified quantum randomness even when the measurement devices are uncharacterized and untrusted. The MDI-QRNG is randomly switched between the regular randomness generation mode and a test mode, in which four quantum states are randomly prepared to perform measurement tomography in real time. With a clock rate of 25 MHz, the MDI-QRNG generates a final random bit rate of 5.7 kbps. Such implementation with an all-fiber setup provides an approach to construct a fully integrated MDI-QRNG with trusted but error-prone devices in practice.

  7. THE EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF THE GROUNDING DEVICE RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Nizhevskyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper considers experimental research of three-electrode units for measuring the resistance of grounding devices for different purposes. Methodology. The experimental study of the method of resistance measurement of grounding devices for any design in any soil structure using the method of physical modeling is presented. Results. By results of model operation the set of equations of the sixth order is solved. It allowed to determine the own and mutual impedance in the three-electrode unit with high accuracy without searching the point of zero potential. Features of measuring and defining the own and relative resistances of various combinations of electrodes for three-electrode measuring unit are considered. Originality. The necessity of finding a zero potential point is excluded. Practical value. The proposed method provides the smallest possible spacing of potential electrodes outside the grounding devices. This reduces the wiring length measurement circuit in several times, increases the ratio «signal – noise», removes the restrictions on building of the territory outside the test grounding device.

  8. Comparative analysis of colour change measurement devices in textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Gilewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper there is presented a trial of application of new measurement principle of colour change with the use of DigiEye device. Comparison of DigiEye with commonly use in the textile industry spectrophotometer Macbeth 2020 was an aim of determination of relationship between parameters of both measurement systems. Samples for the colour change assessment on both measurement systems were first aged in the Xenotest 150. Ageing process was done according to the method of blues scale. Results were obtained by the colour measurement devices before and after the ageing test each releasing the diaphragms during exposing the examined samples on the light. Result of colour change were obtained in the colour system CIE L*a*b*. The measurements were done for PES fabrics destined on the outer layers of clothing. [b]Keywords[/b]: textiles, spectrophotometer, colorimeter [b][/b

  9. Methods for measuring acoustic power of an ultrasonic neurosurgical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosić, Antonio; Ivancević, Bojan; Svilar, Dragoljub; Stimac, Tihomir; Paladino, Josip; Oresković, Darko; Jurjević, Ivana; Klarica, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of the acoustic power in high-energy ultrasonic devices is complex due to occurrence of the strong cavitation in front of the sonotrode tip. In our research we used three methods for characterization of our new ultrasonic probe for neuroendoscopic procedures. The first method is based on the electromechanical characterization of the device measuring the displacement of the sonotrode tip and input electrical impedance around excitation frequency with different amounts of the applied electrical power The second method is based on measuring the spatial pressure magnitude distribution of an ultrasound surgical device produced in an anechoic tank. The acoustic reciprocity principle is used to determinate the derived acoustic power of equivalent ultrasound sources at frequency components present in the spectrum of radiated ultrasonic waves. The third method is based on measuring the total absorbed acoustic power in the restricted volume of water using the calorimetric method. In the electromechanical characterization, calculated electroacoustic efficiency factor from equivalent electrical circuits is between 40-60%, the same as one obtained measuring the derived acoustic power in an anechoic tank when there is no cavitation. When cavitation activity is present in the front of the sonotrode tip the bubble cloud has a significant influence on the derived acoustic power and decreases electroacoustic efficiency. The measured output acoustic power using calorimetric method is greater then derived acoustic power, due to a large amount of heat energy released in the cavitation process.

  10. Assembly for electrical conductivity measurements in the piston cylinder device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Heather Christine [Dublin, CA; Roberts, Jeffrey James [Livermore, CA

    2012-06-05

    An assembly apparatus for measurement of electrical conductivity or other properties of a sample in a piston cylinder device wherein pressure and heat are applied to the sample by the piston cylinder device. The assembly apparatus includes a body, a first electrode in the body, the first electrode operatively connected to the sample, a first electrical conductor connected to the first electrode, a washer constructed of a hard conducting material, the washer surrounding the first electrical conductor in the body, a second electrode in the body, the second electrode operatively connected to the sample, and a second electrical conductor connected to the second electrode.

  11. Development of resistance type moisture measuring device for grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sius LAWAL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study aimed at developing an indigenous moisture measuring device from locally available materials for grains based on the principle of resistance change of the material with corresponding change in moisture during drying. The developed device has four copper electrode cups positions in which both gauging and dummy copper electrode cups were placed to form Wheatstone bridge circuits of full, half and quarter for four, two and one gauging copper electrode cups respectively, while the remaining positions were used as dummies. These circuits were used to measure the resistances and hence obtaining the moisture content of the grains used. Grains of paddy rice, guinea corn and millet were used to test the device and it was observed that for full bridge circuits of each of the grains, paddy rice have a negative coefficient of correlation of -0.95, -0.99 for guinea corn and -0.99 for millet. The results obtained from predictive empirical equations when compared with the direct oven method, showed that the device can be used to predict or measure moisture content once calibrated.

  12. Improving the accuracy of smart devices to measure noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin; Kardous, Chucri; Neitzel, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Occupational noise exposure is one of the most frequent hazards present in the workplace; up to 22 million workers have potentially hazardous noise exposures in the U.S. As a result, noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common occupational injuries in the U.S. Workers in manufacturing, construction, and the military are at the highest risk for hearing loss. Despite the large number of people exposed to high levels of noise at work, many occupations have not been adequately evaluated for noise exposure. The objective of this experiment was to investigate whether or not iOS smartphones and other smart devices (Apple iPhones and iPods) could be used as reliable instruments to measure noise exposures. For this experiment three different types of microphones were tested with a single model of iPod and three generations of iPhones: the internal microphones on the device, a low-end lapel microphone, and a high-end lapel microphone marketed as being compliant with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard for a Class 2-microphone. All possible combinations of microphones and noise measurement applications were tested in a controlled environment using several different levels of pink noise ranging from 60-100 dBA. Results were compared to simultaneous measurements made using a Type 1 sound level measurement system. Analysis of variance and Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) test were used to determine if the results differed by microphone or noise measurement application. Levels measured with external microphones combined with certain noise measurement applications did not differ significantly from levels measured with the Type 1 sound measurement system. Results showed that it may be possible to use iOS smartphones and smart devices, with specific combinations of measurement applications and calibrated external microphones, to collect reliable, occupational noise exposure data under certain conditions and within the limitations of the

  13. Real-time precision measuring device of tree diameter growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingming; Chen, Aijun; Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Nan; Yao, Jingyuan

    2016-01-01

    DBH(diameter at breast height) is an important factor to reflect of the quality of plant growth, also an important parameter indispensable in forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink, the accurate measurement of DBH or not is directly related to the research of forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink. In this paper, the principle and the mathematical model of DBH measurement device were introduced, the fixture measuring device and the hardware circuit for this tree diameter were designed, the measurement software programs were compiled, and the precision measuring device of tree diameter growth was developed. Some experiments with Australia fir were conducted. Based on experiment data, the correlations among the DBH variation of Australian fir, the environment temperature, air humility and PAR(photosynthetically active radiation) were obtained. The effects of environmental parameters (environment temperature, air humility and PAR) on tree diameter were analyzed. Experimental results show that there is a positive correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and environment temperature, a negative correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and air humility , so is PAR.

  14. Biomechanical Measurement of Rabbit Cornea by a Modified Scheimpflug Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore the probability and variation in biomechanical measurements of rabbit cornea by a modified Scheimpflug device. Methods. A modified Scheimpflug device was developed by imaging anterior segment of the model imitating the intact eye at various posterior pressures. The eight isolated rabbit corneas were mounted on the Barron artificial chamber and images of the anterior segment were taken at posterior pressures of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 mmHg by the device. The repeatability and reliability of the parameters including CCT, ACD, ACV, and CV were evaluated at each posterior pressure. All the variations of the parameters at the different posterior pressures were calculated. Results. All parameters showed good intraobserver reliability (Cronbach’s alpha; intraclass correlation coefficient, α, ICC > 0.96 and repeatability in the modified Scheimpflug device. With the increase of posterior pressures, the ratio of CCT decreased linearly and the bulk modulus gradually reduced to a platform. The increase of ACD was almost linear with the posterior pressures elevated. Conclusions. The modified Scheimpflug device was a valuable tool to investigate the biomechanics of the cornea. The posterior pressure 15–75 mmHg range produced small viscoelastic deformations and nearly linear pressure-deformation response in the rabbit cornea.

  15. Measurement of dynamic gas disengagement profile by using an analog output level gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkilineni, S.; Koelle, M.; Xu, H.

    The dynamic gas disengagement profile was measured in a 0.14 m diameter and 3.66 m high plexiglas column by using an analog output gauge, which was connected to a data acquisition system. This analog output gauge is a high accuracy continuous measurement level gauge. It is made up of a wave guide, a float, a motion or stress sensing device and a probe housing. The fluid level at any gas velocity is obtained by using the data acquisition system. The dynamic gas disengagement profile produced one slope in the bubble flow and two slopes in the churn turbulent flow representing unimodal and bimodal distributions of bubbles.

  16. A Novel Device for Measuring Forces in Endoluminal Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Ranzani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a simple but effective measuring system for endoluminal procedures is presented. The device allows measuring forces during the endoluminal manipulation of tissues with a standard surgical instrument for laparoscopic procedures. The force measurement is performed by recording both the forces applied directly by the surgeon at the instrument handle and the reaction forces on the access port. The measuring system was used to measure the forces necessary for appropriate surgical manipulation of tissues during transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM. Ex-vivo and in-vivo measurements were performed, reported and discussed. The obtained data can be used for developing and appropriately dimensioning novel dedicated instrumentation for TEM procedures.

  17. Head-Impact-Measurement Devices: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathryn L; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Broglio, Steven P

    2017-03-01

    With an estimated 3.8 million sport- and recreation-related concussions occurring annually, targeted prevention and diagnostic methods are needed. Biomechanical analysis of head impacts may provide quantitative information that can inform both prevention and diagnostic strategies. To assess available head-impact devices and their clinical utility. We performed a systematic search of the electronic database PubMed for peer-reviewed publications, using the following phrases: accelerometer and concussion, head impact telemetry, head impacts and concussion and sensor, head impacts and sensor, impact sensor and concussion, linear acceleration and concussion, rotational acceleration and concussion, and xpatch concussion. In addition to the literature review, a Google search for head impact monitor and concussion monitor yielded 15 more devices. Included studies were performed in vivo, used commercially available devices, and focused on sport-related concussion. One author reviewed the title and abstract of each study for inclusion and exclusion criteria and then reviewed each full-text article to confirm inclusion criteria. Controversial articles were reviewed by all authors to reach consensus. In total, 61 peer-reviewed articles involving 4 head-impact devices were included. Participants in boxing, football, ice hockey, soccer, or snow sports ranged in age from 6 to 24 years; 18% (n = 11) of the studies included female athletes. The Head Impact Telemetry System was the most widely used device (n = 53). Fourteen additional commercially available devices were presented. Measurements collected by impact monitors provided real-time data to estimate player exposure but did not have the requisite sensitivity to concussion. Proper interpretation of previously reported head-impact kinematics across age, sport, and position may inform future research and enable staff clinicians working on the sidelines to monitor athletes. However, head-impact-monitoring systems have limited

  18. Repeatability of in vitro power profile measurements for multifocal contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; Marín-Franch, Iván; Esteve-Taboada, Jose Juan; Madrid-Costa, David; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of an optical device (NIMO TR1504, Lambda-X, Belgium) for measuring multifocal contact lens power profiles. The NIMO TR1504 was used to measure power profiles 30 times for each of 10 different contact lenses from 4 major companies. All contact lenses were labelled as -3D for distance vision; half were for high addition and half for low addition. The optical zone in all measurements was set to 3-mm radius. For each lens, the median power profile and the residuals of the 30 measurements were calculated. The 95% confidence bands and two indices that summarize measurement errors were calculated: the repeatability limit and an index of repeatability heterogeneity, quantifying heterogeneity of measurement errors over the optical zone. The repeatability limit was good (from 0.04D to 0.12D), for all multifocal contact lenses. Variability of measurement errors of power profiles was quite homogeneous along the optical zone for all lenses, although for some lenses variability was slightly higher in the centre than peripherally. The repeatability of measured power profiles obtained by the NIMO TR1504 is lower than 0.12D for the multifocal contact lenses. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of Gear Churning Power Loss Measurement Device

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Bin; Zhou Ya Jie; Wang Ping

    2017-01-01

    To explore the impacts of gear churning power losses, a research was conducted to achieve the internal causes of power losses of churning gear by designing a gear churning power losses measurement device. The gear churning power losses could be influenced by different gear modules, the number of teeth and the axial position of gear. Finally, the impacts of gear churning power losses were discussed by comparing experimental data and theoretical data.

  20. Lidar measured vertical atmospheric scattering profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The vertical structure of the atmosphere, which is of invaluable interest to meteorologists, geo-physicists and environmental researchers, can be measured with LIDAR. A method has been proposed and applied to invert lidar signals from vertical soundings to height resolved scattering coefficients. In

  1. Device for Measuring Heat Capacities of Microcalorimeter Absorber Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsubo, Vincent; Beall, James; Ullom, Joel

    2009-12-01

    We are developing a device for measuring the heat capacity of candidate absorber materials for gamma-ray microcalorimeters with the goal of finding materials with low heat capacity and high stopping power to improve detector efficiency. To date, only Sn has been effective as an absorber, and speculation is that other materials suffer from anomalously high heat capacities at low temperatures. The key component of the measurement device is a 17 mm×17 mm low heat capacity silicon platform suspended by Kevlar fibers designed for accepting 1 g to 2 g samples, and whose heat capacity can be characterized prior to attaching a sample. The platform has a thin film Pd/Au heater deposited directly on the silicon, and a semiconducting thermometer bonded to the surface. The heat capacity is determined from C = Gτ, where G is the in-situ measured conductance and x is the measured temperature decay time from a step change in applied heat. For a platform without samples, decay periods on the order of 0.3 to 0.05 seconds were measured. With samples, decay periods of several seconds are projected, allowing good resolution of the heat capacities. Several thermometers were tested in an effort to find one with the optimum characteristics for measuring platform temperatures. These included a commercial thick-film Ruthenium-oxide surface-mount resistor, a germanium NTD, and a zirconium oxy-nitride thin-film thermometer.

  2. Continuous intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement during glaucoma drainage device implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouws, Pieter; Moss, Edward B; Trope, Graham E; Ethier, C Ross

    2007-05-01

    To measure the effect of the implantation of a glaucoma drainage device on the intraocular pressure (IOP) during the implantation surgery. We implanted telemetry devices into 1 eye each of 3 white New Zealand rabbits. Once the telemetry was found to be working and the rabbits had fully recovered from surgery, we implanted a glaucoma drainage device into the same eye while continually monitoring the IOP with the telemetry devices. During surgery IOP was extremely variable, however, extremely high pressures were recorded in association with suturing and viscoelastic injection. The fact that pressures are significantly raised during some surgical events should make surgeons aware that manipulations need to be kept as short as possible to prevent further potential damage to glaucomatous optic nerves. There is a possibility of dramatically raising the IOP during surgery, specifically in complicated cases requiring prolonged manipulation and/or forcible deepening of the anterior chamber. In such cases, it may be a good idea to time the duration of manipulations to prevent prolonged episodes of elevated IOP.

  3. Using Smart Devices to Measure Intermittent Noise in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Roberts

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the accuracy of smart devices (iPods to measure intermittent noise and integrate a noise dose in the workplace. Materials and Methods: In experiment 1, four iPods were each paired with a Larson Davis Spark dosimeter and exposed to randomly fluctuating pink noise in a reverberant sound chamber. Descriptive statistics and the mean difference between the iPod and its paired dosimeter were calculated for the 1-s data logged measurements. The calculated time weighted average (TWA was also compared between the devices. In experiment 2, 15 maintenance workers and 14 office workers wore an iPod and dosimeter during their work-shift for a maximum of five workdays. A mixed effects linear regression model was used to control for repeated measures and to determine the effect of the device type on the projected 8-h TWA. Results: In experiment 1, a total of 315,306 1-s data logged measurements were made. The interquartile range of the mean difference fell within ±2.0 A-weighted decibels (dBA, which is the standard used by the American National Standards Institute to classify a type 2 sound level meter. The mean difference of the calculated TWA was within ±0.5 dBA except for one outlier. In experiment 2, the results of the mixed effects model found that, on average, iPods measured an 8-h TWA 1.7 dBA higher than their paired dosimeters. Conclusion: This study shows that iPods have the ability to make reasonably accurate noise measurements in the workplace, but they are not as accurate as traditional noise dosimeters.

  4. Final results of the US humanitarian device exemption study of the low-profile visualized intraluminal support (LVIS) device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorella, David; Arthur, Adam; Boulos, Alan; Diaz, Orlando; Jabbour, Pascal; Pride, Lee; Turk, Aquilla S; Woo, Henry H; Derdeyn, Colin; Millar, John; Clifton, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The low-profile visualized intraluminal support (LVIS) device is a new, braided, intracranial microstent designed for stent-assisted coiling. To present the results of a single-arm, prospective, multicenter trial of the LVIS for treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. 31 patients with unruptured, wide-necked (neck ≥4 mm or dome:neck ratio ≤2) intracranial aneurysms were treated with the LVIS device and bare platinum coils at six US centers (investigational device exemption G110014). Clinical follow-up was conducted at 30 days and 6 months. Angiographic follow-up was performed at 6 months. The primary safety endpoint was any major stroke or death within 30 days or major ipsilateral stroke or neurological death within 6 months. 'Probable benefit' was defined as ≥90% angiographic occlusion at 6 months. An independent core laboratory adjudicated the angiographic results. An independent clinical events committee adjudicated the clinical endpoints. Average aneurysm size was 7.2 mm (SD 3.8) and average neck width was 4.6 mm (SD 1.8). 68% of patients had a dome:neck ratio ≤2. LVIS placement was technically successful in 29/31 patients (93.5%). No primary safety endpoints occurred during the study (0%). No patient had a higher modified Rankin Score at 6 months than at baseline. 26/28 (92.9%) treated aneurysms with 6-month angiographic follow-up demonstrated ≥90% angiographic occlusion. 21/28 (75%) were completely occluded at follow-up. The LVIS device facilitated the coil embolization of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms with high rates of technical success, an excellent safety profile, and very high rates of complete and near-complete occlusion at follow-up. NCT01541254. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Creating a driving profile for older adults using GPS devices and naturalistic driving methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babulal, Ganesh M; Traub, Cindy M; Webb, Mollie; Stout, Sarah H; Addison, Aaron; Carr, David B; Ott, Brian R; Morris, John C; Roe, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Road tests and driving simulators are most commonly used in research studies and clinical evaluations of older drivers. Our objective was to describe the process and associated challenges in adapting an existing, commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS), in-vehicle device for naturalistic, longitudinal research to better understand daily driving behavior in older drivers. Design: The Azuga G2 Tracking Device (TM) was installed in each participant's vehicle, and we collected data over 5 months (speed, latitude/longitude) every 30-seconds when the vehicle was driven.  Setting: The Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Washington University School of Medicine. Participants: Five individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal study assessing preclinical Alzheimer disease and driving performance.  Participants were aged 65+ years and had normal cognition. Measurements:  Spatial components included Primary Location(s), Driving Areas, Mean Centers and Unique Destinations.  Temporal components included number of trips taken during different times of the day.  Behavioral components included number of hard braking, speeding and sudden acceleration events. Methods:  Individual 30-second observations, each comprising one breadcrumb, and trip-level data were collected and analyzed in R and ArcGIS.  Results: Primary locations were confirmed to be 100% accurate when compared to known addresses.  Based on the locations of the breadcrumbs, we were able to successfully identify frequently visited locations and general travel patterns.  Based on the reported time from the breadcrumbs, we could assess number of trips driven in daylight vs. night.  Data on additional events while driving allowed us to compute the number of adverse driving alerts over the course of the 5-month period. Conclusions: Compared to cameras and highly instrumented vehicle in other naturalistic studies, the compact COTS device was quickly installed and transmitted high volumes

  6. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray; Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett

    1991-01-01

    The results of the NPN bipolar transistor (BJT) (2N6023) breakdown voltage measurements were analyzed. Switching measurements were made on the NPN BJT, the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) (TA9796) and the N-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) (RFH75N05E). Efforts were also made to build a H-bridge inverter. Also discussed are the plans that have been made to do life testing on the devices, to build an inductive switching test circuit and to build a dc/dc switched mode converter.

  7. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Activities directed toward the development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices are described. Topics investigated include: measurements of transistor delay time; application of the infrared response technique to the study of radiation-damaged, lithium-drifted silicon detectors; and identification of a condition that minimizes wire flexure and reduces the failure rate of wire bonds in transistors and integrated circuits under slow thermal cycling conditions. Supplementary data concerning staff, standards committee activities, technical services, and publications are included as appendixes.

  8. DATA PROCESSING FROM THE MEASURING DEVICE BALLBAR QC20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Košinár

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative method of data processing from the measurement device – Ballbar QC20W. It was created with a program for data transformation (Visual Basic.NET and it used Fourier transformation. The paper deals with the measuring method of CNC machine tools using Ballbar QC20W. There is an influence between qualitative parameters of machine tools and qualitative parameters of products (tolerances, roughness, etc.. It is very important to hold the stability of qualitative parameters of products as a key factor of production quality. Therefore, is also important to evaluate the accuracy of machine tools and make prediction of possible accuracy.

  9. The Retrieval of Ozone Profiles from Limb Scatter Measurements: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flittner, D. E.; Herman, B. M.; Bhartia, P. K.; McPeters, R. D.; Hilsenrath, E.

    1999-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for retrieving vertical profiles of O3 concentration using measurements of UV and visible light scattered from the limb of the atmosphere. The UV measurements provide information about the O3 profile in the upper and middle stratosphere, while only visible wavelengths are capable of probing the lower stratospheric O3 profile. Sensitivity to the underlying scene reflectance is greatly reduced by normalizing measurements at a tangent height high in the atmosphere (approximately 55 km), and relating measurements taken at lower altitudes to this normalization point. To decrease the effect of scattering by thin aerosols/clouds that may be present in the field of view, these normalized measurements are then combined by pairing wavelengths with strong and weak O3 absorption. We conclude that limb scatter can be used to measure O3 between 15 km and 50 km with 2-3 km vertical resolution and better than 10% accuracy.

  10. An eye behavior measuring device for VR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng

    2002-12-01

    This work presents an eye-tracking and pupil size-measuring device that interfaces with a computer for applications useful in psychometry, ophthalmology, physiology and virtual reality (VR) systems. This system utilizes a change-coupled device (CCD) camera, appropriate lenses, PC with frame grabber and a DSP unit with various types of VR equipment, i.e., HMD, simulator or LCD projection device. The digital signal processing unit is used to calculate the average brightness and contrast of the VR video image. A CCD camera with various attachments can be mounted on various VR systems to capture the human eye image for testing. An image capture card and a personal computer are used to analyze the test image. From the eye digital image, the computer obtains data on the pupil size and a trace of the tested eye. A pattern recognition computer program and five measurement parameters are used to distinguish the position of the pupil, calculate the pupil location coordinate and analyze the physical conditions of the user. These data can be plotted against the average brightness and contrast of the VR video image in real time. This information is shown on the screen of a personal computer and used for cross-link analysis. This eye-tracking interface can determine the position of a subject's pupil and map that position into a display point on a computer screen. The pupil size and location data versus the average brightness and contrast of a VR video image are computed in real time.

  11. Transverse beam profile measurements with slit scanner and Faraday cup at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Cantero, E D; Lanaia, D; Sosa, A; Voulot, D

    2014-01-01

    The transverse profiles for the HIE-ISOLDE beams will be measured using a system composed of a scanning slit and a Faraday cup. A validation test of the proposed device was performed using the REX-ISOLDE stable beam and a prototype diagnostic box designed for HIE-ISOLDE. The slit used for this test was very thin (0.2 mm width), but still fairly good profiles could be obtained for beams with total current of around 20 pA (typical beam intensity during normal set-up procedures for REX-ISOLDE).

  12. Apparatus for gas sorption measurement with integrated gas composition measurement device and gas mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklash. II, Kenneth James; Dutton, Justin James; Kaye, Steven

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus for testing of multiple material samples includes a gas delivery control system operatively connectable to the multiple material samples and configured to provide gas to the multiple material samples. Both a gas composition measurement device and pressure measurement devices are included in the apparatus. The apparatus includes multiple selectively openable and closable valves and a series of conduits configured to selectively connect the multiple material samples individually to the gas composition device and the pressure measurement devices by operation of the valves. A mixing system is selectively connectable to the series of conduits and is operable to cause forced mixing of the gas within the series of conduits to achieve a predetermined uniformity of gas composition within the series of conduits and passages.

  13. An unheated permeation device for calibrating atmospheric VOC measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of an unpowered permeation device for continuous calibration of in-situ instruments measuring atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs is described. Being lightweight and compact, and containing only negligible amounts of chemicals, the device is especially suited for field use such as on board aircraft. Its speciality is to maintain the permeation process in thermal equilibrium, so that the instantaneous permeation rate can be ascribed to a simple temperature measurement. This equilibrium state is maintained by a combination of three features: (i a thin PTFE membrane as permeation medium which guarantees short stabilization times, (ii a water bath as heat buffer, and (iii a vacuum-panel based insulation, in which features (ii and (iii minimize temperature drifts to ~30 mK h−1 per Kelvin temperature difference to the environment. The respective uncertainty of the permeation rate due to thermal non-equilibrium is kept below 1%. An extensive theory part details the major permeation processes of gases through porous polymers, being Fick's diffusion, Knudsen flow, and viscous flow. Both the measured stabilization time and the measured temperature dependence of the permeation rate independently indicate that the permeation can be described by a viscous flow model, where diffusion of the gas molecules in large pores (having a diameter of >0.05 μm dominates.

  14. Optimized Estimation of Surface Layer Characteristics from Profiling Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreene Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New sampling techniques such as tethered-balloon-based measurements or small unmanned aerial vehicles are capable of providing multiple profiles of the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer (MASL in a short time period. It is desirable to obtain surface fluxes from these measurements, especially when direct flux measurements are difficult to obtain. The profiling data is different from the traditional mean profiles obtained at two or more fixed levels in the surface layer from which surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat are derived based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST. This research develops an improved method to derive surface fluxes and the corresponding MASL mean profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity with a least-squares optimization method using the profiling measurements. This approach allows the use of all available independent data. We use a weighted cost function based on the framework of MOST with the cost being optimized using a quasi-Newton method. This approach was applied to seven sets of data collected from the Monterey Bay. The derived fluxes and mean profiles show reasonable results. An empirical bias analysis is conducted using 1000 synthetic datasets to evaluate the robustness of the method.

  15. Adaptive Blood Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Measurement Devices for Visually Impaired Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes devices that people with visual impairments and diabetes can use to monitor blood glucose levels and measure insulin. A table lists devices, their manufacturers (including address and telephone number), and comments about the devices. (DB)

  16. Measurement device for ankle joint kinematic and dynamic characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomozzi, C; Cesinaro, S; Basile, F; De Angelis, G; Giansanti, D; Maccioni, G; Masci, E; Panella, A; Paolizzi, M; Torre, M; Valentini, P; Macellari, V

    2003-07-01

    The paper describes a measurement device for obtaining the kinematic characterisation and isometric loading of ankle joints under different working conditions. Non-invasive, in vivo experiments can be conducted with this experimental apparatus, the potential of which could be usefully exploited in basic biomedical research, prosthesis design, clinical applications, sports medicine and rehabilitation. The device determines the 3D movement of the foot with respect to the shank and evaluates the torques and moments around the three articular axes in relation to any desired angular position of the ankle complex. When integrated with superficial electromyographic techniques and electrical stimulation, it allows the assessment of the functionality of the lower leg in both mechanical and myo-electrical terms. The paper reports the main mechanical and electronic features of the device (high linearity; maximum moment ranges +/- 300 Nm for flexion-extension, +/- 35 Nm for both pronation-supination and internal-external rotation; angular ranges: +/- 100 degrees of dorsi-plantar flexion, +/- 50 degrees of internal-external rotation and prono-supination; linear ranges: +/- 25 mm along each axis). Results from a healthy volunteer, under voluntary or stimulated conditions, helped in testing its operatability, reliability, robustness, repeatability and effectiveness. Preliminary simplified protocols have been also applied to 20 healthy volunteers, and the main results were 80.8 +/- 11.9 degrees of internalexternal rotation, 46.2 +/- 9.1 degrees of prono-supination and 74.6 +/- 13.1 degrees of flexion-extension. Torques and moments were normalised with respect to a body mass index of 30. The maximum plantar flexion moment (57.5 + 21.3 Nm) was measured with the foot at 150 of dorsal flexion; the maximum dorsal flexion moment (50.2 + 20.3 Nm) was measured with the foot at 150 of plantar flexion.

  17. Joseph F. Keithley Award Talk: Microwave Measurements of Mesoscopic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelkopf, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Typical measurements of mesoscopic devices at low temperatures suffer from annoyingly low speeds and the presence of excess low-frequency noise that can try the experimentalist's patience. Even though these devices are not well-matched to the fifty ohm world of microwaves, the ability to listen to signals coming from a cryogenic nanostructure with a wideband amplifier at gigahertz frequencies has proven quite beneficial. These techniques can be surprising precise and powerful, allowing access to high-speed dynamics, the collection of information from wideband signals such as noise, and an entry into the domain of quantum electrical signals. I will review some of our early experiments at Yale in this area, especially the development of the Radio-Frequency Single-Electron Transistor (RF-SET), which is still the most sensitive electrometer known. Today we find that microwave measurements are proving highly beneficial for solid-state quantum computing, which in turn is leading to a new wave of capabilities for generating and measuring microwave signals at the single photon level.

  18. PARduino: A Simple Device Measuring and Logging Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, H. R.; Findley, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) is one of the primary controls of forest carbon and water relations. In complex terrain, PAR has high spatial-variability. Given the high cost of commercial datalogging equipment, spatially-distributed measurements of PAR have been typically modeled using geographic coordinates and terrain indices. Here, we present a design for a low cost, field-deployable device for measuring and logging PAR built around an Arduino microcontroller (we named it PARduino). PARduino provides for widely distributed sensor arrays and tests the feasibility of using hobbyist-grade electronics for collecting scientific data. PARduino components include a LiCor quantum sensor, EME Systems signal converter/amplifier, and Sparkfun's Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller. Additional components include a real time clock, a microSD flash memory card, and a custom printed circuit board (PCB). We selected the components with an eye towards ease of assembly. Everything can be connected to the PCB using through-hole soldering techniques. Since the device will be deployed in remote research plots that lack easy access to line power, battery life was also a consideration in the design. Extended deployment is possible because PARduino's software keeps it in a low-power sleep mode until ready to make a measurement. PARduino will be open-source hardware for use and improvement by others.

  19. Reflectometry techniques for density profile measurements on fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laviron, C.; Donne, A. J. H.; Manso, M. E.; Sanchez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Reflectometry applied to the measurement of density profiles on fusion plasmas has been subject to many recent developments. After a brief reminder of the principles of reflectometry, the theoretical accuracy of reflectometry measurements is discussed. The main difficulties limiting the performance,

  20. Low-profile visible intraluminal support device: immediate outcome of the first three US cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Raymond D; Turk, Aquilla; Chaudry, Imran

    2013-03-01

    Dissecting and wide-necked aneurysms that incorporate a large portion of the parent artery can be challenging to treat with currently available devices. This study reports three cases treated with a new hybrid stent design that incorporates a smaller cell size and more pliable design than current generation stents and results in some flow diversion characteristics. In all three cases, use of the low-profile visible intraluminal support (LVIS) device in conjunction with coil embolization was determined to provide the best opportunity to achieve aneurysm occlusion while mitigating adverse events. The institutional review board reviewed all cases and approval was obtained. All cases were performed under emergent use exemption from the US Food and Drug Administration. All three patients were successfully stent coiled with the LVIS device. One patient was completely occluded initially and remained so at follow-up, one patient progressed to complete occlusion at follow-up, and the last patient had stable incomplete occlusion of their fusiform aneurysm. There were no complications related to the procedures and the patients were maintained on dual-antiplatelet therapy. The LVIS device offers promise as a stent-assisted coil device with certain characteristics that may be advantageous over currently available microstents.

  1. An Ultrasonic Caliper Device for Measuring Acoustic Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Christopher; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Maxwell, Adam D.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Wang, Yak-Nam; MacConaghy, Brian; Kreider, Wayne

    In medical and industrial ultrasound, it is often necessary to measure the acoustic properties of a material. A specific medical application requires measurements of sound speed, attenuation, and nonlinearity to characterize livers being evaluated for transplantation. For this application, a transmission-mode caliper device is proposed in which both transmit and receive transducers are directly coupled to a test sample, the propagation distance is measured with an indicator gage, and receive waveforms are recorded for analysis. In this configuration, accurate measurements of nonlinearity present particular challenges: diffraction effects can be considerable while nonlinear distortions over short distances typically remain small. To enable simple estimates of the nonlinearity coeffcient from a quasi-linear approximation to the lossless Burgers' equation, the calipers utilize a large transmitter and plane waves are measured at distances of 15-50 mm. Waves at 667 kHz and pressures between 0.1 and 1 MPa were generated and measured in water at different distances; the nonlinearity coeffcient of water was estimated from these measurements with a variability of approximately 10%. Ongoing efforts seek to test caliper performance in other media and improve accuracy via additional transducer calibrations.

  2. Absolute beam emittance measurements at RHIC using ionization profile monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Connolly, R [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Summers, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-08-15

    In the past, comparisons between emittance measurements obtained using ionization profile monitors, Vernier scans (using as input the measured rates from the zero degree counters, or ZDCs), the polarimeters and the Schottky detectors evidenced significant variations of up to 100%. In this report we present studies of the RHIC ionization profile monitors (IPMs). After identifying and correcting for two systematic instrumental errors in the beam size measurements, we present experimental results showing that the remaining dominant error in beam emittance measurements at RHIC using the IPMs was imprecise knowledge of the local beta functions. After removal of the systematic errors and implementation of measured beta functions, precise emittance measurements result. Also, consistency between the emittances measured by the IPMs and those derived from the ZDCs was demonstrated.

  3. Measuring vertical oxygen profiles in the hyporheic zone using planar optodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieweg, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-04-01

    On of the key parameters, controlling biogeochemical reactions in the hyporheic zone (HZ) is the distribution of oxygen. A reliable measurement of the vertical oxygen distribution is an important tool to understand the dynamic fluctuations of the aerobic zone within the HZ. With repeated measurements of continuous profiles, mixing of surface water and groundwater as well as the consumption of oxygen can be evaluated. We present a novel approach for the in situ measurements of vertical oxygen distribution in the riverbed using a planar optode. The luminescence based optode measurement enables a non invasive measurement without consumption of oxygen, no creation of preferential flow paths and only minimal disturbance of the flow field. Possible atmospheric contamination by pumping pore water into a vessel can be avoided and the readings are independent of flow velocity. A self manufactured planar optode is wrapped around an acrylic tube and installed in the riverbed. The measurement is performed by vertically moving a profiler-piston inside the acrylic tube. The piston holds a robust polymer optical fibre which emits a modulated light signal through the acrylic glass to the optode-foil and transmits the induced luminescence signal back to a commercially available trace oxygen meter. Temperature compensation is accomplished using a depth-oriented temperature probe nearby and processing the raw data within a Matlab script. Robust and unbiased oxygen profiles are obtained by averaging multiple consecutive measurements. To ensure a constant velocity of the profiler for replicating the exact measuring depths, an electric motor device is used. First results at our test site show a variable oxygen profile down to 40 cm depth which is strongly influenced by stream level and upwelling groundwater conditions. The measured oxygen profiles will serve as input parameter for a 3D solute transport and chemical reaction subsurface model of the HZ.

  4. Profile Measurement of Worn Acetabular Cup by Holographic Contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakunai, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Tohoru; Sakurai, Daisuke; Aota, Yuuki; Shelton, Julia

    Wear in a polyethylene acetabular cup is dependent on the history of the cup, namely on the sterilization treatment, initial mounting situation, the patient's lifestyle and length of time in vivo. Understanding wear patterns is essential in order to prevent inflammation and prosthesis failure. This study describes the profile measurement of a worn acetabular cup by holographic contouring, which can provide non-contact measurement over the entire visual field. Experiments were performed to verify the method, and measurements of cups worn in vivo were carried out. Cup profile was investigated using holograms obtained in three directions and changes in cup profile were evaluated using fringe patterns in which the interval range was adjusted from tens of microns to several millimeters.

  5. Development of a device to measure human sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Reinhard; Scheel, Norman

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of human sound discrimination and localization are important for basic empirical and clinical applications. After a short survey of other methods such as evoked potentials, the development of a new device to measure human sound localization is described and its use illustrated with some examples. Built from a polyacrylic hemisphere or--in a later version--from an orbicular aluminum frame, the apparatus uses multiple speakers to emit auditory stimuli. The patient sits in the middle of the perimeter and has to press a button when a sound is perceived. In addition, the participant has to identify the correct speaker as the source of the sound. With this method it is possible to map the auditory field.

  6. Control and Data Analysis for Emittance Measuring Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, T

    2001-01-01

    Due to the wide range of heavy ion beam intensities and energies in the GSI linac and the associated transfer channel to the synchrotron, several different types of emittance measurement systems have been established. Many common devices such as slit/grid or dipole-sweep systems are integrated into the GSI control system. Other systems like the single shot pepper pot method using CCD-cameras or stand-alone slit/grid set-ups are connected to personal computers. An overview is given about the various systems and their software integration. Main interest is directed on the software development for emittance front-end control and data analysis such as evaluation algorithms or graphical presentation of the results. In addition, special features for improved usability of the software such as data export, project databases and automatic report generation will be presented. An outlook on a unified evaluation procedure for all different types of emittance measurement is given.

  7. Finger tracking for hand-held device interface using profile-matching stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Ping; Lee, Dah-Jye; Moore, Jason; Desai, Alok; Tippetts, Beau

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people use hand-held devices frequently and control them by touching the screen with their fingers. If this method of operation is being used by people who are driving, the probability of deaths and accidents occurring substantially increases. With a non-contact control interface, people do not need to touch the screen. As a result, people will not need to pay as much attention to their phones and thus drive more safely than they would otherwise. This interface can be achieved with real-time stereovision. A novel Intensity Profile Shape-Matching Algorithm is able to obtain 3-D information from a pair of stereo images in real time. While this algorithm does have a trade-off between accuracy and processing speed, the result of this algorithm proves the accuracy is sufficient for the practical use of recognizing human poses and finger movement tracking. By choosing an interval of disparity, an object at a certain distance range can be segmented. In other words, we detect the object by its distance to the cameras. The advantage of this profile shape-matching algorithm is that detection of correspondences relies on the shape of profile and not on intensity values, which are subjected to lighting variations. Based on the resulting 3-D information, the movement of fingers in space from a specific distance can be determined. Finger location and movement can then be analyzed for non-contact control of hand-held devices.

  8. The Zax Information Profile: a measure of college adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, D; Zax, M; Clarfield, S P; Pratt, D M

    1977-08-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Zax Information Profile (ZIP), a personality test based on general fund of information, in discriminating between college students who sought mental health services and those who did not, Three successive classes of freshmen students at the Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester were administered the ZIP. Help-seeking students were matched with non-help-seeking students for sex, age, and intellectual ability. The hypothesis that ZIP scores would differentiate between these two groups was supported by the data. The potential use of the ZIP as a predictor of college adjustment and as a useful entrance screening device was discussed.

  9. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA...... is demonstated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  10. Reconstructive endovascular treatment of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms with the Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS) device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chuan-Chuan Wang; Yi-Bin Fang; Ping Zhang; Xuan Zhu; Bo Hong; Yi Xu; Jian-Min Liu; Qing-Hai Huang

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS) device is a new generation of self-expanding braided stent recently introduced in China for stent assisted coiling of intracranial aneurysms...

  11. Gamma-ray emission profile measurements during JET ICRH discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.; Van Belle, P. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Howarth, P.J.A. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Adams, J.M.; Bond, D.S. [UKAEA Harwell Lab. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Div.

    1994-07-01

    Gamma-ray emission from plasma-impurity reactions caused by minority ICRH accelerating fuel ions to MeV energies has been measured using the JET neutron profile monitor. A successful data analysis technique has been used to isolate the RF-induced gamma-ray emission that was detected, enabling profiles of gamma-ray emission to be obtained. The 2-d gamma-ray emission profiles show that virtually all the radiation originates from the low field side of the RF resonance layer, as expected from RF-induced pitch angle diffusion. The emission profiles indicate the presence of a small population of resonant {sup 3}He ions that possess orbits lying near the passing-trapped boundary. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Thirty Stage Annular Centrifugal Contactor Thermal Profile Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David H. Meikrantz; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    A thirty stage 5 cm annular centrifugal contactor cascade has been assembled and tested to obtain thermal profiles during both ambient and heated input conditions of operation. Thermocouples were installed on every stage as well as feed inputs and Real-time data was taken during experiments lasting from two to eight hours at total flow rates of 0.5 to 1.4 liters per minute. Ambient temperature profile results show that only a small amount of heat is generated by the mechanical energy of the contactors. Steady state temperature profiles mimic the ambient temperature of the lab but are higher toward the middle of the cascade. Heated inlet solutions gave temperature profiles with smaller temperature gradients, more driven by the temperature of the inlet solutions than ambient lab temperature. Temperature effects of solution mixing, even at rotor speeds of 4000 rpm, were not measurable.

  13. Soil Moisture Profile Effect on Radar Signal Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    André Chanzy; Nicolas Baghdadi; Mehrez Zribi; Aurélie Le Morvan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the behaviour of a backscattered signal according to soil moisture depth over bare soils. Analysis based on experimental vertical moisture profiles and ASAR/ENVISAT measurements has been carried out. A modified IEM model with three permittivity layers (0-1cm, 1-2cm, 2-5cm) has been developed and used in this study. Results show a small effect of moisture profile on the backscattered signal (less than 0.5dB). However, measurements and simulations have ...

  14. Profile measurements of thin liquid films using reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchak, M. S.; Vangsness, M. D.; Byrd, L. W.; Ervin, J. S.; Jones, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    Microscope-based reflectometry was used to measure the thickness profile of thin films of n-octane on silicon wafer substrates. Coupled with micro-positioning motorized stages and custom software, two-dimensional profiles of the film thickness from the adsorbed film (˜10 nm) to the intrinsic meniscus (˜1000 nm) were automatically and repeatedly measured. The reflectometer aperture was modified to provide better spatial resolution in areas of high curvature, the transition region, where evaporative flux is at a maximum. This technique will provide data for the validation of both existing and future models of thin film evaporation.

  15. 21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered direct-contact temperature measurement....1570 Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device. (a) Identification. A powered direct-contact temperature measurement device is a device which contains a power source and is used to measure...

  16. Mixing height measurements from UHF wind profiling radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, W.M.; Grimsdell, A.W. [CIRES, Univ. of Colorado, and NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Mixing height in convective boundary layers can be detected by wind profiling radars (profilers) operating at or near 915 MHZ. We have made such measurements in a variety of settings including Alabama in 1992; Nova Scotia, Canada, during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) 1993; Tennessee during the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) 1994; near a 450 m tower in Wisconsin in 1995; and extensively in Illinois during the Flatland95, `96, and `97 experiments, as well as continuous operations at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory. Profiler mixing height measurements, like all measurements, are subject to some limitations. The most important of these are due to rainfall, minimum height, and height resolution. Profilers are very sensitive to rain, which dominates the reflectivity and prevents the mixing height from being detected. Because the best height resolution is currently 60 m and the minimum height is 120-150 m AGL, the profiler is not suited for detecting mixing height in stable or nocturnal boundary layers. Problems may also arise in very dry or cold environments. (au) 12 refs.

  17. Testing limits to airflow perturbation device (APD measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshidi Shaya

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Airflow Perturbation Device (APD is a lightweight, portable device that can be used to measure total respiratory resistance as well as inhalation and exhalation resistances. There is a need to determine limits to the accuracy of APD measurements for different conditions likely to occur: leaks around the mouthpiece, use of an oronasal mask, and the addition of resistance in the respiratory system. Also, there is a need for resistance measurements in patients who are ventilated. Method Ten subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 were tested for each station in the experiment. The first station involved testing the effects of leaks of known sizes on APD measurements. The second station tested the use of an oronasal mask used in conjunction with the APD during nose and mouth breathing. The third station tested the effects of two different resistances added in series with the APD mouthpiece. The fourth station tested the usage of a flexible ventilator tube in conjunction with the APD. Results All leaks reduced APD resistance measurement values. Leaks represented by two 3.2 mm diameter tubes reduced measured resistance by about 10% (4.2 cmH2O·sec/L for control and 3.9 cm H2O·sec/L for the leak. This was not statistically significant. Larger leaks given by 4.8 and 6.4 mm tubes reduced measurements significantly (3.4 and 3.0 cm cmH2O·sec/L, respectively. Mouth resistance measured with a cardboard mouthpiece gave an APD measurement of 4.2 cm H2O·sec/L and mouth resistance measured with an oronasal mask was 4.5 cm H2O·sec/L; the two were not significantly different. Nose resistance measured with the oronasal mask was 7.6 cm H2O·sec/L. Adding airflow resistances of 1.12 and 2.10 cm H2O·sec/L to the breathing circuit between the mouth and APD yielded respiratory resistance values higher than the control by 0.7 and 2.0 cm H2O·sec/L. Although breathing through a 52 cm length of flexible ventilator tubing reduced the APD

  18. Coil embolization of intracranial saccular aneurysms using the Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS™) device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Dae; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Cho, Won-Sang; Hwang, Gyojun; Kwon, O-Ki; Ko, Mi-Sun; Park, Nam-Mi; Han, Moon Hee

    2014-07-01

    The novel Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS™, LVIS and LVIS Jr.) device was recently introduced for stent-supported coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms. Periprocedural and midterm follow-up results for its use in stent-supported coil embolization of unruptured aneurysms are presented herein. In this prospective multicenter study, clinical and radiologic outcomes were analyzed for 55 patients with saccular aneurysms undergoing LVIS-assisted coil embolization between October 2012 and February 2013. Magnetic resonance angiography or digital subtraction angiography was performed to evaluate midterm follow-up results. The standard LVIS device, deployed in 27 patients, was more often used in internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms (n=19), whereas the LVIS Jr. (a lower profile stent, n=28) was generally reserved for anterior communicating artery (n=14) and middle cerebral artery (n=8) aneurysms. With LVIS-assisted coil embolization, successful occlusion was achieved in 45 aneurysms (81.8 %). Although no instances of navigation failure or stent malposition occurred, segmentally incomplete stent expansion was seen in five patients where the higher profile LVIS was applied to ICA including carotid siphon. Procedural morbidity was low (2/55, 3.6 %), limited to symptomatic thromboembolism. In the imaging of lesions (54/55, 98.2 %) at 6-month follow-up, only a single instances of major recanalization (1.9 %) occurred. Follow-up angiography of 30 aneurysms (54.5 %) demonstrated in-stent stenosis in 26 (86.7 %), with no instances of stent migration. Only one patient suffered late delayed infarction (modified Rankin Scale 1). The LVIS device performed acceptably in stent-assisted coil embolization of non-ruptured aneurysms due to easy navigation and precise placement, although segmentally incomplete stent expansion and delayed in-stent stenosis were issues.

  19. Low profile, highly configurable, current sharing paralleled wide band gap power device power module

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Brice; Killeen, Peter D.; Lostetter, Alex; Shaw, Robert; Passmore, Brandon; Hornberger, Jared; Berry, Tony M

    2016-08-23

    A power module with multiple equalized parallel power paths supporting multiple parallel bare die power devices constructed with low inductance equalized current paths for even current sharing and clean switching events. Wide low profile power contacts provide low inductance, short current paths, and large conductor cross section area provides for massive current carrying. An internal gate & source kelvin interconnection substrate is provided with individual ballast resistors and simple bolted construction. Gate drive connectors are provided on either left or right size of the module. The module is configurable as half bridge, full bridge, common source, and common drain topologies.

  20. Device for Measuring Low Flow Speed in a Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Frank; Magee, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A multiple-throat venturi system has been invented for measuring laminar flow of air or other gas at low speed (1 to 30 cm/s) in a duct while preserving the laminar nature of the flow and keeping the velocity profile across the duct as nearly flat as possible. While means for measuring flows at higher speeds are well established, heretofore, there have been no reliable means for making consistent, accurate measurements in this speed range. In the original application for which this system was invented, the duct leads into the test section of a low-speed wind tunnel wherein uniform, low-speed, laminar flow is required for scientific experiments. The system could also be used to monitor a slow flow of gas in an industrial process like chemical vapor deposition. In the original application, the multiple- throat venturi system is mounted at the inlet end of the duct having a rectangular cross section of 19 by 14 cm, just upstream of an assembly of inlet screens and flow straighteners that help to suppress undesired flow fluctuations (see Figure 1). The basic venturi measurement principle is well established: One measures the difference in pressure between (1) a point just outside the inlet, where the pressure is highest and the kinetic energy lowest; and (2) the narrowest part (the throat) of the venturi passage, where the kinetic energy is highest and the pressure is lowest. Then by use of Bernoulli s equation for the relationship between pressure and kinetic energy, the volumetric flow speed in the duct can be calculated from the pressure difference and the inlet and throat widths. The design of this system represents a compromise among length, pressure recovery, uniformity of flow, and complexity of assembly. Traditionally, venturis are used to measure faster flows in narrower cross sections, with longer upstream and downstream passages to maintain accuracy. The dimensions of the passages of the present venturi system are sized to provide a readily measurable

  1. Plan View and Profile Relations: Measuring Correlation Between Channel Profile and Network Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, E.; Hilley, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    In this research, we explore the relationships between channel network attributes and the corresponding channel profile geometries using high-resolution digital topography and model-generated synthetic topographies. This combined analysis addresses one of the long-standing questions in geomorphology relating to the mechanistic significance of various plan-view channel network geometry measures. Statistically based numerical studies suggest that Hortonian measures of channel network architecture (e.g. bifurcation ratio, area ratio, and length ratio) describe virtually all possible network geometries, and so are not diagnostic when evaluating the origins of the geometry of a particular network. We further explore this hypothesis by examining the correlation between Hack exponent, the channel profile characteristics, and process changes (i.e debris flow vs. fluvial flows) within the landscape. Analysis of high resolution DEMs as well as modeled landscapes, suggests that the Hack exponent is likewise insensitive to changes in the channel profile concavity. In contrast, we find that changes in the concavity of channel profiles apparently impacts the spatial distribution of plan-view junction angles of joining stream segments throughout a catchment. In the context of previous work, this angle might be expected to be a function of the ratio between the slopes of the adjoined channels. Channel concavity determines downstream change in this ratio for channel segments throughout the basin, and so such a metric might be used to explicitly link profile channel geometries to plan-view network geometries. Because profile geometries may change with different advective mass transport processes, such a metric may provide a link between the processes that transport material across a landscape, the profile geometry of channels through which these flows traverse, and the overall drainage network geometry. Additional numerical and field data based analysis are required to further

  2. Retrieval of ozone profiles from GOMOS limb scattered measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tukiainen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars instrument on board the Envisat satellite measures the vertical composition of the atmosphere using the stellar occultation technique. While the night-time occultations of GOMOS have been proven to be of good quality, the daytime occultations are more challenging due to weaker signal-to-noise ratio. During daytime GOMOS measures limb scattered solar radiation in addition to stellar radiation. In this paper we introduce a retrieval method that determines ozone profiles between 20–60 km from GOMOS limb scattered solar radiances. GOMOS observations contain a considerable amount of stray light at high altitudes. We introduce a method for removing stray light and demonstrate its feasibility by comparing the corrected radiances against those measured by the OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph & Infra Red Imaging System instrument. For the retrieval of ozone profiles, a standard onion peeling method is used. The first comparisons with other data sets suggest that the retrieved ozone profiles in 22–50 km are within 10% compared with the GOMOS night-time occultations and within 15% compared with OSIRIS. GOMOS has measured about 350 000 daytime profiles since 2002. The retrieval method presented here makes this large amount of data available for scientific use.

  3. Retrieval of ozone profiles from GOMOS limb scattered measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukiainen, S.; Kyrölä, E.; Verronen, P. T.; Fussen, D.; Blanot, L.; Barrot, G.; Hauchecorne, A.; Lloyd, N.

    2011-04-01

    The GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars) instrument on board the Envisat satellite measures the vertical composition of the atmosphere using the stellar occultation technique. While the night-time occultations of GOMOS have been proven to be of good quality, the daytime occultations are more challenging due to weaker signal-to-noise ratio. During daytime GOMOS measures limb scattered solar radiation in addition to stellar radiation. In this paper we introduce a retrieval method that determines ozone profiles between 20-60 km from GOMOS limb scattered solar radiances. GOMOS observations contain a considerable amount of stray light at high altitudes. We introduce a method for removing stray light and demonstrate its feasibility by comparing the corrected radiances against those measured by the OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph & Infra Red Imaging System) instrument. For the retrieval of ozone profiles, a standard onion peeling method is used. The first comparisons with other data sets suggest that the retrieved ozone profiles in 22-50 km are within 10% compared with the GOMOS night-time occultations and within 15% compared with OSIRIS. GOMOS has measured about 350 000 daytime profiles since 2002. The retrieval method presented here makes this large amount of data available for scientific use.

  4. Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum digital signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G L; Lucamarini, M; Yuan, Z L; Dynes, J F; Comandar, L C; Sharpe, A W; Shields, A J; Curty, M; Puthoor, I V; Andersson, E

    2017-10-23

    The development of quantum networks will be paramount towards practical and secure telecommunications. These networks will need to sign and distribute information between many parties with information-theoretic security, requiring both quantum digital signatures (QDS) and quantum key distribution (QKD). Here, we introduce and experimentally realise a quantum network architecture, where the nodes are fully connected using a minimum amount of physical links. The central node of the network can act either as a totally untrusted relay, connecting the end users via the recently introduced measurement-device-independent (MDI)-QKD, or as a trusted recipient directly communicating with the end users via QKD. Using this network, we perform a proof-of-principle demonstration of QDS mediated by MDI-QKD. For that, we devised an efficient protocol to distil multiple signatures from the same block of data, thus reducing the statistical fluctuations in the sample and greatly enhancing the final QDS rate in the finite-size scenario.

  5. A Device for Automatically Measuring and Supervising the Critical Care Patient’S Urine Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemi Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical care units are equipped with commercial monitoring devices capable of sensing patients’ physiological parameters and supervising the achievement of the established therapeutic goals. This avoids human errors in this task and considerably decreases the workload of the healthcare staff. However, at present there still is a very relevant physiological parameter that is measured and supervised manually by the critical care units’ healthcare staff: urine output. This paper presents a patent-pending device capable of automatically recording and supervising the urine output of a critical care patient. A high precision scale is used to measure the weight of a commercial urine meter. On the scale’s pan there is a support frame made up of Bosch profiles that isolates the scale from force transmission from the patient’s bed, and guarantees that the urine flows properly through the urine meter input tube. The scale’s readings are sent to a PC via Bluetooth where an application supervises the achievement of the therapeutic goals. The device is currently undergoing tests at a research unit associated with the University Hospital of Getafe in Spain.

  6. OVERVIEW OF NEUTRON MEASUREMENTS IN JET FUSION DEVICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistoni, P; Villari, R; Obryk, B; Packer, L W; Stamatelatos, I E; Popovichev, S; Colangeli, A; Colling, B; Fonnesu, N; Loreti, S; Klix, A; Klosowski, M; Malik, K; Naish, J; Pillon, M; Vasilopoulou, T; De Felice, P; Pimpinella, M; Quintieri, L

    2017-10-05

    The design and operation of ITER experimental fusion reactor requires the development of neutron measurement techniques and numerical tools to derive the fusion power and the radiation field in the device and in the surrounding areas. Nuclear analyses provide essential input to the conceptual design, optimisation, engineering and safety case in ITER and power plant studies. The required radiation transport calculations are extremely challenging because of the large physical extent of the reactor plant, the complexity of the geometry, and the combination of deep penetration and streaming paths. This article reports the experimental activities which are carried-out at JET to validate the neutronics measurements methods and numerical tools used in ITER and power plant design. A new deuterium-tritium campaign is proposed in 2019 at JET: the unique 14 MeV neutron yields produced will be exploited as much as possible to validate measurement techniques, codes, procedures and data currently used in ITER design thus reducing the related uncertainties and the associated risks in the machine operation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. 30 CFR 75.320 - Air quality detectors and measurement devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality detectors and measurement devices... quality detectors and measurement devices. (a) Tests for methane shall be made by a qualified person with... used. (c) Handheld devices that contain electrical components and that are used for measuring air...

  8. Mobile Communication Devices, Ambient Noise, and Acoustic Voice Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; Ysenbaert, Femke; Zarowski, Andrzej; Vanspauwen, Robby

    2017-03-01

    The ability to move with mobile communication devices (MCDs; ie, smartphones and tablet computers) may induce differences in microphone-to-mouth positioning and use in noise-packed environments, and thus influence reliability of acoustic voice measurements. This study investigated differences in various acoustic voice measures between six recording equipments in backgrounds with low and increasing noise levels. One chain of continuous speech and sustained vowel from 50 subjects with voice disorders (all separated by silence intervals) was radiated and re-recorded in an anechoic chamber with five MCDs and one high-quality recording system. These recordings were acquired in one condition without ambient noise and in four conditions with increased ambient noise. A total of 10 acoustic voice markers were obtained in the program Praat. Differences between MCDs and noise condition were assessed with Friedman repeated-measures test and posthoc Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, both for related samples, after Bonferroni correction. (1) Except median fundamental frequency and seven nonsignificant differences, MCD samples have significantly higher acoustic markers than clinical reference samples in minimal environmental noise. (2) Except median fundamental frequency, jitter local, and jitter rap, all acoustic measures on samples recorded with the reference system experienced significant influence from room noise levels. Fundamental frequency is resistant to recording system, environmental noise, and their combination. All other measures, however, were impacted by both recording system and noise condition, and especially by their combination, often already in the reference/baseline condition without added ambient noise. Caution is therefore warranted regarding implementation of MCDs as clinical recording tools, particularly when applied for treatment outcomes assessments. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antiproton beam profile measurements using Gas Electron Multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge; Spanggaard, Jens; Tranquille, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    The new beam profile measurement for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN is based on a single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) with a 2D readout structure. This detector is very light, ~0.4% X_0, as required by the low energy of the antiprotons, 5.3 MeV. This overcomes the problems previously encountered with multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) for the same purpose, where beam interactions with the detector severely affect the obtained profiles. A prototype was installed and successfully tested in late 2010, with another five detectors now installed in the ASACUSA and AEgIS beam lines. We will provide a detailed description of the detector and discuss the results obtained. The success of these detectors in the AD makes GEM-based detectors likely candidates for upgrade of the beam profile monitors in all experimental areas at CERN. The various types of MWPC currently in use are aging and becoming increasingly difficult to maintain.

  10. Soil Moisture Profile Effect on Radar Signal Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Chanzy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the behaviour of a backscattered signalaccording to soil moisture depth over bare soils. Analysis based on experimental verticalmoisture profiles and ASAR/ENVISAT measurements has been carried out. A modifiedIEM model with three permittivity layers (0-1cm, 1-2cm, 2-5cm has been developed andused in this study. Results show a small effect of moisture profile on the backscatteredsignal (less than 0.5dB. However, measurements and simulations have provided a moredetailed insight into the behaviour of the radar signal and have shown that it was importantto consistently use the same protocol when performing ground truth measurements of soilmoisture.

  11. Evaluation of spectrum measurement devices for operational use

    CERN Document Server

    Devine, R T; Gray, D W; Seagraves, D T; Olsher, R H; Johnson, J P

    2002-01-01

    Several neutron spectrometers manufactured by Bubble Technology Industries (BTI) were tested and evaluated in a variety of neutron fields. Findings and conclusions are presented for the following BTI instruments: a modification of the Rotational Spectrometer (ROSPEC) that includes a thermal and epithermal capability, the Simple Scintillation Spectrometer that is used in conjunction with the ROSPEC to extend its high-energy range, and the MICROSPEC N-Probe which is capable of providing a crude spectrum over the energy range from thermal to 18 MeV. The main objective of these measurements was to determine the accuracy of both the energy spectrum and dose equivalent information generated by these devices. In addition, the dose response of the Wide-Energy Neutron Detection Instrument (WENDI-II) was measured in all neutron fields relative to a bare sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf calibration. The performance of the WENDI-II rem meter was compared to the dose information generated by the neutron spectrometers. The instruments...

  12. [Mobile Health: IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuffless Blood Pressure Measuring Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Wu, Wenli; Bao, Shudi

    2015-07-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details will be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users will be addressed.

  13. Evaluating the Safety Profile of Non-Active Implantable Medical Devices Compared with Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, Josep; Coloma, Preciosa M; Verhamme, Katia M C; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Rebollo, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Recent safety issues involving non-active implantable medical devices (NAIMDs) have highlighted the need for better pre-market and post-market evaluation. Some stakeholders have argued that certain features of medicine safety evaluation should also be applied to medical devices. Our objectives were to compare the current processes and methodologies for the assessment of NAIMD safety profiles with those for medicines, identify potential gaps, and make recommendations for the adoption of new methodologies for the ongoing benefit-risk monitoring of these devices throughout their entire life cycle. A literature review served to examine the current tools for the safety evaluation of NAIMDs and those for medicines. We searched MEDLINE using these two categories. We supplemented this search with Google searches using the same key terms used in the MEDLINE search. Using a comparative approach, we summarized the new product design, development cycle (preclinical and clinical phases), and post-market phases for NAIMDs and drugs. We also evaluated and compared the respective processes to integrate and assess safety data during the life cycle of the products, including signal detection, signal management, and subsequent potential regulatory actions. The search identified a gap in NAIMD safety signal generation: no global program exists that collects and analyzes adverse events and product quality issues. Data sources in real-world settings, such as electronic health records, need to be effectively identified and explored as additional sources of safety information, particularly in some areas such as the EU and USA where there are plans to implement the unique device identifier (UDI). The UDI and other initiatives will enable more robust follow-up and assessment of long-term patient outcomes. The safety evaluation system for NAIMDs differs in many ways from those for drugs, but both systems face analogous challenges with respect to monitoring real-world usage. Certain features

  14. Measurement of active shoulder proprioception: dedicated system and device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiatowski, Przemyslaw; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Wojtaszek, Marcin; Kaniewski, Ryszard; Stefaniak, Jakub; Dudziński, Witold; Romanowski, Leszek

    2013-02-01

    Proprioception is an essential part of shoulder stability and neuromuscular control. The purpose of the study was the development of a precise system of shoulder proprioception assessment in the active mode (Propriometr). For that purpose, devices such as the electronic goniometer and computer software had been designed. A pilot study was carried out on a control group of 27 healthy subjects, the average age being 23.8 (22-29) in order to test the system. The result of the assessment was the finding of the error of active reproduction of the joint position (EARJP). EARJP was assessed for flexion, abduction, external and internal rotation. For every motion, reference positions were used at three different angles. The results showed EARJP to range in 3-6.1°. The proprioception evaluation system (propriometr) allows a precise measurement of active joint position sense. The designed system can be used to assess proprioception in both shoulder injuries and treatment. In addition, all achieved results of normal shoulders may serve as reference to be compared with the results of forthcoming studies.

  15. Loss-tolerant measurement-device-independent quantum private queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang-Yuan; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Qian, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Quantum private queries (QPQ) is an important cryptography protocol aiming to protect both the user’s and database’s privacy when the database is queried privately. Recently, a variety of practical QPQ protocols based on quantum key distribution (QKD) have been proposed. However, for QKD-based QPQ the user’s imperfect detectors can be subjected to some detector- side-channel attacks launched by the dishonest owner of the database. Here, we present a simple example that shows how the detector-blinding attack can damage the security of QKD-based QPQ completely. To remove all the known and unknown detector side channels, we propose a solution of measurement-device-independent QPQ (MDI-QPQ) with single- photon sources. The security of the proposed protocol has been analyzed under some typical attacks. Moreover, we prove that its security is completely loss independent. The results show that practical QPQ will remain the same degree of privacy as before even with seriously uncharacterized detectors.

  16. 128 slice computed tomography dose profile measurement using thermoluminescent dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehhon, N.; Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Ang, W. C.; Musa, Y.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice marks the needs to understand the dose descriptor and dose profile. The purposes of the current study were to determine the CT dose index free-in-air (CTDIair) in 128 slice CT scanner and to evaluate the single scan dose profile (SSDP). Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) were used to measure the dose profile of the scanner. There were three sets of CT protocols where the tube potential (kV) setting was manipulated for each protocol while the rest of parameters were kept constant. These protocols were based from routine CT abdominal examinations for male adult abdomen. It was found that the increase of kV settings made the values of CTDIair increased as well. When the kV setting was changed from 80 kV to 120 kV and from 120 kV to 140 kV, the CTDIair values were increased as much as 147.9% and 53.9% respectively. The highest kV setting (140 kV) led to the highest CTDIair value (13.585 mGy). The p-value of less than 0.05 indicated that the results were statistically different. The SSDP showed that when the kV settings were varied, the peak sharpness and height of Gaussian function profiles were affected. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of dose profiles for all protocols were coincided with the nominal beam width set for the measurements. The findings of the study revealed much information on the characterization and performance of 128 slice CT scanner.

  17. NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volten, H.; Brinksma, E. J.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Hains, J.; Bergwerff, J. B.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Apituley, A.; Dirksen, R. J.; Calabretta-Jongen, S.; Swart, D. P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Satellite instruments are efficient detectors of air pollutants such as NO2. However, the interpretation of satellite retrievals is not a trivial matter. We describe a novel instrument, the RIVM NO2 mobile lidar, to measure tropospheric NO2 profiles for the interpretation and validation of satellite data. During the DANDELIONS campaign in 2006 we obtained an extensive collection of lidar NO2 profiles, coinciding with OMI and SCIAMACHY overpasses. On clear days and early mornings a comparison between lidar and in situ measurements showed excellent agreement. At other times the in situ monitors with molybdenum converters suffered from NOy interference. The lidar NO2 profiles indicated a well-mixed boundary layer, with high NO2 concentrations in the boundary layer and concentrations above not differing significantly from zero. The boundary layer concentrations spanned a wide range, which likely depends on the wind directions and on the intensity of local (rush hour) traffic which varies with the day of the week. Large diurnal differences were mainly driven by the height of the boundary layer, although direct photolysis or photochemical processes also contribute. Small-scale temporal and spatial variations in the NO2 concentrations of the order of 20-50% were measured, probably indicative of small-scale eddies. A preliminary comparison between satellite and lidar data shows that the satellite data tend to overestimate the amount of NO2 in the troposphere compared to the lidar data.

  18. Measurement of plasma edge profile on Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drews, Philipp; Liang, Yunfeng; Neubauer, Olaf; Denner, Peter; Rack, Michael; Liu, Shaocheng; Wang, Nunchao; Nicolai, Dirk; Hollfeld, Klaus; Satheeswaran, Guruparan [Forschungszentrum Juelich, IEK4, Juelich (Germany); Grulke, Olaf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Collaboration: W7-X Team

    2016-07-01

    Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), currently under commissioning at the IPP Greifswald, will be the world's largest stellarator with modular superconducting coils, which will enable steady-state-like plasma operation of up to thirty minutes in order to explore the reactor relevance of this concept. The first operation phase of W7-X will employ a limiter configuration. It will be used primarily for setting up the diagnostics and testing the magnetic configuration. In conjunction with the multipurpose manipulator, a fast reciprocating probe is installed. The combined probe head will be used to measure the radial distribution of the magnetic field using magnetic pick-up coils; the plasma temperature and density profiles and the radial electric field using Langmuir pins; and the plasma flows using a Mach setup. As a quasi-isodynamic stellarator, it has been predicted that not only neoclassical but also turbulent transport will be comparable to or possibly even lower than that of tokamaks. Edge plasma profile measurements, especially those of the electron temperature and density, will play a key role in validating this performance in comparison to the tokamak and hence the viability of a stellarator fusion reactor. The edge plasma profile measurements using the combined probe head are presented.

  19. Three-dimensional profile measurement of micro-electro-mechanical systems structures based on infrared light reflection interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianhua; Han, Bingchen

    2017-11-01

    A new method of measuring the three-dimensional (3D) profile of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) structures based on infrared light reflection interference is developed in this paper. The application of reflection interference technology in a 3D profile reconstruction is extended from white light to infrared light. The measurement system comprised an infrared light source, an interference microscope, an infrared light charge-coupled device, a ceramic piezo and a data acquisition system. The 3D profile of the MEMS device structures was obtained by vertical scanning interferometry and it is consistent with the scanning electron microscope image. The results indicate that the lateral resolution is 0.18 um and the vertical resolution is 1 nm.

  20. Thermal Loading and Lifetime Estimation for Power Device Considering Mission Profiles in Wind Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    As a key component in the wind turbine system, the power electronic converter and its power semiconductors suffer from complicated power loadings related to environment, and are proven to have high failure rates. Therefore, correct lifetime estimation of wind power converter is crucial...... for the reliability improvement and also for cost reduction of wind power technology. Unfortunately, the existing lifetime estimation methods for the power electronic converter are not yet suitable in the wind power application, because the comprehensive mission profiles are not well specified and included....... Consequently, a relative more advanced approach is proposed in this paper, which is based on the loading and strength analysis of devices and takes into account different time constants of the thermal behaviors in power converter. With the established methods for loading and lifetime estimation for power...

  1. Reflectometry techniques for density profile measurements on fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviron, C. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Donne, A.J.H. [Associatie Euratom-FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands). FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica; Manso, M.E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Lab. de Quimica Organica; Sanchez, J. [EURATOM-CIEMAT for Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-03-01

    Reflectometry applied to the measurement of density profiles on fusion plasmas has been subject to many recent developments. After a brief reminder of the principles of reflectometry, the theoretical accuracy of reflectometry measurements is discussed. The main difficulties limiting the performance, namely the plasma fluctuations and the quality of the transmission lines, are analysed. The different techniques used for reflectometry are then presented. The present status and achievements of actual implementations of these techniques are shown, with an analysis of their respective limitations and merits, as well as foreseen developments. (author). 70 refs.

  2. Use of oscillometric devices in atrial fibrillation: a comparison of three devices and invasive blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Matthieu; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Taffe, Patrick; Vaucher, Julien; Waeber, Bernard; Liaudet, Lucas; Ltaief, Zied; Popov, Milen; Waeber, Gerard

    2018-02-01

    The use of automated (oscillometric) blood pressure (BP) devices is not validated in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. To assess the reliability of three oscillometric BP devices, and the agreement with invasive arterial blood pressure(IBP) in AF patients. 48 AF patients with randomized sequences of 10 consecutive BP measurements with two pairs of devices: (1) OmronR7™(wrist) and OmronHEM907™(arm); (2) OmronR7™ and Microlife WatchBPhome(arm). Reliability and agreement of each device were assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for the continuous BP measurements and Bland & Altman methodology, respectively. In 10 additional AF patients, 10 consecutive measurements with IBP and OmronHEM907™, and IBP and Microlife WatchBPhome were performed. The OmronR7™ was not able to obtain any BP Readings. Arm devices presented better ICC for systolicBP(SBP) than for diastolicBP(DBP) (Omron HEM907™:0.94 [0.90; 0.97] vs. 0.77 [0.67; 0.89]; Microlife WatchBPhome:0.92 [0.88; 0.96] vs.0.79 [0.69; 0.89]).The correlation coefficient between Microlife WatchBPhome and IBP computed using the average of repeated measurements from two to ten measurements improved up to the third and remained stable afterwards. The agreement between IBP and SBP, and IBP and DBP, was moderate as illustrated by a wide limit of agreement [-24; 26](SBP) and [-15;17](DBP) for Microlife WatchBPHome, respectively and [-30; 13](SBP) and [-7; 15](DBP) for OmronHEM907. BP measurement using the two arm oscillometric devices achieved a high reliability for SBP. The agreement between IBP and arm devices was low but using the average of three consecutive measurements improved the results substantially.

  3. MODELLING AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF A ROAD PROFILE MEASURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Patel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During a vehicle development program, load data representing severe customer usage is required. The dilemma faced by a design engineer during the design process is that during the initial stage, only predicted loads estimated from historical targets are available, whereas the actual loads are available only at the fag end of the process. At the same time, changes required, if any, are easier and inexpensive during the initial stages of the design process whereas they are extremely costly in the latter stages of the process. The use of road profiles and vehicle models to predict the load acting on the whole vehicle is currently being researched. This work hinges on the ability to accurately measure road profiles. The objective of the work is to develop an algorithm, using MATLAB Simulink software, to convert the input signals into measured road profile. The algorithm is checked by the MATLAB Simulink 4 degrees of freedom half car model. To make the whole Simulink model more realistic, accelerometer and laser sensor properties are introduced. The present work contains the simulation of the mentioned algorithm with a half car model and studies the results in distance, time, and the frequency domain.

  4. Differential phase reflectometry for edge profile measurements on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, G.R.; Wilgen, J.B.; Bigelow, T.S.; England, A.C.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Collazo, I. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Wilson, J.R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

    1994-06-01

    Edge electron density profile measurements, including the scrape-off layer, have been made during ICRF heating with the two-frequency differential phase reflectometer installed in an ICRF antenna on TFTR. This system probes the plasma using the extraordinary mode with two signals swept from 90 to 118 GHz while maintaining a fixed difference frequency of 125 MHz. The extraordinary mode is used to obtain density profiles in the range of 1 {times} 10{sup 11} to 3 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} in high-field (4.5- to 4.9-T) full size (R{sub 0} = 2.62 m, a = .96 m) TFTR plasmas. The reflectometer launcher is located in an ICRF antenna and views the plasma through a small penetration in the center of the Faraday shield. A 26 m long overmoded waveguide run connects the launcher to the reflectometer microwave electronics. Profile measurements made with this reflectometer system will be presented along with a discussion of the characteristics of this differential phase reflectometer and data analysis.

  5. Turbulent and Transitional Modeling of Drag on Oceanographic Measurement Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamic techniques have been applied to the determination of drag on oceanographic devices (expendable bathythermographs. Such devices, which are used to monitor changes in ocean heat content, provide information that is dependent on their drag coefficient. Inaccuracies in drag calculations can impact the estimation of ocean heating associated with global warming. Traditionally, ocean-heating information was based on experimental correlations which related the depth of the device to the fall time. The relation of time-depth is provided by a fall-rate equation (FRE. It is known that FRE depths are reasonably accurate for ocean environments that match the experiments from which the correlations were developed. For other situations, use of the FRE may lead to depth errors that preclude XBTs as accurate oceanographic devices. Here, a CFD approach has been taken which provides drag coefficients that are used to predict depths independent of an FRE.

  6. Profiler measurements of turbulence and wind shear in a snowstorm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; Leblanc, S.G. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; Cohn, S.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; Ecklund, W.L. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences; Carter, D.A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Lab.; Wilson, J.S. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences

    1996-02-01

    Observations of a large and vigorous snowstorm with a UHF wind profiler were used to investigate the intensity of atmospheric turbulence and its relation to the vertical wind shear. Turbulence was estimated from the spread of the Doppler spectrum in the vertical beam of the profiler, after correcting for the contribution of the horizontal wind speed to the spread. Wind shear was computed directly from the measured wind profiles. Over the 24 h duration of the storm, shear values exceeding 0.02 s{sup -1} existed nearly continuously in the lowest few hundred meters of the atmosphere and in a broad elevated layer that slowly descended from 4 km to 2 km. The pattern of Doppler spread in time-height coordinates closely resembled the pattern of wind shear, though a detailed, point-by-point comparison of these two quantities by linear regression yielded a correlation coefficient of only 0.4. Focusing on just the observations in the lowest few hundred meters gave a higher correlation coefficient. The Richardson number as a function of height and time was computed by combining the measured wind shear values with temperature profiles generated by a mesoscale numerical model. We found evidence of weak turbulence even in regions with Ri>1, but a value close to the theoretical threshold of Ri=1/4 separates the more intense turbulence from the weaker. Estimates of the turbulent energy dissipation rate, {epsilon}, based on the Doppler spread, range as high as 500 cm{sup 2} s{sup -3}, the largest values being near the ground. (orig.)

  7. Reconstructive endovascular treatment of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms with the Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS) device

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chuan-Chuan; Fang, Yi-Bin; Zhang, Ping; ZHU, XUAN; Hong, Bo; Xu, Yi; Liu, Jian-Min; Huang, Qing-Hai

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS) device is a new generation of self-expanding braided stent recently introduced in China for stent assisted coiling of intracranial aneurysms. The aim of our study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the LVIS device in reconstructive treatment of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the neurointerventional database of our institution from June 2014 to May 2016. ...

  8. Improving the accuracy and efficiency of respiratory rate measurements in children using mobile devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Karlen

    Full Text Available The recommended method for measuring respiratory rate (RR is counting breaths for 60 s using a timer. This method is not efficient in a busy clinical setting. There is an urgent need for a robust, low-cost method that can help front-line health care workers to measure RR quickly and accurately. Our aim was to develop a more efficient RR assessment method. RR was estimated by measuring the median time interval between breaths obtained from tapping on the touch screen of a mobile device. The estimation was continuously validated by measuring consistency (% deviation from the median of each interval. Data from 30 subjects estimating RR from 10 standard videos with a mobile phone application were collected. A sensitivity analysis and an optimization experiment were performed to verify that a RR could be obtained in less than 60 s; that the accuracy improves when more taps are included into the calculation; and that accuracy improves when inconsistent taps are excluded. The sensitivity analysis showed that excluding inconsistent tapping and increasing the number of tap intervals improved the RR estimation. Efficiency (time to complete measurement was significantly improved compared to traditional methods that require counting for 60 s. There was a trade-off between accuracy and efficiency. The most balanced optimization result provided a mean efficiency of 9.9 s and a normalized root mean square error of 5.6%, corresponding to 2.2 breaths/min at a respiratory rate of 40 breaths/min. The obtained 6-fold increase in mean efficiency combined with a clinically acceptable error makes this approach a viable solution for further clinical testing. The sensitivity analysis illustrating the trade-off between accuracy and efficiency will be a useful tool to define a target product profile for any novel RR estimation device.

  9. Hamiltonian Evolution of Monokinetic Measures with Rough Momentum Profile

    KAUST Repository

    Bardos, Claude W.

    2014-12-27

    Consider a monokinetic probability measure on the phase space (Formula presented.) , i.e. (Formula presented.) where Uin is a vector field on RN and ρin a probability density on RN. Let Φt be a Hamiltonian flow on RN × RN. In this paper, we study the structure of the transported measure (Formula presented.) and of its integral in the ξ variable denoted ρ(t). In particular, we give estimates on the number of folds in (Formula presented.) , on which μ(t) is concentrated. We explain how our results can be applied to investigate the classical limit of the Schrödinger equation by using the formalism of Wigner measures. Our formalism includes initial momentum profiles Uin with much lower regularity than required by the WKB method. Finally, we discuss a few examples showing that our results are sharp.

  10. Development of a new generation of optical slope measuring profiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Takacs, Peter Z.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-09-16

    A collaboration, including all DOE synchrotron labs, industrial vendors of x-ray optics, and with active participation of the HBZ-BESSY-II optics group has been established to work together on a new slope measuring profiler -- the optical slope measuring system (OSMS). The slope measurement accuracy of the instrument is expected to be<50 nrad for the current and future metrology of x-ray optics for the next generation of light sources. The goals were to solidify a design that meets the needs of mirror specifications and also be affordable; and to create a common specification for fabrication of a multi-functional translation/scanning (MFTS) system for the OSMS. This was accomplished by two collaborative meetings at the ALS (March 26, 2010) and at the APS (May 6, 2010).

  11. Measuring nanolayer profiles of various materials by evanescent light technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchin, Nina; Apter, Boris; Lapsker, Igor; Fogel, V; Gorodetsky, Uri; Popescu, Simona A; Peled, Aaron; Popescu-Pelin, Gianina; Dorcioman, Gabriela; Duta, Liviu; Popescu, Andrei; Mihailescu, Ion N

    2012-03-01

    The evanescent light photon extraction efficiency of insulator, semiconductor and conductor amorphous nanolayers deposited on glass waveguides was evaluated from Differential Evanescent Light Intensity measurements. The Differential Evanescent Light Intensity technique uses the evanescent field scattered by the deposited nanolayer, enabling nanometer thickness profiling due to the high inherent dark background contrast. The results show that the effective evanescent photon penetration depth increases from metal to semiconductor and then to insulating layers, establishing thus the effective photon-material interaction length for the various materials classes.

  12. High Resolution Shear Profile Measurements in Entangled Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Keesha A.

    2008-11-17

    We use confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry to visualize motion of 250-300 nm. fluorescent tracer particles in entangled polymers subject to a rectilinear shear flow. Our results show linear velocity profiles in polymer solutions spanning a wide range of molecular weights and number of entanglements (8≤Z≤56), but reveal large differences between the imposed and measured shear rates. These findings disagree with recent reports that shear banding is a characteristic flow response of entangled polymers, and instead point to interfacial slip as an important source of strain loss. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  13. Measuring the longitudinal bunch profile at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, A E; Bettoni, S; Braun†, H H; Corsini, R; Döbert, S; Egger, D; Lefevre, T; Rabiller, A; Shaker, H; Soby, L; Skowronski, P K; Tecker, F; Velasco, M

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) is being built and commissioned by an international collaboration in order to test the feasibility of the proposed Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) two-beam acceleration scheme. The monitoring and control of the bunch length throughout the CTF3 complex is important since this affects the efficiency and the stability of the final RF power production process. Bunch length diagnostics therefore form an essential component of the beam instrumentation at CTF3. This paper presents longitudinal profile measurements based on Streak camera and non-destructive RF power and microwave spectrometry techniques.

  14. Interlaboratory comparison of autoradiographic DNA profiling measurements: precision and concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duewer, D L; Lalonde, S A; Aubin, R A; Fourney, R M; Reeder, D J

    1998-05-01

    Knowledge of the expected uncertainty in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) measurements is required for confident exchange of such data among different laboratories. The total measurement uncertainty among all Technical Working Group for DNA Analysis Methods laboratories has previously been characterized and found to be acceptably small. Casework cell line control measurements provided by six Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and 30 U.S. commercial, local, state, and Federal forensic laboratories enable quantitative determination of the within-laboratory precision and among-laboratory concordance components of measurement uncertainty typical of both sets of laboratories. Measurement precision is the same in the two countries for DNA fragments of size 1000 base pairs (bp) to 10,000 bp. However, the measurement concordance among the RCMP laboratories is clearly superior to that within the U.S. forensic community. This result is attributable to the use of a single analytical protocol in all RCMP laboratories. Concordance among U.S. laboratories cannot be improved through simple mathematical adjustments. Community-wide efforts focused on improved concordance may be the most efficient mechanism for further reduction of among-laboratory RFLP measurement uncertainty, should the resources required to fully evaluate potential cross-jurisdictional matches become burdensome as the number of RFLP profiles on record increases.

  15. Clinical use ofa portable electronic device to measure haematocrit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A small portable device, the blood electrometer. '(BEM), was developed to assist cliriicians to distinguish patients with extreme blood loss from those with normal packed cell volumes. The BEM operates on the princi- ple that blood cells do not conduct a low-frequency alternating current while plasma conducts electricity.

  16. Device Strategies for Patients in INTERMACS Profiles 1 and 2 Cardiogenic Shock: Double Bridge With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Initial Implant of More Durable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Richard; Ramzy, Danny; Azarbal, Babak; Arabia, Francisco A; Esmailian, Fardad; Czer, Lawrence S; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Moriguchi, Jaime D

    2017-03-01

    For Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support profiles 1 and 2 cardiogenic shock patients initially placed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), whether crossover to more durable devices is associated with increased survival, and its optimal timing, are not established. Profiles 1 and 2 patients placed on mechanical support were prospectively registered. Survival and successful hospital discharge were compared between patients placed on ECMO only, ECMO with early crossover, and ECMO with delayed crossover. Survival of patients directly implanted with non-ECMO devices was also reported. One-hundred and sixty-two patients were included. Mean age was 52.2 ± 13.8 years. Seventy-three of 162 (45.1%) were initiated on ECMO. Of these, 43 were supported with ECMO only, 11 were crossed-over early ECMO devices, 30-day and 60-day survival was 90.9 ± 3.1% and 87.3 ± 3.8%, respectively, and survival to hospital discharge was 78.7%. Both initial implant of durable devices and double bridge strategy was associated with improved outcomes. If the double bridge strategy is chosen, early crossover is associated with improved survival and successful hospital discharge. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Residual Gas Fluorescence for Profile Measurements at the GSI UNILAC

    CERN Document Server

    Forck, P

    2002-01-01

    The high beam currents, delivered at the LINAC at GSI (UNILAC) can destroy intercepting diagnostics within one macro-pulse. As an alternative for a non-destructive profile measurement the methode for residual-gas-fluorescence is investigated. The fluorescence light is emitted by the N2 molecules of the residual gas at the blue wavelength range and can be monitored with a modern CCD-camera. The images are transferred via digital bus (IEEE 1394 'FireWire') and the profiles are generated by analysis of the images with a modern software tool (National Instruments 'LabView'). Due to the short beam pulses (about 0.2 ms) the light intensities emitted by the residual gas are low and require a high amplification (gain >106) which is realized with an image intensifier with double MCP (multi channel plate), connected with a fiber taper to the CCD-chip. The design parameters of the optics and electronics are discussed as well as the advantages of the digital data transmission. Measurements with heavy ion beams of several...

  18. A multi-detector, digitizer based neutron depth profiling device for characterizing thin film materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, P. L.; Cao, L. R.; Turkoglu, D. [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Neutron depth profiling (NDP) is a mature, nondestructive technique used to characterize the concentration of certain light isotopes in a material as a function of depth by measuring the residual energy of charged particles in neutron induced reactions. Historically, NDP has been performed using a single detector, resulting in low intrinsic detection efficiency, and limiting the technique largely to high flux research reactors. In this work, we describe a new NDP instrument design with higher detection efficiency by way of spectrum summing across multiple detectors. Such a design is capable of acquiring a statistically significant charged particle spectrum at facilities limited in neutron flux and operation time.

  19. Estimation of road profile variability from measured vehicle responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauriat, W.; Mattrand, C.; Gayton, N.; Beakou, A.; Cembrzynski, T.

    2016-05-01

    When assessing the statistical variability of fatigue loads acting throughout the life of a vehicle, the question of the variability of road roughness naturally arises, as both quantities are strongly related. For car manufacturers, gathering information on the environment in which vehicles evolve is a long and costly but necessary process to adapt their products to durability requirements. In the present paper, a data processing algorithm is proposed in order to estimate the road profiles covered by a given vehicle, from the dynamic responses measured on this vehicle. The algorithm based on Kalman filtering theory aims at solving a so-called inverse problem, in a stochastic framework. It is validated using experimental data obtained from simulations and real measurements. The proposed method is subsequently applied to extract valuable statistical information on road roughness from an existing load characterisation campaign carried out by Renault within one of its markets.

  20. Direct measurement of refracted trajectory of transmitting electron cyclotron beam through plasma on the Large Helical Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron-cyclotron (EC -beam refraction due to the presence of plasma was investigated in the Large Helical Device. The transmitted-EC-beam measurement system was constructed and the beam pattern on the opposite side of the irradiated surface was measured using an IR camera. Clear dependence of the EC-beam refraction on the electron density was observed and the beam shift in the toroidal direction showed good agreement with the ray-trace calculation of TRAVIS. The influence of the peripheral density profile and the thermal effect on the beam refraction were discussed.

  1. Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Junior Device for the Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mihir; Cheung, Vincent J; Abraham, Peter; Wali, Arvin R; Santiago-Dieppa, David R; Gabel, Brandon C; Almansouri, Abdulrahman; Pannell, J Scott; Khalessi, Alexander A

    2017-02-17

    Early case series suggest that the recently introduced Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Junior (LVIS Jr.) device (MicroVention-Terumo, Inc., Tustin, CA) may be used to treat wide-necked aneurysms that would otherwise require treatment with intrasaccular devices or open surgery. We report our single-center experience utilizing LVIS Jr. to treat intracranial aneurysms involving 1.8-2.5 mm parent arteries. We retrospectively reviewed records of patients treated with the LVIS Jr. device for intracranial aneurysms at a single center. A total of 21 aneurysms were treated in 18 patients. Aneurysms were 2-25 mm in diameter; one was ruptured, while three had recurred after previous rupture and treatment. Lesions were distributed across the anterior (n=12) and posterior (n=9) circulations. Three were fusiform morphology. Stent deployment was successful in 100% of cases with no immediate complications. Seventeen aneurysms were treated with stent-assisted coil embolization resulting in immediate complete occlusion in 94% of cases. Two fusiform aneurysms arising from the posterior circulation were further treated with elective clip ligation after delayed expansion and recurrence; no lesions required further endovascular treatment. Four aneurysms were treated by flow diversion with stand-alone LVIS Jr. stent, and complete occlusion was achieved in three cases. Small foci of delayed ischemic injury were noted in two patients in the setting of antiplatelet medication noncompliance. No in-stent stenosis, migration, hemorrhage, or permanent deficits were observed. Good functional outcome based on the modified Rankin Scale score (mRS ≤ 2) was achieved in 100% of cases. Our midterm results suggest that the LVIS Jr. stent may be used for a variety of intracranial aneurysms involving small parent arteries (1.8-2.5 mm) with complete angiographic occlusion, parent vessel preservation, and functional clinical outcomes. This off-label expansion would increase the number of

  2. High-rate measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Ottaviani, Carlo; Spedalieri, Gaetana

    2015-01-01

    Quantum cryptography achieves a formidable task - the remote distribution of secret keys by exploiting the fundamental laws of physics. Quantum cryptography is now headed towards solving the practical problem of constructing scalable and secure quantum networks. A significant step in this direction...... than those currently achieved. Our protocol could be employed to build high-rate quantum networks where devices securely connect to nearby access points or proxy servers....

  3. [Emotional Profile of a Group of Colombian Military Victims of Landmines or Improvised Explosive Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Jorge Emiro; Yara, Eduardo Alfonso; Cano Betancur, Jessica; Tavera, Luz Navia

    2014-01-01

    Antipersonnel Mines (MAP) and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are frequently used in Colombia as an armed resource without the need for direct combat. The Department of Antioquia has the highest number of events associated with the detonation of such battle techniques. There are no studies on the psychological effects that appear as a result of accidents with Antipersonnel Mines and IEDs in the military population. To establish the psychological profile of a group of military victims of MAP and AEI, and a control group of soldiers who were not victims from the analysis of four emotional variables (depression, anxiety, anger and stress). The research was conducted using a case-control design in a .quantitative, comparative, descriptive and cross-sectional study. A sample of 80 soldiers assigned to the Seventh Division of the National Army of Colombia at Medellin, Antioquia. The sample included a group of 30 military cases and 50 soldiers as controls. The anxiety state, trait anxiety, state anger, and trait anger variables showed statistically significant differences between groups. There were no significant differences in the variables depression and stress between groups variables. There was no depression, anxiety, or stress in either of the two groups, but there were clinically significant levels of anger in both groups. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Gamma-ray-based measurement of concentration distribution in pipe flow of settling slurry: vertical profiles and tomographic maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupička Jan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Principles of gamma-ray-based measurement are summarized and their application is demonstrated on an operation of the radiometric facility installed in the test loop for slurry flows at the Institute of Hydrodynamics. The facility is able to measure vertical profiles of chord-averaged concentrations and concentration maps in the pipe cross section. A methodology of measurement is proposed including detection and quantification of random and systematic errors. Experimental results are discussed in the light of the proposed methodology. Experimentally determined vertical profiles of concentration are presented for slurry flows of four different fractions of glass beads. The tomographic application of the radiometric device is demonstrated on a measured concentration map and a suitable image reconstruction method is tested. High reliability of measured concentration distributions is proved except for regions near the pipe wall. The radiometric method is shown to be a useful tool for measurement of concentration distribution in slurry flow through a pipe.

  5. Lidar Aerosol Profiles Measured From Halifax During Summer 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, L.; Duck, T. J.; Doyle, J.; Harris, R.; Beauchamp, S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere were obtained with a high-power Raman Lidar from Halifax, Nova Scotia (44.63N, 63.58W) on the East Coast of Canada during Summer 2007. Observations throughout the troposphere at high temporal resolution were made possible by using a new dual-receiver setup. The lidar was operated in clear-sky conditions, and several long duration (> 80 hours) data sets were obtained. The measurements reveal the presence of boundary-layer aerosols during episodes of pollution transport from the Eastern US and Canada, and are compared with surface measurements of ozone and other species. Boundary layer development, entrainment and mixing are evident in the data. Structured plumes at higher altitudes are traced back to biomass burning events throughout North America. Aerosols were also observed on two occasions at 15 km in altitude, and are most likely due to pyroconvection. The measurements are being used to help understand transport and mixing processes, and to form a climatology of aerosol export from North America during the summer months.

  6. 77 FR 35745 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Solutions USA, LLC, submitted the AlcoMate SafeGuard (Model AL-2500, aka: AlcoScan AL-2500) alcohol... Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in Bodily Fluids AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... Model Specifications for Screening Devices to Measure Alcohol in Bodily Fluids dated, March 31, 2008 (73...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154... DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...

  8. Laser devices for geometric parameters measuring of three-dimensional objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin V. N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes measuring method and presents basic varients of multi-coordinate devices for complicated surface shape control, with distinguishing method of sounding beam forming. The constructing principle and the construc-tion of three-coordinate measuring system for height and linear dimensions of charge-coupled device are considered.

  9. Comparative ex vivo evaluation of two electronic percussive testing devices measuring the stability of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckili, Onur; Bilhan, Hakan; Cilingir, Altug; Bilmenoglu, Caglar; Ates, Gokcen; Urgun, Aliye Ceren; Bural, Canan

    2014-12-01

    A comparative ex vivo study was performed to determine electronic percussive test values (PTVs) measured by cabled and wireless electronic percussive testing (EPT) devices and to evaluate the intra- and interobserver reliability of the wireless EPT device. Forty implants were inserted into the vertebrae and forty into the pelvis of a steer, a safe distance apart. The implants were all 4.3 mm wide and 13 mm long, from the same manufacturer. PTV of each implant was measured by four different examiners, using both EPT devices, and compared. Additionally, the intra- and interobserver reliability of the wireless EPT device was evaluated. Statistically significant differences (P devices. PTVs measured by the wireless EPT device were significantly higher than the cabled EPT device (P device was evaluated as excellent for the measurements in type II bone and good-to-excellent in type IV bone; interobserver reliability was evaluated as fair-to-good in both bone types. The wireless EPT device gives PTVs higher than the cabled EPT device, indicating lower implant stability, and its inter- and intraobserver reliability is good and acceptable.

  10. Comparison of mixing height parameterizations with profiles measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquier, A.; Stuebi, R.; Tercier, P. [Swiss Meteorological Inst., SMI - MeteoSwiss, Payerne (Switzerland)

    1997-10-01

    Different meteorological pre-processors for dispersion studies are available to derive the atmospheric boundary layer mixing height (MH). The analysis of their performances has been reviewed in the framework of the European COST Action 710. In this project, the computed mixing height values have been compared with data derived mostly from aero-logical sounding analysis and Sodar measurements. Since then, a new analysis of a low-tropospheric wind profiler (WP) data has been performed taking advantage of its high data sampling ({delta}t {approx} 30 sec.). The comparison between these recent results and aero-logical sounding, Sodar data, as well as to meteorological pre-processors calculations are reported for three periods of several days corresponding to different meteorological situations. In convective conditions, the pre-processors give reasonable level, the mixing height growing rate is in fair agreement with the measured one. In stable cloudy daytime conditions, the modeled mixing height does not correspond to any measured height. (LN)

  11. Comparative analysis of von Willebrand factor profiles after implantation of left ventricular assist device and total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, H J; Morgan, J; Arabia, F; Czer, L; Moriguchi, J; Ramzy, D; Esmailian, F; Lam, L; Dunhill, J; Volod, O

    2017-08-01

    Essentials Bleeding is a major source of morbidity during mechanical circulatory support. von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimer loss may contribute to bleeding. Different patterns of VWF multimer loss were seen with the two device types. This is the first report of total artificial heart associated VWF multimer loss. Background Bleeding remains a challenge during mechanical circulatory support and underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Functional von Willebrand factor (VWF) impairment because of loss of high-molecular-weight multimers (MWMs) produces acquired von Willebrand disease (VWD) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Little is known about VWF multimers with total artificial hearts (TAHs). Here, VWF profiles with LVADs and TAHs are compared using a VWD panel. Methods VWD evaluations for patients with LVAD or TAH (2013-14) were retrospectively analyzed and included: VWF activity (ristocetin cofactor, VWF:RCo), VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), ratio of VWF:RCo to VWF:Ag, and quantitative VWF multimeric analysis. Results Twelve patients with LVADs and 12 with TAHs underwent VWD evaluation. All had either normal (47.8%) or elevated (52.2%) VWF:RCo, normal (26.1%) or elevated (73.9%) VWF:Ag and 50.0% were disproportional (ratio ≤ 0.7). Multimeric analysis showed abnormal patterns in all patients with LVADs: seven with high MWM loss; five with highest MWM loss. With TAH, 10/12 patients had abnormal patterns: all with highest MWM loss. High MWM loss correlated with presence of LVAD and highest MWM loss with TAH. Increased low MWMs were detected in 22/24. Conclusion Using VWF multimeric analysis, abnormalities after LVAD or TAH were detected that would be missed with measurements of VWF level alone: loss of high MWM predominantly in LVAD, loss of highest MWM in TAH, and elevated levels of low MWM in both. This is the first study to describe TAH-associated highest MWM loss, which may contribute to bleeding. © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and

  12. A Diffusion-Based and Dynamic 3D-Printed Device That Enables Parallel in Vitro Pharmacokinetic Profiling of Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Sarah Y; Meisel, Jayda E; Monsma, Frederick J; Spence, Dana M

    2016-02-02

    The process of bringing a drug to market involves many steps, including the preclinical stage, where various properties of the drug candidate molecule are determined. These properties, which include drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, are often displayed in a pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. While PK profiles are determined in animal models, in vitro systems that model in vivo processes are available, although each possesses shortcomings. Here, we present a 3D-printed, diffusion-based, and dynamic in vitro PK device. The device contains six flow channels, each with integrated porous membrane-based insert wells. The pores of these membranes enable drugs to freely diffuse back and forth between the flow channels and the inserts, thus enabling both loading and clearance portions of a standard PK curve to be generated. The device is designed to work with 96-well plate technology and consumes single-digit milliliter volumes to generate multiple PK profiles, simultaneously. Generation of PK profiles by use of the device was initially performed with fluorescein as a test molecule. Effects of such parameters as flow rate, loading time, volume in the insert well, and initial concentration of the test molecule were investigated. A prediction model was generated from this data, enabling the user to predict the concentration of the test molecule at any point along the PK profile within a coefficient of variation of ∼ 5%. Depletion of the analyte from the well was characterized and was determined to follow first-order rate kinetics, indicated by statistically equivalent (p > 0.05) depletion half-lives that were independent of the starting concentration. A PK curve for an approved antibiotic, levofloxacin, was generated to show utility beyond the fluorescein test molecule.

  13. Measurements of density profile evolution during the stably-stratified filling of an open enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarawneh, Constantine M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78539-2999 (United States); Homan, K.O. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, formerly University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409-0050 (United States)], E-mail: khoman@umr.edu

    2008-08-15

    The stably-stratified filling of an open enclosure produces an interfacial gradient layer which is transported through the enclosure with the bulk flow. The evolution of this interfacial layer is strongly time-dependent and is driven by the nature of the interaction between the internal gravity waves and the inlet-driven interfacial shear. Measurements of density profile evolution have been completed for a rectangular enclosure with a single corner inlet and density variation produced by saline concentration. This system serves as a mass transfer analog to large-scale, thermally-stratified energy storage devices, preserving dynamic similitude in a laboratory-scale system. The experiments covered jet Reynolds numbers of 200-2200 and Froude numbers of 0.06-0.6 in an enclosure with a width 23 times the jet inlet height. The density profiles are seen to be strongly asymmetric and exhibit growth rates significantly different than due to simple one-dimensional molecular diffusion. In addition, shadowgraph and hydrogen bubble visualizations of the density and velocity fields in the gradient layer show the persistence of complex multi-dimensional flow structure even at relatively late stages of the filling process when the gradient layer has been transported well away from the enclosure inlet. The evolution of the vertical density profile has been compared quantitatively to a quasi one-dimensional model based upon empirical diffusivity coefficients.

  14. [Measuring the accuracy of various elastomeric impression materials using a CNC coordinate measuring device (Part 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, M; Borchers, L; Limmroth, E

    1990-08-01

    This study compares the accuracy of 23 impression materials. With each material seven impressions of a stainless steel master die were taken under standardized conditions. Characteristical dimensions of the master die and of the stone dies as well were determined by means of a CNC coordinate measuring device. Differences in prepared tooth heights ranged between -36 and +19 microns. The occlusal distances between prepared teeth were 2 to 54 microns greater on the stone dies than on the master die. Diameters differed by -89 to +52 microns. The two phase impressions tended to result in stone dies of reduced size, whereas single phase and double mix impression techniques produced larger stone dies than the master die.

  15. Quantitative Electrochemical Measurements using in situ ec-S/TEM Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Sacci, Robert L [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Gardiner, Daniel [Protochips Inc., Raleigh, NC; Walden II, Franklin S [Protochips Inc., Raleigh, NC; Damiano, John [Protochips Inc., Raleigh, NC; Nackashi, David P. [Protochips Inc., Raleigh, NC

    2014-01-01

    Insight into dynamic electrochemical processes can be obtained with in situ ec-S/TEM, which utilizes microfluidic electrochemical cells to characterize electrochemical processes with S/TEM imaging, diffraction or spectroscopy. The microfluidic electrochemical cell is composed of microfabricated devices with glassy carbon and platinum microband electrodes in a three-electrode cell configuration. To establish the validity of this method for quantitative in situ electrochemistry research, cyclic voltammetry, choronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were performed using a standard one electron transfer redox couple using a [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- based electrolyte. Established relationships of the electrode geometry and microfluidic conditions were fitted with cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometic measurements of analyte diffusion coefficients and was found to agree with well-accepted values that are on the order of 10-5 cm2 s-1. Influence of the electron beam on electrochemical measurements was found to be negligible during CV scans where the current profile varied only within a few nA with the electron beam on and off which is well within the hysteresis between multiple CV scans. The combination of experimental results provides a validation that quantitative electrochemistry experiments can be performed with these small-scale microfluidic electrochemical cells provided that accurate geometrical electrode configurations, diffusion boundary layers and microfluidic conditions are accounted for.

  16. Acceleration of Insulin Pharmacodynamic Profile by a Novel Insulin Infusion Site Warming Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Eda; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Sherr, Jennifer L.; Tichy, Eileen; Martin, Melody; Carria, Lori; Steffen, Amy; Tamborlane, William V.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Subcutaneously injected rapid-acting insulin analogs do not replicate physiologic insulin action due to delays in their onset and peak action resulting in post-prandial glucose excursions. The InsuPatch (IP) is a novel insulin infusion site warming device developed to accelerate insulin action by increasing blood flow to the area of insulin absorption. 13 adolescents with type 1 diabetes (mean age 14±4 years) were enrolled in this study to investigate the effect of the IP on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a 0.2u/kg bolus dose of aspart insulin using the euglycemic clamp technique. Research Design and Methods Each subject underwent two euglycemic clamp procedures on separate occasions: one with and one without IP activation in random order. Results When the insulin bolus was given with IP activation as compared to without IP activation, time to reach maximum insulin action (TGIRmax) and to reach 50% maximum action (T 50%GIRmax) were 35 and 18 minutes earlier (125±8 min vs. 90±6min, p=0.002 and 58±5min. vs. 40±3min, p=0.01, respectively), and the AUC GIR 0-90min, reflecting early glucodynamic action, was significantly greater (p=0.001). IP activation also accelerated the rise in plasma insulin levels after the bolus (p=0.03) and resulted in a higher peak (p=0.04) and greater overall increase (p=0.02) in plasma insulin levels. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that insulin infusion site warming with IP activation accelerates the time action profile of aspart insulin which may be of benefit to current open-loop and future closed-loop insulin delivery in patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23107353

  17. Endovascular treatment of PICA aneurysms with a Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS Jr) device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, Edgar A; Abdo, German; Hanel, Ricardo A; Lima, Andrey; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Dabus, Guilherme

    2016-10-01

    To describe the treatment of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms with the Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device (LVIS Jr) stent. The databases of three institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who underwent endovascular treatment of PICA aneurysms using a reconstructive technique where the LVIS Jr stent was totally or partially deployed into the PICA were included in the analysis. Clinical presentation, aneurysm and PICA sizes, procedural complications, and clinical and angiographic follow-up information was recorded and analyzed. Seven patients who underwent endovascular treatment of PICA aneurysms with an LVIS Jr stent were identified. Four aneurysms were treated in the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). There were no symptomatic complications. One patient had spasm distal to the stent as a result of mechanical straightening of the vessel. One patient was treated in the acute phase of SAH and required a gycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor after the stent was implanted. This patient needed to be re-treated to complete embolization. All patients had good clinical outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale 5). No in-stent stenosis or occlusion was seen on short-term angiographic follow-up and the aneurysms were occluded. This small series suggests that the use of a reconstructive technique with the LVIS Jr stent for the treatment of PICA aneurysms is feasible, safe and effective in the short term. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Calculation of smoke plume mass from passive UV satellite measurements by GOME-2 polarization measurement devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning de Vries, M. J. M.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Wagner, T.; Fromm, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Wallow wildfire of 2011 was one of the most devastating fires ever in Arizona, burning over 2,000 km2 in the states of Arizona and New Mexico. The fire originated in the Bear Wallow Wilderness area in June, 2011, and raged for more than a month. The intense heat of the fire caused the formation of a pyro-convective cloud. The resulting smoke plume, partially located above low-lying clouds, was detected by several satellite instruments, including GOME-2 on June 2. The UV Aerosol Index, indicative of aerosol absorption, reached a maximum of 12 on that day, pointing to an elevated plume with moderately absorbing aerosols. We have performed extensive model calculations assuming different aerosol optical properties to determine the total aerosol optical depth of the plume. The plume altitude, needed to constrain the aerosol optical depth, was obtained from independent satellite measurements. The model results were compared with UV Aerosol Index and UV reflectances measured by the GOME-2 polarization measurement devices, which have a spatial resolution of roughly 10x40 km2. Although neither the exact aerosol optical properties nor optical depth can be obtained with this method, the range in aerosol optical depth values that we calculate, combined with the assumed specific extinction mass factor of 5 m2/kg lead us to a rough estimate of the smoke plume mass that cannot, at present, be assessed in another way.

  19. Radiation profiles measured through clouds using a return glider radiosonde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Kivi, Rigel

    2016-04-01

    With new and improved radiation sensors in a small glider aircraft vertical flights through clouds have been conducted. This new Return Glider Radiosonde (RG-R) is lifted up with double balloon technique to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible during ascent. The RG-R is equipped with a routine radiosonde to transmit the data to a ground station and an autopilot to fly the glider radiosonde back to the launch site, where it lands autonomous with a parachute. The RG-R was successfully tested and deployed for tropospheric and stratospheric radiation measurements up to 30 hPa (24 km altitude) at the GRUAN sites Payerne (Switzerland) and Sodankylä (Finland). Radiation profiles and the radiation budget through the atmosphere during different daytimes and under cloud-free and cloudy situations will be shown in relation to temperature and humidity at the surface and in the atmosphere. The RG-R flight characteristics and new measurement possibilities will also be discussed.

  20. How are service users instructed to measure home furniture for provision of minor assistive devices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, Anita; Mcintyre, Anne; Spiliotopoulou, Georgia; Money, Arthur; Paraskevopulos, Ioannis

    2017-02-01

    Measurements play a vital role in providing devices that meet the individual needs of users. There is increasing evidence of devices being abandoned. The reasons for this are complex but one key factor that plays a role in non-use of equipment is the lack of fit between the device, environment and person. In addition, the abandonment of devices can be seen as a waste of public money. The aim of this paper is to examine the type, the readability, and the content of existing guidance in relation to measuring home furniture. An online national survey involving health and social care trusts in the UK. We conducted a synthesis of leaflets associated with measurement of furniture to identify existing guidance. The content and readability of this guidance was then evaluated. From the 325 responses received, 64 therapists reported using guidance. From the 13 leaflets that were analysed, 8 leaflets were found to meet Level 3 Adult Literacy Standards (age 9-11). There were differences in the way in which the measurement of furniture items occurred within the leaflets with no measurement guidance reported for baths. There is a need to standardize guidance to ensure that measurements are reliable. Implications for Rehabilitation Our research has highlighted the need to confirm and agree measurement techniques for home furniture in the provision of assistive devices. Inaccurate guidance can lead to abandonment of devices. Inaccurate guidance could prevent service users from not participating within the self-assessment process for devices.

  1. The wave vane - A device to measure the breaker angle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Anand, N.M.

    can easily be fabricated and used to measure the breaker angle. ERROR IN VISUAL ESTIMATION Three trained persons were asked to stand at the same location on the Kar- war beach on the west coast of India, and observe independently the breaker angle... and parallel, the wave directions measured at 16 m water depth were corrected for refraction effects using Snell's law (Shore TABLE 1 Measurement of breaker angles by various methods Date Buoy Visual Wave vane OL b O~ b Hs Tz o~ b (m) (s) (~) (~) (~) 20...

  2. A pilot study of a new spectrophotometry device to measure tissue oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gemma; Allen, John; Drinnan, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) measurements have the potential for far wider use than at present but are limited by device availability and portability for many potential applications. A device based on a small, low-cost general-purpose spectrophotometer (the Harrison device) might facilitate wider use. The aim of this study was to compare the Harrison device with a commercial instrument, the LEA O2C.Measurements were carried out on the forearm and finger of 20 healthy volunteers, using a blood pressure cuff on the upper arm to induce different levels of oxygenation. Repeatability of both devices was assessed, and the Bland-Altman method was used to assess agreement between them.The devices showed agreement in overall tracking of changes in SO2. Test-retest agreement for the Harrison device was worse than for O2C, with SD repeatability of 10.6% (forearm) or 18.6% (finger). There was no overall bias between devices, but mean (SD) difference of 1.2 (11.8%) (forearm) or 4.4 (11.5%) (finger) were outside of a clinically acceptable range.Disagreements were attributed to the stability of the Harrison probe and the natural SO2 variations across the skin surface increasing the random error. Therefore, though not equivalent to the LEA O2C, a probe redesign and averaged measurements may help establish the Harrison device as a low cost alternative.

  3. Survey of spectral response measurements for photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, J.S.; Lind, M.A.

    1981-11-01

    A survey of the photovoltaic community was conducted to ascertain the present state-of-the-art for PV spectral response measurements. Specific topics explored included measurement system designs, good and bad features of the systems, and problems encountered in the evaluation of specific cell structures and materials. The survey showed that most spectral response data are used in diagnostic analysis for the optimization of developmental solar cells. Measurement systems commonly utilize a chopped narrowband source in conjunction with a constant bias illumination which simulates the ambient end use environment. Researchers emphasized the importance of bias illumination for all types of cells in order to minimize the effects of nonlinearities in cell response. Not surprisingly single crystal silicon cells present the fewest measurement problems to the researcher and have been studied more thoroughly than any other type of solar cell. But, the accurate characterization of silicon cells is still difficult and laboratory intercomparison studies have yielded data scatter ranging from +-5% to +-15%. The measurement experience with other types of cells is less extensive. The development of reliable data bases for some solar cells is complicated by problems of cell nonuniformity, environmental instability, nonlinearity, etc. Cascade cells present new problems associated with their structue (multiple cells in series) which are just beginning to be understood. In addition, the importance of many measurement parameters (spectral content of bias light, bias light intensity, bias voltage, chopping frequency, etc.) are not fully understood for most types of solar cells.

  4. Measurement of bidirectional optical properties of complex shading devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klems, J.H.; Warner, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorptances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. This paper describes the method of measuring the spatially averaged bidirectional optical properties using an automated, large-sample gonioradiometer/photometer, termed a ``Scanning Radiometer.`` Property measurements are presented for one of the most optically complex systems in common use, a venetian blind. These measurements will form the basis for optical system calculations used to test the method of determining performance.

  5. Classification of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iermolenko Ia. O.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that computer systems for measuring current-voltage characteristics are very important for semiconductor devices production. The main criteria of efficiency of such systems are defined. It is shown that efficiency of such systems significantly depends on the methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices. The aim of this work is to analyze existing methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices and to create the classification of these methods in order to specify the most effective solutions in terms of defined criteria. To achieve this aim, the most common classifications of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices and their main disadvantages are considered. Automated and manual, continuous, pulse, mixed, isothermal and isodynamic methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics are analyzed. As a result of the analysis and generalization of existing methods the next classification criteria are defined: the level of automation, the form of measurement signals, the condition of semiconductor device during the measurements, and the use of mathematical processing of the measurement results. With the use of these criteria the classification scheme of methods for measuring current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor devices is composed and the most effective methods are specified.

  6. Comparison of the methods for determination of calibration and verification intervals of measuring devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toteva Pavlina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents different determination and optimisation methods for verification intervals of technical devices for monitoring and measurement based on the requirements of some widely used international standards, e.g. ISO 9001, ISO/IEC 17020, ISO/IEC 17025 etc., maintained by various organizations implementing measuring devices in practice. Comparative analysis of the reviewed methods is conducted in terms of opportunities for assessing the adequacy of interval(s for calibration of measuring devices and their optimisation accepted by an organization – an extension or reduction depending on the obtained results. The advantages and disadvantages of the reviewed methods are discussed, and recommendations for their applicability are provided.

  7. Utility of a three-dimensional wound measurement device in pressure ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto T

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Taichi Goto,1–3 Gojiro Nakagami,1,4 Ayano Nakai,1 Shuhei Noyori,1,5 Sanae Sasaki,6 Chieko Hayashi,6 Tomomitsu Miyagaki,7 Kaname Akamata,7 Hiromi Sanada1,4 1Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 2Global Leadership Initiative for an Age-Friendly Society, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, 3Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Chiyoda-ku, Japan; 4Global Nursing Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 5Graduate Program for Social ICT Global Creative Leaders, The University of Tokyo, 6Department of Nursing, 7Department of Dermatology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: Depth assessment is important for severe pressure ulcers (PUs; however, a device for the metric measurement of wounds, including depth, is lacking in clinical settings. Recent technological advancements have enabled the evaluation of the depth of wounds, and three-dimensional measurements are now available. The aim of this study was to test the utility of a newly developed three-dimensional wound measurement device in the clinical setting.Methods: We recruited three patients, each with a PU, who were being treated by a PU team at a university hospital. We measured the length, width, area, and maximal depth of the ulcers by using the device and with the conventional method. The ulcer volume was measured only with the device. The difference in measurement results of the device before and after debridement was compared in the first patient. The difference in measurement results between the conventional method and the device was compared in the second patient. Correlation coefficients between the conventional method and the device obtained from longitudinal data were calculated in the third patient.Results: The changes in measurements between before and after debridement were easily detected by the device in the first patient. Although the maximal depth was

  8. Measurement campaign on connectivity of mesh networks formed by mobile devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietrarca, Beatrice; Sasso, Giovanni; Perrucci, Gian Paolo

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a measurement campaign on the connectivity level of mobile devices using Bluetooth (BT) to form cooperative mobile mesh networks. Such mobile mesh networks composed of mobile devices are the basis for any peer-to-peer communication like wireless grids or social...

  9. Comparison of three devices for measuring the second derivative of a langmuir probe curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, S.C.M.; Eck, J. van

    1967-01-01

    We have compared three devices, employing different principles, which plot the second derivative (SD) of the current voltage curve of a Langmuir probe. The probe measurements were performed in the positive column of a helium discharge. Two devices, using low modulation frequencies, produced within

  10. Methods and devices used to measure friction in rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeswiet, J.; Arentoft, Mogens; Henningsen, Poul

    2006-01-01

    Friction at the workpiece-die boundary, in both bulk forming and sheet forming is, arguably, the single most important physical parameter influencing the processing of metals; yet it remains the least understood. Hence there is a need for basic research into metal-die interface mechanisms. To gain...... a good understanding of the mechanisms at the interface and to be able to verify the friction and tribology models that exist, friction sensors are needed. Designing sensors to measure frictional stress in metal working has been pursued by many researchers. This paper surveys methods that have been used...... to measure friction in rolling in the past and discusses some of the recent sensor designs that can now be used to measure friction both in production situations and for research purposes....

  11. IN SITU Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossil Energy Research

    2008-03-31

    SCR catalyst management has become an important operations and maintenance activity for coal-fired utility boilers in the United States. To facilitate this activity, a method to determine Catalyst Activity in situ is being developed. This report describes the methodology and presents the results of a two ozone season demonstration conducted at Alabama Power Company's Gorgas Unit 10 during the 2005 and 2006 ozone seasons. The results showed that the in situ measurements are in good agreement with the laboratory measurements and the technique has some advantages over the traditional laboratory method of determining Catalyst Activity and Reactor Potential. SCR Performance is determined by the overall Reactor Potential (the product of the Catalyst Activity and the available surface area per unit of flue gas). The in situ approach provides a direct measurement of Reactor Potential under actual operating conditions, whereas laboratory measurements of Catalyst Activity need to be coupled with estimates of catalyst pluggage and flue gas flowrate in order to assess Reactor Potential. The project also showed that the in situ activity results can easily be integrated into catalyst management software to aid in making informed catalyst decisions.

  12. Field evaluation of a novel haemoglobin measuring device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate the use of a robust, cheap method for haemoglobin estimation by non-laboratory-trained personnel in a ruraJ setting. Design. Comparative study. Setting. TIntswalo Hospital. Acomhoek. Participants. 7 nursing sisters, 4 medical students, 2 lay persons. Outcome measures. Haemoglobin estimates ...

  13. Field evaluation of a novel haemoglobin measuring device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate the use of a robust, cheap method for haemoglobin estimation by non-laboratory-trained personnel in a rural setting. Design. Comparative study. Setting. Tintswalo Hospital. Acomhoek. Participants. 7 nursing sisters, 4 medical students, 2 lay persons. Outcome measures. Haemoglobin estimates ...

  14. A strategy for measuring patient preferences to incorporate in benefit-risk assessment of new ophthalmic devices and procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massof, R. W.; Bradley, C.

    2016-11-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently released guidance documents explaining that measurement of patient preferences should be considered during the pre-market approval process to specify patients’ tolerances for risk and perspectives on benefit when assessing the benefit-risk profile of new medical devices. For ophthalmological patients, the typical primary clinical outcome is a visual impairment measure. Especially for surgically- implanted devices, the benefit a specified improvement in vision measures must be translated to a patient-specific benefit of the improvement in ability to function in everyday life. We developed, and validated with simulations, a strategy for measuring an individual patient's ability to function and the overall benefit to that patient of specified improvements in functional ability. Our strategy employs Rasch analysis to measure changes in functional ability; multidimensional scaling to measure patient-specific benefits of changes in functional ability; and structural equation modeling to cross-walk patient preferences for functional ability changes to changes in visual impairment measures.

  15. Ocean Profile Measurements During the Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys Ocean Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Reconnaissance Surveys Ocean Profiles James Morison Polar Science Center, APL-UW 1013 NE 40th St. Seattle, WA 98105 phone: (206) 543 1394 fax...minimum summer sea ice extent. As such, it contains the full range of positions of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) where sea ice interacts with open water ...of atmospheric properties (Schweiger et al.), in-flight, and inflight laser profiling for ice thickness using the CU Laser Profiler Instrument

  16. Evaluation of oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic devices for blood pressure measurements in anesthetized and conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Catherine; Belanger, Marie C; Burns, Patrick M

    2014-08-01

    Two non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) devices (oscillometry and Doppler) were compared to invasive blood pressure using a Bland-Altman analysis, in anesthetized and conscious dogs. When considering the systolic arterial pressure only during general anesthesia, both NIBP devices slightly underestimated the systolic arterial blood pressure however the precision and the limits of agreement for the Doppler were of a greater magnitude. This indicates a worse clinical performance by the Doppler. The performance of both NIBP devices deteriorated as measured in conscious animals. In general, for the oscillometric device, determination of invasive diastolic and mean arterial pressures was better than the invasive systolic arterial pressure. Overall, the oscillometric device satisfied more of the criteria set by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus statement. Based upon these results, the oscillometric device is more reliable than the Doppler in the determination of blood pressure in healthy medium to large breed dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Accuracy of Blood Pressure Measurement Devices in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Validation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Natalie A; Woolley, Jonathan J; Cleary, Kirsten Lawrence; Falzon, Louise; Alpert, Bruce S; Oparil, Suzanne; Cutter, Gary; Wapner, Ronald; Muntner, Paul; Tita, Alan T; Shimbo, Daichi

    2018-02-01

    The accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) in pregnancy is essential to guide medical decision making that affects both mother and fetus. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the accuracy of ambulatory, home, and clinic BP measurement devices in pregnant women. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL EBSCO, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and dabl from inception through August 3, 2017 for articles that assessed the validity of an upper arm BP measurement device against a mercury sphygmomanometer in pregnant women. Two independent investigators determined eligibility, extracted data, and adjudicated protocol violations. From 1798 potential articles identified, 41, that assessed 28 devices, met the inclusion criteria. Most articles (n=32) followed a standard or modified American National Standards Institute/Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/International Organization for Standardization, British Hypertension Society, or European Society of Hypertension validation protocol. Several articles described the results of validation studies performed on >1 device (n=7) or in >1 population of pregnant women (n=12), comprising 64 pairwise validity assessments. The device was validated in 61% (32 of 52) of studies which used a standard or modified protocol. Only 34% (11 of 32) of the studies wherein the device was successfully validated were performed without a protocol violation. Given the implications of inaccurate BP measurement in pregnant women, healthcare providers should be aware of and try to use the BP measurement devices which have been properly validated in this population. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Localized corrosion information using high resolution measurement devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2005-01-01

    High performance demand for several engineering alloys and components, and miniaturization of electronics and development of MEMS requires better understanding of local corrosion characteristics frequently down to µm scale. This is because in metallic materials corrosion is a sensitive function...... in conjunction with microstructural analysis, using advanced microscopic tools, becomes very important. Corrosion of microelectronics circuits and MEMs is also a recent problem, which demands measurement resolution down to few microns as the components are extremely small, and measurement needs to be carried out...... of the technique could be further enhanced by adding new features such as high resolution video visualization systems, fretting/tribo-corroson attachments, and also by integrating it with stress corrosion testing, corrosion investigation of concrete for a few to name with. The corrosion group in MPT, Technical...

  19. Device for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-08-03

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  20. Influence of measurement conditions and used devices on consequential creep modulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reznicek Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with study of the possibilities of the creep properties measurement on dedicated devices for the creep measurement and on devices, which enable the creep properties measurement. A comparison of these two different measurement methods show the influence of boundary conditions on the measurement result. Simultaneously, the effort to shorten the long-term tests, because of time saving during research and development of new materials, is confronted here. Radiation crosslinking samples of high-density polyethylene (HDPE, which enable the change of the internal structure to the spatial network by the influence of beta radiation, were chosen as an example for comparison.

  1. Educational Multimedia Profiling Recommendations for Device-Aware Adaptive Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Arghir-Nicolae; Ghergulescu, Ioana; Muntean, Cristina Hava

    2014-01-01

    Mobile learning is seeing a fast adoption with the increasing availability and affordability of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. As the creation and consumption of educational multimedia content on mobile devices is also increasing fast, educators and mobile learning providers are faced with the challenge to adapt multimedia type…

  2. Evaluating the Safety Profile of Non-Active Implantable Medical Devices Compared with Medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pane, J. (Josep); P.M. Coloma (Preciosa); K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); Rebollo, I. (Irene)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractRecent safety issues involving non-active implantable medical devices (NAIMDs) have highlighted the need for better pre-market and post-market evaluation. Some stakeholders have argued that certain features of medicine safety evaluation should also be applied to medical devices. Our

  3. Automated grain size measurements from airborne remote sensing for long profile measurements of fluvial grain sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Patrice E.; Bergeron, Normand; Lane, Stuart N.

    2005-11-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that image processing can be applied to derive surficial median grain size data automatically from high-resolution airborne digital imagery in fluvial environments. However, at the present time, automated grain size measurement is limited to the dry exposed bed areas of the channel. This paper shows that the application area of automated grain size mapping can be extended in order to include the shallow wetted areas of the channel. The paper then proceeds to illustrate how automated grain size measurement in both dry and shallow wetted areas can be used to measure grain sizes automatically for long river lengths. For the present study, this results in a median grain size profile covering an 80 km long river which is constructed from over three million automated grain size measurements.

  4. Profile of intrauterine contraceptive device acceptors at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasiattai, A M; Bassey, E A; Udoma, E J

    2008-03-01

    Use of modern contraceptive methods has been shown to reduce unwanted pregnancy, high parity and maternal mortality. Intrauterine contraceptive devices which are among the safest and most effective reversible contraceptives available, are particularly suitable for women in developing countries as they are affordable, convenient to use, do not require re -supply visits and are very cost-effective. The aim of this study is to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of intrauterine contraceptive device acceptors, the pattern of insertions and complications at the University of Uyo Teaching hospital, Uyo. The record cards of all clients who had intrauterine contraceptive device inserted at the family planning clinic over a six-year period were reviewed. During the study period, there were 852 new contraceptive acceptors out of which 39.7% accepted the intrauterine contraceptive device. The modal age group of the clients was 25-29 years (32.5%). Acceptance of intrauterine contraceptive device was most common among multiparous clients (65.1%). Majority of the acceptors were married (90.0%), Christians (98.8%) and 72.8% had at least secondary school education. Clinic personnel (65.7%) and friends/relatives (21.3%) were the most common sources of information on contraception. Most (93.5%) of the clients had their intrauterine contraceptive devices inserted within 7 days of menstruation. Lower abdominal pain (5.5%) and vulval/vaginal itching (5.3%) were the most common complications. The acceptors of intrauterine contraceptive devices in our center were young, multiparous and educated women. Increasing mass media involvement in the dissemination of accurate information about intrauterine contraceptive devices to the general populace, the introduction of postpartum and post-abortal intrauterine contraceptive device insertions and the encouragement of our grandmultiparous women to accept intrauterine contraceptive device would lead to an increase in its acceptance and

  5. Experimental arrangement to measure dispersion in optical fiber devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas Rivera, Ivan [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias de la Electronica (Mexico); Beltran Perez, Georgina; Castillo Mixcoatl, Juan; Munoz Aguirre, Severino [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas (Mexico); Zaca Moran, Placido, E-mail: ivan_rr1@hotmail.com [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Fisicoquimica de Materiales ICUAP (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    Dispersion is a quite important parameter in systems based on optical fiber, especially in pulsed emission lasers, where the temporal width is affected by such parameter. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the dispersion provoked by each component in the cavity. There are various experimental interferometric arrangements to evaluate this parameter. Generally, these systems modify the wavelength to obtain information about the n({lambda}) dependency, which is contained in the interferogram phase. However, this makes the system quite slow and it requires tunable and narrow bandwidth laser sources. In the present work, results obtained from an arrangement based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer where one of the arms is the optical fiber under study, while the reference one is air, are presented. In order to determine the n({lambda}) dependency, a wide spectrum light source was used in the wavelength range of interest. The phase information was evaluated from the interferometric signal measured by an optical spectrum analyzer.

  6. A novel cuffless device for self-measurement of blood pressure: concept, performance and clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubouchairopoulou, N; Kollias, A; Chiu, B; Chen, B; Lagou, S; Anestis, P; Stergiou, G S

    2017-07-01

    A pocket-size cuffless electronic device for self-measurement of blood pressure (BP) has been developed (Freescan, Maisense Inc., Zhubei, Taiwan). The device estimates BP within 10 s using three embedded electrodes and one force sensor that is applied over the radial pulse to evaluate the pulse wave. Before use, basic anthropometric characteristics are recorded on the device, and individualized initial calibration is required based on a standard BP measurement performed using an upper-arm BP monitor. The device performance in providing valid BP readings was evaluated in 313 normotensive and hypertensive adults in three study phases during which the device sensor was upgraded. A formal validation study of a prototype device against mercury sphygmomanometer was performed according to the American National Standards Institute/Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/International Organization for Standardization (ANSI/AAMI/ISO) 2013 protocol. The test device succeeded in obtaining a valid BP measurement (three successful readings within up to five attempts) in 55-72% of the participants, which reached 87% with device sensor upgrade. For the validation study, 125 adults were recruited and 85 met the protocol requirements for inclusion. The mean device-observers BP difference was 3.2±6.7 (s.d.) mm Hg for systolic and 2.6±4.6 mm Hg for diastolic BP (criterion 1). The estimated s.d. (inter-subject variability) were 5.83 and 4.17 mm Hg respectively (criterion 2). These data suggest that this prototype cuffless BP monitor provides valid self-measurements in the vast majority of adults, and satisfies the BP measurement accuracy criteria of the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 2013 validation protocol.

  7. Waveform measurement in mocrowave device characterization: impact on power amplifiers design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Quaglia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an example of a measurement setup enabling waveform measurements during the load-pull characterization of a microwave power device. The significance of this measurement feature is highlighted showing how waveform engineering can be exploited to design high efficiency microwave power amplifiers.

  8. Multiplex cytological profiling assay to measure diverse cellular states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrun M Gustafsdottir

    Full Text Available Computational methods for image-based profiling are under active development, but their success hinges on assays that can capture a wide range of phenotypes. We have developed a multiplex cytological profiling assay that "paints the cell" with as many fluorescent markers as possible without compromising our ability to extract rich, quantitative profiles in high throughput. The assay detects seven major cellular components. In a pilot screen of bioactive compounds, the assay detected a range of cellular phenotypes and it clustered compounds with similar annotated protein targets or chemical structure based on cytological profiles. The results demonstrate that the assay captures subtle patterns in the combination of morphological labels, thereby detecting the effects of chemical compounds even though their targets are not stained directly. This image-based assay provides an unbiased approach to characterize compound- and disease-associated cell states to support future probe discovery.

  9. Digital Measuring Devices Used for Injector Hydraulic Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leontiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure a high specific impulse of the LRE (liquid-propellant engine chamber it is necessary to have optimally organized combustion of the fuel components. This can be ensured by choosing the optimum geometry of gas-dynamic contour of the LRE combustor, as well as by improving the sputtering processes and mixing the fuel components, for example, by selection of the optimum type, characteristics, and location of injectors on the mixing unit of the chamber.These particular reasons arise the interest in the injector characteristics in terms of science, and technological aspects determine the need for control of underlying design parameters in their manufacture.The objective of this work is to give an experimental justification on used digital measurement instrumentation and research the hydraulic characteristics of injectors.To determine injector parameters most widely were used the units with sectional collectors. A technique to control injector parameters using the sectional collectors involves spraying the liquid by injector at a given pressure drop on it for a certain time (the longer, the higher the accuracy and reliability of the results and then determining the amount of liquid in each section to calculate the required parameters of injector.In this work the liquid flow through the injector was determined by high-precision flowmeters FLONET FN2024.1 of electromagnetic type, which have very high metrological characteristics, in particular a flow rate error does not exceed 0.5% in a range of water flow from Qmin= 0.0028 l/s to Qmax Qmax = 0.28 l/s. To determine the coefficient of uneven spray were used differential pressure sensors DMD 331-ASLX of company "DB Sensors RUS", which have an error of 0.075% with a range of differential pressure 0 ... 5 kPa. Measuring complex MIC-200 of company "NPP Measure" and WinPos software for processing array information provided entry, recording, and processing of all the data of the experiment.In this

  10. Comparison of Minority Carrier Lifetime Measurements in Superstrate and Substrate CdTe PV Devices: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessert, T. A.; Dhere, R. G.; Duenow, J. N.; Kuciauskas, D.; Kanevce, A.; Bergeson, J. D.

    2011-07-01

    We discuss typical and alternative procedures to analyze time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements of minority carrier lifetime (MCL) with the hope of enhancing our understanding of how this technique may be used to better analyze CdTe photovoltaic (PV) device functionality. Historically, TRPL measurements of the fast recombination rate (t1) have provided insightful correlation with broad device functionality. However, we have more recently found that t1 does not correlate as well with smaller changes in device performance, nor does it correlate well with performance differences observed between superstrate and substrate CdTe PV devices. This study presents TRPL data for both superstrate and substrate CdTe devices where both t1 and the slower TRPL decay (t2) are analyzed. The study shows that changes in performance expected from small changes in device processing may correlate better with t2. Numerical modeling further suggests that, for devices that are expected to have similar drift field in the depletion region, effects of changes in bulk MCL and interface recombination should be more pronounced in t2. Although this technique may provide future guidance to improving CdS/CdTe device performance, it is often difficult to extract statistically precise values for t2, and therefore t2 data may demonstrate significant scatter when correlated with performance parameters.

  11. Comparison of arterial blood pressure measurements and hypertension scores obtained by use of three indirect measurement devices in hospitalized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernick, Morena B; Höpfner, Robert M; Francey, Thierry; Howard, Judith

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate the agreement of blood pressure measurements and hypertension scores obtained by use of 3 indirect arterial blood pressure measurement devices in hospitalized dogs. Design-Diagnostic test evaluation. 29 client-owned dogs. 5 to 7 consecutive blood pressure readings were obtained from each dog on each of 3 occasions with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector, a standard oscillometric device (STO), and a high-definition oscillometric device (HDO). When the individual sets of 5 to 7 readings were evaluated, the coefficient of variation for systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) exceeded 20% for 0% (Doppler), 11 % (STO), and 28% (HDO) of the sets of readings. After readings that exceeded a 20% coefficient of variation were discarded, repeatability was within 25 (Doppler), 37 (STO), and 39 (HDO) mm Hg for SAP. Correlation of mean values among the devices was between 0.47 and 0.63. Compared with Doppler readings, STO underestimated and HDO overestimated SAP. Limits of agreement between mean readings of any 2 devices were wide. With the hypertension scale used to score SAP, the intraclass correlation of scores was 0.48. Linear-weighted inter-rater reliability between scores was 0.40 (Doppler vs STO), 0.38 (Doppler vs HDO), and 0.29 (STO vs HDO). Results of this study suggested that no meaningful clinical comparison can be made between blood pressure readings obtained from the same dog with different indirect blood pressure measurement devices.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) determined by pine needles and semipermeable membrane devices along an altitude profile in Taurus Mountains, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Cafer; Mazmanci, Mehmet Ali; Mazmanci, Birgül; Yalçın, Melis; Karakuş, PerihanBinnur Kurt; Atatanir, Levent; Keski, Menekşe; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Pfister, Gerd; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at different altitudes of Taurus Mountains in semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) and in half-, one-and-a-half-, and two-and-a-half-year-old pine needles. SPMDs were deployed for three different exposure periods: March to September (Summer), September to March (Winter), and March to March (whole year) at eight sites where needle samples were collected. The values of PAHs in needles were between 4.4 to 6066 pg g/fw in half-year-old, 7.2 to 111,115 pg g/fw in 1.5-year-old, and 9.7 to 85,335 pg g/fw in 2.5-year-old needles. Mass of PAHs collected by SPMDs varied from profiles were dependent on the seasonal differences and locations. Roughly, clear decreasing trends with altitude were observed both with SPMD and needles for many individual and groups of PAHs except for the SPMD-summer short-time data. A cross-plot of Fluo/(Fluo+Pyr) vs Ant/(Ant+Phe) diagnostic ratios indicated grass/wood burning (possibly due to forest fires) in summer and petrogenic combustion in winter. Results of the study showed that SPMD and conifer needles are effective passive samplers to measure PAHs in the environment.

  13. Optimizing the e-beam profile of a single carbon nanotube field emission device for electric propulsion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fujioka Mologni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies on field emission (FE arrays comprised of carbon nanotubes (CNT as an electron source for electric propulsion system show remarkably promising results. Design parameters for a carbon nanotube (CNT field-emission device operating on triode configuration were numerically simulated and optimized in order to enhance the e-beam focusing quality. An additional focus gate (FG was integrated to the device to control the profile of the emitted e-beam. An axisymmetric finite element model was developed to calculate the electric field distribution on the vacuum region and a modified Fowler-Nordheim (FN equation was used to evaluate the current density emission and the effective emitter area. Afterward, a FE simulation was employed in order to calculate the trajectory of the emitted electrons and define the electron-optical properties of the e-beam. The integration of the FG was fully investigated via computational intelligence techniques. The best performance device according to our simulations presents a collimated e-beam profile that suits well for field emission displays, magnetic field detection and electron microscopy. The automated computational design tool presented in this study strongly benefits the robust design of integrated electron-optical systems for vacuum field emission applications, including electrodynamic tethering and electric propulsion systems.

  14. Evaluation efficiency for mobile as discharge measurement device for partially filled circular channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.H. Rashwan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Discharge measurement is an important step in engineering applications such as sewerage system, irrigation and drainage system. Mobile flume is a simple and low-cost discharge measuring device constructed of two pieces of pipes, one installed vertically inside the other. The circular mobile flume depends on the concept of developing a contracted zone to have a control section. To evaluate the efficiency of this type of device mathematical and experimental studies are presented. Specific energy, discharge and Froude number equations are used to develop mathematical model. Experimental work is carried out to measure the discharge values corresponding to the specific energy values. The experimental data is used to evaluate the mobile flume as a device to measure discharge. A new equation for the discharge coefficient is presented. This equation can be used to determined accurate discharge with knowing the contraction ratio and measured specific energy.

  15. Immediate effects of positioning devices on the normal and spastic hand measured by electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, V; Bolding, D J; Trombly, C A

    1983-04-01

    There is a continuing controversy in the literature and in clinical practice about whether positioning devices are effective in decreasing spasticity and, if so, which type is most effective. In this study, the immediate effects of a volar resting splint, a finger spreader, a firm cone, and no device were compared on eight normal and four hemiplegic subjects. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure flexor muscle activity of the tested forearm while the subjects squeezed a grasp meter with the contralateral hand and during the following relaxation period. Results showed significantly greater EMG activity for the finger spreader compared to no device in the flexor carpi radialis of normal subjects during the grasping period. Hemiplegic subjects did not show significantly less EMG activity when using positioning devices compared to no device. In fact, the volar splint appeared to increase the EMG activity while the subjects were grasping.

  16. Measuring Visual Function Using the MultiQuity System: Comparison with an Established Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Smolarek-Kasprzak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare measures of visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS from the Thompson Xpert 2000 and MultiQuity (MiQ devices. Methods. Corrected distance VA (CDVA and CS were measured in the right eye of 73 subjects, on an established system (Thompson Xpert and a novel system (MiQ 720. Regression was used to convert MiQ scores into the Thompson scale. Agreement between the converted MiQ and Thompson scores was investigated using standard agreement indices. Test-retest variability for both devices was also investigated, for a separate sample of 24 subjects. Results. For CDVA, agreement was strong between the MiQ and Thomson devices (accuracy = 0.993, precision = 0.889, CCC = 0.883. For CS, agreement was also strong (accuracy = 0.996, precision = 0.911, CCC = 0.907. Agreement was unaffected by demographic variables or by presence/absence of ocular pathology. Test-retest agreement indices for both devices were excellent: in the range 0.88–0.96 for CDVA and in the range 0.90–0.98 for CS. Conclusion. MiQ measurements exhibit strong agreement with corresponding Thomson measurements, and test-retest results are good for both devices. Agreement between the two devices is unaffected by age or ocular pathology.

  17. Design and preliminary evaluation of a portable device for the measurement of bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Wang, Jue; Yu, Gang; Niu, Feilong; He, Ping

    2006-12-01

    Portable bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) devices are of great value for monitoring the pathological status of biological tissues in clinical and home environments. The two traditional techniques for measuring complex bioimpedance, the bridge method and quadrature demodulation method, are either time-consuming or often associated with high cost, high power consumption, and large board space, and therefore are not ideally suitable for designing a portable device for BIS measurement. This paper describes a novel design of a portable BIS device based on the magnitude-ratio and phase-difference detection method and its implementation using the newest generation of analog electronic products which greatly decrease the complexity of both hardware and software. In order to improve the accuracy of the device, a three-reference calibration algorithm was applied. Experimental sweep-frequency measurements on RC circuits were carried out to preliminarily evaluate the performances of the device. The results obtained by the device were found to be in good agreement with the results measured by a commercial impedance analyzer HP4194, with an overall mean error of 0.014% in magnitude and 0.136 degrees in phase over a frequency range of 20 kHz to 1 MHz.

  18. Evaluation of Laser Profile and Deflection Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    LRSERS F, BC TEST 5 20.0 LASER9S fiBC TEST -A-5 PROFILES VITH NO CORRECTIONS ST. LARWENCE ROArO WES LASERS ABCO TEST 6 * 2Q. 4-50.@ DITAC - ET 1 A...LASERS ABCO TEST 3 * .0 1-4~ Lui z 󈧎. 160.0 019𔄁 8 . 0 . DIT*C FEE X L PROFILES HIGH PRSS FILTERED RUNWRY. TY’NDRLL FIR FORCE BASE "LASERS ABCD TEST 3... ABCO TEST 2 40. . V.@.. Cn1RR EFT ED FPRONFLE EPIM ’D-2 PROFILE MEASUFRED ,I-TH RnO AND LEVELRUNWAY AT TYNDALL IR FORCE BAHE LASERS ABCD TEST 3 Il S

  19. The Design, Development, and Reliability Testing of a New Innovative Device to Measure Ankle Joint Dorsiflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, James

    2016-09-02

    In clinical and research settings, ankle joint dorsiflexion needs to be reliably measured. Dorsiflexion is often measured by goniometry, but the intrarater and interrater reliability of this technique have been reported to be poor. Many devices to measure dorsiflexion have been developed for clinical and research use. An evaluation of 12 current tools showed that none met all of the desirable criteria. The purpose of this study was to design and develop a device that rates highly in all of the criteria and that can be proved to be highly reliable. While supine on a treatment table, 14 participants had a foot placed in the Charles device and ankle joint dorsiflexion measured and recorded three times with a digital inclinometer. The mean of the three readings was determined to be the ankle joint dorsiflexion. The analysis used was intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). There was very little difference in ICC single or average measures between left and right feet, so data were pooled (N = 28). The single-measure ICC was 0.998 (95% confidence interval, 0.996-0.998). The average-measure ICC was 0.998 (95% confidence interval, 0.995-0.999). Limits of agreement for the average measure were also very good: -1.30° to 1.65°. The Charles device meets all of the desirable criteria and has many innovative features, increasing its appropriateness for clinical and research applications. It has a suitable design for measuring dorsiflexion and high intrarater and interrater reliability.

  20. Development of a Wearable Device for Motion Capturing Based on Magnetic and Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel wearable device for gesture capturing based on inertial and magnetic measurement units that are made up of micromachined gyroscopes, accelerometers, and magnetometers. The low-cost inertial and magnetic measurement unit is compact and small enough to wear and there are altogether thirty-six units integrated in the device. The device is composed of two symmetric parts, and either the right part or the left one contains eighteen units covering all the segments of the arm, palm, and fingers. The offline calibration and online calibration are proposed to improve the accuracy of sensors. Multiple quaternion-based extended Kalman filters are designed to estimate the absolute orientations, and kinematic models of the arm-hand are considered to determine the relative orientations. Furthermore, position algorithm is deduced to compute the positions of corresponding joint. Finally, several experiments are implemented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed wearable device.

  1. Implantable optogenetic device with CMOS IC technology for simultaneous optical measurement and stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Makito; Kamiyama, Naoya; Nakajima, Shun; Motoyama, Mayumi; Kawahara, Mamiko; Ohta, Yasumi; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Takehara, Hiroaki; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Tokuda, Takashi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Ohta, Jun

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we have developed an implantable optogenetic device that can measure and stimulate neurons by an optical method based on CMOS IC technology. The device consist of a blue LED array for optically patterned stimulation, a CMOS image sensor for acquiring brain surface image, and eight green LEDs surrounding the CMOS image sensor for illumination. The blue LED array is placed on the CMOS image sensor. We implanted the device in the brain of a genetically modified mouse and successfully demonstrated the stimulation of neurons optically and simultaneously acquire intrinsic optical images of the brain surface using the image sensor. The integrated device can be used for simultaneously measuring and controlling neuronal activities in a living animal, which is important for the artificial control of brain functions.

  2. Development of a blocking logic checking apparatus for substation measurement and control devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After transforming substation measurement and control devices, the traditional method of blocking logic check needs to go back and forth among the measurement and control devices, and repeatedly connect a large number of wires, which lead to tedious operation and low efficiency. This paper developed a logic verification device based on 4G wireless communication, which used the Modbus/TCP transport protocol to access Ethernet, to complete the real-time data communication with the mobile control terminal. And this paper made a request to the logic controller according to practicality and cost. And the terminal software interface was designed by the orthogonal experimental design idea. The development of this device provided a new and efficient method for logic verification.

  3. 3D profile measurement of large-scale curvature plates using structured light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, EunChang; Kim, ByoungChang; Lee, Hyunho; Han, JongMan

    2008-08-01

    In heavy industry, especially in the shipbuilding process, 3D profile measurement of large-scale hull pieces is needed for fabrication and assembly. Currently, using many kinds of templates made of wood or plastic still do an important role as a standard ruler. We suggest an efficient method of 3D profile measurement to obtain the xyz-coordinates of curvature plates. The measurement system comprises multiple line structured laser sources and performs profile measurement by projecting structured light source on the object surface. The measurement results show that measurement accuracy is within the boundary of accuracy required in the shipbuilding process.

  4. The better way to determine the validity, reliability, objectivity and accuracy of measuring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazira, Parvin; Rostami Haji-Abadi, Mahdi; Zolaktaf, Vahid; Sabahi, Mohammadfarzan; Pazira, Toomaj

    2016-06-08

    In relation to statistical analysis, studies to determine the validity, reliability, objectivity and precision of new measuring devices are usually incomplete, due in part to using only correlation coefficient and ignoring the data dispersion. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the best way to determine the validity, reliability, objectivity and accuracy of an electro-inclinometer or other measuring devices. Another purpose of this study is to answer the question of whether reliability and objectivity represent accuracy of measuring devices. The validity of an electro-inclinometer was examined by mechanical and geometric methods. The objectivity and reliability of the device was assessed by calculating Cronbach's alpha for repeated measurements by three raters and by measurements on the same person by mechanical goniometer and the electro-inclinometer. Measurements were performed on "hip flexion with the extended knee" and "shoulder abduction with the extended elbow." The raters measured every angle three times within an interval of two hours. The three-way ANOVA was used to determine accuracy. The results of mechanical and geometric analysis showed that validity of the electro-inclinometer was 1.00 and level of error was less than one degree. Objectivity and reliability of electro-inclinometer was 0.999, while objectivity of mechanical goniometer was in the range of 0.802 to 0.966 and the reliability was 0.760 to 0.961. For hip flexion, the difference between raters in joints angle measurement by electro-inclinometer and mechanical goniometer was 1.74 and 16.33 degree (Preliability are acceptable, the results showed that measurement error was very high in the mechanical goniometer. Therefore, it can be concluded that objectivity and reliability alone cannot determine the accuracy of a device and it is preferable to use other statistical methods to compare and evaluate the accuracy of these two devices.

  5. Measuring charge carrier mobility in photovoltaic devices with micron-scale resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, A. [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Dissanayake, D. M. N. M. [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Eisaman, M. D., E-mail: meisaman@bnl.gov [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2015-03-16

    We present a charge-extraction technique, micron-scale charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage, which enables simultaneous spatially resolved measurements of charge carrier mobility and photocurrent in thin-film photovoltaic devices with micron-scale resolution. An intensity-modulated laser with beam diameter near the optical diffraction limit is scanned over the device, while a linear voltage ramp in reverse bias is applied at each position of illumination. We calculate the majority carrier mobility, photocurrent, and number of photogenerated charge carriers from the resulting current transient. We demonstrate this technique on an organic photovoltaic device, but it is applicable to a wide range of photovoltaic materials.

  6. The Measurement of Spectral Characteristics and Composition of Radiation in ATLAS with MEDIPIX2-USB Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M.; Greiffenberg, D.; Heijne, E.; Holy, T.; Idárraga, J.; Jakubek, J.; Král, V.; Králík, M.; Lebel, C.; Leroy, C.; Llopart, X.; Lord, G.; Maneuski, D.; Ouellette, O.; Sochor, V.; Prospísil, S.; Suk, M; Tlustos, L.; Vykydal, Z.; Wilhelm, I.

    2008-01-01

    A network of devices to perform real-time measurements of the spectral characteristics and composition of radiation in the ATLAS detector and cavern during its operation is being built. This system of detectors will be a stand alone system fully capable of delivering real-time images of fluxes and spectral composition of different particle species including slow and fast neutrons. The devices are based on MEDIPIX2 pixel silicon detectors that will be operated via active USB cables and USB-Ethernet extenders through an Ethernet network by a PC located in the USA15 ATLAS control room. The installation of 14 devices inside ATLAS (detector and cavern) is in progress.

  7. Assessing the identifiability in isotope exchange depth profiling measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciucci, Francesco; Panagakos, Grigorios; Chen, Chi

    2014-01-01

    Accurate identification of the physical parameters describing the surface exchange kinetic coefficient k and oxygen diffusion coefficient D is key in solid state ionics, because the performance of many ionic devices is connected to such quantities. In this work we extend and generalize the concept...

  8. Energy Renovation of Buildings Utilizing the U-value Meter, a New Heat Loss Measuring Device

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Schiøtt Sørensen

    2010-01-01

    A new device with the ability to measure heat loss from building facades is proposed. Yet to be commercially developed, the U-value Meter can be used as stand-alone apparatus, or in combination with thermographic-equipment. The U-value meter complements thermographs, which only reproduce surface temperature and not the heat loss distribution. There is need for a device that measures the heat loss in a quantitative manner. Convective as well as radiative heat losses are captured and measured w...

  9. Enzyme activity measurement via spectral evolution profiling and PARAFAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Meyer, Anne S.; Garcia, Javier Lopez

    2013-01-01

    fingerprints of the reaction mixture at specific time points during the course of the whole enzyme catalyzed reaction and employs multi-way analysis to detect the spectral changes. The methodology is demonstrated by spectral evolution profiling of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral fingerprints using...

  10. A new low-profile visualized intraluminal support (LVIS) device, LVIS Blue: laboratory comparison between old and new LVIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joonho; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Nelson, Jessica; Keigher, Kiffon; Lopes, Demetrius K

    2017-11-05

    Objectives The Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS) device is a flexible intracranial stent. The first generation of this system had significant challenges in consistently providing good wall apposition and aneurysm neck coverage. A new modified LVIS, LVIS Blue (Blue), has been developed to address these issues. The purpose of this study is to report a laboratory comparison of wall apposition and aneurysm neck coverage between the original LVIS and Blue. Methods In bench-top experiments, we noted the visual appearance of the devices and evaluated changes in stent cell angles, neck coverage surface area (%), and stent cell crossing profile for microcatheters using a fusiform aneurysm model. Our in vitro experiments included evaluation of wall apposition and aneurysm neck coverage of the devices under direct radiographic visualization. Results Blue showed three definite different zones (a mid-zone, a high-density zone, and a transitional zone) and higher metal coverage in the straight fusiform aneurysm model compared to LVIS. Two commercially available microcatheters easily crossed the stent cell at the greater curvature for both devices. In in vitro experiments, Blue showed better wall apposition in tortuous arteries and achieved higher neck coverage in the bifurcation aneurysm compared to LVIS. Discussion Blue achieved better wall apposition in tortuous arteries and higher aneurysm neck coverage (higher metal-to-artery ratio) in bifurcation aneurysms than LVIS. Our results may provide informative physical properties of LVIS and Blue to be expected when those are used for stent-assisted coil embolization of a large-giant fusiform aneurysm or a bifurcation saccular aneurysm clinically.

  11. Detail of photo 7903109 stack of superconducting cables in the modulus measuring device

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The picture shows an assembly of insulated superconducting cables of the type used in the Po dipole magnet inserted in the elastic modulus measuring device (photos 7903547X and 7903169) in order to measures its mechanical properties under azimuthal compression. See also 7903547X, 7903169, 8307552X.

  12. Witnessing arbitrary bipartite entanglement in a measurement-device-independent way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Arindam; Ghosh, Sibasish

    2017-11-01

    Experimental detection of entanglement of an arbitrary state of a given bipartite system is crucial for exploring many areas of quantum information processing. But such a detection should be made in a device-independent way if the preparation process of the state is considered to be faithful, in order to avoid detection of a separable state as an entangled one. The recently developed scheme of detecting bipartite entanglement in a measurement-device-independent way [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 060405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.060405] does require information about the state. Here, by using Auguisiak et al.'s universal entanglement witness scheme for two-qubit states [Phys. Rev. A 77, 030301 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.030301], we provide a universal entanglement detection scheme for two-qubit states in a measurement-device-independent way. We also provide a set of universal witness operators for detecting NPT-ness (negative under partial transpose) of two-qudit states in a measurement-device-independent way. We conjecture that no such universal entanglement witness scheme exists for PPT (positive under partial transpose) entangled states. We also analyze the robustness of some of the experimental schemes—for detecting entanglement in a measurement-device-independent way—under the influence of noise in the inputs (from the referee) as well as in the measurement operator.

  13. UNIVERSAL AUTO-CALIBRATION FOR A RAPID BATTERY IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENT DEVICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen; John L. Morrison; William H. Morrison

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been shown to be a valuable tool for diagnostics and prognostics of energy storage devices such as batteries and ultra-capacitors. Although measurements have been typically confined to laboratory environments, rapid impedance spectrum measurement techniques have been developed for on-line, embedded applications as well. The prototype hardware for the rapid technique has been validated using lithium-ion batteries, but issues with calibration had also been identified. A new, universal automatic calibration technique was developed to address the identified issues while also enabling a more simplified approach. A single, broad-frequency range is used to calibrate the system and then scaled to the actual range and conditions used when measuring a device under test. The range used for calibration must be broad relative to the expected measurement conditions for the scaling to be successful. Validation studies were performed by comparing the universal calibration approach with data acquired from targeted calibration ranges based on the expected range of performance for the device under test. First, a mid-level shunt range was used for calibration and used to measure devices with lower and higher impedance. Next, a high excitation current level was used for calibration, followed by measurements using lower currents. Finally, calibration was performed over a wide frequency range and used to measure test articles with a lower set of frequencies. In all cases, the universal calibration approach compared very well with results acquired following a targeted calibration. Additionally, the shunts used for the automated calibration technique were successfully characterized such that the rapid impedance measurements compare very well with laboratory-scale measurements. These data indicate that the universal approach can be successfully used for onboard rapid impedance spectra measurements for a broad set of test devices and range of

  14. Automated pavement horizontal curve measurement methods based on inertial measurement unit and 3D profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pavement horizontal curve is designed to serve as a transition between straight segments, and its presence may cause a series of driving-related safety issues to motorists and drivers. As is recognized that traditional methods for curve geometry investigation are time consuming, labor intensive, and inaccurate, this study attempts to develop a method that can automatically conduct horizontal curve identification and measurement at network level. The digital highway data vehicle (DHDV was utilized for data collection, in which three Euler angles, driving speed, and acceleration of survey vehicle were measured with an inertial measurement unit (IMU. The 3D profiling data used for cross slope calibration was obtained with PaveVision3D Ultra technology at 1 mm resolution. In this study, the curve identification was based on the variation of heading angle, and the curve radius was calculated with kinematic method, geometry method, and lateral acceleration method. In order to verify the accuracy of the three methods, the analysis of variance (ANOVA test was applied by using the control variable of curve radius measured by field test. Based on the measured curve radius, a curve safety analysis model was used to predict the crash rates and safe driving speeds at horizontal curves. Finally, a case study on 4.35 km road segment demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently conduct network level analysis.

  15. A device to improve the Schleger and Turner method for sweating rate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alfredo Manuel Franco; Alves, Alexandre; Infante, Paulo; Titto, Evaldo A. L.; Baccari, Flávio; Almeida, J. A. Afonso

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a device developed to improve the functionality, accuracy and precision of the original technique for sweating rate measurements proposed by Schleger and Turner [Schleger AV, Turner HG (1965) Aust J Agric Res 16:92-106]. A device was built for this purpose and tested against the original Schleger and Turner technique. Testing was performed by measuring sweating rates in an experiment involving six Mertolenga heifers subjected to four different thermal levels in a climatic chamber. The device exhibited no functional problems and the results obtained with its use were more consistent than with the Schleger and Turner technique. There was no difference in the reproducibility of the two techniques (same accuracy), but measurements performed with the new device had lower repeatability, corresponding to lower variability and, consequently, to higher precision. When utilizing this device, there is no need for physical contact between the operator and the animal to maintain the filter paper discs in position. This has important advantages: the animals stay quieter, and several animals can be evaluated simultaneously. This is a major advantage because it allows more measurements to be taken in a given period of time, increasing the precision of the observations and diminishing the error associated with temporal hiatus (e.g., the solar angle during field studies). The new device has higher functional versatility when taking measurements in large-scale studies (many animals) under field conditions. The results obtained in this study suggest that the technique using the device presented here could represent an advantageous alternative to the original technique described by Schleger and Turner.

  16. Spectrally resolved measurements of the terahertz beam profile generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma .......Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma ....

  17. Parents' understanding of and accuracy in using measuring devices to administer liquid oral pain medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Shauna; Wells, Martha; Scarbecz, Mark; McCann, Billy W

    2014-02-01

    Dentists recommend over-the-counter medications for postoperative pain in children, and parents often make dosing errors when administering these medications. The authors compared the dosing accuracy when parents used various measuring devices and aimed to identify risk factors associated with dosing errors. The authors recruited parent-child pairs visiting the Pediatric Clinic at the College of Dentistry at The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, and three private dental offices. The parents completed a survey and a liquid measuring exercise. The authors instructed parents to measure 5 milliliters of liquid by using a medicine cup with clear markings, a medicine cup with printed markings, a cylindrical measuring spoon and an oral syringe. For the medicine cup with printed markings, the authors placed the parents randomly into one of two groups: those receiving text-only instructions or those receiving text-pictogram instructions. The authors weighed each device before and after the measuring exercise and compared the difference in weight with a reference weight of 5 mL. A total of 120 parent-child pairs participated. The results of a McNemar test revealed a significant difference in parents' ability to measure accurate doses with the various devices. The results of a Pearson χ(2) test showed no statistically significant difference between the control and study groups for dosing accuracy. The χ(2) analysis results showed no significant differences in risk factors that could be associated with dosing errors. Medicine cups were the devices parents reported using most frequently. Medicine cups had a higher occurrence of dosing errors when compared with the other devices. No sociodemographic factors were associated with dosing errors. Practical Implications. Dentists can improve pain management in pediatric patients by educating parents about accurate measuring devices, weight-based dosing and correct interpretation of medication dosing charts.

  18. An investigation of highly accurate and precise robotic hole measurements using non-contact devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial robots arms are widely used in manufacturing industry because of their support for automation. However, in metrology, robots have had limited application due to their insufficient accuracy. Even using error compensation and calibration methods, robots are not effective for micrometre (μm level metrology. Non-contact measurement devices can potentially enable the use of robots for highly accurate metrology. However, the use of such devices on robots has not been investigated. The research work reported in this paper explores the use of different non-contact measurement devices on an industrial robot. The aim is to experimentally investigate the effects of robot movements on the accuracy and precision of measurements. The focus has been on assessing the ability to accurately measure various geometric and surface parameters of holes despite the inherent inaccuracies of industrial robot. This involves the measurement of diameter, roundness and surface roughness. The study also includes scanning of holes for measuring internal features such as start and end point of a taper. Two different non-contact measurement devices based on different technologies are investigated. Furthermore, effects of eccentricity, vibrations and thermal variations are also assessed. The research contributes towards the use of robots for highly accurate and precise robotic metrology.

  19. Measuring Soil Moisture using the Signal Strength of Buried Bluetooth Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, R.; Campbell, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    A low power bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) device is burried 20cm into the soil and a smartphone is placed on top of the soil to test if bluetooth signal strength can be related to soil moisture. The smartphone continuesly records and stores bluetooth signal strength of the device. The soil is artifcially wetted and drained. Results show a relation between BLE signal strength and soil moisture that could be used to measure soil moisture using these off-the-shelf consumer electronics. This opens the possibily to develop sensors that can be buried into the soil, possibly below the plow-line. These sensors can measure local parameters such as electric conductivity, ph, pressure, etc. Readings would be uploaded to a device on the surface using BLE. The signal strength of this BLE would be an (additional) measurement of soil moisture.

  20. Use of an electronic-nose device for profiling headspace volatile metabolites to rapidly identify phytopathogenic microbes [Abstract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson; D.G. Lester

    1997-01-01

    A new electronic-nose device (AromaScan A32S), consisting of an organic matrix-coated polymer-type 32-detector array, was tested as a novel tool for the detection, identification, and discrimination of phytopathogenic microbes. The sensor array detects the unique mixture of volatile metabolites released by microbes growing on standardized growth media by measuring...

  1. Correlation of Handheld Infrared Skin Thermometer and Infrared Videothermography Device for Measurement of Corneal Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Zafer; Barut Selver, Ozlem; Akkin, Cezmi; Canturk, Ecem; Afrashi, Filiz

    2016-05-01

    In our study, we aimed to investigate the correlation of handheld infrared skin thermometer and videothermography device for the measurement of corneal temperature. Forty healthy individuals (80 eyes) were enrolled to the study. Participants underwent a detailed ophthalmologic examination and medical history review for excluding any ocular and systemic diseases. The measurements of the central corneal temperature were performed in a room having constant temperature, humidity, and brightness levels. To avoid any variability, all the temperature measurements were performed in the same examination room by a single examiner. The temperature was measured with a handheld infrared skin thermometer (MEDISANA, FTN) from the corneal surface. The same instrument was also used to measure the subjects' body temperature. Moreover, the subjects underwent the corneal temperature measurement by a noncontact videothermography device (Optris PI 450; Optris GmbH). The male to female ratio was 19:21 among the subjects. The mean age was 25.1±4.7 years. The mean body temperature was 36.93±0.33°C. The mean corneal temperatures measured by the handheld infrared skin thermometer and the ocular videothermography device were 36.94±0.28°C and 35.61±0.61°C, respectively (Ptemperature difference was 1.34±0.57°C, with a 95% confidence interval. There was a moderate correlation between the corneal temperatures measured by the 2 devices in the right, the left eyes, and both eyes, respectively (P=0.450, 0.539, 0.490). Handheld infrared skin thermometers can be used for the evaluation of the corneal temperature. These devices may provide a simple, practical, and cheaper way to detect the corneal temperature, and the widely performed corneal temperature measurements may afford us to understand the temperature variability in numerous ocular conditions in a better way.

  2. The Total Deviation Index estimated by Tolerance Intervals to evaluate the concordance of measurement devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascaso Carlos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an agreement assay, it is of interest to evaluate the degree of agreement between the different methods (devices, instruments or observers used to measure the same characteristic. We propose in this study a technical simplification for inference about the total deviation index (TDI estimate to assess agreement between two devices of normally-distributed measurements and describe its utility to evaluate inter- and intra-rater agreement if more than one reading per subject is available for each device. Methods We propose to estimate the TDI by constructing a probability interval of the difference in paired measurements between devices, and thereafter, we derive a tolerance interval (TI procedure as a natural way to make inferences about probability limit estimates. We also describe how the proposed method can be used to compute bounds of the coverage probability. Results The approach is illustrated in a real case example where the agreement between two instruments, a handle mercury sphygmomanometer device and an OMRON 711 automatic device, is assessed in a sample of 384 subjects where measures of systolic blood pressure were taken twice by each device. A simulation study procedure is implemented to evaluate and compare the accuracy of the approach to two already established methods, showing that the TI approximation produces accurate empirical confidence levels which are reasonably close to the nominal confidence level. Conclusions The method proposed is straightforward since the TDI estimate is derived directly from a probability interval of a normally-distributed variable in its original scale, without further transformations. Thereafter, a natural way of making inferences about this estimate is to derive the appropriate TI. Constructions of TI based on normal populations are implemented in most standard statistical packages, thus making it simpler for any practitioner to implement our proposal to assess agreement.

  3. A Quantum Gas Jet for Non-Invasive Beam Profile Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, EB; Lefevre, T; Tzoganis, V; Welsch, C; Zhang, H

    2014-01-01

    A novel instrument for accelerator beam diagnostics is being developed by using De Broglie-wave focusing to create an ultra-thin neutral gas jet. Scanning the gas jet across a particle beam while measuring the interaction products, the beam profile can be measured. Such a jet scanner will provide an invaluable diagnostic tool in beams which are too intense for the use of wire scanners, such as the proposed CLIC Drive Beam. In order to create a sufficiently thin jet, a focusing element working on the de Broglie wavelength of the Helium atom has been designed. Following the principles of the Photon Sieve, we have constructed an Atomic Sieve consisting of 5230 nano-holes etched into a thin film of silicon nitride. When a quasi-monochromatic Helium jet is incident on the sieve, an interference pattern with a single central maximum is created. The stream of Helium atoms passing through this central maximum is much narrower than a conventional gas jet. The first experiences with this device are presented here, alon...

  4. Simulation of leakage current measurement on medical devices using helmholtz coil configuration with different current flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, E.; Chandra, F.; Dinata, R.

    2017-05-01

    Leakage current measurement which can follow IEC standard for medical device is one of many challenges to be answered. The IEC 60601-1 has defined that the limit for a leakage current for Medical Device can be as low as 10 µA and as high as 500 µA, depending on which type of contact (applied part) connected to the patient. Most people are using ELCB (Earth-leakage circuit breaker) for safety purpose as this is the most common and available safety device in market. One type of ELCB devices is RCD (Residual Current Device) and this RCD type can measure the leakage current directly. This work will show the possibility on how Helmholtz Coil Configuration can be made to be like the RCD. The possibility is explored by comparing the magnetic field formula from each device, then it proceeds with a simulation using software EJS (Easy Java Simulation). The simulation will make sure the concept of magnetic field current cancellation follows the RCD concept. Finally, the possibility of increasing the measurement’s sensitivity is also analyzed. The sensitivity is needed to see the possibility on reaching the minimum leakage current limit defined by IEC, 0.01mA.

  5. Reliability of measuring pelvic floor elevation with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Hitomi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Huo, Ming

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measuring the amount of pelvic floor elevation during pelvic and abdominal muscle contraction with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. [Subjects] The study group comprised 11 healthy women without urinary incontinence or previous birth experience. [Methods] We measured the displacement elevation of the bladder base during contraction of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles was measured using a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. The exercise was a four-part operation undertaken with the subjects in the lateral position. The reliability analysis included use of the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reliability. [Results] ICC (1.1) values for the pelvic floor elevation measurement with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device were 0.98 [contraction of the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle], 0.99 [contraction of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs)], 0.98 (co-contraction of the TrA and PFMs), and 0.98 (resistance of the TrA and PFMs). This study proved the reliability of the method because the coefficient of reliability was 0.97 or more for all of the measurements, even for those during exercise. [Conclusion] The diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device measures pelvic floor elevation with high reliability.

  6. Reliability of measuring pelvic floor elevation with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device

    OpenAIRE

    Ubukata, Hitomi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Huo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measuring the amount of pelvic floor elevation during pelvic and abdominal muscle contraction with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. [Subjects] The study group comprised 11 healthy women without urinary incontinence or previous birth experience. [Methods] We measured the displacement elevation of the bladder base during contraction of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles was measured using a diagnostic ultrasoni...

  7. Novel Crosstalk Measurement Method for Multi-Core Fiber Fan-In/Fan-Out Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Ono, Hirotaka; Abe, Yoshiteru

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new crosstalk measurement method for multi-core fiber fan-in/fan-out devices utilizing the Fresnel reflection. Compared with the traditional method using core-to-core coupling between a multi-core fiber and a single-mode fiber, the proposed method has the advantages of high reliability...... and much shorter measurement time. Statistical properties of the measured crosstalk by the new method are found to be very similar to the ones by the traditional coupling method....

  8. [Development of electronic clinical device for concentrated measurement of body temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Ouyang, Bin-lin

    2009-11-01

    An kind of device for concentrated measurement of body temperature which takes ATmega16 microcontroller as the core is designed according to the current situation of measuring body temperature in the hospitals of our country. Taking DS18B20 as the transducer, the device uses PTR8000 wireless communication module to realize the communication from multi-point to single-point. Meanwhile photoelectric detection and USB interfaces are added in the design. Clock chip PCF8563, voice chip ISD1820 and LCD screen I JM12864M are used to realize the functions such as timekeeping, playing voice and displaying and so on.

  9. Development and validation of the downhole freestanding shear device (DFSD) for measuring the dynamic properties of clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The Downhole Freestanding Shear Device (DFSD) is an innovative tool developed for in situ measurement of dynamic : properties (modulus and damping) of clay soils over a broad range of strains. The device essentially performs : laboratory-quality tors...

  10. Feeding Experimentation Device (FED): Construction and Validation of an Open-source Device for Measuring Food Intake in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Katrina P; Ali, Mohamed A; O'Neal, Timothy J; Szczot, Ilona; Licholai, Julia A; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-21

    Food intake measurements are essential for many research studies. Here, we provide a detailed description of a novel solution for measuring food intake in mice: the Feeding Experimentation Device (FED). FED is an open-source system that was designed to facilitate flexibility in food intake studies. Due to its compact and battery powered design, FED can be placed within standard home cages or other experimental equipment. Food intake measurements can also be synchronized with other equipment in real-time via FED's transistor-transistor logic (TTL) digital output, or in post-acquisition processing as FED timestamps every event with a real-time clock. When in use, a food pellet sits within FED's food well where it is monitored via an infrared beam. When the pellet is removed by the mouse, FED logs the timestamp onto its internal secure digital (SD) card and dispenses another pellet. FED can run for up to 5 days before it is necessary to charge the battery and refill the pellet hopper, minimizing human interference in data collection. Assembly of FED requires minimal engineering background, and off-the-shelf materials and electronics were prioritized in its construction. We also provide scripts for analysis of food intake and meal patterns. Finally, FED is open-source and all design and construction files are online, to facilitate modifications and improvements by other researchers.

  11. Repeatability of ocular biomechanical data measurements with a Scheimpflug-based noncontact device on normal corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Gabor; Hassan, Ziad; Csutak, Adrienne; Szalai, Eszter; Berta, Andras; Modis, Laszlo

    2013-08-01

    To analyze the repeatability of a new device measuring ocular biomechanical properties, central corneal thickness (CCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) and to investigate these parameters and their correlations in healthy eyes. Three consecutive measurements were performed on each eye using the CorVis ST device (Oculus Optikgeräte, Inc., Wetzler, Germany). Ten specific parameters, CCT, and IOP were measured. Biometric data were recorded with IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany). This study comprised 75 eyes of 75 healthy volunteers (mean age: 61.24 ± 15.72 years). Mean IOP was 15.02 ± 2.90 mm Hg and mean CCT was 556.33 ± 33.13 μm. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.865 for IOP and 0.970 for CCT, and coefficient of variation was 0.069 for IOP and 0.008 for CCT. ICC was 0.758 for maximum amplitude at highest concavity and 0.784 for first applanation time, and less than 0.6 for all other parameters. The device-specific data showed no significant relationship with age and axial length. Flattest and steepest keratometric values and IOP showed a significant correlation with the 10 device-specific parameters. The CorVis ST showed high repeatability for only IOP and pachymetric values. Single measurements are not reliable for the 10 device-specific parameters. The device allows for conducting clinical examinations and screening for surgeries altering ocular biomechanical properties with some form of averaging of multiple measurements. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Near-wall velocity profile measurement for nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kanjirakat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform near-wall velocity measurements of a SiO2–water nanofluid inside a microchannel. Nanoparticle image velocimetry measurements at three visible depths within 500 nm of the wall are conducted. We evaluate the optical properties of the nanofluid and their effect on the measurement technique. The results indicate that the small effect of the nanoparticles on the optical properties of the suspension have a negligible effect on the measurement technique. Our measurements show an increase in nanofluid velocity gradients near the walls, with no measurable slip, relative to the equivalent basefluid flow. We conjecture that particle migration induced by shear may have caused this increase. The effect of this increase in the measured near wall velocity gradient has implications on the viscosity measurement for these fluids.

  13. Profiling of MAX-DOAS BrO measurements from Antarctica and NO2 measurements from CINDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Tim; Kreher, Karin; Johnston, Paul; Bodeker, Greg; Schofield, Robyn; Thomas, Alan; McDonald, Adrian; Martinez-Aviles, Monica

    2010-05-01

    We will present a newly developed algorithm for the retrieval of tropospheric trace gas profiles from MAX-DOAS measurements. A Monte Carlo radiative transfer model, NIMO (NIWA Monte Carlo model) is used to calculate the weighting functions and forward model DSCDs (Differential Slant Column Densities). NIMO uses the local estimation technique to substantially speed up the determination of DSCDs for any given set of measurement geometries, enabling use of the model ‘online' rather than using pre-calculated lookup tables. The optimal estimation method is used to retrieve profiles for either single or multiple scan sequences or over prescribed time intervals. This inversion method is used to derive NO2 profiles from MAX-DOAS measurements made during the CINDI campaign at Cabauw, Netherlands, in June/July 2009. BrO profiles retrieved from sea-ice MAX-DOAS measurements, made during two Antarctic springtime campaigns in 2006 and 2007, are also presented.

  14. Prediction of propagated wave profiles based on point measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Beom Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the prediction of propagated wave profiles using the wave information at a fixed point. The fixed points can be fixed in either space or time. Wave information based on the linear wave theory can be expressed by Fredholm integral equation of the first kinds. The discretized matrix equation is usually an ill-conditioned system. Tikhonov regularization was applied to the ill-conditioned system to overcome instability of the system. The regularization parameter is calculated by using the L-curve method. The numerical results are compared with the experimental results. The analysis of the numerical computation shows that the Tikhonov regularization method is useful.

  15. Offshore wind profiling using light detection and ranging measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of the ZephlR (R), a continuous-wave, focused light detection and ranging (LiDAR) wind profiler, to observe offshore winds and turbulence characteristics were tested during a 6 month campaign at the tronsformer/platform of Hams Rev, the world's largest wind form......-derived friction velocities and roughness lengths were compared to Charnock's sea roughness model. These overage values were found to be close to the model, although the scatter of the individual estimations of sea roughness length was large. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  16. Modelling and measurements of bunch profiles at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulou, S. [Crete U.; Antoniou, F. [Liverpool U.; Argyropoulos, T. [CERN; Fitterer, M. [Fermilab; Hostettler, M. [CERN; Papaphilippou, Y. [CERN

    2017-07-20

    The bunch profiles in the LHC are often observed to be non-Gaussian, both at Flat Bottom (FB) and Flat Top (FT) energies. Especially at FT, an evolution of the tail population in time is observed. In this respect, the Monte-Carlo Software for IBS and Radiation effects (SIRE) is used to track different types of beam distributions. The impact of the distribution shape on the evolution of bunch characteristics is studied. The results are compared with observations from the LHC Run 2 data.

  17. Guideline-driven telemonitoring and follow-up of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices using IEEE 11073, HL7 & IHE profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maohua; Chronaki, Catherine E; Lüpkes, Christian; Thiel, Andreas; Plössnig, Manuela; Hinterbuchner, Lynne; Arbelo, Elena; Laleci, Gokce Banu; Kabak, Yildiray; Duarte, Fernandez; Guillén, Alejandra; Navarro, Xavier; Dogac, Asuman; Eichelberg, Marco; Hein, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    For patients with Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIEDs), telemonitoring promises improved quality of life and safety, since events recorded by the device or observed by the patient can alert a health professional. Taking into account the latest clinical guidelines when responding to such alerts, is a topic of active research addressed by the iCARDEA project. A key technical challenge is correlating telemonitoring CIED report data in a vendor-independent format with Electronic Health Record (EHR) data collected in the hospital and Personal Health Record (PHR) data entered by the patient, in guideline-driven care processes. The iCARDEA CIED exposure service component presented in this paper employs standards specifications from ISO/IEEE 11073 (Health Informatics, Point-of-care Medical Device Communication) and HL7v2.x in the context of Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) profiles to deliver telemonitoring CIED report data from two different CIED vendors to the adaptive care planner that implements guideline-driven care plans. Experience gained with implementation and initial component testing is discussed, while challenges and expectations for future health information standards to effectively support EHR-integrated guide-line-driven telemonitoring services are highlighted.

  18. Magnetic suspension dynamic calibration device of measurement system for dynamic characteristics of sliding bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wu; Zhao, Zhiming; Cai, Le; Yuan, Xiaoyang

    2017-10-01

    A measurement system error is a key factor that disturbs the identification precision of sliding bearing's dynamic characteristic coefficients. The transfer process and influence rule of errors from a measurement system to dynamic characteristic coefficients are analyzed by solving the dynamic characteristic measurement model. In order to ensure that the identification errors are no more than 40%, the amplitude error and phase error of the transfer function of the measurement system should be controlled within 10% and 1°, respectively. A novel magnetic suspension calibration method of the measurement system, which generates a vibration through a noncontact electromagnetic force rather than a traditional contact force, is proposed. A magnetic dynamic calibration device is developed. The experiment results show that the device can make dynamic calibration at different frequencies successfully, which is favorable to improve the controllability of the calibration process and the stability of calibration results.

  19. Comparison of two noninvasive devices for measurement of central systolic blood pressure with invasive measurement during cardiac catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Christian; Haetinger, Siegberto; Schneider, Markus P; Pauschinger, Matthias; Schmieder, Roland E

    2012-09-01

    Recently, a new device for noninvasive assessment of central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) (BPro device with A-Pulse) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, but available data are limited. In 52 patients undergoing invasive elective cardiac evaluation, central hemodynamics were measured invasively. Immediately thereafter, radial artery waveforms were sampled by two noninvasive techniques, the BPro and, as a comparator, the SphygmoCor System. Then, central hemodynamics were measured invasively for a second time. The invasively recorded cSBP (137 ± 27 mm Hg) did not differ with both noninvasively assessed cSBP by BPro (136 ± 21 mm Hg, P = .627 vs invasive cSBP) and by SphygmoCor (136 ± 23 mm Hg, P=.694 vs invasive cSBP) and correlated highly between invasively recorded and both noninvasively assessed cSBP. However, using Bland-Altman plots, spreading of compared data of both devices can be found (BPro: 0.87 ± 13 mm Hg vs invasive cSBP; SphygmoCor: 0.77 ± 14 mm Hg vs invasive cSBP). There was an excellent correlation of both noninvasive devices for the calculation of cSBP (r=0.961, Pinvasively measured cSBP. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. DESIGN AND TESTING OF DEVICE FOR MEASURING THE LONGITUDINAL UNIFORMITY OF REEL HOSE IRRIGATION MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Jobbágy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the cultivation of crops, irrigation is included in necessary working operations like tillage, fertilization and sowing. For irrigation, we require the highest quality of work. Therefore, in this contribution, we focused on monitoring the quality of work of a hose reel irrigation machine. For determining the longitudinal uniformity of winding a hose on a reel, the development of a digital device was necessary. During the development, we had to design its two basic parts – the hardware and software. After construction of the device, its function was tested directly in working conditions of the particular reel hose irrigation machine. The results of our developed device were compared with the results of the Ecostar 4000 (Bauer, Austria microcomputer, both with the same hose winding speed. On the microcomputer, we set the hose winding speed to +2.1 m*h-1. The average measured value of speed using the first device Speedmeter SM1 (2000, KSVS was 11.7 m*h-1. The difference between the set and measured speed was 0.4 m*h-1 (absolute error of measurement, the relative error of measurement was 3.42 %. In the second case, the measurement was performed using a more modern device – Speedmeter SM2, which allows saving of results into its internal memory (2012, KSVS. The average measured value of winding speed was 12.26 m*h-1, which represents the relative error of measurement 2.77 % compared to the set value of 12.6 m*h-1. Based on the results obtained, we recommend the maintenance of the irrigation machine.

  1. The influence of the Wind Speed Profile on Wind Turbine Performance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Antoniou, Ioannis; Pedersen, Søren M.

    2009-01-01

    . Assuming a certain turbine hub height, the profiles with hub-height wind speeds between 6 m s-1 and 8 m s-1 are normalized at 7 m s-1 and grouped to a number of mean shear profiles. The energy in the profiles varies considerably for the same hub-height wind speed. These profiles are then used as input......To identify the influence of wind shear and turbulence on wind turbine performance, flat terrain wind profiles are analysed up to a height of 160 m. The profiles' shapes are found to extend from no shear to high wind shear, and on many occasions, local maxima within the profiles are also observed...... to a Blade Element Momentum model that simulates the Siemens 3.6 MW wind turbine. The analysis is carried out as time series simulations where the electrical power is the primary characterization parameter. The results of the simulations indicate that wind speed measurements at different heights over...

  2. Development of a new clinically applicable device for embryo evaluation which measures embryo oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Hiroki; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Shiga, Naomi; Takahashi, Aiko; Ihara, Motomasa; Ishibashi, Masumi; Nishimoto, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Zen; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Jin; Terada, Yukihiro; Igarashi, Hideki; Takahashi, Toshifumi; Fukui, Atsushi; Suganuma, Ryota; Tachibana, Masahito; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-10-01

    . Furthermore, the developed blastocysts were scored using the blastocyst quality score (BQS), and the correlation with oxygen consumption rate was also assessed. The device enabled the oxygen consumption rate of an embryo to be measured automatically within a minute. The oxygen concentration gradient profile showed excellent linearity in a distance-dependent change. A close correlation in the oxygen consumption rates of bovine embryos was observed between the SECM measuring system and CERMs, with a determination coefficient of 0.8203 (P = 0.0008). Oxygen consumption rates of human embryos that have reached the blastocyst stage were significantly higher than those of arrested embryos at 48, 72 and 96 h after thawing (P = 0.039, 0.004 and 0.049, respectively). Thus, in vitro development of frozen-thawed human embryos to the blastocyst stage would be predicted at 48 h after thawing (day 4) by measuring the oxygen consumption using CERMs. Although a positive linear relationship between BQS and the oxygen consumption rate was observed [the determination coefficient was R(2) = 0.6537 (P = 0.008)], two blastocysts exhibited low oxygen consumption rates considering their relatively high BQS. This suggests that morphology and metabolism in human embryos might not correlate consistently. Transfer of the embryo and pregnancy evaluation was not performed. Thus, a correlation between oxygen consumption and the in vivo viability of embryos remains unknown. Clinical trials, including embryo transfer, would be desirable to determine a threshold value to elect clinically relevant, quality embryos for transfer. We utilized frozen-thawed human embryos in this study. The effect of these manipulations on the respiratory activity of the embryo is also unknown. Selection of quality embryos, especially in a single embryo transfer cycle, by CERMs may have an impact on obtaining better clinical outcomes, albeit with clinical trials being required. Furthermore, the early determination of quality

  3. Direct and fast measurement of CT beam filter profiles with simultaneous geometrical calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Li, Xinhua; George Xu, X; Liu, Bob

    2017-01-01

    To accurately measure the beam filter profiles from a variety of CT scanner models and to provide reference data for Monte Carlo simulations of CT scanners. This study proposed a new method to measure CT beam filter profiles using a linear-array x-ray detector (X-Scan 0.8f3-512; Detection Technology Inc., Espoo, Finland) under gantry rotation mode. A robust geometrical calibration approach was developed to determine key geometrical parameters by considering the x-ray focal spot location relative to the linear-array detector and the gantry's angular increment at each acquisition point. CT beam intensity profiles were synthesized from continuously measured data during a 10° gantry rotation range with calibrated detector response and system geometry information. Relative transmission profiles of nineteen sets of beam filters were then derived for nine different CT scanner models from three different manufacturers. Equivalent aluminum thickness profiles of these beam filters were determined by analytical calculation using the Spektr Matlab software package to match the measured transmission profiles. Three experiments were performed to validate the accuracy of the geometrical calibration, detector response modeling, and the derived equivalent aluminum thickness profiles. The beam intensity profiles measured from gantry rotation mode showed very good agreement with those measured with gantry stationary mode, with a maximal difference of 3%. The equivalent aluminum thickness determined by this proposed method agreed well with what was measured by an ion chamber, with a mean difference of 0.4%. The determined HVL profiles matched well with data from a previous study (max difference of 4.7%). An accurate and robust method to directly measure profiles from a broad list of beam filters and CT scanner models was developed, implemented, and validated. Useful reference data was provided for future research on CT system modeling. © 2016 American Association of Physicists in

  4. In situ azimuthal rotation device for linear dichroism measurements in scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cruz, D.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Tyliszczak, T.; Rousseau, M.-E.; Pézolet, M.

    2007-03-01

    A novel miniature rotation device used in conjunction with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope is described. It provides convenient in situ sample rotation to enable measurements of linear dichroism at high spatial resolution. The design, fabrication, and mechanical characterization are presented. This device has been used to generate quantitative maps of the spatial distribution of the orientation of proteins in several different spider and silkworm silks. Specifically, quantitative maps of the dichroic signal at the C 1s→π*amide transition in longitudinal sections of the silk fibers give information about the spatial orientation, degree of alignment, and spatial distribution of protein peptide bonds. A new approach for analyzing the dichroic signal to extract orientation distributions, in addition to magnitudes of aligned components, is presented and illustrated with results from Nephila clavipes dragline spider silk measured using the in situ rotation device.

  5. Testing Precision of Measurements with Hand-Held GPS-Device GPSMAP 76CS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Župan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Small hand-held GPS-devices are more and more in use these days. A need for their accuracy and precision testing arises. Precision of measurements with the small hand-held GPS-device GPSMAP 76CS is described in this paper. Also, the correlation between reading "accuracy" during survey and deviations of individual measurements from their average value has been explored. The importance of the research is in the fact that according to our knowledge, there are not any explanations or definitions of "accuracy" shown on the screen of GPSMAP 76CS or similar devices in available references.Ključne riječi

  6. Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, Paul A; Robinson, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    The increasing international growth in the development of marine and freshwater wave and tidal energy harvesting systems has been followed by a growing requirement to understand any associated underwater impact. Radiated noise generated during operation is dependent on the device's physical properties, the sound-propagation environment, and the device's operational state. Physical properties may include size, distribution in the water column, and mechanics/hydrodynamics. The sound-propagation environment may be influenced by water depth, bathymetry, sediment type, and water column acoustic properties, and operational state may be influenced by tidal cycle and wave height among others This paper discusses some of the challenges for measurement of noise characteristics from these devices as well as a case study of the measurement of radiated noise from a full-scale wave energy converter.

  7. A compact and inexpensive device using an electronic calculator for measuring ambulatory activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Y; Murai, S; Saito, H; Murakami, H; Itoh, T

    1988-01-01

    A device for measuring ambulatory activity in mice was developed. The device consisted of a plastic case, a bed plate, a step board (as a detector) and a calculator (as a recorder). A 2.2 cm width section was cut out from the middle of the case bottom in the direction of the minor axis and a step board, a width of 2 cm, was placed in the opening. A short bolt was screwed into one end of the step board and the head of the bolt was placed on the equal key of the calculator. The calculator counted the number of times the mouse stood on the step board. The validity of the device was demonstrated by measuring the effect of methamphetamine (1-4 mg/kg) on the ambulatory activity in mice.

  8. Transcriptome-wide measurement of translation by ribosome profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlincy, Nicholas J; Ingolia, Nicholas T

    2017-08-15

    Translation is one of the fundamental processes of life. It comprises the assembly of polypeptides whose amino acid sequence corresponds to the codon sequence of an mRNA's ORF. Translation is performed by the ribosome; therefore, in order to understand translation and its regulation we must be able to determine the numbers and locations of ribosomes on mRNAs in vivo. Furthermore, we must be able to examine their redistribution in different physiological contexts and in response to experimental manipulations. The ribosome profiling method provides us with an opportunity to learn these locations, by sequencing a cDNA library derived from the short fragments of mRNA covered by the ribosome. Since its original description, the ribosome profiling method has undergone continuing development; in this article we describe the method's current state. Important improvements include: the incorporation of sample barcodes to enable library multiplexing, the incorporation of unique molecular identifiers to enable to removal of duplicated sequences, and the replacement of a gel-purification step with the enzymatic degradation of unligated linker. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Microfluidic pH Measurement Device with a Flowing Liquid Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akira; Suzuki, Miho

    2017-01-01

    The pH values of aqueous solutions are conventionally measured with pH-sensitive electrodes such as glass electrodes or ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) used in conjunction with Ag/AgCl reference electrodes and KCl solutions. The speed of pH measurement with these systems can be deficient, however, as the glass electrode responds slowly during measurements of sample solutions with low buffering capacities. Our group has constructed a new pH measurement system using a microfluidic device and ISFET sensors. The device has a channel with two inlets and one outlet, with a junction connected to a Y-shaped channel on the same plane. Two ISFET sensors and an Ag/AgCl pseudo reference electrode are fitted into the channel to construct a differential measurement device. A sample solution and baseline solution supplied into the inlets by gravity-driven pumps form a flowing liquid junction during measurement. The small size and fast response of the ISFET sensors enable measurement of about 2.0 mL of sample solution over a measurement period of 120 s. The 90% response time is within 2 s. The calibrated sensor signal exhibits a wide range (pH 1.68–10.0) of linearity with a correlation factor of 0.9997. The measurement error for all solutions tested, including diluted solutions, was 0.0343 ± 0.0974 pH (average error ± standard deviation (S.D.), n = 42). The new device developed in this research will serve as an innovative technology in the field of potentiometry. PMID:28677614

  10. 77 FR 35747 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... BAC, respectively. It also included a test for the presence of acetone and an expanded definition of... BAC Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada: Breath Analysis Computer X X CAMEC Ltd., North Shields, Tyne and... Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration...

  11. The two-probe device for automatic measurement of the reflection coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л.Я. Ільницький

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The two-probe device for automatic measurement of the reflection coefficient in the HF range is proposed and analyzed. The main parts in the instrument control system are the sum-and-difference bridge and the microprocessor.

  12. Photovoltaic material and device measurements workshop: focus on polycrystalline thin film cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The general purpose of the workshop was to accelerate the development of thin film solar cells by improving the versatility and reliability of material and device measurement techniques. Papers were presented under the following sessions: structural/chemical session; optical/electro-optical session; charge transport session; and poster session. Each paper was processed for EDB.

  13. Comparison of trunk strength measurements between two different isokinetic devices used at clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupli, M; Sainio, P; Hurri, H; Alaranta, H

    1997-10-01

    Intradevice reliability of isokinetic trunk strength measurements has been studied frequently, but no evidence is available on interdevice reliability. This motivated the present study, in which two isokinetic devices, the Ariel 5000 and Lido Multi-Joint II, were compared in a sample of 41 subjects (20 healthy and 21 low back pain subjects). The measurements were made in a random order with both machines. The results showed that the two isokinetic machines gave quite different results in trunk flexion-extension strength measurements. A statistically significant difference was present in the average peak torques between the two devices, with the exception of flexion at low angular velocity (60 degrees/s), and the correlations between the two measurements were low. The results were assumed to be more of a reflection of the interdevice variations (hardware and software, attachment of the subject) than of learning effects or other phenomena. We conclude that isokinetic trunk-muscle strength test results with the Ariel and Lido are device specific, and one cannot automatically compare results obtained from different devices with each other.

  14. A Simple Device for Measuring Static Compliance of Lung-Thorax Combine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the concept of lung compliance remains a challenge to the physiology teacher because it cannot be demonstrated easily in human subjects and all attempts until now have used only simulation models. A simple device is described in the present article to measure the compliance of the "lung-thorax" combine in human subjects with…

  15. Photon and neutron doses of the personnel using moisture and density measurement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carinou, E.; Papadomarkaki, E.; Tritakis, P.; Hourdakis, C.I.; Kamenopoulou, V. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Agia Paraskevi, Attiki, 60092 (Greece)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study is to present the evolution of the photon doses received by the workers who use mobile devices for measuring the moisture and the density in various materials and to estimate the neutron doses. The workers employed in more than 30 construction companies in Greece were 76 in 2004. The devices used for that purpose incorporate a {sup 137}Cs source for density measurements and an {sup 241}Am-Be source for moisture measurements of soil, asphalt or concrete. Photon and neutron measurements were performed occasionally during the on site inspections. The results of the measurements showed that the photon and neutron dose rates were not negligible. The workers were monitored for photon radiation using film badges (Kodak Type 2, Holder NRPB type) till the year 2000 and then TLD badges issued by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), on a monthly basis. Since the neutron dose rates measured by a rem-meter were not so high, no neutron dosemeters were issued for them. Their personal dose equivalent data for photons are kept in the National Dose Registry Information System (N.D.R.I.S.) in G.A.E.C. and were used for statistical analysis for the period from 1997 till 2004. As far as the neutrons are concerned, a Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the measuring devices and the working positions in order to calculate the neutron individual doses. (authors)

  16. Suitability of an electronic reminder device for measuring drug adherence in elderly patients with complex medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbig, Philipp; Barat, Ishay; Damsgaard, Else M

    2012-09-01

    We evaluated an electronic reminder device for detecting non-adherence in elderly patients with complex medication regimens. Randomly selected, home-living elderly patients were studied. The patients were aged over 65 years and were taking more than four drugs. Patients received an electronic reminder device which contained a GSM communications module. They were visited three times over a one-year period by a nurse who counted their medicine supply. We compared the adherence measured by the electronic device with the actual adherence measured by the pill count. Almost half of the 315 patients dropped out of the study for various reasons, so the calculations were performed on 168 patients. The adherence measured by the electronic reminder system was 79% and was 92% measured by pill count (Padherence at morning/evening intake times with pill count adherence in the morning/evening only. For the pill count, there was almost no difference between morning and evening adherence rates (93%). For electronic measurement, adherence rates were lower in the evening (75%) than in the morning (81%). Electronic reminders were less reliable than the pill count in measuring adherence. However, the electronic system may be a useful supplement to other, more time consuming methods for measuring adherence.

  17. Characterization of structural defects in GST based nano-PCM devices through resistance drift measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Ibrahim; Cogulu, Egecan; Gokce, Aisha; Stipe, Barry; Katine, Jordan; Aktas, Gulen; Ozatay, Ozhan

    2015-03-01

    Phase change memory (PCM) is a promising nonvolatile data storage technology with its high signal to noise ratio and superior scalability. Resistance drift in amorphous phase of the phase change material poses a crucial reliability problem, especially in multiple-bit-per cell PCM devices. The resistance of the amorphous phase uncontrollably increases with time after a reset operation which alters the read/write conditions of the device. Structural relaxation (SR) through a defect annihilation process is considered to be the underlying physical mechanism for resistance drift. Here, we report on our measurements of the resistance drift in a phase change memory device with a single layer Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) material not only in the amorphous state but also in the intermediate resistance state in devices with square top contact geometry which enables us to assess the reliability of multiple-bit per cell PCM memory devices. Through an analysis of electrical measurements as a function of time and temperature for increasing annealing times, we estimate a rate of change in trap density for both amorphous and mixed phases of the GST material after a switching operation. Our study allows engineering the phase change materials and optimizing programing conditions for future PCM applications. TUBITAK under Contract Number 113F385, Bogazici University Research Fund, 12B03M1, and European Union FP7 Marie Curie International Re-integration Grant PCM-256281.

  18. A Printed Equilibrium Dialysis Device with Integrated Membranes for Improved Binding Affinity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinger, Cody W; Heller, Andrew A; Spence, Dana M

    2017-07-18

    Equilibrium dialysis is a simple and effective technique used for investigating the binding of small molecules and ions to proteins. A three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to create a device capable of measuring binding constants between a protein and a small ion based on equilibrium dialysis. Specifically, the technology described here enables the user to customize an equilibrium dialysis device to fit their own experiments by choosing membranes of various material and molecular-weight cutoff values. The device has dimensions similar to that of a standard 96-well plate, thus being amenable to automated sample handlers and multichannel pipettes. The device consists of a printed base that hosts multiple windows containing a porous regenerated-cellulose membrane with a molecular-weight cutoff of ∼3500 Da. A key step in the fabrication process is a print-pause-print approach for integrating membranes directly into the windows subsequently inserted into the base. The integrated membranes display no leaking upon placement into the base. After characterizing the system's requirements for reaching equilibrium, the device was used to successfully measure an equilibrium dissociation constant for Zn2+ and human serum albumin (Kd = (5.62 ± 0.93) × 10-7 M) under physiological conditions that is statistically equal to the constants reported in the literature.

  19. Prediction of propagated wave profiles based on point measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sang-Beom

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the prediction of propagated wave profiles using the wave information at a fixed point. The fixed points can be fixed in either space or time. Wave information based on the linear wave theory can be expressed by Fredholm integral equation of the first kinds. The discretized matrix equation is usually an ill-conditioned system. Tikhonov regularization was applied to the ill-conditioned system to overcome instability of the system. The regularization parameter is calculated by using the L-curve method. The numerical results are compared with the expe¬rimental results. The analysis of the numerical computation shows that the Tikhonov regularization method is useful.

  20. A measurement system for vertical seawater profiles close to the air–sea interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Sims

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a near-surface ocean profiler, which has been designed to precisely measure vertical gradients in the top 10 m of the ocean. Variations in the depth of seawater collection are minimized when using the profiler compared to conventional CTD/rosette deployments. The profiler consists of a remotely operated winch mounted on a tethered yet free-floating buoy, which is used to raise and lower a small frame housing sensors and inlet tubing. Seawater at the inlet depth is pumped back to the ship for analysis. The profiler can be used to make continuous vertical profiles or to target a series of discrete depths. The profiler has been successfully deployed during wind speeds up to 10 m s−1 and significant wave heights up to 2 m. We demonstrate the potential of the profiler by presenting measured vertical profiles of the trace gases carbon dioxide and dimethylsulfide. Trace gas measurements use an efficient microporous membrane equilibrator to minimize the system response time. The example profiles show vertical gradients in the upper 5 m for temperature, carbon dioxide and dimethylsulfide of 0.15 °C, 4 µatm and 0.4 nM respectively.

  1. 3D-profile measurement of advanced semiconductor features by using FIB as reference metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Iwaki, Yuuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Kawada, Hiroki; Ikota, Masami

    2017-03-01

    A novel method of sub-nanometer uncertainty for the 3D-profile measurement and LWR (Line Width Roughness) measurement by using FIB (Focused Ion Beam) processing, and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and CD-SEM (Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope) images measurement is proposed to standardize 3D-profile measurement through reference metrology. In this article, we apply the methodology to line profile measurements and roughness measurement of advanced FinFET (Fin-shaped Field-Effect Transistor) features. The FinFET features are horizontally sliced as a thin specimen by FIB micro sampling system. Horizontally images of the specimens are obtained then by a planar TEM. LWR is calculated from the edges positions on TEM images. Moreover, we already have demonstrated the novel on-wafer 3D-profile metrology as "FIB-to-CDSEM method" with FIB slope cut and CD-SEM measuring. Using the method, a few micrometers wide on a wafer is coated and cut by 45-degree slope using FIB tool. Then, the wafer is transferred to CD-SEM to measure the cross section image by top down CD-SEM measurement. We applied FIB-to-CDSEM method to a CMOS image sensor feature. The 45-degree slope cut surface is observed using AFM. The surface profile of slope cut surface and line profiles are analyzed for improving the accuracy of FIB-to-CDSEM method.

  2. Energy Renovation of Buildings Utilizing the U-value Meter, a New Heat Loss Measuring Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Schiøtt Sørensen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new device with the ability to measure heat loss from building facades is proposed. Yet to be commercially developed, the U-value Meter can be used as stand-alone apparatus, or in combination with thermographic-equipment. The U-value meter complements thermographs, which only reproduce surface temperature and not the heat loss distribution. There is need for a device that measures the heat loss in a quantitative manner. Convective as well as radiative heat losses are captured and measured with a five-layer thermal system. Heat losses are measured in the SI-unit W/m2K. The aim is to achieve more cost-effective building renovation, and provide a means to check the fulfillment of Building Regulation requirements with respect to stated U-values (heat transmission coefficients. In this way it should be possible to greatly reduce energy consumption of buildings.

  3. The Pollexograph: a new device for palmar abduction measurements of the thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kraker, M; Selles, R W; Schreuders, T A R; Hovius, S E R; Stam, H J

    2009-01-01

    Clinical measurement, cross sectional. To introduce a new measurement device, the Pollexograph, to easily measure palmar thumb abduction, and to compare its reliability with conventional goniometry. Fourteen hand therapists measured palmar abduction of the same healthy subject with the Pollexograph and a conventional goniometer. In addition, intrarater reliability of the Pollexograph was studied in 21 patients with a hypoplastic thumb. Variance between measurements of the same subject measured by the hand therapist was 2-6 times smaller with the Pollexograph compared to conventional goniometry. Pollexograph intrarater reliability in hypoplastic thumb patients was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.98-0.99). A new tool to measure palmar abduction in clinical care, the Pollexograph, has been introduced. The Pollexograph reduces variability between raters when measuring the same subject compared with conventional goniometry and excellent measurement reliability in hypoplastic thumb patients. Not applicable.

  4. In Situ Aerosol Profile Measurements and Comparisons with SAGE 3 Aerosol Extinction and Surface Area Profiles at 68 deg North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Under funding from this proposal three in situ profile measurements of stratospheric sulfate aerosol and ozone were completed from balloon-borne platforms. The measured quantities are aerosol size resolved number concentration and ozone. The one derived product is aerosol size distribution, from which aerosol moments, such as surface area, volume, and extinction can be calculated for comparison with SAGE III measurements and SAGE III derived products, such as surface area. The analysis of these profiles and comparison with SAGE III extinction measurements and SAGE III derived surface areas are provided in Yongxiao (2005), which comprised the research thesis component of Mr. Jian Yongxiao's M.S. degree in Atmospheric Science at the University of Wyoming. In addition analysis continues on using principal component analysis (PCA) to derive aerosol surface area from the 9 wavelength extinction measurements available from SAGE III. Ths paper will present PCA components to calculate surface area from SAGE III measurements and compare these derived surface areas with those available directly from in situ size distribution measurements, as well as surface areas which would be derived from PCA and Thomason's algorithm applied to the four wavelength SAGE II extinction measurements.

  5. High-frequency profile in adolescents and its relationship with the use of personal stereo devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Renata Almeida Araújo; Ribas, Ângela; Hammerschmidt, Rogério; de Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira

    2016-01-01

    To analyze and correlate the audiometric findings of high frequencies (9-16 kHz) in adolescents with their hearing habits and attitudes, in order to prevent noise-induced hearing loss. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, which included 125 adolescents in a sample of normal-hearing students, at a state school. The subjects performed high-frequency audiometry testing and answered a self-administered questionnaire addressing information on sound habits concerning the use of personal stereo devices. The sample was divided according to the exposure characteristics (time, duration, intensity, etc.) and the results were compared with the observed thresholds, through the difference in proportions test, chi-squared, Student's t-test, and ANOVA, all at a significance level of 0.05. Average high-frequency thresholds were registered below 15 dB HL and no significant correlation was found between high frequency audiometric findings and the degree of exposure. The prevalence of harmful sound habits due to the use of personal stereo devices is high in the adolescent population, but there was no correlation between exposure to high sound pressure levels through personal stereos and the high-frequency thresholds in this population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. A subharmonic detrending or data-smoothing approach for longitudinal road profile measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Commonly used figure-of-merits for longitudinal road profiles such as the International Roughness Index (IRI) and the Ride Number (RN) are based on statistical properties. Raw measured longitudinal road profile data may contain large trending components especially when the measurements are made...... with walking profilers in hilly regions. To obtain approximate stationary data suitable for statistical processing measurements should be subjected to detrending before calculating the IRI- or RN- value. In this paper a novel detrending method is proposed which is well suited for removing large profile trends...... without significantly corrupting the short wavelength content of the profile data. The method called sub-harmonic detrending works by fitting sub-harmonic sinusoids to the data followed by circular filtering in order to remove the trend. The method is also well suited for data-smoothing....

  7. Use of the measure your medical outcome profile (MYMOP2 and W-BQ12 (Well-Being outcomes measures to evaluate chiropractic treatment: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polus Barbara I

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to assess the use of the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP2 and W-BQ12 well-being questionnaire for measuring clinical change associated with a course of chiropractic treatment. Methods Chiropractic care of the patients involved spinal manipulative therapy (SMT, mechanically assisted techniques, soft tissue therapy, and physiological therapeutic devices. Outcome measures used were MYMOP2 and the Well-Being Questionnaire 12 (W-BQ12. Results Statistical and clinical significant changes were demonstrated with W-BQ12 and MYMOP2. Conclusions The study demonstrated that MYMOP2 was responsive to change and may be a useful instrument for assessing clinical changes among chiropractic patients who present with a variety of symptoms and clinical conditions.

  8. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of MAST using a ball pen probe

    CERN Document Server

    Walkden, N R; Allan, S; Dudson, B D; Elmore, S; Fishpool, G; Harrison, J; Kirk, A; Komm, M

    2014-01-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ~1kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estim...

  9. Microcontroller based system for electrical breakdown time delay measurement in gas-filled devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejović, Milić M; Denić, Dragan B; Pejović, Momčilo M; Nešić, Nikola T; Vasović, Nikola

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents realization of a digital embedded system for measuring electrical breakdown time delay. The proposed system consists of three major parts: dc voltage supply, analog subsystem, and a digital subsystem. Any dc power source with the range from 100 to 1000 V can be used in this application. The analog subsystem should provide fast and accurate voltage switching on the testing device as well as transform the signals that represent the voltage pulse on the device and the device breakdown into the form suitable for detection by a digital subsystem. The insulated gate bipolar transistor IRG4PH40KD driven by TC429 MOSFET driver is used for high voltage switching on the device. The aim of a digital subsystem is to detect the signals from the analog subsystem and to measure the elapsed time between their occurrences. Moreover, the digital subsystem controls various parameters that influence time delay and provides fast data storage for a large number of measured data. For this propose, we used the PIC18F4550 microcontroller with a full-speed compatible universal serial bus (USB) engine. Operation of this system is verified on different commercial and custom made gas devices with different structure and breakdown mechanisms. The electrical breakdown time delay measurements have been carried out as a function of several parameters, which dominantly influence electrical breakdown time delay. The obtained results have been verified using statistical methods, and they show good agreement with the theory. The proposed system shows good repeatability, sensitivity, and stability for measuring the electrical breakdown time delay.

  10. A new 3D levitation force measuring device for REBCO bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.L. [School of Physics, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Yang, W.M., E-mail: yangwm@snnu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Li, J.W.; Yuan, X.C. [School of Physics, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Ma, J. [School of Physics, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Department of Physics, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008 (China); Wang, M. [School of Physics, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •A new 3D levitation force measuring device has been designed and constructed. •It can measure the 3D real-time interaction force simultaneously and directly. •Performance, accuracy and effectiveness has been demonstrate by tests. -- Abstract: A new 3D levitation force measuring device for ReBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−x} (REBCO) bulk superconductors has been designed and constructed. Three pull pressure load cells are orthogonally set on a fixing bracket to test the interaction force between a bulk superconductor and a magnet in three dimensions. To realize the simple, rapid and accurate measurement of the levitation force, a non-magnetic hollow cylinder flange, three pull pressure load cells, a piece of iron plate, a NbFeB permanent magnet (PM) and some steel balls are elaborately constructed with the fixing bracket, thus the magnet or REBCO bulk superconductor can be well and rigidly connected with the load cells, and the mutual interference from the three pull pressure load cells can be effectively avoided during the levitation force measuring processes. This device can be used to measure the interaction (or levitation) force between a superconductor and a magnet, that between a magnet and a magnet, or the magnetic force among magnetic materials in three dimensions.

  11. Analysis of Uncertainty in a Middle-Cost Device for 3D Measurements in BIM Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alonso; Naranjo, José-Manuel; Jiménez, Antonio; González, Alfonso

    2016-09-22

    Medium-cost devices equipped with sensors are being developed to get 3D measurements. Some allow for generating geometric models and point clouds. Nevertheless, the accuracy of these measurements should be evaluated, taking into account the requirements of the Building Information Model (BIM). This paper analyzes the uncertainty in outdoor/indoor three-dimensional coordinate measures and point clouds (using Spherical Accuracy Standard (SAS) methods) for Eyes Map, a medium-cost tablet manufactured by e-Capture Research & Development Company, Mérida, Spain. To achieve it, in outdoor tests, by means of this device, the coordinates of targets were measured from 1 to 6 m and cloud points were obtained. Subsequently, these were compared to the coordinates of the same targets measured by a Total Station. The Euclidean average distance error was 0.005-0.027 m for measurements by Photogrammetry and 0.013-0.021 m for the point clouds. All of them satisfy the tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the BIM Guide for 3D Imaging (General Services Administration); similar results are obtained in the indoor tests, with values of 0.022 m. In this paper, we establish the optimal distances for the observations in both, Photogrammetry and 3D Photomodeling modes (outdoor) and point out some working conditions to avoid in indoor environments. Finally, the authors discuss some recommendations for improving the performance and working methods of the device.

  12. Analysis of Uncertainty in a Middle-Cost Device for 3D Measurements in BIM Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Sánchez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Medium-cost devices equipped with sensors are being developed to get 3D measurements. Some allow for generating geometric models and point clouds. Nevertheless, the accuracy of these measurements should be evaluated, taking into account the requirements of the Building Information Model (BIM. This paper analyzes the uncertainty in outdoor/indoor three-dimensional coordinate measures and point clouds (using Spherical Accuracy Standard (SAS methods for Eyes Map, a medium-cost tablet manufactured by e-Capture Research & Development Company, Mérida, Spain. To achieve it, in outdoor tests, by means of this device, the coordinates of targets were measured from 1 to 6 m and cloud points were obtained. Subsequently, these were compared to the coordinates of the same targets measured by a Total Station. The Euclidean average distance error was 0.005–0.027 m for measurements by Photogrammetry and 0.013–0.021 m for the point clouds. All of them satisfy the tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m according to the BIM Guide for 3D Imaging (General Services Administration; similar results are obtained in the indoor tests, with values of 0.022 m. In this paper, we establish the optimal distances for the observations in both, Photogrammetry and 3D Photomodeling modes (outdoor and point out some working conditions to avoid in indoor environments. Finally, the authors discuss some recommendations for improving the performance and working methods of the device.

  13. Experience with measuring devices for the determination of sulphur dioxide emission at Swiss cement plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltisberg, J.; Nyffenegger, H.

    1988-04-01

    Under the Swiss environmental laws of 1983 the authorities may require continuous measurements on installations giving rise to considerable emissions. Implementation of this requirement is to be expected at an early date. Similar laws exist in the Federal Republic of Germany and other countries or are likely to be introduced in the foreseeable future. The Process Engineering Department of Holderbank management und Beratung AG has, in anticipation of these continuous measurements, systematically studied some SO/sub 2/ measuring devices with regard to accuracy and maintenance at various Swiss cement plants since 1984. As a reference the hydrogen peroxide Thorin process according to KDI-Guideline no. 2462, sheet 8, has been used. Unacceptable errors were found when gas coolers were employed for sampling gas drying (as for example with infrared absorption according to VDI-Guidelines no. 2462, sheet 4). Sufficient precision and moderate maintenance requirement has been demonstrated by the SO/sub 2/-measuring system using sampling gas dilution supplied by Environmental and Process Monitoring in connection with an immission measuring device from Monitor Labs. Equally suitable has been found to be the combined SO/sub 2/- and dust concentration analyser GM 21 supplied by Sick. Tests with high temperature measuring devices not requiring sampling gas drying are underway.

  14. LHC Beam Instrumentation: Beam Profile Measurements (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a full suite of sophisticated beam instrumentation which has been essential for rapid commissioning, the safe increase in total stored beam power and the understanding of machine optics and accelerator physics phenomena. These lectures will introduce these systems and comment on their contributions to the various stages of beam operation. They will include details on: the beam position system and its use for real-time global orbit feedback; the beam loss system and its role in machine protection; total and bunch by bunch intensity measurements; tune measurement and feedback; diagnostics for transverse beam size measurements, abort gap monitoring and longitudinal density measurements. Issues and problems encountered along the way will also be discussed together with the prospect for future upgrades.

  15. A measurement model of multiple intelligence profiles of management graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Heamalatha; Awang, Siti Rahmah

    2017-05-01

    In this study, developing a fit measurement model and identifying the best fitting items to represent Howard Gardner's nine intelligences namely, musical intelligence, bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence are the main interest in order to enhance the opportunities of the management graduates for employability. In order to develop a fit measurement model, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied. A psychometric test which is the Ability Test in Employment (ATIEm) was used as the instrument to measure the existence of nine types of intelligence of 137 University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) management graduates for job placement purposes. The initial measurement model contains nine unobserved variables and each unobserved variable is measured by ten observed variables. Finally, the modified measurement model deemed to improve the Normed chi-square (NC) = 1.331; Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.940 and Root Mean Square of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.049 was developed. The findings showed that the UTeM management graduates possessed all nine intelligences either high or low. Musical intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence contributed highest loadings on certain items. However, most of the intelligences such as bodily kinaesthetic intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence possessed by UTeM management graduates are just at the borderline.

  16. An unattended device for high-voltage sampling and passive measurement of thoron decay products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierl, Stefanie; Meisenberg, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.meisenberg@helmholtz-muenchen.de; Wielunski, Marek; Tschiersch, Jochen [Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Haninger, Thomas [Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Auswertungsstelle für Strahlendosimeter, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 München (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    An integrating measurement device for the concentration of airborne thoron decay products was designed and calibrated. It is suitable for unattended use over up to several months also in inhabited dwellings. The device consists of a hemispheric capacitor with a wire mesh as the outer electrode on ground potential and the sampling substrates as the inner electrode on +7.0 kV. Negatively charged and neutral thoron decay products are accelerated to and deposited on the sampling substrates. As sampling substrates, CR39 solid-state nuclear track detectors are used in order to record the alpha decay of the sampled decay products. Nuclide discrimination is achieved by covering the detectors with aluminum foil of different thickness, which are penetrated only by alpha particles with sufficient energy. Devices of this type were calibrated against working level monitors in a thoron experimental house. The sensitivity was measured as 9.2 tracks per Bq/m{sup 3} × d of thoron decay products. The devices were used over 8 weeks in several houses built of earthen material in southern Germany, where equilibrium equivalent concentrations of 1.4–9.9 Bq/m{sup 3} of thoron decay products were measured.

  17. An Exploratory Study to Measure Excessive Involvement in Multitasking Interaction with Smart Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubo; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick

    2016-06-01

    This study developed a scale measuring excessive involvement in multitasking interaction with smart devices. An online questionnaire was designed and surveyed in a sample of 380 respondents. The sample was split into two groups for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively. A four-factor structure was identified with an acceptable goodness of fit. The first two factors, "Obsession and neglect" and "Problematic control," described the obsessive feelings, neglect behaviors, and behavior control problems accompanied by excessive multitasking interaction with smart devices. The latter two factors, "Multitasking preference" and "Polychronic orientation," referred to multitaskers' preference of engaging in multiple media use or interaction tasks rather than a single task from the time orientation perspective. The four-factor structure indicates that excessive involvement in multitasking interaction with smart devices shares some similarities with other behavioral addiction types, but demonstrates uniqueness compared with excessive engagement in single media use.

  18. Repeatability and interdevice reliability of two portable color selection devices in matching and measuring tooth color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagouvardos, Panagiotis E; Fougia, Aggeliki G; Diamantopoulou, Sofia A; Polyzois, Gregory L

    2009-01-01

    There is a need to know how shade selection devices perform in matching and measuring tooth color, since these functions are usually evaluated independently and may present significant discrepancies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 2 devices which offer both functions to test the null hypothesis that they present no differences in their repeatability and interdevice reliability relating to the 2 functions. Thirty-one extracted anterior human teeth were measured twice, with each of the devices (ShadeEye NCC and VITA EasyShade), by one investigator experienced and calibrated with both devices. L*a*b* values and shade matches to VITA Classical and Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide systems were determined for all teeth. Paired t tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to statistically analyze the data (alpha=.05). The results showed that L*a*b* values with VITA EasyShade were significantly higher than those with ShadeEye NCC (PL*a*b* parameters, while interdevice matching reliability ranged from 0.189 to 0.430, with no significant differences between shade systems (P>.05). All tooth color parameters were higher with the VITA EasyShade device. Measuring repeatability of the VITA EasyShade was higher than the ShadeEye NCC only for the L* parameter. Matching repeatability of the ShadeEye NCC was higher than the VITA EasyShade for the VITA Classical system. Interdevice measuring reliabilities were not different for the color parameters, but matching reliability of the VITA Classical system was higher than that of the Vitapan 3D-Master.

  19. High frequency BJT: modeling, and parameter extraction from simple measurements on encapsulated devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalkar, S.; Chandra, A. Sharat

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops measurement procedures for extracting the critical structural parameters of an encapsulated high frequency bipolar transistor from simple measurements. Encapsulated devices can be readily handled and included in a test set up, and the present work obviates the need to fabricate and measure separate simpler test structures for parameter extraction. The parameters extracted are: emitter stripe width and area, epitaxial collector doping, resistivity and width, emitter and collector junction depths, peak base doping, impurity gradient of the emitter junction, oxide thickness and fixed charge, and package parasitic capacitances. The material parameters and the readily observable planar dimensions such as emitter stripe length and metal pad areas are used as input parameters in the extraction procedure. The work re-inforces recent insights into the nature of current flow across the epitaxial collector width of a real device at the onset of base widening effects, as the terminal collector-base voltage is varied.

  20. Development of a wearable plantar force measurement device for gait analysis in remote conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Rawnak; Wijesundara, Suharshani; McMillan, Lachlan; Scott, David; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Ebeling, Peter R; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-07-01

    The pressure field that exists between the foot and the supporting surface is identified as the foot plantar pressure. The information obtained from foot plantar pressure measurements has useful applications that include diagnosis of gait disturbances, optimization of footwear design, sport biomechanics and prevention of injury. Using wearable technology to measure foot plantar pressure continuously allows the collection of comprehensive real-life data sets while interfering minimally with the subject's daily activities. This paper presents the design of a wearable device to measure foot plantar pressure. Mechanical and electrical design considerations as well as data analysis are discussed. A pilot study involving 20 physically fit volunteers (15 males and 5 females, ageing from 20 - 45) performing a variety of physical activities (such as standing, walking, jumping and climbing up and down stairs) illustrate the potential of the device in terms of its wearability, and suitability for unobtrusive long-term monitoring.

  1. Device for measuring the exposure time in dental X-ray - Cronox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Claudio J.M.; Santos, Luiz A.P. dos, E-mail: cjmm@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE) developed a test device for monitoring the X-ray beam in dental equipment to its application in quality control programs. This device, called Odontologic Dosimetric Card (CDO of Cartao Dosimetrico Odontologico in Portuguese) uses thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for the measurement of some parameters of the X-ray beam as the entrance surface dose, the peak tension and half value layer (HVL). Radiographic films record the size of the radiation field. However, the TLD does not allow the assessment of exposure time, a parameter that complements the requirements of the Diretrizes de Protecao Radiologica em Radiodiagnostico Medico e Odontologico of Department of Health in Brazil for such equipment. Thus was developed a system based on sensitivity to ionizing radiation of phototransistors for measurement of exposure time when a patient is put in a clinical dental radiography. The system, called CRONOX was sized to be inserted within the CDO. The results showed that the measuring error had developed for less than 3% when compared to reference values obtained with the Tektronix digital oscilloscope, TDS2022 model. The readings obtained with the CRONOX were also compared with the nominal values selected in the X-ray equipment and with the values measured with the instrument of trade PTW Diavolt Universal. The results showed that the measuring device developed showed a maximum deviation of 5.92% on the nominal value selected, while for the instrument of PTW was 17.86%. (author)

  2. Office blood pressure measurements with oscillometric devices in adolescents: a comparison with home blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Gaziano, Thomas A; Nascente, Flávia Miquetichuc; Carneiro, Carolina de Souza; Morais, Polyana; Roriz, Vanessa; Mendonça, Karla Lorena; Póvoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Kunz Sebba; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Paulo César Veiga

    2017-10-01

    Compare multiple in office BP measurements in adolescents using an oscillometric device with out-of-office blood pressure measurements (home blood pressure monitoring - HBPM). Office measurements were performed with validated semi-automatic devices twice (3 minutes interval) in two different moments (1 week apart), with a total of four readings. These BP readings were named R1, R2, R3 and R4 (following the sequence they were performed), FDM (mean of two readings on first day) and SDM (mean of two readings on second day) and SRM (R2-R4 means). The HBPM protocol included two day-time and two evening-time measurements over 6 days. A total of 1024 students between 12 and 17 years were included (mean age 14.68 years; 52.4% females). The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of R2, SDM and SRM were similar to HBPM values. Regarding diastolic blood pressure (DBP) HBPM value was different than R4. High SBP and DBP correlation coefficients with HBPM values were found for R2, SDM and SRM values. The second office BP measurement performed with an oscilometric device in adolescents was comparable to HBPM values, suggesting that two office readings might be suitable to rule out hypertension in this age group.

  3. Light-induced magnetoresistance in solution-processed planar hybrid devices measured under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreetama Banerjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report light-induced negative organic magnetoresistance (OMAR measured in ambient atmosphere in solution-processed 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynylpentacene (TIPS-pentacene planar hybrid devices with two different device architectures. Hybrid electronic devices with trench-isolated electrodes (HED-TIE having a channel length of ca. 100 nm fabricated in this work and, for comparison, commercially available pre-structured organic field-effect transistor (OFET substrates with a channel length of 20 µm were used. The magnitude of the photocurrent as well as the magnetoresistance was found to be higher for the HED-TIE devices because of the much smaller channel length of these devices compared to the OFETs. We attribute the observed light-induced negative magnetoresistance in TIPS-pentacene to the presence of electron–hole pairs under illumination as the magnetoresistive effect scales with the photocurrent. The magnetoresistance effect was found to diminish over time under ambient conditions compared to a freshly prepared sample. We propose that the much faster degradation of the magnetoresistance effect as compared to the photocurrent was due to the incorporation of water molecules in the TIPS-pentacene film.

  4. Developing a peak performance profile measurement for sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to construct a measuring instrument to assess sportspersons' psychological strengths and weaknesses. With this in mind, various developmental procedures were applied in the construction and development of an instrument over a period of more than seven years. The research was ...

  5. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  6. Analysis of liquid medication dose errors made by patients and caregivers using alternative measuring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Gyeong Suk; Lee, Yu Jeung

    2012-01-01

    Patients use several types of devices to measure liquid medication. Using a criterion ranging from a 10% to 40% variation from a target 5 mL for a teaspoon dose, previous studies have found that a considerable proportion of patients or caregivers make errors when dosing liquid medication with measuring devices. To determine the rate and magnitude of liquid medication dose errors that occur with patient/caregiver use of various measuring devices in a community pharmacy. Liquid medication measurements by patients or caregivers were observed in a convenience sample of community pharmacy patrons in Korea during a 2-week period in March 2011. Participants included all patients or caregivers (N = 300) who came to the pharmacy to buy over-the-counter liquid medication or to have a liquid medication prescription filled during the study period. The participants were instructed by an investigator who was also a pharmacist to select their preferred measuring devices from 6 alternatives (etched-calibration dosing cup, printed-calibration dosing cup, dosing spoon, syringe, dispensing bottle, or spoon with a bottle adapter) and measure a 5 mL dose of Coben (chlorpheniramine maleate/phenylephrine HCl, Daewoo Pharm. Co., Ltd) syrup using the device of their choice. The investigator used an ISOLAB graduated cylinder (Germany, blue grad, 10 mL) to measure the amount of syrup dispensed by the study participants. Participant characteristics were recorded including gender, age, education level, and relationship to the person for whom the medication was intended. Of the 300 participants, 257 (85.7%) were female; 286 (95.3%) had at least a high school education; and 282 (94.0%) were caregivers (parent or grandparent) for the patient. The mean (SD) measured dose was 4.949 (0.378) mL for the 300 participants. In analysis of variance of the 6 measuring devices, the greatest difference from the 5 mL target was a mean 5.552 mL for 17 subjects who used the regular (etched) dosing cup and 4

  7. Refractive-index profile measurement of highly multimode planar waveguides by guided-beam tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ctyroký, J; Janta, J; Schröfel, J

    1982-11-01

    A novel method of measuring the refractive-index profile of deep multimode planar waveguides is described. Unlike in mode spectroscopy, several modes are excited simultaneously by a prism coupler. Superposition of the modes forms a guided beam that refracts continuously inside the graded-index waveguide and reflects periodically from the waveguide surface. Measurement of the periodicity as a function of the excitation angle enables one to calculate the refractive-index profile of the waveguide.

  8. Development, validation and application of a device to measure e-cigarette users’ puffing topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anthony; Slayford, Sandra; Vas, Carl; Gee, Jodie; Costigan, Sandra; Prasad, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly rising popularity and substantial evolution of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the past 5–6 years, how these devices are used by vapers and consumers’ exposure to aerosol emissions need to be understood. We used puffing topography to measure directly product use. We adapted a cigarette puffing topography device for use with e-cigarettes. We performed validation using air and e-cigarette aerosol under multiple regimes. Consumer puffing topography was measured for 60 vapers provided with rechargeable “cig-a-like” or larger button-activated e-cigarettes, to use ad-libitum in two sessions. Under all regimes, air puff volumes were within 1 mL of the target and aerosol volumes within 5 mL for all device types, serving to validate the device. Vapers’ mean puff durations (2.0 s and 2.2 s) were similar with both types of e-cigarette, but mean puff volumes (52.2 mL and 83.0 mL) and mean inter-puff intervals (23.2 s and 29.3 s) differed significantly. The differing data show that product characteristics influence puffing topography and, therefore, the results obtained from a given e-cigarette might not read across to other products. Understanding the factors that affect puffing topography will be important for standardising testing protocols for e-cigarette emissions. PMID:27721496

  9. An easy way to measure accurately the direct magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of thin film devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullain, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.poullain@ensicaen.fr; More-Chevalier, Joris; Cibert, Christophe; Bouregba, Rachid

    2017-01-15

    Tb{sub x}Dy{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}/Pt/Pb(Zr{sub x}, Ti{sub 1−x})O{sub 3} thin films were grown on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by multi-target sputtering. The magnetoelectric voltage coefficient α{sup Η}{sub ΜΕ} was determined at room temperature using a lock-in amplifier. By adding, in series in the circuit, a capacitor of the same value as that of the device under test, we were able to demonstrate that the magnetoelectric device behaves as a voltage source. Furthermore, a simple way to subtract the stray voltage arising from the flow of eddy currents in the measurement set-up, is proposed. This allows the easy and accurate determination of the true magnetoelectric voltage coefficient. A large α{sup Η}{sub ΜΕ} of 8.3 V/cm. Oe was thus obtained for a Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT thin film device, without DC magnetic field nor mechanical resonance. - Highlights: • Magnetoelectric device behaves as a voltage source. • A simple way to subtract eddy currents during the measurement, is proposed.

  10. Measurement of treatment compliance using a medical device for glaucoma patients associated with intraocular pressure control: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Jean-Philippe; Baudouin, Christophe; Renard, Jean-Paul; Denis, Philippe; Lafuma, Antoine; Laurendeau, Caroline; Jeanbat, Viviane; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2010-07-30

    To identify and characterize treatment compliance profiles of glaucoma patients and evaluate the association with intraocular pressure (IOP). A computerized device (Travalert((R))) that recorded daily instillation times and eye-drop counts was given for 3 months. Patients were declared compliant when at least 2 drops were instilled per day. Compliance rates were calculated for weekdays and weekends, separately, over 8 consecutive weeks. A principal components analysis (PCA) was followed by an ascendant hierarchical classification (AHC) to identify compliance groups. 140 patients were recruited (mean age 65.5 years; 51.8% female) of whom 83.6% had primary open-angle glaucoma with mean IOP 23.9 mmHg before Travalert((R)) use. 60.7% were treated with DuoTrav((R)) (travoprost timolol fixed combination) and 39.3% with travoprost. The PCA identified two axes (compliance and treatment weeks). The AHC identified 3 compliance groups: 'high' (56.6%, approx. 80% compliance), 'medium' (21.2%, approx. 50% compliance), and 'low' (22.1%, approx. 20% compliance). Demographics and glaucoma parameters did not predict low compliance. Final mean IOP was 16.1 mmHg, but higher in the low compliance group (17.7 mmHg, P = 0.02). Compliance measurement by a medical device showed compliance rates IOP control. No demographic or glaucoma variable was associated with low compliance.

  11. Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of the Device To Detect and Measure Non-Microbial Analyte(s) in Human Clinical Specimens To Aid in Assessment of Patients With Suspected Sepsis. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the device to detect and measure non-microbial analyte(s) in human clinical specimens to aid in assessment of patients with suspected sepsis into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the device to detect and measure non-microbial analyte(s) in human clinical specimens to aid in assessment of patients with suspected sepsis's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  12. Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

  13. Validity and Reliability of the Achillometer(®): An Ankle Dorsiflexion Measurement Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeblad, Laura J; van Bemmel, Annelies F; Sierevelt, Inger N; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A; Vergroesen, Diederik A

    2016-01-01

    Limited ankle dorsiflexion is closely related to important foot and ankle pathologies. Various measurement devices and methods have been examined, but these have demonstrated limited validity and reliability. The purpose of the present study was to assess the validity and intra- and interobserver reliability of the Achillometer(®). A total of 22 consecutive subjects with ankle or foot pathologies and 39 healthy participants were included. All participants were measured using the goniometer and the Achillometer(®), a portable device used to assess ankle dorsiflexion in the weightbearing position with knee in extension. The intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of the mean, and minimal detectable change were determined. The goniometer and Achillometer(®) revealed high intraobserver reliability coefficients with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.88 (standard error of the mean 1.49, minimal detectable change 4.12) and 0.85 (standard error of the mean 1.57, minimal detectable change 4.34), respectively. The interobserver reliability of both measurement techniques ranged from 0.63 to 0.67. The Achillometer(®) showed a strong correlation with the goniometer for both observers. In conclusion, the Achillometer(®) is a valid measurement device to assess ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in the weightbearing position with an extended knee in a heterogeneous population. The device has good intraobserver and moderate interobserver reliability and measurement properties comparable to those of the goniometer. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Corneal biomechanical data and biometric parameters measured with Scheimpflug-based devices on normal corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Gabor; Szalai, Eszter; Hassan, Ziad; Lipecz, Agnes; Flasko, Zsuzsa; Modis, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the correlations between ocular biomechanical and biometric data of the eye, measured by Scheimpflug-based devices on healthy subjects. Three consecutive measurements were carried out using the corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST) device on healthy eyes and the 10 device-specific parameters were recorded. Pentacam HR-derived parameters (corneal curvature radii on the anterior and posterior surfaces; apical pachymetry; corneal volume; corneal aberration data; depth, volume and angle of the anterior chamber) and axial length (AL) from IOLMaster were correlated with the 10 specific CorVis ST parameters. Measurements were conducted in 43 eyes of 43 volunteers (age 61.24±15.72y). The 10 specific CorVis ST data showed significant relationships with corneal curvature radii both on the anterior and posterior surface, pachymetric data, root mean square (RMS) data of lower-order aberrations, and posterior RMS of higher-order aberrations and spherical aberration of the posterior cornea. Anterior chamber depth showed a significant relationship, but there were no significant correlations between corneal volume, anterior chamber volume, mean chamber angle or AL and the 10 specific CorVis ST parameters. CorVis ST-generated parameters are influenced by corneal curvature radii, some corneal RMS data, but corneal volume, anterior chamber volume, chamber angle and AL have no correlation with the biomechanical parameters. The parameters measured by CorVis ST seem to refer mostly to corneal properties of the eye.

  15. Measurements of knee rotation-reliability of an external device in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almquist Per O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee rotation plays an important part in knee kinematics during weight-bearing activities. An external device for measuring knee rotation (the Rottometer has previously been evaluated for validity by simultaneous measurements of skeletal movements with Roentgen Stereometric Analysis (RSA. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of the device. Method The within-day and test-retest reliability as well as intertester reliability of the device in vivo was calculated. Torques of 3, 6 and 9 Nm and the examiner's apprehension of end-feel were used at 90°, 60° and 30° of knee flexion. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient 2,1 (ICC 2,1, 95% confidence interval (CI of ICC and 95% CI between test trials and examiners were used as statistical tests. Result ICC2,1 ranged from 0.50 to 0.94 at all three flexion angles at 6 and 9 Nm as well as end-feel, and from 0.22 to 0.75 at 3 Nm applied torque. Conclusion The Rottometer was a reliable measurement instrument concerning knee rotation at the three different flexion angles (90°, 60° and 30° with 6 and 9 Nm applied torques as well as the examiner's apprehension of end-feel. Three Nm was not a reliable torque. The most reliable measurements were made at 9 Nm applied torque.

  16. Reliability of two color selection devices in matching and measuring tooth color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llena, Carmen; Lozano, Esther; Amengual, Jose; Forner, Leopoldo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the intra and interdevice reliability of two tooth color measurement devices: EasyShade (ES) and SpectroShade Micro (SSM). Tooth color was measured in six maxillary and mandibular. L*, a* and b* values and shade matches to VITA Classical and Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide systems were determined for all teeth. ΔE was assessed. Paired t-test and correlation coefficient (ICC) were used. Intradevices no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between L*, a*, b*. Interdevice L* and b* were significantly higher for ES (p 0.05). Intradevices ICC values were higher for ES but not significant (p > 0.05). The null hypotheses that they present no differences in their color measuring within devices or shade systems is accepted, but the results allow to reject the null hypotheses that they present no differences in their color measuring or shade systems between devices. Both EasyShade (ES) and SpectroShade Micro (SSM) show excellent repeatability and so they can be used in office to evaluate tooth color or to assess color changes after treatment. Dental color can be diagnosed using dental spectrophotometers, allowing to detect in an objective way therapeutic dental color changes.

  17. Corneal biomechanical data and biometric parameters measured with Scheimpflug-based devices on normal corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Gabor; Szalai, Eszter; Hassan, Ziad; Lipecz, Agnes; Flasko, Zsuzsa; Modis, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze the correlations between ocular biomechanical and biometric data of the eye, measured by Scheimpflug-based devices on healthy subjects. METHODS Three consecutive measurements were carried out using the corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST) device on healthy eyes and the 10 device-specific parameters were recorded. Pentacam HR-derived parameters (corneal curvature radii on the anterior and posterior surfaces; apical pachymetry; corneal volume; corneal aberration data; depth, volume and angle of the anterior chamber) and axial length (AL) from IOLMaster were correlated with the 10 specific CorVis ST parameters. RESULTS Measurements were conducted in 43 eyes of 43 volunteers (age 61.24±15.72y). The 10 specific CorVis ST data showed significant relationships with corneal curvature radii both on the anterior and posterior surface, pachymetric data, root mean square (RMS) data of lower-order aberrations, and posterior RMS of higher-order aberrations and spherical aberration of the posterior cornea. Anterior chamber depth showed a significant relationship, but there were no significant correlations between corneal volume, anterior chamber volume, mean chamber angle or AL and the 10 specific CorVis ST parameters. CONCLUSIONS CorVis ST-generated parameters are influenced by corneal curvature radii, some corneal RMS data, but corneal volume, anterior chamber volume, chamber angle and AL have no correlation with the biomechanical parameters. The parameters measured by CorVis ST seem to refer mostly to corneal properties of the eye. PMID:28251079

  18. DEVICE FOR MEASURING OF THERMAL LENS PARAMETERS IN LASER ACTIVE ELEMENTS WITH A PROBE BEAM METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zakharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a device for measuring of parameters of thermal lens (TL in laser active elements under longitudinal diode pumping. The measurements are based on the probe beam method. This device allows one to determine sign and optical power of the lens in the principal meridional planes, its sensitivity factor with respect to the absorbed pump power and astigmatism degree, fractional heat loading which make it possible to estimate integral impact of the photoelastic effect to the formation of TL in the laser element. The measurements are performed in a linearly polarized light at the wavelength of 532 nm. Pumping of the laser element is performed at 960 nm that makes it possible to study laser materials doped with Yb3+ and (Er3+, Yb3+ ions. The precision of measurements: for sensitivity factor of TL – 0,1 m-1/W, for astigmatism degree – 0,2 m-1/W, for fractional heat loading – 5 %, for the impact of the photoelastic effect – 0,5 × 10-6 K-1. This device is used for characterization of thermal lens in the laser active element from an yttrium vanadate crystal, Er3+,Yb3+:YVO .

  19. Comparison of neutral density profiles measured using Dα and C5+ in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Scotti, F.; Diallo, A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Edge neutral density profiles determined from two different measurements are compared on NSTX-U plasmas. Neutral density measurements were not typical on NSTX plasmas. An array of fibers dedicated to the measurement of passive emission of C5+, used to subtract background emission for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS), can be used to infer deuterium neutral density near the plasma edge. The line emission from C5+ is dominated by charge exchange with neutral deuterium near the plasma edge. An edge neutral density diagnostic consisting of a camera with a Dα filter was installed on NSTX-U. The line-integrated measurements from both diagnostics are inverted to obtain local emissivity profiles. Neutral density is then inferred using atomics rates from ADAS and profile measurements from Thomson scattering and CHERS. Comparing neutral density profiles from the two diagnostic measurements helps determine the utility of using the more routinely available C5+ measurements for neutral density profiles. Initial comparisons show good agreement between the two measurements inside the separatrix. Supported by US DoE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Errors in GNSS radio occultation data: relevance of the measurement geometry and obliquity of profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Foelsche

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric profiles retrieved from GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System radio occultation (RO measurements are increasingly used to validate other measurement data. For this purpose it is important to be aware of the characteristics of RO measurements. RO data are frequently compared with vertical reference profiles, but the RO method does not provide vertical scans through the atmosphere. The average elevation angle of the tangent point trajectory (which would be 90° for a vertical scan is about 40° at altitudes above 70 km, decreasing to about 25° at 20 km and to less than 5° below 3 km. In an atmosphere with high horizontal variability we can thus expect noticeable representativeness errors if the retrieved profiles are compared with vertical reference profiles. We have performed an end-to-end simulation study using high-resolution analysis fields (T799L91 from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF to simulate a representative ensemble of RO profiles via high-precision 3-D ray tracing. Thereby we focused on the dependence of systematic and random errors on the measurement geometry, specifically on the incidence angle of the RO measurement rays with respect to the orbit plane of the receiving satellite, also termed azimuth angle, which determines the obliquity of RO profiles. We analyzed by how much errors are reduced if the reference profile is not taken vertical at the mean tangent point but along the retrieved tangent point trajectory (TPT of the RO profile. The exact TPT can only be determined by performing ray tracing, but our results confirm that the retrieved TPT – calculated from observed impact parameters – is a very good approximation to the "true" one. Systematic and random errors in RO data increase with increasing azimuth angle, less if the TPT is properly taken in to account, since the increasing obliquity of the RO profiles leads to an increasing sensitivity to departures from horizontal

  1. A novel wearable device for continuous, non-invasion blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qin; Wu, Jianping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we have developed a wearable cuffless device for daily blood pressure (BP) measurement. We incorporated the light based sensor and other hard wares in a small volume for BP detection. With optimized algorithm, the real-time BP reading could be achieved, the data could be presented in the screen and be transmitted by internet of things (IoT) for history data comparison and multi-terminal viewing. Thus, further analysis provides the probability for diet or sports suggestion and alarm. We have measured BP from more than 60 subjects, compare to traditional mercury blood pressure meter, no obvious error in both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are detected. Such device can be used for continues non-invasion BP detection, and further data docking and health analysis could be achieved. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum digital signatures over a metropolitan network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Wang, Wei-Long; Tang, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Hui; Sun, Xiang-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Li, Hao; Puthoor, Ittoop Vergheese; You, Li-Xing; Andersson, Erika; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Curty, Marcos; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Quantum digital signatures (QDSs) provide a means for signing electronic communications with information-theoretic security. However, all previous demonstrations of quantum digital signatures assume trusted measurement devices. This renders them vulnerable against detector side-channel attacks, just like quantum key distribution. Here we exploit a measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum network, over a metropolitan area, to perform a field test of a three-party MDI QDS scheme that is secure against any detector side-channel attack. In so doing, we are able to successfully sign a binary message with a security level of about 10-7. Remarkably, our work demonstrates the feasibility of MDI QDSs for practical applications.

  3. Multi-party Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Based on Cluster States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanqi; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Shuquan; Pei, Changxing

    2017-12-01

    We propose a novel multi-party measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol based on cluster states. A four-photon analyzer which can distinguish all the 16 cluster states serves as the measurement device for four-party MDI-QKD. Any two out of four participants can build secure keys after the analyzers obtains successful outputs and the two participants perform post-processing. We derive a security analysis for the protocol, and analyze the key rates under different values of polarization misalignment. The results show that four-party MDI-QKD is feasible over 280 km in the optical fiber channel when the key rate is about 10- 6 with the polarization misalignment parameter 0.015. Moreover, our work takes an important step toward a quantum communication network.

  4. W-state Analyzer and Multi-party Measurement-device-independent Quantum Key Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changhua; Xu, Feihu; Pei, Changxing

    2015-12-08

    W-state is an important resource for many quantum information processing tasks. In this paper, we for the first time propose a multi-party measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol based on W-state. With linear optics, we design a W-state analyzer in order to distinguish the four-qubit W-state. This analyzer constructs the measurement device for four-party MDI-QKD. Moreover, we derived a complete security proof of the four-party MDI-QKD, and performed a numerical simulation to study its performance. The results show that four-party MDI-QKD is feasible over 150 km standard telecom fiber with off-the-shelf single photon detectors. This work takes an important step towards multi-party quantum communication and a quantum network.

  5. A comparison between Warner-Bratzler shear force measurement and texture profile analysis of meat and meat products: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, S.; Tomašević, I.

    2017-09-01

    Texture is one of the most important characteristics of meat and we can explain it as the human physiological-psychological awareness of a number of rheological and other properties of foods and their relations. In this paper, we discuss instrumental measurement of texture by Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and texture profile analysis (TPA). The conditions for using the device are detailed in WBSF measurements, and the influence of different parameters on the execution of the method and final results are shown. After that, the main disadvantages are reflected in the non-standardized method. Also, we introduce basic texture parameters which connect and separate TPA and WBSF methods and mention contemporary methods with their main advantage.

  6. The Device for Communication in the Tool for Measurement in Boreholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Slankamenac

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an implementation and test of the device for communication between Telemetry system and Surface unit with the tool for measurement of pipe diameter, fluid velocity and direction of flow in the borehole (Calliper-Fullbore Flowmeter - CFF are presented. This communication is done according to SIPLOS (Simultaneous Production Logging String protocol and it is used by Hotwell company [1] as a part of a larger system for borehole investigations.

  7. Optimization of Measurement Device Independent Scarani-Ac\\`{i}n-Ribordy-Gisin protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tannous, C.; Langlois, J.

    2017-01-01

    The measurement device independent (MDI) Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a practically implementable method for transmitting secret keys between respective partners performing quantum communication. SARG04 (Scarani-Ac\\`{i}n-Ribordy-Gisin 2004) is a protocol tailored to struggle against photon number splitting (PNS) attacks by eavesdroppers and its MDI-QKD version is reviewed and optimized from secret key bitrate versus communication distance point of view. We consider the effect of several ...

  8. Adaptation profiles comprising objective and subjective measures in fibromyalgia: the al-Ándalus project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-López, Fernando; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Geenen, Rinie; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups in terms of adaptation to FM and to test differences in FM severity between these subgroups. The al-Ándalus project made it possible to perform a comprehensive population-based cross-sectional study in 486 FM patients including multiple assessments of modifiable (could be targeted in therapy) resilience and vulnerability factors, measured by objective and subjective assessments, related to psychological and physical function. FM severity was assessed by means of FM impact (total score of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire) and distress (Polysymptomatic Distress Scale of the modified 2011 preliminary criteria for FM). Exploratory factor analysis, cluster analysis and analysis of variance were conducted. Factor analysis yielded eight factors: three included objective measures (declarative memory, active lifestyle and objective physical fitness) and five included subjective measures (fatigue, psychological distress, catastrophizing, resilience and subjective physical fitness). Cluster analysis based on these eight factors identified five profiles: Adapted (16%), Fit (18%), Poor performer (20%), Positive (20%) and Maladapted (26%). Most profile comparisons revealed different levels of FM severity varying from Adapted (the most favourable profile) to Maladapted (the most unfavourable profile) with Fit, Poor performer and Positive obtaining intermediate positions. Heterogeneity of FM was shown by five clinically meaningful profiles of modifiable factors that were associated with FM severity. It is of clinical interest to examine whether these profiles are associated with FM prognosis and the effectiveness of interventions, which would enhance the development of customized interventions based on adaptation profiles in FM.

  9. Comparison of high definition oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic devices for measuring blood pressure in anaesthetised cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petric, Aleksandra Domanjko; Petra, Zrimsek; Jerneja, Sredensek; Alenka, Seliskar

    2010-10-01

    Indirect blood pressure measurements using high definition oscillometric (HDO) and Doppler devices were compared in 50 anaesthetised client-owned cats presented for various surgical procedures. Sites of cuff placement for Doppler were identified as forelimb and hindlimb and for HDO as forelimb and tail. Oscillometric and Doppler readings were obtained in 90.05% and 100% of attempts, respectively. Both devices enabled precise measurement of systolic arterial pressure (SAP), although the Doppler device gave higher precision. In the low pressure group (SAP150 mmHg; n=62), 86.7% and 75.0% of discrepancy, respectively, were lower than 10 mmHg. Frequency of discrepancy at the range of 15 mmHg showed similar differences between pressure groups. There were significantly higher discrepancies when the cuff was positioned on the tail rather than on the leg. The SAP value obtained by HDO can be calculated from the Doppler measurement from SAP (HDO)=0.8515 × SAP (Doppler)+19.221 mmHg. Compared to Doppler, HDO overestimated low pressure and underestimated high pressure values. Copyright © 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental research in the use of electrets in measuring effluents from rocket exhaust and a review of standard air quality measuring devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, M.

    1976-01-01

    Seven standard types of measuring devices used to obtain the chemical composition of rocket exhaust effluents were discussed. The electrets, a new measuring device, are investigated and compared with established measuring techniques. The preliminary results obtained show that electrets have multipollutant measuring capabilities, simplicity of deployment, speed of assessment or analysis, and may be an important and valuable tool in measuring pollutants from space vehicle rocket exhaust.

  11. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Marcher

    1999-01-01

    in information processing at high data transfer rates. The technique is based on single pulse propagation through the device, with pulse duration tunable from 150fs to 11ps, and the characterization of the pulse at the output of the device by measuring the total pulse energy, the real time profile...

  12. Validity of a Wearable Accelerometer Device to Measure Average Acceleration Values During High-Speed Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeremy P; Hopkinson, Trent L; Wundersitz, Daniel W T; Serpell, Benjamin G; Mara, Jocelyn K; Ball, Nick B

    2016-11-01

    Alexander, JP, Hopkinson, TL, Wundersitz, DWT, Serpell, BG, Mara, JK, and Ball, NB. Validity of a wearable accelerometer device to measure average acceleration values during high-speed running. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3007-3013, 2016-The aim of this study was to determine the validity of an accelerometer to measure average acceleration values during high-speed running. Thirteen subjects performed three sprint efforts over a 40-m distance (n = 39). Acceleration was measured using a 100-Hz triaxial accelerometer integrated within a wearable tracking device (SPI-HPU; GPSports). To provide a concurrent measure of acceleration, timing gates were positioned at 10-m intervals (0-40 m). Accelerometer data collected during 0-10 m and 10-20 m provided a measure of average acceleration values. Accelerometer data was recorded as the raw output and filtered by applying a 3-point moving average and a 10-point moving average. The accelerometer could not measure average acceleration values during high-speed running. The accelerometer significantly overestimated average acceleration values during both 0-10 m and 10-20 m, regardless of the data filtering technique (p < 0.001). Body mass significantly affected all accelerometer variables (p < 0.10, partial η = 0.091-0.219). Body mass and the absence of a gravity compensation formula affect the accuracy and practicality of accelerometers. Until GPSports-integrated accelerometers incorporate a gravity compensation formula, the usefulness of any accelerometer-derived algorithms is questionable.

  13. Measuring device for purging water flow rate in control rod drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Hiroshi.

    1993-11-12

    The device of the present invention enables highly accurate measurement for an amount of purging water supplied to control rod drives of a BWR type reactor. That is, purging water is supplied from an inlet of a scram line of the control rod drives. A temperature measuring portion is disposed, for measuring temperature fluctuation of purging water, to a hydropressure control unit for providing pressure and flow rate of water required for supplying the purging water and scram operation. An instrumentation section is disposed for calculating the flow rate of purging water based on the measured data obtained in the section. An output device is disposed for outputting a flow rate value of the purging water based on the result of the calculation obtained therein. With such a constitution, flow rate of the purging water can be measured quantitatively at the hydropressure control unit. Accordingly, influences, such as fluctuation of reactor core temperature are reduced, and accuracy for the measurement of the purging water flow rate is improved. As a result, reactor safety and maintainability can be improved. (I.S.).

  14. Diagnostic Profiles of Patients Differentially Failing Executive Functioning Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Dustin; Ramirez, Gabriela; Persad, Carol; Heidebrink, Judith; Barbas, Nancy; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Limited research exists to explain differential executive functioning impairment in clinical populations, particularly between the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and the Trail Making Test (TMT). The distribution of clinical diagnoses was examined in patients failing none, one, or both tasks, and executive task performance was compared among dementia-related diagnoses. Two hundred and sixty-six participants received evaluations through an Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, which included executive tasks. Dementia-related diagnoses were established through consensus. Chi-square analyses indicated that TMT failure, with or without WCST failure, possessed higher associations with dementia diagnoses. Repeated measures analysis of variance similarly indicated that participants with dementia, especially mild and moderate severity, performed worse on TMT. Executive dysfunction was observed in dementia-related diagnoses, and TMT failure was implicated in dementia in higher proportions than WCST impairment. Trail Making Test appears more sensitive than WCST for assessing executive impairment across diagnoses, especially when time and resources are limited in screening and clinical settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Smoothness of ozone profiles: analysis of 11 years of ozone sonde measurements at Sodankylä

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the smoothness of vertical profiles of ozone concentrations. We describe the smoothness of ozone profiles via a characteristic scale of the profile fluctuations. The characteristic scale was computed for 11-years (1989-1999 ozone sonde data at Sodankylä. Mean values of the characteristic scale were determined. They are ~1km in the troposphere and ~1.4km in the lower stratosphere (up to 25km. Only slight seasonal variations of these parameters are observed. The information about smoothness of ozone profiles is needed both in the instrumental design for defining the vertical resolution requirements and in the development of inversion algorithms from remote sensing measurements, in order to obtain the best accuracy in retrieved ozone profiles and sufficient resolution.

  16. Smoothness of ozone profiles: analysis of 11 years of ozone sonde measurements at Sodankylä

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the smoothness of vertical profiles of ozone concentrations. We describe the smoothness of ozone profiles via a characteristic scale of the profile fluctuations. The characteristic scale was computed for 11-years (1989-1999 ozone sonde data at Sodankylä. Mean values of the characteristic scale were determined. They are ~1km in the troposphere and ~1.4km in the lower stratosphere (up to 25km. Only slight seasonal variations of these parameters are observed.

    The information about smoothness of ozone profiles is needed both in the instrumental design for defining the vertical resolution requirements and in the development of inversion algorithms from remote sensing measurements, in order to obtain the best accuracy in retrieved ozone profiles and sufficient resolution.

  17. A Systematic Review on Existing Measures for the Subjective Assessment of Rehabilitation and Assistive Robot Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Koumpouros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study is to identify and classify outcome measures currently used for the assessment of rehabilitation or assistive robot devices. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using PubMed, MEDLINE, CIRRIE, and Scopus databases for studies that assessed rehabilitation or assistive robot devices from 1980 through January 2016. In all, 31 articles met all inclusion criteria. Tailor-made questionnaires were the most commonly used tool at 66.7%, while the great majority (93.9% of the studies used nonvalidated instruments. The study reveals the absence of a standard scale which makes it difficult to compare the results from different researchers. There is a great need, therefore, for a valid and reliable instrument to be available for use by the intended end users for the subjective assessment of robot devices. The study concludes by identifying two scales that have been validated in general assistive technology devices and could support the scope of subjective assessment in rehabilitation or assistive robots (however, with limited coverage and a new one called PYTHEIA, recently published. The latter intends to close the gap and help researchers and developers to evaluate, assess, and produce products that satisfy the real needs of the end users.

  18. [Safety of high risk in vitro diagnostic medical devices : international and national measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbauer, J; Siekmeier, R; Funk, M

    2009-06-01

    The European Directive 98/79/EC for in vitro diagnostic medical devices (IVD) [1] regulates the marketing and post marketing surveillance of IVD in the European Union. In accordance with this regulation, those legally responsible for the IVD product have to report all incidents and corrective measures with IVD to the national competent authority. In Germany, these are the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) and for high risk products, as specified in Annex II of the Directive 98/79/EC, the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI). From 2002 to 2007, PEI registered 204 reports concerning incidents with and recalls of IVD medical devices. The majority of incident reports (84.4%) were sent by IVD manufacturers to the PEI. The reporting ratio of the IVD users amounted to 8.5%; in 12 cases (7.1%) PEI was informed via Vigilance Reports from other European competent authorities concerning incidents and recalls with IVD. The experience from 6 years' IVD surveillance showed that the German market surveillance system ensures a high level of safety concerning the in vitro diagnostic medical devices of Annex II list A and B of Directive 98/79/EC. However, the current system can be further optimized.

  19. Measurement and analysis of Vibrio fischeri cell-based microfluidic device for personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The cell-based microfluidic chip was designed and fabricated as a low-cost detector to continuously monitor toxicants in drinking water or human urine samples, which is expected to be an important component of a household health monitoring system in the future. The bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio Fischeri, was selected to validate the function of device. Water samples and Vibrio fischeri cells were mixed and encapsulated into droplets in air flow, which can guarantee sufficient oxygen supply for cells in droplets. Preliminary tests were performed using copper ion (Cu(2+)) as the model toxicant. The droplet system was measured and analyzed at various flow rates in different observation chambers. Both deionized water and human urine samples were tested in the cell-based device. Interestingly, a strong relation between the R.L.U. (Relative Luminescence Units) in the observation chamber and the minute concentration of toxicant (Cu(2+)) was found using deionized water as solvent, whereas the relation was insignificant using human urine as solvent. This study showed the Vibrio fischeri cell-based device might be reliably employed as an early-warning system for the safety of drinking water. However, Vibrio fischeri is not competent to detect dangerous materials in a complex biofluid. With the replacement of cell sensors, the microfluidic device might be functional to analyze urine samples in theory.

  20. A Systematic Review on Existing Measures for the Subjective Assessment of Rehabilitation and Assistive Robot Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumpouros, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to identify and classify outcome measures currently used for the assessment of rehabilitation or assistive robot devices. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using PubMed, MEDLINE, CIRRIE, and Scopus databases for studies that assessed rehabilitation or assistive robot devices from 1980 through January 2016. In all, 31 articles met all inclusion criteria. Tailor-made questionnaires were the most commonly used tool at 66.7%, while the great majority (93.9%) of the studies used nonvalidated instruments. The study reveals the absence of a standard scale which makes it difficult to compare the results from different researchers. There is a great need, therefore, for a valid and reliable instrument to be available for use by the intended end users for the subjective assessment of robot devices. The study concludes by identifying two scales that have been validated in general assistive technology devices and could support the scope of subjective assessment in rehabilitation or assistive robots (however, with limited coverage) and a new one called PYTHEIA, recently published. The latter intends to close the gap and help researchers and developers to evaluate, assess, and produce products that satisfy the real needs of the end users.

  1. Study on error analysis and accuracy improvement for aspheric profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huimin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fang, Fengzhou

    2017-06-01

    Aspheric surfaces are important to the optical systems and need high precision surface metrology. Stylus profilometry is currently the most common approach to measure axially symmetric elements. However, if the asphere has the rotational alignment errors, the wrong cresting point would be located deducing the significantly incorrect surface errors. This paper studied the simulated results of an asphere with rotational angles around X-axis and Y-axis, and the stylus tip shift in X, Y and Z direction. Experimental results show that the same absolute value of rotational errors around X-axis would cause the same profile errors and different value of rotational errors around Y-axis would cause profile errors with different title angle. Moreover, the greater the rotational errors, the bigger the peak-to-valley value of profile errors. To identify the rotational angles in X-axis and Y-axis, the algorithms are performed to analyze the X-axis and Y-axis rotational angles respectively. Then the actual profile errors with multiple profile measurement around X-axis are calculated according to the proposed analysis flow chart. The aim of the multiple measurements strategy is to achieve the zero position of X-axis rotational errors. Finally, experimental results prove the proposed algorithms achieve accurate profile errors for aspheric surfaces avoiding both X-axis and Y-axis rotational errors. Finally, a measurement strategy for aspheric surface is presented systematically.

  2. High resolution measurements and modeling of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements in the visible wavelength range at high spectral resolution (1.3 Å have been made at Longyearbyen, Svalbard (15.8 E,78.2 N during an interval of intense proton precipitation. The shape and Doppler shift of hydrogen Balmer beta line profiles have been compared with model line profiles, using as input ion energy spectra from almost coincident passes of the FAST and DMSP spacecraft. The comparison shows that the simulation contains the important physical processes that produce the profiles, and confirms that measured changes in the shape and peak wave-length of the hydrogen profiles are the result of changing energy input. This combination of high resolution measurements with modeling provides a method of estimating the incoming energy and changes in flux of precipitating protons over Svalbard, for given energy and pitch-angle distributions. Whereas for electron precipitation, information on the incident particles is derived from brightness and brightness ratios which require at least two spectral windows, for proton precipitation the Doppler profile of resulting hydrogen emission is directly related to the energy and energy flux of the incident energetic protons and can be used to gather information about the source region. As well as the expected Doppler shift to shorter wavelengths, the measured profiles have a significant red-shifted component, the result of upward flowing emitting hydrogen atoms.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  3. Statistical analysis of vehicle loads measured with three different vehicle weighing devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkhize, ZQP

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The Stress-In-Motion (SIM) or device is illustrated in Figure 1. It consists of 4 individual pads arranged in the test pit to accommodate each tyre of a vehicle moving over it. Meas- urements are done at slow creep speeds (6 km/h or less). The mass weight... of each tyre is measured through an array of multi-axial strain gauged sensors during the single pass of a tyre. The speed of each axle is individually measured and used in the calculation of the 433 tyre mass weights. A more detailed description...

  4. Feasibility and Validity of a Wearable GPS Device for Measuring Outings after Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Annie McCluskey; Louise Ada; Dean, Catherine M.; Janine Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Self-report diaries are a low-cost method of measuring community participation but may be inaccurate, while the “gold standard,” observation is time consuming and costly. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and validity of a global positioning system (GPS) for measuring outings after stroke. Design. Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods. Twenty ambulant people with stroke wore a GPS device and kept a diary for 7 days, and 18 were observed for half a day. We recorded recruitme...

  5. Evaluation of the Solar Water Disinfection Method Using an Ultraviolet Measurement Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H.

    2015-12-01

    Drinking water security is a growing problem for the population of planet Earth. According to WHO, more than 750 million people on our planet lack access to safe drinking water, resulting in approximately 502,000 diarrhoea deaths in 2012. In order to solve this problem, the Swiss water research institute, Eawag, has developed a method of solar water disinfection, called, "SODIS" The theory of SODIS is simple to understand: a clear plastic bottle filled with water is placed under full sunlight for at least 6 hours. The ultraviolet radiation kills the pathogens in the water, making the originally contaminated water safe for drinking. In order to improve this method, Helioz, an Austrian social enterprise, has created the WADI, a UV measurement device which determines when water is safe for drinking using the SODIS method. When using the WADI, the device should be placed under the sun and surrounded with bottles of water that need to be decontaminated. There is a UV sensor on the WADI, and since the bottles of water and the WADI will have equal exposure to sunlight, the WADI will be able to measure the impact of the sunlight on the contaminated water. This experiment tests the accuracy of the WADI device regarding the time interval needed for contaminated water to be disinfected. The experiment involves using the SODIS method to purify bottles of water contaminated with controlled samples of E. coli. Samples of the water are taken at different time intervals, and the E. coli levels are determined by growing the bacteria from the water samples on agar plates. Ultimately, this helps determine when the water is safe for drinking, and are compared against the WADI's measurements to test the reliability of the device.

  6. Relative vegetation profiles in a Neotropical forest: comparison of lidar instrumentation and field-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, F. B.; Palace, M. W.; Ducey, M.; Czarnecki, C.; Zanin Shimbo, J.; Mota e Silva, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are considered to be some of the most structurally complex forests in the world. Understanding vegetation height structure in these forests can aid in understanding the spatial temporal components of disturbance, from blowdowns to gap dynamics. Vegetation profiles can be used to better estimate carbon storage and flux across the landscape. Using light detection and ranging (lidar) data collected at La Selva, Costa Rica from four instruments (three airborne, one terrestrial) at four times since 2005, and field data collected in January 2012, we generated relative vegetation profiles for twenty plots in La Selva. Relative vegetation profiles were derived from lidar data by accounting for obscured plant material through a log transformation of the cumulative proportion of observations (percent canopy closure). Profiles were derived from field data using two different sets of allometric equations describing crown shape and tree height. We conducted a cluster analysis on similarity matrices developed in R (version 2.14.1) using three different metrics (sum of squares, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Kolmogorov-Smirnov D statistic) and identified general similarity between lidar profiles. Results were consistent across each of the three similarity metrics. Three distinct clusters were found, with profiles from three airborne lidar instruments, two profiles from a terrestrial lidar instrument, and profiles derived from field data forming the clusters. Our results indicate that although estimating lidar relative vegetation profiles from field data was not possible, terrestrial lidar relative vegetation profiles are generally similar to airborne relative vegetation profiles. Given the rapidity and repeatability of terrestrial lidar measurements, these results show promise for terrestrial lidar instruments to collect plot-specific data on forest structure and vertical distribution of plant material. Furthermore, identifying relationships between terrestrial and

  7. Heat Transmission Coefficient Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a Heat Loss Measuring Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Schiøtt Sørensen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Global energy efficiency can be obtained in two ordinary ways. One way is to improve the energy production and supply side, and the other way is, in general, to reduce the consumption of energy in society. This paper has focus on the latter and especially the consumption of energy for heating and cooling our houses. There is a huge energy-saving potential in this area for reducing both the global climate problems as well as economy challenges. Heating of buildings in Denmark accounts for approximately 40% of the entire national energy consumption. For this reason, a reduction of heat losses from building envelopes are of great importance in order to reach the Bologna CO2 emission reduction targets. Upgrading of the energy performance of buildings is a topic of huge global interest these years. Not only heating in the temperate and arctic regions are important, but also air conditioning and mechanical ventilation in the “warm countries” contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish the best basis for upgrading the energy performance, it is important to make measurements of the heat losses at different places on a building facade, in order to optimize the energy performance. This paper presents a method for measuring the heat loss by utilizing a U-value meter. The U-value meter measures the heat transfer in the unit W/Km2 and has been used in several projects to upgrade the energy performance in temperate regions. The U-value meter was also utilized in an EUDP (Energy Technological Development and Demonstration Program focusing on renovation of houses from the 1960s and 1970s.

  8. An evaluation method of the profile of plasma-induced defects based on capacitance-voltage measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yukimasa; Ono, Kouichi; Eriguchi, Koji

    2017-06-01

    Aggressive shrinkage and geometrical transition to three-dimensional structures in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) lead to potentially serious problems regarding plasma processing such as plasma-induced physical damage (PPD). For the precise control of material processing and future device designs, it is extremely important to clarify the depth and energy profiles of PPD. Conventional methods to estimate the PPD profile (e.g., wet etching) are time-consuming. In this study, we propose an advanced method using a simple capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement. The method first assumes the depth and energy profiles of defects in Si substrates, and then optimizes the C-V curves. We applied this methodology to evaluate the defect generation in (100), (111), and (110) Si substrates. No orientation dependence was found regarding the surface-oxide layers, whereas a large number of defects was assigned in the case of (110). The damaged layer thickness and areal density were estimated. This method provides the highly sensitive PPD prediction indispensable for designing future low-damage plasma processes.

  9. Rapid measurement of charged particle beam profiles using a current flux grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Samit; Chowdhury, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, UP (India)

    2015-02-15

    The principle and physics issues of charged particle beam diagnostics using a current flux grating are presented. Unidirectional array of conducting channels with interstitial insulating layers of spacing d is placed in the beam path to capture flux of charge and electronically reproduce an exact beam current profile with density variation. The role of secondary electrons due to the impinging particle beam (both electron and ion) on the probe is addressed and a correction factor is introduced. A 2-dimensional profile of the electron beam is obtained by rotating the probe about the beam axis. Finally, a comparison of measured beam profile with a Gaussian is presented.

  10. Iterative reconstruction of a refractive-index profile from x-ray or neutron reflectivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohage, Thorsten; Giewekemeyer, Klaus; Salditt, Tim

    2008-05-01

    Analysis of x-ray and neutron reflectivity is usually performed by modeling the density profile of the sample and performing a least square fit to the measured (phaseless) reflectivity data. Here we address the uniqueness of the reflectivity problem as well as its numerical reconstruction. In particular, we derive conditions for uniqueness, which are applicable in the kinematic limit (Born approximation), and for the most relevant case of box model profiles with Gaussian roughness. At the same time we present an iterative method to reconstruct the profile based on regularization methods. The method is successfully implemented and tested both on simulated and real experimental data.

  11. Repeatability and Agreement of Central Corneal Thickness and Keratometry Measurements between Four Different Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraly, Laszlo; Stange, Jana; Kunert, Kathleen S; Sel, Saadettin

    2017-01-01

    Background. To estimate repeatability and comparability of central corneal thickness (CCT) and keratometry measurements obtained by four different devices in healthy eyes. Methods. Fifty-five healthy eyes from 55 volunteers were enrolled in this study. CCT (IOLMaster 700, Pentacam HR, and Cirrus HD-OCT) and keratometry readings (IOLMaster 700, Pentacam HR, and iDesign) were measured. For statistical analysis, the corneal spherocylinder was converted into power vectors (J0, J45). Repeatability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement of measurements between the devices was evaluated by the Bland-Altman method. Results. The analysis of repeatability of CCT data of IOLMaster 700, Pentacam HR, and Cirrus HD-OCT showed high ICCs (range 0.995 to 0.999). The comparison of CCT measurements revealed statistically significant differences between Pentacam HR versus IOLMaster 700 (p < 0.0001) and Pentacam HR versus Cirrus HD-OCT (p < 0.0001), respectively. There was no difference in CCT measurements between IOLMaster 700 and Cirrus HD-OCT (p = 0.519). The repeatability of keratometry readings (J0 and J45) of IOLMaster 700, Pentacam HR, and iDesign was also high with ICCs ranging from 0.974 to 0.999. The Pentacam HR revealed significantly higher J0 in comparison to IOLMaster 700 (p = 0.009) and iDesign (p = 0.041); however, no significant difference was between IOLMaster 700 and iDesign (p = 0.426). Comparison of J45 showed no significant difference between IOLMaster 700, Pentacam HR, and iDesign. These results were in accordance with Bland-Altman plots. Conclusion. In clinical practice, the devices analyzed should not be used interchangeably due to low agreement regarding CCT as well as keratometry readings.

  12. The use of an electronic portal imaging device for exit dosimetry and quality control measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, M C; Williams, P C

    1995-02-01

    To determine ways in which electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) could be used to (a) measure exit doses for external beam radiotherapy and (b) perform quality control checks on linear accelerators. When imaging, our fluoroscopic EPID adjusts the gain, offset, and frame acquisition time of the charge coupled device (CCD) camera automatically, to allow for the range of photon transmissions through the patient, and to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio. However, our EPID can be programmed to act as an integrating dosemeter. EPID dosemeter measurements were made for 20 MV photons, for different field sizes and thicknesses of unit density phantom material placed at varying exit surface to detector distances. These were compared with simultaneous Silicon diode exit dose measurements. Our exit dosimetry technique was verified using an anthropomorphic type phantom, and some initial measurements have been made for patients treated with irregularly shaped 20 MV x-ray fields. In this dosimetry mode, our EPID was also used to measure certain quality control parameters, x-ray field flatness, and the verification of segmented intensity modulated field prescriptions. Configured for dosimetry, our EPID exhibited a highly linear response, capable of resolving individual monitor units. Exit doses could be measured to within about 3% of that measured using Silicon diodes. Field flatness was determined to within 1.5% of Farmer dosemeter measurements. Segmented intensity modulated fields can be easily verified. Our EPID has the versatility to assess a range of parameters pertinent to the delivery of high quality, high precision radiotherapy. When configured appropriately, it can measure exit doses in vivo, with reasonable accuracy, perform certain quick quality control checks, and analyze segmented intensity modulated treatment fields.

  13. Surface EMG and intra-socket force measurement to control a prosthetic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Joe; Patterson, Rita; Popa, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Surface electromyography (SEMG) has been shown to be a robust and reliable interaction method allowing for basic control of powered prosthetic devices. Research has shown a marked decrease in EMG-classification efficiency throughout activities of daily life due to socket shift and movement and fatigue as well as changes in degree of fit of the socket throughout the subject's lifetime. Users with the most severe levels of amputation require the most complex devices with the greatest number of degrees of freedom. Controlling complex dexterous devices with limited available inputs requires the addition of sensing and interaction modalities. However, the larger the amputation severity, the fewer viable SEMG sites are available as control inputs. Previous work reported the use of intra-socket pressure, as measured during wrist flexion and extension, and has shown that it is possible to control a powered prosthetic device with pressure sensors. In this paper, we present data correlations of SEMG data with intra-socket pressure data. Surface EMG sensors and force sensors were housed within a simulated prosthetic cuff fit to a healthy-limbed subject. EMG and intra-socket force data was collected from inside the cuff as a subject performed pre-defined grip motions with their dominant hand. Data fusion algorithms were explored and allowed a subject to use both intra-socket pressure and SEMG data as control inputs for a powered prosthetic device. This additional input modality allows for an improvement in input classification as well as information regarding socket fit through out activities of daily life.

  14. Analysis of an optical gate device for measuring aeolian sand movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etyemezian, V.; Nikolich, G.; Nickling, W.; King, J. S.; Gillies, J. A.

    2017-02-01

    Movement of sand in response to wind is the most important feature of aeolian sediment transport on Earth and other planets. Through sand blasting during saltation, large amounts of dust are ejected into the atmosphere and transported long distances, impacting climate and human health. Despite continuing improvements, currently available devices for field measurement of sand movement have limitations. An optical gate device (OGD) for detecting the movement, size, and possibly speed of individual sand grains during aeolian sediment transport was analyzed. The approach uses the highly time resolved signal from these sensors, which consist of a light emitter and a photosensitive sensor. A specific OGD that is manufactured by Optek (Carrollton, Texas, USA) was tested in a sediment transport wind tunnel alongside trap-style devices. The OGD device provided particle counts and total signal response that were well correlated with sand trap data (R2 between 0.66 and 0.88). Inter-comparison among eight identical units of the OGD showed excellent repeatability (R2 > 0.98 for 7 of 8 units). Subsequent tests revealed that the response of the phototransistor (light sensor) can be linear when operated within certain workable limits. Practical implications of this are that there is potential for extracting size distribution information. Limits imposed by noise levels in the signal and interferences from extraneous light sources were also identified. Despite the results presented being specific to the OGD model tested, much of the approach outlined is applicable to any OGD-type device (including Wenglor®) if the signal of the photo detector can be accessed directly.

  15. Depth profile of In and As in Si measured by RBS with He and C ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Q.; Fang, Z. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1993-12-31

    The depth profile of As and In implanted into Si have been measured by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) with 2 MeV He ions and 6 MeV C ions. Advantages of enhanced depth and mass resolution with C ions have been demonstrated over the conventional He RBS. More reliable information for the depth profile of In and As in Si has been obtained. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Low-cost chlorophyll meter (LCCM): portable measuring device for leaf chlorophyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutomo E. P., Evan; Adibawa, Marcelinus Alfasisurya S.; Prilianti, Kestrilia R.; Heriyanto, Heriyanto; Brotosudarmo, Tatas H. P.

    2016-11-01

    Portable leaf chlorophyll meter, named low-cost chlorophyll meter (LCCM), has been created. This device was created to help farmer determining the health condition of plant based on the greenness level of leaf surface. According to previous studies, leaf greenness with a certain amount of chlorophyll level has a direct correlation with the amount of nitrogen in the leaf that indicates health of the plant and this fact needed to provide an estimate of further measures to keep the plants healthy. Device that enables to measure the leaf color change is soil plant analysis development (SPAD) meter 502 from Konica Minolta but it is relatively expensive. To answer the need of low-cost chlorophyll scanner device, this research conducted experiment using light reflectance as the base mechanism. Reflectance system from LCCM consists of near-infrared light emitting diode (LED) and red LED as light resources and photodiode. The output from both of light resources calculated using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) formula as the results fetched and displayed on the smartphone application using Bluetooth communication protocol. Finally, the scanner has been made as well as the Android application named NDVI Reader. The LCCM system which has been tested on 20 sample of cassava leaf with SPAD meter as a variable control showed coefficient of determination 0.9681 and root-mean-square error (RMSE) 0.014.

  17. Design and Reliability of a Novel Heel Rise Test Measuring Device for Plantarflexion Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D. Sman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Plantarflexion results from the combined action of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in the calf. The heel rise test is commonly used to test calf muscle endurance, function, and performance by a wide variety of professionals; however, no uniform description of the test is available. This paper aims to document the construction and reliability of a novel heel rise test device and measurement protocol that is suitable for the needs of most individuals. Methods. This device was constructed from compact and lightweight materials and is fully adjustable, enabling the testing of a wide variety of individuals. It is easy to assemble and disassemble, ensuring that it is portable for use in different settings. Findings. We tested reliability on 40 participants, finding excellent interrater reliability (ICC2,1 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94 to 0.98. Limits of agreement were less than two repetitions in 90% of cases and the Bland-Altman plot showed no bias. Interpretation. We have designed a novel, standardized, simple, and reliable device and measurement protocol for the heel rise test which can be used by researchers and clinicians in a variety of settings.

  18. Design and reliability of a novel heel rise test measuring device for plantarflexion endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sman, Amy D; Hiller, Claire E; Imer, Adam; Ocsing, Aldrin; Burns, Joshua; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2014-01-01

    Plantarflexion results from the combined action of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in the calf. The heel rise test is commonly used to test calf muscle endurance, function, and performance by a wide variety of professionals; however, no uniform description of the test is available. This paper aims to document the construction and reliability of a novel heel rise test device and measurement protocol that is suitable for the needs of most individuals. This device was constructed from compact and lightweight materials and is fully adjustable, enabling the testing of a wide variety of individuals. It is easy to assemble and disassemble, ensuring that it is portable for use in different settings. We tested reliability on 40 participants, finding excellent interrater reliability (ICC2,1 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94 to 0.98). Limits of agreement were less than two repetitions in 90% of cases and the Bland-Altman plot showed no bias. We have designed a novel, standardized, simple, and reliable device and measurement protocol for the heel rise test which can be used by researchers and clinicians in a variety of settings.

  19. Measurement of the product attitudes of youth during the selection of assistive technology devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stephen E; Klejman, Susan; Gibson, Barbara E

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual underpinning for and examines the validity of the Youth Evaluation of Products (YEP) scale when used to measure the AT device attitudes of youth. Consumer socialization is promoted to improve the utility of an AT device selection framework for children and youth and inform the development of the YEP scale. A descriptive, qualitative mixed-methods design explored the validity of the scale when used by six manual wheelchair users, aged 11-14 years, to evaluate a new pushrim-activated, power-assisted wheelchair. Three youth participated in a subsequent focus group to share how they assessed wheelchair products. The items and dimensions of the YEP scale corresponded well to participants' views about wheelchairs. Consumer socialization provides a new way to understand the developing role of youth as AT consumers and the YEP scale is emerging as a way to measure their product attitudes. When integrated with contemporary thinking about the assessment and selection of AT devices, providers and parents may be better able to incorporate the product perspectives of youth during this shared decision-making process. [Box: see text].

  20. Heat Transmission Coefficient Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a Heat Loss Measuring Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2013-01-01

    and cooling our houses. There is a huge energy-saving potential in this area for reducing both the global climate problems as well as economy challenges. Heating of buildings in Denmark accounts for approximately 40% of the entire national energy consumption. For this reason, a reduction of heat losses from...... and mechanical ventilation in the “warm countries” contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish the best basis for upgrading the energy performance, it is important to make measurements of the heat losses at different places on a building facade, in order......Global energy efficiency can be obtained in two ordinary ways. One way is to improve the energy production and supply side, and the other way is, in general, to reduce the consumption of energy in society. This paper has focus on the latter and especially the consumption of energy for heating...

  1. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, C.; Janssen, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the

  2. General-purpose configuration of radiometric instruments for measuring concentration profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, P.; Wozniakova, B. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Ostrava. Ustav Teorie Hutnickych Procesu); Drapala, J. (Vysoka Skola Banska, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Nezeleznych Kovu a Jaderne Metalurgie)

    1981-01-01

    The configuration of radiometric apparatuses for the automatic measuring of the concentration profile of active admixtures along the specimen applying the slot method and its three variants is described. A practical example is given of the adjustment of radiometric apparatuses. An equipment for automatic graphical recording of nuclear radiation spectra measured by a single-channel spectrometer is described.

  3. Impact of three-dimensional polarization profiles on spin-dependent measurements in colliding beam experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Fischer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the polarization-weighted luminosity (figure of merit in single and double spin measurements in colliding beam experiments. Applications to RHIC are discussed.

  4. Dysarthria Impact Profile: Development of a Scale to Measure Psychosocial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Margaret; Peach, Richard K.; Miller, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background: The psychosocial impact of acquired dysarthria on the speaker is well recognized. To date, speech-and-language therapists have no instrument available to measure this construct. This has implications for outcome measurement and for planning intervention. This paper describes the Dysarthria Impact Profile (DIP), an instrument that has…

  5. Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 – Laboratory Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J. Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Turner, W. J. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2012-11-12

    Building codes increasingly require tighter homes and mechanical ventilation per ASHRAE Standard 62.2. These ventilation flows must be measured so that energy is not wasted with over ventilation and occupants’ health is not compromised by under ventilation. Flow hoods are used to measure these ventilation flows, but there is currently no standard specifying the measurement procedure and measurement devices that should be used. This study evaluates the accuracy of six commercially available flow hoods under laboratory conditions configured to emulate a residential mechanical ventilation duct system. The measurements taken with the flow hoods were compared to simultaneous measurements taken by an in-line reference flow meter having a known uncertainty. Results indicate that powered flow hoods yield more accurate measurements than non-powered flow hoods, and that a majority of the flow hoods measured inlet flows more accurately than outlet flows. In several cases, there was little resemblance between the manufacturers’ stated accuracy and the accuracy we found in our laboratory measurements. It is clear that current flow hood calibration procedures may not consider field application variables such as flow asymmetry, flow angle, and flow direction. A new flow hood measurement standard that takes these ‘real world’ conditions into account should be developed to ensure that residential buildings receive the intended ventilation flows.

  6. Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 – Laboratory Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J. Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Turner, W. J. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2012-11-30

    Building codes increasingly require tighter homes and mechanical ventilation per ASHRAE Standard 62.2. These ventilation flows must be measured so that energy is not wasted with over ventilation and occupants’ health is not compromised by under ventilation. Flow hoods are used to measure these ventilation flows, but there is currently no standard specifying the measurement procedure and measurement devices that should be used. This study evaluates the accuracy of six commercially available flow hoods under laboratory conditions configured to emulate a residential mechanical ventilation duct system. The measurements taken with the flow hoods were compared to simultaneous measurements taken by an in-line reference flow meter having a known uncertainty. Results indicate that powered flow hoods yield more accurate measurements than non-powered flow hoods, and that a majority of the flow hoods measured inlet flows more accurately than outlet flows. In several cases, there was little resemblance between the manufacturers’ stated accuracy and the accuracy we found in our laboratory measurements. It is clear that current flow hood calibration procedures may not consider field application variables such as flow asymmetry, flow angle, and flow direction. A new flow hood measurement standard that takes these ‘real world’ conditions into account should be developed to ensure that residential buildings receive the intended ventilation flows.

  7. Depth Profiling of La2O3 ∕ HfO2 Stacked Dielectrics for Nanoelectronic Device Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-01-03

    Nanoscale La2O3 /HfO2 dielectric stacks have been studied using high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The measured distance of the tail-end of the La signal from the dielectric/Si interface suggests that the origin of the threshold voltage shifts and the carrier mobility degradation may not be the same. Up to 20% drop in mobility and 500 mV shift in threshold voltage was observed as the La signal reached the Si substrate. Possible reasons for these changes are proposed, aided by depth profiling and bonding analysis. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  8. Image processing techniques for measuring non-uniform film thickness profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, S.V.; Liu, An-Hong; Plawsky, J.L.; Wayner, P.C. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnique Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The long term objective of this research program is to determine the fluid flow and drying characteristics of thin liquid/solid films using image processing techniques such as Image Analyzing Interferometry (IAI) and Image Scanning Ellipsometry (ISE). The primary purpose of this paper is to present experimental data on the effectiveness of IAI and ISE to measure nonuniform film thickness profiles. Steady-state, non-isothermal profiles of evaporating films were measured using IAI. Transient thickness profiles of a draining film were measured using ISE. The two techniques are then compared and contrasted. The ISE can be used to measure transient as well as steady-state profiles of films with thickness ranging from 1 nm to > 20 {mu}m, whereas IAI can be used to directly measure Steady-state and transient profiles of only films thicker than about 100 nm. An evaluation of the reflected intensity can be used to extend the use of the IAI below 100 nm.

  9. Using a Communication Model to Collect Measurement Data through Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Urzaiz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless systems and services have undergone remarkable development since the first mobile phone system was introduced in the early 1980s. The use of sensors in an Ambient Intelligence approach is a great solution in a medical environment. We define a communication architecture to facilitate the information transfer between all connected devices. This model is based in layers to allow the collection of measurement data to be used in our framework monitoring architecture. An overlay-based solution is built between network elements in order to provide an efficient and highly functional communication platform that allows the connection of a wide variety of devices and technologies, and serves also to perform additional functions such as the possibility to perform some processing in the network that may help to improve overall performance.

  10. Optomechanical measurement of photon spin angular momentum and optical torque in integrated photonic devices

    CERN Document Server

    He, Li; Li, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Photons carry linear momentum, and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, while angular momentum transfer induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been utilized in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect remain unexplored in integrated photonics. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mecha...

  11. Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Gu Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To measure precise blood pressure (BP and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The standard deviation between the estimated values and the measured values for systolic and diastolic BP were 8.3 and 4.9, respectively, which are close to the range of values of the BP International Standard. Detailed analysis of the pulse wave measured by the cuffless radial artery pulsimeter by detecting changes in the magnetic field can be used to develop a new diagnostic algorithm for BP, which can be applied to new medical apparatus such as the radial artery pulsimeter.

  12. Catheterless long-term ambulatory urodynamic measurement using a novel three-device system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wille

    Full Text Available AIMS: Long-term urodynamics are required because bladder-emptying disorders are often not clearly revealed by conventional urodynamics. Patients with severe clinical overactive bladder symptoms, for instance, often show normal results. This may be due to the short evaluation time and psychological factors that complicate conventional urodynamics. This study aimed to develop an ambulatory three-component urodynamic measurement system that is easy to operate, registers urodynamic parameters for several days, and has no negative impact on the patient. METHODS: We developed an intravesical capsule combined with a hand-held device to register voiding desire and micturition, and an alarm pad device that detects urine loss. Recently, the intravesical capsule and its proven function were detailed in the literature. Here, we present detailed in vitro results using a female bladder model. The flexible capsule was C-shaped to minimize the risk of expulsion from the bladder during micturition. Results of biocompatibility evaluation of the intravesical capsule, which is called Wille Capsule (WiCa are described. RESULTS: The WiCa with an oval nose and a maximum outer diameter of 5.5 mm was easily inserted through a 25-French cystoscope. Removing the WiCa by grasping the nose using the female model with bladder was easily conducted. Expulsion of the WiCa during voiding was avoided through a novel C-shaped device design. Based on in vitro cytotoxicity studies, the capsule is a promising and safe device. CONCLUSION: Our novel system is an innovative minimally-invasive tool for accurate long-term urodynamic measurement, and does not require inserting a transurethral catheter.

  13. Reconstructive endovascular treatment of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms with the Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS) device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan-Chuan; Fang, Yi-Bin; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Xuan; Hong, Bo; Xu, Yi; Liu, Jian-Min; Huang, Qing-Hai

    2017-01-01

    The Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS) device is a new generation of self-expanding braided stent recently introduced in China for stent assisted coiling of intracranial aneurysms. The aim of our study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the LVIS device in reconstructive treatment of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs). We retrospectively reviewed the neurointerventional database of our institution from June 2014 to May 2016. Patients who underwent endovascular treatment of VADAs with LVIS stents were included in this study. Clinical presentation, aneurysmal characteristics, technical feasibility, procedural complications, and angiographic and clinical follow-up results were evaluated. 38 patients with VADAs who underwent treatment with LVIS stent were identified, including 3 ruptured VADAs. All VADAs were successfully treated with reconstructive techniques including the stent-assisted coiling (n = 34) and stenting only (n = 4). Post-procedural complications developed in 3 patients (7.9%) including two small brainstem infarctions and one delayed thromboembolic event. Complications resulted in one case of minor permanent morbidity (2.6%). There was no procedure-related mortality. The follow-up angiogram was available in 30 patients at an average of 8.3 months (range, 2 to 30 months), which revealed complete occlusion in 23 patients (76.7%), residual neck in five patients (16.7%), and residual sac in two patients (6.7%). The follow-up of 25 aneurysms with incomplete immediate occlusion revealed 22 aneurysms (88%) with improvement in the Raymond class. One aneurysm (3.3%) showed recanalization and required retreatment. Clinical followed-up at 5-28 months (mean 14.1 months) was achieved in 36 patients because two patients died of pancreatic cancer and basal ganglia hemorrhage, respectively. No new neurologic deterioration or aneurysm (re)bleeding was observed. Our preliminary experience with reconstruction of VADAs with the

  14. Corneal Topographic and Aberrometric Measurements Obtained with a Multidiagnostic Device in Healthy Eyes: Intrasession Repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, David P; López-Navarro, Alberto; Cabezos, Inmaculada; de Fez, Dolores; Caballero, María T; Camps, Vicent J

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the intrasession repeatability of corneal curvature, eccentricity, and aberrometric measurements obtained with a multidiagnostic device in healthy eyes. Methods. This study enrolled 107 eyes of 107 patients ranging in age from 23 to 65 years. All of them underwent a complete anterior segment examination with the VX120 system (Visionix-Luneau Technologies, Chartres, France). Three consecutive measurements were obtained. The within-subject standard deviation (Sw ), intrasubject precision (1.96 × Sw ), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results. All Sw for corneal power measurements were below 0.26 D, with ICC above 0.982. The Sw for corneal astigmatism at different areas (3, 5, and 7 mm) was below 0.21 D, with ICC above 0.913. Concerning the axis of astigmatism, its Sw was below 11.27°, with ICC above 0.975. The Sw and ICC for corneal eccentricity were 0.067 and 0.957, respectively. The Sw and ICC for high-order aberration root mean square (RMS) were 0.048 µm and 0.901, respectively. For 3rd- and 4th-order aberrometric parameters, all Sw were below 0.037 µm and all ICC were higher than 0.84, except for quadrafoil RMS (ICC: 0.689). Conclusions. The multidiagnostic device evaluated is able to provide consistent measurements of corneal power, eccentricity, and third- and fourth-order aberrations in healthy eyes.

  15. A simple indentation device for measuring micrometer-scale tissue stiffness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levental, I; Levental, K R; Janmey, P A [Institute for Medicine and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Klein, E A; Assoian, R [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Miller, R T [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, Louis Stokes VAMC, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wells, R G, E-mail: janmey@mail.med.upenn.ed [Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-05-19

    Mechanical properties of cells and extracellular matrices are critical determinants of function in contexts including oncogenic transformation, neuronal synapse formation, hepatic fibrosis and stem cell differentiation. The size and heterogeneity of biological specimens and the importance of measuring their mechanical properties under conditions that resemble their environments in vivo present a challenge for quantitative measurement. Centimeter-scale tissue samples can be measured by commercial instruments, whereas properties at the subcellular (nm) scale are accessible by atomic force microscopy, optical trapping, or magnetic bead microrheometry; however many tissues are heterogeneous on a length scale between micrometers and millimeters which is not accessible to most current instrumentation. The device described here combines two commercially available technologies, a micronewton resolution force probe and a micromanipulator for probing soft biological samples at sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Several applications of the device are described. These include the first measurement of the stiffness of an intact, isolated mouse glomerulus, quantification of the inner wall stiffness of healthy and diseased mouse aortas, and evaluation of the lateral heterogeneity in the stiffness of mouse mammary glands and rat livers with correlation of this heterogeneity with malignant or fibrotic pathology as evaluated by histology.

  16. A simple indentation device for measuring micrometer-scale tissue stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levental, I.; Levental, K. R.; Klein, E. A.; Assoian, R.; Miller, R. T.; Wells, R. G.; Janmey, P. A.

    2010-05-01

    Mechanical properties of cells and extracellular matrices are critical determinants of function in contexts including oncogenic transformation, neuronal synapse formation, hepatic fibrosis and stem cell differentiation. The size and heterogeneity of biological specimens and the importance of measuring their mechanical properties under conditions that resemble their environments in vivo present a challenge for quantitative measurement. Centimeter-scale tissue samples can be measured by commercial instruments, whereas properties at the subcellular (nm) scale are accessible by atomic force microscopy, optical trapping, or magnetic bead microrheometry; however many tissues are heterogeneous on a length scale between micrometers and millimeters which is not accessible to most current instrumentation. The device described here combines two commercially available technologies, a micronewton resolution force probe and a micromanipulator for probing soft biological samples at sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Several applications of the device are described. These include the first measurement of the stiffness of an intact, isolated mouse glomerulus, quantification of the inner wall stiffness of healthy and diseased mouse aortas, and evaluation of the lateral heterogeneity in the stiffness of mouse mammary glands and rat livers with correlation of this heterogeneity with malignant or fibrotic pathology as evaluated by histology.

  17. A prototype wireless inertial-sensing device for measuring toe clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel T H; Charry, E; Begg, R; Palaniswami, M

    2008-01-01

    Tripping and slipping are serious health concerns for the elderly because they result in life threatening injuries i.e., fractures and high medical costs. Our recent work in detection of tripping gait patterns has demonstrated that minimum toe clearance (MTC) is a sensitive falls risk predictor. MTC measurement has previously been done in gait laboratories and on treadmills which potentially imposes controlled walking conditions. In this paper, we describe a prototype design of a wireless device for monitoring vertical toe clearance. The sensors consists of a tri-axis accelerometer and dual-axis gyroscope connected to Crossbow sensor motes for wireless data transmission. Sensor data are transmitted to a laptop and displayed on a Matlab graphic user interface (GUI). We have performed zero base and treadmill experiments to investigate sensor performance to environmental variations and compared the calculated toe clearance against measurements made by an Optotrak motion system. It was found that device outputs were approximately independent of small ambient temperature variations, had a reliable range of 20m indoors and 50m outdoors and a maximum transmission rate of 20 packets/s. Toe clearance measurements were found to follow the Optotrak measurement trend but could be improved further by dealing with double integration errors and improving data transmission rates.

  18. Identification of Measures and Indicators for the IT Security of Networked Medical Devices: A Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, Stefan; Ammenwerth, Elske

    2017-01-01

    The networking of medical devices or systems in a hospital network is the foundation for modern medical diagnostics and therapy. This, however, makes possible numerous hazards that could lead to risks for patients, clinical processes or data and information. The aim of the work was to develop a catalogue of measures and indicators for the effective support of the IT risk management process in a health facility. Through a qualitative and quantitative Delphi study among 21 experts, it was possible to identify an initial 51 practice-relevant measures of IT risk management that a hospital should implement. Additionally, 27 indicators were defined which can be used to measure the impact of these measures. Of the 51 measures, 35 were seen as especially important, particularly organizational measures. Of the 27 indicators, six were seen as especially important, particularly indicators to measure networking effectiveness. The study also investigated the impact of the measures on the indicators. A case study is planned to investigate the practicability of the identified measures and indicators.

  19. New device for time-averaged measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago Sánchez, Noemí; Tejada Alarcón, Sergio; Tortajada Santonja, Rafael; Llorca-Pórcel, Julio, E-mail: julio.llorca@aqualogy.net

    2014-07-01

    Contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the environment is an increasing concern since these compounds are harmful to ecosystems and even to human health. Actually, many of them are considered toxic and/or carcinogenic. The main sources of pollution come from very diffuse focal points such as industrial discharges, urban water and accidental spills as these compounds may be present in many products and processes (i.e., paints, fuels, petroleum products, raw materials, solvents, etc.) making their control difficult. The presence of these compounds in groundwater, influenced by discharges, leachate or effluents of WWTPs is especially problematic. In recent years, law has been increasingly restrictive with the emissions of these compounds. From an environmental point of view, the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) sets out some VOCs as priority substances. This binding directive sets guidelines to control compounds such as benzene, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride to be at a very low level of concentration and with a very high frequency of analysis. The presence of VOCs in the various effluents is often highly variable and discontinuous since it depends on the variability of the sources of contamination. Therefore, in order to have complete information of the presence of these contaminants and to effectively take preventive measures, it is important to continuously control, requiring the development of new devices which obtain average concentrations over time. As of today, due to technical limitations, there are no devices on the market that allow continuous sampling of these compounds in an efficient way and to facilitate sufficient detection limits to meet the legal requirements which are capable of detecting very sporadic and of short duration discharges. LABAQUA has developed a device which consists of a small peristaltic pump controlled by an electronic board that governs its operation by pre-programming. A constant flow passes

  20. Enhanced performance of CdS/CdTe thin-film devices through temperature profiling techniques applied to close-spaced sublimation deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaonan Li; Sheldon, P.; Moutinho, H.; Matson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The authors describe a methodology developed and applied to the close-spaced sublimation technique for thin-film CdTe deposition. The developed temperature profiles consisted of three discrete temperature segments, which the authors called the nucleation, plugging, and annealing temperatures. They have demonstrated that these temperature profiles can be used to grow large-grain material, plug pinholes, and improve CdS/CdTe photovoltaic device performance by about 15%. The improved material and device properties have been obtained while maintaining deposition temperatures compatible with commercially available substrates. This temperature profiling technique can be easily applied to a manufacturing environment by adjusting the temperature as a function of substrate position instead of time.

  1. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and method to measure the functional dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kevin M [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-20

    A broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can measure the parametric or functional response of a semiconductor device to exposure to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light. Comparisons of dose-rate response from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. The dependence of these changes on equivalent dose-rate pulse intensity and/or duration can be measured with the apparatus. The synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into the device under test can be used to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure while exposing the device to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light.

  2. Density profile measurements by amplitude modulation reflectometry on the TJ-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, E. de la; Zhuravlev, V.; Branas, B.; Sanchez, J.; Estrada, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Segovia, J.; Oramas, J.L. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-31

    Amplitude Modulation (AM) reflectometry has been proposed as an alternative method to the more traditional swept frequency reflectometry systems which can be strongly affected by the presence of plasma density fluctuations. Compared to the time domain systems, the time measurements are replaced in AM reflectometry by much simpler phase delay measurements. In AM reflectometry, the time delay of the microwave beam propagating to the reflecting layer and back is directly obtained through the phase delay of the modulating envelope, which is directly measured in a linear (0-2{pi}) phase meter. This method avoids operation with multifringe counters and is a very attractive alternative for real time determination of the plasma position and density profile. In order to achieve real time density profile monitoring, fast analysis methods are necessary, first results of Neural Networks application to the problem of fast inversion of the density profile are shown. (author) 3 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Investigations on the spatial resolution of autocollimator-based slope measuring profilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siewert, F., E-mail: frank.siewert@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin/BESSY-II—Institut für Nanometer Optik und Technologie, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Buchheim, J.; Höft, T.; Zeschke, T. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin/BESSY-II—Institut für Nanometer Optik und Technologie, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schindler, A.; Arnold, T. [IOM—Leibniz Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-05-11

    During the last decade, autocollimator-based slope measuring profilers like the Nanometer Optical Component Measuring Machine (NOM) at BESSY-II have become standard instrument for the ultra-precise characterization of synchrotron optics with nanometer accuracy. Due to the increasing demand for highest accuracy, which can be provided by these profilers, further investigations are necessary to understand the performance of these instruments. Besides the achievable accuracy, it is of particular interest to characterize the possible spatial resolution of such instrumentation. The performance of the BESSY-NOM was characterized by means of sinusoidal and chirped surface profiles. A dedicated sample was prepared using the Atmospheric Plasma Jet Machining technology at the IOM—Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V. We report on our tests on the NOM, the interferometer measurements done for comparison as well as the sample preparation.

  4. Fiber optic picosecond laser pulse transmission line for hydrogen ion beam longitudinal profile measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunning; Liu, Yun; Aleksandrov, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    We present a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line for nonintrusive longitudinal profile measurement of the hydrogen ion (H(-)) beam at the front-end of the Spallation Neutron Source accelerator. The 80.5 MHz, 2.5 ps, multikilowatt optical pulses are delivered to the accelerator beam line through a large-mode-area polarization-maintaining optical fiber to ensure high measurement stability. The transmission efficiency, output laser beam quality, pulse jitter, and pulse width broadening over a 30 m long fiber line are experimentally investigated. A successful measurement of the H(-) beam microbunch (~130 ps) profile is obtained. The experiment is the first demonstration to our knowledge of particle beam profile diagnostics using a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line.

  5. Wind lidar profile measurements in the coastal boundary layer: comparison with WRF modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Vincent, Claire Louise

    2012-01-01

    We use measurements from a pulsed wind lidar to study the wind speed profile in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) up to 600 m above the surface at a coastal site. Due to the high availability and quality of wind lidar data and the high vertical range of the measurements, it is possible to study...... WRF is compared to the wind lidar data combined with measurements from a tall meteorological mast, it is found that the model surface layer fluxes are largely overestimated and that the vertical wind speed profile does not have enough shear in the lower part of the PBL, partly as a consequence...... in the amount of observed low level jet. The wind speed predicted by WRF does not improve when a higher resolution is used. Therefore, both the inhomogeneous (westerly) and homogeneous (easterly) flow contribute to a large negative bias in the mean wind speed profile at heights between 100 and 200 m....

  6. Methods to quantify the velocity dependence of common gait measurements from automated rodent gait analysis devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckel, Nathan D

    2015-09-30

    Walking slowly is a different biomechanical task than walking quickly, thus measures of gait will be different at different velocities, such as pre/post injury. It is necessary to determine if the difference in gait measures are from the experimental changes, or simply from traveling at different speeds. Instead of limiting this effect, we have developed techniques to embrace the velocity dependence of gait measures. By translating the pawprints into a body coordinate frame we are able to measure location of paw placement in addition to the standard gait measures. At higher velocities rats have greater consistency of steps, place their forelimb initial contact more medially and anteriorly, and place their hindlimb toe off more medially and posteriorly. Interlimb phasing also becomes more consistent at higher velocities. Following a cervical spinal cord injury consistency is reduced and the velocity dependent behaviors are significantly different. Translating the coordinate frame improves the ability to measure changes in base of support following spinal cord injury. Employing a treadmill, or limiting analysis to a narrow velocity window does address the effects of velocity. We feel that measuring across all velocities is more appropriate than dictating that the animals match speeds. Quantifying locomotion with automated gait analysis devices is a great way to evaluate the changes that experimental treatments provide. These new methods allow for a more appropriate way to address the confound of many gait measures being velocity dependent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Kinetic equilibrium reconstruction of KSTAR plasmas including internal pitch angle profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanzheng; Sabbagh, Steven; Park, Youngseok; Ahn, Jaeheon; Ko, Jinseok

    2017-10-01

    High fidelity kinetic equilibrium reconstructions are an essential requirement for accurate stability and disruption prediction analyses to support continuous operation of high beta KSTAR tokamak plasmas. The present work significantly expands our past magnetics-only equilibrium reconstruction capability. The present kinetic equilibrium reconstructions include Thomson scattering (TS) data, charge exchange spectroscopy (CES) data, and allowance for fast particle pressure in addition to external magnetics and shaping field current data, and inclusion of vacuum vessel and passive plate currents following a ``partial kinetic'' approach used successfully in other devices. In addition, up to 25 channels of Motional Stark Effect (MSE) data are used to constrain the local magnetic field pitch angle to produce reliable evaluation of the safety factor profile. The ramifications of the inclusion of the kinetic profiles and MSE data are examined in the context of plasma stability evaluation, and parameters and analysis used for disruption event characterization and forecasting (DECAF). Supported by US DOE Grant DE-SC0016614.

  8. Calculation of the Scattered Radiation Profile in 64 Slice CT Scanners Using Experimental Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Akbarzadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important parameters in x-ray CT imaging is the noise induced by detected scattered radiation. The detected scattered radiation is completely dependent on the scanner geometry as well as size, shape and material of the scanned object. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the scattered radiation in x-ray CT should be quantified for development of robust scatter correction techniques. Empirical methods based on blocking the primary photons in a small region are not able to extract scatter in all elements of the detector array while the scatter profile is required for a scatter correction procedure. In this study, we measured scatter profiles in 64 slice CT scanners using a new experimental measurement. Material and Methods: To measure the scatter profile, a lead block array was inserted under the collimator and the phantom was exposed at the isocenter. The raw data file, which contained detector array readouts, was transferred to a PC and was read using a dedicated GUI running under MatLab 7.5. The scatter profile was extracted by interpolating the shadowed area. Results: The scatter and SPR profiles were measured. Increasing the tube voltage from 80 to 140 kVp resulted in an 80% fall off in SPR for a water phantom (d=210 mm and 86% for a polypropylene phantom (d = 350 mm. Increasing the air gap to 20.9 cm caused a 30% decrease in SPR. Conclusion: In this study, we presented a novel approach for measurement of scattered radiation distribution and SPR in a CT scanner with 64-slice capability using a lead block array. The method can also be used on other multi-slice CT scanners. The proposed technique can accurately estimate scatter profiles. It is relatively straightforward, easy to use, and can be used for any related measurement.

  9. Development of ultrasonic pulse-train Doppler method for velocity profile and flowrate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Sanehiro; Furuichi, Noriyuki; Shimada, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel technique for measuring the velocity profile and flowrate in a pipe. This method, named the ultrasonic pulse-train Doppler method (UPTD), has the advantages of expanding the velocity range and setting the smaller measurement volume with low calculation and instrument costs in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic pulse Doppler method. The conventional method has limited measurement of the velocity range due to the Nyquist sampling theorem. In addition, previous reports indicate that a smaller measurement volume increases the accuracy of the measurement. In consideration of the application of the conventional method to actual flow fields, such as industrial facilities and power plants, the issues of velocity range and measurement volume are important. The UPTD algorithm, which exploits two pulses of ultrasound with a short interval and envelope detection, is proposed. Velocity profiles calculated by this algorithm were examined through simulations and excellent agreement was found in all cases. The influence of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the algorithm was also estimated. The result indicates that UPTD can measure velocity profiles with high accuracy, even under a small SNR. Experimental measurements were conducted and the results were evaluated at the national standard calibration facility of water flowrate in Japan. Every detected signal forms a set of two pulses and the enveloped line can be observed clearly. The results show that UPTD can measure the velocity profiles over the pipe diameter, even if the velocities exceed the measurable velocity range. The measured flowrates were under 0.6% and the standard deviations for all flowrate conditions were within  ±0.38%, which is the uncertainty of the flowrate measurement estimated in the previous report. In conclusion, UPTD provides superior accuracy and expansion of the velocity range.

  10. Direct localised measurement of electrical resistivity profile in rat and embryonic chick retinas using a microprobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald van Lintel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an alternative technique to perform a direct and local measurement of electrical resistivities in a layered retinal tissue. Information on resistivity changes along the depth in a retina is important for modelling retinal stimulation by retinal prostheses. Existing techniques for resistivity-depth profiling have the drawbacks of a complicated experimental setup, a less localised resistivity probing and/or lower stability for measurements. We employed a flexible microprobe to measure local resistivity with bipolar impedance spectroscopy at various depths in isolated rat and chick embryo retinas for the first time. Small electrode spacing permitted high resolution measurements and the probe flexibility contributed to stable resistivity profiling. The resistivity was directly calculated based on the resistive part of the impedance measured with the Peak Resistance Frequency (PRF methodology. The resistivity-depth profiles for both rat and chick embryo models are in accordance with previous mammalian and avian studies in literature. We demonstrate that the measured resistivity at each depth has its own PRF signature. Resistivity profiles obtained with our setup provide the basis for the construction of an electric model of the retina. This model can be used to predict variations in parameters related to retinal stimulation and especially in the design and optimisation of efficient retinal implants.

  11. Optomechanical measurement of photon spin angular momentum and optical torque in integrated photonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2016-09-01

    Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon's polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry.

  12. Standard test method for calibration of surface/stress measuring devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    Return to Contents page 1.1 This test method covers calibration or verification of calibration, or both, of surface-stress measuring devices used to measure stress in annealed and heat-strengthened or tempered glass using polariscopic or refractometry based principles. 1.2 This test method is nondestructive. 1.3 This test method uses transmitted light, and therefore, is applicable to light-transmitting glasses. 1.4 This test method is not applicable to chemically tempered glass. 1.5 Using the procedure described, surface stresses can be measured only on the “tin” side of float glass. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Performance of plantar pressure measurement devices (PMDs: update on consensus activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giacomozzi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A worldwide scientific discussion has been started in 2010 on the need for standardisation, assessment, and delivery of recommendations in the field of plantar pressure distribution measurement at different levels: hardware performance, measuring protocols, data processing, parameters and indicators in diagnosis and therapy. The Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS has been conducting for years a scientific project and several activities aimed to design, validate and implement dedicated testing methods and recommendations in the field of pressure measurement devices (PMDs. The present commentary contains a summary of the activities conducted up to now and some future steps which are going to be done at an international level.

  14. Ocular biomechanical measurements on post-keratoplasty corneas using a Scheimpflug-based noncontact device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modis, Laszlo; Hassan, Ziad; Szalai, Eszter; Flaskó, Zsuzsanna; Berta, Andras; Nemeth, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    To analyse ocular biomechanical properties, central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in post-keratoplasty eyes, as compared to normal subjects, with a new Scheimpflug-based technology. Moreover, biomechanical data were correlated with the size and age of the donor and recipient corneas. Measurements were conducted on 46 eyes of 46 healthy patients without any corneal pathology (age: 53.83±20.8y) and 30 eyes of 28 patients after penetrating keratoplasty (age: 49.43±21.34y). Ten biomechanical parameters, the CCT and IOP were recorded by corneal visualization scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST) using high-speed Scheimpflug imaging. Keratometry values were also recorded using Pentacam HR system. Scheimpflug measurements were performed after 43.41±40.17mo (range: 11-128mo) after the keratoplasty and after 7.64±2.34mo (range: 5-14mo) of suture removal. Regarding the device-specific biomechanical parameters, the highest concavity time and radius values showed a significant decrease between these two groups (P=0.01 and Pbiomechanical parameters disclosed a significant difference. The CCT showed a significant difference between post-keratoplasty eyes as compared to normal subjects (P=0.003) using the CorVis ST device. The IOP was within the normal range in both groups (P=0.84). There were no significant relationships between the keratometric data, the size of the donor and recipient, age of the donor and recipient and biomechanical properties obtained by CorVis ST. The ocular biomechanics remain stable after penetrating keratoplasty according to the CorVis ST measurements. Only two from the ten device-specific parameters have importance in the follow-up period after penetrating keratoplasty.

  15. Ocular biomechanical measurements on post-keratoplasty corneas using a Scheimpflug-based noncontact device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo Modis Jr.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyse ocular biomechanical properties, central corneal thickness (CCT and intraocular pressure (IOP in post-keratoplasty eyes, as compared to normal subjects, with a new Scheimpflug-based technology. Moreover, biomechanical data were correlated with the size and age of the donor and recipient corneas. METHODS: Measurements were conducted on 46 eyes of 46 healthy patients without any corneal pathology (age: 53.83±20.8y and 30 eyes of 28 patients after penetrating keratoplasty (age: 49.43±21.34y. Ten biomechanical parameters, the CCT and IOP were recorded by corneal visualization scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST using high-speed Scheimpflug imaging. Keratometry values were also recorded using Pentacam HR system. Scheimpflug measurements were performed after 43.41±40.17mo (range: 11-128mo after the keratoplasty and after 7.64±2.34mo (range: 5-14mo of suture removal. RESULTS: Regarding the device-specific biomechanical parameters, the highest concavity time and radius values showed a significant decrease between these two groups (P=0.01 and P<0.001. None of other biomechanical parameters disclosed a significant difference. The CCT showed a significant difference between post-keratoplasty eyes as compared to normal subjects (P=0.003 using the CorVis ST device. The IOP was within the normal range in both groups (P=0.84. There were no significant relationships between the keratometric data, the size of the donor and recipient, age of the donor and recipient and biomechanical properties obtained by CorVis ST. CONCLUSION: The ocular biomechanics remain stable after penetrating keratoplasty according to the CorVis ST measurements. Only two from the ten device-specific parameters have importance in the follow-up period after penetrating keratoplasty.

  16. Measurement of the temperature profile of an exothermic autocatalytic reaction front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Rakotomalala, N; Talon, L; Salin, D

    2009-11-01

    Autocatalytic reactions may propagate as solitary waves, namely, at a constant front velocity and with a stationary concentration profile, resulting from a balance between molecular diffusion and chemical reaction. When the reaction is exothermic, a thermal wave is linked to the chemical front. As the thermal diffusivity is nearly two orders of magnitude larger than the molecular one, the temperature profile spreads over length scales (mm) two orders of magnitude larger than the concentration one. Using an infrared camera, we measure the temperature profiles for a chlorite-tetrathionate autocatalytic reaction. The profiles are compared quantitatively to lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) numerical simulations. Our analysis also accounts for the lack of observation of the thermal wave for the iodate arsenous acid reaction.

  17. Study of a additive device which measures the angled walls of injection mold components on a three axis CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pralea Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to demonstrate an efficient on machine measurement system. During this study the authors will develop a measurement device, in order to accurately analyze the dimensional precision of the angled vertical walls used to center active cavities inside an injection mold, on a three axis CNC. The designed device will work in strong connection with a touch trigger probe. The final results will show an improved accuracy of the measurement system.

  18. Influence of the type of measuring device in determining the static modulus of elasticity of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Araújo

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the results obtained in static modulus of elasticity tests of plain concrete cylindrical specimens. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the influence of several factors involved in modulus of elasticity tests such as the strain measurement device used (dial indicators, electrical surface bonded strain gages, externally fixed strain gages and linear variation displacement transducer - LVDT, the type of concrete (Class C30 and Class C60 and cylindrical specimen size (100 mm x 200 mm and 150 mm x 300 mm. The modulus tests were done in two different laboratories in the Goiânia, GO region and were performed according to code ABNT NBR 8522:2008, which describes the initial tangent modulus test, characterized by strains measured at tension values of 0.5 MPa and 30% of the ultimate load. One hundred and sixty specimens were tested with statistically satisfactory results. It was concluded that the type of strain measurement device greatly influenced the modulus of elasticity results. Tests in specimens 100 mm x 200 mm showed highest statistical variation.

  19. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  20. Simulations and measurements of coupling impedance for modern particle accelerator devices

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2158523; Biancacci, Nicolò; Mostacci, Andrea

    In this document it has been treated the study of the coupling impedance in modern devices, already installed or not, in different particle accelerators. In the specific case: • For a device in-phase of project, several simulations for impedance calculation have been done. • For a component already realized and used, measurements of coupling impedance value have been done. Simulations are used to determine the impact of the interconnect between to magnets, designed for the future particle accelerator FCC, on the overall impedance of the machine which is about 100 km long. In particular has been done a check between theory, simulations and measurements of components already built, allowing a better and deeper study of the component we have analysed. Controls that probably will be helpful to have a clear guideline in future works. The measurements instead concern in an existing component that was already used in LHC, the longest particle accelerator ever realised on the planet, 27 km long. The coupling impe...

  1. The impact of companion diagnostic device measurement performance on clinical validation of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijuan; Yu, Tinghui; Hu, Yun-Fu

    2015-06-30

    A key component of personalized medicine is companion diagnostics that measure biomarkers, for example, protein expression, gene amplification or specific mutations. Most of the recent attention concerning molecular cancer diagnostics has been focused on the biomarkers of response to therapy, such as V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer, epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in metastatic malignant melanoma. The presence or absence of these markers is directly linked to the response rates of particular targeted therapies with small-molecule kinase inhibitors or antibodies. Therefore, testing for these markers has become a critical step in the target therapy of the aforementioned tumors. The core capability of personalized medicine is the companion diagnostic devices' (CDx) ability to accurately and precisely stratify patients by their likelihood of benefit (or harm) from a particular therapy. There is no reference in the literature discussing the impact of device's measurement performance, for example, analytical accuracy and precision on treatment effects, variances, and sample sizes of clinical trial for the personalized medicine. In this paper, using both analytical and estimation method, we assessed the impact of CDx measurement performance as a function of positive and negative predictive values and imprecision (standard deviation) on treatment effects, variances of clinical outcome, and sample sizes for the clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A device for the color measurement and detection of spots on the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pladellorens, Josep; Pintó, Agusti; Segura, Jordi; Cadevall, Cristina; Antó, Joan; Pujol, Jaume; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Coll, Joaquín

    2006-08-01

    In this work we present a new and fast easyâ€``to-use device which allows the measurement of color and the detection of spots on the human skin. The developed device is highly practical for relatively untrained operators and uses inexpensive consumer equipment, such as a CCD color camera, a light source composed of LEDs and a laptop. In order to perform these measurements the system takes a picture of the skin. After that, the operator selects the region of the skin to be analyzed on the image displayed and the system provides the CIELAB color coordinates, the chroma and the ITA parameter (Individual Tipology Angle), allowing the comparison with other reference images by means of the CIELAB color differences. The system also detects the spots, such as freckles, age spots, sun spots, pimples, black heads, etc., in a determined region, allowing the objective measurement of their size and area. The knowledge of the color of the skin and the detection of spots can be useful in several areas such as in dermatology applications, the cosmetics industry, the biometrics field, health care etc.

  3. Calibration method for accurate optical measurement of thickness profile for the paper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeffe, Jussi

    2009-06-01

    Online measurement of paper thickness profile is essential in paper production. For decades paper thickness has been measured online with sensors that are contacting the web on both sides. In 2005 a new optical online paper thickness gauge was introduced which only contacts the web on the other side. The sensor is based on a laser triangulation sensor and a magnetic sensor, and it determines the paper thickness from the difference of the two measurements. For calibration of the two sensors, a robust concept has been developed which utilizes the measured object and takes place in the measuring environment so that the calibration is automatically adjusted to the current measuring circumstances. More importantly, with the presented method the non-linearity of the laser sensor is cancelled enabling the measurement of the thickness profile shape with an accuracy much better than that of the laser sensor. Profile accuracy of 0.5 μm (2σ) has become normal while the measuring range is often several hundreds of microns and the measuring distance to the paper web 1.0-1.5 mm with a laser sensor having linearity of +/-2 μm.

  4. A cost-effective measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system for quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valivarthi, Raju; Zhou, Qiang; John, Caleb; Marsili, Francesco; Verma, Varun B.; Shaw, Matthew D.; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally realize a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) system. It is based on cost-effective and commercially available hardware such as distributed feedback lasers and field-programmable gate arrays that enable time-bin qubit preparation and time-tagging, and active feedback systems that allow for compensation of time-varying properties of photons after transmission through deployed fiber. We examine the performance of our system, and conclude that its design does not compromise performance. Our demonstration paves the way for MDI-QKD-based quantum networks in star-type topology that extend over more than 100 km distance.

  5. ACCURATE: Greenhouse Gas Profiles Retrieval from Combined IR-Laser and Microwave Occultation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proschek, Veronika; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Schweitzer, Susanne; Fritzer, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    The new climate satellite concept ACCURATE (Atmospheric Climate and Chemistry in the UTLS Region And climate Trends Explorer) enables simultaneous measurement of profiles of greenhouse gases, isotopes, wind and thermodynamic variables from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. The measurement principle applied is a combination of the novel LEO-LEO infrared laser occultation (LIO) technique and the already better studied LEO-LEO microwave occultation (LMO) technique. Resulting occultation events are evenly distributed around the world, have high vertical resolution and accuracy and are stable over long time periods. The LIO uses near-monochromatic signals in the short-wave infrared range (~2-2.5 μm for ACCURATE). These signals are absorbed by various trace species in the Earth's atmosphere. Profiles of the concentration of the absorbing species can be derived from signal transmission measurements. Accurately known temperature, pressure and humidity profiles derived from simultaneously measured LMO signals are essential pre-information for the retrieval of the trace species profiles. These LMO signals lie in the microwave band region from 17-23 GHz and, optionally, 178-195 GHz. The current ACCURATE mission design is arranged for the measurement of six greenhouse gases (GHG) (H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, CO) and four isotopes (13CO2, C18OO, HDO, H218O), with focus on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS, 5-35 km). Wind speed in line-of-sight can be derived from a line-symmetric transmission difference which is caused by wind-induced Doppler shift. By-products are information on cloud layering, aerosol extinction, and scintillation strength. We introduce the methodology to retrieve GHG profiles from quasi-realistic forward-simulated intensities of LIO signals and thermodynamic profiles retrieved in a preceding step from LMO signals. Key of the retrieval methodology is the differencing of two LIO transmission signals, one being GHG sensitive on a target

  6. Understanding and assessing the impact of treatment in diabetes: the Treatment-Related Impact Measures for Diabetes and Devices (TRIM-Diabetes and TRIM-Diabetes Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessard Suzanne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Diabetes is a debilitating illness requiring lifelong management. Treatments can be varied in terms of mode of administration as well as type of agent. Unfortunately, most patient reported outcome measures currently available to assess the impact of treatment are specific to diabetes type, treatment modality or delivery systems and are designed to be either a HRQoL or treatment satisfaction measure. To address these gaps, the Treatment Related Impact Measure-Diabetes and Device measures were developed. This paper presents the item development and validation of the TRIM Diabetes/Device. Methods Patient interviews were conducted to collect the patient perspective and ensure high content validity. Interviews were hand coded and qualitatively analyzed to identify common themes. A conceptual model of the impact of diabetes medication was developed and preliminary items for the TRIM-Diabetes/Device were generated and cognitively debriefed. Validation data was collected via an on-line survey and analyzed according to an a priori statistical analysis plan to validate the overall score as well as each domain. Item level criteria were used to reduce the preliminary item pool. Next, factor analysis to identify structural domains was performed. Reliability and validity testing was then performed. Results One hundred and five patients were interviewed in focus groups, individual interviews and for cognitive debriefing. Five hundred seven patients participated in the validation study. Factor analysis identified seven domains: Treatment Burden, Daily Life; Diabetes Management; Psychological Health; Compliance and Device Function and Bother. Internal consistency reliability coefficients of the TRIM-Diabetes/Device ranged from 0.80 and 0.94. Test-retest reliability of the TRIM-Diabetes/Device ranged from 0.71 to 0.89. All convergent and known groups validity hypotheses were met for the TRIM-Diabetes/Device total scores and sub-scales. Conclusion

  7. Development of measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (Contract research)

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, H; Tachibana, M; Yanagihara, S

    2003-01-01

    The measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (MISE) was developed to evaluate low-level radiological contaminations of inner surfaces of piping. The MISE consists of a cylindrically-formed double layered type detector and a piping crawling robot, which were designed and manufactured separately. In measurements of the contaminations, an outer cylindrical detector close to the surface of piping measures beta-rays and gamma-rays and an inner cylindrical detector set after a shielding plate for shield of beta-rays measures gamma-rays. The beta-ray counting rates are derived by subtracting gamma-ray counts measured by the inner detector from gamma- and beta-ray counts measured by the outer detector. The piping crawling robot transports the cylindrically-formed double layered type detector with observing inner surfaces of piping. The detection limit for the contamination of sup 6 sup 0 Co was found to be about 0.17 Bq/cm sup 2 with measurement time of 30 seconds. It is expected that 0.2 Bq/cm sup 2 co...

  8. A device for in vivo measurements of quantitative ultrasound variables at the human proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkmann, Reinhard; Laugier, Pascal; Moser, Urs; Dencks, Stefanie; Klausner, Michael; Padilla, Frédéric; Haïat, Guilleaume; Glüer, Claus-C

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the calcaneus has similar power as a bone mineral density (BMD)- measurement using DXA for the prediction of osteoporotic fracture risk. Ultrasound equipment is less expensive than DXA and free of ionizing radiation. As a mechanical wave, QUS has the potential of measuring different bone properties than dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA,) which depends on X-ray attenuation and might be developed into a tool of comprehensive assessment of bone strength. However, site-specific DXA at the proximal femur shows best performance in the prediction of hip fractures. To combine the potential of QUS with measurements directly at the femur, we developed a device for in vivo QUS measurements at this site. Methods comprise ultrasound transmission through the bone, reflection from the bone surface, and backscatter from the inner trabecular structure. The complete area of the proximal femur can be scanned except at the femoral head, which interferes with the ilium. To avoid edge artifacts, a subregion of the proximal femur in the trochanteric region was selected as measurement region. First, in vivo measurements demonstrate a good signal to noise ratio and proper depiction of the proximal femur on an attenuation image. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo measurements. Further improvements can be expected by refinement of the scanning technique and data evaluation method to enhance the potential of the new method for the estimation of bone strength.

  9. Ozone profile smoothness as a priori information in the inversion of limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we discuss inclusion of a priori information about the smoothness of atmospheric profiles in inversion algorithms. The smoothness requirement can be formulated in the form of Tikhonov-type regularization, where the smoothness of atmospheric profiles is considered as a constraint or in the form of Bayesian optimal estimation (maximum a posteriori method, MAP, where the smoothness of profiles can be included as a priori information. We develop further two recently proposed retrieval methods. One of them - Tikhonov-type regularization according to the target resolution - develops the classical Tikhonov regularization. The second method - maximum a posteriori method with smoothness a priori - effectively combines the ideas of the classical MAP method and Tikhonov-type regularization. We discuss a grid-independent formulation for the proposed inversion methods, thus isolating the choice of calculation grid from the question of how strong the smoothing should be. The discussed approaches are applied to the problem of ozone profile retrieval from stellar occultation measurements by the GOMOS instrument on board the Envisat satellite. Realistic simulations for the typical measurement conditions with smoothness a priori information created from 10-years analysis of ozone sounding at Sodankylä and analysis of the total retrieval error illustrate the advantages of the proposed methods. The proposed methods are equally applicable to other profile retrieval problems from remote sensing measurements.

  10. Ozone profile smoothness as a priori information in the inversion of limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we discuss inclusion of a priori information about the smoothness of atmospheric profiles in inversion algorithms. The smoothness requirement can be formulated in the form of Tikhonov-type regularization, where the smoothness of atmospheric profiles is considered as a constraint or in the form of Bayesian optimal estimation (maximum a posteriori method, MAP, where the smoothness of profiles can be included as a priori information. We develop further two recently proposed retrieval methods. One of them - Tikhonov-type regularization according to the target resolution - develops the classical Tikhonov regularization. The second method - maximum a posteriori method with smoothness a priori - effectively combines the ideas of the classical MAP method and Tikhonov-type regularization. We discuss a grid-independent formulation for the proposed inversion methods, thus isolating the choice of calculation grid from the question of how strong the smoothing should be.

    The discussed approaches are applied to the problem of ozone profile retrieval from stellar occultation measurements by the GOMOS instrument on board the Envisat satellite. Realistic simulations for the typical measurement conditions with smoothness a priori information created from 10-years analysis of ozone sounding at Sodankylä and analysis of the total retrieval error illustrate the advantages of the proposed methods.

    The proposed methods are equally applicable to other profile retrieval problems from remote sensing measurements.

  11. Vertical profiles of urban aerosol complex refractive index in the frame of ESQUIF airborne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Raut

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A synergy between lidar, sunphotometer and in situ measurements has been applied to airborne observations performed during the Etude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile-de-France (ESQUIF, enabling the retrieval of vertical profiles for the aerosol complex refractive index (ACRI and single-scattering albedo with a vertical resolution of 200 m over Paris area. The averaged value over the entire planetary boundary layer (PBL for the ACRI is close to 1.51(±0.02–i0.017(±0.003 at 532 nm. The single-scattering albedo of the corresponding aerosols is found to be ~0.9 at the same wavelength. A good agreement is found with previous studies for urban aerosols. A comparison of vertical profiles of ACRI with simulations combining in situ measurements and relative humidity (RH profiles has highlighted a modification in aerosol optical properties linked to their history and the origin of the air mass. The determination of ACRI in the atmospheric column enabled to retrieve vertical profiles of extinction coefficient in accordance with lidar profiles measurements.

  12. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Congsen [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Janssen, Maurice H. M. [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the density profile of the molecular beam, and the measured absolute density is compared with theoretical calculations of the centre line beam density. Subsequently, we discuss reasons accounting for the differences between measurements and calculations and propose that strong skimmer interference is the most probable cause for the differences. Furthermore, we report on experiments measuring the centre line density of seeded supersonic beams. The femtosecond ion images show that seeding the heavy Xe atom at low relative seed fractions (1%-10%) in a light carrier gas like Ne results in strong relative enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude.

  13. A robust fibre laser system for electro-optic electron bunch profile measurements at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissmann, Laurens-Georg

    2012-08-15

    For the electro-optic measurement of electron bunch profiles at FLASH a robust ytterbium doped fibre laser (YDFL) system has been developed consisting of a laser oscillator and a two-staged amplifier. The oscillator is designed to meet the specifications of high reliability and low noise operation. The amplifier makes use of tailored nonlinearity to enhance the spectral bandwidth of the output laser pulses. Active repetition rate control enables sub-picosecond synchronisation of the laser to the accelerator reference RF. Using a two-stage gating scheme the output pulse train repetition rate is adopted to the accelerator repetition rate. An experimental site used for electro-optic electron bunch diagnostics has been redesigned to support single-shot bunch profile measurements based on spectral decoding. An existing bunch profile monitor with a similar laser system was upgraded and electro-optic bunch profile measurements were conducted, allowing for a comparison with measurements done with other longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics and with former measurements.

  14. Clear air boundary layer spaced antenna wind measurement with the Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Cohn

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Spaced antenna (SA wind measurement techniques are applied to Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR data to evaluate its performance in clear air conditions. MAPR is a multiple antenna 915 MHz wind profiler developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR and described in Cohn et al. (1997, designed to make high resolution wind measurements. Previous reported measurements with MAPR were restricted to precipitation because of low signal to noise (SNR and signal to ground-clutter (SCR ratios. By using a standard pulse-coding technique and upgrading the profiler control software, increases in average power and SNR were achieved, making routine measurements in clear air possible. Comparison of winds measured by MAPR and by a sonic anemometer on a nearby 300 m tower show correlation coefficients in the range of R2 = 0.75 – 0.80, and an average absolute error of ~ 1.4 m s - 1 . This compares favorably with the agreement typically found in wind profiler comparisons. We also consider the use of the parameter ah , which is related to the value of the cross-correlation function at its zero crossing. This parameter is a data quality indicator and possibly a key component in a ground clutter removal technique.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing

  15. Clear air boundary layer spaced antenna wind measurement with the Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Cohn

    Full Text Available Spaced antenna (SA wind measurement techniques are applied to Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR data to evaluate its performance in clear air conditions. MAPR is a multiple antenna 915 MHz wind profiler developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR and described in Cohn et al. (1997, designed to make high resolution wind measurements. Previous reported measurements with MAPR were restricted to precipitation because of low signal to noise (SNR and signal to ground-clutter (SCR ratios. By using a standard pulse-coding technique and upgrading the profiler control software, increases in average power and SNR were achieved, making routine measurements in clear air possible. Comparison of winds measured by MAPR and by a sonic anemometer on a nearby 300 m tower show correlation coefficients in the range of R2 = 0.75 – 0.80, and an average absolute error of ~ 1.4 m s - 1 . This compares favorably with the agreement typically found in wind profiler comparisons. We also consider the use of the parameter ah , which is related to the value of the cross-correlation function at its zero crossing. This parameter is a data quality indicator and possibly a key component in a ground clutter removal technique.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing

  16. A novel video game--based device for measuring stepping performance and fall risk in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, Daniel; Lord, Stephen R; Verhoef, Paulien; Smith, Stuart T

    2011-06-01

    To determine whether a dance mat test of choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) is reliable and can detect differences in fall risk in older adults. Randomized order, crossover comparison. Balance laboratory, medical research institute, and retirement village. Older (mean age, 78.87±5.90y; range, 65-90y) independent-living people (N=47) able to walk in place without assistance. Not applicable. Reaction (RT), movement, and response times of dance pad--based stepping tests, Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) score, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score, time to complete the Trail Making Test (TMT) A+B, Fall Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) score, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale score, and Incidental and Planned Exercise Questionnaire (IPEQ) incidental IPEQ activity subscore. Test-retest reliability of the dance mat CSRT response time was high (intraclass correlation coefficient model 3,k=.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], .82-.94; Ptime and measures of fall risk (PPA: r=.42; 95% CI, .15-.63; P1) had significantly slower response times than people with low/mild fall-risk scores (PPA score time (1180±195 vs 1031±145ms; P=0.017). The new dance mat device is a valid and reliable tool for assessing stepping ability and fall risk in older community-dwelling people. Because it is highly portable, it can be used in clinic settings and the homes of older people as both an assessment and training device. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of aerosol fractions in the air in environment of storage accommodation of precision of device building production

    OpenAIRE

    Антонюк, Віктор Степанович; Мережаний, Юрій Григорович

    2015-01-01

    The article examines modern methods and equipment for conducting measurements of aerosol fraction quantity in the air in the storage accommodation; analyzes techniques of instrumentation management system construction. The paper explains peculiarities of technological processes of precision device putting; gives recommendation s to improvement of quality performance of precision operations of device putting and regulation.

  18. 40 CFR 63.9525 - What are the installation, operation, and maintenance requirements for my weight measurement device?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... device will be maintained, including a routine maintenance schedule and spare parts inventory list. (c..., and maintenance requirements for my weight measurement device? 63.9525 Section 63.9525 Protection of... Requirements § 63.9525 What are the installation, operation, and maintenance requirements for my weight...

  19. Intrasession repeatability of ocular anatomical measurements obtained with a multidiagnostic device in healthy eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, David P; Cabezos, Inmaculada; López-Navarro, Alberto; de Fez, Dolores; Caballero, María T; Camps, Vicente J

    2017-10-18

    To evaluate the intrasession repeatability of anterior chamber depth (ACD), central (CCT) and peripheral corneal thickness (PCT), white-to-white diameter (WTW), and irido-corneal angle (IA) measurements obtained with a multidiagnostic device in healthy eyes. A total of 107 eyes of 107 patients ranging in age from 23 to 65 years were examined with the VX120 system (Visionix-Luneau Technologies). Three consecutive measurements were obtained with this device to assess the intrasession repeatability of ACD, CCT, PCT at different nasal and temporal locations, WTW, and nasal and temporal IA. Data analysis included the calculation of within-subject standard deviation (Sw), intrasubject precision (1.96xSw), coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The Sw and CV for ACD was 0.03 mm and 1.16%, respectively, with an ICC of 0.992. The Sw values for central and peripheral pachymetric measurements were below 9 μm, with CV of less than 1.6% and ICC of 0.976 or higher. For IA measurements, Sw values of 0.84 or lower were found, with a CV between 1 and 2%, and an ICC of more than 0.970. The Sw for WTW was 0.24 mm and the CV was 1.95%. No statistically significant correlations were found between any anatomical parameter evaluated and their Sw and CV values associated (-0.220 ≤ r ≤ 0.204, p ≥ 0.125). The VX120 system is able to provide repeatable measurements of anatomical parameters in healthy eyes. Inter-observer repeatability should be evaluated in future studies.

  20. Creating a driving profile for older adults using GPS devices and naturalistic driving methodology [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh M. Babulal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Road tests and driving simulators are most commonly used in research studies and clinical evaluations of older drivers. We adapted an existing, commercial, off-the-shelf, in-vehicle device for naturalistic, longitudinal research to better understand daily driving behavior in older drivers. Design: The Azuga G2 Tracking DeviceTM was installed in each participant’s vehicle, and we collected data over 5 months (speed, latitude/longitude every 30-seconds when the vehicle was driven.  Setting: The Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Washington University School of Medicine. Participants: Five individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal study assessing preclinical Alzheimer disease and driving performance.  Participants were aged 65+ years and had normal cognition. Measurements:  Spatial components included Primary Location(s, Driving Areas, Mean Centers and Unique Destinations.  Temporal components included number of trips taken during different times of the day.  Behavioral components included number of hard braking, speeding and sudden acceleration events. Methods:  Individual 30-second observations, each comprising one breadcrumb, and trip-level data were collected and analyzed in R and ArcGIS.  Results: Primary locations were confirmed to be 100% accurate when compared to known addresses.  Based on the locations of the breadcrumbs, we were able to successfully identify frequently visited locations and general travel patterns.  Based on the reported time from the breadcrumbs, we could assess number of trips driven in daylight vs. night.  Data on additional events while driving allowed us to compute the number of adverse driving alerts over the course of the 5-month period. Conclusions: This pilot study indicated that Driving Profiles for older adults can be created and compared month-to-month or year-to-year, allowing researchers to identify changes in driving patterns that are unavailable in

  1. Fluorescent sensors for the basic metabolic panel enable measurement with a smart phone device over the physiological range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awqatty, Becker; Samaddar, Shayak; Cash, Kevin J; Clark, Heather A; Dubach, J Matthew

    2014-10-21

    The advanced functionality of portable devices such as smart phones provides the necessary hardware to potentially perform complex diagnostic measurements in any setting. Recent research and development have utilized cameras and data acquisition properties of smart phones to create diagnostic approaches for a variety of diseases or pollutants. However, in concentration measurements, such as blood glucose, the performance of handheld diagnostic devices depends largely on the sensing mechanism. To expand measurements to multiple components, often necessary in medical tests, with a single diagnostic device, robust platform based sensors are needed. Here, we developed a suite of dual wavelength fluorescent sensors with response characteristics necessary to measure each component of a basic metabolic panel, a common clinical measurement. Furthermore, the response of these sensors could be measured with a simple optical setup to convert a smart phone into a fluorescence measurement instrument. This approach could be used as a mobile basic metabolic panel measurement system for point of care diagnostics.

  2. A device for rapid and quantitative measurement of cardiac myocyte contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitas, Angelo; Malhotra, Ricky; Li, Tao; Herron, Todd; Jalife, José

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac contractility is the hallmark of cardiac function and is a predictor of healthy or diseased cardiac muscle. Despite advancements over the last two decades, the techniques and tools available to cardiovascular scientists are limited in their utility to accurately and reliably measure the amplitude and frequency of cardiomyocyte contractions. Isometric force measurements in the past have entailed cumbersome attachment of isolated and permeabilized cardiomyocytes to a force transducer followed by measurements of sarcomere lengths under conditions of submaximal and maximal Ca2+ activation. These techniques have the inherent disadvantages of being labor intensive and costly. We have engineered a micro-machined cantilever sensor with an embedded deflection-sensing element that, in preliminary experiments, has demonstrated to reliably measure cardiac cell contractions in real-time. Here, we describe this new bioengineering tool with applicability in the cardiovascular research field to effectively and reliably measure cardiac cell contractility in a quantitative manner. We measured contractility in both primary neonatal rat heart cardiomyocyte monolayers that demonstrated a beat frequency of 3 Hz as well as human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes with a contractile frequency of about 1 Hz. We also employed the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (100 nmol l-1) and observed that our cantilever demonstrated high sensitivity in detecting subtle changes in both chronotropic and inotropic responses of monolayers. This report describes the utility of our micro-device in both basic cardiovascular research as well as in small molecule drug discovery to monitor cardiac cell contractions.

  3. Characterization of Microfluidic Devices by Measurements with μ-PIV and CLSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlter, Michael; Hoffmann, Marko; Rbiger, Norbert

    Microfluidic devices are successfully in use for several applications in chemical engineering and biotechnology. Nevertheless, there is still no breakthrough for microprocess engineering because of a huge lack in understanding of the mechanisms on microscales for momentum transfer, hydrodynamics and mass transfer. Some important questions concern the design of a junction to reach acceptable mixing qualities with minimum pressure drop and narrow residence time distribution even under laminar flow conditions. The micro-particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) have been used for the characterization of momentum and mass transfer at the Institute of Environmental Process Engineering to evaluate microfluidic devices. The calculation of three-dimensional flow and concentration fields is possible with two-dimensional measurement data for common stationary cases. Streamlines out of velocity gradients and isosurfaces out of fields of the same concentration are providing a helpful impression of the performance of microdevices based on highly reliable measurement data. A quantitative analysis of the velocity and concentration fields allows the calculation of residence-time distribution and mixing quality, which enables the adjustment of microreactor geometries for the demands of chemical, and biochemical reactions.

  4. Measurement of dynamic ocular surface temperature in healthy subjects using a new thermography device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamann, Matthias K J; Maier, Anna-Karina B; Gonnermann, Johannes; Klein, Julian P; Pleyer, Uwe

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the routine use and applicability of a new ocular thermography device (TG 1000; Tomey Corp, Nagoya, Japan) in healthy individuals. Sixty eyes of 30 healthy subjects were included in this prospective study. Intraobserver reproducibility was tested with an ocular surface-oriented infrared radiation thermographic device in a non-contact manner. Using a standard examination protocol, the ocular surface temperature was assessed by dynamic thermal imaging over a time period of 10 s. The procedure was repeated three times during a single session by one examiner. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Ocular surface temperature measurements were highly reproducible. The mean ocular surface temperature was 34.02°C ± 0.22. The ICC was 0.947%, 0.949%, and 0.955% for minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures, respectively. Ocular surface temperature measurements made using the Tomey TG 1000 in healthy subjects showed excellent intraobserver reproducibility. This novel non-invasive technique offers new options for increased understanding of the physiology of the ocular surface.

  5. A spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device provides reliable corneal pachymetry measurements in canine eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, A F; Pirie, C G

    2013-06-08

    The objective of this study was to determine central corneal thickness (CCT) and the intra- and interuser reliability using a portable spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) device in canine eyes. Twenty clinically normal dogs were examined. CCT measurements were obtained from both eyes of each animal three times by two operators in succession. The CCT was automatically calculated using the pachymetry software generated from eight radial scans, 6 mm in length. Mean canine CCT was 606.83±39.45 μm for all eyes examined. There was no significant difference in CCT based on the eye examined (OD vs OS), age or gender of the animal. There was no significant difference in CCT between replicates performed by the same operator; however, a small but significant difference was noted in CCT between operators. The mean difference in CCT between operators was 1.9 μm (P=0.03). The coefficient of variation for each user and between users was very low (range 0.64-1.7 per cent). The intraclass correlation coefficient comparing operators was 0.975. Based on these results, the SD-OCT device evaluated is capable of obtaining precise CCT measurements with excellent intra- and interoperator reliability in canine eyes.

  6. System for measurement and automatic regulation of gas flow within an oil aging test device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system within an oil aging test device that serves for measurement and automatic regulation of gas flow. Following an already realized system that continuously monitors, logs, and regulates transformer oil temperature during the aging process and maintains temperature consistency within strict limits, a model of a flow meter and regulator of air or oxygen through transformer oil samples is developed. A special feature of the implemented system is the measurement of very small gas flows. A short technical description of the realized system is given with a functional block diagram. The basic technical characteristics of the system are specified, and the operating principles and application of the system are described. The paper also gives performance test results in a real exploitation environment.

  7. DANCE device for measurement of (n, {gamma}) reactions on radioactive species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Chamberlin, E.P.; Dragowsky, M.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (US)] [and others

    2002-08-01

    DANCE (Device for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) is a 4{pi} 162 element BaF{sub 2} array under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is designed to provide high granularity, fast timing and high photon detection efficiency. It will be located at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center where neutrons are produced using 800 MeV proton induced spallation reactions on heavy element production targets. Using the pulsed high neutron fluence available at this facility combined with time of flight techniques it will be possible to make neutron capture measurements in the neutron energy range from eV to 100's keV on rate and radioactive target material at the milligram and below level. These measurements will provide critically needed data for the interpretation of the astrophysical s-process 'branching point' nuclei as well as information for reactions needed in understanding transmutation processes of radioactive species. (author)

  8. DANCE : Device for Measurement of (n.g.) Reactions on radioactive Species /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, E. P. (Edwin P.); Dragowsky, M. (Michael); Fowler, Malcolm M.; Miller, G. G. (Geoffrey G.); Palmer, P. D. (Phillip D.); Pangualt, L. N. (Laurence N.); Rundberg, R. S. (Robert S.); Haight, Robert C.; Seabury, E. H. (Edward H.); Ullmann, J. L. (John L.); Strottman, D. D. (Daniel D.); Heil, M. (Michael); Kaeppeler, F. (Franz K.); Reifarth, R. (Rene); Wisshak, K.; Wilhelmy, J. B. (Jerry B.)

    2001-01-01

    DANCE (Device for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) is a 4{pi} 162 element BaF{sub 2} array under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is designed to provide high granularity, fast timing and high photon detection efficiency. It will be located at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center where neutrons are produced using 800 MeV proton induced spallation reactions on heavy element production targets. Using the pulsed high neutron fluence available at this facility combined with time of flight techniques it will be possible to make neutron capture measurements in the neutron energy range from eV to 100's of keV on rare and radioactive target material at the milligram and below level. These measurements will provide critically needed data for the interpretation of the astrophysical s-process 'branching point' nuclei as well as information for reactions needed in understanding transmutation processes of radioactive species.

  9. The nonlinearity measurement of charge-coupled device array spectrometer using colorful LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-qiang; Liu, Hui; Liu, Jian

    2017-11-01

    A nonlinearity measurement of the charge-coupled device (CCD) array spectrometer using flux addition and comparison method is described. The light with various colors from the colorful light emitting diode (LED) light source is applied to measure the nonlinearity of the spectrometer at different wavelengths, respectively. An high-end CCD array spectrometer is tested. For colorful LED light sources, the nonlinearity factors of the CCD array spectrometer (absolute value) are as follows: kwhite light, k <1.1% for red light, k <2.2% for green light and k<4.7% for blue light. By using those quasi-monochromatic light sources, it is shown that the nonlinearity depends on the wavelength. It is important to be wariness about the spectral nonlinearity and related uncertainty evaluation when the narrow-band light source is tested.

  10. Poster Abstract: Automatic Calibration of Device Attitude in Inertial Measurement Unit Based Traffic Probe Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2016-04-28

    Probe vehicles consist in mobile traffic sensor networks that evolve with the flow of vehicles, transmitting velocity and position measurements along their path, generated using GPSs. To address the urban positioning issues of GPSs, we propose to replace them with inertial measurement units onboard vehicles, to estimate vehicle location and attitude using inertial data only. While promising, this technology requires one to carefully calibrate the orientation of the device inside the vehicle to be able to process the acceleration and rate gyro data. In this article, we propose a scheme that can perform this calibration automatically by leveraging the kinematic constraints of ground vehicles, and that can be implemented on low-end computational platforms. Preliminary testing shows that the proposed scheme enables one to accurately estimate the actual accelerations and rotation rates in the vehicle coordinates. © 2016 IEEE.

  11. The influence of profiled ceilings on sports hall acoustics : Ground effect predictions and scale model measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattez, Y.C.M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; Nijs, L.

    2018-01-01

    Over the last few years, reverberation times and sound pressure levels have been measured in many sports halls. Most of these halls, for instance those made from stony materials, perform as predicted. However, sports halls constructed with profiled perforated steel roof panels have an unexpected

  12. Continuous measurements of discharge from a horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler in a tidal river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Buschman, F.A.; Vermeulen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) can be mounted horizontally at a river bank, yielding single-depth horizontal array observations of velocity across the river. This paper presents a semideterministic, semistochastic method to obtain continuous measurements of discharge from horizontal ADCP

  13. Detonation wave profiles measured in plastic bonded explosives using 1550 nm photon doppler velocimetry (PDV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Nathaniel (nate) J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present detonation wave profiles measured in two TATB based explosives and two HMX based explosives. Profiles were measured at the interface of the explosive and a Lithium-Fluoride (LiF) window using 1550 nm Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Planar detonations were produced by impacting the explosive with a projectile launched in a gas-gun. The impact state was varied to produce varied distance to detonation, and therefore varied support of the Taylor wave following the Chapman-Jouget (CJ) or sonic state. Profiles from experiments with different support should be the same between the Von-Neumann (VN) spike and CJ state and different thereafter. Comparison of profiles with differing support, therefore, allows us to estimate reaction zone lengths. For the TATB based explosive, a reaction zone length of {approx} 3.9 mm, 500 ns was measured in EDC-35, and a reaction zone length of {approx} 6.3 mm, 800 ns was measured in PBX 9502 pre-cooled to -55 C. The respective VN spike state was 2.25 {+-} 0.05 km/s in EDC-35 and 2.4 {+-} 0.1 km/s in the cooled PBX 9502. We do not believe we have resolved either the VN spike state (> 2.6 km/s) nor the reaction zone length (<< 50 ns) in the HMX based explosives.

  14. Profile grid monitor and first measurement results at the MedAustron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Repovz, M; Kerschbaum, A; Osmic, F; Schwarz, S; Burtin, G

    2013-01-01

    MedAustron is a synchrotron based ion beam therapy center located in Wiener Neustadt/Austria. The MedAustron accelerator design is based on CERN’s Proton-Ion Medical Machine Study (PIMMS) [1] and is currently in the accelerator installation and beam commissioning phase. One of the basic measurements for commissioning of an accelerator is also beam profile measurement. The beam at the end of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line and in the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line (after the fast deflector) is pulsed. Due to pulsed beam the Wire Scanner Monitor (WSX) cannot be used. To measure a beam profile at these locations a new monitor has been developed – Profile Grid Monitor (PGX). The PGX is also known as harp grid monitor and it contains 64 wires positioned vertically and 64 wires horizontally for measuring the beam profile in both transverse planes. The PGX acquires the current of all 128 wires simultaneously, converts it to voltage, digitizes the values and processes the co...

  15. Subgrouping of Readers Based on Performance Measures: A Latent Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2010-01-01

    By using latent profile analysis eight stable and interpretable subgroups of readers were identified. The basis for subgrouping was different performance measures with four aspects of reading in focus: reading of continuous texts, reading of document texts, word reading and reading speed. Participants were 9-year-old Swedish students included in…

  16. Direct measurements of air layer profiles under impacting droplets using high-speed color interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Roeland; Tran, Tuan; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2012-01-01

    A drop impacting on a solid surface deforms before the liquid makes contact with the surface. We directly measure the time evolution of the air layer profile under the droplet using high-speed color interferometry, obtaining the air layer thickness before and during the wetting process. Based on the

  17. Measuring Beach Profiles along a Low-Wave Energy Microtidal Coast, West-Central Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring storm-induced dramatic beach morphology changes and long-term beach evolution provides crucial data for coastal management. Beach-profile measurement using total station has been conducted along the coast of west-central Florida over the last decade. This paper reviews several case studies of beach morphology changes based on total-station survey along this coast. The advantage of flexible and low-cost total-station surveys is discussed in comparison to LIDAR (light detection and ranging method. In an attempt to introduce total-station survey from a practical prospective, measurement of cross-shore beach profile in various scenarios are discussed, including: (1 establishing a beach profile line with known instrument and benchmark locations; (2 surveying multiple beach profiles with one instrument setup; (3 implementation of coordinate rotation to convert local system to real-earth system. Total-station survey is a highly effective and accurate method in documenting beach profile changes along low-energy coasts.

  18. First Experimental Results And Improvements On Profile Measurements With The Vibrating Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Arutunian, S G; Dobrovolski, N M; Mailian, M R; Soghoyan, H E; Vasiniuk, I E

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the first experimental results of transverse profile scans using a wire scanner based on a vibrating wire (vibrating wire scanner - VWS). The measurements were performed at the injector electron beam (6 nA) of the Yerevan synchrotron. The beam profile information is obtained by measuring the wire natural oscillations that depend on the wire temperature. This first experiments on weak electron beam proved this new method as a very sensitive tool, even suitable for tail measurements. Additional, improvements were tested to overcome some problems connected with signal conditioning and signal transfer in the presence of electromagnetic noise. As a result the noises were neatly separated and reduced. A mathematical method for rejection of distorted data was developed. Experiments with the scanner at the PETRA accelerator at DESY are planned for measurements of beam tails.

  19. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  20. Treatment of wide-necked aneurysms with the Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS Jr) device: a multicenter experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, J A; Hanel, R A; Dabus, G; Keigher, K; Haussen, D C; Sauvageau, E; Linfante, I; Gonsales, D; Aguilar Salinas, P; Bouslama, M; Mayich, M; Nogueira, R G; Lopes, D K

    2017-11-01

    The Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS) Junior stent is newly approved for the treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. To report our multicenter experience with use of the LVIS Jr device. The neurointerventional databases of the participating institutions were retrospectively reviewed for aneurysms treated with LVIS Jr from the time of Food and Drug Administration approval until February 2016. All patients in the study period were included. Clinical presentation, aneurysm location, aneurysm size, vessel size, procedural complications, clinical and imaging follow-up were included in the analysis. Eighty-five patients (54 female and 31 male) met the inclusion criteria for the study. Sixty-eight (80%) of the aneurysms were unruptured and the remainder were ruptured. The most common location of the treated aneurysms was anterior communicating artery (36%), middle cerebral artery bifurcation (22%), and basilar terminus (15%). The mean aneurysm size was 6.1 mm. The mean minimum parent vessel size was 2.3 mm. The LVIS Jr was successfully deployed in all but one case (99%). Initial angiographic results demonstrated Roy-Raymond class 1-2 occlusions in 61/84 patients (73%). At 6 months, 85% of the patients seen at follow-up had Roy-Raymond class 1-2 aneurysm occlusion. No procedure-related deaths occurred. Two cases of procedure-related complications (intraprocedural rupture and delayed rupture at day 2) were seen, leading to permanent neurologic morbidity. Both these cases were in patients with ruptured aneurysms. The LVIS Jr is a technically feasible, safe, and effective treatment for wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. Early results are promising but will need to be corroborated with longer-term follow-up. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Scanning E-field sensor device for online measurements in annular phased-array systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wust, P; Berger, J; Fähling, H; Nadobny, J; Gellermann, J; Tilly, W; Rau, B; Petermann, K; Felix, R

    1999-03-01

    A measurement device for noninvasive and simultaneous control of antennas during regional radiofrequency (rf) hyperthermia and, subsequently, the estimation of the power distribution in the interior of patients are essential preconditions for further technological progress. Aiming at this, the feasibility of an electro-optical electric field sensor was investigated during clinical rf hyperthermia. The electro-optical electric field (E-field) sensor is based on lithiumniobate crystals and the Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure, and was tested in an earlier phantom study. For this study, a mechanical scanning device was developed allowing the registration of the E-field during clinical application. Data were recorded along a curve in the water bolus of the SIGMA 60 applicator of the annular phased-array system BSD-2000 (BSD Medical Corp., Salt Lake City, UT) close to the base points of the flat biconical dipole antennas. The results were compared with modeling calculations using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. For the latter, different antenna models were assumed. For systematic registration of the E-field curves in amplitude and phase, we employed an elliptical lamp phantom with fat-equivalent ring (filled with saline solution) and an elliptical polyacrylamide phantom with acrylic glass wall. Further measurements were carried out during the treatment of 5 patients with 20 hyperthermia treatments. Data of both phantom and patient measurements can be satisfactorily described by the FDTD method, if the antenna model is refined by taking into account the conical form of the dipoles and the special dielectric environment of the feeding point. Phase deviations can be entered ex posteriori for correction in the calculation algorithm. A comparison of amplifier power measurement (forward and backward power) and bolus E-field scans near the antenna base points demonstrates that E-field measurements between antennas and patient are a necessity for the

  2. Standard practices for verification of displacement measuring systems and devices used in material testing machines

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover procedures and requirements for the calibration and verification of displacement measuring systems by means of standard calibration devices for static and quasi-static testing machines. This practice is not intended to be complete purchase specifications for testing machines or displacement measuring systems. Displacement measuring systems are not intended to be used for the determination of strain. See Practice E83. 1.2 These procedures apply to the verification of the displacement measuring systems associated with the testing machine, such as a scale, dial, marked or unmarked recorder chart, digital display, etc. In all cases the buyer/owner/user must designate the displacement-measuring system(s) to be verified. 1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems m...

  3. Does the effectiveness of control measures depend on the influenza pandemic profile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solen Kernéis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although strategies to contain influenza pandemics are well studied, the characterization and the implications of different geographical and temporal diffusion patterns of the pandemic have been given less attention. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: Using a well-documented metapopulation model incorporating air travel between 52 major world cities, we identified potential influenza pandemic diffusion profiles and examined how the impact of interventions might be affected by this heterogeneity. Clustering methods applied to a set of pandemic simulations, characterized by seven parameters related to the conditions of emergence that were varied following Latin hypercube sampling, were used to identify six pandemic profiles exhibiting different characteristics notably in terms of global burden (from 415 to >160 million of cases and duration (from 26 to 360 days. A multivariate sensitivity analysis showed that the transmission rate and proportion of susceptibles have a strong impact on the pandemic diffusion. The correlation between interventions and pandemic outcomes were analyzed for two specific profiles: a fast, massive pandemic and a slow building, long-lasting one. In both cases, the date of introduction for five control measures (masks, isolation, prophylactic or therapeutic use of antivirals, vaccination correlated strongly with pandemic outcomes. Conversely, the coverage and efficacy of these interventions only moderately correlated with pandemic outcomes in the case of a massive pandemic. Pre-pandemic vaccination influenced pandemic outcomes in both profiles, while travel restriction was the only measure without any measurable effect in either. CONCLUSIONS: our study highlights: (i the great heterogeneity in possible profiles of a future influenza pandemic; (ii the value of being well prepared in every country since a pandemic may have heavy consequences wherever and whenever it starts; (iii the need to quickly implement control

  4. Planar Homojunction Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion: Measurement and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Betavoltaic Energy Conversion : Measurement and Analysis by M Litz, W Ray, J Russo, S Kelley, and J Smith Approved for public...SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Planar Homojunction Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion ...Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion : Measurement and Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  5. Ultrasonic Measurement of Velocity Profile on Bubbly Flow Using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsaroj, W.; Hamdani, A.; Thong-un, N.; Takahashi, H.; Kikura, H.

    2017-10-01

    In two-phase bubbly flow, measurement of liquid and bubble velocity is a necessity to understand fluid characteristic. The conventional ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP), which has been known as a nonintrusive measurement technique, can measure velocity profile of liquid and bubble simultaneously by applying a separation technique for both phases (liquid and bubble) and transparent test section is unnecessary. The aim of this study was to develop a new technique for separating liquid and bubble velocity data in UVP method to measure liquid and bubble velocity profiles separately. The technique employs only single resonant frequency transducer and a simple UVP system. An extra equipment is not required. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based frequency estimator paralleled with other signal processing techniques, which is called as proposed technique, was proposed to measure liquid and bubble velocity separately. The experimental facility of two-phase bubbly flow in the vertical pipe was constructed. Firstly, the Doppler frequency estimation by using the FFT technique was evaluated in single-phase liquid flow. Results showed that FFT technique showed a good agreement with autocorrelation and maximum likelihood estimator. Then, separation of liquid and bubble velocity was demonstrated experimentally in the two-phase bubbly flow. The proposed technique confirmed that liquid and bubble velocity could be measured efficiently.

  6. NEW METHOD FOR ARRANGEMENT OF HIGH-ACCURATE DEVICES FOR MEASURING AND METERING LIQUID AND GAS FLOW RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Zuykov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a development and an industrial implementation of a new method for measuring liquid (water amount passing through measuring devices as a continuous flow by means of rotating blades. An algorithm of the device operation which serves as a basis for the method can be also used for designing devices for metering and control of gas consumption.The given method has its practical application in the electronic water meter developed at the «Elektronika» Plant of the RPC Integral.

  7. Repeatability, reproducibility, agreement characteristics of 2 SD-OCT devices for anterior chamber angle measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Handan; Dastiridou, Anna; Marion, Kenneth; Francis, Brian; Chopra, Vikas

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the agreement, reproducibility, and repeatability of 2 spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) devices in Schwalbe's line (SL)-based anterior chamber angle parameters. The inferior anterior chamber angle of 65 eyes from 65 participants (33 right eyes and 32 left eyes) were scanned twice with the Nidek RS 3000 Advanced SD-OCT and Cirrus SD-OCT. SL angle opening distance (SL-AOD) and SL trabecular-iris-space area (SL-TISA) were graded by masked certified graders at the Doheny Image Reading Center. The mean SL-AOD/SL-TISA was 617.3 ± 237.9 µm/0.211 ± 0.086 mm 2 for the Cirrus and 633.7 ± 219.3 µm/0.218 ± 0.080 mm 2 for the Nidek RS 3000 Advanced SD-OCT. The repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] >0.936) and intergrader reproducibility (ICCs >0.915) in SL-AOD and SL-TISA with Cirrus OCT were excellent. The repeatability (ICCs >0.948) and intergrader reproducibility (ICCs >0.709) in SL-AOD and SL-TISA with the Nidek RS 3000 Advanced SD-OCT were moderate to good. Moderate agreement between the 2 devices was also documented with a mean difference of -15.3 (limits of agreement [LoA] -246.5 to 277.1) mm for SL-AOD and 0.006 (LoA -0.096 to 0.108) mm in SL-TISA. Both devices were able to provide consistent angle measurements, but repeatability and reproducibility were better in Cirrus SD-OCT than in Nidek RS 3000 Advanced SD-OCT. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modelling and Measurements of Bunch Profiles at the LHC Flat Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulou, Stefania; Muller, Juan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Trad, Georges

    2016-01-01

    At the LHC flat bottom the interplay between a series of effects (i.e. intrabeam scattering, longitudinal beam manipulations, non-linearities of the machine, etc) can lead to a population of the tails of the beam distributions, which may become non-Gaussian. This paper presents observations of the evolution of particle distributions in the LHC flat bottom. Novel distribution functions are employed to represent the beam profiles, and used as a guideline for generalising emittance growth rate estimations due to IBS. Finally, an attempt is made to benchmark an IBS Monte-Carlo simulation code, able to track 3D particle distributions, with the measured beam profile evolutions.

  9. Complete methodology on generating realistic wind speed profiles based on measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavriluta, Catalin; Spataru, Sergiu; Mosincat, Ioan

    2012-01-01

    The wind speed represents the main exogenous signal applied to a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) and determines its behavior. The erratic variation of the wind speed, highly dependent on the given site and on the atmospheric conditions, makes the wind speed quite difficult to model. Moreover......, wind modelling for medium and large time scales is poorly treated in the present literature. This paper presents methods for generating realistic wind speed profiles based on real measurements. The wind speed profile is divided in a low- frequency component (describing long term variations...... and modelling methods based on white noise filtering are presented....

  10. On mean wind and turbulence profile measurements from ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Two types of wind lidar?s have become available for ground-based vertical mean wind and turbulence profiling. A continuous wave (CW) wind lidar, and a pulsed wind lidar. Although they both are build upon the same recent 1.55 μ telecom fibre technology, they possess fundamental differences between...... their temporal and spatial resolution capabilities. A literature review of the two lidar systems spatial and temporal resolution characteristics will be presented, and the implication for the two lidar types vertical profile measurements of mean wind and turbulence in the lower atmospheric boundary layer...

  11. Creating a driving profile for older adults using GPS devices and naturalistic driving methodology [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh M. Babulal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Road tests and driving simulators are most commonly used in research studies and clinical evaluations of older drivers. Our objective was to describe the process and associated challenges in adapting an existing, commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS, in-vehicle device for naturalistic, longitudinal research to better understand daily driving behavior in older drivers. Design: The Azuga G2 Tracking DeviceTM was installed in each participant’s vehicle, and we collected data over 5 months (speed, latitude/longitude every 30-seconds when the vehicle was driven.  Setting: The Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Washington University School of Medicine. Participants: Five individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal study assessing preclinical Alzheimer disease and driving performance.  Participants were aged 65+ years and had normal cognition. Measurements:  Spatial components included Primary Location(s, Driving Areas, Mean Centers and Unique Destinations.  Temporal components included number of trips taken during different times of the day.  Behavioral components included number of hard braking, speeding and sudden acceleration events. Methods:  Individual 30-second observations, each comprising one breadcrumb, and trip-level data were collected and analyzed in R and ArcGIS.  Results: Primary locations were confirmed to be 100% accurate when compared to known addresses.  Based on the locations of the breadcrumbs, we were able to successfully identify frequently visited locations and general travel patterns.  Based on the reported time from the breadcrumbs, we could assess number of trips driven in daylight vs. night.  Data on additional events while driving allowed us to compute the number of adverse driving alerts over the course of the 5-month period. Conclusions: Compared to cameras and highly instrumented vehicle in other naturalistic studies, the compact COTS device was quickly installed and

  12. The PMA Scale: A Measure of Physicians' Motivation to Adopt Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatz, Maximilian H M; Sonnenschein, Tim; Blankart, Carl Rudolf

    2017-04-01

    Studies have often stated that individual-level determinants are important drivers for the adoption of medical devices. Empirical evidence supporting this claim is, however, scarce. At the individual level, physicians' adoption motivation was often considered important in the context of adoption decisions, but a clear notion of its dimensions and corresponding measurement scales is not available. To develop and subsequently validate a scale to measure the motivation to adopt medical devices of hospital-based physicians. The development and validation of the physician-motivation-adoption (PMA) scale were based on a literature search, internal expert meetings, a pilot study with physicians, and a three-stage online survey. The data collected in the online survey were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and the PMA scale was revised according to the results. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the results from the EFA in the third stage. Reliability and validity tests and subgroup analyses were also conducted. Overall, 457 questionnaires were completed by medical personnel of the National Health Service England. The EFA favored a six-factor solution to appropriately describe physicians' motivation. The CFA confirmed the results from the EFA. Our tests indicated good reliability and validity of the PMA scale. This is the first reliable and valid scale to measure physicians' adoption motivation. Future adoption studies assessing the individual level should include the PMA scale to obtain more information about the role of physicians' motivation in the broader adoption context. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Model for Converting Solid State Fermentation Growth Profiles Between Absolute and Relative Measurement Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Viccini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed for converting between the two measurement bases commonly used in the construction of growth profiles in solid-state fermentation, namely absolute mass ratio m(dry biomass/m(initial dry matter and relative mass ratio m(dry biomass/m(dry matter. These are not equivalent, due to the loss of dry matter as CO2 during the fermentation. The model is equally applicable to any biomass component used in indirect measurements of growth, such as protein. Use of the model to convert absolute mass ratio of the biomass profiles for the growth of Rhizopus oligosporus to a relative basis gave profiles that agreed well with the experimentally determined relative biomass profiles. This agreement was obtained for three different fermentations using the same set of parameter values in the model, namely a yield coefficient of m(protein/m(dry substrate = 0.2 g/g and a maintenance coefficient of zero, giving confidence in the reliability of the model. The model was then used to show that the measurement basis used can affect the form of the curve and therefore can also affect the conclusion drawn about the type of kinetics shown by the organism, with the extent of this effect depending on the length of time that growth occurs and the values of the yield and maintenance coefficients. This work shows that great care must be taken in drawing conclusions about growth kinetics in solid-state fermentation.

  14. Vertical profile measurements of ozone at Lauder, New Zealand, during ASHOE/MAESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Thomas J.; Gross, Michael; Singh, Upendra; Kimvilakani, Patrick; Matthews, Andrew; Bodeker, Gregory; Connor, Brian; Tsou, J. J.; Proffitt, Michael; Margitan, James

    1997-06-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center stratospheric ozone lidar was deployed at the National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) facility at Lauder, New Zealand (45°S, 169°E), during all four of the Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment/Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (ASHOE/MAESA) flight periods. The site is about 500 km south of Christchurch. Efforts were made to acquire lidar data before dawn and after sunset on the days the ER-2 was flown. A total of 79 measurements were made on 47 individual nights. Each measurement provided vertical profiles of aerosols, temperature, and ozone. Profiles begin at ˜8 km and extend to 35, 50-55, and 75 km for aerosols, ozone, and temperature, respectively. NIWA personnel launched electrochemical concentration cell ozonesondes on a number of these occasions. A summary of these data will be presented along with comparisons with data from ER-2 instruments. Average profiles for each of the four ASHOE/MAESA deployments were constructed for use as a climatological profile for model initialization.

  15. A new device for measuring resting energy expenditure (REE) in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolti, Marcella; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Dugoni, Manfredo; Poli, Marco; Romagnoli, Elisa; De Cristofaro, Paolo; Battistini, Nino C

    2007-06-01

    Lifestyle change targeted towards increasing daily resting energy expenditure (REE) is one of the cornerstones of obesity treatment. Measurements of energy expenditure and substrate utilization are essential to understanding the metabolic basis of obesity, and the physiological responses to perturbations in habitual food intake. REE is the largest part of human energy expenditure (60-70%) and an increase or decrease in REE would have a large impact on total energy. Accurate and easy-to-use methods for measuring REE are needed, to be applied by clinicians in daily clinical settings to assess the validity of a new instrument to estimate REE in normal weight, healthy adults. Ninety-nine subjects (52 females and 47 males) (mean+/-SD, age 38+/-14 years; body mass index (BMI) 23+/-3 kg/m(2)) were tested. REE was assessed using a Sensor Medics Vmax metabolic cart with a ventilated canopy and with the SenseWear armband. Body composition, percentage fat mass (%FM) and percentage fat free mass (%FFM) were assessed by skinfold thickness measurements (SF), bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) and air displacement plethysmography (BOD-POD). No significant difference was found among measurements of FFM using the three different techniques. Both SenseWear and Sensor Medics Vmax showed a high correlation, r=0.42 and r=0.40 (pBOD-POD correlated with SenseWear (r=0.42, pBOD-POD provide valid and reliable measurements of FFM. Our results suggest that the SenseWear armband is an acceptable device to accurately measure REE in healthy subjects. Its characteristics have the potential to reduce measurement times and make the SenseWear armband useful for epidemiological studies.

  16. Measurement of impulse peak insertion loss for four hearing protection devices in field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William J.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Sondergaard, Jacob; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Khan, Amir; Vernon, Julia; Stewart, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed an impulse noise reduction rating (NRR) for hearing protection devices based upon the impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) methods in the ANSI S12.42-2010 standard. This study tests the ANSI S12.42 methods with a range of hearing protection devices measured in field conditions. Design The method utilizes an acoustic test fixture and three ranges for impulse levels: 130–134, 148–152, and 166–170 dB peak SPL. For this study, four different models of hearing protectors were tested: Bilsom 707 Impact II electronic earmuff, E·A·R Pod Express, E·A·R Combat Arms version 4, and the Etymotic Research, Inc. Electronic BlastPLG™ EB1. Study sample Five samples of each protector were fitted on the fixture or inserted in the fixture's ear canal five times for each impulse level. Impulses were generated by a 0.223 caliber rifle. Results The average IPILs increased with peak pressure and ranged between 20 and 38 dB. For some protectors, significant differences were observed across protector examples of the same model, and across insertions. Conclusions The EPA's proposed methods provide consistent and reproducible results. The proposed impulse NRR rating should utilize the minimum and maximum protection percentiles as determined by the ANSI S12.42-2010 methods. PMID:22176308

  17. Signal-to-Noise Ratio Measures Efficacy of Biological Computing Devices and Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Engineering biological cells to perform computations has a broad range of important potential applications, including precision medical therapies, biosynthesis process control, and environmental sensing. Implementing predictable and effective computation, however, has been extremely difficult to date, due to a combination of poor composability of available parts and of insufficient characterization of parts and their interactions with the complex environment in which they operate. In this paper, the author argues that this situation can be improved by quantitative signal-to-noise analysis of the relationship between computational abstractions and the variation and uncertainty endemic in biological organisms. This analysis takes the form of a ΔSNRdB function for each computational device, which can be computed from measurements of a device’s input/output curve and expression noise. These functions can then be combined to predict how well a circuit will implement an intended computation, as well as evaluating the general suitability of biological devices for engineering computational circuits. Applying signal-to-noise analysis to current repressor libraries shows that no library is currently sufficient for general circuit engineering, but also indicates key targets to remedy this situation and vastly improve the range of computations that can be used effectively in the implementation of biological applications. PMID:26177070

  18. Measurement of impulse peak insertion loss for four hearing protection devices in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William J; Flamme, Gregory A; Meinke, Deanna K; Sondergaard, Jacob; Finan, Donald S; Lankford, James E; Khan, Amir; Vernon, Julia; Stewart, Michael

    2012-02-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed an impulse noise reduction rating (NRR) for hearing protection devices based upon the impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) methods in the ANSI S12.42-2010 standard. This study tests the ANSI S12.42 methods with a range of hearing protection devices measured in field conditions. The method utilizes an acoustic test fixture and three ranges for impulse levels: 130-134, 148-152, and 166-170 dB peak SPL. For this study, four different models of hearing protectors were tested: Bilsom 707 Impact II electronic earmuff, E·A·R Pod Express, E·A·R Combat Arms version 4, and the Etymotic Research, Inc. Electronic BlastPLG™ EB1. Five samples of each protector were fitted on the fixture or inserted in the fixture's ear canal five times for each impulse level. Impulses were generated by a 0.223 caliber rifle. The average IPILs increased with peak pressure and ranged between 20 and 38 dB. For some protectors, significant differences were observed across protector examples of the same model, and across insertions. The EPA's proposed methods provide consistent and reproducible results. The proposed impulse NRR rating should utilize the minimum and maximum protection percentiles as determined by the ANSI S12.42-2010 methods.

  19. Portable Load Measurement Device for Use During ARED Exercise on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A.; Peters, B.; Caldwell, E.; Sinka, J.; Kreutzburg, G.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) (Fig.1) is unique countermeasure hardware available to crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS) used for resistance exercise training to protect against bone and muscle loss during long duration space missions. ARED instrumentation system was designed to measure and record exercise load data, but: - Reliably accurate data has not been available due to a defective force platform. - No ARED data has been recorded since mid-2011 due to failures in the instrumentation power system. ARED load data supports on-going HRP funded research, and is available to extramural researchers through LSDA-Repository. Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Rehabilitation specialists (ASCRs) use ARED data to track training progress and advance exercise prescriptions. ARED load data is necessary to fulfill medical requirements. HRP directed task intends to reduce to program risk (HRP IRMA Risk 1735), and evaluate the XSENS ForceShoeTM as a means of obtaining ARED load data during exercise sessions. The XSENS ForceShoes"TM" will fly as a hardware demonstration to ISS in May 2014 (39S). Additional portable load monitoring devices (PLMDs) are under evaluation in the ExPC Lab. PLMDs are favored over platform redesign as they support future exploration needs.

  20. Evolution of the Sensor Fish Device for Measuring Physical Conditions in Severe Hydraulic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.

    2003-02-28

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new ''fish-friendly'' turbines, and spillway designs and operations, scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. The Sensor Fish was developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine System program. Field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  1. Evolution of the sensor fish device for measuring physical conditions in sever hydraulic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, J. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2003-03-01

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new “fish-friendly” turbines, and spillway designs and operations, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. This report discusses the development and field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River, which have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  2. Measurement of subcellular morphology by light scatter filtering with a digital micromirror device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, Robert M.; Qian, Zhen; Zheng, Jing-Yi; Boustany, Nada N.

    2009-02-01

    Light scattering methods for assessing structural properties of cells and tissues quantitatively measure morphometric parameters directly without the need for staining. We demonstrate an optical scattering filtering method used in a biological setting that is sensitive to quantifying object orientation and aspect ratio. These parameters are measured in cells both sensitive to and resistant to mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, the latter having been demonstrated to have shorter mitochondria than apoptosis competent cells. The implementation of the digital micromirror device (DMD) allows for robust filtering of the scatter data, which we implement with Gabor-like filters chosen for their ability to intelligently confine the filter response both in the image and in the scatter regimes. By strategically applying Gabor-like filters to the specific frequencies and orientations in the scatter data, relative changes in object size, orientation and aspect ratio may be derived. Furthermore, using a DMD and filtering the optical scatter data in analog allows us to decouple image resolution from frequency resolution and measure these parameters with high sensitivity for objects within the resolution of the optical system despite an undersampled, lower resolution digital image. As a result, this measurement may be made at lower magnifications with higher throughput and ultimately on a larger population of living and unstained cells imaged simultaneously.

  3. Short report: evaluation of a simple and inexpensive photometric device for the measurement of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrmann, Steffen; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Esser, Gilbert; Trinkle, Cordula; Issifou, Saadou; Grobusch, Martin P; Krishna, Sanjeev; Kremsner, Peter G

    2004-11-01

    We have evaluated the accuracy of a simple and inexpensive photometric device (DHT) for the estimation of the blood concentration of hemoglobin by comparison with an automated, high-resolution, flow cytometry-based hematology analyzer (CellDyn 3000) and a centrifugal quantitative buffy coat hematology system (QBC I). We have analyzed the hemoglobin values of 163 individual blood samples. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the methods agreed only poorly: mean differences were 1.0 g/dL with limits of agreement (LOA) of -1.2 g/dL to 3.2 g/dL for the comparison of DHT and CellDyn measurements, 0.5 g/dL with LOA of -2.0 g/dL to 3.0 g/dL for the comparison of DHT with QBC measurements, and 0.5 g/dL with LOA of -1.1 g/dL to 2.1 g/dL for the comparison of QBC with CellDyn measurements. We conclude that the poor agreement of the DHT with the CellDyn does not permit the use of the DHT for critical hemoglobin measurements, particularly in transfusion services.

  4. Design and Development of Emittance Measurement Device by Using the Pepper-pot Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakluea, S.; Rimjaem, S.

    2017-09-01

    Transverse emittance of a charged particle beam is one of the most important properties that reveals the quality of the beam. It is related to charge density, transvers size and angular displacement of the beam in transverse phase space. There are several techniques to measure the transverse emittance value. One of practical methods is the pepper-pot technique, which can measure both horizontal and vertical emittance value in a single measurement. This research concentrates on development of a pepper-pot device to measure the transverse emittance of electron beam produced from an accelerator injector system, which consists of a thermionic cathode RF electron gun and an alpha magnet, at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University. Simulation of beam dynamics was conducted with programs PARMELA, ELEGANT and self-developed codes using C and MATLAB. The geometry, dimensions and location of the pepper-pot as well as its corresponding screen station position were included in the simulation. The result from this study will be used to design and develop a practical pepper-pot experimental station.

  5. Designing and Implementing Bioimpedance Spectroscopy Device by Measuring Impedance in a Mouse Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastjerdi, Houman Mirzaalian; Soltanzadeh, Ramin; Rabbani, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that any complications including hemorrhage, lack of blood supply, lack of oxygen supply and death of cells in a tissue, will have a clear effect on electrical properties of that tissue. Thus, by measuring impedance of a set of tissues, potential problems of the damaged tissue may be found. Since electrical impedance is closely related to the measuring frequency, obviously, every tissue exhibits its own specific impedance according to its electrical properties at each frequency. This research project investigates design and manufacture method of a device for measuring tissue impedance at different frequencies. To this end, design of a multi frequency sinusoidal current source is required. This current source is built using a single harmonic Generator sample (Direct Digital Synthesizer AD9835) with working frequency (design-point frequency) between 1 Hz and 10 MHz and accuracy of 1 Hz and microcontroller (PIC16F628) capability. For measurement and display of tissue impedance, ARM AT91SAMs256 microcontroller was used. Thus, with this hardware created, it shows that there are significant impedance changes between mouse tissues. PMID:24672768

  6. Modeling and Measuring the Interaction between Hydrokinetic Devices and the Hydraulic and Sedimentary Environment of the Tanana River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravens, T. M.; Kartezhnikova, M.; Edgerly, E.; Opsahl, B.; Hansen, N.; Kasper, J.; Schmid, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report on our efforts to model and measure the interaction between hydrokinetic (HK) devices and the hydraulic and sedimentary environment of the Tanana River, by Nenana Alaska. The Tanana River, by Nenana Alaska, has an open-water median flow rate of about 1325 m3/s, a width of about 200 m, a maximum depth of about 9 m, peak flow velocities of about 2.5 m/s, and suspended sediment concentrations as high as 2 g/L. Preliminary modeling of the hydraulic impact of a 45 KW cross-flow-style HK turbine using SNL-EFDC software found that the device raised water levels upstream of the device by about 0.5 cm. It also led to reductions in velocity of about 0.05 m and enhancements of about 0.01 m/s. In this paper, we will report on ongoing efforts to model the corresponding sedimentary impacts of HK devices at this location. In late August of 2014, a 15 KW open-center-style hydrokinetic turbine (manufactured by Oceana Energy Corporation) was deployed for a three week period at the Tanana River site. Device performance (e.g., power generation and angular frequency (rpm's)) were monitored along with environmental parameters including: velocity as a function of depth upstream and downstream of the device, turbulence at "hub elevation" upstream and downstream of the device, suspended sediment concentration upstream and downstream of the device, and sediment bed elevation before and after testing. In this paper, we will report on all of these data as well as data on the abrasion of device components. Further, we will present data on the dependence of device coefficient of performance and turbulence intensity. Finally, we will compare modeled and measured hydraulic and sedimentary impacts of the HK device.

  7. Traceable working standards with SI units of radiance for characterizing the measurement performance of investigational clinical NIRF imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Litorja, Maritoni; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-03-01

    All medical devices for Food and Drug market approval require specifications of performance based upon International System of Units (SI) or units derived from SI for reasons of traceability. Recently, near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging devices of a variety of designs have emerged on the market and in investigational clinical studies. Yet the design of devices used in the clinical studies vary widely, suggesting variable device performance. Device performance depends upon optimal excitation of NIRF imaging agents, rejection of backscattered excitation and ambient light, and selective collection of fluorescence emanating from the fluorophore. There remains no traceable working standards with SI units of radiance to enable prediction that a given molecular imaging agent can be detected in humans by a given NIRF imaging device. Furthermore, as technologies evolve and as NIRF imaging device components change, there remains no standardized means to track device improvements over time and establish clinical performance without involving clinical trials, often costly. In this study, we deployed a methodology to calibrate luminescent radiance of a stable, solid phantom in SI units of mW/cm2/sr for characterizing the measurement performance of ICCD and IsCMOS camera based NIRF imaging devices, such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast. The methodology allowed determination of superior SNR of the ICCD over the IsCMOS system; comparable contrast of ICCD and IsCMOS depending upon binning strategies.

  8. The substance use risk profile scale: a scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woicik, P.A.; Stewart, S.H.; Pihl, R.O.; Conrod, P.J.

    2009-12-01

    The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is based on a model of personality risk for substance abuse in which four personality dimensions (hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) are hypothesized to differentially relate to specific patterns of substance use. The current series of studies is a preliminary exploration of the psychometric properties of the SURPS in two populations (undergraduate and high school students). In study 1, an analysis of the internal structure of two versions of the SURPS shows that the abbreviated version best reflects the 4-factor structure. Concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the SURPS is supported by convergent/divergent relationships between the SURPS subscales and other theoretically relevant personality and drug use criterion measures. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the SURPS is confirmed and evidence is provided for its test-retest reliability and validity with respect to measuring personality vulnerability to reinforcement-specific substance use patterns. In Study 3, the SURPS was administered in a more youthful population to test its sensitivity in identifying younger problematic drinkers. The results from the current series of studies demonstrate support for the reliability and construct validity of the SURPS, and suggest that four personality dimensions may be linked to substance-related behavior through different reinforcement processes. This brief assessment tool may have important implications for clinicians and future research.

  9. Atmospheric boundary layer wind profile at a flat coastal site – wind speed lidar measurements and mesoscale modeling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Wind profiles up to 600m height are investigated. Measurements of mean wind speed profiles were obtained from a novel wind lidar and compared to model simulations from a mesoscale model (WRFARW v3.1). It is found that WRF is able to predict the mean wind profile rather well and typically within 1......–2ms−1 to the individual measured values. WRF underpredicts the normalized wind profile, especially for stable conditions. The effect of baroclinicity on the upper part of the wind profile is discussed....

  10. Comparison of light scattering devices and impactors for particulate measurements in indoor, outdoor, and personal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J Sally; Slaughter, James C; Larson, Timothy V

    2002-07-01

    Short-term monitoring of individual particulate matter (PM) exposures on subjects and inside residences in health effect studies have been sparse due to the lack of adequate monitoring devices. The recent development of small and portable light scattering devices, including the Radiance nephelometer (neph) and the personal DataRAM (pDR) has made this monitoring possible. This paper evaluates the performance of both the passive pDR and neph (without any size fractionation inlet) against measurements from both Harvard impactors (HI2.5) and Harvard personal environmental monitors (HPEM2.5) for PM2.5 in indoor, outdoor, and personal settings. These measurements were taken at the residences and on the person of nonsmoking elderly subjects across the metropolitan Seattle area and represent a wide range of light scattering measurements directly related to exposures and health effects. At low PM levels, nephs provided finer resolution and more precise measurements (precision = 3-8% and uncertainty = 2.8 x 10(-7) m(-1) or <1 microg/m3) than the pDRs. The unbiased precision of pDRs above 10 microg/m3 is around 5% (with an unbiased uncertainty of 4.4 microg/m3). The 24-h average responses of the pDR and neph, as compared to 24-h integrated gravimetric measurements, are not affected by indoor sources of PM. When regressed against 24-h gravimetric measurements, nephs showed higher coefficients of determination (R2 = 0.81-0.93) than pDRs (R2 = 0.77-0.84). The default mass calibration on the pDRs generally overestimated indoor HI2.5 measurements by 56%. When carried by subjects, the pDR overestimated the HPEM2.5 measurements by approximately 27%. Collocated real-time indoor nephs and pDRs at diverse residential sites had varied coefficients of determination across homes (R2 = 0.75-0.96), and the difference between pDR and neph responses increased during cooking hours. This difference was larger during baking or frying episodes than during other cooking or cleaning activities

  11. Optical measurement of static temperature and hydroxyl radical profiles in a hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Profiles of static temperature and hydroxyl radical concentration were measured in a two-dimensional supersonic combustor test section 22.8 cm downstream of hydrogen injection. A high-pressure gas generator supplied vitiated air to the test section at Mach 2.44, atmospheric pressure, and a total temperature of about 2240 K. Room-temperature hydrogen was injected through a 0.40-cm step slot at Mach 1 and matched pressure. The measurements utilized a noninterfering spectral line absorption technique in which narrow ultraviolet emission lines of the hydroxyl electronic transition are absorbed by the broader absorption lines in the combustion gas. Comparison of the measured temperature profiles with theoretical calculations showed good agreement.

  12. Comparison of the inversion algorithms applied to the ozone vertical profile retrieval from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rozanov

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to an intercomparison of ozone vertical profiles retrieved from the measurements of scattered solar radiation performed by the SCIAMACHY instrument in the limb viewing geometry. Three different inversion algorithms including the prototype of the operational Level 1 to 2 processor to be operated by the European Space Agency are considered. Unlike usual validation studies, this comparison removes the uncertainties arising when comparing measurements made by different instruments probing slightly different air masses and focuses on the uncertainties specific to the modeling-retrieval problem only. The intercomparison was performed for 5 selected orbits of SCIAMACHY showing a good overall agreement of the results in the middle stratosphere, whereas considerable discrepancies were identified in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere altitude region. Additionally, comparisons with ground-based lidar measurements are shown for selected profiles demonstrating an overall correctness of the retrievals.

  13. Measurements and modeling of the wind profile up to 600 meters at a flat coastal site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This study shows long-term ABL wind profile features by comparing long-range wind lidar measurements and the output from a mesoscale model. The study is based on one-year pulsed lidar (Wind Cube 70) measurements of wind speed and direction from 100 to 600 meters with vertical resolution of 50...... as function of height. It is found that 1) WRF is generally under predicting both the profiles of the measured wind speed, direction and power density, 2) the scatter of observations to model results of the wind speed does not change significantly with height between 100 and 600 meters, and 3) the scale (A...... meters and time resolution of 10 minutes at a coastal site on the West coast of Denmark and WRF ARW (NCAR) simulations for the same period. The model evaluation is performed based on wind speed, wind direction, as well as statistical parameters of the Weibull distribution of the wind speed time series...

  14. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Central Illinois and Comparison with Surface and Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan P. J.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J A.; Tackett, J. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over eastern and central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1) measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2) relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. Underflights of the CALIPSO satellite show reasonable agreement in a majority of retrieved profiles between aircraft-measured extinction at 532 nm (adjusted to ambient relative humidity) and CALIPSO-retrieved extinction, and suggest that routine aircraft profiling programs can be used to better understand and validate satellite retrieval algorithms. CALIPSO tended to overestimate the aerosol extinction at this location in some boundary layer flight segments when scattered or broken clouds were present, which could be related to problems with CALIPSO cloud screening methods. The in situ aircraft-collected aerosol data suggest extinction thresholds for the likelihood of aerosol layers being detected by the CALIOP lidar. These statistical data offer guidance as to the likelihood of CALIPSO's ability to retrieve aerosol extinction at various locations around the globe.

  15. Technical Note: Robust measurement of the slice-sensitivity profile in breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Aili K; Mainprize, James G; Yaffe, Martin J

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to improve the repeatability of the measurement of the slice-sensitivity profile (SSP) in reconstructed breast tomosynthesis volumes. A grid of aluminum ball-bearings (BBs) within a PMMA phantom was imaged on breast tomosynthesis systems from three different manufacturers. The full-width half-maximum (FWHM) values were measured for the SSPs of the BBs in the reconstructed volumes. The effect of transforming the volumes from a Cartesian coordinate system (CCS) to a cone-beam coordinate system (CBCS) on the variability in the FWHM values was assessed. Transforming the volumes from a CCS to a CBCS before measuring the SSPs reduced the coefficient of variation (COV) in the measurements of FWHM in repeated measurements by 56% and reduced the dependence of the FWHM values on the location of the BBs within the reconstructed volume by 76%. Measuring the SSP in the volumes in a CBCS improves the robustness of the measurement.

  16. The Icare HOME (TA022) Study: Performance of an Intraocular Pressure Measuring Device for Self-Tonometry by Glaucoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Lucy I; LaBarre, Sophie; Varadaraj, Varshini; Karakus, Sezen; Onnela, Jouni; Munoz, Beatriz; Friedman, David S

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the Icare HOME (TA022) device (Icare Oy, Vanda, Finland) for use by glaucoma patients for self-tonometry. Prospective performance evaluation of a medical device. One hundred eighty-nine participants with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma were recruited from the Wilmer Eye Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, between July 2014 and April 2015. Participants had standardized training and had to be able use the Icare HOME device independently. Subjects also had to be able to obtain the first intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement within 5 mmHg of Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). Those certified obtained 3 IOP measures using the HOME device, and these were compared with Icare TA01i and GAT IOP measurements. The agreement between Icare HOME and reference tonometers was used to assess precision. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess within-patient reliability for the HOME device. Eighteen of 189 recruited patients were ineligible to take part in the study. Forty-four of 171 patients (25.7%) started but failed to complete the study: 7 stopped because of time concerns, 10 of 171 patients (6%) stopped because of difficulty using the device during certification, and 27 of 171 patients (16%) failed to be certified based on IOP. The HOME and GAT measurements agreed within 5 mmHg in 116 of 127 participants (91.3%); 2 participants (1.6%) had a difference of more than 7 mmHg. The mean difference between the Icare HOME and GAT measurements was -0.33 mmHg (standard deviation, 3.11 mmHg). The overall intraclass correlation coefficient for the HOME device was 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.95). Not all participants could learn how to use the Icare HOME device, but for those who could, most were able to obtain measurements similar to those obtained by GAT. The Icare HOME device is safe and reliable for self-tonometry, but nearly 1 in 6 individuals may fail to certify in use of the device based on large differences in IOP when comparing GAT with the

  17. Finite-size analysis of measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography with continuous variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Panagiotis; Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    We study the impact of finite-size effects on the key rate of continuous-variable (CV) measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum key distribution (QKD), considering two-mode Gaussian attacks. Inspired by the parameter estimation technique developed in by Ruppert et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 062310 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.062310], we adapt it to study CV-MDI-QKD and, assuming realistic experimental conditions, we analyze the impact of finite-size effects on the key rate. We find that the performance of the protocol approaches the ideal one, increasing the block size, and, most importantly, that blocks between 106 and 109 data points may provide key rates ˜10-2 bit/use over metropolitan distances.

  18. LED-Based Optical Device for Chronic In Vivo Cerebral Blood Volume Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Marshall P; Ma, Hongtao; Bahlke, Matthias E; Beck, Jonathan H; Schwartz, Theodore H; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a reflectivity-based cerebral blood volume sensor comprised of surface-mount light-emitting diodes on a flexible substrate with integrated photodetectors in a form factor suitable for direct brain contact and chronic implantation. This reflectivity monitor is able to measure blood flow through the change of the surface reflectivity and, through this mechanism, detect the cerebral-blood-volume changes associated with epileptic seizures with a signal-to-noise (SNR) response of 42 dB. The device is tested in an in vivo model confirming its compatibility and sensitivity. The data taken demonstrate that placing the sensor into direct brain contact improves the SNR by more than four orders of magnitude over current noncontact technologies.

  19. Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over Untrustful Metropolitan Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum cryptography holds the promise to establish an information-theoretically secure global network. All field tests of metropolitan-scale quantum networks to date are based on trusted relays. The security critically relies on the accountability of the trusted relays, which will break down if the relay is dishonest or compromised. Here, we construct a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD network in a star topology over a 200-square-kilometer metropolitan area, which is secure against untrustful relays and against all detection attacks. In the field test, our system continuously runs through one week with a secure key rate 10 times larger than previous results. Our results demonstrate that the MDIQKD network, combining the best of both worlds—security and practicality, constitutes an appealing solution to secure metropolitan communications.

  20. The zero-flux DC current transformer a high precision bipolar wide- band measuring device

    CERN Document Server

    Appelo, H C

    1977-01-01

    A current-carrying conductor is surrounded by a pair of ring cores. A sense winding on one core provides flux rate feedback to a power amplifier which drives the ampere-turn compensating current through a common compensating winding. The other core serves as a second- harmonic modulator to establish zero-flux operation and thus to ensure a perfect, temperature-independent current balance. A specially- developed burden resistor converts the compensating current into a voltage signal, which is amplified to give an 10 V output signal at the nominal value of the current to be measured. A substantial number of devices, ranging from 50 to 25000 Amperes is now operational in the beam transfer and extraction power supplies to the CERN SPS. (4 refs).