WorldWideScience

Sample records for profile maps stacked

  1. Mapping the Stacks: Sustainability and User Experience of Animated Maps in Library Discovery Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Bill; Gibson, Sally; MacDonald, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Animated maps of the library stacks were integrated into the catalog interface at Pratt Institute and into the EBSCO Discovery Service interface at Illinois State University. The mapping feature was developed for optimal automation of the update process to enable a range of library personnel to update maps and call-number ranges. The development…

  2. Fast static field CIPT mapping of unpatterned MRAM film stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    While investigating uniformity of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stacks we find experimentally and analytically that variation in the resistance area product (RA) is more important to monitor as compared to the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), which is less sensitive to MTJ variability. The standard...... Current In-Plane Tunneling (CIPT) method measures both RA and TMR, but the usefulness for uniformity mapping, e.g. for tool optimization, is limited by excessive measurement time. Thus, we develop and demonstrate a fast complementary static magnetic field method focused only on measurement of RA. We...

  3. Le profil SVP : sismique au voisinage du puits The Wvp (Well Vicinity Profiling Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondin E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'augmentation de l'investigation latérale du PSV (profil sismique vertical et le calage de la sismique de surface au puits peuvent être améliorés en combinant un profil sismique réflexion de surface d'une mise en oeuvre particulière (à base réceptrice fixe appelé SVP (sismique au voisinage du puits et un profil sismique vertical. Dans cette mise en oeuvre combinée, la sonde n'est immobilisée que pour le temps d'acquisition du PSV. L'utilisation d'une base sismique réceptrice fixe rend la mise en oeuvre du profil SVP légère et peu onéreuse. Les résultats obtenus montrent que les résolutions verticales du profil SVP et du PSV sont équivalentes. L'investigation latérale de cette mise en oeuvre mixte est de plusieurs centaines de mètres quelle que soit la profondeur. Cette recherche méthodologique a été réalisée en collaboration avec Gaz de France. Increasing the lateral range of investigation of VSP (vertical seismic profiling and the calibration of surface seismic profiles with well geological horizons can be improved by combining a surface seismic profile having a specific implementation (with a fixed receiving base called WVP (well vicinity profiling and a vertical seismic profile. In this combined implementation, the drilling rig is immobilized only for the acquisition time of the VSP. The use of a fixed seismic receiving base makes the implementation of the WVP stack light and inexpensive. The results obtained show that the vertical resolutions of the WVP stack and of the VSP are the same. The lateral range of investigation of this mixed implementation is several hundred meters no matter what the depth may be. This methodological research was done in collaboration with Gaz de France.

  4. Improving automated disturbance maps using snow-covered landsat time series stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk M. Stueve; Ian W. Housman; Patrick L. Zimmerman; Mark D. Nelson; Jeremy Webb; Charles H. Perry; Robert A. Chastain; Dale D. Gormanson; Chengquan Huang; Sean P. Healey; Warren B. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Snow-covered winter Landsat time series stacks are used to develop a nonforest mask to enhance automated disturbance maps produced by the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT). This method exploits the enhanced spectral separability between forested and nonforested areas that occurs with sufficient snow cover. This method resulted in significant improvements in Vegetation...

  5. Improved fluid mixing and power density in reverse electrodialysis stacks with chevron-profiled membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlowski, Sylwin; Rijnaarts, Timon; Saakes, Michel; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Crespo, João G.; Velizarov, Svetlozar

    2017-01-01

    Spacer-less RED stacks using membranes with integrated spacer profiles have been investigated during the last years to eliminate the spacer shadow effect. The presence of spacers partially blocks the membrane surface and creates a tortuous and thus longer path for ions in the channel, meaning higher

  6. Intelligent inversion method for pre-stack seismic big data based on MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Wu, Qinghua

    2018-01-01

    Seismic exploration is a method of oil exploration that uses seismic information; that is, according to the inversion of seismic information, the useful information of the reservoir parameters can be obtained to carry out exploration effectively. Pre-stack data are characterised by a large amount of data, abundant information, and so on, and according to its inversion, the abundant information of the reservoir parameters can be obtained. Owing to the large amount of pre-stack seismic data, existing single-machine environments have not been able to meet the computational needs of the huge amount of data; thus, the development of a method with a high efficiency and the speed to solve the inversion problem of pre-stack seismic data is urgently needed. The optimisation of the elastic parameters by using a genetic algorithm easily falls into a local optimum, which results in a non-obvious inversion effect, especially for the optimisation effect of the density. Therefore, an intelligent optimisation algorithm is proposed in this paper and used for the elastic parameter inversion of pre-stack seismic data. This algorithm improves the population initialisation strategy by using the Gardner formula and the genetic operation of the algorithm, and the improved algorithm obtains better inversion results when carrying out a model test with logging data. All of the elastic parameters obtained by inversion and the logging curve of theoretical model are fitted well, which effectively improves the inversion precision of the density. This algorithm was implemented with a MapReduce model to solve the seismic big data inversion problem. The experimental results show that the parallel model can effectively reduce the running time of the algorithm.

  7. Mapping Bedrock Topography using Electromagnetic Profiling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electromagnetic profiling method was used in Echara Unuhu, within the Abakaliki Urban, to map the bedrock topography which also aids us to determine the position of the deepest fractured shale where a productive borehole will be constructed The area under study is within the Abakaliki Shales Geologic Formation.

  8. Gain Enhancement of Low-Profile, Electrically Small Capacitive Feed Antennas Using Stacked Meander Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Ide

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the gain enhancement of a small and low-profile linear antenna with capacitive feed (C-feed using three metallic layers. The antenna has very small leakage current on the outer conductor of the coaxial cable and can easily control the imaginary part of the input impedance. The gain of the stacked three-layer meander line antenna, with the meander line in the middle layer being opposite to that of the other two layers, has increased by around 7 dB compared to the single layered C-feed antenna. The antenna gain is discussed based on simulated and measured results, which demonstrates that the antenna has successfully achieved the acceptable impedance and sufficient gain for mobile terminals and RFID tags.

  9. Fault Localization Method by Partitioning Memory Using Memory Map and the Stack for Automotive ECU Software Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanhyo Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the usage of the automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU and its software in cars is increasing. Therefore, as the functional complexity of such software increases, so does the likelihood of software-related faults. Therefore, it is important to ensure the reliability of ECU software in order to ensure automobile safety. For this reason, systematic testing methods are required that can guarantee software quality. However, it is difficult to locate a fault during testing with the current ECU development system because a tester performs the black-box testing using a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL simulator. Consequently, developers consume a large amount of money and time for debugging because they perform debugging without any information about the location of the fault. In this paper, we propose a method for localizing the fault utilizing memory information during black-box testing. This is likely to be of use to developers who debug automotive software. In order to observe whether symbols stored in the memory have been updated, the memory is partitioned by a memory map and the stack, thus the fault candidate region is reduced. A memory map method has the advantage of being able to finely partition the memory, and the stack method can partition the memory without a memory map. We validated these methods by applying these to HiL testing of the ECU for a body control system. The preliminary results indicate that a memory map and the stack reduce the possible fault locations to 22% and 19% of the updated memory, respectively.

  10. Determination of composition, residual stress and stacking fault depth profiles in expanded austenite with energy-dispersive diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegou, S.; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Klaus, M.

    2013-01-01

    A methodology is proposed combining the scattering vector method with energy dispersive diffraction for the non-destructive determination of stress- and composition-depth profiles. The advantage of the present method is a relatively short measurement time and avoidance of tedious sublayer removal......; the disadvantage as compared to destructive methods is that depth profiles can only be obtained for depth shallower than half the layer thickness. The proposed method is applied to an expanded austenite layer on stainless steel and allows the separation of stress, composition and stacking fault density gradients....

  11. Depth Profiling of La2O3 ∕ HfO2 Stacked Dielectrics for Nanoelectronic Device Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-01-03

    Nanoscale La2O3 /HfO2 dielectric stacks have been studied using high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The measured distance of the tail-end of the La signal from the dielectric/Si interface suggests that the origin of the threshold voltage shifts and the carrier mobility degradation may not be the same. Up to 20% drop in mobility and 500 mV shift in threshold voltage was observed as the La signal reached the Si substrate. Possible reasons for these changes are proposed, aided by depth profiling and bonding analysis. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  12. Mapping the Expansion of Boom Crops in Mainland Southeast Asia Using Dense Time Stacks of Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspar Hurni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed a multi-date composite change detection technique using a dense-time stack of Landsat data to map land-use and land-cover change (LCLUC in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA with a focus on the expansion of boom crops, primarily tree crops. The supervised classification was performed using Support Vector Machines (SVM, which are supervised non-parametric statistical learning techniques. To select the most suitable SMV classifier and the related parameter settings, we used the training data and performed a two-dimensional grid search with a three-fold internal cross-validation. We worked in seven Landsat footprints and found the linear kernel to be the most suitable for all footprints, but the most suitable regularization parameter C varied across the footprints. We distinguished a total of 41 LCLUCs (13 to 31 classes per footprint in very dynamic and heterogeneous landscapes. The approach proved useful for distinguishing subtle changes over time and to map a variety of land covers, tree crops, and transformations as long as sufficient training points could be collected for each class. While to date, this approach has only been applied to mapping urban extent and expansion, this study shows that it is also useful for mapping change in rural settings, especially when images from phenologically relevant acquisition dates are included.

  13. Snow-covered Landsat time series stacks improve automated disturbance mapping accuracy in forested landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk M. Stueve; Ian W. Housman; Patrick L. Zimmerman; Mark D. Nelson; Jeremy B. Webb; Charles H. Perry; Robert A. Chastain; Dale D. Gormanson; Chengquan Huang; Sean P. Healey; Warren B. Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Accurate landscape-scale maps of forests and associated disturbances are critical to augment studies on biodiversity, ecosystem services, and the carbon cycle, especially in terms of understanding how the spatial and temporal complexities of damage sustained from disturbances influence forest structure and function. Vegetation change tracker (VCT) is a highly automated...

  14. Formation map of air-liquid hollow profile under microgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohira, Y.; Kuga, Y.; Ando, K. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Idogawa, K.; Fukuda, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    From the viewpoint of oxygen recovery and supply in a space station, the formation of an air-liquid hollow profile which has a suitable interface shape to cultivate microalgae under microgravity conditions is experimentally investigated. The air-liquid interface profiles in a rotating vessel were observed and recorded. The effects of the modified Weber number and modified Reynolds number on formation of the air-liquid hollow profile were experimentally investigated. We developed a basis for judging conditions forming the air-liquid hollow profile from the video images. When the volume ratio of the liquid/vessel is 0.60 and the modified Weber number is greater than 2.2, it is found that the air-liquid hollow profile forms and is independent of the modified Reynolds number. From the experimental results using liquids with different surface tension, the validity of using the modified Weber number is confirmed as a dimensionless number for judging the formation of the air-liquid hollow profile. It is experimentally found that the formation conditions for the air-liquid hollow profile under microgravity can be determined by the modified Weber number and the volume ratio of the liquid/vessel. In a map of the volume ratio of the liquid/vessel vs. the modified Weber number, the discrimination of the formation of the air-liquid hollow profile is performed by a line experimentally obtained in this study. (author)

  15. NOAA JPSS Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir Profile Science Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) onboard the Suomi-NPP satellite monitors ozone from space. OMPS will collect total column and vertical profile ozone data...

  16. Stacking with Stochastic Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles seen by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly protected from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently shielded against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 105, the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters)....

  17. Universal composition-structure-property maps for natural and biomimetic platelet-matrix composites and stacked heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhavand, Navid; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2015-03-01

    Many natural and biomimetic platelet-matrix composites—such as nacre, silk, and clay-polymer—exhibit a remarkable balance of strength, toughness and/or stiffness, which call for a universal measure to quantify this outstanding feature given the structure and material characteristics of the constituents. Analogously, there is an urgent need to quantify the mechanics of emerging electronic and photonic systems such as stacked heterostructures. Here we report the development of a unified framework to construct universal composition-structure-property diagrams that decode the interplay between various geometries and inherent material features in both platelet-matrix composites and stacked heterostructures. We study the effects of elastic and elastic-perfectly plastic matrices, overlap offset ratio and the competing mechanisms of platelet versus matrix failures. Validated by several 3D-printed specimens and a wide range of natural and synthetic materials across scales, the proposed universally valid diagrams have important implications for science-based engineering of numerous platelet-matrix composites and stacked heterostructures.

  18. Crustal structure of the Churchill-Superior boundary zone between 80 and 98 deg W longitude from Magsat anomaly maps and stacked passes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D. H.; Millar, T. W.; Noble, I. A.

    1985-01-01

    A modeling technique using spherical shell elements and equivalent dipole sources has been applied to Magsat signatures at the Churchill-Superior boundary in Manitoba, Ontario, and Ungava. A large satellite magnetic anomaly (12 nT amplitude) on POGO and Magsat maps near the Churchill-Superior boundary was found to be related to the Richmond Gulf aulacogen. The averaged crustal magnetization in the source region is 5.2 A/m. Stacking of the magnetic traces from Magsat passes reveals a magnetic signature (10 nT amplitude) at the Churchill-Superior boundary in an area studied between 80 deg W and 98 deg W. Modeling suggests a steplike thickening of the crust on the Churchill side of the boundary in a layer with a magnetization of 5 A/m. Signatures on aeromagnetic maps are also found in the source areas for both of these satellite anomalies.

  19. Direct evidence of flat band voltage shift for TiN/LaO or ZrO/SiO2 stack structure via work function depth profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Sung; Park, Hyoungsun; Ko, Dong-Su; Kim, Yong Su; Kyoung, Yong Koo; Lee, Hyung-Ik; Cho, Eunae; Lee, Hyo Sug; Park, Gyung-Su; Shin, Jai Kwang; Lee, Dongjin; Lee, Jieun; Jung, Kyoungho; Jeong, Moonyoung; Yamada, Satoru; Kang, Hee Jae; Choi, Byoung-Deog

    2017-03-02

    We demonstrated that a flat band voltage (VFB) shift could be controlled in TiN/(LaO or ZrO)/SiO2 stack structures. The VFB shift described in term of metal diffusion into the TiN film and silicate formation in the inserted (LaO or ZrO)/SiO2 interface layer. The metal doping and silicate formation confirmed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) line profiling, respectively. The direct work function measurement technique allowed us to make direct estimate of a variety of flat band voltages (VFB). As a function of composition ratio of La or Zr to Ti in the region of a TiN/(LaO or ZrO)/SiO2/Si stack, direct work function modulation driven by La and Zr doping was confirmed with the work functions obtained from the cutoff value of secondary electron emission by auger electron spectroscopy (AES). We also suggested an analytical method to determine the interface dipole via work function depth profiling.

  20. Wide-Area Landslide Deformation Mapping with Multi-Path ALOS PALSAR Data Stacks: A Case Study of Three Gorges Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguo Shi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR has been adopted as a spaceborne geodetic tool to successfully measure surface deformation of a few well-known landslides in the Three Gorges area. In consideration of the fact that most events of slope failure happened at places other than those famous landslides since the reservoir impoundment in 2003, focusing on a limited number of slopes is insufficient to meet the requirements of regional-scale landslide disaster prevention and early warning. As a result, it has become a vital task to evaluate the overall stability of slopes across the vast area of Three Gorges using wide-coverage InSAR datasets. In this study, we explored the approach of carrying out joint analysis of multi-path InSAR data stacks for wide-area landslide deformation mapping. As an example, three ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data stacks of neighboring ascending paths covering the area along the Yangtze River from Fengjie to Zigui were analyzed. A key problem to be solved is the separation of the tropospheric signal from the interferometric phase, for which we employed a hybrid description model of the atmospheric phase screen (APS to improve APS estimation from time series interferograms. The estimated atmospheric phase was largely correlated with the seasonal rainfall in the temporal dimension. The experimental results show that about 30 slopes covering total areas of 48 km2 were identified to be landslides in active deformation and should be kept under routine surveillance. Analyses of time series displacement measurements revealed that most landslides in the mountainous area far away from Yangtze River suffered from linear deformation, whereas landslides located on the river bank were destabilized predominantly by the influences of reservoir water level fluctuation and rainfall.

  1. Profiling a Mind Map User: A Descriptive Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joanne M.; Armstrong, Gary R.; Massad, Victor J.

    2010-01-01

    Whether manually or through the use of software, a non-linear information organization framework known as mind mapping offers an alternative method for capturing thoughts, ideas and information to linear thinking modes such as outlining. Mind mapping is brainstorming, organizing, and problem solving. This paper examines mind mapping techniques,…

  2. Direct dating of ductile deformation within the Caledonian nappe stack: Rb-Sr mineral data and element mapping from the COSC-1 drill core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glodny, Johannes; Hierold, Johannes; Harms, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    The Scandinavian Caledonides are a prime example of a well preserved and deeply exhumed orogenic belt, which allows insight into deep crustal deformation processes. The COSC drilling project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) provides access into one of the prominent thrust sheet stacks as it truncates a major portion of the so-called Middle Allochthon, the high-grade metamorphosed Seve Nappe together with the underlying lower grade metamorphic rocks. The upper 2350 m of the borehole consist of alternating layers of variably deformed felsic and calc-silicate gneisses and amphibolites, while a less metamorphosed meta-sedimentary unit prevails below. Surprisingly, both units are marked by the presence of abundant, cm- to m-wide, subhorizontal mylonitic bands from about 1700 m to the final borehole depth of 2500 m depth which point to a pervasive high strain zone of at least 800 m thickness affecting likewise both tectonic units. We applied high-resolution element mapping techniques using XRF and LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) core scanning to elucidate the structure, composition and origin of different rocks from the strongly deformed lower Seve Nappe and the underlying unit. The dominating medium-grained gneissic to migmatitic, leucocratic rocks are structurally and compositionally different from more mica- and quartz-rich, fine-grained and subhorizontally deformed mylonitic rocks. We suggest that pre-metamorphic compositional differences, possibly alternation of clay-rich vs sandy layers, control the rock rheology during syn-metamorphic deformation. Fluid-driven element exchange can largely be ruled out. In order to understand the temporal evolution of metamorphism and deformation, we dated the two major, texturally distinct metamorphic episodes using the Rb-Sr multi-mineral internal isochron approach. Gneisses were formed during the last high-grade, amphibolite facies metamorphism, and were partially reworked during subsequent

  3. Visualization of Disciplinary Profiles: Enhanced Science Overlay Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carley

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to modernize previous work on science overlay maps by updating the underlying citation matrix, generating new clusters of scientific disciplines, enhancing visualizations, and providing more accessible means for analysts to generate their own maps. Design/methodology/approach: We use the combined set of 2015 Journal Citation Reports for the Science Citation Index (n of journals = 8,778 and the Social Sciences Citation Index (n = 3,212 for a total of 11,365 journals. The set of Web of Science Categories in the Science Citation Index and the Social Sciences Citation Index increased from 224 in 2010 to 227 in 2015. Using dedicated software, a matrix of 227 × 227 cells is generated on the basis of whole-number citation counting. We normalize this matrix using the cosine function. We first develop the citing-side, cosine-normalized map using 2015 data and VOSviewer visualization with default parameter values. A routine for making overlays on the basis of the map (“wc15.exe” is available at http://www.leydesdorff.net/wc15/index.htm. Findings: Findings appear in the form of visuals throughout the manuscript. In Figures 1–9 we provide basemaps of science and science overlay maps for a number of companies, universities, and technologies. Research limitations: As Web of Science Categories change and/or are updated so is the need to update the routine we provide. Also, to apply the routine we provide users need access to the Web of Science. Practical implications: Visualization of science overlay maps is now more accurate and true to the 2015 Journal Citation Reports than was the case with the previous version of the routine advanced in our paper. Originality/value: The routine we advance allows users to visualize science overlay maps in VOSviewer using data from more recent Journal Citation Reports.

  4. Spatial mapping of correlation profile in Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somepalli, Bhargav; Venkitesh, Deepa; Srinivasan, Balaji

    2017-04-01

    We report an approach to spatially map the correlation profile along the sensing fiber in Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis by pulsing the pump radiation. Simulations are carried out to demonstrate the influence of frequency modulation parameters of a narrow linewidth source on the width of the correlation profile and its peak position. The simulation results are validated through controlled experiments. The correlation profile is mapped over 1 km long fiber with spatial resolution of 1 m, limited only by the finite lifetime of acoustic phonons in the silica fiber.

  5. Stacked spaces: Mapping digital infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Straube

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article turns towards the spatial life of ‘digital infrastructures’, i.e. code, protocols, standards, and data formats that are hidden from view in everyday applications of computational technologies. It does so by drawing on the version control system Git as a case study, and telling the story of its initial development in order to reconstruct the circumstances and technical considerations surrounding its conception. This account engages with computational infrastructures on their own terms by adopting the figure of the ‘stack’ to frame a technically informed analysis, and exploring its implications for a different kind of geographic inquiry. Drawing on topology as employed by Law and Mol, attention is given to the multiplicity of spatialities and temporalities enrolled in digital infrastructures in general, and Git specifically. Along the lines of the case study and by reading it against other literatures, this notion of topology is expanded to include the material performation of fundamentally arbitrary, more-than-human topologies, as well as their nested articulation, translation and negotiation within digital infrastructures.

  6. A new, simple and precise method for measuring cyclotron proton beam energies using the activity vs. depth profile of zinc-65 in a thick target of stacked copper foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, A H; Chan, S; Cryer, D; Burrage, J W; Siddiqui, S A; Price, R I

    2015-11-01

    The proton beam energy of an isochronous 18MeV cyclotron was determined using a novel version of the stacked copper-foils technique. This simple method used stacked foils of natural copper forming 'thick' targets to produce Zn radioisotopes by the well-documented (p,x) monitor-reactions. Primary beam energy was calculated using the (65)Zn activity vs. depth profile in the target, with the results obtained using (62)Zn and (63)Zn (as comparators) in close agreement. Results from separate measurements using foil thicknesses of 100, 75, 50 or 25µm to form the stacks also concurred closely. Energy was determined by iterative least-squares comparison of the normalized measured activity profile in a target-stack with the equivalent calculated normalized profile, using 'energy' as the regression variable. The technique exploits the uniqueness of the shape of the activity vs. depth profile of the monitor isotope in the target stack for a specified incident energy. The energy using (65)Zn activity profiles and 50-μm foils alone was 18.03±0.02 [SD] MeV (95%CI=17.98-18.08), and 18.06±0.12MeV (95%CI=18.02-18.10; NS) when combining results from all isotopes and foil thicknesses. When the beam energy was re-measured using (65)Zn and 50-μm foils only, following a major upgrade of the ion sources and nonmagnetic beam controls the results were 18.11±0.05MeV (95%CI=18.00-18.23; NS compared with 'before'). Since measurement of only one Zn monitor isotope is required to determine the normalized activity profile this indirect yet precise technique does not require a direct beam-current measurement or a gamma-spectroscopy efficiency calibrated with standard sources, though a characteristic photopeak must be identified. It has some advantages over published methods using the ratio of cross sections of monitor reactions, including the ability to determine energies across a broader range and without need for customized beam degraders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Combinatorial thin film composition mapping using three dimensional deposition profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suram, Santosh K.; Zhou, Lan; Becerra-Stasiewicz, Natalie; Kan, Kevin; Jones, Ryan J. R.; Kendrick, Brian M.; Gregoire, John M.

    2015-03-01

    Many next-generation technologies are limited by material performance, leading to increased interest in the discovery of advanced materials using combinatorial synthesis, characterization, and screening. Several combinatorial synthesis techniques, such as solution based methods, advanced manufacturing, and physical vapor deposition, are currently being employed for various applications. In particular, combinatorial magnetron sputtering is a versatile technique that provides synthesis of high-quality thin film composition libraries. Spatially addressing the composition of these thin films generally requires elemental quantification measurements using techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy or X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Since these measurements are performed ex-situ and post-deposition, they are unable to provide real-time design of experiments, a capability that is required for rapid synthesis of a specific composition library. By using three quartz crystal monitors attached to a stage with translational and rotational degrees of freedom, we measure three-dimensional deposition profiles of deposition sources whose tilt with respect to the substrate is robotically controlled. We exhibit the utility of deposition profiles and tilt control to optimize the deposition geometry for specific combinatorial synthesis experiments.

  8. NOAA JPSS Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir Total Column Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) onboard the Suomi NPP satellite monitors ozone from space. OMPS will collect total column and vertical profile ozone data...

  9. Electrochemical cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-06-22

    Multiple stacks of tubular electrochemical cells having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films arranged in parallel on stamped conductive interconnect sheets or ferrules. The stack allows one or more electrochemical cell to malfunction without disabling the entire stack. Stack efficiency is enhanced through simplified gas manifolding, gas recycling, reduced operating temperature and improved heat distribution.

  10. geomorphological mapping and geophysical profiling for the evaluation of natural hazards in an alpine catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; de Graaff, L.W.S.

    2006-01-01

    Liechtenstein has faced an increasing number of natural hazards over recent decades: debris flows, slides, snow avalanches and floods repeatedly endanger the local infrastructure. Geomorphological field mapping and geo-electrical profiling was used to assess hazards near Malbun, a village

  11. Tensor deep stacking networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Brian; Deng, Li; Yu, Dong

    2013-08-01

    A novel deep architecture, the tensor deep stacking network (T-DSN), is presented. The T-DSN consists of multiple, stacked blocks, where each block contains a bilinear mapping from two hidden layers to the output layer, using a weight tensor to incorporate higher order statistics of the hidden binary (½0; 1) features. A learning algorithm for the T-DSN’s weight matrices and tensors is developed and described in which the main parameter estimation burden is shifted to a convex subproblem with a closed-form solution. Using an efficient and scalable parallel implementation for CPU clusters, we train sets of T-DSNs in three popular tasks in increasing order of the data size: handwritten digit recognition using MNIST (60k), isolated state/phone classification and continuous phone recognition using TIMIT (1.1 m), and isolated phone classification using WSJ0 (5.2 m). Experimental results in all three tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of the T-DSN and the associated learning methods in a consistent manner. In particular, a sufficient depth of the T-DSN, a symmetry in the two hidden layers structure in each T-DSN block, our model parameter learning algorithm, and a softmax layer on top of T-DSN are shown to have all contributed to the low error rates observed in the experiments for all three tasks.

  12. The LSST Software Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Timothy; LSST Data Management Team

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is an 8-m optical ground-based telescope being constructed on Cerro Pachon in Chile. LSST will survey half the sky every few nights in six optical bands. The data will be transferred to the data center in North America and within 60 seconds it will be reduced using difference imaging and an alert list be generated for the community. Additionally, annual data releases will be constructed from all the data during the 10-year mission, producing catalogs and deep co-added images with unprecedented time resolution for such a large region of sky. In the paper we present the current status of the LSST stack including the data processing components, Qserv database and data visualization software, describe how to obtain it, and provide a summary of the development road map.

  13. Lattice-layer entanglement in Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Victor A. S. V.; Bernardini, Alex E.

    2017-05-01

    The complete lattice-layer entanglement structure of Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene is obtained for the quantum system described by a tight-binding Hamiltonian which includes mass and bias voltage terms. Through a suitable correspondence with the parity-spin S U (2 )⊗S U (2 ) structure of a Dirac Hamiltonian, when it brings up tensor and pseudovector external field interactions, the lattice-layer degrees of freedom can be mapped into such a parity-spin two-qubit basis which supports the interpretation of the bilayer graphene eigenstates as entangled ones in a lattice-layer basis. The Dirac Hamiltonian mapping structure simply provides the tools for the manipulation of the corresponding eigenstates and eigenenergies of the Bernal-stacked graphene quantum system. The quantum correlational content is then quantified by means of quantum concurrence, in order to have the influence of mass and bias voltage terms quantified, and in order to identify the role of the trigonal warping of energy in the intrinsic entanglement. Our results show that while the mass term actively suppresses the intrinsic quantum entanglement of bilayer eigenstates, the bias voltage term spreads the entanglement in the Brillouin zone around the Dirac points. In addition, the interlayer coupling modifies the symmetry of the lattice-layer quantum concurrence around a given Dirac point. It produces some distortion on the quantum entanglement profile which follows the same pattern of the isoenergy line distortion in the Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene.

  14. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Soil Organic Carbon by Combining Kriging Method with Profile Depth Function

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Li, Hong; Yun, Anping; Li, Baoguo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding spatial variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in three-dimensional direction is helpful for land use management. Due to the effect of profile depths and soil texture on vertical distribution of SOC, the stationary assumption for SOC cannot be met in the vertical direction. Therefore the three-dimensional (3D) ordinary kriging technique cannot be directly used to map the distribution of SOC at a regional scale. The objectives of this study were to map the 3D distribution of SOC ...

  15. Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite: using mission performance data to refine predictive contamination modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaud, Genevieve; Jaross, Glen

    2014-09-01

    On October 28, 2011, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite launched at Vandenberg Air Force base aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket. Included among the five instruments was the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), an advanced suite of three hyperspectral instruments built by Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Molecular transport modeling is used to predict optical throughput changes due to contaminant accumulation to ensure performance margin to End Of Life. The OMPS Nadir Profiler, operating at the lowest wavelengths of 250 - 310 nm, is most sensitive to contaminant accumulation. Geometry, thermal profile and material properties must be accurately modeled in order to have confidence in the results, yet it is well known that the complex chemistry and process dependent variability of aerospace materials presents a substantial challenge to the modeler. Assumptions about the absorption coefficients, desorption and diffusion kinetics of outgassing species from polymeric materials dramatically affect the model predictions, yet it is rare indeed that on-mission data is analyzed at a later date as a means to compare with modeling results. Optical throughput measurements for the Ozone and Mapping Profiler Suite on the Suomi NPP Satellite indicate that optical throughput degradation between day 145 and day 858 is less than 0.5%. We will show how assumptions about outgassing rates and desorption energies, in particular, dramatically affect the modeled optical throughput and what assumptions represent the on-orbit data.

  16. Inheritance Analysis and QTL Mapping of Rice Starch Viscosity (Rapid Visco Analyzer Profile Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-feng ZHANG

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The rice starch viscosity characteristics, which can be indicated by Rapid Visco Analyzer profile (RVA profile, have been proved useful for the evaluation of cooking and eating quality in rice breeding program. To study the inheritance of the RVA profile, an F2 population of Wuyujing 3/Aichi 106 was used. The results indicated that the peak viscosity (PKV was a typical quantitative character, and the hot paste viscosity (HPV, cool paste viscosity (CPV, setback viscosity (SBV, breakdown viscosity (BDV, and consistence viscosity (CSV might be controlled by one major gene and several minor genes. To elucidate the genetic basis of the paste viscosity characteristics, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population derived from Nikken 2/Milyang 23 and its genetic linkage map were used to map the QTLs controlling RVA profiles in 2005 and 2006. A total of 34 QTLs distributed on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were detected, including 19 and 15 QTLs in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Eight QTLs were both detected in the two years, qHPV6, qCPV6, qCSV6, qSBV6, and qBDV6 were located on chromosome 6, while qHPV2, qCSV2, and qCPV2 were on chromosome 2.

  17. Deploying OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Pepple, Ken

    2011-01-01

    OpenStack was created with the audacious goal of being the ubiquitous software choice for building public and private cloud infrastructures. In just over a year, it's become the most talked-about project in open source. This concise book introduces OpenStack's general design and primary software components in detail, and shows you how to start using it to build cloud infrastructures. If you're a developer, technologist, or system administrator familiar with cloud offerings such as Rackspace Cloud or Amazon Web Services, Deploying OpenStack shows you how to obtain and deploy OpenStack softwar

  18. Mastering OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Khedher, Omar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators, cloud engineers, and system architects who want to deploy a cloud based on OpenStack in a mid- to large-sized IT infrastructure. If you have a fundamental understanding of cloud computing and OpenStack and want to expand your knowledge, then this book is an excellent checkpoint to move forward.

  19. OpenStack essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Radez, Dan

    2015-01-01

    If you need to get started with OpenStack or want to learn more, then this book is your perfect companion. If you're comfortable with the Linux command line, you'll gain confidence in using OpenStack.

  20. Dealloying evidence on corroded brass by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy mapping and depth profiling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, R.; Casal, A.; Mateo, M. P.; Nicolas, G.

    2017-04-01

    The dealloying phenomenon, also called demetalification, is a; consequence of a corrosion problem found in binary alloys where an enrichment of one of the two main elements of the alloy is produced at the expense of the leaching of the other element. In the present work, the ability of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the detection and characterization of dealloying films formed on metal has been tested. For this purpose, specific areas of brass specimens have been subjected to a chemical attack of the surface in order to produce a selective leaching of zinc or dezincification. For the lateral and in-depth characterization of the dealloyed areas by LIBS, depth profiles, 2D and 3D maps have been generated from the treated samples and from a reference non-treated sample. The differences in the maps and depth profiles between the corroded and non-corroded regions have allowed to reveal the localization and extension of the dealloying process along the brass sample surface and to estimate the thickness of the dezincification layers, demonstrating the capability of LIBS technique for the characterization of dealloying phenomena.

  1. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Soil Organic Carbon by Combining Kriging Method with Profile Depth Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Li, Hong; Yun, Anping; Li, Baoguo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding spatial variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in three-dimensional direction is helpful for land use management. Due to the effect of profile depths and soil texture on vertical distribution of SOC, the stationary assumption for SOC cannot be met in the vertical direction. Therefore the three-dimensional (3D) ordinary kriging technique cannot be directly used to map the distribution of SOC at a regional scale. The objectives of this study were to map the 3D distribution of SOC at a regional scale by combining kriging method with the profile depth function of SOC (KPDF), and to explore the effects of soil texture and land use type on vertical distribution of SOC in a fluvial plain. A total of 605 samples were collected from 121 soil profiles (0.0 to 1.0 m, 0.20 m increment) in Quzhou County, China and SOC contents were determined for each soil sample. The KPDF method was used to obtain the 3D map of SOC at the county scale. The results showed that the exponential equation well described the vertical distribution of mean values of the SOC contents. The coefficients of determination, root mean squared error and mean prediction error between the measured and the predicted SOC contents were 0.52, 1.82 and -0.24 g kg(-1) respectively, suggesting that the KPDF method could be used to produce a 3D map of SOC content. The surface SOC contents were high in the mid-west and south regions, and low values lay in the southeast corner. The SOC contents showed significant positive correlations between the five different depths and the correlations of SOC contents were larger in adjacent layers than in non-adjacent layers. Soil texture and land use type had significant effects on the spatial distribution of SOC. The influence of land use type was more important than that of soil texture in the surface soil, and soil texture played a more important role in influencing the SOC levels for 0.2-0.4 m layer.

  2. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Soil Organic Carbon by Combining Kriging Method with Profile Depth Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Chen

    Full Text Available Understanding spatial variation of soil organic carbon (SOC in three-dimensional direction is helpful for land use management. Due to the effect of profile depths and soil texture on vertical distribution of SOC, the stationary assumption for SOC cannot be met in the vertical direction. Therefore the three-dimensional (3D ordinary kriging technique cannot be directly used to map the distribution of SOC at a regional scale. The objectives of this study were to map the 3D distribution of SOC at a regional scale by combining kriging method with the profile depth function of SOC (KPDF, and to explore the effects of soil texture and land use type on vertical distribution of SOC in a fluvial plain. A total of 605 samples were collected from 121 soil profiles (0.0 to 1.0 m, 0.20 m increment in Quzhou County, China and SOC contents were determined for each soil sample. The KPDF method was used to obtain the 3D map of SOC at the county scale. The results showed that the exponential equation well described the vertical distribution of mean values of the SOC contents. The coefficients of determination, root mean squared error and mean prediction error between the measured and the predicted SOC contents were 0.52, 1.82 and -0.24 g kg(-1 respectively, suggesting that the KPDF method could be used to produce a 3D map of SOC content. The surface SOC contents were high in the mid-west and south regions, and low values lay in the southeast corner. The SOC contents showed significant positive correlations between the five different depths and the correlations of SOC contents were larger in adjacent layers than in non-adjacent layers. Soil texture and land use type had significant effects on the spatial distribution of SOC. The influence of land use type was more important than that of soil texture in the surface soil, and soil texture played a more important role in influencing the SOC levels for 0.2-0.4 m layer.

  3. Preparation of magnetic anomaly profile and contour maps from DOE-NURE aerial survey data. Volume I: processing procedures. [National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinnel, E.P.; Hinze, W.J.

    1981-09-01

    Total intensity magnetic anomaly data acquired as a supplement to radiometric data in the DOE National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program are useful in preparing regional profile and contour maps. Survey-contractor-supplied magnetic anomaly data are subjected to a multiprocess, computer-based procedure which prepares these data for presentation. This procedure is used to produce the following machine plotted maps of National Topographic Map Series quadrangle units at a 1:250,000 scale: (1) profile map of contractor-supplied magnetic anomaly data, (2) profile map of high-cut filtered data with contour levels of each profile marked and annotated on the associated flight track, (3) profile map of critical-point data with contour levels indicated, and (4) contour map of filtered and selected data. These quadrangle maps are supplemented with a range of statistical measures of the data which are useful in quality evaluation.

  4. Geomorphological mapping and geophysical profiling for the evaluation of natural hazards in an alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Seijmonsbergen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Liechtenstein has faced an increasing number of natural hazards over recent decades: debris flows, slides, snow avalanches and floods repeatedly endanger the local infrastructure. Geomorphological field mapping and geo-electrical profiling was used to assess hazards near Malbun, a village potentially endangered by landslides, and especially debris flows. The area is located on the tectonic contacts of four different nappe slices. The bedrock consists of anhydrite and gypsum, dolomite, shale, marl, and limestone. The spatial distribution and occurrence of debris flows and slides is evaluated through a combination of geomorphological expert knowledge, and detailed visualization in a geographical information system. In a geo-database a symbol-based 1:3000 scale geomorphological map has been digitized and rectified into polygons. The polygons include information on the main geomorphological environment, the Quaternary material distribution and of geomorphological processes, which are stored in attribute tables. The spatial distribution of these attributes is then combined with geophysical information and displacement rates interpolated from benchmark measurements. On one of the landslides two geo-electrical profiles show that the distance to a potential failure plane varies between 10-20 m and that the topography of the failure plane is influenced by subterranean gypsum karst features. The displacement measurements show that this landslide actively disintegrates into minor slides and is not, therefore, a risk to the village of Malbun. The hazard zonation indicates that debris flows can pose a risk if no countermeasures are taken. Gypsum karst may locally accelerate the landslide activity. In contrast, the impact of debris flows is diminished because collapse dolines may act as sediment traps for the debris flow materials. This research illustrates how geomorphological expert knowledge can be integrated in a GIS for the evaluation of natural hazards

  5. Subsurface mapping in the Iberian Pyrite Belt using seismic reflection profiling and potential-field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, João; Inverno, Carlos; Matos, João Xavier; Rosa, Carlos; Granado, Isabel; Branch, Tim; Represas, Patrícia; Carabaneanu, Livia; Matias, Luís; Sousa, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) hosts world-class massive sulphide deposits, such as Neves-Corvo in Portugal and Rio Tinto in Spain. In Portugal, the Palaeozoic Volcanic-Sedimentary Complex (VSC) hosts these ore deposits, extending from the Grândola-Alcácer region to the Spanish border with a NW-SE to WNW-ESE trend. In the study area, between the Neves-Corvo mine region and Alcoutim (close to the Spanish border), the VSC outcrops only in a small horst near Alcoutim. Sparse exploration drill-hole data indicate that the depth to the top of the VSC varies from several 100 m to about 1 km beneath the Mértola Formation Flysch cover. Mapping of the VSC to the SE of Neves-Corvo mine is an important exploration goal and motivated the acquisition of six 2D seismic reflection profiles with a total length of approximately 82 km in order to map the hidden extension of the VSC. The data, providing information deeper than 10 km at some locations, were integrated in a 3D software environment along with potential-field, geological and drill-hole data to form a 3D structural framework model. Seismic data show strong reflections that represent several long Variscan thrust planes that smoothly dip to the NNE. Outcropping and previously unknown Late Variscan near-vertical faults were also mapped. Our data strongly suggest that the structural framework of Neves-Corvo extends south-eastwards to Alcoutim. Furthermore, the VSC top is located at depths that show the existence within the IPB of new areas with good potential to develop exploration projects envisaging the discovery of massive sulphide deposits of the Neves-Corvo type.

  6. Quantitation of free energy profiles in RNA–ligand interactions by nucleotide analog interference mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    COCHRANE, JESSE C.; BATEY, ROBERT T.; STROBEL, SCOTT A.

    2003-01-01

    RNA interactions with protein and small molecule ligands serve a wide variety of biochemical functions in the cell. To best understand the specificity and affinity of these interactions, the free energy contribution made by individual function groups in the RNA must be determined. As an efficient method for obtaining such energetic profiles, we report quantitative nucleotide analog interference mapping (QNAIM). This extension of the NAIM methodology uses the magnitude of analog interference as a function of ligand concentration to calculate binding constants for RNA with individual analog substitutions. In this way, QNAIM not only defines which functional groups are important to an interaction but simultaneously determines the energetic contribution made by each occurrence of that functional group within the RNA polymer. To establish the utility of this approach, QNAIM was used to quantify functional group interactions within the signal recognition particle (SRP), specifically the 4.5S RNA with the M domain of Ffh. In each of the cases in which energetic data were available from previous site-specific substitution analyses, QNAIM provided nearly equivalent results. These experiments on a model system demonstrate that QNAIM is an efficient method to establish a chemically detailed free energy profile for a wide variety of RNA–ligand interactions. PMID:13130142

  7. TU-G-BRB-03: Iterative Optimization of Normalized Transmission Maps for IMRT Using Arbitrary Beam Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K; Suh, T; Xing, L

    2012-06-01

    Newly available flattening filter free (FFF) beam increases the dose rate by 3∼6 times at the central axis. In reality, even flattening filtered beam is not perfectly flat. In addition, the beam profiles across different fields may not have the same amplitude. The existing inverse planning formalism based on the total-variation of intensity (or fluence) map cannot consider these properties of beam profiles. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel dose optimization scheme with incorporation of the inherent beam profiles to maximally utilize the efficacy of arbitrary beam profiles while preserving the convexity of the optimization problem. To increase the accuracy of the problem formalism, we decompose the fluence map as an elementwise multiplication of the inherent beam profile and a normalized transmission map (NTM). Instead of attempting to optimize the fluence maps directly, we optimize the NTMs and beam profiles separately. A least-squares problem constrained by total-variation of NTMs is developed to derive the optimal fluence maps that balances the dose conformality and FFF beam delivery efficiency. With the resultant NTMs, we find beam profiles to renormalized NTMs. The proposed method iteratively optimizes and renormalizes NTMs in a closed loop manner. The advantage of the proposed method is demonstrated by using a head-neck case with flat beam profiles and a prostate case with non-flat beam profiles. The obtained NTMs achieve more conformal dose distribution while preserving piecewise constancy compared to the existing solution. The proposed formalism has two major advantages over the conventional inverse planning schemes: (1) it provides a unified framework for inverse planning with beams of arbitrary fluence profiles, including treatment with beams of mixed fluence profiles; (2) the use of total-variation constraints on NTMs allows us to optimally balance the dose confromality and deliverability for a given beam configuration. This project was

  8. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  9. On Stack Reconstruction Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Аkeliev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes analytical investigations that study relation of fuel combustion regimes with concentration values of sulphur anhydride in flue gases and acid dew point. Coefficients of convective heat transfer at internal and external surfaces of stacks have been determined in the paper. The paper reveals the possibility to reconstruct stacks while using gas discharging channel made of composite material on the basis of glass-reinforced plastic which permits to reduce thermo-stressed actions on reinforced concrete and increase volume of released gases due to practically two-fold reduction of gas-dynamic pressure losses along the pipe length.

  10. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  11. Wolfram technology stack

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Wolfram gives a personal account of his vision for the "Wolfram technology stack" and how it developed, starting with his work in particle physics. The talk was presented at the 2013 ROOT Users' Meeting and followed a talk, earlier in the day, on "Mathematica with ROOT".

  12. po_stack_movie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    po_stack® er et reolsystem, hvis enkle elementer giver stor flexibilitet, variation og skulpturel virkning. Elementerne stables og forskydes frit, så reolens rum kan vendes til begge sider, være åbne eller lukkede og farvekombineres ubegrænset. Reolen kan let ombygges, udvides eller opdeles, når ...

  13. Map of homicides by firearms: profile of the victims and the assaults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth França Cizino da Trindade

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVEDescribing the profile of victims and assaults by gunshot, where the outcome was death.METHODAn ecological study conducted in the city of Maceió/AL, in 2012. Data were collected from the death statements. The variables studied were: the death circumstances, gender, age, marital status, place, date, time, month and proportion according to the occurring neighborhood.RESULTSThe homicide mortality rate was 65.2 per 100,000 inhabitants, with 130.6 per 100,000 men and 7.8 per 100,000 women. Of the total number of homicides, 93.6% of the victims were men. The age group between 15 and 29 years of age was the most affected, with 68.8%. In 97.6% of cases the death occurred at the site of aggression, 74.1% in the streets. In relation to the date, 54.2% of cases occurred between Friday and Sunday. 59.7% of the homicides were concentrated in seven neighborhoods.CONCLUSIONThe map of violence presented shows heterogeneous areas for the occurrence of assaults with firearms, characterizing the existing urban inequality in violence distribution.

  14. OpenStack cloud security

    CERN Document Server

    Locati, Fabio Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack administrator or developer, or wish to build solutions to protect your OpenStack environment, then this book is for you. Experience of Linux administration and familiarity with different OpenStack components is assumed.

  15. Energy Expenditure of Sport Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Steven R.; Udermann, Brian E.; Reineke, David M.; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Sport stacking is an activity taught in many physical education programs. The activity, although very popular, has been studied minimally, and the energy expenditure for sport stacking is unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the energy expenditure of sport stacking in elementary school children and to compare that value…

  16. Proposed Cavity for Reduced Slip-Stacking Loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, J. [Indiana U.; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This paper employs a novel dynamical mechanism to improve the performance of slip-stacking. Slip-stacking in an accumulation technique used at Fermilab since 2004 which nearly double the proton intensity. During slip-stacking, the Recycler or the Main Injector stores two particles beams that spatially overlap but have different momenta. The two particle beams are longitudinally focused by two 53 MHz 100 kV RF cavities with a small frequency difference between them. We propose an additional 106 MHz 20 kV RF cavity, with a frequency at the double the average of the upper and lower main RF frequencies. In simulation, we find the proposed RF cavity significantly enhances the stable bucket area and reduces slip-stacking losses under reasonable injection scenarios. We quantify and map the stability of the parameter space for any accelerator implementing slip-stacking with the addition of a harmonic RF cavity.

  17. Gamma-ray-based measurement of concentration distribution in pipe flow of settling slurry: vertical profiles and tomographic maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupička Jan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Principles of gamma-ray-based measurement are summarized and their application is demonstrated on an operation of the radiometric facility installed in the test loop for slurry flows at the Institute of Hydrodynamics. The facility is able to measure vertical profiles of chord-averaged concentrations and concentration maps in the pipe cross section. A methodology of measurement is proposed including detection and quantification of random and systematic errors. Experimental results are discussed in the light of the proposed methodology. Experimentally determined vertical profiles of concentration are presented for slurry flows of four different fractions of glass beads. The tomographic application of the radiometric device is demonstrated on a measured concentration map and a suitable image reconstruction method is tested. High reliability of measured concentration distributions is proved except for regions near the pipe wall. The radiometric method is shown to be a useful tool for measurement of concentration distribution in slurry flow through a pipe.

  18. Analyzing gene expression profile in K562 cells exposed to sodium valproate using microarray combined with the connectivity map database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Zhong; Yin, Ai-Hua; Lin, Dong-Jun; Zhu, Xiao-Yu; Ding, Qian; Wang, Chun-Huai; Chen, Yun-Xian

    2012-01-01

    To explore the mechanism underlying antileukaemia effect of sodium valproate, the growth and survival of the K562 cell line were investigated. Global profiles of gene expression in K562 cells exposed to sodium valproate were assessed and validated. The differentially expressed genes identified were further used to query the connectivity map database to retrieve a ranked list of compounds that act on the same intracellular targets as sodium valproate. A significant increase in cell apoptosis and a change in gene expression profile were observed in valproate-exposed K562 cells. The significant enrichment analysis of gene ontology terms for the differentially expressed genes showed that these genes were involved in many important biological processes. Eight differentially expressed genes involved in apoptosis were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. The connectivity map analysis showed gene expression profile in K562 cells exposed to sodium valproate was most similar to that of HDACi and PI3K inhibitors, suggesting that sodium valproate might exert antileukaemic action by inhibiting HDAC as well as inhibiting PI3K pathway. In conclusion, our data might provide clues to elucidate the molecular and therapeutic potential of VPA in leukaemia treatment, and the connectivity map is a useful tool for exploring the molecular mechanism of drug action.

  19. Analyzing Gene Expression Profile in K562 Cells Exposed to Sodium Valproate Using Microarray Combined with the Connectivity Map Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Zhong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the mechanism underlying antileukaemia effect of sodium valproate, the growth and survival of the K562 cell line were investigated. Global profiles of gene expression in K562 cells exposed to sodium valproate were assessed and validated. The differentially expressed genes identified were further used to query the connectivity map database to retrieve a ranked list of compounds that act on the same intracellular targets as sodium valproate. A significant increase in cell apoptosis and a change in gene expression profile were observed in valproate-exposed K562 cells. The significant enrichment analysis of gene ontology terms for the differentially expressed genes showed that these genes were involved in many important biological processes. Eight differentially expressed genes involved in apoptosis were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. The connectivity map analysis showed gene expression profile in K562 cells exposed to sodium valproate was most similar to that of HDACi and PI3K inhibitors, suggesting that sodium valproate might exert antileukaemic action by inhibiting HDAC as well as inhibiting PI3K pathway. In conclusion, our data might provide clues to elucidate the molecular and therapeutic potential of VPA in leukaemia treatment, and the connectivity map is a useful tool for exploring the molecular mechanism of drug action.

  20. Die-stacking architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) chip architectures, with their intrinsic capability of reducing the wire length, promise attractive solutions to reduce the delay of interconnects in future microprocessors. 3D memory stacking enables much higher memory bandwidth for future chip-multiprocessor design, mitigating the ""memory wall"" problem. In addition, heterogenous integration enabled by 3D technology can also result in innovative designs for future microprocessors. This book first provides a brief introduction to this emerging technology, and then presents a variety of approaches to design

  1. Stacking of cold antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielse, G; Oxley, P; Speck, A K; Storry, C H; Tan, J N; Wessels, M; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Schepers, G; Sefzick, T; Walz, J; Pittner, H; Hänsch, T W; Hessels, E A

    2002-01-01

    The stacking of cold antiprotons is currently the only way to accumulate the large numbers of the cold antiprotons that are needed for low energy experiments. Both the largest possible number and the lowest possible temperature are desired, especially for the production and study of cold antihydrogen. The antiprotons accumulated in our particle trap have an energy 10/sup 10/ times lower than the energy of those delivered by CERN's Antiprotons Decelerator (AD). The number accumulated (more than 0.4 million in this demonstration) is linear in the number of accepted high energy antiproton pulses (32 in this demonstration). Accumulation efficiencies and losses are measured and discussed. (12 refs).

  2. The electrical activity of stacking faults in Czochralski silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.; Poggi, A.; Susi, E.

    1989-05-01

    A spectroscopic analysis by the light-beam-induced-current technique has been carried out to study the electrical properties of stacking faults in Czochralski silicon subjected to internal gettering treatments. By changing the wavelength of the light beam probing the sample, we have obtained the depth profiling of the stacking fault electrical activity. Occurrence of minority carrier recombination and generation processes at some stacking faults, corresponding, respectively, to dark and bright levels in a grey-shade imaging, has been observed. The presence of fixed charges at the defect-silicon matrix interface is hypothesized as a possible cause of the observed images.

  3. Technology stacks and frameworks for full-stack application development

    OpenAIRE

    UŠAJ, ERIK

    2016-01-01

    This work aims providing a comprehensive overview and analysis of current JavaScript (JS) technology stacks and frameworks for full-stack application development: from web clients, mobile and desktop applications to server applications and cloud-connected services. Analysis shall focus on MEAN technology stack and frameworks such as Meteor which also tries to leverage mobile app development using Apache Cordova framework. We will include an overview of available JS build tools for desktop app...

  4. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Electrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm) based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM). An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  5. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  6. NOAA JPSS Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Version 8 Total Ozone (V8TOz) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of total column ozone from the Ozone Mapping and Profiling Suite (OMPS) instrument...

  7. Studi Implementasi Lean Six Sigma dengan Pendekatan Value Stream Mapping untuk Mereduksi Idle Time Material pada Gudang Pelat dan Profil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Widiatmoko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan volume kegiatan industri maritim di Indonesia menuntut industri perkapalan di daerah Surabaya untuk lebih meningkatkan pelayanan baik berupa bangunan baru maupun reparasi kapal. Berdasarkan hal tersebut galangan harus mampu mengelola proses produksi dengan baik sehingga menghasilkan keuntungan yang maksimum. Salah satunya adalah proses inventory dan transport of materials yang efektif. Tugas akhir bertujuan untuk mengetahui sistem inventori yang diterapkan oleh perusahaan yang dijadikan sampel serta idle time material pelat dan profil yang ada di gudang bahan baku dengan menggunakan metode lean six sigma dengan pendekatan value stream mapping. Dari hasil perhitungan menggunakan diperoleh nilai sigma perhitungan idle time sebesar 0.1976 sehingga perlu dilakukan upaya peningkatan nilai sigma pengadaan material itu sendiri. Berdasarkan hasil analisa penyebab adanya idle time dengan menggunakan RCA diperoleh beberapa faktor yaitu : rendahnya nilai sigma penggunaan material, tidak tercapainya target pengerjaan pada proses fabrikasi, proses pengadaan material yang tidak mempertimbangkan strategi proses pembangunan kapal. Dengan penerapan lean six sigma dengan pendekatan value stream mapping dihasilkan usulan perbaikan proses inventori di perusahaan antara lain : meningkatkan nilai sigma penggunaan material, melakukan strategi pembelian material sesuai strategi pembangunan kapal berdasarkan zona, memperbaiki kerjasama dengan supplier material pelat dan profil. Pembuatan future state mapping mendapatkan usulan perbaikan dengan pembuatan perencanaan pengadaan material dengan mempertimbangkan strategi pembangunan kapal berdasarkan zona pembangunannya. Diperoleh strategi pengadaan material yang dilakukan sebanyak 4 kali order.

  8. Phage display revisited: Epitope mapping of a monoclonal antibody directed against Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A using the PROFILER technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariccio, Veronica Lanza; Domina, Maria; Benfatto, Salvatore; Venza, Mario; Venza, Isabella; Faleri, Agnese; Bruttini, Marco; Bartolini, Erika; Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Santini, Laura; Brunelli, Brunella; Norais, Nathalie; Borgogni, Erica; Midiri, Angelina; Galbo, Roberta; Romeo, Letizia; Biondo, Carmelo; Masignani, Vega; Teti, Giuseppe; Felici, Franco; Beninati, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong need for rapid and reliable epitope mapping methods that can keep pace with the isolation of increasingly larger numbers of mAbs. We describe here the identification of a conformational epitope using Phage-based Representation OF ImmunoLigand Epitope Repertoire (PROFILER), a recently developed high-throughput method based on deep sequencing of antigen-specific lambda phage-displayed libraries. A novel bactericidal monoclonal antibody (mAb 9F11) raised against Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA), an important component of the Bexsero(®) anti-meningococcal vaccine, was used to evaluate the technique in comparison with other epitope mapping methods. The PROFILER technology readily identified NadA fragments that were capable of fully recapitulating the reactivity of the entire antigen against mAb 9F11. Further analysis of these fragments using mutagenesis and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass-spectrometry allowed us to identify the binding site of mAb 9F11 (A250-D274) and an adjoining sequence (V275-H312) that was also required for the full functional reconstitution of the epitope. These data suggest that, by virtue of its ability to detect a great variety of immunoreactive antigen fragments in phage-displayed libraries, the PROFILER technology can rapidly and reliably identify epitope-containing regions and provide, in addition, useful clues for the functional characterization of conformational mAb epitopes.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Profiling of Griseofulvin Production in Xylaria cubensis Using Mass Spectrometry Mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sica, Vincent P; Rees, Evan R; Tchegnon, Edem; Bardsley, Robert H; Raja, Huzefa A; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2016-01-01

    ... chemistry extraction protocols. A griseofulvin-producing fungal culture of the Xylariaceae family, isolated as an endophyte of the tree Asimina triloba, was analyzed through a series of spatial and temporal mapping experiments...

  10. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  11. Resistance gene analogues identified through the NBS-profiling method map close to major genes and QTL for disease resistance in apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calenge, F.; Linden, van der C.G.; Weg, van de W.E.; Schouten, H.J.; Arkel, van G.; Denance, C.; Durel, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    We used a new method called nucleotide-binding site (NBS) profiling to identify and map resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in apple. This method simultaneously allows the amplification and the mapping of genetic markers anchored in the conserved NBS-encoding domain of plant disease resistance genes.

  12. Species distribution modelling for plant communities: Stacked single species or multivariate modelling approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilie B. Henderson; Janet L. Ohmann; Matthew J. Gregory; Heather M. Roberts; Harold S.J. Zald

    2014-01-01

    Landscape management and conservation planning require maps of vegetation composition and structure over large regions. Species distribution models (SDMs) are often used for individual species, but projects mapping multiple species are rarer. We compare maps of plant community composition assembled by stacking results from many SDMs with multivariate maps constructed...

  13. HPC Software Stack Testing Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-07-27

    The HPC Software stack testing framework (hpcswtest) is used in the INL Scientific Computing Department to test the basic sanity and integrity of the HPC Software stack (Compilers, MPI, Numerical libraries and Applications) and to quickly discover hard failures, and as a by-product it will indirectly check the HPC infrastructure (network, PBS and licensing servers).

  14. Efficiency of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Bosma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a feedforward control of optimal oxygen excess ratio that maximize net power (improve efficiency of a NedStack P8.0-64 PEM fuel cell stack (FCS system. Net powers profile as a function of oxygen excess ratio for some points of operation are analyzed by using FCS model. The relationships between stack current and the corresponding control input voltage that gives an optimal oxygen excess ratio are used to design a feedforward control scheme. The results of this scheme are compared to the results of a feedforward control using a constant oxygen excess ratio. Simulation results show that optimal oxygen excess ratio improves fuel cell performance compared to the results of constant oxygen excess ratio. The same procedures are performed experimentally for the FCS system. The behaviour of the net power of the fuel cell stack with respect to the variation of oxygen excess ratio is analyzed to obtain optimal values. Data of stack current and the corresponding voltage input to the compressor that gives optimal values of oxygen excess ratio are used to develop a feedforward control. Feedforward control based on constant and optimal oxygen excess ratio control, are implemented in the NedStack P8.0-64 PEM fuel cell stack system by using LabVIEW. Implementation results shows that optimal oxygen excess ratio control improves the fuel cell performance compared to the constant oxygen excess ratio control.

  15. Regional validation of a high-resolution digital soil map using soil profile attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital soil mapping (DSM) for precision agriculture (PA) management is aimed at developing models that predict soil properties or classes using legacy soil data, sensors, and environmental covariates. The utility of DSM for PA centers on its ability to provide soil information to optimize crop yiel...

  16. The effect of sound speed profile on shallow water shipping sound maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sertlek, H.Ö.; Binnerts, B.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sound mapping over large areas can be computationally expensive because of the large number of sources and large source-receiver separations involved. In order to facilitate computation, a simplifying assumption sometimes made is to neglect the sound speed gradient in shallow water. The accuracy of

  17. Detection and Antigenic Profiling of Undeclared Peanut in Imported Garlic Using an xMAP Multiplex Immunoassay for Food Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ronnie O; Peters, Tim; Panda, Rakhi; Wehling, Paul; Garber, Eric A E

    2017-07-01

    A shipment of imported garlic powder was suspected of containing peanut. Samples (subs) collected from the shipment displayed considerable variability in peanut antigenicity when analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This raised questions regarding whether peanut was actually present, the amount present, and the basis for the variability in antigenic content. Analyses that used an xMAP multiplex assay for the detection of peanut and additional food allergens generated responses that were characteristic of peanut. Specifically, the relative intensities of two different peanut-specific antibodies coupled to beads (peanut-37 and -38) and the antigen profiles were identical to garlic controls spiked with peanut. In addition, the xMAP data did not indicate the presence of other allergens. Quantitative analyses indicated an approximately fivefold variation in peanut concentration among different subs. In contrast, within a sub, the apparent peanut concentration appeared constant. Particle size analyses of the garlic powder subs indicated a single distribution profile, with a peak at 380 μm. ELISA analysis of sieve-fractionated garlic powder from one of the subs indicated that slightly less than half of the detectable peanut was smaller than 212 μm, with the remainder almost evenly split between 212 and 300 μm and >300 μm. Modeling to predict possible oral exposure levels of peanut other than those directly measured requires additional research on the physicochemical properties of peanut and garlic, along with information on the production of the garlic powder.

  18. Approaches to Determination of a Full Profile of Blood Group Genotypes: Single Nucleotide Variant Mapping and Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon S. McBean

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of blood group systems, currently 35, has increased in the recent years as genetic variations defining red cell antigens continue to be discovered. At present, 44 genes and 1568 alleles have been defined as encoding antigens within the 35 blood group systems. This paper provides a brief overview of two genetic technologies: single nucleotide variant (SNV mapping by DNA microarray and massively parallel sequencing, with respect to blood group genotyping. The most frequent genetic change associated with blood group antigens are SNVs. To predict blood group antigen phenotypes, SNV mapping which involves highly multiplexed genotyping, can be performed on commercial microarray platforms. Microarrays detect only known SNVs, therefore, to type rare or novel alleles not represented in the array, further Sanger sequencing of the region is often required to resolve genotype. An example discussed in this article is the identification of rare and novel RHD alleles in the Australian population. Massively parallel sequencing, also known as next generation sequencing, has a high-throughput capacity and maps all points of variation from a reference sequence, allowing for identification of novel SNVs. Examples of the application of this technology to resolve the genetic basis of orphan blood group antigens are presented here. Overall, the determination of a full profile of blood group SNVs, in addition to serological phenotyping, provides a basis for provision of compatible blood thus offering improved transfusion safety.

  19. Data Mining of Determinants of Intrauterine Growth Retardation Revisited Using Novel Algorithms Generating Semantic Maps and Prototypical Discriminating Variable Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscema, Massimo; Grossi, Enzo; Montanini, Luisa; Street, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    Intra-uterine growth retardation is often of unknown origin, and is of great interest as a "Fetal Origin of Adult Disease" has been now well recognized. We built a benchmark based upon a previously analysed data set related to Intrauterine Growth Retardation with 46 subjects described by 14 variables, related with the insulin-like growth factor system and pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. We used new algorithms for optimal information sorting based on the combination of two neural network algorithms: Auto-contractive Map and Activation and Competition System. Auto-Contractive Map spatializes the relationships among variables or records by constructing a suitable embedding space where 'closeness' among variables or records reflects accurately their associations. The Activation and Competition System algorithm instead works as a dynamic non linear associative memory on the weight matrices of other algorithms, and is able to produce a prototypical variable profile of a given target. Classical statistical analysis, proved to be unable to distinguish intrauterine growth retardation from appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) subjects due to the high non-linearity of underlying functions. Auto-contractive map succeeded in clustering and differentiating completely the conditions under study, while Activation and Competition System allowed to develop the profile of variables which discriminated the two conditions under study better than any other previous form of attempt. In particular, Activation and Competition System showed that ppropriateness for gestational age was explained by IGF-2 relative gene expression, and by IGFBP-2 and TNF-α placental contents. IUGR instead was explained by IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IL-6 gene expression in placenta. This further analysis provided further insight into the placental key-players of fetal growth within the insulin-like growth factor and cytokine systems. Our previous published

  20. Data Mining of Determinants of Intrauterine Growth Retardation Revisited Using Novel Algorithms Generating Semantic Maps and Prototypical Discriminating Variable Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Buscema

    Full Text Available Intra-uterine growth retardation is often of unknown origin, and is of great interest as a "Fetal Origin of Adult Disease" has been now well recognized. We built a benchmark based upon a previously analysed data set related to Intrauterine Growth Retardation with 46 subjects described by 14 variables, related with the insulin-like growth factor system and pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α.We used new algorithms for optimal information sorting based on the combination of two neural network algorithms: Auto-contractive Map and Activation and Competition System. Auto-Contractive Map spatializes the relationships among variables or records by constructing a suitable embedding space where 'closeness' among variables or records reflects accurately their associations. The Activation and Competition System algorithm instead works as a dynamic non linear associative memory on the weight matrices of other algorithms, and is able to produce a prototypical variable profile of a given target.Classical statistical analysis, proved to be unable to distinguish intrauterine growth retardation from appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA subjects due to the high non-linearity of underlying functions. Auto-contractive map succeeded in clustering and differentiating completely the conditions under study, while Activation and Competition System allowed to develop the profile of variables which discriminated the two conditions under study better than any other previous form of attempt. In particular, Activation and Competition System showed that ppropriateness for gestational age was explained by IGF-2 relative gene expression, and by IGFBP-2 and TNF-α placental contents. IUGR instead was explained by IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IL-6 gene expression in placenta.This further analysis provided further insight into the placental key-players of fetal growth within the insulin-like growth factor and cytokine systems. Our previous

  1. Stack Caching Using Split Data Caches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In most embedded and general purpose architectures, stack data and non-stack data is cached together, meaning that writing to or loading from the stack may expel non-stack data from the data cache. Manipulation of the stack has a different memory access pattern than that of non-stack data, showing...... higher temporal and spatial locality. We propose caching stack and non-stack data separately and develop four different stack caches that allow this separation without requiring compiler support. These are the simple, window, and prefilling with and without tag stack caches. The performance of the stack...... cache architectures was evaluated using the Simple Scalar toolset where the window and prefilling stack cache without tag resulted in an execution speedup of up to 3.5% for the MiBench benchmarks, executed on an out-of-order processor with the ARM instruction set....

  2. Metallophore mapping in complex matrices by metal isotope coded profiling of organic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deicke, Michael; Mohr, Jan Frieder; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe; Wichard, Thomas

    2014-12-07

    Metal isotope coded profiling (MICP) introduces a universal discovery platform for metal chelating natural products that act as metallophores, ion buffers or sequestering agents. The detection of cation and oxoanion complexing ligands is facilitated by the identification of unique isotopic signatures created by the application of isotopically pure metals.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Profiling of Griseofulvin Production in Xylaria cubensis Using Mass Spectrometry Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent eSica; Evan eRees; Edem eTchegnon; Robert eBardsley; Huzefa eRaja; Nicholas eOberlies

    2016-01-01

    A large portion of natural products research revolves around the discovery of new, bioactive chemical entities; however, studies to probe the biological purpose of such secondary metabolites for the host organism are often limited. Mass spectrometry mapping of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in situ can be used to probe a series of ecological questions about fungi that may be lost through traditional natural products chemistry extraction protocols. A griseofulvin-producing fungal culture of...

  4. Dynamic protocol stack composition: protocol independent addressing

    OpenAIRE

    Michiels, Sam; Mahieu, Tom; Matthijs, Frank; Verbaeten, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a generic addressing framework (GAF) which enables the development of protocol stack independent applications. This framework has been developed in the context of dynamic protocol stack composition. Having a way to compose and build protocol stacks is not sufficient. The protocol layers a stack is composed of have an impact on the addressing used inside the stack. Since addresses are used by applications, the impact of modifying the stack dynamically is not automaticall...

  5. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT): Beam Profiles and First SZ Cluster Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincks, A. D.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Barrientos, L. F.; Battistelli, E. S.; Bond, J. R.; Brown, B.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is currently observing the cosmic microwave background with arcminute resolution at 148 GHz, 218 GHz, and 277 GHz, In this paper, we present ACT's first results. Data have been analyzed using a maximum-likelihood map-making method which uses B-splines to model and remove the atmospheric signal. It has been used to make high-precision beam maps from which we determine the experiment's window functions, This beam information directly impacts all subsequent analyses of the data. We also used the method to map a sample of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Ze1'dovich (SZ) effect, and show five clusters previously detected with X-ray or SZ observations, We provide integrated Compton-y measurements for each cluster. Of particular interest is our detection of the z = 0.44 component of A3128 and our current non-detection of the low-redshift part, providing strong evidence that the further cluster is more massive as suggested by X-ray measurements. This is a compelling example of the redshift-independent mass selection of the SZ effect.

  6. Genome-wide profiling of structural genomic variations in Korean HapMap individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Joon Seol; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Park, Byung Lae; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Han, Chang Soo; Park, Tae Joon; Kim, Jason Yongha; Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A; Lee, Jin Sol; Shin, Hyoung Doo

    2010-07-02

    Structural genomic variation study, along with microarray technology development has provided many genomic resources related with architecture of human genome, and led to the fact that human genome structure is a lot more complicated than previously thought. In the case of International HapMap Project, Epstein-Barr various immortalized cell lines were preferably used over blood in order to get a larger number of genomic DNA. However, genomic aberration stemming from immortalization process, biased representation of the donor tissue, and culture process may influence the accuracy of SNP genotypes. In order to identify chromosome aberrations including loss of heterozygosity (LOH), large-scale and small-scale copy number variations, we used Illumina HumanHap500 BeadChip (555,352 markers) on Korean HapMap individuals (n = 90) to obtain Log R ratio and B allele frequency information, and then utilized the data with various programs including Illumina ChromoZone, cnvParition and PennCNV. As a result, we identified 28 LOHs (>3 mb) and 35 large-scale CNVs (>1 mb), with 4 samples having completely duplicated chromosome. In addition, after checking the sample quality (standard deviation of log R ratio HapMap individuals, and expect that these findings will provide more meaningful information on the human genome.

  7. Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yandrasits, Michael A.

    2008-02-15

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are expected to change the landscape of power generation over the next ten years. For this to be realized one of the most significant challenges to be met for stationary systems is lifetime, where 40,000 hours of operation with less than 10% decay is desired. This project conducted fundamental studies on the durability of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and fuel cell stack systems with the expectation that knowledge gained from this project will be applied toward the design and manufacture of MEAs and stack systems to meet DOE’s 2010 stationary fuel cell stack systems targets. The focus of this project was PEM fuel cell durability – understanding the issues that limit MEA and fuel cell system lifetime, developing mitigation strategies to address the lifetime issues and demonstration of the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies by system testing. To that end, several discoveries were made that contributed to the fundamental understanding of MEA degradation mechanisms. (1) The classically held belief that membrane degradation is solely due to end-group “unzipping” is incorrect; there are other functional groups present in the ionomer that are susceptible to chemical attack. (2) The rate of membrane degradation can be greatly slowed or possibly eliminated through the use of additives that scavenge peroxide or peroxyl radicals. (3) Characterization of GDL using dry gases is incorrect due to the fact that fuel cells operate utilizing humidified gases. The proper characterization method involves using wet gas streams and measuring capillary pressure as demonstrated in this project. (4) Not all Platinum on carbon catalysts are created equally – the major factor impacting catalyst durability is the type of carbon used as the support. (5) System operating conditions have a significant impact of lifetime – the lifetime was increased by an order of magnitude by changing the load profile while all other variables remain

  8. Spatial and Temporal Profiling of Griseofulvin Production in Xylaria cubensis Using Mass Spectrometry Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Vincent P.; Rees, Evan R.; Tchegnon, Edem; Bardsley, Robert H.; Raja, Huzefa A.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    A large portion of natural products research revolves around the discovery of new, bioactive chemical entities; however, studies to probe the biological purpose of such secondary metabolites for the host organism are often limited. Mass spectrometry mapping of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in situ can be used to probe a series of ecological questions about fungi that may be lost through traditional natural products chemistry extraction protocols. A griseofulvin-producing fungal culture of the Xylariaceae family, isolated as an endophyte of the tree Asimina triloba, was analyzed through a series of spatial and temporal mapping experiments. This fungus produced unique fungal characteristics, such as guttates and stroma, both of which were explored spatially. The distribution of griseofulvin on this culture in isolation was compared to its dispersal when grown in co-culture with a competing Penicillium species via a droplet–based surface sampling system. The fungistatic properties of griseofulvin were visualized, including the consequences for biosynthesis of polyhydroxyanthraquinones in a rival culture. PMID:27199902

  9. Spatial and temporal profiling of griseofulvin production in Xylaria cubensis using mass spectrometry mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eSica

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A large portion of natural products research revolves around the discovery of new, bioactive chemical entities; however, studies to probe the biological purpose of such secondary metabolites for the host organism are often limited. Mass spectrometry mapping of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in situ can be used to probe a series of ecological questions about fungi that may be lost through traditional natural products chemistry extraction protocols. A griseofulvin-producing fungal culture of the Xylariaceae family, isolated as an endophyte of the tree Asimina triloba, was analyzed through a series of spatial and temporal mapping experiments. This fungus produced unique fungal characteristics, such as guttates and stroma, both of which were explored spatially. The distribution of griseofulvin on this culture in isolation was compared to its dispersal when grown in co-culture with a competing Penicillium species via a droplet–based surface sampling system. The fungistatic properties of griseofulvin were visualized, including the consequences for biosynthesis of polyhydroxyanthraquinones in a rival culture.

  10. Mapping CSF biomarker profiles onto NIA-AA guidelines for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Roesler, Jennifer; Thierjung, Nathalie; Werle, Lukas; Buck, Dorothea; Yakushev, Igor; Gleixner, Lena; Kagerbauer, Simone; Ortner, Marion; Grimmer, Timo; Kübler, Hubert; Martin, Jan; Laskaris, Nikolaos; Kurz, Alexander; Perneczky, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) propose the categorization of individuals according to their biomarker constellation. Though the NIA-AA criteria for preclinical AD and AD dementia have already been applied in conjunction with imaging AD biomarkers, the application of the criteria using comprehensive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker information has not been thoroughly studied yet. The study included a monocentric cohort with healthy (N = 41) and disease (N = 22) controls and patients with AD dementia (N = 119), and a multicentric sample with healthy controls (N = 116) and patients with AD dementia (N = 102). The CSF biomarkers β-amyloid 1-42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau at threonine 181 were measured with commercially available assays. Biomarker values were trichotomized into positive for AD, negative, or borderline. In controls the presence of normal CSF profiles varied between 13.6 and 25.4 % across the studied groups, while up to 8.6 % of them had abnormal CSF biomarkers. In 40.3-52.9 % of patients with AD dementia, a typical CSF profile for AD was detected. Approximately 40 % of the potential biomarker constellations are not considered in the NIA-AA guidelines, and more than 40 % of participants could not be classified into the NIA-AA categories with distinct biomarker constellations. Here, a refined scheme covering all potential biomarker constellations is proposed. These results enrich the discussion on the NIA-AA guidelines and point to a discordance between clinical symptomatology and CSF biomarkers even in patients with full-blown AD dementia, who are supposed to have a clearly positive for AD neurochemical profile.

  11. Extending the long-term record of volcanic SO2 emissions with the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite nadir mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, S. A.; Yang, K.; Prata, A. J.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2015-02-01

    Uninterrupted, global space-based monitoring of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions is critical for climate modeling and aviation hazard mitigation. We report the first volcanic SO2 measurements using ultraviolet (UV) Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) nadir mapper data. OMPS was launched on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite in October 2011. We demonstrate the sensitivity of OMPS SO2 measurements by quantifying SO2 emissions from the modest eruption of Paluweh volcano (Indonesia) in February 2013 and tracking the dispersion of the volcanic SO2 cloud. The OMPS SO2 retrievals are validated using Ozone Monitoring Instrument and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder measurements. The results confirm the ability of OMPS to extend the long-term record of volcanic SO2 emissions based on UV satellite observations. We also show that the Paluweh volcanic SO2 reached the lower stratosphere, further demonstrating the impact of small tropical volcanic eruptions on stratospheric aerosol optical depth and climate.

  12. Biovolume-size spectra of epipelagic zooplankton using a multi-frequency acoustic profiling system (MAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp, J. M.; Ortner, P. B.; Pieper, R. E.; Holliday, D. V.

    1993-03-01

    Zooplankton biovolume data from a Multi-frequency Acoustic Profiling System were used to construct biovolume-size spectra for the Gulf Stream and the Southern California Bight. These spectra were linear through most, but not all, of the size range sampled (0.025-4.00 mm, ESR). Analysis of covariance was sometimes a useful tool to distinguish among spectra taken at different times and places. Difference spectra offered an alternative method of visualizing disparities between spectra. We compared our acoustically-derived spectra from the Gulf Stream with those obtained from other oceans with different samplers and those obtained in the same waters with a different sampler. The results indicate that differences attributable to sampler bias within the same system presently make it difficult, if not impossible, to interpret comparisons from different samplers in different ecosystems.

  13. Data Mining of Determinants of Intrauterine Growth Retardation Revisited Using Novel Algorithms Generating Semantic Maps and Prototypical Discriminating Variable Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscema, Massimo; Grossi, Enzo; Montanini, Luisa; Street, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intra-uterine growth retardation is often of unknown origin, and is of great interest as a “Fetal Origin of Adult Disease” has been now well recognized. We built a benchmark based upon a previously analysed data set related to Intrauterine Growth Retardation with 46 subjects described by 14 variables, related with the insulin-like growth factor system and pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin -6 and tumor necrosis factor -α. Design and Methods We used new algorithms for optimal information sorting based on the combination of two neural network algorithms: Auto-contractive Map and Activation and Competition System. Auto-Contractive Map spatializes the relationships among variables or records by constructing a suitable embedding space where ‘closeness’ among variables or records reflects accurately their associations. The Activation and Competition System algorithm instead works as a dynamic non linear associative memory on the weight matrices of other algorithms, and is able to produce a prototypical variable profile of a given target. Results Classical statistical analysis, proved to be unable to distinguish intrauterine growth retardation from appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) subjects due to the high non-linearity of underlying functions. Auto-contractive map succeeded in clustering and differentiating completely the conditions under study, while Activation and Competition System allowed to develop the profile of variables which discriminated the two conditions under study better than any other previous form of attempt. In particular, Activation and Competition System showed that ppropriateness for gestational age was explained by IGF-2 relative gene expression, and by IGFBP-2 and TNF-α placental contents. IUGR instead was explained by IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IL-6 gene expression in placenta. Conclusion This further analysis provided further insight into the placental key-players of fetal growth within the insulin-like growth

  14. Molecular Mapping and QTL for Expression Profiles of Flavonoid Genes in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cunmin; Zhao, Huiyan; Fu, Fuyou; Zhang, Kai; Yuan, Jianglian; Liu, Liezhao; Wang, Rui; Xu, Xinfu; Lu, Kun; Li, Jia-Na

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that are extensively distributed in the plant kingdom and contribute to seed coat color formation in rapeseed. To decipher the genetic networks underlying flavonoid biosynthesis in rapeseed, we constructed a high-density genetic linkage map with 1089 polymorphic loci (including 464 SSR loci, 97 RAPD loci, 451 SRAP loci, and 75 IBP loci) using recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The map consists of 19 linkage groups and covers 2775 cM of the B. napus genome with an average distance of 2.54 cM between adjacent markers. We then performed expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis to detect transcript-level variation of 18 flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes in the seeds of the 94 RILs. In total, 72 eQTLs were detected and found to be distributed among 15 different linkage groups that account for 4.11% to 52.70% of the phenotypic variance atrributed to each eQTL. Using a genetical genomics approach, four eQTL hotspots together harboring 28 eQTLs associated with 18 genes were found on chromosomes A03, A09, and C08 and had high levels of synteny with genome sequences of A. thaliana and Brassica species. Associated with the trans-eQTL hotspots on chromosomes A03, A09, and C08 were 5, 17, and 1 genes encoding transcription factors, suggesting that these genes have essential roles in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Importantly, bZIP25, which is expressed specifically in seeds, MYC1, which controls flavonoid biosynthesis, and the R2R3-type gene MYB51, which is involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites, were associated with the eQTL hotspots, and these genes might thus be involved in different flavonoid biosynthesis pathways in rapeseed. Hence, further studies of the functions of these genes will provide insight into the regulatory mechanism underlying flavonoid biosynthesis, and lay the foundation for elaborating the molecular mechanism of seed coat color formation in B. napus. PMID:27881992

  15. MIMEAnTo: profiling functional RNA in mutational interference mapping experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maureen R; Smyth, Redmond P; Marquet, Roland; von Kleist, Max

    2016-11-01

    The mutational interference mapping experiment (MIME) is a powerful method that, coupled to a bioinformatics analysis pipeline, allows the identification of domains and structures in RNA that are important for its function. In MIME, target RNAs are randomly mutated, selected by function, physically separated and sequenced using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Quantitative effects of each mutation at each position in the RNA can be recovered with statistical certainty using the herein developed user-friendly, cross-platform software MIMEAnTo (MIME Analysis Tool). MIMEAnTo is implemented in C ++ using the boost library as well as Qt for the graphical user interface and is distributed under GPL (http://www.gnu.org/licences/gpl). The libraries are statically linked in a stand alone executable and are not required on the system. The plots are generated with gnuplot. Gnuplot-iostream (https://github.com/dstahlke/gnuplot-iostream) serves as gnuplot interface. Standalone executables including examples and source code can be downloaded from https://github.com/maureensmith/MIMEAnTo CONTACTS: msmith@zedat.fu-berlin.de or vkleist@zedat.fu-berlin.deSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Lateral excitonic switching in vertically stacked quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarzynka, Jarosław R.; McDonald, Peter G.; Galbraith, Ian [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Shumway, John [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    We show that the application of a vertical electric field to the Coulomb interacting system in stacked quantum dots leads to a 90° in-plane switching of charge probability distribution in contrast to a single dot, where no such switching exists. Results are obtained using path integral quantum Monte Carlo with realistic dot geometry, alloy composition, and piezo-electric potential profiles. The origin of the switching lies in the strain interactions between the stacked dots hence the need for more than one layer of dots. The lateral polarization and electric field dependence of the radiative lifetimes of the excitonic switch are also discussed.

  17. Glassy carbon based supercapacitor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M.; Braun, A.; Koetz, R.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Considerable effort is being made to develop electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) that store relatively large quantities of electrical energy and possess at the same time a high power density. Our previous work has shown that glassy carbon is suitable as a material for capacitor electrodes concerning low resistance and high capacity requirements. We present the development of bipolar electrochemical glassy carbon capacitor stacks of up to 3 V. Bipolar stacks are an efficient way to meet the high voltage and high power density requirements for traction applications. Impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements are reported here and show the frequency response of a 1, 2, and 3 V stack. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref..

  18. Stacking interactions and the twist of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, V.R.; Thonhauser, T.; Puzder, A.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of stacking interactions for the Twist and stability of DNA is investigated using the fully ab initio van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF).(1,2) Our results highlight the role that binary interactions between adjacent sets of base pairs play in defining the sequence-dependent ......The importance of stacking interactions for the Twist and stability of DNA is investigated using the fully ab initio van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF).(1,2) Our results highlight the role that binary interactions between adjacent sets of base pairs play in defining the sequence......-dependent Twists observed in high-resolution experiments. Furthermore, they demonstrate that additional stability gained by the presence of thymine is due to methyl interactions with neighboring bases, thus adding to our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to the relative stability of DNA and RNA. Our...... mapping of the energy required to twist each of the 10 unique base pair steps should provide valuable information for future studies of nucleic acid stability and dynamics. The method introduced will enable the nonempirical theoretical study of significantly larger pieces of DNA or DNA/amino acid...

  19. Multiple Segmentation of Image Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Jonathan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for the simultaneous construction of multiple image segmentations by combining a recently proposed “convolution of mixtures of Gaussians” model with a multi-layer hidden Markov random field structure. The resulting method constructs for a single image several, alternative...... segmentations that capture different structural elements of the image. We also apply the method to collections of images with identical pixel dimensions, which we call image stacks. Here it turns out that the method is able to both identify groups of similar images in the stack, and to provide segmentations...

  20. Simulating Small-Scale Object Stacking Using Stack Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Thomsen, Kasper; Kraus, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extension system to a closed-source, real-time physics engine for improving structured stacking behavior with small-scale objects such as wooden toy bricks. The proposed system was implemented and evaluated. The tests showed that the system is able to simulate several common...

  1. Pressurized electrolysis stack with thermal expansion capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott

    2015-07-14

    The present techniques provide systems and methods for mounting an electrolyzer stack in an outer shell so as to allow for differential thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack and shell. Generally, an electrolyzer stack may be formed from a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion, while the shell may be formed from a material having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion may lead to damage to the electrolyzer stack as the shell may restrain the thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack. To allow for the differences in thermal expansion, the electrolyzer stack may be mounted within the shell leaving a space between the electrolyzer stack and shell. The space between the electrolyzer stack and the shell may be filled with a non-conductive fluid to further equalize pressure inside and outside of the electrolyzer stack.

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission in Spitzer /IRS Maps. II. A Direct Link between Band Profiles and the Radiation Field Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E., E-mail: dstock84@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2017-03-10

    We decompose the observed 7.7 μ m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission complexes in a large sample of over 7000 mid-infrared spectra of the interstellar medium using spectral cubes observed with the Spitzer /IRS-SL instrument. In order to fit the 7.7 μ m PAH emission complex we invoke four Gaussian components, which are found to be very stable in terms of their peak positions and widths across all of our spectra, and subsequently define a decomposition with fixed parameters, which gives an acceptable fit for all the spectra. We see a strong environmental dependence on the interrelationships between our band fluxes—in the H ii regions all four components are intercorrelated, while in the reflection nebulae (RNs) the inner and outer pairs of bands correlate in the same manner as previously seen for NGC 2023. We show that this effect arises because the maps of RNs are dominated by emission from strongly irradiated photodissociation regions, while the much larger maps of H ii regions are dominated by emission from regions much more distant from the exciting stars, leading to subtly different spectral behavior. Further investigation of this dichotomy reveals that the ratio of two of these components (centered at 7.6 and 7.8 μ m) is linearly related to the UV-field intensity (log G {sub 0}). We find that this relationship does not hold for sources consisting of circumstellar material, which are known to have variable 7.7 μ m spectral profiles.

  3. Glucose Metabolic Profile by Visual Assessment Combined with Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis in Pediatric Patients with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuankai; Feng, Jianhua; Wu, Shuang; Hou, Haifeng; Ji, Jianfeng; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Qing; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Haiying; Gao, Liuyan; Chen, Zexin; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2017-08-01

    PET with 18 F-FDG has been used for presurgical localization of epileptogenic foci; however, in nonsurgical patients, the correlation between cerebral glucose metabolism and clinical severity has not been fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucose metabolic profile using 18 F-FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with epilepsy. Methods: One hundred pediatric epilepsy patients who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT, MRI, and electroencephalography examinations were included. Fifteen age-matched controls were also included. 18 F-FDG PET images were analyzed by visual assessment combined with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. The absolute asymmetry index (|AI|) was calculated in patients with regional abnormal glucose metabolism. Results: Visual assessment combined with SPM analysis of 18 F-FDG PET images detected more patients with abnormal glucose metabolism than visual assessment only. The |AI| significantly positively correlated with seizure frequency ( P glucose metabolism. The only significant contributing variable to the |AI| was the time since last seizure, in patients both with hypometabolism ( P = 0.001) and with hypermetabolism ( P = 0.005). For patients with either hypometabolism ( P glucose metabolic profiles in nonsurgical epilepsy patients. |AI| might be used for evaluation of clinical severity and progress in these patients. Patients with a prolonged period of seizure freedom may have more subtle (or no) metabolic abnormalities on PET. The clinical value of PET might be enhanced by timing the scan closer to clinical seizures. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  4. A Profile of Gender-Based Violence Research in Europe: Findings From a Focused Mapping Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Appleton, Jane V; Clark, Maria; Paavilainen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a new form of review: a focused mapping review and synthesis. The aim was to create a contemporary, snapshot profile of the nature and scope of gender-based violence (GBV) studies conducted in Europe. GBV is one of the most prevalent human rights violations in the world affecting mainly women and girls. The policy context of GBV in Europe has gathered momentum in recent years, but we do not have a clear picture of how this relates to research activity. Thirteen journals were purposively selected on their likelihood to publish GBV research. All articles published in these journals during 2015 and meeting our inclusion criteria were retrieved. Data were extracted according to (1) types of methodologies used, (2) geographical location of research, and (3) patterns of research activity/interest. Thirty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Many titles and abstracts were not explicit about the gendered nature of the research which made retrieval and analysis difficult. A range of methodologies were reported, with single-country research conducted more than international collaborations. Intimate partner violence and sexual abuse attracted most research interest. No studies explored female genital mutilation/cutting and only one investigated early and forced marriage. The findings have implications regarding GBV research in Europe, and we explore them in relation to relevant European policy. Researchers can help raise the profile of the gendered nature of most violence-related research by being explicit about this in their publications. Increasing opportunities for cross-national research will help address the global nature of GBV. Tackling GBV requires synergy of empirical evidence and policy to drive the agenda.

  5. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  6. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  7. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  8. Resistivity Profiling for Mapping Gravel Layers That May Control Contaminant Migration at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Abraham, Jared D.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2008-01-01

    Gaseous contaminants, including CFC 113, chloroform, and tritiated compounds, move preferentially in unsaturated subsurface gravel layers away from disposal trenches at a closed low-level radioactive waste-disposal facility in the Amargosa Desert about 17 kilometers south of Beatty, Nevada. Two distinct gravel layers are involved in contaminant transport: a thin, shallow layer between about 0.5 and 2.2 meters below the surface and a layer of variable thickness between about 15 and 30 meters below land surface. From 2003 to 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey used multielectrode DC and AC resistivity surveys to map these gravel layers. Previous core sampling indicates the fine-grained sediments generally have higher water content than the gravel layers or the sediments near the surface. The relatively higher electrical resistivity of the dry gravel layers, compared to that of the surrounding finer sediments, makes the gravel readily mappable using electrical resistivity profiling. The upper gravel layer is not easily distinguished from the very dry, fine-grained deposits at the surface. Two-dimensional resistivity models, however, clearly identify the resistive lower gravel layer, which is continuous near the facility except to the southeast. Multielectrode resistivity surveys provide a practical noninvasive method to image hydrogeologic features in the arid environment of the Amargosa Desert.

  9. CGI: Java Software for Mapping and Visualizing Data from Array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization and Expression Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Xiuweu-Xu Gu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing application of various genomic technologies in biomedical research, there is a need to integrate these data to correlate candidate genes/regions that are identified by different genomic platforms. Although there are tools that can analyze data from individual platforms, essential software for integration of genomic data is still lacking. Here, we present a novel Java-based program called CGI (Cytogenetics-Genomics Integrator that matches the BAC clones from array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH to genes from RNA expression profiling datasets. The matching is computed via a fast, backend MySQL database containing UCSC Genome Browser annotations. This program also provides an easy-to-use graphical user interface for visualizing and summarizing the correlation of DNA copy number changes and RNA expression patterns from a set of experiments. In addition, CGI uses a Java applet to display the copy number values of a specifi c BAC clone in aCGH experiments side by side with the expression levels of genes that are mapped back to that BAC clone from the microarray experiments. The CGI program is built on top of extensible, reusable graphic components specifically designed for biologists. It is cross-platform compatible and the source code is freely available under the General Public License.

  10. 49 CFR 178.980 - Stacking test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the qualification of all Large Packagings design types intended to be stacked. (b) Special preparation for the stacking test. (1) All Large Packagings except flexible Large Packaging design types must be... for 24 hours. (3) Rigid plastic Large Packagings which bear the stacking load must be subjected to the...

  11. Genome-wide mapping of imprinted differentially methylated regions by DNA methylation profiling of human placentas from triploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Ryan KC

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imprinting is an important epigenetic process involved in regulating placental and foetal growth. Imprinted genes are typically associated with differentially methylated regions (DMRs whereby one of the two alleles is DNA methylated depending on the parent of origin. Identifying imprinted DMRs in humans is complicated by species- and tissue-specific differences in imprinting status and the presence of multiple regulatory regions associated with a particular gene, only some of which may be imprinted. In this study, we have taken advantage of the unbalanced parental genomic constitutions in triploidies to further characterize human DMRs associated with known imprinted genes and identify novel imprinted DMRs. Results By comparing the promoter methylation status of over 14,000 genes in human placentas from ten diandries (extra paternal haploid set and ten digynies (extra maternal haploid set and using 6 complete hydatidiform moles (paternal origin and ten chromosomally normal placentas for comparison, we identified 62 genes with apparently imprinted DMRs (false discovery rate FAM50B, as well as novel imprinted DMRs associated with known imprinted genes (for example, CDKN1C and RASGRF1 can be identified by using this approach. Furthermore, we have demonstrated how comparison of DNA methylation for known imprinted genes (for example, GNAS and CDKN1C between placentas of different gestations and other somatic tissues (brain, kidney, muscle and blood provides a detailed analysis of specific CpG sites associated with tissue-specific imprinting and gestational age-specific methylation. Conclusions DNA methylation profiling of triploidies in different tissues and developmental ages can be a powerful and effective way to map and characterize imprinted regions in the genome.

  12. A Time-predictable Stack Cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to le...... of a cache for stack allocated data. Our port of the LLVM C++ compiler supports the management of the stack cache. The combination of stack cache instructions and the hardware implementation of the stack cache is a further step towards timepredictable architectures....

  13. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    . An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... and discussed in the following. Parallel acquisition using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy can be used to detect possible minor differences in the supply of gas to the individual cells, which is important when going to high fuel utilizations. The fuel flow distribution was determined and provides...... carried out on an experimental 14-cell SOFC stack at varying frequencies and fuel utilizations. The results illustrated that THD can be used to detect increasing non-linearities in the current-voltage characteristics of the stack when the stack suffers from fuel starvation by monitoring the stack sum...

  15. Quantitative T1 and proton density mapping with direct calculation of radiofrequency coil transmit and receive profiles from two-point variable flip angle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudrexel, Simon; Reitz, Sarah C; Hof, Stephanie; Gracien, René-Maxime; Fleischer, Vinzenz; Zimmermann, Hilga; Droby, Amgad; Klein, Johannes C; Deichmann, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative T1 mapping of brain tissue is frequently based on the variable flip angle (VFA) method, acquiring spoiled gradient echo (GE) datasets at different excitation angles. However, accurate T1 calculation requires a knowledge of the sensitivity profile B1 of the radiofrequency (RF) transmit coil. For an additional derivation of proton density (PD) maps, the receive coil sensitivity profile (RP) must also be known. Mapping of B1 and RP increases the experiment duration, which may be critical when investigating patients. In this work, a method is presented for the direct calculation of B1 and RP from VFA data. Thus, quantitative maps of T1 , PD, B1 and RP can be obtained from only two spoiled GE datasets. The method is based on: (1) the exploitation of the linear relationship between 1/PD and 1/T1 in brain tissue and (2) the assumption of smoothly varying B1 and RP, so that a large number of data points can be fitted across small volume elements where B1 and RP are approximately constant. The method is tested and optimized on healthy subjects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Tropospheric Ozonesonde Profiles at Long-term U.S. Monitoring Sites: 1. A Climatology Based on Self-organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Anne M.; Young, George S.

    2016-01-01

    Sonde-based climatologies of tropospheric ozone (O3) are vital for developing satellite retrieval algorithms and evaluating chemical transport model output. Typical O3 climatologies average measurements by latitude or region, and season. A recent analysis using self-organizing maps (SOM) to cluster ozonesondes from two tropical sites found that clusters of O3 mixing ratio profiles are an excellent way to capture O3variability and link meteorological influences to O3 profiles. Clusters correspond to distinct meteorological conditions, e.g., convection, subsidence, cloud cover, and transported pollution. Here the SOM technique is extended to four long-term U.S. sites (Boulder, CO; Huntsville, AL; Trinidad Head, CA; and Wallops Island, VA) with4530 total profiles. Sensitivity tests on k-means algorithm and SOM justify use of 3 3 SOM (nine clusters). Ateach site, SOM clusters together O3 profiles with similar tropopause height, 500 hPa height temperature, and amount of tropospheric and total column O3. Cluster means are compared to monthly O3 climatologies.For all four sites, near-tropopause O3 is double (over +100 parts per billion by volume; ppbv) the monthly climatological O3 mixing ratio in three clusters that contain 1316 of profiles, mostly in winter and spring.Large midtropospheric deviations from monthly means (6 ppbv, +710 ppbv O3 at 6 km) are found in two of the most populated clusters (combined 3639 of profiles). These two clusters contain distinctly polluted(summer) and clean O3 (fall-winter, high tropopause) profiles, respectively. As for tropical profiles previously analyzed with SOM, O3 averages are often poor representations of U.S. O3 profile statistics.

  17. Time-predictable Stack Caching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar

    complicated and less imprecise. Time-predictable computer architectures provide solutions to this problem. As accesses to the data in caches are one source of timing unpredictability, devising methods for improving the timepredictability of caches are important. Stack data, with statically analyzable...... completely. Thus, in systems with hard deadlines the worst-case execution time (WCET) of the real-time software running on them needs to be bounded. Modern architectures use features such as pipelining and caches for improving the average performance. These features, however, make the WCET analysis more...

  18. Cfd Analysis of Heat Transfer in a Microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianko-Oprych Paulina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to achieve a deeper understanding of the heat transfer in a microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (mSOFC stack based on the results obtained by means of a Computational Fluid Dynamics tool. Stack performance predictions were based on simulations for a 16 anodesupported mSOFCs sub-stack, which was a component of the overall stack containing 64 fuel cells. The emphasis of the paper was put on steady-state modelling, which enabled identification of heat transfer between the fuel cells and air flow cooling the stack and estimation of the influence of stack heat losses. Analysis of processes for different heat losses and the impact of the mSOFC reaction heat flux profile on the temperature distribution in the mSOFC stack were carried out. Both radiative and convective heat transfer were taken into account in the analysis. Two different levels of the inlet air velocity and three different values of the heat losses were considered. Good agreement of the CFD model results with experimental data allowed to predict the operation trends, which will be a reliable tool for optimisation of the working setup and ensure sufficient cooling of the mSOFC stack.

  19. Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursarebani, Naser; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Simková, Hana; Safář, Jan; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van Oeveren, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important staple food crop for 35% of the world's population. International efforts are underway to facilitate an increase in wheat production, of which the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) plays an important role. As part of this effort, we have developed a sequence-based physical map of wheat chromosome 6A using whole-genome profiling (WGP™). The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig assembly tools fingerprinted contig (fpc) and linear topological contig (ltc) were used and their contig assemblies were compared. A detailed investigation of the contigs structure revealed that ltc created a highly robust assembly compared with those formed by fpc. The ltc assemblies contained 1217 contigs for the short arm and 1113 contigs for the long arm, with an L50 of 1 Mb. To facilitate in silico anchoring, WGP™ tags underlying BAC contigs were extended by wheat and wheat progenitor genome sequence information. Sequence data were used for in silico anchoring against genetic markers with known sequences, of which almost 79% of the physical map could be anchored. Moreover, the assigned sequence information led to the 'decoration' of the respective physical map with 3359 anchored genes. Thus, this robust and genetically anchored physical map will serve as a framework for the sequencing of wheat chromosome 6A, and is of immediate use for map-based isolation of agronomically important genes/quantitative trait loci located on this chromosome. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. PEFC-Stack Development with up to 130°C Operation Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Gülzow, Erich; Knöri, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    At the DLR Institute of Technical Thermodynamics new concepts for fuel cell stacks are being developed for various applications and load profiles. Thereby, the main focus lies on the simplification of the stacks for reaching a cost reduction as well as an increase of the (volumetric) power density. Today’s polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are applicable only within a limited operating range. This limitation restricts the spectrum of possible applications and hinders their flexibility...

  1. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10(4) loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  2. Generalized data stacking programming model with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Samir Elhadidy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches have shown that, everywhere in various sciences the systems are following stacked-based stored change behavior when subjected to events or varying environments “on and above” their normal situations. This paper presents a generalized data stack programming (GDSP model which is developed to describe the system changes under varying environment. These changes which are captured with different ways such as sensor reading are stored in matrices. Extraction algorithm and identification technique are proposed to extract the different layers between images and identify the stack class the object follows; respectively. The general multi-stacking network is presented including the interaction between various stack-based layering of some applications. The experiments prove that the concept of stack matrix gives average accuracy of 99.45%.

  3. California dreaming?[PEM stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosse, J.

    2002-06-01

    Hyundai's Santa Fe FCEV will be on sale by the end of 2002. Hyundai uses PEM stacks that are manufactured by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a division of United Technologies. Santa Fe is equipped with a 65 kW electric powertrain of Enova systems and Shell's new gasoline reformer called Hydrogen Source. Eugene Jang, Senior Engineer - Fuel Cell and Materials at Hyundai stated that the compressor related losses on IFC system are below 3%. The maximum speed offered by the vehicle is estimated as 123km/hr while the petrol equivalent fuel consumption is quoted between 5.6L/100 km and 4.8L/100 km. Santa Fe is a compact vehicle offering better steering response and a pleasant drive. (author)

  4. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  5. Biophysical Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pregnancy High-risk pregnancy Biophysical profile About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  6. Accelerated testing of solid oxide fuel cell stacks for micro combined heat and power application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Barfod, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art (SoA) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are tested using profiles relevant for use in micro combined heat and power (CHP) units. Such applications are characterised by dynamic load profiles. In order to shorten the needed testing time and to investigate potential acceleration...... of degradation, the profiles are executed faster than required for real applications. Operation with fast load cycling, both using hydrogen and methane/steam as fuels, does not accelerate degradation compared to constant operation, which demonstrates the maturity of SoA stacks and enables transferring knowledge...... from testing at constant conditions to dynamic operation. 7.5 times more cycles than required for 80,000 h lifetime as micro CHP are achieved on one-cell-stack level. The results also suggest that degradation mechanisms that proceed on a longer time-scale, such as creep, might have a more dominating...

  7. Micrometry combined with profile mapping for the absolute measurement of Integrated Column Density (ICD) and for accurate X-ray mass attenuation coefficients using XERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M. Tauhidul; Rae, Nicholas A.; Glover, Jack L.; Barnea, Zwi [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Chantler, Christopher T., E-mail: chantler@physics.unimelb.edu.a [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2010-07-21

    Absolute values of the column densities [{rho}t]{sub c} of four gold foils were measured using micrometry combined with the 2D X-ray attenuation profile. The absolute calibration of [{rho}t]{sub c} was made with a reference foil and the [{rho}t]{sub c} of other foils were determined following the thickness transfer method. By this method, we obtain absolute calibration to 0.1% or better which was not possible using only the X-ray map of a single foil over its central region.

  8. 40 CFR 61.44 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.44 Section 61.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Firing § 61.44 Stack sampling. (a) Sources subject to § 61.42(b) shall be continuously sampled, during...

  9. On the "stacking fault" in copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransens, J.R.; Pleiter, F

    2003-01-01

    The results of a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations experiment on In-111 implanted into a properly cut single crystal of copper show that the defect known in the literature as "stacking fault" is not a planar faulted loop but a stacking fault tetrahedron with a size of 10-50 Angstrom.

  10. Do Stack Traces Help Developers Fix Bugs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröter, A.; Bettenburg, N.; Premraj, R.

    2010-01-01

    A widely shared belief in the software engineering community is that stack traces are much sought after by developers to support them in debugging. But limited empirical evidence is available to confirm the value of stack traces to developers. In this paper, we seek to provide such evidence by

  11. 49 CFR 178.815 - Stacking test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Fiberboard, wooden and composite IBCs with outer packagings constructed of other than plastic materials must... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS... qualification of all IBC design types intended to be stacked. (b) Special preparation for the stacking test. (1...

  12. Learning OpenStack networking (Neutron)

    CERN Document Server

    Denton, James

    2014-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack-based cloud operator with experience in OpenStack Compute and nova-network but are new to Neutron networking, then this book is for you. Some networking experience is recommended, and a physical network infrastructure is required to provide connectivity to instances and other network resources configured in the book.

  13. A Time-predictable Stack Cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to less...... precise results of the cache analysis part of the WCET analysis. Splitting the data cache for different data areas enables composable data cache analysis. The WCET analysis tool can analyze the accesses to these different data areas independently. In this paper we present the design and implementation...... of a cache for stack allocated data. Our port of the LLVM C++ compiler supports the management of the stack cache. The combination of stack cache instructions and the hardware implementation of the stack cache is a further step towards timepredictable architectures....

  14. Status of MCFC stack technology at IHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosaka, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Otsubo, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of 1m{sup 2}. IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the separator has been developed, and a way of gathering current from stacks has been studied. The DC output potential of the plant being very high, the design of electric insulation will be very important. A 20 kW short stack test was conducted in 1995 FY to certificate some of the improvements and components of the MW plant. These activities are presented below.

  15. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinakin

    2010-07-13

    A fuel cell assembly having a plurality of fuel cells arranged in a stack. An end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at an end of said stack. The end plate assembly has an inlet area adapted to receive an exhaust gas from the stack, an outlet area and a passage connecting the inlet area and outlet area and adapted to carry the exhaust gas received at the inlet area from the inlet area to the outlet area. A further end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at a further opposing end of the stack. The further end plate assembly has a further inlet area adapted to receive a further exhaust gas from the stack, a further outlet area and a further passage connecting the further inlet area and further outlet area and adapted to carry the further exhaust gas received at the further inlet area from the further inlet area to the further outlet area.

  16. Probing Temperature Inside Planar SOFC Short Stack, Modules, and Stack Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Guan, Wanbing; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Probing temperature inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack lies at the heart of the development of high-performance and stable SOFC systems. In this article, we report our recent work on the direct measurements of the temperature in three types of SOFC systems: a 5-cell short stack, a 30-cell stack module, and a stack series consisting of two 30-cell stack modules. The dependence of temperature on the gas flow rate and current density was studied under a current sweep or steady-state operation. During the current sweep, the temperature inside the 5-cell stack decreased with increasing current, while it increased significantly at the bottom and top of the 30-cell stack. During a steady-state operation, the temperature of the 5-cell stack was stable while it was increased in the 30-cell stack. In the stack series, the maximum temperature gradient reached 190°C when the gas was not preheated. If the gas was preheated and the temperature gradient was reduced to 23°C in the stack series with the presence of a preheating gas and segmented temperature control, this resulted in a low degradation rate.

  17. Classifier Subset Selection for the Stacked Generalization Method Applied to Emotion Recognition in Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Aitor; Sierra, Basilio; Arruti, Andoni; López-Gil, Juan-Miguel; Garay-Vitoria, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new supervised classification paradigm, called classifier subset selection for stacked generalization (CSS stacking), is presented to deal with speech emotion recognition. The new approach consists of an improvement of a bi-level multi-classifier system known as stacking generalization by means of an integration of an estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) in the first layer to select the optimal subset from the standard base classifiers. The good performance of the proposed new paradigm was demonstrated over different configurations and datasets. First, several CSS stacking classifiers were constructed on the RekEmozio dataset, using some specific standard base classifiers and a total of 123 spectral, quality and prosodic features computed using in-house feature extraction algorithms. These initial CSS stacking classifiers were compared to other multi-classifier systems and the employed standard classifiers built on the same set of speech features. Then, new CSS stacking classifiers were built on RekEmozio using a different set of both acoustic parameters (extended version of the Geneva Minimalistic Acoustic Parameter Set (eGeMAPS)) and standard classifiers and employing the best meta-classifier of the initial experiments. The performance of these two CSS stacking classifiers was evaluated and compared. Finally, the new paradigm was tested on the well-known Berlin Emotional Speech database. We compared the performance of single, standard stacking and CSS stacking systems using the same parametrization of the second phase. All of the classifications were performed at the categorical level, including the six primary emotions plus the neutral one. PMID:26712757

  18. Classifier Subset Selection for the Stacked Generalization Method Applied to Emotion Recognition in Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Álvarez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new supervised classification paradigm, called classifier subset selection for stacked generalization (CSS stacking, is presented to deal with speech emotion recognition. The new approach consists of an improvement of a bi-level multi-classifier system known as stacking generalization by means of an integration of an estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA in the first layer to select the optimal subset from the standard base classifiers. The good performance of the proposed new paradigm was demonstrated over different configurations and datasets. First, several CSS stacking classifiers were constructed on the RekEmozio dataset, using some specific standard base classifiers and a total of 123 spectral, quality and prosodic features computed using in-house feature extraction algorithms. These initial CSS stacking classifiers were compared to other multi-classifier systems and the employed standard classifiers built on the same set of speech features. Then, new CSS stacking classifiers were built on RekEmozio using a different set of both acoustic parameters (extended version of the Geneva Minimalistic Acoustic Parameter Set (eGeMAPS and standard classifiers and employing the best meta-classifier of the initial experiments. The performance of these two CSS stacking classifiers was evaluated and compared. Finally, the new paradigm was tested on the well-known Berlin Emotional Speech database. We compared the performance of single, standard stacking and CSS stacking systems using the same parametrization of the second phase. All of the classifications were performed at the categorical level, including the six primary emotions plus the neutral one.

  19. Comparison of NIRS0S Ks -band and S4G 3.6 micron data: Fourier amplitudes, force profiles and color maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija

    2015-03-01

    Near-IR observations are considered to give an extinction-free view of the old stellar population in galaxies, thus ideal for the analysis of gravitational torques associated with bar and spiral structures. In the past, H or Ks band data have often been employed (Buta et al. 2010, Salo et al. 2010). S4G (Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies, Sheth et al. 2010) provides new deep homogenious 3.6 and 4.5 micron data for over 2000 nearby galaxies, allowing to probe the bar and spiral properties over a wide range of morphological types and environments. Here we compare the Fourier-amplitude profiles derived from S4G data for about 50 early-type disk galaxies (SO and S0/a), with those from NIRSOS Ks data (Near-IR S0 Survey, Laurikainen et al. 2011). We also make detailed Ks -3.6 micron color maps. Interestingly, nuclear ring features stand up very clearly in these maps, indicating significantly different contributions of recent star formation in the Ks and 3.6 micron bands. However, the effect of these detailed differences on the overall force profiles is fairly small: this confirms that the S4G data can be confidently used for estimation of bar torques.

  20. Non-destructive spatial characterization of buried interfaces in multilayer stacks via two color picosecond acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge C. D.; Garnier, Philippe; Devos, Arnaud

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate the ability to construct wide-area spatial mappings of buried interfaces in thin film stacks in a non-destructive manner using two color picosecond acoustics. Along with the extraction of layer thicknesses and sound velocities from acoustic signals, the morphological information presented is a powerful demonstration of phonon imaging as a metrological tool. For a series of heterogeneous (polymer, metal, and semiconductor) thin film stacks that have been treated with a chemical procedure known to alter layer properties, the spatial mappings reveal changes to interior thicknesses and chemically modified surface features without the need to remove uppermost layers. These results compare well to atomic force microscopy scans showing that the technique provides a significant advantage to current characterization methods for industrially important device stacks.

  1. An assessment of air sampling location for stack monitoring in nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Bok [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyoung; Lee, Jong Il; Kim, Bong Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, air sampling locations in the stack of the Advanced Fuel Science Building (AFSB) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were assessed according to the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 specification. The velocity profile, flow angle and 10 μm aerosol particle profile at the cross-section as functions of stack height L and stack diameter D (L/D) were assessed according to the sampling location criteria using COMSOL. The criteria for the velocity profile were found to be met at 5 L/D or more for the height, and the criteria for the average flow angle were met at all locations through this assessment. The criteria for the particle profile were met at 5 L/D and 9 L/D. However, the particle profile at the cross-section of each sampling location was found to be non-uniform. In order to establish uniformity of the particle profile, a static mixer and a perimeter ring were modeled, after which the degrees of effectiveness of these components were compared. Modeling using the static mixer indicated that the sampling locations that met the criteria for the particle profile were 5-10 L/D. When modeling using the perimeter ring, the sampling locations that met the criteria for particle profile were 5 L/D and 7-10 L/D. The criteria for the velocity profile and the average flow angle were also met at the sampling locations that met the criteria for the particle profile. The methodologies used in this study can also be applied during assessments of air sampling locations when monitoring stacks at new nuclear facilities as well as existing nuclear facilities.

  2. Dynamical stability of slip-stacking particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-09-01

    We study the stability of particles in slip-stacking configuration, used to nearly double proton beam intensity at Fermilab. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We find perturbative solutions for stable particle trajectories. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 97% slip-stacking efficiency. We show that slip-stacking dynamics directly correspond to the driven pendulum and to the system of two standing-wave traps moving with respect to each other.

  3. Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2009-01-01

    and uniqueness of flows on a manifold as well as the author's existing results for orbifolds. It sets the scene for a discussion of Morse Theory on a general proper stack and also paves the way for the categorification of other key aspects of differential geometry such as the tangent bundle and the Lie algebra......This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...

  4. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa

    2017-09-05

    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  5. ASNOM mapping of SiC epi-layer doping profile and of surface phonon polariton waveguiding

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The apertureless SNOM mapping of the slightly-doped 4H-SiC epitaxial layer grown on a heavily-doped 4H-SiC substrate was performed with a cleaved edge geometry. ASNOM images taken at the light frequencies of a $C^{13}O_{2}^{16}$ laser show a clear contrast between the substrate and the epitaxial layer. The contrast vanishes at the laser frequency of $884cm^{-1}$, and gets clearer at higher frequencies $(923cm^{-1})$. This can be explained by changes in the local polarizability of SiC caused by the carrier concentration, which are more pronounced at higher frequencies. Since the light frequency is tuned up further ($935cm^{-1}$), a transversal mode structure appears in the ASNOM map, indicating a waveguide-like confinement of a surface phonon polariton wave inside the strip of an epi-layer outcrop.

  6. Consumer-based product characterization using Pivot Profile, Projective Mapping and Check-all-that-apply (CATA): A comparative case with Greek yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmerino, Erick A; Tavares Filho, Elson R; Thomas Carr, B; Ferraz, Juliana P; Silva, Hugo L A; Pinto, Letícia P F; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2017-09-01

    Product characterization has been a primary concern for the food industry, and methodologies based on consumers' perceptions have become popular and widely used by industries to replace classical methods. Although there are several studies on other methods, the potential of reference-based one such as Pivot Profile is still little explored. Therefore, the aims of this study were to characterize Greek yogurt samples according to consumers' perceptions using three different methodologies: Pivot Profile (PP), Check-all-that-apply (CATA), and Projective Mapping (PM), and to assess which method is easier for consumers to describe products. The rapid methodologies assessed were equally effective in characterizing the different samples; however, some drawbacks evidenced in the study can help in targeting and choosing the best method to perform the sensory characterization. Pivot Profile showed some advantages, bypassing some limitations presented by the other methods. In addition, its experimental versatility also allows for broad applications evidencing the PP technique as a promising tool for routine use. Some implications of using it were also discussed. We suggest the supplemental use of Multidimensional Alignment (MDA) as it shows more accurately the correlations between attributes and samples, especially in the case of PP data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell efficiency at the stack level

    OpenAIRE

    Piela, Piotr; Mitzel, Jens

    2015-01-01

    A redefinition of the fuel cell efficiency at the fuel cell stack level has been proposed for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The new definition takes into account not only the electrical efficiency of the stack but also the theoretical energy expenditures for bringing the stack feed streams to conditions required by the stack as well as the loss of fuel in the stack. A proposed general formula for the new stack efficiency has been adapted to three practical cases: the stationary com...

  8. Distribution of Penicillium commune isolates in cheese dairies mapped using secondary metabolite profiles, morphotypes, RAPD and AFLP fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Nielsen, A.B.; Skouboe, P.

    2003-01-01

    In an 8-year study of the diversity and distribution of Penicillium commune contaminants in two different cheese dairies, swab and air samples were taken from the production plants, the processing environment and contaminated cheeses. A total of 321 Penicillium commune isolates were characterized...... using morphotypes (colony morphology and colours) and secondary metabolite profiles. Based on production of secondary metabolites the P. commune isolates were classified into 6 groups. The genetic diversity of the P. commune isolates was assessed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD...... morphotyping, P. commune isolates with identical profiles using all four typing techniques were interpreted as closely related isolates with a common origin and the distribution of these isolates in the processing environment indicated possible contamination points in the cheese dairies. The coating process...

  9. Turing Impossibility Properties for Stack Machine Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The strong, intermediate, and weak Turing impossibility properties are introduced. Some facts concerning Turing impossibility for stack machine programming are trivially adapted from previous work. Several intriguing questions are raised about the Turing impossibility properties concerning different

  10. STACKING FAULT ENERGY IN HIGH MANGANESE ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mazancová

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Stacking fault energy of high manganese alloys (marked as TWIP and TRIPLEX is an important parameter determining deformation mechanism type realized in above mentioned alloys. Stacking fault energy level can be asserted with a gliding of partial and/or full dislocations, b gliding mechanism and twinning deformation process in connection with increasing of fracture deformation level (deformation elongation and with increasing of simultaneously realized work hardening proces., c gliding mechanism and deformation induced e-martensite formation. In contribution calculated stacking fault energies are presented for various chemical compositions of high manganese alloys. Stacking fault energy dependences on manganese, carbon, iron and alluminium contents are presented. Results are confronted with some accessible papers.The aim of work is to deepen knowledge of presented data. The TWIP and TRIPLEX alloys can be held for promissing new automotive materials.

  11. Metal Organic Framework: Crystalline Stacked Molecular Containers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 12. Metal Organic Framework: Crystalline Stacked Molecular Containers. Ramanathan Vaidhyanathan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 12 December 2014 pp 1147-1157 ...

  12. Characterization of Piezoelectric Stacks for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to actuate mechanisms to precision levels in the nanometer range and below. Co-fired multilayer piezoelectric stacks offer the required actuation precision that is needed for such mechanisms. To obtain performance statistics and determine reliability for extended use, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and high temperatures and voltages. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators were driven sinusoidally for up to ten billion cycles. An automated data acquisition system was developed and implemented to monitor each stack's electrical current and voltage waveforms over the life of the test. As part of the monitoring tests, the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current were measured to assess the operation degradation. This paper presents some of the results of this effort.

  13. The stack on software and sovereignty

    CERN Document Server

    Bratton, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive political and design theory of planetary-scale computation proposing that The Stack -- an accidental megastructure -- is both a technological apparatus and a model for a new geopolitical architecture.

  14. Stacking Structures of Few-Layer Graphene Revealed by Phase-Sensitive Infrared Nanoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok-Soo; Kwon, Hyuksang; Nikitin, Alexey Yu; Ahn, Seongjin; Martín-Moreno, Luis; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Ryu, Sunmin; Min, Hongki; Kim, Zee Hwan

    2015-07-28

    The stacking orders in few-layer graphene (FLG) strongly influences the electronic properties of the material. To explore the stacking-specific properties of FLG in detail, one needs powerful microscopy techniques that visualize stacking domains with sufficient spatial resolution. We demonstrate that infrared (IR) scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (sSNOM) directly maps out the stacking domains of FLG with a nanometric resolution, based on the stacking-specific IR conductivities of FLG. The intensity and phase contrasts of sSNOM are compared with the sSNOM contrast model, which is based on the dipolar tip-sample coupling and the theoretical conductivity spectra of FLG, allowing a clear assignment of each FLG domain as Bernal, rhombohedral, or intermediate stacks for tri-, tetra-, and pentalayer graphene. The method offers 10-100 times better spatial resolution than the far-field Raman and infrared spectroscopic methods, yet it allows far more experimental flexibility than the scanning tunneling microscopy and electron microscopy.

  15. Testing the sampling efficiency of a nuclear power station stack monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L.H. [Instrumentinvest, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The test method comprises the injection of known amounts of monodisperse particles in the stack air stream, at a suitable point upstream of the sampling installation. To find a suitable injection polls, the gas flow was mapped by means of a tracer gas, released in various points in the stack base. The resulting concentration distributions at the stack sampler level were observed by means of an array of gas detectors. An injection point that produced symmetrical distribution over the stack area, and low concentrations at the stack walls was selected for the particle tests. Monodisperse particles of 6, 10, and 19 {mu}m aerodynamic diameter, tagged with dysprosium, were dispersed in the selected injection point. Particle concentration at the sampler level was measured. The losses to the stack walls were found to be less than 10 %. The particle concentrations at the four sampler inlets were calculated from the observed gas distribution. The amount calculated to be aspirated into the sampler piping was compared with the quantity collected by the sampling train ordinary filter, to obtain the sampling line transmission efficiency. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  16. Stacking for Cosmic Magnetism with SKA Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Stil, J. M.; Keller, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    Stacking polarized radio emission in SKA surveys provides statistical information on large samples that is not accessible otherwise due to limitations in sensitivity, source statistics in small fields, and averaging over frequency (including Faraday synthesis). Polarization is a special case because one obvious source of stacking targets is the Stokes I source catalog, possibly in combination with external catalogs, for example an SKA HI survey or a non-radio survey. We point out the signific...

  17. Generalized data stacking programming model with applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Samir Elhadidy; Rawya Yehia Rizk; Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2016-01-01

    Recent researches have shown that, everywhere in various sciences the systems are following stacked-based stored change behavior when subjected to events or varying environments “on and above” their normal situations. This paper presents a generalized data stack programming (GDSP) model which is developed to describe the system changes under varying environment. These changes which are captured with different ways such as sensor reading are stored in matrices. Extraction algorithm and identif...

  18. Virtual machine showdown: stack versus registers

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yunhe

    2007-01-01

    Virtual machines (VMs) enable the distribution of programs in an architecture-neutral format, which can easily be interpreted or compiled. The most popular VMs, such as the Java virtual machine (JVM), use a virtual stack architecture, rather than the register architecture that are most popular in real processors. A long-running question in the design of VMs is whether a stack architecture or register architecture can be implemented more efficiently with an interpreter. On the one hand, stac...

  19. Stability of stacking faults in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dranova, Z.I.; Ksenofontov, V.A.; Kul' ko, V.B.; Mikhailovskii, I.M.

    1979-12-01

    The atomic configuration of planar lattice defects in tungsten was investigated by field-ion microscopy and thermal etching. Stable stacking faults were observed throughout the investigated temperature range 78--1700/sup 0/K. These faults were studied by field-ion microscopy and mathematical modeling methods. It was found that the existence of stacking faults in bcc crystals was not associated with the action of strong omnidirectional tensile stresses. The crystallographic characteristics of the faults were determined.

  20. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.

    2012-01-01

    As solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, lifetime limiting factors, determination of the limits of safe operation and methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating cells and stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires applica...... out at a range of ac perturbation amplitudes in order to investigate linearity of the response and the signal-to-noise ratio. Separation of the measured impedance into series and polarisation resistances was possible....... to analyse in detail. Today one is forced to use mathematical modelling to extract information about existing gradients and cell resistances in operating stacks, as mature techniques for local probing are not available. This type of spatially resolved information is essential for model refinement...... and validation, and helps to further the technological stack development. Further, more detailed information obtained from operating stacks is essential for developing appropriate process monitoring and control protocols for stack and system developers. An experimental stack with low ohmic resistance from Topsoe...

  1. Stacking interactions in PUF-RNA complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiling Koh, Yvonne; Wang, Yeming; Qiu, Chen; Opperman, Laura; Gross, Leah; Tanaka Hall, Traci M; Wickens, Marvin [NIH; (UW)

    2012-07-02

    Stacking interactions between amino acids and bases are common in RNA-protein interactions. Many proteins that regulate mRNAs interact with single-stranded RNA elements in the 3' UTR (3'-untranslated region) of their targets. PUF proteins are exemplary. Here we focus on complexes formed between a Caenorhabditis elegans PUF protein, FBF, and its cognate RNAs. Stacking interactions are particularly prominent and involve every RNA base in the recognition element. To assess the contribution of stacking interactions to formation of the RNA-protein complex, we combine in vivo selection experiments with site-directed mutagenesis, biochemistry, and structural analysis. Our results reveal that the identities of stacking amino acids in FBF affect both the affinity and specificity of the RNA-protein interaction. Substitutions in amino acid side chains can restrict or broaden RNA specificity. We conclude that the identities of stacking residues are important in achieving the natural specificities of PUF proteins. Similarly, in PUF proteins engineered to bind new RNA sequences, the identity of stacking residues may contribute to 'target' versus 'off-target' interactions, and thus be an important consideration in the design of proteins with new specificities.

  2. Stacking fault density and bond orientational order of fcc ruthenium nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Okkyun; Sakata, Osami; Kim, Jae Myung; Hiroi, Satoshi; Song, Chulho; Kumara, Loku Singgappulige Rosantha; Ohara, Koji; Dekura, Shun; Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    We investigated crystal structure deviations of catalytic nanoparticles (NPs) using synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The samples were fcc ruthenium (Ru) NPs with diameters of 2.4, 3.5, 3.9, and 5.4 nm. We analyzed average crystal structures by applying the line profile method to a stacking fault model and local crystal structures using bond orientational order (BOO) parameters. The reflection peaks shifted depending on rules that apply to each stacking fault. We evaluated the quantitative stacking faults densities for fcc Ru NPs, and the stacking fault per number of layers was 2-4, which is quite large. Our analysis shows that the fcc Ru 2.4 nm-diameter NPs have a considerably high stacking fault density. The B factor tends to increase with the increasing stacking fault density. A structural parameter that we define from the BOO parameters exhibits a significant difference from the ideal value of the fcc structure. This indicates that the fcc Ru NPs are highly disordered.

  3. Dynamics of cytokines and immunoglobulins serum profiles in primary and secondary Cryptosporidium parvum infection: usefulness of Luminex® xMAP technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codices, Vera; Martins, Catarina; Novo, Carlos; de Sousa, Bruno; Lopes, Ângela; Borrego, Miguel; Matos, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Infection by Cryptosporidium parvum triggers a complex array of innate and adaptive cell mediated immune response, playing an important role in controlling the infection. To date, there are no studies applying the Luminex® xMAP technology to determine profiles of cytokines and immunoglobulins in the context of an infection by C. parvum. In this study, we analyzed these immune mediators in the serum of immunocompetent mice inoculated with C. parvum oocysts, using Luminex, to understand how the immune system responds to an infection by this parasite. Animal sera were also analyzed by ELISA to determine the expressed immunoglobulin isotype profile, and compare the obtained trend with data obtained by Luminex. Specific-pathogen-free BALB/C mice were inoculated with oocysts of C. parvum at days 0 and 22. Peripheral blood was aseptically collected from sacrificed mice on several time points, and immune mediators were evaluated in serum samples. Infection was confirmed by the presence of C. parvum DNA in feces by a nested-PCR assay (60-kDa glycoprotein). Luminex results showed predominance in the secretion of IgG1 and IgG2a, confirmed by ELISA, which also showed that IgG1 is the major immunoglobulin isotype produced during the infection. The analysis of cytokines suggests a preferential Th(1) over the Th(2) response, with increased production of TNF-α, IFN-γ and GM-CSF. This work contributed to a better understanding of the immune response to the infection by C. parvum, as well as demonstrated the advantage of Luminex® xMAP technology to study immune mediators, using small sample volumes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mapping tropical dry forest height, foliage height profiles and disturbance type and age with a time series of cloud-cleared Landsat and ALI image mosaics to characterize avian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.H. Helmer; Thomas S. Ruzycki; Jr. Joseph M. Wunderle; Shannon Vogesser; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Charles Kwit; Thomas J. Brandeis; David N. Ewert

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest vertical structure is possible with lidar data, but lidar is not widely available. Here we map tropical dry forest height (RMSE=0.9 m, R2=0.84, range 0.6–7 m), and we map foliage height profiles, with a time series of Landsat and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) imagery on the island of Eleuthera, The Bahamas, substituting time for vertical canopy...

  5. Gene expression profiling in susceptible interaction of grapevine with its fungal pathogen Eutypa lata: Extending MapMan ontology for grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usadel Björn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome transcriptomics analysis is a very powerful approach because it gives an overview of the activity of genes in certain cells or tissue types. However, biological interpretation of such results can be rather tedious. MapMan is a software tool that displays large datasets (e.g. gene expression data onto diagrams of metabolic pathways or other processes and thus enables easier interpretation of results. The grapevine (Vitis vinifera genome sequence has recently become available bringing a new dimension into associated research. Two microarray platforms were designed based on the TIGR Gene Index database and used in several physiological studies. Results To enable easy and effective visualization of those and further experiments, annotation of Vitis vinifera Gene Index (VvGI version 5 to MapMan ontology was set up. Due to specificities of grape physiology, we have created new pictorial representations focusing on three selected pathways: carotenoid pathway, terpenoid pathway and phenylpropanoid pathway, the products of these pathways being important for wine aroma, flavour and colour, as well as plant defence against pathogens. This new tool was validated on Affymetrix microarrays data obtained during berry ripening and it allowed the discovery of new aspects in process regulation. We here also present results on transcriptional profiling of grape plantlets after exposal to the fungal pathogen Eutypa lata using Operon microarrays including visualization of results with MapMan. The data show that the genes induced in infected plants, encode pathogenesis related proteins and enzymes of the flavonoid metabolism, which are well known as being responsive to fungal infection. Conclusion The extension of MapMan ontology to grapevine together with the newly constructed pictorial representations for carotenoid, terpenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism provide an alternative approach to the analysis of grapevine gene expression

  6. A Force Sensorless Method for CFRP/Ti Stack Interface Detection during Robotic Orbital Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastics and titanium (CFRP/Ti stacks is one of the most important activities in aircraft assembly. It is favorable to use different drilling parameters for each layer due to their dissimilar machining properties. However, large aircraft parts with changing profiles lead to variation of thickness along the profiles, which makes it challenging to adapt the cutting parameters for different materials being drilled. This paper proposes a force sensorless method based on cutting force observer for monitoring the thrust force and identifying the drilling material during the drilling process. The cutting force observer, which is the combination of an adaptive disturbance observer and friction force model, is used to estimate the thrust force. An in-process algorithm is developed to monitor the variation of the thrust force for detecting the stack interface between the CFRP and titanium materials. Robotic orbital drilling experiments have been conducted on CFRP/Ti stacks. The estimate error of the cutting force observer was less than 13%, and the stack interface was detected in 0.25 s (or 0.05 mm before or after the tool transited it. The results show that the proposed method can successfully detect the CFRP/Ti stack interface for the cutting parameters adaptation.

  7. Intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in sauropsids: evolutionary insights from cDNA mapping and GC3 profiling in snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Extant sauropsids (reptiles and birds) are divided into two major lineages, the lineage of Testudines (turtles) and Archosauria (crocodilians and birds) and the lineage of Lepidosauria (tuatara, lizards, worm lizards and snakes). Karyotypes of these sauropsidan groups generally consist of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. In chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher GC-content than macrochromosomes. To examine the pattern of intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in lepidosaurian genomes, we constructed a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata) with 183 cDNA clones by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and examined the correlation between the GC-content of exonic third codon positions (GC3) of the genes and the size of chromosomes on which the genes were localized. Results Although GC3 distribution of snake genes was relatively homogeneous compared with those of the other amniotes, microchromosomal genes showed significantly higher GC3 than macrochromosomal genes as in chicken. Our snake cytogenetic map also identified several conserved segments between the snake macrochromosomes and the chicken microchromosomes. Cross-species comparisons revealed that GC3 of most snake orthologs in such macrochromosomal segments were GC-poor (GC3 < 50%) whereas those of chicken orthologs in microchromosomes were relatively GC-rich (GC3 ≥ 50%). Conclusion Our results suggest that the chromosome size-dependent GC heterogeneity had already occurred before the lepidosaur-archosaur split, 275 million years ago. This character was probably present in the common ancestor of lepidosaurs and but lost in the lineage leading to Anolis during the diversification of lepidosaurs. We also identified several genes whose GC-content might have been influenced by the size of the chromosomes on which they were harbored over the course of sauropsid evolution. PMID:23140509

  8. Intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in sauropsids: evolutionary insights from cDNA mapping and GC3 profiling in snake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsubara Kazumi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extant sauropsids (reptiles and birds are divided into two major lineages, the lineage of Testudines (turtles and Archosauria (crocodilians and birds and the lineage of Lepidosauria (tuatara, lizards, worm lizards and snakes. Karyotypes of these sauropsidan groups generally consist of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. In chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher GC-content than macrochromosomes. To examine the pattern of intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in lepidosaurian genomes, we constructed a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata with 183 cDNA clones by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and examined the correlation between the GC-content of exonic third codon positions (GC3 of the genes and the size of chromosomes on which the genes were localized. Results Although GC3 distribution of snake genes was relatively homogeneous compared with those of the other amniotes, microchromosomal genes showed significantly higher GC3 than macrochromosomal genes as in chicken. Our snake cytogenetic map also identified several conserved segments between the snake macrochromosomes and the chicken microchromosomes. Cross-species comparisons revealed that GC3 of most snake orthologs in such macrochromosomal segments were GC-poor (GC3 3 ≥ 50%. Conclusion Our results suggest that the chromosome size-dependent GC heterogeneity had already occurred before the lepidosaur-archosaur split, 275 million years ago. This character was probably present in the common ancestor of lepidosaurs and but lost in the lineage leading to Anolis during the diversification of lepidosaurs. We also identified several genes whose GC-content might have been influenced by the size of the chromosomes on which they were harbored over the course of sauropsid evolution.

  9. Simulation of soil moisture and evapotranspiration in a soil profile during the 1999 MAP-Riviera Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zappa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed plot-scale observations of basic hydrometeorological variables represent valuable data for assessing the quality of the soil moisture module and evapotranspiration scheme in hydrological models. This study presents the validation of soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET simulation during the special observing period (R-SOP of the Riviera Project (July–November 1999, a sub-project of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP. The location investigated was a sandy soil plot at the edge of a corn field. The hydrological model PREVAH was driven using three meteorological data sets: hourly data from an experimental tower in the Riviera Valley (southern Switzerland, hourly data interpolated for the Riviera site during the R-SOP period from permanent automatic stations (MeteoSwiss network and interpolated daily data (1980–2000. The quality of the interpolated meteorological data was evaluated with respect to data collected at an experimental tower. The interpolated data proved fairly representative for the location under investigation. The hydrological simulations were compared with recorded observations of soil moisture and latent heat flux (LE. The simulation of soil moisture was accurate in case of all three meteorological data sets. The results of ET simulations with three simple parameterisations showed high correlation to LE derived using the Bowen ratio and measured through eddy correlation. The quantitative agreement between observed and simulated LE was poorer because of the presence of a fully developed wind valley system during periods of good weather. This wind system claims part of the available energy and therefore reduces the amount of energy available for LE. The 21-year simulation at daily time step shows that the R-SOP period in 1999 was warm and wet compared to the last 21 years. Keywords: MAP-Riviera Project, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, hydrological modelling, model evaluation

  10. Techno-economic modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell stack for micro combined heat and power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, A. D.; Aguiar, P.; Hernandez-Aramburo, C. A.; Leach, M. A.; Brandon, N. P.; Green, T. C.; Adjiman, C. S.

    Solid oxide fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) is a promising technology to serve electricity and heat demands. In order to analyse the potential of the technology, a detailed techno-economic energy-cost minimisation model of a micro-CHP system is developed drawing on steady-state and dynamic SOFC stack models and power converter design. This model is applied it to identify minimum costs and optimum stack capacities under various current density change constraints. Firstly, a characterisation of the system electrical efficiency is developed through the combination of stack efficiency profiles and power converter efficiency profiles. Optimisation model constraints are then developed, including a limitation in the change of current density (A cm -2) per minute in the stack. The optimisation model is then presented and further expanded to account for the inability of a stack to respond instantaneously to load changes, resulting in a penalty function being applied to the objective function proportional to the size of load changes being serviced by the stack. Finally, the optimisation model is applied to examine the relative importance, in terms of minimum cost and optimum stack maximum electrical power output capacity, of the limitation on rate of current density change for a UK residential micro-CHP application. It is found that constraints on the rate of change in current density are not an important design parameter from an economic perspective.

  11. Development and characterization of a three-dimensional radiochromic film stack dosimeter for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw, Travis J; Micka, John A; DeWerd, Larry A

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) dosimeters are particularly useful for verifying the commissioning of treatment planning and delivery systems, especially with the ever-increasing implementation of complex and conformal radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy. However, currently available 3D dosimeters require extensive experience to prepare and analyze, and are subject to large measurement uncertainties. This work aims to provide a more readily implementable 3D dosimeter with the development and characterization of a radiochromic film stack dosimeter for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry. A film stack dosimeter was developed using Gafchromic(®) EBT2 films. The dosimeter consists of 22 films separated by 1 mm-thick spacers. A Virtual Water™ phantom was created that maintains the radial film alignment within a maximum uncertainty of 0.3 mm. The film stack dosimeter was characterized using simulations and measurements of 6 MV fields. The absorbed-dose energy dependence and orientation dependence of the film stack dosimeter were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. The water equivalence of the dosimeter was determined by comparing percentage-depth-dose (PDD) profiles measured with the film stack dosimeter and simulated using Monte Carlo methods. Film stack dosimeter measurements were verified with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) microcube measurements. The film stack dosimeter was also used to verify the delivery of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) procedure. The absorbed-dose energy response of EBT2 film differs less than 1.5% between the calibration and film stack dosimeter geometries for a 6 MV spectrum. Over a series of beam angles ranging from normal incidence to parallel incidence, the overall variation in the response of the film stack dosimeter is within a range of 2.5%. Relative to the response to a normally incident beam, the film stack dosimeter exhibits a 1% under-response when the beam axis is parallel to the film

  12. Start-Stop Test Procedures on the PEMFC Stack Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Nygaard, Frederik; Veltzé, Sune

    The test is addressed to investigate the influence on stack durability of a long stop followed by a restart of a stack. Long stop should be defined as a stop in which the anodic compartment is fully filled by air due to stack leakages. In systems, leakage level of the stack is low and time to fil...

  13. Mapping electrostatic profiles across axial p-n junctions in Si nanowires using off-axis electron holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhaofeng; Perea, Daniel E.; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Tom Picraux, S.; Smith, David J.; McCartney, Martha R.

    2013-10-01

    Si nanowires (NWs) with axial p-n junctions were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method. Transmission electron microscopy and electron holography were used to characterize the microstructure and electrostatic properties. Measurement of the potential profile showed the presence of a p-n junction with a height of 1.0 ± 0.3 V. A Schottky barrier was observed at the end of the NW due to the Au catalyst particle. Comparison with simulations indicated dopant concentrations of 1019 cm-3 for donors and 1017 cm-3 for acceptors. These results confirm the benefit of combining off-axis electron holography with simulations for determining localized information about the electrically active dopant distributions in nanowire structures.

  14. Mapping Electrostatic Profiles Across Axial p-n Junctions in Si Nanowires using Off-Axis Electron Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Zhaofeng; Perea, Daniel E.; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Picraux, Samuel T.; Smith, David J.; Mccartney, Martha R.

    2013-10-07

    Si nanowires (NWs) with axial p-n junctions were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method. Transmission electron microscopy and electron holography were used to characterize the microstructure and electrostatic properties. Measurement of the potential profile showed the presence of a p-n junction with a height of 1.0±0.3V. A Schottky barrier was observed at the end of the NW due to the Au catalyst particle. Comparison with simulations indicated dopant concentrations of 1019cm-3 for donors and 1017cm-3 for acceptors. These results confirm the benefit of combining off-axis electron holography with simulations for determining localized information about the electrically active dopant distributions in nanowire structures.

  15. Mapping refuse profile in Singapore old dumping ground through electrical resistivity, S-wave velocity and geotechnical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huan Huan; Noh, Omar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Giannis, Apostolos

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the refuse profile in Lorong Halus Dumping Ground, the largest landfill in Singapore, by electrical resistivity and surface wave velocity after 25 years of closure. Data were analyzed using an orthogonal set of plots by spreading 24 lines in two perpendicular geophone-orientation directions. Both geophysical techniques determined that refuse boundary depth was 13 ± 2 m. The refuse boundary revealed a certain degree of variance, mainly ascribed to the different principle of measurements, as well as the high heterogeneity of the subsurface. Discrepancy was higher in spots with greater heterogeneity. 3D analysis was further conducted detecting refuse pockets, leachate mounding and gas channels. Geotechnical monitoring (borehole) confirmed geophysical outcomes tracing different layers such as soil capping, decomposed refuse materials and inorganic wastes. Combining the geophysical methods with borehole monitoring, a comprehensive layout of the dumping site was presented showing the hot spots of interests.

  16. EmuStack: An OpenStack-Based DTN Network Emulation Platform (Extended Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of computing and network virtualization technology, the networking research community shows great interest in network emulation. Compared with network simulation, network emulation can provide more relevant and comprehensive details. In this paper, EmuStack, a large-scale real-time emulation platform for Delay Tolerant Network (DTN, is proposed. EmuStack aims at empowering network emulation to become as simple as network simulation. Based on OpenStack, distributed synchronous emulation modules are developed to enable EmuStack to implement synchronous and dynamic, precise, and real-time network emulation. Meanwhile, the lightweight approach of using Docker container technology and network namespaces allows EmuStack to support a (up to hundreds of nodes large-scale topology with only several physical nodes. In addition, EmuStack integrates the Linux Traffic Control (TC tools with OpenStack for managing and emulating the virtual link characteristics which include variable bandwidth, delay, loss, jitter, reordering, and duplication. Finally, experiences with our initial implementation suggest the ability to run and debug experimental network protocol in real time. EmuStack environment would bring qualitative change in network research works.

  17. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  18. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Fungal melanins differ in planar stacking distances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Casadevall

    Full Text Available Melanins are notoriously difficult to study because they are amorphous, insoluble and often associated with other biological materials. Consequently, there is a dearth of structural techniques to study this enigmatic pigment. Current models of melanin structure envision the stacking of planar structures. X ray diffraction has historically been used to deduce stacking parameters. In this study we used X ray diffraction to analyze melanins derived from Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus niger, Wangiella dermatitides and Coprinus comatus. Analysis of melanin in melanized C. neoformans encapsulated cells was precluded by the fortuitous finding that the capsular polysaccharide had a diffraction spectrum that was similar to that of isolated melanin. The capsular polysaccharide spectrum was dominated by a broad non-Bragg feature consistent with origin from a repeating structural motif that may arise from inter-molecular interactions and/or possibly gel organization. Hence, we isolated melanin from each fungal species and compared diffraction parameters. The results show that the inferred stacking distances of fungal melanins differ from that reported for synthetic melanin and neuromelanin, occupying intermediate position between these other melanins. These results suggest that all melanins have a fundamental diffracting unit composed of planar graphitic assemblies that can differ in stacking distance. The stacking peak appears to be a distinguishing universal feature of melanins that may be of use in characterizing these enigmatic pigments.

  20. Fungal melanins differ in planar stacking distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Nakouzi, Antonio; Crippa, Pier R; Eisner, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    Melanins are notoriously difficult to study because they are amorphous, insoluble and often associated with other biological materials. Consequently, there is a dearth of structural techniques to study this enigmatic pigment. Current models of melanin structure envision the stacking of planar structures. X ray diffraction has historically been used to deduce stacking parameters. In this study we used X ray diffraction to analyze melanins derived from Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus niger, Wangiella dermatitides and Coprinus comatus. Analysis of melanin in melanized C. neoformans encapsulated cells was precluded by the fortuitous finding that the capsular polysaccharide had a diffraction spectrum that was similar to that of isolated melanin. The capsular polysaccharide spectrum was dominated by a broad non-Bragg feature consistent with origin from a repeating structural motif that may arise from inter-molecular interactions and/or possibly gel organization. Hence, we isolated melanin from each fungal species and compared diffraction parameters. The results show that the inferred stacking distances of fungal melanins differ from that reported for synthetic melanin and neuromelanin, occupying intermediate position between these other melanins. These results suggest that all melanins have a fundamental diffracting unit composed of planar graphitic assemblies that can differ in stacking distance. The stacking peak appears to be a distinguishing universal feature of melanins that may be of use in characterizing these enigmatic pigments.

  1. Gene Expression Profiling Soybean Stem Tissue Early Response to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and In Silico Mapping in Relation to Resistance Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Calla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available White mold, caused by (Lib. de Bary, can be a serious disease of crops grown under cool, moist environments. In many plants, such as soybean [ (L. Merr.], complete genetic resistance does not exist. To identify possible genes involved in defense against this pathogen, and to determine possible physiological changes that occur during infection, a microarray screen was conducted using stem tissue to evaluate changes in gene expression between partially resistant and susceptible soybean genotypes at 8 and 14 hours post inoculation. RNA from 15 day-old inoculated plants was labeled and hybridized to soybean cDNA microarrays. ANOVA identified 1270 significant genes from the comparison between time points and 105 genes from the comparison between genotypes. Selected genes were classified into functional categories. The analyses identified changes in cell-wall composition and signaling pathways, as well as suggesting a role for anthocyanin and anthocyanidin synthesis in the defense against . In-silico mapping of both the differentially expressed transcripts and of public markers associated with partial resistance to white mold, provided evidence of several differentially expressed genes being closely positioned to white mold resistance markers, with the two most promising genes encoding a PR-5 and anthocyanidin synthase.

  2. Metallomic profiling and linkage map analysis of early Parkinson's disease: a new insight to aluminum marker for the possible diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shiek S S J; Santosh, Winkins

    2010-06-22

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. The diagnosis of PD is challenging and currently none of the biochemical tests have proven to help in diagnosis. Serum metallomic analysis may suggest the possibility of diagnosis of PD. The metallomic analysis was targeted on 31 elements obtained from 42 healthy controls and 45 drug naive PD patients using ICP-AES and ICP-MS to determine the concentration variations of elements between PD and normal. The targeted metallomic analysis showed the significant variations in 19 elements of patients compared to healthy control (pcopper, iron, manganese and zinc are the key elements, contributes the separation of PD patients from control samples. The correlation coefficient analysis and element-element ratio confirm the imbalance of inter-elements relationship in PD patients' serum. Furthermore, elements linkage map analysis showed aluminium is a key element involved in triggering of phosphorus, which subsequently lead to imbalance of homeostatic in PD serum. The execution of neural network using elements concentrations provides 95% accuracy in detection of disease. These results suggest that there is a disturbance in the elements homeostasis and inter-elements relationship in PD patients' serum. The analysis of serum elements helps in linking the underlying cellular processes such as oxidative stress, neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis, which are the dominating factors in PD. Also, these results increase the prospect of detection of early PD from serum through neural network algorithm.

  3. Compact Shorted Stacked-Patch Antenna Integrated with Chip-Package Based on LTCC Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yongjiu; Li, Long; Dai, Xiwang; Zhu, Cheng; Huo, Feifei; Dong, Gang

    2014-01-01

    A low profile chip-package stacked-patch antenna is proposed by using low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology. The proposed antenna employs a stacked-patch to achieve two operating frequency bands and enhance the bandwidth. The height of the antenna is decreased to 4.09 mm (about λ/25 at 2.45 GHz) due to the shorted pin. The package is mounted on a 44 × 44 mm2 ground plane to miniaturize the volume of the system. The design parameters of the antenna and the effect of the antenna on ...

  4. Halo Pressure Profile through the Skew Cross-power Spectrum of the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich Effect and CMB Lensing in Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmons, Nicholas; Cooray, Asantha; Feng, Chang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, Brian [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-11-01

    We measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) skewness power spectrum in Planck , using frequency maps of the HFI instrument and the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) component map. The two-to-one skewness power spectrum measures the cross-correlation between CMB lensing and the thermal SZ effect. We also directly measure the same cross-correlation using the Planck CMB lensing map and the SZ map and compare it to the cross-correlation derived from the skewness power spectrum. We model fit the SZ power spectrum and CMB lensing–SZ cross-power spectrum via the skewness power spectrum to constrain the gas pressure profile of dark matter halos. The gas pressure profile is compared to existing measurements in the literature including a direct estimate based on the stacking of SZ clusters in Planck .

  5. Mapping of genotype-phenotype diversity among clinical isolates of mycobacterium tuberculosis by sequence-based transcriptional profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Graham; Cortes, Teresa; Comas, Iñaki; Coscolla, Mireia; Gagneux, Sebastien; Young, Douglas B

    2013-01-01

    Genome sequencing has identified an extensive repertoire of single nucleotide polymorphisms among clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but the extent to which these differences influence phenotypic properties of the bacteria remains to be elucidated. To determine whether these polymorphisms give rise to phenotypic diversity, we have integrated genome data sets with RNA sequencing to assess their impact on the comparative transcriptome profiles of strains belonging to M. tuberculosis Lineages 1 and 2. We observed clear correlations between genotype and transcriptional phenotype. These arose by three mechanisms. First, lineage-specific changes in amino acid sequence of transcriptional regulators were associated with alterations in their ability to control gene expression. Second, changes in nucleotide sequence were associated with alteration of promoter activity and generation of novel transcriptional start sites in intergenic regions and within coding sequences. We show that in some cases this mechanism is expected to generate functionally active truncated proteins involved in innate immune recognition. Finally, genes showing lineage-specific patterns of differential expression not linked directly to primary mutations were characterized by a striking overrepresentation of toxin-antitoxin pairs. Taken together, these findings advance our understanding of mycobacterial evolution, contribute to a systems level understanding of this important human pathogen, and more broadly demonstrate the application of state-of-the-art techniques to provide novel insight into mechanisms by which intergenic and silent mutations contribute to diversity.

  6. Progress of MCFC stack technology at Toshiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M.; Hayashi, T.; Shimizu, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba is working on the development of MCFC stack technology; improvement of cell characteristics, and establishment of separator technology. For the cell technology, Toshiba has concentrated on both the restraints of NiO cathode dissolution and electrolyte loss from cells, which are the critical issues to extend cell life in MCFC, and great progress has been made. On the other hand, recognizing that the separator is one of key elements in accomplishing reliable and cost-competitive MCFC stacks, Toshiba has been accelerating the technology establishment and verification of an advanced type separator. A sub-scale stack with such a separator was provided for an electric generating test, and has been operated for more than 10,000 hours. This paper presents several topics obtained through the technical activities in the MCFC field at Toshiba.

  7. A stack of cards rebuilt with calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachkov, Alexander; Kireš, Marián

    2017-07-01

    Previous work covers building a tower from a stack of homogeneous rectangular plates, each with a maximum shift in displacement. We suggest using plates shaped as curvilinear triangles bounded by segments of power-law functions. The masses of the plates and the position of their center of mass are calculated and measured experimentally after cutting them out from cardboard and aluminum sheets. A computer simulation of the displacement towers is combined with their live building. Individual maximum shifts of the plates in the stack prove to be much bigger the higher the power coefficient of the boundary curves. The resulting total overhang of such a displacement tower may exceed that of a stack of traditionally used homogeneous rectangular cards.

  8. Metallomic Profiling and Linkage Map Analysis of Early Parkinson's Disease: A New Insight to Aluminum Marker for the Possible Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shiek S. S. J.; Santosh, Winkins

    2010-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. The diagnosis of PD is challenging and currently none of the biochemical tests have proven to help in diagnosis. Serum metallomic analysis may suggest the possibility of diagnosis of PD. Methodology/Results The metallomic analysis was targeted on 31 elements obtained from 42 healthy controls and 45 drug naive PD patients using ICP-AES and ICP-MS to determine the concentration variations of elements between PD and normal. The targeted metallomic analysis showed the significant variations in 19 elements of patients compared to healthy control (p<0.04). The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed aluminium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc are the key elements, contributes the separation of PD patients from control samples. The correlation coefficient analysis and element-element ratio confirm the imbalance of inter-elements relationship in PD patients' serum. Furthermore, elements linkage map analysis showed aluminium is a key element involved in triggering of phosphorus, which subsequently lead to imbalance of homeostatic in PD serum. The execution of neural network using elements concentrations provides 95% accuracy in detection of disease. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that there is a disturbance in the elements homeostasis and inter-elements relationship in PD patients' serum. The analysis of serum elements helps in linking the underlying cellular processes such as oxidative stress, neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis, which are the dominating factors in PD. Also, these results increase the prospect of detection of early PD from serum through neural network algorithm. PMID:20582167

  9. Metallomic profiling and linkage map analysis of early Parkinson's disease: a new insight to aluminum marker for the possible diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiek S S J Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. The diagnosis of PD is challenging and currently none of the biochemical tests have proven to help in diagnosis. Serum metallomic analysis may suggest the possibility of diagnosis of PD. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: The metallomic analysis was targeted on 31 elements obtained from 42 healthy controls and 45 drug naive PD patients using ICP-AES and ICP-MS to determine the concentration variations of elements between PD and normal. The targeted metallomic analysis showed the significant variations in 19 elements of patients compared to healthy control (p<0.04. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA showed aluminium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc are the key elements, contributes the separation of PD patients from control samples. The correlation coefficient analysis and element-element ratio confirm the imbalance of inter-elements relationship in PD patients' serum. Furthermore, elements linkage map analysis showed aluminium is a key element involved in triggering of phosphorus, which subsequently lead to imbalance of homeostatic in PD serum. The execution of neural network using elements concentrations provides 95% accuracy in detection of disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that there is a disturbance in the elements homeostasis and inter-elements relationship in PD patients' serum. The analysis of serum elements helps in linking the underlying cellular processes such as oxidative stress, neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis, which are the dominating factors in PD. Also, these results increase the prospect of detection of early PD from serum through neural network algorithm.

  10. Populus endo-β-1,4-glucanases gene family: genomic organization, phylogenetic analysis, expression profiles and association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qingzhang; Wang, Lu; Yang, Xiaohui; Gong, Chenrui; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-06-01

    Extensive characterization of the poplar GH9 gene family provides new insights into GH9 function and evolution in woody species, and may drive novel progress for molecular breeding in trees. In higher plants, endo-β-1,4-glucanases (cellulases) belonging to the glycosyl hydrolase family 9 (GH9) have roles in cell wall synthesis, remodeling and degradation. To increase the understanding of the GH9 family in perennial woody species, we conducted an extensive characterization of the GH9 family in the model tree species, Populus. We characterized 25 putative GH9 members in Populus with three subclasses (A, B, and C), using structures and bioinformatic analysis. Phylogenetic analyses of 114 GH9s from plant (dicot, monocot, and conifer) and bacterial species (outgroup) demonstrated that plant GH9s are monophyletic with respect to bacteria GH9s. Three subclasses, A, B, and C, of plant GH9 are formed before the divergence of angiosperms and gymnosperms. Chromosomal localization and duplications of GH9s in the Populus genome showed that eight paralogous pairs remained in conserved positions on segmental duplicated blocks, suggesting duplication of chromosomal segments has contributed to the family expansion. By examining tissue-specific expression profiles for all 25 members, we found that GH9 members exhibited distinct but partially overlapping expression patterns, while certain members have higher transcript abundance in mature or developing xylem. Based on our understanding of intraspecific variation and linkage disequilibrium of two KORRIGANs (PtoKOR1 and PtoKOR2) in natural population of Populus tomentosa, two non-synonymous SNPs in PtoKOR1 associated with fiber width and holocellulose content were obtained. Characterizations of the poplar GH9 family provide new insights into GH9 function and evolution in woody species, and may drive novel progress for molecular breeding in trees.

  11. Measurement of slow-moving along-track displacement from an efficient multiple-aperture SAR interferometry (MAI) stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Min-Jeong; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Won, Joong-Sun; Poland, Michael; Miklius, Asta; Lu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-aperture SAR interferometry (MAI) has demonstrated outstanding measurement accuracy of along-track displacement when compared to pixel-offset-tracking methods; however, measuring slow-moving (cm/year) surface displacement remains a challenge. Stacking of multi-temporal observations is a potential approach to reducing noise and increasing measurement accuracy, but it is difficult to achieve a significant improvement by applying traditional stacking methods to multi-temporal MAI interferograms. This paper proposes an efficient MAI stacking method, where multi-temporal forward- and backward-looking residual interferograms are individually stacked before the MAI interferogram is generated. We tested the performance of this method using ENVISAT data from Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, where displacement on the order of several centimeters per year is common. By comparing results from the proposed stacking methods with displacements from GPS data, we documented measurement accuracies of about 1.03 and 1.07 cm/year for the descending and ascending tracks, respectively—an improvement of about a factor of two when compared with that from the conventional stacking approach. Three-dimensional surface-displacement maps can be constructed by combining stacked InSAR and MAI observations, which will contribute to a better understanding of a variety of geological phenomena.

  12. Dynamic investigation of PEFC stacks in interaction with the air supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipps, F.; Simons, G.; Schiefer, K.

    This paper explores the behaviour of a dynamically operated fuel cell system regarding to an automotive application, examining the air supply and their interaction with the fuel cell stacks. The dynamic limits of stack operation are also discussed. Finally, the paper provides a description of the test facility used in these investigations. The research of dynamically operated fuel cell stacks shows that in order to achieve high energy efficiency, a power-dependent modulation of the pressure and flow rate of the air supply is necessary. A test facility designed for energy management and power train research (up to 42 kW) was used for the experiment. A number of 11.5 kW fuel cell stacks was examined experimentally with respect to performance in interaction with the air supply in stationary and dynamic operation. The stacks were tested individually and in parallel. All of them were operated "dead-end" on the hydrogen side. Experimental results varying the parameters and load curves applied to the air supply system are given in the paper. The results show different dynamic behaviours between the stacks and a substantial difference in efficiency and dynamic response of the fuel cell system operated with different strategies. The results of different operating strategies for fuel cell systems, with respect to the interaction between the fuel cell stack and the air supply and in their dependency on air mass flow and pressure level are presented. The examinations were done with the test facility using real current demand profile of the experimental car HyLite ® from zero to full load and the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC).

  13. Crop classification using temporal stacks of multispectral satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Daniela I.; Brumby, Steven P.; Chartrand, Rick; Keisler, Ryan; Longbotham, Nathan; Mertes, Carly; Skillman, Samuel W.; Warren, Michael S.

    2017-05-01

    The increase in performance, availability, and coverage of multispectral satellite sensor constellations has led to a drastic increase in data volume and data rate. Multi-decadal remote sensing datasets at the petabyte scale are now available in commercial clouds, with new satellite constellations generating petabytes/year of daily high-resolution global coverage imagery. The data analysis capability, however, has lagged behind storage and compute developments, and has traditionally focused on individual scene processing. We present results from an ongoing effort to develop satellite imagery analysis tools that aggregate temporal, spatial, and spectral information and can scale with the high-rate and dimensionality of imagery being collected. We investigate and compare the performance of pixel-level crop identification using tree-based classifiers and its dependence on both temporal and spectral features. Classification performance is assessed using as ground-truth Cropland Data Layer (CDL) crop masks generated by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The CDL maps contain 30m spatial resolution, pixel-level labels for around 200 categories of land cover, but are however only available post-growing season. The analysis focuses on McCook county in South Dakota and shows crop classification using a temporal stack of Landsat 8 (L8) imagery over the growing season, from April through October. Specifically, we consider the temporal L8 stack depth, as well as different normalized band difference indices, and evaluate their contribution to crop identification. We also show an extension of our algorithm to map corn and soy crops in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

  14. A Stack of Cards Rebuilt with Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachkov, Alexander; Kireš, Marián

    2017-01-01

    Previous work covers building a tower from a stack of homogeneous rectangular plates, each with a maximum shift in displacement. We suggest using plates shaped as curvilinear triangles bounded by segments of power-law functions. The masses of the plates and the position of their center of mass are calculated and measured experimentally after…

  15. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASUDEB DATTA

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... Using Kalai's result, Tay (1995) proved LBT for a bigger class of simplicial complexes (namely, normal pseudomanifolds). In 2008, we (Bagchi & Datta) have presented a self-contained combinatorial proof of LBT for normal pseudomanifolds. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta.

  16. 40 CFR 61.33 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.33 Section 61.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, each owner or operator...

  17. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart.

  18. OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kapadia, Amar; Varma, Sreedhar

    2015-01-01

    If you are an IT administrator and you want to enter the world of cloud storage using OpenStack Swift, then this book is ideal for you. Basic knowledge of Linux and server technology is beneficial to get the most out of the book.

  19. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, Zdeňka; Šlampová, Andrea; Křivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2015), s. 15-35 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.482, year: 2015

  20. 49 CFR 178.606 - Stacking test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.606 Stacking test. (a) General. All packaging design... 24 hours, except that plastic drums, jerricans, and composite packagings 6HH intended for liquids... maintain their position for one hour. Plastic packagings must be cooled to ambient temperature before this...

  1. OpenStack cloud computing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook full of practical and applicable recipes that will enable you to use the full capabilities of OpenStack like never before.This book is aimed at system administrators and technical architects moving from a virtualized environment to cloud environments with familiarity of cloud computing platforms. Knowledge of virtualization and managing linux environments is expected.

  2. Measurement of Emittance of Beam in the Debuncher During Stacking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halling, Mike

    1991-12-11

    The emittance of antiprotons in the debuncher was measured using two methods during normal stacking conditions. With 2.3 seconds of cooling the vertical emittance was found to be 3.6 {pi} mm-mr using scraper D:TJ308, and 2.9 {pi} mm-mr using the profile on SEM806. With 6.9 seconds of cooling time time the measured horizontal emittance was 2.1 {pi} mm-mr using D:RJ306 v.s. 1.9 {pi} mm-mr using SEM806; but with 2.3 seconds of cooling the measured emittance in the debuncher was larger than in the DTOA line, 4.5 {pi} mm-mr v.s. 2.8 {pi} mm-mr. This suggests that some beam is being scraped on a horizontal aperture restriction someplace in the extraction process.

  3. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-11-06

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks.

  4. Heuristic Solution Approaches to the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks and presents a three different metaheuristic approaches to its solution. The Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks is concerned with finding the shortest route performing pickups and deliveries...

  5. Heuristic Solution Approaches to the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann

    This paper introduces the Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks and presents a three different metaheuristic approaches to its solution. The Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks is concerned with finding the shortest route performing pickups and deliveries...

  6. Preparation of Fuel Cell Stack Based on Fision Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Pujiastuti, Sri; Rahimi, Elsy; Hendrana, Sunit

    2009-01-01

    Preparation of single fuel cell stack using fision membrane of local materials has been done. In this research, beside preparation of fuel cell stack, the engineering side in the preparation of fuel cell stack also explored. The crucial steps of this research were on preparation of Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA), stack construction, and flow field design used to distribute the fuel of hydrogen gas. The first two cases will be explained technically, but the third case, flow field design, wi...

  7. DEVS Models of Palletized Ground Stacking in Storeyed Grain Warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Processed grain stored in storeyed warehouse is generally stacked on the ground without pallets. However, in order to improve the storing way, we developed a new stacking method, palletized ground stacking. Simulation should be used to present this new storing way. DEVS provides a formalized way to describe the system model. In this paper, DEVS models of palletized ground stacking in storeyed grain warehouse are given and a simulation model is developed by AutoMod.

  8. Investigation on etch characteristics of nanometer-sized magnetic tunnel junction stacks using a HBr/Ar plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ho; Xiao, Yu Bin; Kong, Seon Mi; Chung, Chee Won

    2011-07-01

    The etch characteristics of CoFeB magnetic films and magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) stacks masked with Ti films were investigated using an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in a HBr/Ar gas mix. The etch rate, etch selectivity, and etch profile of the CoFeB films were obtained as a function of the HBr concentration. As the HBr gas was added to Ar, the etch rate of the CoFeB films, and the etch selectivity to the Ti hard mask, gradually decreased, but the etch profile of the CoFeB films was improved. The effects of the HBr concentration and etch parameters on the etch profile of the MTJ stacks with a nanometer-sized 70 x 100 nm2 pattern were explored. At 10% HBr concentration, low ICP RF power, and low DC-bias voltage, better etch profiles of the MTJ stacks were obtained without redeposition. It was confirmed that the protective layer containing hydrogen, and the surface bombardment of the Ar ions, played a key role in obtaining a steep sidewall angle in the etch profile. Fine-pattern transfer of the MTJ stacks with a high degree of anisotropy was achieved using a HBr/Ar gas chemistry.

  9. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  10. Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.

  11. Polycrystallinity and stacking in CVD graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Adam W; Brown, Lola; Havener, Robin W; Park, Jiwoong

    2013-10-15

    Graphene, a truly two-dimensional hexagonal lattice of carbon atoms, possesses remarkable properties not seen in any other material, including ultrahigh electron mobility, high tensile strength, and uniform broadband optical absorption. While scientists initially studied its intrinsic properties with small, mechanically exfoliated graphene crystals found randomly, applying this knowledge would require growing large-area films with uniform structural and physical properties. The science of graphene has recently experienced revolutionary change, mainly due to the development of several large-scale growth methods. In particular, graphene synthesis by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper is a reliable method to obtain films with mostly monolayer coverage. These films are also polycrystalline, consisting of multiple graphene crystals joined by grain boundaries. In addition, portions of these graphene films contain more than one layer, and each layer can possess a different crystal orientation and stacking order. In this Account, we review the structural and physical properties that originate from polycrystallinity and stacking in CVD graphene. To begin, we introduce dark-field transmission electron microscopy (DF-TEM), a technique which allows rapid and accurate imaging of key structural properties, including the orientation of individual domains and relative stacking configurations. Using DF-TEM, one can easily identify "lateral junctions," or grain boundaries between adjacent domains, as well as "vertical junctions" from the stacking of graphene multilayers. With this technique, we can distinguish between oriented (Bernal or rhombohedral) and misoriented (twisted) configurations. The structure of lateral junctions in CVD graphene is sensitive to growth conditions and is reflected in the material's electrical and mechanical properties. In particular, grain boundaries in graphene grown under faster reactant flow conditions have no gaps or overlaps, unlike more

  12. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  13. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1996-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  14. Development of on-site PAFC stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, K.; Matsumoto, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Amagasaki (Japan); Horiuchi, H.; Ohtani, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) has been researched for commercial use and demonstration plants have been installed in various sites. However, PAFC don`t have a enough stability yet, so more research and development must be required in the future. Especially, cell stack needs a proper state of three phases (liquid, gas and solid) interface. It is very difficult technology to keep this condition for a long time. In the small size cell with the electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}, gas flow and temperature distributions show uniformity. But in the large size cell with the electrode area of 4000 cm{sup 2}, the temperature distributions show non-uniformity. These distributions would cause to be shorten the cell life. Because these distributions make hot-spot and gas poverty in limited parts. So we inserted thermocouples in short-stack for measuring three-dimensional temperature distributions and observed effects of current density and gas utilization on temperature.

  15. Radiation-Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack - RTIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tak-kwong; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides reconfigurable circuitry and 2-Gb of error-corrected or 1-Gb of triple-redundant digital memory in a small package. RTIMS uses circuit stacking of heterogeneous components and radiation shielding technologies. A reprogrammable field-programmable gate array (FPGA), six synchronous dynamic random access memories, linear regulator, and the radiation mitigation circuits are stacked into a module of 42.7 42.7 13 mm. Triple module redundancy, current limiting, configuration scrubbing, and single- event function interrupt detection are employed to mitigate radiation effects. The novel self-scrubbing and single event functional interrupt (SEFI) detection allows a relatively soft FPGA to become radiation tolerant without external scrubbing and monitoring hardware

  16. Sport stacking motor intervention programme for children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to explore sport stacking as an alternative intervention approach with typically developing children and in addition to improve DCD. Sport stacking consists of participants stacking and unstacking 12 specially designed plastic cups in predetermined sequences in as little time as possible.

  17. Notes on G-theory of Deligne-Mumford stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Toen, B.

    1999-01-01

    Based on the methods used by the author to prove the Riemann-Roch formula for algebraic stacks, this paper contains a description of the rationnal G-theory of Deligne-Mumford stacks over general bases. We will use these results to study equivariant K-theory, and also to define new filtrations on K-theory of algebraic stacks.

  18. IMPLEMENTING A STACK AS A DELAY-INSENSITIVE CIRCUIT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOSEPHS, MB; UDDING, JT; Furber, S; Edwards, M

    1993-01-01

    A case study in delay-insensitive circuit design is presented. A one bit wide stack is decomposed into an array of elements in a way that minimizes the response time of the stack to pushes and pops. The stack and element are specified in D-I Algebra and the correctness of the decomposition is proved

  19. In-Plane Stacking Disorder in Polydisperse Hard Sphere Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.M.; de Villeneuve, V.W.A.; Petukhov, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that in random-stacking hard-sphere colloidal crystals the stacking disorder not only exists in the direction perpendicular to the close-packed layers, but also extends in the lateral direction. The existence of such in-plane stacking disorder is suggested by a recent observation of

  20. 3D image stack reconstruction in live cell microscopy of Drosophila muscles and its validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tiehua; Wasser, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Rapid movements of live tissues during the acquisition of 3D image stacks can result in misalignments between successive image slices. The remodeling of the muscles in Drosophila metamorphosis is an example where sporadic motion during image acquisition impede image analysis and volume visualization. Most of the image stack registration algorithms applied in microscopy are aimed at the linear alignment of fixed histological sections. However, live muscles are nonrigid objects and their contractions and relaxations represent nonlinear transformations that cannot be properly rectified by applying purely linear registration methods. We developed a fully automated area-based nonrigid stack registration (NSR) method that minimizes the mean square error of intensities between successive image slices. The mapping function is formulated using the thin plate spline (TPS). A hierarchical linear to nonlinear, coarse to fine matching strategy is applied to ensure stability and fast convergence. Topological structure is preserved by constraining the step size of the nonlinear transformation. To assess the accuracy of 3D reconstruction, we propose a new benchmarking method that measures geometrical features of restored nuclei. We tested our algorithm on image stacks generated by laser scanning confocal microscopy that show live muscles during the prepupal stage of Drosophila metamorphosis. Our registration algorithm is able to restore image stacks that are distorted by periodic contraction of muscles. Quantitative assessment of registration performance agrees well with qualitative visual inspection. Our NSR method is able to restore image stacks for the purpose of visualization and quantitative analysis of Drosophila metamorphosis and, potentially, various other processes in developmental biology studied by 3D live cell microscopy. (c) 2009 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  1. Role of stacking disorder in ice nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Laura; Hudait, Arpa; Peters, Baron; Grünwald, Michael; Gotchy Mullen, Ryan; Nguyen, Andrew H.; Molinero, Valeria

    2017-11-01

    The freezing of water affects the processes that determine Earth’s climate. Therefore, accurate weather and climate forecasts hinge on good predictions of ice nucleation rates. Such rate predictions are based on extrapolations using classical nucleation theory, which assumes that the structure of nanometre-sized ice crystallites corresponds to that of hexagonal ice, the thermodynamically stable form of bulk ice. However, simulations with various water models find that ice nucleated and grown under atmospheric temperatures is at all sizes stacking-disordered, consisting of random sequences of cubic and hexagonal ice layers. This implies that stacking-disordered ice crystallites either are more stable than hexagonal ice crystallites or form because of non-equilibrium dynamical effects. Both scenarios challenge central tenets of classical nucleation theory. Here we use rare-event sampling and free energy calculations with the mW water model to show that the entropy of mixing cubic and hexagonal layers makes stacking-disordered ice the stable phase for crystallites up to a size of at least 100,000 molecules. We find that stacking-disordered critical crystallites at 230 kelvin are about 14 kilojoules per mole of crystallite more stable than hexagonal crystallites, making their ice nucleation rates more than three orders of magnitude higher than predicted by classical nucleation theory. This effect on nucleation rates is temperature dependent, being the most pronounced at the warmest conditions, and should affect the modelling of cloud formation and ice particle numbers, which are very sensitive to the temperature dependence of ice nucleation rates. We conclude that classical nucleation theory needs to be corrected to include the dependence of the crystallization driving force on the size of the ice crystallite when interpreting and extrapolating ice nucleation rates from experimental laboratory conditions to the temperatures that occur in clouds.

  2. A Reference Stack for PHM Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    ontology , the BCA should investigate existing ontologies in the organization and look to expand them with PHM terminology . Barring that, the effort needs...3.3.2. 2.7. Condition Monitoring Framework Another way to partition a PHM architecture is by its ontological elements. There is a description and...building a table such as Table 1 creates the PHM ontology for an enterprise. In the stack that is introduced in Section 3, it is viewed that the

  3. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Text can add a significant amount of detail and value to an information visualization. In particular, it can integrate more of the data that a visualization is based on, and it can also integrate information that is personally relevant to readers of a visualization. This may influence readers to ...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  4. Thyristor stack for pulsed inductive plasma generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, C; Jacoby, J; Schweizer, W; Wiechula, J

    2009-03-01

    A thyristor stack for pulsed inductive plasma generation has been developed and tested. The stack design includes a free wheeling diode assembly for current reversal. Triggering of the device is achieved by a high side biased, self supplied gate driver unit using gating energy derived from a local snubber network. The structure guarantees a hard firing gate pulse for the required high dI/dt application. A single fiber optic command is needed to achieve a simultaneous turn on of the thyristors. The stack assembly is used for switching a series resonant circuit with a ringing frequency of 30 kHz. In the prototype pulsed power system described here an inductive discharge has been generated with a pulse duration of 120 micros and a pulse energy of 50 J. A maximum power transfer efficiency of 84% and a peak power of 480 kW inside the discharge were achieved. System tests were performed with a purely inductive load and an inductively generated plasma acting as a load through transformer action at a voltage level of 4.1 kV, a peak current of 5 kA, and a current switching rate of 1 kA/micros.

  5. Electrochemical Detection in Stacked Paper Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Paper-based electrochemical biosensors are a promising technology that enables rapid, quantitative measurements on an inexpensive platform. However, the control of liquids in paper networks is generally limited to a single sample delivery step. Here, we propose a simple method to automate the loading and delivery of liquid samples to sensing electrodes on paper networks by stacking multiple layers of paper. Using these stacked paper devices (SPDs), we demonstrate a unique strategy to fully immerse planar electrodes by aqueous liquids via capillary flow. Amperometric measurements of xanthine oxidase revealed that electrochemical sensors on four-layer SPDs generated detection signals up to 75% higher compared with those on single-layer paper devices. Furthermore, measurements could be performed with minimal user involvement and completed within 30 min. Due to its simplicity, enhanced automation, and capability for quantitative measurements, stacked paper electrochemical biosensors can be useful tools for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. Radio-frequency properties of stacked long Josephson junctions with nonuniform bias current distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filatrella, G; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1999-01-01

    We have numerically investigated the behavior of stacks of long Josephson junctions considering a nonuniform bias profile. In the presence of a microwave field the nonuniform bias, which favors the formation of fluxons, can give rise to a change of the sequence of radio-frequency induced steps....... The amplitude of the steps is enhanced when the external frequency matches the fluxon shuttling regime. ©1999 American Institute of Physics....

  7. DNA base stacking: the stacked uracil/uracil and thymine/thymine minima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruairidh S; van Mourik, Tanja

    2012-10-15

    The potential energy surfaces of stacked uracil dimer (U/U) and stacked thymine dimer (T/T) have been explored at the counterpoise (CP)-corrected M06-2X/6-31+G(d) level of theory, in the gas phase and in solution (with water and, for U/U, 1,4-dioxane as the solvents) modeled by a continuum solvent using the polarizable continuum model. Potential energy scans were created by rotation of one monomer around its center-of-mass, whereas the other monomer remained still. Both face-to-back (one molecule exactly on top of the other) and face-to-face (one base molecule flipped by 180°) structures were considered. Five or six (dependent on whether CP correction is included or not) stacked uracil dimer minima and six stacked thymine dimer minima were located. A number of transition states on the U/U and T/T potential energy surfaces were likewise identified. The general effect of the continuum solvent is a flattening of the potential energy surface. Comparison of the gas-phase M06-2X/6-31+G(d) U/U interaction energies with estimated CCSD(T)/complete basis set values (where available) show the excellent performance of this functional for stacking energies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Stack Cache for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Nielsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable computing platforms to allowfor static analysis of the worst-case execution time. Caches are important for good performance, but data caches arehard to analyze for the worst-case execution time. Stack allocated data has different properties related...... data cache. As stack allocated datahas a high locality, even a small stack cache gives a high hit rate. A stack cache added to a write-through data cache considerablyimproves the performance, while a stack cache compared tothe harder to analyze write-back cache has about the sameaverage case...

  9. Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system consists of a prototype...... cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes, runs on pure hydrogen in a dead end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack is managed by running...... the stack at a high stoichiometric air flow. This is possible because of the PBI fuel cell membranes used, and the very low pressure drop in the stack. The model consists of a discrete thermal model dividing the stack into three parts: inlet, middle and end and predicting the temperatures in these three...

  10. Horizontal high speed stacking for batteries with prismatic cans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, Andrew L.; Lin, Yhu-Tin; Turner, III, Raymond D.

    2016-06-14

    A system and method for stacking battery cells or related assembled components. Generally planar, rectangular (prismatic-shaped) battery cells are moved from an as-received generally vertical stacking orientation to a generally horizontal stacking orientation without the need for robotic pick-and-place equipment. The system includes numerous conveyor belts that work in cooperation with one another to deliver, rotate and stack the cells or their affiliated assemblies. The belts are outfitted with components to facilitate the cell transport and rotation. The coordinated movement between the belts and the components promote the orderly transport and rotation of the cells from a substantially vertical stacking orientation into a substantially horizontal stacking orientation. The approach of the present invention helps keep the stacked assemblies stable so that subsequent assembly steps--such as compressing the cells or attaching electrical leads or thermal management components--may proceed with a reduced chance of error.

  11. Golgi proteins in circulating human platelets are distributed across non-stacked, scattered structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shilpi; Williamson, Jonathan K; Aronova, Maria A; Prince, Andrew A; Pokrovskaya, Irina D; Leapman, Richard D; Storrie, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Platelets are small, anucleate cell fragments that are central to hemostasis, thrombosis, and inflammation. They are derived from megakaryocytes from which they inherit their organelles. As platelets can synthesize proteins and contain many of the enzymes of the secretory pathway, one might expect all mature human platelets to contain a stacked Golgi apparatus, the central organelle of the secretory pathway. By thin section electron microscopy, stacked membranes resembling the stacked Golgi compartment in megakaryocytes and other nucleated cells can be detected in both proplatelets and platelets. However, the incidence of such structures is low and whether each and every platelet contains such a structure remains an open question. By single-label, immunofluorescence staining, Golgi glycosyltransferases are found within each platelet and map to scattered structures. Whether these structures are positive for marker proteins from multiple Golgi subcompartments remains unknown. Here, we have applied state-of-the-art techniques to probe the organization state of the Golgi apparatus in resting human platelets. By the whole cell volume technique of serial-block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM), we failed to observe stacked, Golgi-like structures in any of the 65 platelets scored. When antibodies directed against Golgi proteins were tested against HeLa cells, labeling was restricted to an elongated juxtanuclear ribbon characteristic of a stacked Golgi apparatus. By multi-label immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that each and every resting human platelet was positive for cis, trans, and trans Golgi network (TGN) proteins. However, in each case, the proteins were found in small puncta scattered about the platelet. At the resolution of deconvolved, widefield fluorescence microscopy, these proteins had limited tendency to map adjacent to one another. When the results of 3D structured illumination microscopy (3D SIM), a super resolution technique, were scored

  12. Development and Characterization of an Electrically Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Ma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An electrically rechargeable zinc-air battery stack consisting of three single cells in series was designed using a novel structured bipolar plate with air-breathing holes. Alpha-MnO2 and LaNiO3 severed as the catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR and oxygen evolution reaction (OER. The anodic and cathodic polarization and individual cell voltages were measured at constant charge-discharge (C-D current densities indicating a uniform voltage profile for each single cell. One hundred C-D cycles were carried out for the stack. The results showed that, over the initial 10 cycles, the average C-D voltage gap was about 0.94 V and the average energy efficiency reached 89.28% with current density charging at 15 mA·cm−2 and discharging at 25 mA·cm−2. The total increase in charging voltage over the 100 C-D cycles was ~1.56% demonstrating excellent stability performance. The stack performance degradation was analyzed by galvanostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The charge transfer resistance of ORR increased from 1.57 to 2.21 Ω and that of Zn/Zn2+ reaction increased from 0.21 to 0.34 Ω after 100 C-D cycles. The quantitative analysis guided the potential for the optimization of both positive and negative electrodes to improve the cycle life of the cell stack.

  13. Flux interactions on stacked Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Alwyn C.; A., Petraglia

    1996-01-01

    Perturbation methods are used to study the dynamics of locked fluxon modes on stacked Josephson junctions and single crystals of certain high-T-c, superconductors. Two limiting cases are considered: (i) The nonlinear diffusion regime in which fluxon dynamics are dominated by energy exchange between...... the bias and loss parameters, and (ii) the propagating regime in which the interplay between magnetic and electric field energies governs the fluxon dynamics. Conditions for stability of locked fluxon modes are shown to be different in these two regimes....

  14. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  15. Fluxon dynamics in three stacked Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorria, Carlos; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich

    2002-01-01

    /sub -/, the coupling between junctions leads to a repulsion of the fluxons with the same polarity. Above this critical velocity a fluxon will induce radiation in the neighboring junctions, leading to a bunching of the fluxons in the stacked junctions. Using the Sakai-Bodin-Pedersen model, three coupled perturbed sine......-Gordon equations are numerically studied for different values of coupling, damping, and bias parameters. In a narrow range of velocities bunching occurs. Outside this interval the fluxons split and new fluxons may be created. I-V characteristics are presented...

  16. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yeong -Shyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Pyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, Elizabeth V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  17. Sampled-time control of a microbial fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghani, Hitesh C.; Dinsdale, Richard M.; Guwy, Alan J.; Premier, Giuliano C.

    2017-07-01

    Research into microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has reached the point where cubic metre-scale systems and stacks are being built and tested. Apart from performance enhancement through catalysis, materials and design, an important research area for industrial applicability is stack control, which can enhance MFCs stack power output. An MFC stack is controlled using a sampled-time digital control strategy, which has the advantage of intermittent operation with consequent power saving, and when used in a hybrid series stack connectivity, can avoid voltage reversals. A MFC stack comprising four tubular MFCs was operated hydraulically in series. Each MFC was connected to an independent controller and the stack was connected electrically in series, creating a hybrid-series connectivity. The voltage of each MFC in the stack was controlled such that the overall series stack voltage generated was the algebraic sum (1.26 V) of the individual MFC voltages (0.32, 0.32, 0.32 and 0.3). The controllers were able to control the individual voltages to the point where 2.52 mA was drawn from the stack at a load of 499.9 Ω (delivering 3.18 mW). The controllers were able to reject the disturbances and perturbations caused by electrical loading, temperature and substrate concentration.

  18. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Neutzler, Jay K.

    1997-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. The fuel distribution manifold is formed from a hydrophilic-like material to redistribute water produced by fuel and oxygen reacting at the cathode. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  19. Stacking Analysis of Binary Systems with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Chad; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Detecting binary systems at TeV energies is an important problem because only a handful of such systems are currently known. The nature of such systems is typically thought to be composed of a compact object and a massive star. The TeV emission from these systems does not obviously correspond to emission in GeV or X-ray, where many binary systems have previously been found. This study focuses on a stacking method to detect TeV emission from LS 5039, a known TeV binary, to test its efficacy in HAWC data. Stacking is a widely employed method for increasing signal to noise ratio in optical astronomy, but has never been attempted previously with HAWC. HAWC is an ideal instrument to search for TeV binaries, because of its wide field of view and high uptime. Applying this method to the entire sky may allow HAWC to detect binary sources of very short or very long periods not sensitive to current analyses. NSF, DOE, Los Alamos, Michigan Tech, CONACyt, UNAM, BUAP.

  20. Tolerance Stack Analysis in Francis Turbine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Djodikusumo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The tolerance stacking problem arises in the context of assemblies from interchangeable parts because of the inability to produce or to join parts exactly according to nominal dimensions. Either the relevant part’s dimension varies around some nominal values from part to part or the act of assembly that leads to variation. For example, as runner of Francis turbine is joined with turbine shaft via mechanical lock, there is not only variation in the diameter of runner and the concentricity between the runner hole and turbine shaft, but also the variation in concentricity between the outer parts of runner to runner hole. Thus, there is the possibility that the assembly of such interacting parts won’t function or won’t come together as planned. Research in this area has been conducted and 2 mini hydro Francis turbines (800 kW and 910 kW have been designed and manufactured for San Sarino and Sawi Dago 2 in Central Sulawesi. Experiences in analyzing the tolerance stacks have been documented. In this paper it will be demonstrated how the requirements of assembling performance are derived to be the designed tolerances of each interacting component, such a way that the assembling would be functioning and come together as planned.

  1. Colorimetric stack pad immunoassay for bacterial identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltzov, Evgeni; Marks, Robert S

    2017-01-15

    A new colorimetric immunoassay concept, utilizing conventional lateral flow membranes (e.g., conjugation, sample, absorption and nitrocellulose), were placed in a different configuration in a stacking manner, where the liquid sample that may contain the analyte diffuses from the bottom to the upper-most layer. The key element of this proprietary technology is a capture layer, where a nitrocellulose membrane is modified with the target analyte of interest, namely in this study target Escherichia coli. During the immunoassay operation, samples contaminated with the target bacteria will conjugate to their corresponding HRP-antibodies laying in wait and the immune-target measurand complex flows by capillarity towards the upper-most layer to generate a colorimetric signal (positive answer) through an enzymatic reaction. In target-free samples, previously immobilized target bacteria on the capture layer will prevent the HRP-labeled anti-target antibodies from migrating to the upper-most layer, where the enzymatic substrate lays in wait. After optimization, the sensitivity of this approach was found to be 1,000 folds higher than ELISAs (102cellsmL-1). The advantages of the stacked pad assay include: miniaturization, operational simplicity, fast response time (less than 5min), useful sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  3. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux.

  4. Pbar Beam Stacking in the Recycler by Longitudinal Phase-space Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-08-06

    Barrier rf buckets have brought about new challenges in longitudinal beam dynamics of charged particle beams in synchrotrons and at the same time led to many new remarkable prospects in beam handling. In this paper, I describe a novel beam stacking scheme for synchrotrons using barrier buckets without any emittance dilution to the beam. First I discuss the general principle of the method, called longitudinal phase-space coating. Multi-particle beam dynamics simulations of the scheme applied to the Recycler, convincingly validates the concepts and feasibility of the method. Then I demonstrate the technique experimentally in the Recycler and also use it in operation. A spin-off of this scheme is its usefulness in mapping the incoherent synchrotron tune spectrum of the beam particles in barrier buckets and producing a clean hollow beam in longitudinal phase space. Both of which are described here in detail with illustrations. The beam stacking scheme presented here is the first of its kind.

  5. Multi-microscopy study of the influence of stacking faults and three-dimensional In distribution on the optical properties of m-plane InGaN quantum wells grown on microwire sidewalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, L.; Lefebvre, W.; Houard, J.; Blum, I.; Vurpillot, F.; Rigutti, L., E-mail: lorenzo.rigutti@univ-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6634, Normandie University, INSA and University of Rouen, 76800 St Etienne du Rouvray (France); Hernández-Maldonado, D. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6634, Normandie University, INSA and University of Rouen, 76800 St Etienne du Rouvray (France); SuperSTEM STFC Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Eymery, J.; Durand, C. [CEA, CNRS, Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Tchernycheva, M. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, University Paris Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-01-25

    The optical properties of m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on microwire sidewalls were investigated carrying out a correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), atom probe tomography (APT), and micro-photoluminescence study applied on single nanoscale field-emission tips obtained by a focused ion beam annular milling. Instead of assuming simple rectangular composition profiles, yielding misleading predictions for the optical transition energies, we can thus take into account actual compositional distributions and the presence of stacking faults (SFs). SFs were shown to be responsible for a lowering of the recombination energies of the order of 0.1 eV with respect to those expected for defect-free quantum wells (QWs). Such energy reduction allows establishing a good correspondence between the transition energies observed by optical spectroscopy and those calculated on the basis of the QWs In measured composition and distribution assessed by STEM structural analysis and APT chemical mapping.

  6. Description of gasket failure in a 7 cell PEMFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husar, Attila; Serra, Maria [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Parc Tecnologic de Barcelona, Edifici U, C. Llorens i Artigas, 4-6, 2a Planta, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kunusch, Cristian [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial Control e Instrumentacion, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNLP (Argentina)

    2007-06-10

    This article presents the data and the description of a fuel cell stack that failed due to gasket degradation. The fuel cell under study is a 7 cell stack. The unexpected change in several variables such as temperature, pressure and voltage indicated the possible failure of the stack. The stack was monitored over a 6 h period in which data was collected and consequently analyzed to conclude that the fuel cell stack failed due to a crossover leak on the anode inlet port located on the cathode side gasket of cell 2. This stack failure analysis revealed a series of indicators that could be used by a super visional controller in order to initiate a shutdown procedure. (author)

  7. Simple Stacking Methods for Silicon Micro Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmario Scotti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present two simple methods, with parallel and serial gas flows, for the stacking of microfabricated silicon fuel cells with integrated current collectors, flow fields and gas diffusion layers. The gas diffusion layer is implemented using black silicon. In the two stacking methods proposed in this work, the fluidic apertures and gas flow topology are rotationally symmetric and enable us to stack fuel cells without an increase in the number of electrical or fluidic ports or interconnects. Thanks to this simplicity and the structural compactness of each cell, the obtained stacks are very thin (~1.6 mm for a two-cell stack. We have fabricated two-cell stacks with two different gas flow topologies and obtained an open-circuit voltage (OCV of 1.6 V and a power density of 63 mW·cm−2, proving the viability of the design.

  8. Stacked Heterogeneous Neural Networks for Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Leon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid model for time series forecasting is proposed. It is a stacked neural network, containing one normal multilayer perceptron with bipolar sigmoid activation functions, and the other with an exponential activation function in the output layer. As shown by the case studies, the proposed stacked hybrid neural model performs well on a variety of benchmark time series. The combination of weights of the two stack components that leads to optimal performance is also studied.

  9. Quadratic forms and Clifford algebras on derived stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Vezzosi, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to quadratic structures in derived algebraic geometry. We define derived n-shifted quadratic complexes, over derived affine stacks and over general derived stacks, and give several examples of those. We define the associated notion of derived Clifford algebra, in all these contexts, and compare it with its classical version, when they both apply. Finally, we prove three main existence results for derived shifted quadratic forms over derived stacks, define ...

  10. Use of impedance tagging to monitor fuel cell stack performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gregory

    Fuel cells are electrochemical device that are traditionally assembled in stacks to perform meaningful work. Monitoring the state of the stack is vitally important to ensure that it is operating efficiently and that constituent cells are not failing for one of a several common reasons including membrane dehydration, gas diffusion layer flooding, reactant starvation, and physical damage. Current state-of-the-art monitoring systems are costly and require at least one connection per cell on the stack, which introduces reliability concerns for stacks consisting of hundreds of cells. This thesis presents a novel approach for diagnosing problems in a fuel cell stack that attempts to reduce the cost and complexity of monitoring cells in a stack. The proposed solution modifies the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) response of each cell in the stack by connecting an electrical tag in parallel with each cell. This approach allows the EIS response of the entire stack to identify and locate problems in the stack. Capacitors were chosen as tags because they do not interfere with normal stack operation and because they can generate distinct stack EIS responses. An experiment was performed in the Center for Automation Technologies an Systems (CATS) fuel cell laboratory at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) to perform EIS measurements on a single cell with and without capacitor tags to investigate the proposed solution. The EIS data collected from this experiment was used to create a fuel cell model to investigate the proposed solution under ideal conditions. This thesis found that, although the concept shows some promise in simulations, significant obstacles to implementing the proposed solution. Observed EIS response when the capacitor tags were connected did not match the expected EIS response. Constraints on the capacitor tags found by the model impose significant manufacturing challenges to the proposed solution. Further development of the proposed solution is

  11. Solid oxide cell stack and method for preparing same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A method for producing and reactivating a solid oxide cell stack structure by providing a catalyst precursor in at least one of the electrode layers by impregnation and subsequent drying after the stack has been assembled and initiated. Due to a significantly improved performance and an unexpecte...... voltage improvement this solid oxide cell stack structure is particularly suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and solid oxide electrolysing cell (SOEC) applications....

  12. Development of the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kotani, Ikuo [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Kobe (Japan); Morotomi, Isamu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Hyogo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Kansai Electric Power Co. and Mitsubishi Electric Co. have been developing the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack operated under the ambient pressure. The new cell design have been developed, so that the large scale cell (1 m{sup 2} size) was adopted for the stack. To confirm the performance and the stability of the 1 m{sup 2} scale cell design, the short stack study had been performed.

  13. Compact bipolar plate-free direct methanol fuel cell stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xue; Takahashi, Motohiro; Nagao, Masahiro; Hibino, Takashi

    2011-05-14

    Fuel cells with a PtAu/C anode and a Pr-doped Mn(2)O(3)/C cathode were stacked without using a bipolar plate, and their discharge properties were investigated in a methanol aqueous solution bubbled with air. A three-cell stack exhibited a stack voltage of 2330 mV and a power output of 21 mW. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  14. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Weed quadrangle, California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Volume II contains the flight path, radiometric multi-parameter stacked profiles, magnetic and ancillary parameter stacked profiles, histograms, and anomaly maps for the Weed Quadrangle in California.

  15. Manifold seal structure for fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William P.

    1988-01-01

    The seal between the sides of a fuel cell stack and the gas manifolds is improved by adding a mechanical interlock between the adhesive sealing strip and the abutting surface of the manifolds. The adhesive is a material which can flow to some extent when under compression, and the mechanical interlock is formed providing small openings in the portion of the manifold which abuts the adhesive strip. When the manifolds are pressed against the adhesive strips, the latter will flow into and through the manifold openings to form buttons or ribs which mechanically interlock with the manifolds. These buttons or ribs increase the bond between the manifolds and adhesive, which previously relied solely on the adhesive nature of the adhesive.

  16. Durable solid oxide electrolysis cells and stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Chen

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of this project was to make a substantial contribution to development of a cost competitive electrolysis technology based on solid oxide cells. The strategy was to address what had been identified as the key issues in previous research projects. Accordingly five lines of work were carried out in the here reported project: 1) Cell and stack element testing and post test characterization to identify major degradation mechanisms under electrolysis operation. 2) Development of interconnects and coatings to allow stable electrolysis operation at approx850 deg. C or above. 3) Development of seals with reduced Si emission. 4) Development of durable SOEC cathodes. 5) Modeling. Good progress has been made on several of the planned activities. The outcome and most important achievements of the current project are listed for the five lines of the work. (LN)

  17. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Stewart, Graeme A.; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  18. Pin stack array for thermoacoustic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keolian, Robert M.; Swift, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A thermoacoustic stack for connecting two heat exchangers in a thermoacoustic energy converter provides a convex fluid-solid interface in a plane perpendicular to an axis for acoustic oscillation of fluid between the two heat exchangers. The convex surfaces increase the ratio of the fluid volume in the effective thermoacoustic volume that is displaced from the convex surface to the fluid volume that is adjacent the surface within which viscous energy losses occur. Increasing the volume ratio results in an increase in the ratio of transferred thermal energy to viscous energy losses, with a concomitant increase in operating efficiency of the thermoacoustic converter. The convex surfaces may be easily provided by a pin array having elements arranged parallel to the direction of acoustic oscillations and with effective radial dimensions much smaller than the thicknesses of the viscous energy loss and thermoacoustic energy transfer volumes.

  19. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00529764; The ATLAS collaboration; Stewart, Graeme; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  20. Stacked Integration of MEMS on LSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Esashi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Two stacked integration methods have been developed to enable advanced microsystems of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS on large scale integration (LSI. One is a wafer level transfer of MEMS fabricated on a carrier wafer to a LSI wafer. The other is the use of electrical interconnections using through-Si vias from the structure of a MEMS wafer on a LSI wafer. The wafer level transfer methods are categorized to film transfer, device transfer connectivity last, and immediate connectivity at device transfer. Applications of these transfer methods are film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR on LSI, lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zr,TiO3 (PZT MEMS switch on LSI, and surface acoustic wave (SAW resonators on LSI using respective methods. A selective transfer process was developed for multiple SAW filters on LSI. Tactile sensors and active matrix electron emitters for massive parallel electron beam lithography were developed using the through-Si vias.

  1. Designer Infrared Filters using Stacked Metal Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard A.; Rebbert, M.; Sternberg, O.

    2003-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated infrared filters for use at wavelengths greater than or equal to 15 microns. Unlike conventional dielectric filters used at the short wavelengths, ours are made from stacked metal grids, spaced at a very small fraction of the performance wavelengths. The individual lattice layers are gold, the spacers are polyimide, and they are assembled using integrated circuit processing techniques; they resemble some metallic photonic band-gap structures. We simulate the filter performance accurately, including the coupling of the propagating, near-field electromagnetic modes, using computer aided design codes. We find no anomalous absorption. The geometrical parameters of the grids are easily altered in practice, allowing for the production of tuned filters with predictable useful transmission characteristics. Although developed for astronomical instrumentation, the filters arc broadly applicable in systems across infrared and terahertz bands.

  2. Backside versus frontside advanced chemical analysis of high-k/metal gate stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, E., E-mail: eugenie.martinez@cea.fr [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Saidi, B. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Rousset Cedex, Crolles (France); Veillerot, M. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Caubet, P. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Rousset Cedex, Crolles (France); Fabbri, J-M. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Piallat, F. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Rousset Cedex, Crolles (France); Gassilloud, R. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Schamm-Chardon, S. [CEMES-CNRS et Université de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The backside approach is a promising solution for advanced chemical characterization of future MOSFETs. • Frontside ToF-SIMS and Auger depth profiles are affected by cumulative mixing effects and thus not relevant for analyzing ultra-thin layers. • Higher in-depth resolution is possible in the backside approach for Auger and ToF-SIMS depth profiling. • Backside depth profiling allows revealing ultra-thin layers and elemental in-depth redistribution inside high-k/metal gate stacks. • Backside XPS allows preserving the full metal gate, thus enabling the analysis of real technological samples. - Abstract: Downscaling of transistors beyond the 14 nm technological node requires the implementation of new architectures and materials. Advanced characterization methods are needed to gain information about the chemical composition of buried layers and interfaces. An effective approach based on backside analysis is presented here. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger depth profiling and time-of-flight secondary ions mass spectrometry are combined to investigate inter-diffusion phenomena. To highlight improvements related to the backside method, backside and frontside analyses are compared. Critical information regarding nitrogen, oxygen and aluminium redistribution inside the gate stacks is obtained only in the backside configuration.

  3. Dielectric elastomer generators that stack up

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, T. G.; Rosset, S.; Anderson, I. A.; Shea, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and testing of a soft dielectric elastomer power generator with a volume of less than 1 cm3. The generator is well suited to harvest energy from ambient and from human body motion as it can harvest from low frequency (sub-Hz) motions, and is compact and lightweight. Dielectric elastomers are highly stretchable variable capacitors. Electrical energy is produced when the deformation of a stretched, charged dielectric elastomer is relaxed; like-charges are compressed together and opposite-charges are pushed apart, resulting in an increased voltage. This technology provides an opportunity to produce soft, high energy density generators with unparalleled robustness. Two major issues block this goal: current configurations require rigid frames that maintain the dielectric elastomer in a prestretched state, and high energy densities have come at the expense of short lifetime. This paper presents a self-supporting stacked generator configuration which does not require rigid frames. The generator consists of 48 generator films stacked on top of each other, resulting in a structure that fits within an 11 mm diameter footprint while containing enough active material to produce useful power. To ensure sustainable power production, we also present a mathematical model for designing the electronic control of the generator which optimizes energy production while limiting the electrical stress on the generator below failure limits. When cyclically compressed at 1.6 Hz, our generator produced 1.8 mW of power, which is sufficient for many low-power wireless sensor nodes. This performance compares favorably with similarly scaled electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and electrostatic generators. The generator’s small form factor and ability to harvest useful energy from low frequency motions such as tree swaying or shoe impact provides an opportunity to deliver power to remote wireless sensor nodes or to distributed points in the human body

  4. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2015-01-01

    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  5. Probing the gas content of radio galaxies through H I absorption stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geréb, K.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2014-09-01

    Using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, we carried out shallow H i absorption observations of a flux-selected (S1.4 GHz > 50 mJy) sample of 93 radio active galactic nuclei (AGN), which have available SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) redshifts between 0.02 goal is to study the gas properties of radio sources down to S1.4 GHz flux densities not systematically explored before using, for the first time, stacking of absorption spectra of extragalactic H i. Despite the shallow observations, we obtained a direct detection rate of ~29%, comparable with deeper studies of radio galaxies. Furthermore, detections are found at every S1.4 GHz flux level, showing that H i absorption detections are not biased toward brighter sources. The stacked profiles of detections and non-detections reveal a clear dichotomy in the presence of H i, with the 27 detections showing an average peak τ = 0.02 corresponding to N(H i) ~(7.4 ± 0.2) × 1018 (Tspin/cf) cm-2, while the 66 non-detections remain undetected upon stacking with a peak optical depth upper limit τ orientation effects connected to a disk-like distribution of the H i can be partly responsible for the dichotomy that we see in our sample. However, orientation effects alone cannot explain all the observational results, and some of our galaxies must be genuinely depleted of cold gas. A fraction of the compact sources in the sample are confirmed by previous studies as likely young radio sources (compact steep spectrum and gigahertz peaked spectrum sources). These show an even higher detection rate of 55%. Along with their high integrated optical depth and wider profile, this reinforces the idea that young radio AGN are embedded in a medium that is rich in atomic gas. Part of our motivation is to probe for the presence of faint H i outflows at low optical depth using stacking. However, the stacked profiles do not reveal any significant blueshifted wing. We are currently collecting more data to investigate the presence of

  6. Global Warming: A Supplementary Guide to the Hypercard Stack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adrian; Wooster, Judy

    This guide is designed to supplement a computer disk (a hypercard stack) that introduces students to issues raised in the debate over global warming. The stack is recommended for grades 9 through 12, and is appropriate for social studies, government, or science courses. This guide integrates a number of interactive teaching strategies including…

  7. Long Josephson Junction Stack Coupled to a Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Peder; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Groenbech-Jensen, N.

    2007-01-01

    A stack of inductively coupled long Josephson junctions are modeled as a system of coupled sine-Gordon equations. One boundary of the stack is coupled electrically to a resonant cavity. With one fluxon in each Josephson junction, the inter-junction fluxon forces are repulsive. We look at a possible...

  8. Evaluating impact of truck announcements on container stacking efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Asperen (Eelco); B. Borgman (Bram); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContainer stacking rules are an important factor in container terminal efficiency. We build on prior research and use a discrete-event simulation model to evaluate the impact of a truck announcement system on the performance of online container stacking rules. The information that is

  9. Calculation of AC losses in large HTS stacks and coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zermeno, Victor; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a homogenization method to model a stack of HTS tapes under AC applied transport current or magnetic field. The idea is to find an anisotropic bulk equivalent for the stack of tapes, where the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting and su...

  10. Development of internal reforming carbonate fuel cell stack technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooque, M.

    1990-10-01

    Activities under this contract focused on the development of a coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system design and the stack technology consistent with the system design. The overall contract effort was divided into three phases. The first phase, completed in January 1988, provided carbonate fuel cell component scale-up from the 1ft{sup 2} size to the commercial 4ft{sup 2} size. The second phase of the program provided the coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system (CGCFC) conceptual design and carried out initial research and development needs of the CGCFC system. The final phase of the program emphasized stack height scale-up and improvement of stack life. The results of the second and third phases are included in this report. Program activities under Phase 2 and 3 were designed to address several key development areas to prepare the carbonate fuel cell system, particularly the coal-fueled CFC power plant, for commercialization in late 1990's. The issues addressed include: Coal-Gas Related Considerations; Cell and Stack Technology Improvement; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Design Development; Stack Tests for Design Verification; Full-Size Stack Design; Test Facility Development; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Cost Assessment; and Coal-Fueled Carbonate Fuel Cell System Design. All the major program objectives in each of the topical areas were successfully achieved. This report is organized along the above-mentioned topical areas. Each topical area has been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  11. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Stack Air Sampling System Qualification Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2001-01-24

    This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that the air monitoring system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility ventilation exhaust stack meets the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe, sample transport, and stack flow measurement accuracy.

  12. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  13. Stacking transgenic event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 alters maize composition less than traditional breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Fast, Brandon J; Scherer, Peter N; Brune, Alyssa M; de Cerqueira, Denise T; Schafer, Barry W; Ekmay, Ricardo D; Harrigan, George G; Bradfisch, Greg A

    2017-10-01

    The impact of crossing ('stacking') genetically modified (GM) events on maize-grain biochemical composition was compared with the impact of generating nonGM hybrids. The compositional similarity of seven GM stacks containing event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1, and their matched nonGM near-isogenic hybrids (iso-hybrids) was compared with the compositional similarity of concurrently grown nonGM hybrids and these same iso-hybrids. Scatter plots were used to visualize comparisons among hybrids and a coefficient of identity (per cent of variation explained by line of identity) was calculated to quantify the relationships within analyte profiles. The composition of GM breeding stacks was more similar to the composition of iso-hybrids than was the composition of nonGM hybrids. NonGM breeding more strongly influenced crop composition than did transgenesis or stacking of GM events. These findings call into question the value of uniquely requiring composition studies for GM crops, especially for breeding stacks composed of GM events previously found to be compositionally normal. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Physical Sciences Laboratory 1 Rooftop Stack Mixing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonio, Ernest J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    To address concerns about worker exposures on the Physical Science Laboratory (PSL) rooftop, a tracer study was conducted to measure gaseous tracer concentrations downwind of six stacks on the southern half of the PSL building (PSL-1). These concerns were raised, in part, due to the non-standard configuration of the stacks on this building. Five of the six stacks were only about 8 feet tall, with one shorter stack that was essentially level with the roof deck. These stacks were reconfigured in August 2016, and these exhaust points on PSL-1 are now 18 feet tall. This report describes the objectives of the tracer tests performed on PSL-1, provides an overview of how the tests were executed, and presents results of the tests. The tests on the PSL rooftop were a follow-on project from a similar study performed on the LSL-II ventilation exhaust (Flaherty and Antonio, 2016).

  15. Stacked resistive switches for AND/OR logic gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Ju; Son, Kyung Rock; Park, Ju Hyun; Kim, Tae Geun

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the use of stacked resistive switches as logic gates for implementing the ;AND; and ;OR; operations. These stacked resistive switches consist of two resistive switches that share a middle electrode, and they operate based on the difference in resistance between the low and high resistance states indicating the logical states of ;0; and ;1;, respectively. The stacked resistive switches can perform either AND or OR operation, using two read schemes in one device. To perform the AND (or OR) operation, two resistive switches are arranged in a serial (or parallel) connection. AND and OR operations have been successfully demonstrated using the stacked resistive switches. The use of stacked resistive switches as logic gates that utilize the advantages of memristive devices shows the possibility of stateful logic circuits.

  16. Direct methanol fuel cell stack based on MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Tang, Xiaochuan; Yuan, Zhenyu; Liu, Xiaowei

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a design configuration of silicon-based micro direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) stack in a planar array. The integrated series connection is oriented in a "flip-flop" configuration with electrical interconnections made by thin-film metal layers that coat the flow channels etched in the silicon substrate. The configuration features small connection space and low contact resistance. The MEMS fabrication process was utilized to fabricate the silicon plates of DMFC stack. This DMFC stack with an active area of 64mm x 11mm was characterized at room temperature and normal atmosphere. Experimental results show that the prototype stack is able to generate an open-circuit voltage of 2.7V and a maximum power density of 2.2mW/cm2, which demonstrate the feasibility of this new DMFC stack configuration.

  17. Qualification Tests for the Air Sampling System at the 296-Z-7 Stack, Addendum 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Maughan, A. D.

    2002-02-05

    This addendum report documents tests performed to verify that the stack flow monitoring system for the 296-Z-7 ventilation exhaust stack meets the applicable regulatory criteria regarding stack flow measurement accuracy. These criteria ensure that the stack flow measurements have sufficient accuracy for use in estimating stack emissions. The tests performed demonstrated that operability and accuracy requirements were met.

  18. An investigation on slowness-weighted CCP stacking and its application to receiver function imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhe; Niu, Fenglin

    2017-06-01

    Common conversion point (CCP) stacking of receiver functions is a widely used technique to image velocity discontinuities in the mantle. The CCP imaging technique assumes that receiver functions are composed solely of P to S conversions at velocity boundaries, whose depths can be mapped out through their arrival times. The multiple reflections at shallow boundaries with large velocity contrasts, such as the base of unconsolidated sediments and the Moho, can lead to artificial structures in the CCP images. We develop a refined CCP stacking method that uses relative slowness as a weighting factor to suppress the multiples (slowness-weighted CCP stacking, SWCCP). We conduct extensive numerical tests with synthetic data to seek the best weighting scheme and to verify the robustness of the images. We apply this technique to receiver function data of NECESSArray in China and the transportable array in western U.S. and find that most of the events in the depth range of 200-400 km shown in the regular CCP images are eliminated. The SWCCP images, on the other hand, reveal a clear negative event under some parts of the two arrays, indicating the presence of low velocity layer above the 410 km discontinuity, which was reported by previous studies.

  19. Surficial geology mapping of the Arctic Ocean: using subbottom profiling and multibeam echosounding data sets to constrain the subsea north of 64° as a layer for the IBCAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, D. C.; Baldwin, K.; Gebhardt, C.

    2016-12-01

    Barriers to data collection such as perennial ice cover, climate, and remoteness have contributed to a paucity of geologic data in the Arctic. The last decade, however, has seen a multi-national push to increase the quantity and extent of data available at high latitudes. With increased availability of geophysical and geological data holdings, we expand on previous mapping initiatives by creating a comprehensive surficial geology map as a layer to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO), providing a way to collectively analyze physiography, morphology and geology. Acoustic facies derived from subbottom profiles, combined with morphology illuminated from IBCAO and multibeam bathymetric datasets, and ground truth data compiled from cores and samples are used to map surficial geology units. We identified over 25 seismo-acoustic facies leading to interpretation of 12 distinct geologic units for the Arctic Ocean. The largest variety of seismic facies occurs on the shelves, which demonstrate the complex ice-margin history (e.g. chaotic bottom echoes with amorphous subbottom reflections that imply ice scouring processes). Shelf-crossing troughs generally lead to trough mouth fans on the continental margin with characteristic glaciogenic debris flow deposits (acoustically transparent units) comprising the bulk of the sedimentary succession. Other areas of continental slopes show a variety of facies suggesting sediment mass failure and turbidite deposition. Vast areas of the deep water portion of the Arctic are dominated by parallel reflections, indicative of hemi-pelagic and turbidity current deposition. Some deep water parts of the basin, however, show evidence of current reworking (sigmoidal reflections within bedforms), and contain deep sea channels with thalwegs (bright reflections within channels) and levee deposits (reflection pinch-out). These results delineated in the surficial geology map provide a comprehensive database of regional

  20. Lifetime of dielectric elastomer stack actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Peter; Matysek, Marc; Schlaak, Helmut F.

    2011-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer stack actuators (DESA) are well suited for the use in mobile devices, fluidic applications and small electromechanical systems. Despite many improvements during the last years the long term behavior of dielectric elastomer actuators in general is not known or has not been published. The first goal of the study is to characterize the overall lifetime under laboratory conditions and to identify potential factors influencing lifetime. For this we have designed a test setup to examine 16 actuators at once. The actuators are subdivided into 4 groups each with a separate power supply and driving signal. To monitor the performance of the actuators driving voltage and current are measured continuously and additionally, the amplitude of the deformations of each actuator is measured sequentially. From our first results we conclude that lifetime of these actuators is mainly influenced by the contact material between feeding line and multilayer electrodes. So far, actuators themselves are not affected by long term actuation. With the best contact material actuators can be driven for more than 2700 h at 200 Hz with an electrical field strength of 20 V/μm. This results in more than 3 billion cycles. Actually, there are further actuators driven at 10 Hz for more than 4000 hours and still working.

  1. Lithiation-induced shuffling of atomic stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2014-09-10

    In rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, understanding the atomic-scale mechanism of Li-induced structural evolution occurring at the host electrode materials provides essential knowledge for design of new high performance electrodes. Here, we report a new crystalline-crystalline phase transition mechanism in single-crystal Zn-Sb intermetallic nanowires upon lithiation. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we observed that stacks of atomic planes in an intermediate hexagonal (h-)LiZnSb phase are "shuffled" to accommodate the geometrical confinement stress arising from lamellar nanodomains intercalated by lithium ions. Such atomic rearrangement arises from the anisotropic lithium diffusion and is accompanied by appearance of partial dislocations. This transient structure mediates further phase transition from h-LiZnSb to cubic (c-)Li2ZnSb, which is associated with a nearly "zero-strain" coherent interface viewed along the [001]h/[111]c directions. This study provides new mechanistic insights into complex electrochemically driven crystalline-crystalline phase transitions in lithium-ion battery electrodes and represents a noble example of atomic-level structural and interfacial rearrangements.

  2. Progress on the NSTX Center Stack Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Dudek, J. Chrzanowski, P. Heitzenroeder, D. Mangra, C. Neumeyer, M. Smith, R. Strykowsky, P. Titus, T. Willard

    2010-09-22

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) will be upgraded to provide increased toroidal field, plasma current and pulse length. This involves the replacement of the so-called center stack, including the inner legs of the Toroidal Field (TF) coil, the Ohmic Heating (OH) coil, and the inner Poloidal Field (PF) coils. In addition the increased performance of the upgrade requires qualification of remaining existing components for higher loads. Initial conceptual design efforts were based on worst-case combinations of possible currents that the power supplies could deliver. This proved to be an onerous requirement and caused many of the outer coils support structures to require costly heavy reinforcement. This has led to the planned implementation of a Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) to reduce design-basis loads to levels that are more realistic and manageable. As a minimum, all components must be qualified for the increase in normal operating loads with headroom. Design features and analysis efforts needed to meet the upgrade loading are discussed. Mission and features of the DCPS are presented.

  3. Black Hole Spectroscopy with Coherent Mode Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Yagi, Kent; Blackman, Jonathan; Lehner, Luis; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-21

    The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the ℓ=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.

  4. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment explores new hardware and software platforms that, in the future, may be more suited to its data intensive workloads. One such alternative hardware platform is the ARM architecture, which is designed to be extremely power efficient and is found in most smartphones and tablets. CERN openlab recently installed a small cluster of ARM 64-bit evaluation prototype servers. Each server is based on a single-socket ARM 64-bit system on a chip, with 32 Cortex-A57 cores. In total, each server has 128 GB RAM connected with four fast memory channels. This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto these new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the "external" packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adj...

  5. Locating tremor using stacked products of correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ka Lok; Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Sgattoni, Giulia; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Roberts, Roland

    2017-04-01

    We introduce a back-projection method to locate tremor sources using products of cross-correlation envelopes of time series between seismic stations. For a given subset of n stations, we calculate the (n - 1)th-order product of cross-correlation envelopes and we stack the back-projected products over combinations of station subsets. We show that compared to existing correlation methods and for realistic signal and noise characteristics, this way of combining information can significantly reduce the effects of correlated (spurious or irrelevant signals) and uncorrelated noise. Each back-projected product constitutes an individual localized estimate of the source locations, as opposed to a hyperbola for the existing correlation techniques, assuming a uniform velocity in two dimensions. We demonstrate the method with synthetic examples and a real-data example from tremor at Katla Volcano, Iceland, in July 2011. Despite very complex near-surface structure, including strong topography and thick ice cover, the method appears to produce robust estimates of tremor location.

  6. Stack of quasi-mosaic thin lamellae as a diffracting element for Laue lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Valerio; Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo; Bastie, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    Crystals with curved diffracting planes have been investigated as high-efficiency optical components for the realization of a Laue lens for satellite-borne experiments in astrophysics. Curved crystals implementing the quasi-mosaic effect, namely an effect of crystalline anisotropy, are able to focus an X-ray beam to a size far smaller than that of the diffracting element, in turn increasing the focusing power of a Laue lens. This work provides first results about the feasibility of a self-standing stack composed of quasi-mosaic crystals. Stacking of crystalline lamellae is a solution to overcome the thickness limitation in existing self-standing quasi-mosaic crystals. Ten thin silicon crystalline lamellae were stacked, and then the planes affected by the quasi-mosaic effect were tested by polychromatic X-ray diffraction. The multicrystal behaved as one diffracting element, yielding a broad and smooth diffraction profile. The effective realization of a quasi-mosaic multicrystal opens up the prospective of building a Laue lens with a large integrated reflectivity, which leads to a high sensitivity, a necessary condition for the observation of celestial X-ray sources via a Laue lens.

  7. Generalized Stacking Fault Energy Surfaces and Dislocation Properties of Silicon A First-Principles Theoretical Study

    CERN Document Server

    Juan, Y M; Juan, Yu-min; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    1996-01-01

    The generalized stacking fault (GSF) energy surfaces have received considerable attention due to their close relation to the mechanical properties of solids. We present a detailed study of the GSF energy surfaces of silicon within the framework of density functional theory. We have calculated the GSF energy surfaces for the shuffle and glide set of the (111) plane, and that of the (100) plane of silicon, paying particular attention to the effects of the relaxation of atomic coordinates. Based on the calculated GSF energy surfaces and the Peierls-Nabarro model, we obtain estimates for the dislocation profiles, core energies, Peierls energies, and the corresponding stresses for various planar dislocations of silicon.

  8. Mapping forest canopy disturbance in the Upper Great Lakes, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Garner; Mark D. Nelson; Brian G. Tavernia; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ian W. Housman

    2015-01-01

    A map of forest canopy disturbance was generated for Michigan, Wisconsin, and most of Minnesota using 42 Landsat time series stacks (LTSS) and a vegetation change tracker (VCTw) algorithm. Corresponding winter imagery was used to reduce commission errors of forest disturbance by identifying areas of persistent snow cover. The resulting disturbance age map was classed...

  9. Separated Control and Data Stacks to Mitigate Buffer Overflow Exploits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kugler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that protection mechanisms like StackGuard, ASLR and NX are widespread, the development on new defense strategies against stack-based buffer overflows has not yet come to an end. In this article, we present a novel compiler-level protection called SCADS: Separated Control and Data Stacks that protects return addresses and saved frame pointers on a separate stack, called the control stack. In common computer programs, a single user mode stack is used to store control information next to data buffers. By separating control information from the data stack, we can protect sensitive pointers of a program’s control flow from being overwritten by buffer overflows. To substantiate the practicability of our approach, we provide SCADS as an open source patch for the LLVM compiler infrastructure. Focusing on Linux and FreeBSD running on the AMD64 architecture, we show compatibility, security and performance results. As we make control flow information simply unreachable for buffer overflows, many exploits are stopped at an early stage of progression with only negligible performance overhead.

  10. Stacking-dependent magnetoelectronic properties in multilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiun-Yan; Wu, Jhao-Ying; Chiu, Yu-Huang; Chang, Cheng-Pong; Lin, Ming-Fa

    2014-11-01

    The generalized Peierls tight-binding model is developed to study multilayer graphenes. For an N -layer system, there are N groups of conduction and valence Landau levels. Each group is clearly specified by the corresponding sublattice. The Landau-level spectra strongly depend on the stacking configuration. ABC-stacked graphenes exhibit two kinds of Landau-level anticrossings, the intergroup and intragroup Landau levels, as a function of the applied magnetic field. On the other hand, in contrast to its frequent wide-energy presence in ABC-stacked graphenes, the anticrossing only occurs occasionally in AB-stacked graphenes, and is absent in AA-stacked graphenes. Furthermore, all 4 N Dirac-point related Landau levels are distributed over a limited energy range near the Fermi level. In AA- and AB-stacked graphenes, the total number of such levels is fixed, while their energies depend on the stacking configuration. These results reflect the main features of the zero-field band structures.

  11. Full Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Zu, Tian-Bing

    2011-01-01

    The Stacked HYBATS (Hybrid Actuation/Transduction system) demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by using the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer, stacked negative strain components and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that, for Stacked HYBATS, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The coupled resonance mode between positive strain and negative strain components of Stacked HYBATS is much stronger than the resonance of a single element actuation only when the effective lengths of the two kinds of elements match each other. Compared with the previously invented hybrid actuation system (HYBAS), the multilayer Stacked HYBATS can be designed to provide high mechanical load capability, low voltage driving, and a highly effective piezoelectric constant. The negative strain component will contract, and the positive strain component will expand in the length directions when an electric field is applied on the device. The interaction between the two elements makes an enhanced motion along the Z direction for Stacked-HYBATS. In order to dominate the dynamic length of Stacked-HYBATS by the negative strain component, the area of the cross-section for the negative strain component will be much larger than the total cross-section areas of the two positive strain components. The transverse strain is negative and longitudinal strain positive in inorganic materials, such as ceramics/single crystals. Different piezoelectric multilayer stack configurations can make a piezoelectric ceramic/single-crystal multilayer stack exhibit negative strain or positive strain at a certain direction without increasing the applied voltage. The difference of this innovation from the HYBAS is that all the elements can be made from one-of-a-kind materials. Stacked HYBATS can provide an extremely effective piezoelectric

  12. Stacking with the unnatural DNA base 6-ethynylpyridone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Douglas J.; van Mourik, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    It was previously reported that the incorporation of 6-ethynylpyridone (E) into a DNA duplex (replacing T in a T:A base pair) leads to DNA duplexes that are more stable than the T:A-containing duplexes. DFT calculations at the M06-2X/6-31+G(d) and BLYP-D3/6-31+G(d) levels on various base pairs, stacked bases and stacked base pairs in continuum solvation water suggest that the observed increased stability of E:A-containing duplexes is due to the combined effects of stronger base pairing and enhanced stacking of the E:A base pair.

  13. Efficient Context Switching for the Stack Cache: Implementation and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Naji, Amine

    2015-01-01

    The design of tailored hardware has proven a successful strategy to reduce the timing analysis overhead for (hard) real-time systems. The stack cache is an example of such a design that has been proven to provide good average-case performance, while being easy to analyze. So far, however, the ana...... and restored when a task is preempted. We propose (a) an analysis exploiting the simplicity of the stack cache to bound the overhead induced by task pre-emption and (b) an extension of the design that allows to (partially) hide the overhead by virtualizing stack caches....

  14. 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the operation of a 30 cell high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. This prototype stack has been developed at the Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, as a proof-of-concept for a low pressure cathode air cooled HTPEM stack. The membranes used are Celtec P...... of the species as in a LTPEM fuel cell system. The use of the HTPEM fuel cell makes it possible to use reformed gas at high CO concentrations, still with a stable efficient performance....

  15. PENGARUH POSISI STACK TERHADAP FREKUENSI RESONANSI PADA TABUNG RESONATOR TERMOAKUSTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Ristanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pengaruh posisi stack dalam tabung resonator termoakustik terhadap frekuensi resonansi. Posisi stack ditaruh pada jarak 10 cm, 30 cm, dan 50 cm. Data frekuensi diambil menggunakan mikrofon yang dipasang pada ujung resonator. Mikrofon tersebut dihubungkan dengan laptop yang telah terisntall software sound card oscilloscope V1.40. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan variasi posisi stack tidak berpengaruh terhadap frekuensi resonansi, tetapi berpengaruh terhadap amplitudo maksimum pada masing-masing frekuensi resonansi. Amplitudo maksimum frekuensi resonansi terendah terjadi di tengah-tengah tabung resonator sedangkan amplitudo frekuensi resonansi terbesar terjadi pada ujung terjauh dari sumber bunyi.

  16. Fuel flow distribution in SOFC stacks revealed by impedance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation. An oper......As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation...... utilizations. The fuel flow distribution provides important information about the operating limits of the stack when high electrical efficiency is required....

  17. Consolidity: Stack-based systems change pathway theory elaborated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an elaborated analysis for investigating the stack-based layering processes during the systems change pathway. The system change pathway is defined as the path resulting from the combinations of all successive changes induced on the system when subjected to varying environments, activities, events, or any excessive internal or external influences and happenings “on and above” its normal stands, situations or set-points during its course of life. The analysis is essentially based on the important overall system paradigm of “Time driven-event driven-parameters change”. Based on this paradigm, it is considered that any affected activity, event or varying environment is intelligently self-recorded inside the system through an incremental consolidity-scaled change in system parameters of the stack-based layering types. Various joint stack-based mathematical and graphical approaches supported by representable case studies are suggested for the identification, extraction, and processing of various stack-based systems changes layering of different classifications and categorizations. Moreover, some selected real life illustrative applications are provided to demonstrate the (infinite stack-based identification and recognition of the change pathway process in the areas of geology, archeology, life sciences, ecology, environmental science, engineering, materials, medicine, biology, sociology, humanities, and other important fields. These case studies and selected applications revealed that there are general similarities of the stack-based layering structures and formations among all the various research fields. Such general similarities clearly demonstrate the global concept of the “fractals-general stacking behavior” of real life systems during their change pathways. Therefore, it is recommended that concentrated efforts should be expedited toward building generic modular stack-based systems or blocks for the mathematical

  18. Fabrication of high gradient insulators by stack compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John Richardson; Sanders, Dave; Hawkins, Steven Anthony; Norona, Marcelo

    2014-04-29

    Individual layers of a high gradient insulator (HGI) are first pre-cut to their final dimensions. The pre-cut layers are then stacked to form an assembly that is subsequently pressed into an HGI unit with the desired dimension. The individual layers are stacked, and alignment is maintained, using a sacrificial alignment tube that is removed after the stack is hot pressed. The HGI's are used as high voltage vacuum insulators in energy storage and transmission structures or devices, e.g. in particle accelerators and pulsed power systems.

  19. Fabrication of high gradient insulators by stack compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, John Richardson; Sanders, Dave; Hawkins, Steven Anthony; Norona, Marcelo

    2014-04-29

    Individual layers of a high gradient insulator (HGI) are first pre-cut to their final dimensions. The pre-cut layers are then stacked to form an assembly that is subsequently pressed into an HGI unit with the desired dimension. The individual layers are stacked, and alignment is maintained, using a sacrificial alignment tube that is removed after the stack is hot pressed. The HGI's are used as high voltage vacuum insulators in energy storage and transmission structures or devices, e.g. in particle accelerators and pulsed power systems.

  20. Loop Entropy Assists Tertiary Order: Loopy Stabilization of Stacking Motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Aalberts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The free energy of an RNA fold is a combination of favorable base pairing and stacking interactions competing with entropic costs of forming loops. Here we show how loop entropy, surprisingly, can promote tertiary order. A general formula for the free energy of forming multibranch and other RNA loops is derived with a polymer-physics based theory. We also derive a formula for the free energy of coaxial stacking in the context of a loop. Simulations support the analytic formulas. The effects of stacking of unpaired bases are also studied with simulations.

  1. On $k$-stellated and $k$-stacked spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Bagchi, Bhaskar; Datta, Basudeb

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the class $\\Sigma_k(d)$ of $k$-stellated (combinatorial) spheres of dimension $d$ ($0 \\leq k \\leq d + 1$) and compare and contrast it with the class ${\\cal S}_k(d)$ ($0 \\leq k \\leq d$) of $k$-stacked homology $d$-spheres. We have $\\Sigma_1(d) = {\\cal S}_1(d)$, and $\\Sigma_k(d) \\subseteq {\\cal S}_k(d)$ for $d \\geq 2k - 1$. However, for each $k \\geq 2$ there are $k$-stacked spheres which are not $k$-stellated. The existence of $k$-stellated spheres which are not $k$-stacked remains...

  2. A Software Managed Stack Cache for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    to scratchpad memory regions aids predictability, it is limited to non-recursive programs and static allocation has to take different calling contexts into account. Using a stack cache that dynamically spills data to and fills data from external memory avoids these problems, while its simple design allows...... for efficiently deriving worst-case bounds through static analysis. In this paper we present the design and implementation of software managed caching of stack allocated data in a scratchpad memory. We demonstrate a compiler-aided implementation of a stack cache using the LLVM compiler framework and report on its...

  3. Application Self-organizing Map Type in a Study of the Profile of Gasoline C Commercialized in the Eastern and Northern Parana Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Ramazzoti Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks self-organizing map type (SOM was used to classify samples of automotive gasoline C marketed in the eastern and northern regions of the state of Paraná, Brazil. The input order of parameters in the network were the values of temperature of the first drop, the 10, 50 and 90% distilled bulk, the final boiling point, density, residue content and alcohol content. A network with a topology of 25x25 and 5000 training epochs was used. The weight maps of input parameters for the trained network identified that the most important parameters for classifying samples were the temperature of the first drop and the temperature of the 10% and 50% of the distilled fuel. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i2.732 

  4. Highly Accelerated, Intravascular T1, T2, and Proton Density Mapping with Linear Algebraic Modeling and Sensitivity Profile Correction at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; Zhang, Yi; Hegde, Shashank Sathyanarayana; Bottomley, Paul A

    2016-05-01

    Vessel wall MRI with intravascular (IV) detectors can produce superior local signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and generate high-resolution T1, T2, and proton density (PD) maps that could be used to automatically classify atherosclerotic lesion stage. However, long acquisition times potentially limit multi-parametric mapping. Here, for the first time, spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM) is applied to yield accurate compartment-average T1, T2 and PD measures at least 10 times faster compared to a standard full k-space reconstructed MIX-TSE sequence at 3T. Simple phase and magnitude sensitivity corrections are incorporated into the SLAM reconstruction to compensate for IV detector non-uniformity.

  5. DC-DC power Converter Topology for PEM Fuel Cell Large Stack Operating in Potential Cycling Mode for Embedded Applications

    OpenAIRE

    DE BERNARDINIS, Alexandre; Candusso, Denis; DIAW, Ibrahima; Harel, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research work is to propose a power converter topology for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) operating in potentiostatic mode and which allows applying the Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) technique to a large stack composed of about one hundred cells. In CV mode, the fuel cell behavior is rather particular and the definition of a suitable power converter interface is not trivial. It implies to control the fuel cell potential during the cycling profiles applied, which is not ...

  6. Staticly Detect Stack Overflow Vulnerabilities with Taint Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays binary static analysis uses dangerous system library function to detect stack overflow vulnerary in program and there is no effective way to dig out the function which can cause stack overflow issue. List necessarily characteristics of the function which may cause stack overflow vulnerary and define stack overflow dangerous function(SODF. Then introduce static taint analysis to detect SODF include taint introduction, taint propagation and taint checking stragety. Next describe the particular process of detecting SODF in the program with static taint analysis. Finally choose 4 runtime library and 2 binary software, and detect whether the chosen software has SODF and locate the name of SODF with static taint analysis. Testing result shows that the algorithm can detect and locate plenty of SODF in test program which means the algorithm can work efficiently.

  7. A Stacked Microstrip Antenna Array with Fractal Patches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xueyao Ren; Xing Chen; Yufeng Liu; Wei Jin; Kama Huang

    2014-01-01

      A novel microstrip antenna array, which utilizes Giuseppe Peano fractal shaped patches as its radiation elements and adopts a two-layer stacked structure for achieving both wideband and high-gain...

  8. Sport stacking activities in school children's motor skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Diane; Ransdell, Mary; Coleman, Lyndsie; Irwin, Carol

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the impact of a 12-wk. sport stacking intervention on reaction time (RT), manual dexterity, and hand-eye coordination in elementary school-aged children. 80 Grade 2 students participated in a 15-min. sport stacking practice session every school day for 12 wk., and were tested on psychomotor performance improvement. Tests for choice RT, manual dexterity, and photoelectric rotary pursuit tracking were conducted pre- and post-intervention for both experimental group (n = 36) and the controls (n = 44) who did no sport stacking. Students who had the intervention showed a greater improvement in two-choice RT. No other group difference was found. Such sport stacking activities may facilitate children's central processing and perceptual-motor integration.

  9. Static analysis of worst-case stack cache behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a stack cache in a real-time system can aid predictability by avoiding interference that heap memory traffic causes on the data cache. While loads and stores are guaranteed cache hits, explicit operations are responsible for managing the stack cache. The behavior of these operations can......-graph, the worst-case bounds can be efficiently yet precisely determined. Our evaluation using the MiBench benchmark suite shows that only 37% and 21% of potential stack cache operations actually store to and load from memory, respectively. Analysis times are modest, on average running between 0.46s and 1.30s per...... be analyzed statically. We present algorithms that derive worst-case bounds on the latency-inducing operations of the stack cache. Their results can be used by a static WCET tool. By breaking the analysis down into subproblems that solve intra-procedural data-flow analysis and path searches on the call...

  10. Mapping sites of aspirin-induced acetylations in live cells by quantitative acid-cleavable activity-based protein profiling (QA-ABPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jigang; Zhang, Chong-Jing; Zhang, Jianbin; He, Yingke; Lee, Yew Mun; Chen, Songbi; Lim, Teck Kwang; Ng, Shukie; Shen, Han-Ming; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-20

    Target-identification and understanding of mechanism-of-action (MOA) are challenging for development of small-molecule probes and their application in biology and drug discovery. For example, although aspirin has been widely used for more than 100 years, its molecular targets have not been fully characterized. To cope with this challenge, we developed a novel technique called quantitative acid-cleavable activity-based protein profiling (QA-ABPP) with combination of the following two parts: (i) activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) and iTRAQ™ quantitative proteomics for identification of target proteins and (ii) acid-cleavable linker-based ABPP for identification of peptides with specific binding sites. It is known that reaction of aspirin with its target proteins leads to acetylation. We thus applied the above technique using aspirin-based probes in human cancer HCT116 cells. We identified 1110 target proteins and 2775 peptides with exact acetylation sites. By correlating these two sets of data, 523 proteins were identified as targets of aspirin. We used various biological assays to validate the effects of aspirin on inhibition of protein synthesis and induction of autophagy which were elicited from the pathway analysis of Aspirin target profile. This technique is widely applicable for target identification in the field of drug discovery and biology, especially for the covalent drugs.

  11. Interlayer repulsion and decoupling effects in stacked turbostratic graphene flakes

    OpenAIRE

    Berashevich, Julia; Chakraborty, Tapash

    2011-01-01

    We have explored the electronic properties of stacked graphene flakes with the help of the quantum chemistry methods. We found that the behavior of a bilayer system is governed by the strength of the repulsive interactions that arise between the layers as a result of the orthogonality of their $\\pi$ orbitals. The decoupling effect, seen experimentally in AA stacked layers is a result of the repulsion being dominant over the orbital interactions and the observed layer misorientation of 2$^{\\ci...

  12. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squadrito, G.; Barbera, O.; Giacoppo, G.; Urbani, F.; Passalacqua, E. [Istituto di Tecnologie Avanzate per l' Energia ' ' Nicola Giordano' ' del CNR (CNR, ITAE), via Salita per, Santa Lucia sopra Contesse 5, Messina (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    The research activity in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is oriented to the evolution of components and devices for the temperature range from 20 to 130{sup o}C, and covers all the aspects of this matter: membranes and electrodes, fuel cell stack engineering (design and manufacturing) and characterization, computational modelling and small demonstration systems prototyping. Particular attention is devoted to portable and automotive application. Membranes research is focused on thermostable polymers (polyetheretherketone, polysulphone, etc.) and composite membranes able to operate at higher temperature (>100{sup o}C) and lower humidification than the commercial Nafion {sup registered}, while Pt load reduction and gas diffusion layer improvement are the main goals for the electrode development. PEFC stack engineering and characterization activity involve different aspects such as the investigation of new materials for stack components, fuel cell modelling and performance optimization by computational techniques, single cell and stack electrochemical characterization, development of investigation tools for stack monitoring and data acquisition. A lot of work has been focused to the fuel cell stack architecture, assembling, gas leakage and cross-over reduction (gasketing), flow field and manifold design. Computational fluid dynamics studies have been performed to investigate and improve reactants distribution inside the cell. A flow field design methodology, developed in this framework and related to serpentine like flow field, is actually under investigation. All of these aspects of PEFC stack research are realized in the framework of National and European research projects, or in collaboration with industries and other research centres. In the present work our stack research activity is reported and the most important results are also considered. (author)

  13. A novel profile/view ordering with a non-convex star shutter for high-resolution 3D volumetric T1 mapping under multiple breath-holds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sui-Cheng; Patel, Amit R; Tanaka, Akiko; Wang, Hui; Ota, Takeyoshi; Lang, Roberto M; Carroll, Timothy J; Kawaji, Keigo

    2017-06-01

    To examine a novel non-convex star ordering/shutter for reducing the number of breath-holds in cardiac three-dimensional (3D) T1 Mapping MRI with multiple breath-holds. A novel ordering, Non-Convex Star (NCS) was designed to acquire 3D volumes in a modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) T1 mapping sequence to provide more spatial resolution and coverage in fewer breath-holds. The proposed 3D-MOLLI approach using NCS was first validated in two phantoms using artifact power (AP) measurement against the fully sampled phantom. This was followed by an in vivo study in seven swine, in which the T1 values of the left ventricular (LV) myocardium divided into the American Heart Association (AHA) 16-segment model was compared against the reference multislice two-dimensional (2D) clinical reference and 3D volume without NCS breath-hold reduction. NCS breath-hold reduction yielded less AP compared with the matched SENSE accelerated phantom volume (P T1 values from 3D in vivo volumes with/without NCS were comparable in all AHA segments (P = NS), whereas 3D-NCS yielded significantly higher T1 values than 2D at midslice of the LV myocardium in each AHA segment (P T1 mapping acquisition requiring fewer breath-holds. Magn Reson Med 77:2215-2224, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Electric utility acid fuel cell stack technology advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, J. V.; Goller, G. J.; Greising, G. J.; Obrien, J. J.; Randall, S. A.; Sandelli, G. J.; Breault, R. D.; Austin, G. W.; Bopse, S.; Coykendall, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal effort under this program was directed at the fuel cell stack technology required to accomplish the initial feasibility demonstrations of increased cell stack operating pressures and temperatures, increased cell active area, incorporation of the ribbed substrate cell configuration at the bove conditions, and the introduction of higher performance electrocatalysts. The program results were successful with the primary accomplishments being: (1) fabrication of 10 sq ft ribbed substrate, cell components including higher performing electrocatalysts; (2) assembly of a 10 sq ft, 30-cell short stack; and (3) initial test of this stack at 120 psia and 405 F. These accomplishments demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating and handling large area cells using materials and processes that are oriented to low cost manufacture. An additional accomplishment under the program was the testing of two 3.7 sq ft short stacks at 12 psia/405 F to 5400 and 4500 hours respectively. These tests demonstrate the durability of the components and the cell stack configuration to a nominal 5000 hours at the higher pressure and temperature condition planned for the next electric utility power plant.

  15. Chlorophyll deficiency in the maize elongated mesocotyl2 mutant is caused by a defective heme oxygenase and delaying grana stacking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianyi Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Etiolated seedlings initiate grana stacking and chlorophyll biosynthesis in parallel with the first exposure to light, during which phytochromes play an important role. Functional phytochromes are biosynthesized separately for two components. One phytochrome is biosynthesized for apoprotein and the other is biosynthesized for the chromophore that includes heme oxygenase (HO. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We isolated a ho1 homolog by map-based cloning of a maize elongated mesocotyl2 (elm2 mutant. cDNA sequencing of the ho1 homolog in elm2 revealed a 31 bp deletion. De-etiolation responses to red and far-red light were disrupted in elm2 seedlings, with a pronounced elongation of the mesocotyl. The endogenous HO activity in the elm2 mutant decreased remarkably. Transgenic complementation further confirmed the dysfunction in the maize ho1 gene. Moreover, non-appressed thylakoids were specifically stacked at the seedling stage in the elm2 mutant. CONCLUSION: The 31 bp deletion in the ho1 gene resulted in a decrease in endogenous HO activity and disrupted the de-etiolation responses to red and far-red light. The specific stacking of non-appressed thylakoids suggested that the chlorophyll biosynthesis regulated by HO1 is achieved by coordinating the heme level with the regulation of grana stacking.

  16. Spatial Configuration of Stars Around Three Metal-poor Globular Clusters in the Galatic Bulge, NGC 6266, NGC 6273, and NGC 6681 : Surface Density Map and Radial Density Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihwa Han

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present extra-tidal features of spatial configuration of stars around three metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6273, NGC 6681 located in the Galactic bulge. The wide-field photometric data were obtained in BVI bands with the MOSAIC II camera at CTIO 4 m Blanco telescope. The derived color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs contain stars in a total 71´×71´area including a cluster and its surrounding field outside of the tidal radius of the cluster. Applying statistical filtering technique, we minimized the field star contaminations on the obtained cluster CMDs and extracted the cluster members. On the spatial stellar density maps around the target clusters, we found overdensity features beyond the tidal radii of the clusters. We also found that the radial density profiles of the clusters show departures from the best-fit King model for their outer regions which support the overdensity patterns.

  17. Spot profile analysis and lifetime mapping in ultrafast electron diffraction: Lattice excitation of self-organized Ge nanostructures on Si(001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Frigge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast high energy electron diffraction in reflection geometry is employed to study the structural dynamics of self-organized Germanium hut-, dome-, and relaxed clusters on Si(001 upon femtosecond laser excitation. Utilizing the difference in size and strain state the response of hut- and dome clusters can be distinguished by a transient spot profile analysis. Surface diffraction from {105}-type facets provide exclusive information on hut clusters. A pixel-by-pixel analysis of the dynamics of the entire diffraction pattern gives time constants of 40, 160, and 390 ps, which are assigned to the cooling time constants for hut-, dome-, and relaxed clusters.

  18. Cg/Stability Map for the Reference H Cycle 3 Supersonic Transport Concept Along the High Speed Research Baseline Mission Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesy, Daniel P.; Christhilf, David M.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison is made between the results of trimming a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) concept along a reference mission profile using two trim modes. One mode uses the stabilator. The other mode uses fore and aft placement of the center of gravity. A comparison is make of the throttle settings (cruise segments) or the total acceleration (ascent and descent segments) and of the drag coefficient. The comparative stability of trimming using the two modes is also assessed by comparing the stability margins and the placement of the lateral and longitudinal eigenvalues.

  19. Genome-wide mapping indicates that p73 and p63 co-occupy target sites and have similar dna-binding profiles in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Yang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The p53 homologs, p63 and p73, share approximately 85% amino acid identity in their DNA-binding domains, but they have distinct biological functions.Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-resolution tiling arrays covering the human genome, we identify p73 DNA binding sites on a genome-wide level in ME180 human cervical carcinoma cells. Strikingly, the p73 binding profile is indistinguishable from the previously described binding profile for p63 in the same cells. Moreover, the p73:p63 binding ratio is similar at all genomic loci tested, suggesting that there are few, if any, targets that are specific for one of these factors. As assayed by sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation, p63 and p73 co-occupy DNA target sites in vivo, suggesting that p63 and p73 bind primarily as heterotetrameric complexes in ME180 cells.The observation that p63 and p73 associate with the same genomic targets suggest that their distinct biological functions are due to cell-type specific expression and/or protein domains that involve functions other than DNA binding.

  20. Holocene flood stack from three Eifel maar lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunck, Heiko; Sirocko, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Lacustrine sediments are very sensitive to natural and anthropogenically enviromental changes. Thus, lake sediments are excellent climate archives and can be used for reconstructions of past precipitation and flood events. However, we extend our flood record for MIS 2/3 to the entire Holocene up to recent years to get a complete flood stack for the last 60 000 years. The present study reconstructs paleo floods from event layers in the sediment, of Schalkenmehren Maar (SM3), Ulmen Maar (UM1) and Holzmaar (HM1) combined with recent gauge time-series. All three maar lakes has an inflow by a local stream. Accordingly the sedimentation rate is directly linked to runoff activity and the bioturbation was low so that event layers become visible, but varves are only preserved in lake Holzmaar. The maar sites are situated in the Eifel near to the town of Daun and were drilled in the ELSA (Eifel Laminated Sediment archive) project. The Eifel area is well suited to approximate Central European weather, because modern water level gauge data from Eifel rivers correlate with respective data from the Rhine (Wernli and Pfahl, 2009). Combined sedimentological, paleobotanical and geochemical data received from SM3, UM1 and HM1 builds the foundation of the 14C based chronology. The synchronisation of the record is controlled by tephra time markers and pollen. Both are used to align the main cores of the ELSA project and construct an integrated age model for the last 220 000 years [b2k] (Förster and Sirocko, 2014). For the extension of our MIS 2/3 flood stack we used the Laacher See Tephra (10 900 BC) as marker for the correlation with the Holocene cores. To study the flood events in detail, 10 cm long thin sections were used to distinguish flood layers from distal turbidites. Turbidites have a continuous grain size gradation; the grains size profile of flood events is in contrast characterized by several grain size maxima over the entire layer thickness. A flood event over several

  1. Profile of the biodiesel B100 commercialized in the region of Londrina: application of artificial neural networks of the type self organizing maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilson Machado de Campos Filho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 97 samples were grouped according to the year of analysis. For each year, letters from A to D were attributed, between 2010 and 2013; A (33 B (25 C (24 and D (15. The parameters of compliance previously analyzed are those established by the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP, through resolution ANP 07/2008. The parameters analyzed were density, flash point, peroxide and acid value. The observed values were presented to Artificial Neural Network (ANN Self Organizing MAP (SOM in order to classify, by physical-chemical properties, each sample from year of production. The ANN was trained on different days and randomly divided samples into two groups, training and test set. It was found that SOM network differentiated samples by the year and the compliance parameters, allowing to identify that the density and the flash point were the most significant compliance parameters, so good for the distinction and classification of these samples.

  2. Cognitive maps

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchin, Rob

    2001-01-01

    A cognitive map is a representative expression of an individual's cognitive map knowledge, where cognitive map knowledge is an individual's knowledge about the spatial and environmental relations of geographic space. For example, a sketch map drawn to show the route between two locations is a cognitive map — a representative expression of the drawer's knowledge of the route between the two locations. This map can be analyzed using classification schemes or quantitatively using spatial statist...

  3. 40 CFR 62.15235 - How are the stack test data used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are the stack test data used? 62..., 1999 Stack Testing § 62.15235 How are the stack test data used? You must use results of stack tests for dioxins/furans, cadmium, lead, mercury, particulate matter, opacity, hydrogen chloride, and fugitive ash...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1775 - What types of stack tests must I conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of stack tests must I...-Stack Testing § 60.1775 What types of stack tests must I conduct? Conduct initial and annual stack tests..., hydrogen chloride, and fugitive ash. ...

  5. Effect of electrode balance on performance degradation and gas emission in stacked-type electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Tack; Kim, Kwang-Bum; Jin, Chang-Soo; Yoo, Eo-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    For electrochemical capacitor, the specific capacitance in positive is not equal to negative because of different sizes between cation and anion such as TEABF4/PC. In stacked-type of electrochemical capacitor, the optimized stacked-type cell generates gas 25% lower than current stacked-type cell. Our results show that H2 gas emitted from current stacked-type is twice that from optimized stacked-type; the proportion of CO in current stacked-type is similar to optimized stacked-type, while that of CO2 in optimized stacked-type is 73% of that in current stacked-type. The working voltages of the current stacked-type capacitor and optimized stacked-type are expected to be around 3.3V and below 3.0V, respectively, because the amount of gas emissions from optimized stacked-type is estimated to be 30% less than that from current stacked-type. And higher reliability is shown in optimized stacked-type with alkali activated carbon in positive and steam activation carbon in negative. The generated gas volume by optimized stacked-type with different carbon is decreased around 50% than current stacked-type electrochemical capacitor.

  6. Titanite petrochronology of ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) calc-silicates from southern Madagascar: laser-ablation split-stream ICP-MS spot analyses, depth profiles, and quantified trace-element x-ray maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Robert; Hacker, Bradley

    2017-04-01

    Calc-silicate rocks are often overlooked as sources of pressure-temperature-time data in granulite-UHT metamorphic terranes due to the strong dependence of calc-silicate mineral assemblages on complex fluid compositions, as well as a lack of thermodynamic data on common high-temperature calc-silicate minerals such as scapolite. In the Ediacaran-Cambrian UHT rocks of southern Madagascar, clinopyroxene-scapolite-feldspar-quartz-titanite calc-silicate rocks are wide-spread. U-Pb dates of c. 540-520 Ma from unaltered portions of titanite correspond to cooling of the rocks through upper-amphibolite facies and indicate UHT metamorphism occurred before 540 Ma. Zr concentrations in these domains preserve growth temperatures of 900-950 C, consistent with peak temperatures calculated by pseudosection modeling of nearby pelitic rocks. Younger U-Pb dates (c. 510-490 Ma) correspond to fluid-mediated Pb loss from titanite grains, which occurred below their diffusive Pb-closure temperature, along fractures. The extent of fluid alteration is seen clearly in back-scattered electron images as well as Zr-, Al-, Fe-, Ce-, and Nb-concentration maps. Laser-ablation depth profiling of idioblastic titanite grains shows preserved Pb diffusion profiles at grain rims, but there is no evidence for Zr diffusion, indicating that it was effectively immobile even at UHT.

  7. Assessment of the 296-S-21 Stack Sampling Probe Location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2006-09-08

    Tests were performed to assess the suitability of the location of the air sampling probe on the 296-S-21 stack according to the criteria of ANSI N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted most tests on a 3.67:1 scale model of the stack. CH2MHill also performed some limited confirmatory tests on the actual stack. The tests assessed the capability of the air-monitoring probe to extract a sample representative of the effluent stream. The tests were conducted for the practical combinations of operating fans and addressed: (1) Angular Flow--The purpose is to determine whether the velocity vector is aligned with the sampling nozzle. The average yaw angle relative to the nozzle axis should not be more than 20. The measured values ranged from 5 to 11 degrees on the scale model and 10 to 12 degrees on the actual stack. (2) Uniform Air Velocity--The gas momentum across the stack cross section where the sample is extracted should be well mixed or uniform. The uniformity is expressed as the variability of the measurements about the mean, the coefficient of variance (COV). The lower the COV value, the more uniform the velocity. The acceptance criterion is that the COV of the air velocity must be ?20% across the center two-thirds of the area of the stack. At the location simulating the sampling probe, the measured values ranged form 4 to 11%, which are within the criterion. To confirm the validity of the scale model results, air velocity uniformity measurements were made both on the actual stack and on the scale model at the test ports 1.5 stack diameters upstream of the sampling probe. The results ranged from 6 to 8% COV on the actual stack and 10 to 13% COV on the scale model. The average difference for the eight runs was 4.8% COV, which is within the validation criterion. The fact that the scale model results were slightly higher than the

  8. Generalized diffraction-stack migration and filtering of coherent noise

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2014-01-27

    We reformulate the equation of reverse-time migration so that it can be interpreted as summing data along a series of hyperbola-like curves, each one representing a different type of event such as a reflection or multiple. This is a generalization of the familiar diffraction-stack migration algorithm where the migration image at a point is computed by the sum of trace amplitudes along an appropriate hyperbola-like curve. Instead of summing along the curve associated with the primary reflection, the sum is over all scattering events and so this method is named generalized diffraction-stack migration. This formulation leads to filters that can be applied to the generalized diffraction-stack migration operator to mitigate coherent migration artefacts due to, e.g., crosstalk and aliasing. Results with both synthetic and field data show that generalized diffraction-stack migration images have fewer artefacts than those computed by the standard reverse-time migration algorithm. The main drawback is that generalized diffraction-stack migration is much more memory intensive and I/O limited than the standard reverse-time migration method. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  9. Artificially stacked atomic layers: toward new van der Waals solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guanhui; Gao, Wei; Cannuccia, E; Taha-Tijerina, Jaime; Balicas, Luis; Mathkar, Akshay; Narayanan, T N; Liu, Zhen; Gupta, Bipin K; Peng, Juan; Yin, Yansheng; Rubio, Angel; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-07-11

    Strong in-plane bonding and weak van der Waals interplanar interactions characterize a large number of layered materials, as epitomized by graphite. The advent of graphene (G), individual layers from graphite, and atomic layers isolated from a few other van der Waals bonded layered compounds has enabled the ability to pick, place, and stack atomic layers of arbitrary compositions and build unique layered materials, which would be otherwise impossible to synthesize via other known techniques. Here we demonstrate this concept for solids consisting of randomly stacked layers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Dispersions of exfoliated h-BN layers and graphene have been prepared by liquid phase exfoliation methods and mixed, in various concentrations, to create artificially stacked h-BN/G solids. These van der Waals stacked hybrid solid materials show interesting electrical, mechanical, and optical properties distinctly different from their starting parent layers. From extensive first principle calculations we identify (i) a novel approach to control the dipole at the h-BN/G interface by properly sandwiching or sliding layers of h-BN and graphene, and (ii) a way to inject carriers in graphene upon UV excitations of the Frenkell-like excitons of the h-BN layer(s). Our combined approach could be used to create artificial materials, made predominantly from inter planar van der Waals stacking of robust bond saturated atomic layers of different solids with vastly different properties.

  10. High peak power diode stacks for high energy lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoita, Viorel C.; Vethake, Thilo; Jiang, John; Roff, Robert; Shih, Ming; Duck, Richard; Bauer, Marc; Mite, Roberto; Boucke, Konstantin; Treusch, Georg

    2015-02-01

    High energy solid state lasers are being developed for fusion experiments and other research applications where high energy per pulse is required but the repetition rate is rather low, around 10Hz. We report our results on high peak power diode laser stacks used as optical pumps for these lasers. The stacks are based on 10 mm bars with 4 mm cavity length and 55% fill factor, with peak power exceeding 500 W per bar. These bars are stacked and mounted on a cooler which provides backside cooling and electrical insulation. Currently we mount 25 bars per cooler for a nominal peak power of 12.5 kW, but in principle the mounting scheme can be scaled to a different number of devices depending on the application. Pretesting of these bars before soldering on the cooler enables us to select devices with similar wavelength and thus we maintain tight control of the spectral width (FWHM less than 6 nm). Fine adjustments of the centroid wavelength can be done by means of temperature of the cooling fluid or bias current. The available wavelength range spans from 880 nm to 1000 nm, and the wavelength of the entire assembly of stacks can be controlled to within 0.5 nm of the target value, which makes these stacks suitable for pumping a variety of gain media. The devices are fast axis collimated, with over 95% power being collimated in 6 mrad (full angle). The slow axis divergence is 9° (full angle) for 95% power content.

  11. Segmentation and profiling consumers in a multi-channel environment using a combination of self-organizing maps (SOM method, and logistic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Akbar Afjeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation plays essential role on understanding the behavior of people’s interests in purchasing various products and services through various channels. This paper presents an empirical investigation to shed light on consumer’s purchasing attitude as well as gathering information in multi-channel environment. The proposed study of this paper designed a questionnaire and distributed it among 800 people who were at least 18 years of age and had some experiences on purchasing goods and services on internet, catalog or regular shopping centers. Self-organizing map, SOM, clustering technique was performed based on consumer’s interest in gathering information as well as purchasing products through internet, catalog and shopping centers and determined four segments. There were two types of questions for the proposed study of this paper. The first group considered participants’ personal characteristics such as age, gender, income, etc. The second group of questions was associated with participants’ psychographic characteristics including price consciousness, quality consciousness, time pressure, etc. Using multinominal logistic regression technique, the study determines consumers’ behaviors in each four segments.

  12. Satellite mapping the CCN and cloud vertical microphysical and precipitation profiles in and outside the Manaus plume by using clouds as CCN chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, D.; Krüger, M. L.; Andreae, M. O.; Kraemer, M.; Braga, R. C.; Machado, L.; Artaxo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The newly acquired possibility of retrieving from the SUOMI/NPP satellite the cloud base drop concentrations and updrafts made it possible to calculate cloud base vapor super saturation (S) and thus the CCN(S) over the GOAmazon domain, and validate it against surface and aircraft measurements. This was used to map the Manaus air pollution plume and observe its impact on cloud drop effective radius, precipitation forming processes and glaciation temperatures. These observations allow completing and extending the patchy picture obtained by the aircraft measurements over the full domain of interest. The methodology will be shown, as well as the main findings. By the time of the writing of this abstract we have already documented that during pristine conditions the CCN(S) is nearly double in the Manaus plume with respect to the background of ~200 cm-3 at S = 0.25 to 0.3%. The S of cloud base in the Manaus pollution plume is lower by about 0.05 to 0.1%. The cloud depth for initiation of warm rain increases by more than one km due to the decrease in cloud drop effective radius, as indicated by the increase in the isotherm level where it reaches the threshold of 14 micrometer. During smoky conditions, caused by distant biomass burning, the background CCN overwhelms the Manaus plume; CCN can exceed 1000 cm-3 at S Manaus pollution plume.

  13. Concept Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Explains concept mapping as a heuristic device that is helpful in visualizing the relationships between and among ideas. Highlights include how to begin a map; brainstorming; map applications, including document or information summaries and writing composition; and mind mapping to strengthen note-taking. (LRW)

  14. Electrically tunable terahertz metamaterials based on graphene stacks array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanqing; Liu, Peiguo; Bian, Li-an; Liu, Chenxi; Zhou, Qihui; Chen, Yuwei

    2017-12-01

    With the ability of tuning chemical potential via gate voltage, the permittivity of graphene stack can be dynamically adjusted over a wide range. In this paper, we design electrically tunable metamaterials based on the graphene/Al2O3 stacks array, which can achieve a good modulation of resonant frequency and peak value in terahertz region. Due to the enlargement of plasmonic resonance response and the broaden distribution of electric field, our proposed structures perform a better tunability compared with traditional metamaterials loaded monolayer graphene. Since the dipole-dipole coupling between adjacent stacks strengthens immensely as reduces the filling factor of array, the modulated capacity could be further improved. It is found that for oblique incidence, the transmission property is also sensitive to the chemical potential of graphene as well as the polarization direction of incident terahertz wave. These results could be very instructive for the potential applications in voltage-sensitive devices, tunable sensors and photovoltaic switches.

  15. Communication: Thermodynamics of stacking disorder in ice nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, D.

    2014-09-01

    A simple Ising-like model for the stacking thermodynamics of ice 1 is constructed for nuclei in supercooled water, and combined with classical nucleation theory. For relative stabilities of cubic and hexagonal ice I within the range of experimental estimates, this predicts critical nuclei are stacking disordered at strong sub-cooling, consistent with recent experiments. At higher temperatures nucleation of pure hexagonal ice is recovered. Lattice-switching Monte-Carlo is applied to accurately compute the relative stability of cubic and hexagonal ice for the popular mW model of water. Results demonstrate that this model fails to adequately capture the relative energetics of the two polytypes, leading to stacking disorder at all temperatures.

  16. Model development of integrated CPOx reformer and SOFC stack system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianko-Oprych Paulina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model, in a steady state and dynamic mode, of a Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPOx reformer – Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC stack integrated system in order to assess the system performance. Mass balance equations were written for each component in the system together with energy equation and implemented into the MATLAB Simulink simulation tool. Temperature, gas concentrations, pressure and current density were computed in the steady-state mode and validated against experimental data. The calculated I–V curve matched well the experimental one. In the dynamic modelling, several different conditions including step changes in fuel flow rates, stack voltage as well as temperature values were applied to estimate the system response against the load variations. Results provide valuable insight into the operating conditions that have to be achieved to ensure efficient CPOx performance for fuel processing for the SOFC stack applications.

  17. Note: O-ring stack system for electron gun alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Yong; Cho, Boklae; Han, Cheolsu; Shin, Seungmin; Lee, Dongjun; Ahn, Sang Jung

    2015-01-01

    We present a reliable method for aligning an electron gun which consists of an electron source and lenses by controlling a stack of rubber O-rings in a vacuum condition. The beam direction angle is precisely tilted along two axes by adjusting the height difference of a stack of O-rings. In addition, the source position is shifted in each of three orthogonal directions. We show that the tilting angle and linear shift along the x and y axes as obtained from ten stacked O-rings are ±2.55° and ±2 mm, respectively. This study can easily be adapted to charged particle gun alignment and adjustments of the flange position in a vacuum, ensuring that its results can be useful with regard to electrical insulation between flanges with slight modifications.

  18. The Stack-Size of Combinatorial Tries Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus E. Nebel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we consider a generalized class of extended binary trees in which leaves are distinguished in order to represent the location of a key within a trie of the same structure. We prove an exact asymptotic equivalent to the average stack-size of trees with α internal nodes and β leaves corresponding to keys; we assume that all trees with the same parameters α and β have the same probability. The assumption of that uniform model is motivated for example by the usage of tries for the compression of blockcodes. Furthermore, we will prove asymptotics for the r-th moments of the stack-size and we will show that a normalized stack-size possesses a theta distribution in the limit.

  19. Thermoacoustic design using stem of goose down stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farikhah, Irna; Ristanto, Sigit; Idrus, Hadiyati; Kaltsum, Ummi; Faisal, Affandi; Setiawan, Ihsan; Setio Utomo, Agung Bambang

    2012-09-01

    Many refrigerators using CFC as a refrigerant are seen as the cause of the depletion of ozone. Hence, thermoacoustic was chosen as an alternative refrigerator that safe for environment. There are many variable that influenced the optimization of thermoacoustic design. One of them is thermal conductivity of material of stack. The Stack material must have a low thermal conductivity. In this research we used organic stack made of stem of goose down. It has superior thermal insulating. It means that they have the lowest thermal conductivity. The system uses no refrigerant or compressor, and the only mechanical moving part is the loudspeaker connected to a signal generator that produces the acoustic. The working fluid is air and the material of resonator is stainless steel. A series test on the laboratory found that there is a decrease of 5°C in temperature for about 2 minutes.

  20. Multipole Stack for the 800 MeV PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The 800 MeV PS Booster had seen first beam in its 4 superposed rings in 1972, routine operation began in 1973. In the strive for ever higher beam intensities, the need for additional multipole lenses became evident. After detailed studies, the manufacture of 8 stacks of multipoles was launched in 1974. Each stack consists of 4 superposed multipoles and each multipole has 4 concentric shells. From the innermost to the outermost shell, Type A contains octupole, skew-octupole, sextupole, skew-sextupole. Type B contains skew-octupole, skew-sextupole, vertical dipole, horizontal dipole. Completion of installation in 1976 opened the way to higher beam intensities. M. Battiaz is seen here with a multipole stack and its many electrical connections.

  1. Note: O-ring stack system for electron gun alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Yong; Cho, Boklae; Han, Cheolsu; Shin, Seungmin; Lee, Dongjun; Ahn, Sang Jung

    2015-01-01

    We present a reliable method for aligning an electron gun which consists of an electron source and lenses by controlling a stack of rubber O-rings in a vacuum condition. The beam direction angle is precisely tilted along two axes by adjusting the height difference of a stack of O-rings. In addition, the source position is shifted in each of three orthogonal directions. We show that the tilting angle and linear shift along the x and y axes as obtained from ten stacked O-rings are ±2.55° and ±2 mm, respectively. This study can easily be adapted to charged particle gun alignment and adjustments of the flange position in a vacuum, ensuring that its results can be useful with regard to electrical insulation between flanges with slight modifications.

  2. Production and Reliability Oriented SOFC Cell and Stack Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauth, Martin; Lawlor, Vincent; Cartellieri, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an innovative development methodology for a production and reliability oriented SOFC cell and stack design aiming at improving the stacks robustness, manufacturability, efficiency and cost. Multi-physics models allowed a probabilistic approach to consider statistical variations...... in production, material and operating parameters for the optimization phase. A methodology for 3D description of spatial distribution of material properties based on a random field models was developed and validated by experiments. Homogenized material models on multiple levels of the SOFC stack were...... established. The probabilistic models were related to the experimentally obtained properties of base materials to establish a statistical relationship between the material properties and the most relevant load effects. Software algorithms for meta models that allow the detection of relationships between input...

  3. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-14

    Membrane ionic resistance is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt concentration is known to affect membrane resistance when the same concentration is used on both sides of the membrane, little is known about membrane resistance when the membrane is placed between solutions of different concentrations, such as in a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack. Ionic resistance measurements obtained using Selemion CMV and AMV that separated sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate solutions of different concentrations were greater than those measured using only the high-concentration solution. Measured RED stack resistances showed good agreement with resistances calculated using an equivalent series resistance model, where the membranes accounted for 46% of the total stack resistance. The high area resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling and optimizing membranes used in RED systems.

  4. Detailed experimental characterization of a reformate fuelled PEM stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Anders; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    gas mixing (CO, CO2, N2, Air and H2). The control system includes 12 thermocouple inputs, up to 60 cell voltages, more than 10 flow measurements and 10 pressure measurements, all at sample rates up to 1 kHz. The system design is thoroughly explained to provide valuable information for system...... with electric power output from 1-3-kW. All process inputs for the stack can be altered to provide realistic performance analyses, corresponding to those encountered in field applications. These include cathode/anode dew point control, cathode flow rate, cooling water temperature control as well as synthesis...... integrators. Additionally, the paper contains a comprehensive set of test results based on a commercial reformate PEM stack  A series of different synthesis gas compositions were applied to the stack including 5 and 10 ppm CO content, 20% CO2 and air bleeding. During these tests, the dynamic response...

  5. Electric toy vehicle powered by a PEMFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneito, Ruben; Vilaplana, Joaquin; Gisbert, Santiago [Technological Institute for Toy (AIJU), 03440 Ibi (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The article describes the design and development of an electric toy vehicle powered by a fuel cell stack. The system consisted of a 150 W PEMFC stack powered by hydrogen/air, a tank of metal hydrides of AB (TiFe) alloy type with a capacity of 300 standard litres, for storing hydrogen, and an electronic power device based on electrolytic capacitors, to supply peak power demands during acceleration and start up of the vehicle. The air supply was provided by a fan preceded by a filter, and in a similar manner the stack was cooled by an air ventilation system. An electrovalve was used to supply H{sub 2} in dead-ended mode. All the components were integrated in the vehicle, and the prototype was tested in real working conditions, in a test bench and by children. (author)

  6. Global mapping of binding sites for Nrf2 identifies novel targets in cell survival response through ChIP-Seq profiling and network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Deepti; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Singh, Anju; Srivastava, Siddhartha; Arenillas, David; Happel, Christine; Shyr, Casper; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Kensler, Thomas W; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Biswal, Shyam

    2010-09-01

    The Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2 p45-related factor 2) transcription factor responds to diverse oxidative and electrophilic environmental stresses by circumventing repression by Keap1, translocating to the nucleus, and activating cytoprotective genes. Nrf2 responses provide protection against chemical carcinogenesis, chronic inflammation, neurodegeneration, emphysema, asthma and sepsis in murine models. Nrf2 regulates the expression of a plethora of genes that detoxify oxidants and electrophiles and repair or remove damaged macromolecules, such as through proteasomal processing. However, many direct targets of Nrf2 remain undefined. Here, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) with either constitutive nuclear accumulation (Keap1(-/-)) or depletion (Nrf2(-/-)) of Nrf2 were utilized to perform chromatin-immunoprecipitation with parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and global transcription profiling. This unique Nrf2 ChIP-Seq dataset is highly enriched for Nrf2-binding motifs. Integrating ChIP-Seq and microarray analyses, we identified 645 basal and 654 inducible direct targets of Nrf2, with 244 genes at the intersection. Modulated pathways in stress response and cell proliferation distinguish the inducible and basal programs. Results were confirmed in an in vivo stress model of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. This study reveals global circuitry of the Nrf2 stress response emphasizing Nrf2 as a central node in cell survival response.

  7. Decomposing the profile of PM in two low polluted German cities--mapping of air mass residence time, focusing on potential long range transport impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to decompose the profile of particulates in Karlsruhe and Potsdam (Germany), focusing on the localization of PM potential transboundary sources. An air mass cluster analysis was implemented, followed by a study of air mass residence time on a grid of a 0.5° × 0.5° resolution. Particulate/gaseous daily air pollution and meteorological data were used to indicate PM local sources. Four Principal Component Analysis (PCA) components were produced: traffic, photochemical, industrial/domestic and particulate. PM2.5/PM10 ratio seasonal trends, indicated production of PMCOARSE (PM10-PM2.5) from secondary sources in Potsdam during warm period (WP). The residing areas of incoming slow moving air masses are potential transboundary PM sources. For Karlsruhe those areas were mainly around the city. An air mass residence time secondary peak was observed over Stuttgart. For Potsdam, areas with increased dwelling time of the arriving air parcels were detected particularly above E/SE Germany. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  9. Hardware Evaluation of the Horizontal Exercise Fixture with Weight Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Nate; Leach, Mark; Fincke, Renita; Sharp, Carwyn

    2009-01-01

    HEF with weight stack seems to be a very sturdy and reliable exercise device that should function well in a bed rest training setting. A few improvements should be made to both the hardware and software to improve usage efficiency, but largely, this evaluation has demonstrated HEF's robustness. The hardware offers loading to muscles, bones, and joints, potentially sufficient to mitigate the loss of muscle mass and bone mineral density during long-duration bed rest campaigns. With some minor modifications, the HEF with weight stack equipment provides the best currently available means of performing squat, heel raise, prone row, bench press, and hip flexion/extension exercise in a supine orientation.

  10. Piezoelectric stack actuator parameter extraction with hysteresis compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Mangeot, Charles; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Actuator Drive (PAD) is a type of rotary motor that transforms the linear motion of piezoelectric stack actuators into a precise rotational motion. The very high stiffness of the actuators employed make this type of motor suited for open-loop control, but the inherent hysteresis...... exhibited by piezoelectric ceramics causes losses. Therefore, this paper presents a straightforward method to measure piezoelectric stack actuator equiv- alent parameters that includes nonlinearities. By folding the nonlinearities into a newly-defined cou- pling coefficient, the inherent hysteretic behavior...

  11. Building Service Platforms using OpenStack and CEPH

    OpenAIRE

    Döbler, Jens; Dreyer, Malte; Rohde, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    For providing Infrastructure as a Service to the institutes, OpenStack was selected as a platform at the Computer and Media Service of Humboldt University. CEPH was chosen as the storage backend within this platform. The paper describes the project and first results. An overview to OpenStack is given and the results of initial CEPH performance tests are shown. The technical setup is depicted. Moving from traditional data center management to IaaS involves organizational changes as well as cha...

  12. Implementing cloud storage with OpenStack Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Rajana, Kris; Varma, Sreedhar

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial-based book has a step-by-step approach for each topic, ensuring it is thoroughly covered and easy to follow. If you are an IT administrator who wants to enter the world of cloud storage using OpenStack Swift, then this book is ideal for you. Whether your job is to build, manage, or use OpenStack Swift, this book is an ideal way to move your career ahead. Only basic Linux and server technology skills are expected, to take advantage of this book.

  13. Experimental 1 kW 20 cell PEFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, F.N.; Marmy, C.A.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ruge, M. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A 20-cell PEFC stack was designed and built. Resin impregnated graphite was used as bipolar plate material. The air cooling of the stack was optimized by introducing high surface structures into the open space of the cooling plates. At {eta} (H{sub 2} LHV) = 0.5 a power of 880 W was obtained under conditions of low gas-pressures of 1.15 bar{sub a}. The auxiliary power for process air supply and cooling at 880 W power is less than 7% of the power output, indicating that the described system may be operated at a high efficiency. (author) 5 figs., 2 refs.

  14. Interlayer repulsion and decoupling effects in stacked turbostratic graphene flakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berashevich, Julia; Chakraborty, Tapash

    2011-07-01

    The behavior of stacked graphene flakes is found to be governed by the strength of the repulsive interactions that arise due to the orthogonality of interlayer π orbitals. Therefore, the decoupling effect in AA stacked layers is a result of the repulsion being dominant over the orbital interactions while misorientation of 2°-5° is an attempt by the system to suppress that repulsion. For misorientated graphene, in the regions of superposed lattices in the Moiré pattern, the repulsion between the layers manifest itself as lattice distortion by forming a bump.

  15. Extensive radioactive characterization of a phosphogypsum stack in SW Spain: 226Ra, 238U, 210Po concentrations and 222Rn exhalation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, José-María; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Manjón, Guillermo

    2009-05-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries that contains relatively high concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. The US-EPA regulates the agriculture use of PG, attending to its (226)Ra content and to the (222)Rn exhalation rate from inactive stacks. Measurements of (222)Rn exhalation rates in PG stacks typically show a large and still poorly understood spatial and temporal variability, and the published data are scarce. This work studies an inactive PG stack in SW Spain of about 0.5 km(2) from where PG can be extracted for agriculture uses, and an agriculture soil 75 km apart, being representative of the farms to be amended with PG. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (238)U and (210)Po have been measured in 30 PG samples (0-90 cm horizon) allowing for the construction of maps with spatial distributions in the PG stack and for the characterization of the associated PG inputs to agriculture soils. Averaged (226)Ra concentrations for the stack were 730+/-60 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.), over the US-EPA limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). (222)Rn exhalation rate has been measured by the charcoal canister method in 49 sampling points with 3 canisters per sampling point. Values in PG stack were under the US-EPA limit of 2600 Bq m(-2)h(-1), but they were one order of magnitude higher than those found in the agriculture soil. Variability in radon emissions has been studied at different spatial scales. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with (226)Ra concentrations and daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo). They increased with ETo in agriculture soils, but showed an opposite behaviour in the PG stack.

  16. From the components to the stack. Developing and designing 5kW HT-PEFC stacks; Von der Komponente zum Stack. Entwicklung und Auslegung von HT-PEFC-Stacks der 5 kW-Klasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendzulla, Anne

    2010-12-22

    The aim of the present project is to develop a stack design for a 5-kW HTPEFC system. First, the state of the art of potential materials and process designs will be discussed for each component. Then, using this as a basis, three potential stack designs with typical attributes will be developed and assessed in terms of practicality with the aid of a specially derived evaluation method. Two stack designs classified as promising will be discussed in detail, constructed and then characterized using short stack tests. Comparing the stack designs reveals that both designs are fundamentally suitable for application in a HT-PEFC system with on-board supply. However, some of the performance data differ significantly for the two stack designs. The preferred stack design for application in a HT-PEFC system is characterized by robust operating behaviour and reproducible high-level performance data. Moreover, in compact constructions (120 W/l at 60 W/kg), the stack design allows flexible cooling with thermal oil or air, which can be adapted to suit specific applications. Furthermore, a defined temperature gradient can be set during operation, allowing the CO tolerance to be increased by up to 10 mV. The short stack design developed within the scope of the present work therefore represents an ideal basis for developing a 5-kW HT-PEFC system. Topics for further research activities include improving the performance by reducing weight and/or volume, as well as optimizing the heat management. The results achieved within the framework of this work clearly show that HTPEFC stacks have the potential to play a decisive role in increasing efficiency in the future, particularly when combined with an on-board supply system. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Entwicklung eines Stackkonzeptes fuer ein 5 kW-HT-PEFC System. Dazu wird zunaechst fuer jede Komponente der Stand der Technik moeglicher Materialien und Prozesskonzepte diskutiert. Darauf aufbauend werden drei

  17. Enhancement of stack ventilation in hot and humid climate using a combination of roof solar collector and vertical stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusoff, Wardah Fatimah Mohammad; Salleh, Elias [Department of Architecture, Faculty of Design and Architecture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Adam, Nor Mariah [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sapian, Abdul Razak [Department of Architecture, Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, 50728 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yusof Sulaiman, Mohamad [Solar Energy Research Institute, 3rd Floor, Tun Sri Lanang Library Building, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    In the hot and humid climate, stack ventilation is inefficient due to small temperature difference between the inside and outside of naturally ventilated buildings. Hence, solar induced ventilation is a feasible alternative in enhancing the stack ventilation. This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of a proposed solar induced ventilation strategy, which combines a roof solar collector and a vertical stack, in enhancing the stack ventilation performance in the hot and humid climate. The methodology selected for the investigation is physical experimental modelling which was carried out in the actual environment. The results are presented and discussed in terms of two performance variables: air temperature and air velocity. The findings indicate that the proposed strategy is able to enhance the stack ventilation, both in semi-clear sky and overcast sky conditions. The highest air temperature difference between the air inside the stack and the ambient air (T{sub i}-T{sub o}) is achieved in the semi-clear sky condition, which is about 9.9 C (45.8 C-35.9 C). Meanwhile, in the overcast sky condition, the highest air temperature difference (T{sub i}-T{sub o}) is 6.2 C (39.3 C-33.1 C). The experimental results also indicate good agreement with the theoretical results for the glass temperature, the air temperature in the roof solar collector's channel and the absorber temperature. The findings also show that wind has significant effect to the induced air velocity by the proposed strategy. (author)

  18. Sequence-dependent base-stacking stabilities guide tRNA folding energy landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongzhong; Ge, Heming W; Cho, Samuel S

    2013-10-24

    The folding of bacterial tRNAs with disparate sequences has been observed to proceed in distinct folding mechanisms despite their structural similarity. To explore the folding landscapes of tRNA, we performed ion concentration-dependent coarse-grained TIS model MD simulations of several E. coli tRNAs to compare their thermodynamic melting profiles to the classical absorbance spectra of Crothers and co-workers. To independently validate our findings, we also performed atomistic empirical force field MD simulations of tRNAs, and we compared the base-to-base distances from coarse-grained and atomistic MD simulations to empirical base-stacking free energies. We then projected the free energies to the secondary structural elements of tRNA, and we observe distinct, parallel folding mechanisms whose differences can be inferred on the basis of their sequence-dependent base-stacking stabilities. In some cases, a premature, nonproductive folding intermediate corresponding to the Ψ hairpin loop must backtrack to the unfolded state before proceeding to the folded state. This observation suggests a possible explanation for the fast and slow phases observed in tRNA folding kinetics.

  19. Stacking fault energy measurements in solid solution strengthened Ni-Cr-Fe alloys using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unfried-Silgado, Jimy [Metals Characterization and Processing Laboratory, Brazilian Nanothecnology National Laboratory - CNPEM/ABTLuS, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP, Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica FEM, Campinas (Brazil); Universidad Autonoma del Caribe, Grupo IMTEF, Ingenieria Mecanica, Barranquilla (Colombia); Wu, Leonardo [Metals Characterization and Processing Laboratory, Brazilian Nanothecnology National Laboratory - CNPEM/ABTLuS, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Furlan Ferreira, Fabio [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas (CCNH), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mario Garzon, Carlos [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota (Colombia); Ramirez, Antonio J, E-mail: antonio.ramirez@lnnano.org.br [Metals Characterization and Processing Laboratory, Brazilian Nanothecnology National Laboratory - CNPEM/ABTLuS, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    The stacking fault energy (SFE) in a set of experimental Ni-Cr-Fe alloys was determined using line profile analysis on synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. The methodology used here is supported by the Warren-Averbach calculations and the relationships among the stacking fault probability ({alpha}) and the mean-square microstrain (<{epsilon}{sup 2}{sub L}>). These parameters were obtained experimentally from cold-worked and annealed specimens extracted from the set of studied Ni-alloys. The obtained results show that the SFE in these alloys is strongly influenced by the kind and quantity of addition elements. Different effects due to the action of carbide-forming elements and the solid solution hardening elements on the SFE are discussed here. The simultaneous addition of Nb, Hf, and, Mo, in the studied Ni-Cr-Fe alloys have generated the stronger decreasing of the SFE. The relationships between SFE and the contributions on electronic structure from each element of additions were established.

  20. Encapsulation of phthalocyanine supramolecular stacks into virus-like particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasch, M.; de la Escosura, Andrés; Ma, Y.; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Heck, Albert J.R.; Torres, Tomás; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria

    2011-01-01

    We report herein the encapsulation of a water-soluble phthalocyanine (Pc) into virus-like particles (VLPs) of two different sizes, depending on the conditions. At neutral pH, the cooperative encapsulation/templated assembly of the particles induces the formation of Pc stacks instead of Pc dimers,

  1. Compactifications of reductive groups as moduli stacks of bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Johan; Thaddeus, Michael

    Let G be a reductive group. We introduce the moduli problem of "bundle chains" parametrizing framed principal G-bundles on chains of lines. Any fan supported in a Weyl chamber determines a stability condition on bundle chains. Its moduli stack provides an equivariant toroidal compactification of ...... studied by Losev-Manin....

  2. CaPiTo: protocol stacks for services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    CaPiTo allows the modelling of service-oriented applications using process algebras at three levels of abstraction. The abstract level focuses on the key functionality of the services; the plug-in level shows how to obtain security using standardised protocol stacks; finally, the concrete level a...

  3. Proposal of stack Effect technology for predicted future years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teddy Badai Samodra, FX; Adi Indrawan, Iwan

    2017-12-01

    Recently, stack effect is a general problem solver in providing vertical ventilation for urban environmental issues. However, study on resilient technology of stack effect for future years as predicted by climate trend should be conducted. Therefore, this research proposes a design of new technology on operable and adaptable vertical ventilation to the environmental change. The research method is conducted by comprehensive simulation of Ecotect Analysis, ANSYS Fluent and Matlab. Urban environment of Surabaya, as the research location, is the representative of tropical region. The results showed that the stack effect height and area could be modified instantly adjusting the environmental condition time by time in the future years. With 1.8 m of stack width, the proposed technology could capture 40 m3 of vertical air flow which is useful for physiological cooling and its dimension could be modified depending on the environmental condition. By providing resilient technology, predictable and sustainable ventilation method is offered to anticipate an unpredicted global warming and environmental change.

  4. The Memory Stack: New Technologies Harness Talking for Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Maureen T.

    In this paper, an elementary school teacher describes her experiences with the Memory Stack--a HyperCard based tool that can accommodate a voice recording, a graphic image, and a written text on the same card--which she designed to help her second and third grade students integrate their oral language fluency into the process of learning how to…

  5. Open Government, Closed Stacks: Onsite Storage of Depository Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Aimee C.; Haslam, Michaelyn

    1998-01-01

    Examines the use of automated storage and retrieval systems in industry and in libraries. Highlights include intellectual content; and a system being built for the University of Nevada Las Vegas that takes into account selection criteria, limited stack space, and storage of federal depository materials. (LRW)

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis and photoluminescent properties of stacked indium sulfide superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Zhang, Hongjie; Song, Shuyan; Feng, Jing; Lei, Yongqian; Zhao, Lijun; Li, Meiye

    2008-03-28

    Unusual hierarchical stacked superstructures of cubic beta-In2S3 were fabricated via a facile hydrothermal process in the presence of a surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide CTAB; the 3D superstructures were developed by helical propagation of surface steps from microflakes of 10-20 nm thickness.

  7. Phase locked fluxon-antifluxon states in stacked Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carapella, Giovanni; Constabile, Giovanni; Petraglia, Antonio

    1996-01-01

    Measurements were made on a two-stack long Josephson junction with very similar parameters and electrical access to the thin middle electrode. Mutually phase-locked fluxon-antifluxon states were observed. The observed propagation velocity is in agreement with the theoretical prediction. The I-V c...... in the junctions coexist with fluxons. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics....

  8. Multipole stack for the 4 rings of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV) saw first beam in 1972, routine operation began in 1973. The strive for ever higher intensities required the addition of multipoles. Manufacture of 8 stacks of multipoles was launched in 1974, for installation in 1976. For details, see 7511120X.

  9. Parametric Sensitivity Tests- European PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    As fuel cells are increasingly commercialized for various applications, harmonized and industry-relevant test procedures are necessary to benchmark tests and to ensure comparability of stack performance results from different parties. This paper reports the results of parametric sensitivity tests...

  10. 7. Data Structures: Lists, Queues, Stacks and Arrays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Algorithms - Data Structures: Lists, Queues, Stacks and Arrays. R K Shyamasundar ... Author Affiliations. R K Shyamasundar1. Computer Science Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India ...

  11. Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hugen; Li, Xuesong; Chandra, Bhupesh; Tulevski, George; Wu, Yanqing; Freitag, Marcus; Zhu, Wenjuan; Avouris, Phaedon; Xia, Fengnian

    2012-04-22

    The collective oscillation of carriers--the plasmon--in graphene has many desirable properties, including tunability and low loss. However, in single-layer graphene, the dependence on carrier concentration of both the plasmonic resonance frequency and magnitude is relatively weak, limiting its applications in photonics. Here, we demonstrate transparent photonic devices based on graphene/insulator stacks, which are formed by depositing alternating wafer-scale graphene sheets and thin insulating layers, then patterning them together into photonic-crystal-like structures. We show experimentally that the plasmon in such stacks is unambiguously non-classical. Compared with doping in single-layer graphene, distributing carriers into multiple graphene layers effectively enhances the plasmonic resonance frequency and magnitude, which is different from the effect in a conventional semiconductor superlattice and is a direct consequence of the unique carrier density scaling law of the plasmonic resonance of Dirac fermions. Using patterned graphene/insulator stacks, we demonstrate widely tunable far-infrared notch filters with 8.2 dB rejection ratios and terahertz linear polarizers with 9.5 dB extinction ratios. An unpatterned stack consisting of five graphene layers shields 97.5% of electromagnetic radiation at frequencies below 1.2 THz. This work could lead to the development of transparent mid- and far-infrared photonic devices such as detectors, modulators and three-dimensional metamaterial systems.

  12. Exact Solutions to the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Archetti, Claudia; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    In the Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks (DTSPMS) a set of orders is given, each one requiring transportation of one item from a customer in a pickup region to a customer in a delivery region. The vehicle available for the transportation in each region carries a container, w...

  13. Improved exact method for the double TSP with multiple stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The Double TSP with Multiple Stacks is a logistics problem where one must, using a container, transport a given number of orders from a set of pickup customers to a set of delivery customers at minimum cost. Each order corresponds to the movement of one pallet, all pickups must be completed before...

  14. Technical Practices Manual for Surface Ship Stack Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    publico releas5, Diitribution unlimted. n /___ 1J TECHNICAL PRACTICES MANUAL FOR SURFACE SIP STACK DESIGN, AVSECj R%~m,r 6136- 7-1 i /-Jul 76~\\ / Prepared...British Transport Commission for making deck, but so slowly that they can be regarded as virtually in available a cross-channel ship (ship A) on which the

  15. Stacking faults and microstructural parameters in non-mulberry silk ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mulberry silk fibres in terms of stacking faults and microstructural parameters using a single-order method and have, with these parameters, developed, for the first time, a pro- cedure to compute the whole pattern of these silk fibres. The essential deviations in the values of microstructural parameters obtained from line ...

  16. Joint focus stacking and high dynamic range imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qinchun; Gunturk, Bahadir K.; Batur, Aziz U.

    2013-01-01

    Focus stacking and high dynamic range (HDR) imaging are two paradigms of computational photography. Focus stacking aims to produce an image with greater depth of field (DOF) from a set of images taken with different focus distances, whereas HDR imaging aims to produce an image with higher dynamic range from a set of images taken with different exposure settings. In this paper, we present an algorithm which combines focus stacking and HDR imaging in order to produce an image with both higher dynamic range and greater DOF than any of the input images. The proposed algorithm includes two main parts: (i) joint photometric and geometric registration and (ii) joint focus stacking and HDR image creation. In the first part, images are first photometrically registered using an algorithm that is insensitive to small geometric variations, and then geometrically registered using an optical flow algorithm. In the second part, images are merged through weighted averaging, where the weights depend on both local sharpness and exposure information. We provide experimental results with real data to illustrate the algorithm. The algorithm is also implemented on a smartphone with Android operating system.

  17. Performance model of a recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical model of the nickel hydrogen battery cell has been utilized to describe the chemical and physical changes during charge and overcharge in a recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell. In particular, the movement of gas and electrolyte have been examined as a function of the amount of electrolyte put into the cell stack during cell activation, and as a function of flooding in regions of the gas screen in this cell design. Additionally, a two-dimensional variation on this model has been utilized to describe the effects of non-uniform loading in the nickel-electrode on the movement of gas and electrolyte within the recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell. The type of nonuniform loading that has been examined here is that associated with higher than average loading near the surface of the sintered nickel electrode, a condition present to some degree in many nickel electrodes made by electrochemical impregnation methods. The effects of high surface loading were examined primarily under conditions of overcharge, since the movement of gas and electrolyte in the overcharging condition was typically where the greatest effects of non-uniform loading were found. The results indicate that significant changes in the capillary forces between cell components occur as the percentage of free volume in the stack filled by electrolyte becomes very high. These changes create large gradients in gas-filled space and oxygen concentrations near the boundary between the separator and the hydrogen electrode when the electrolyte fill is much greater than about 95 percent of the stack free volume. At lower electrolyte fill levels, these gaseous and electrolyte gradients become less extreme, and shift through the separator towards the nickel electrode. Similarly, flooding of areas in the gas screen cause higher concentrations of oxygen gas to approach the platinum/hydrogen electrode that is opposite the back side of the nickel electrode. These results illustrate the need for

  18. Hydrodynamic Modelling and Experimental Analysis of FE-DMFC Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kablou, Yashar

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) present some unique features such as having liquid fuel, quick refueling process, compact design and high energy density. These characteristics make them incredibly suitable as a promising power source for portable electronic applications, such as cell phones or laptop computers. Despite of these positive aspects, the commercial development of DMFCs has nevertheless been hindered by some important issues such as, carbon dioxide formation at the anode compartment and, methanol crossover through the membrane. Many researchers have tried to model the two-phase flow behavior inside the DMFC anode compartment using the "homogenous flow modelling" approach, which has proven to be inaccurate specially when dealing with DMFC stacks. On the other hand, several strategies to prevent methanol crossover have been suggested in the literature, including the use of a flowing electrolyte between the DMFC anode and cathode compartments. Preliminary tests on flowing electrolyte direct methanol fuel cells (FE-DMFCs) have shown promising results; however, further investigation should be carried out on the stack level. In the first part of this study, a quasi two-dimensional numerical model was developed, to predict the two-phase flow behavior within the DMFC anode compartment, both in single cell and stack levels. Various types of flow modelling approaches and void fraction correlations were utilized to estimate the pressure drop across the anode compartment. It was found that the "separated flow modelling" approach, as well as CISE correlation for void fraction (developed at the CISE labs in Milan), yield the best results. In the second part, a five-cell FE-DMFC stack unit with a parallel serpentine flow bed design and U-type manifold configuration, was developed and tested at various operating conditions. It was found that, the flowing electrolyte effectively reduced methanol crossover and, improved the stack performance.

  19. Do stacked species distribution models reflect altitudinal diversity patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén G Mateo

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of stacked species distribution models in predicting the alpha and gamma species diversity patterns of two important plant clades along elevation in the Andes. We modelled the distribution of the species in the Anthurium genus (53 species and the Bromeliaceae family (89 species using six modelling techniques. We combined all of the predictions for the same species in ensemble models based on two different criteria: the average of the rescaled predictions by all techniques and the average of the best techniques. The rescaled predictions were then reclassified into binary predictions (presence/absence. By stacking either the original predictions or binary predictions for both ensemble procedures, we obtained four different species richness models per taxa. The gamma and alpha diversity per elevation band (500 m was also computed. To evaluate the prediction abilities for the four predictions of species richness and gamma diversity, the models were compared with the real data along an elevation gradient that was independently compiled by specialists. Finally, we also tested whether our richness models performed better than a null model of altitudinal changes of diversity based on the literature. Stacking of the ensemble prediction of the individual species models generated richness models that proved to be well correlated with the observed alpha diversity richness patterns along elevation and with the gamma diversity derived from the literature. Overall, these models tend to overpredict species richness. The use of the ensemble predictions from the species models built with different techniques seems very promising for modelling of species assemblages. Stacking of the binary models reduced the over-prediction, although more research is needed. The randomisation test proved to be a promising method for testing the performance of the stacked models, but other implementations may still be

  20. Do stacked species distribution models reflect altitudinal diversity patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Rubén G; Felicísimo, Ángel M; Pottier, Julien; Guisan, Antoine; Muñoz, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of stacked species distribution models in predicting the alpha and gamma species diversity patterns of two important plant clades along elevation in the Andes. We modelled the distribution of the species in the Anthurium genus (53 species) and the Bromeliaceae family (89 species) using six modelling techniques. We combined all of the predictions for the same species in ensemble models based on two different criteria: the average of the rescaled predictions by all techniques and the average of the best techniques. The rescaled predictions were then reclassified into binary predictions (presence/absence). By stacking either the original predictions or binary predictions for both ensemble procedures, we obtained four different species richness models per taxa. The gamma and alpha diversity per elevation band (500 m) was also computed. To evaluate the prediction abilities for the four predictions of species richness and gamma diversity, the models were compared with the real data along an elevation gradient that was independently compiled by specialists. Finally, we also tested whether our richness models performed better than a null model of altitudinal changes of diversity based on the literature. Stacking of the ensemble prediction of the individual species models generated richness models that proved to be well correlated with the observed alpha diversity richness patterns along elevation and with the gamma diversity derived from the literature. Overall, these models tend to overpredict species richness. The use of the ensemble predictions from the species models built with different techniques seems very promising for modelling of species assemblages. Stacking of the binary models reduced the over-prediction, although more research is needed. The randomisation test proved to be a promising method for testing the performance of the stacked models, but other implementations may still be developed.

  1. Study on the polarity, solubility, and stacking characteristics of asphaltenes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Long-li

    2014-07-01

    The structure and transformation of fused aromatic ring system in asphaltenes play an important role in the character of asphaltenes, and in step affect the properties of heavy oils. Polarity, solubility and structural characteristics of asphaltenes derived from Tahe atmospheric residue (THAR) and Tuo-826 heavy crude oil (Tuo-826) were analyzed for study of their internal relationship. A fractionation method was used to separate the asphaltenes into four sub-fractions, based on their solubility in the mixed solvent, for the study of different structural and physical-chemical properties, such as polarity, solubility, morphology, stacking characteristics, and mean structural parameters. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation can present the intuitive morphology of asphaltene molecules, and shows that the structure of asphaltenes is in local order as well as long range disorder. The analysis results showed that n-heptane asphaltenes of THAR and Tuo-826 had larger dipole moment values, larger fused aromatic ring systems, larger mean number of stacking layers, and less interlayer spacing between stacking layers than the corresponding n-pentane asphaltenes. The sub-fractions that were inclined to precipitate from the mixture of n-heptane and tetrahydrofuran had larger polarity and less solubility. From the first sub-fraction to the fourth sub-fraction, polarity, mean stacking numbers, and average layer size from the TEM images follow a gradual decrease. The structural parameters derived from TEM images could reflect the largest fused aromatic ring system in asphaltene molecule, yet the parameters derived from 1H NMR data reflected the mean message of poly-aromatic ring systems. The structural parameters derived from TEM images were more consistent with the polarity variation of sub-fractions than those derived from 1H NMR data, which indicates that the largest fused aromatic ring system will play a more important role in the stacking characteristics of

  2. New-Generation NASA Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Volcanic SO2 Dataset: Algorithm Description, Initial Results, and Continuation with the Suomi-NPP Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Carn, Simon; Zhang, Yan; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    coarser spatial and spectral resolution of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP) Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument, application of the new PCA algorithm to OMPS data produces highly consistent retrievals between OMI and OMPS. The new PCA algorithm is therefore capable of continuing the volcanic SO2 data record well into the future using current and future hyperspectral UV satellite instruments.

  3. New-generation NASA Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) volcanic SO2 dataset: algorithm description, initial results, and continuation with the Suomi-NPP Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Carn, Simon; Zhang, Yan; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2017-02-01

    spectral resolution of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP) Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument, application of the new PCA algorithm to OMPS data produces highly consistent retrievals between OMI and OMPS. The new PCA algorithm is therefore capable of continuing the volcanic SO2 data record well into the future using current and future hyperspectral UV satellite instruments.

  4. CEPH maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, H M

    1992-06-01

    There are CEPH genetic maps on each homologous human chromosome pair. Genotypes for these maps have been generated in 88 laboratories that receive DNA from a reference panel of large nuclear pedigrees/families supplied by the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain. These maps serve as useful tools for the localization of both disease genes and other genes of interest.

  5. Predicting the liquefaction phenomena from shear velocity profiling: Empirical approach to 6.3 Mw, May 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartantyo, Eddy; Brotopuspito, Kirbani S.; Sismanto, Waluyo

    2015-04-01

    The liquefactions phenomena have been reported after a shocking 6.5Mw earthquake hit Yogyakarta province in the morning at 27 May 2006. Several researchers have reported the damage, casualties, and soil failure due to the quake, including the mapping and analyzing the liquefaction phenomena. Most of them based on SPT test. The study try to draw the liquefaction susceptibility by means the shear velocity profiling using modified Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW). This paper is a preliminary report by using only several measured MASW points. The study built 8-channel seismic data logger with 4.5 Hz geophones for this purpose. Several different offsets used to record the high and low frequencies of surface waves. The phase-velocity diagrams were stacked in the frequency domain rather than in time domain, for a clearer and easier dispersion curve picking. All codes are implementing in Matlab. From these procedures, shear velocity profiling was collected beneath each geophone's spread. By mapping the minimum depth of shallow water table, calculating PGA with soil classification, using empirical formula for saturated soil weight from shear velocity profile, and calculating CRR and CSR at every depth, the liquefaction characteristic can be identify in every layer. From several acquired data, a liquefiable potential at some depth below water table was obtained.

  6. Predicting the liquefaction phenomena from shear velocity profiling: Empirical approach to 6.3 Mw, May 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartantyo, Eddy, E-mail: hartantyo@ugm.ac.id [PhD student, Physics Department, FMIPA, UGM. Sekip Utara Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Brotopuspito, Kirbani S.; Sismanto; Waluyo [Geophysics Laboratory, FMIPA, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    The liquefactions phenomena have been reported after a shocking 6.5Mw earthquake hit Yogyakarta province in the morning at 27 May 2006. Several researchers have reported the damage, casualties, and soil failure due to the quake, including the mapping and analyzing the liquefaction phenomena. Most of them based on SPT test. The study try to draw the liquefaction susceptibility by means the shear velocity profiling using modified Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW). This paper is a preliminary report by using only several measured MASW points. The study built 8-channel seismic data logger with 4.5 Hz geophones for this purpose. Several different offsets used to record the high and low frequencies of surface waves. The phase-velocity diagrams were stacked in the frequency domain rather than in time domain, for a clearer and easier dispersion curve picking. All codes are implementing in Matlab. From these procedures, shear velocity profiling was collected beneath each geophone’s spread. By mapping the minimum depth of shallow water table, calculating PGA with soil classification, using empirical formula for saturated soil weight from shear velocity profile, and calculating CRR and CSR at every depth, the liquefaction characteristic can be identify in every layer. From several acquired data, a liquefiable potential at some depth below water table was obtained.

  7. Preliminary analysis of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for mineralogic mapping at sites in Nevada and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Taranik, Dan L.; Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.

    1988-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data for sites in Nevada and Colorado were evaluated to determine their utility for mineralogical mapping in support of geologic investigations. Equal energy normalization is commonly used with imaging spectrometer data to reduce albedo effects. Spectra, profiles, and stacked, color-coded spectra were extracted from the AVIRIS data using an interactive analysis program (QLook) and these derivative data were compared to Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) results, field and laboratory spectra, and geologic maps. A feature extraction algorithm was used to extract and characterize absorption features from AVIRIS and laboratory spectra, allowing direct comparison of the position and shape of absorption features. Both muscovite and carbonate spectra were identified in the Nevada AVIRIS data by comparison with laboratory and AIS spectra, and an image was made that showed the distribution of these minerals for the entire site. Additional, distinctive spectra were located for an unknown mineral. For the two Colorado sites, the signal-to-noise problem was significantly worse and attempts to extract meaningful spectra were unsuccessful. Problems with the Colorado AVIRIS data were accentuated by the IAR reflectance technique because of moderate vegetation cover. Improved signal-to-noise and alternative calibration procedures will be required to produce satisfactory reflectance spectra from these data. Although the AVIRIS data were useful for mapping strong mineral absorption features and producing mineral maps at the Nevada site, it is clear that significant improvements to the instrument performance are required before AVIRIS will be an operational instrument.

  8. Volumetric MRI thermometry using a three-dimensional stack-of-stars echo-planar imaging pulse sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, Sumeeth V; Grissom, William A

    2017-08-07

    To measure temperature over a large brain volume with fine spatiotemporal resolution. A three-dimensional stack-of-stars echo-planar imaging sequence combining echo-planar imaging and radial sampling with golden angle spacing was implemented at 3T for proton resonance frequency-shift temperature imaging. The sequence acquires a 188x188x43 image matrix with 1.5x1.5x2.75 mm3 spatial resolution. Temperature maps were reconstructed using sensitivity encoding (SENSE) image reconstruction followed by the image domain hybrid method, and using the k-space hybrid method. In vivo temperature maps were acquired without heating to measure temperature precision in the brain, and in a phantom during high-intensity focused ultrasound sonication. In vivo temperature standard deviation was less than 1°C at dynamic scan times down to 0.75 s. For a given frame rate, scanning at a minimum repetition time (TR) with minimum acceleration yielded the lowest standard deviation. With frame rates around 3 s, the scan was tolerant to a small number of receive coils, and temperature standard deviation was 48% higher than a standard two-dimensional Fourier transform temperature mapping scan, but provided whole-brain coverage. Phantom temperature maps with no visible aliasing were produced for dynamic scan times as short as 0.38 s. k-Space hybrid reconstructions were more tolerant to acceleration. Three-dimensional stack-of-stars echo-planar imaging temperature mapping provides volumetric brain coverage and fine spatiotemporal resolution. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Institutional Profiles: Some Strategic Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans van Vught

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue that both internal and external pressures and conditions urge contemporary higher education institutions to carefully think through their institutional profiles positions in domestic and global higher education contexts. We subsequently analyse strategic positioning from the strategic management literature and offer four tools — mapping, multi-dimensional ranking, benchmarking and degree profiling — to assist higher education institutions in their profiling and positioning strategies.

  10. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  11. Sample stacking for the analysis of catechins by microemulsion EKC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsi-Ya; Huang, I-Yun; Liang, Hsin-hui; Lee, Szetsen

    2007-06-01

    In this study, an on-line concentration method, ASEI (anion-selective exhaustive injection)-sweeping technology which was coupled with microemulsion EKC (MEEKC), was used to analyze and detect six catechins ((-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, and (-)-gallocatechin). In addition to the effects of the buffer pH and electrolyte concentration on stacking, the compositions of microemulsion (types of oil phase, and types and levels of cosurfactant) also dominated the stacking effect of catechins. In MEEKC, the effect of the type of oil in microemulsion on separation mechanism is often unclear. This study had demonstrated that the oil type in microemulsion indeed altered the affinity of oil droplets with analytes. Finally, this proposed ASEI-sweeping MEEKC method was able to detect trace level of catechins in food products that was not previously possible by a normal MEEKC method.

  12. High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, John C [Los Alamos, NM; Wilson, Mahlon S [Los Alamos, NM

    2007-05-08

    The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  13. Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A novel full piezoelectric multilayer stacked hybrid actuation/transduction system. The system demonstrates significantly-enhanced electromechanical performance by utilizing the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer stacked negative and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that for this system, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The system consists of at least 2 layers which include electromechanically active components. The layers are arranged such that when electric power is applied, one layer contracts in a transverse direction while the second layer expands in a transverse direction which is perpendicular to the transverse direction of the first layer. An alternate embodiment includes a third layer. In this embodiment, the outer two layers contract in parallel transverse directions while the middle layer expands in a transverse direction which is perpendicular to the transverse direction of the outer layers.

  14. Mechanically controlled quantum interference in individual π-stacked dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisenda, Riccardo; Janssen, Vera A E C; Grozema, Ferdinand C; van der Zant, Herre S J; Renaud, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    Recent observations of destructive quantum interference in single-molecule junctions confirm the role of quantum effects in the electronic conductance properties of molecular systems. These effects are central to a broad range of chemical and biological processes and may be beneficial for the design of single-molecule electronic components to exploit the intrinsic quantum effects that occur at the molecular scale. Here we show that destructive interference can be turned on or off within the same molecular system by mechanically controlling its conformation. Using a combination of ab initio calculations and single-molecule conductance measurements, we demonstrate the existence of a quasiperiodic destructive quantum-interference pattern along the breaking traces of π-stacked molecular dimers. The results demonstrate that it is possible to control the molecular conductance over more than one order of magnitude and with a sub-ångström resolution by exploiting the subtle structure-property relationship of π-stacked dimers.

  15. Temperature and flow distribution in planar SOFC stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Østenstad

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stack requires the solution of the mass balances of the chemical species, the energy balances, the charge balance and the channel flow equations in order to compute the species concentrations, the temperature distributions, the current density and the channel flows. The unit cell geometry can be taken into account by combining detailed modeling of a unit cell with a homogenized model of a whole stack. In this study the effect of the asymmetric temperature distribution on the channel flows in a conventional cross-flow design has been investigated. The bidirectional cross-flow design is introduced, for which we can show more directional temperature and flow distributions.

  16. Spam comments prediction using stacking with ensemble learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Arif; On, Byung-Won; Lee, Ingyu; Ashraf, Imran; Choi, Gyu Sang

    2018-01-01

    Illusive comments of product or services are misleading for people in decision making. The current methodologies to predict deceptive comments are concerned for feature designing with single training model. Indigenous features have ability to show some linguistic phenomena but are hard to reveal the latent semantic meaning of the comments. We propose a prediction model on general features of documents using stacking with ensemble learning. Term Frequency/Inverse Document Frequency (TF/IDF) features are inputs to stacking of Random Forest and Gradient Boosted Trees and the outputs of the base learners are encapsulated with decision tree to make final training of the model. The results exhibits that our approach gives the accuracy of 92.19% which outperform the state-of-the-art method.

  17. Rain Sensor with Stacked Light Waveguide Having Tilted Air Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sensor to detect rain drop on and above waveguide utilizing light deflection and scattering was realized, keeping wide sensing coverage and sensitivity to detect mist accumulation. Proposed sensor structure under stacked light wave guide consisted of light blocking fixture surrounding photodetector and adjacent light source. Tilted air gap between stacked light waveguide and light blocking fixture played major role to increase sensitivity and to enhance linearity. This sensor structure eliminated complex collimating optics, while keeping wide sensing coverage using simple geometry. Detection algorithm based on time-to-intensity transformation process was used to convert raining intensity into countable raining process. Experimental result inside simulated rain chamber showed distinct different response between light rain and normal rain. Application as automobile rain sensor is expected.

  18. STACKING ON COMMON REFLECTION SURFACE WITH MULTIPARAMETER TRAVELTIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes V. Luis A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Commonly seismic images are displayed in time domain because the model in depth can be known only in well logs. To produce seismic sections, pre and post stack processing approaches use time or depth velocity models whereas the common reflection method does not, instead it requires a set of parameters established for the first layer. A set of synthetic data of an anticline model, with sources and receivers placed on a flat topography, was used to observe the performance of this method. As result, a better reflector recovering compared against conventional processing sequence was observed.
    The procedure was extended to real data, using a dataset acquired on a zone characterized by mild topography and quiet environment reflectors in the Eastern Colombia planes, observing an enhanced and a better continuity of the reflectors in the CRS stacked section.

  19. Modelling nanofluidic field amplified sample stacking with inhomogeneous surface charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Christopher; Pennathur, Sumita

    2015-11-01

    Nanofluidic technology has exceptional applications as a platform for biological sample preconcentration, which will allow for an effective electronic detection method of low concentration analytes. One such preconcentration method is field amplified sample stacking, a capillary electrophoresis technique that utilizes large concentration differences to generate high electric field gradients, causing the sample of interest to form a narrow, concentrated band. Field amplified sample stacking has been shown to work well at the microscale, with models and experiments confirming expected behavior. However, nanofluidics allows for further concentration enhancement due to focusing of the sample ions toward the channel center by the electric double layer. We have developed a two-dimensional model that can be used for both micro- and nanofluidics, fully accounting for the electric double layer. This model has been used to investigate even more complex physics such as the role of inhomogeneous surface charge.

  20. Physically Connected Stacked Patch Antenna Design with 100% Bandwidth

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    Typically, stacked patch antennas are parasitically coupled and provide larger bandwidth than a single patch antenna. Here, we show a stacked patch antenna design where square patches with semi-circular cutouts are physically connected to each other. This arrangement provides 100% bandwidth from 23.9–72.2 GHz with consistent high gain (5 dBi or more) across the entire bandwidth. In another variation, a single patch loaded with a superstrate provides 83.5% bandwidth from 25.6–62.3 GHz. The mechanism of bandwidth enhancement is explained through electromagnetic simulations. Measured reflection coefficient, radiation patterns and gain results confirm the extremely wideband performance of the design.

  1. Radar Target Recognition Based on Stacked Denoising Sparse Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feixiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction is a key step in radar target recognition. The quality of the extracted features determines the performance of target recognition. However, obtaining the deep nature of the data is difficult using the traditional method. The autoencoder can learn features by making use of data and can obtain feature expressions at different levels of data. To eliminate the influence of noise, the method of radar target recognition based on stacked denoising sparse autoencoder is proposed in this paper. This method can extract features directly and efficiently by setting different hidden layers and numbers of iterations. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to the K-nearest neighbor method and the traditional stacked autoencoder.

  2. Investigation of Ruthenium Dissolution in Advanced Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Direct Methanol Based Fuel Cells Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Firdosy, S.; Koel, B. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed review of the Direct Methanol Based Fuel Cell (DMFC) stack and investigates the Ruthenium that was found at the exit of the stack. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) Pathways for Cell Degradation; 3) Cell Duration Testing; 4) Duration Testing, MEA Analysis; and 5) Stack Degradation Analysis.

  3. The Effect of a Sport Stacking Intervention on Handwriting with Second Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Diane; Ransdell, Mary; Coleman, Lyndsie; Irwin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the impact a 14-week sport stacking (cup stacking) exercise intervention would have on children's handwriting quality and speed. Eighty-three second graders were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The experimental group (n = 42) participated in a 15-min session of sport stacking activities…

  4. The Methods of Design and Implementation of Stack Filters for Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marchevsky

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a large class of nonlinear digital filters, the stack filters, which contain all combinations and compositions of rank order operators within a finite window. Attention is given to design and effective hardware implementation of an optimal stack filter for image processing. Presented simulation results confirm robustness of stack filters in the image restoration corrupted by impulsive noise.

  5. Investigation of the characteristics of a stacked direct borohydride fuel cell for portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheolhwan; Kim, Kyu-Jung; Ha, Man Yeong

    To investigate the possibility of the portable application of a direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC), weight reduction of the stack and high stacking of the cells are investigated for practical running conditions. For weight reduction, carbon graphite is adopted as the bipolar plate material even though it has disadvantages in tight stacking, which results in stacking loss from insufficient material strength. For high stacking, it is essential to have a uniform fuel distribution among cells and channels to maintain equal electric load on each cell. In particular, the design of the anode channel is important because active hydrogen generation causes non-uniformity in the fuel flow-field of the cells and channels. To reduce the disadvantages of stacking force margin and fuel maldistribution, an O-ring type-sealing system with an internal manifold and a parallel anode channel design is adopted, and the characteristics of a single and a five-cell fuel cell stack are analyzed. By adopting carbon graphite, the stack weight can be reduced by 4.2 times with 12% of performance degradation from the insufficient stacking force. When cells are stacked, the performance exceeds the single-cell performance because of the stack temperature increase from the reduction of the radiation area from the narrow stacking of cells.

  6. 40 CFR 63.7296 - What emission limitations must I meet for battery stacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for battery stacks? 63.7296 Section 63.7296 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission Limitations and Work Practice Standards § 63.7296 What emission limitations must I meet for battery stacks? You must not discharge to the atmosphere any emissions from any...

  7. Yield Improvement for 3D Wafer-to-Wafer Stacked Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taouil, M.; Hamdioui, S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent enhancements in process development enable the fabrication of three dimensional stacked ICs (3D-SICs) such as memories based on Wafer-to-Wafer (W2W) stacking. One of the major challenges facing W2W stacking is the low compound yield. This paper investigates compound yield improvement for W2W

  8. Modelling and Evaluation of Heating Strategies for High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on two different cathode air cooled high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stacks; a 30 cell 400W prototype stack using two bipolar plates per cell, and a 65 cell 1 kW commercial stack using one bipolar plate per cell. The work seeks to examine the use of different heat...

  9. Definition and means of maintaining the effluent stack monitors portion of the PFP safety envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.J.

    1997-01-21

    The Effluent Stack Monitors ensure that the release of alpha emitting radionuclides to the environment via the building exhaust stacks is continuously monitored and alarms are initiated if the release exceeds identified limits. This document defines the safety envelope for the Effluent Stack Monitors and identifies the operability requirements, components, and procedures which ensure this safety envelope is maintained.

  10. Numerical simulations of flux flow in stacked Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Peder; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    2005-01-01

    We numerically investigate Josephson vortex flux flow states in stacked Josephson junctions, motivated by recent experiments trying to observe the vortices in a square vortex lattice when a magnetic field is applied to layered high-Tc superconductors of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox type. By extensive...... numerical simulations, we are able to clearly distinguish between triangular and square vortex lattices and to identify the parameters leading to an in-phase vortex configuration....

  11. Nature and magnitude of aromatic stacking of nucleic acid bases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šponer, Jiří; Riley, K.E.; Hobza, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 19 (2008), s. 2595-2610 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400550510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : quantum chemical calculations * base-stacking * DNA Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.064, year: 2008

  12. Mathematical modeling of a V-stack piezoelectric aileron actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical modeling of aileron actuation that uses piezo V-shaped stacks. The aim of the actuation is the increasing of flutter speed in the context of a control law, in order to widen the flight envelope. In this way the main advantage of such a piezo actuator, the bandwidth is exploited. The mathematical model is obtained based on free body diagrams, and the numerical simulations allow a preliminary sizing of the actuator.

  13. Modeling of a Stacked Power Module for Parasitic Inductance Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-15

    module was created in COMSOL Multiphysics Simulation Software. Within the AC/DC module of COMSOL , a magnetic-field physics simulation was performed...in the subsequent sections of this report. The COMSOL model geometry for the stacked power module is shown in Fig. 3. The purple regions represent...The various properties of this fluid, such as dielectric permittivity and resistivity, were manually defined in the COMSOL model. The lumped port

  14. Consolidity: Stack-based systems change pathway theory elaborated

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrah, Hassen Taher

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an elaborated analysis for investigating the stack-based layering processes during the systems change pathway. The system change pathway is defined as the path resulting from the combinations of all successive changes induced on the system when subjected to varying environments, activities, events, or any excessive internal or external influences and happenings “on and above” its normal stands, situations or set-points during its course of life. The analysis is essentially...

  15. Electrically tunable plasma excitations in AA-stacking multilayer graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ming-Fa; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Wu, Jhao-Ying

    2014-01-01

    We use a tight-binding model and the random-phase approximation to study the Coulomb excitations in simple-hexagonal-stacking multilayer graphene and discuss the field effects. The calculation results include the energy bands, the response functions, and the plasmon dispersions. A perpendicular electric field is predicted to induce significant charge transfer and thus capable of manipulating the energy, intensity, and the number of plasmon modes. This could be further validated by inelastic l...

  16. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stacks with Advent TPS Meas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neophytides Stylianos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High power/high energy applications are expected to greatly benefit from high temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs. In this work, a combinatorial approach is presented, in which separately developed and evaluated MEAs, design and engineering are employed to result in reliable and effective stacks operating above 180°C and having the characteristics well matched to applications including auxiliary power, micro combined heat and power, and telecommunication satellites.

  17. Review of the stack discharge active particle contamination problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, H M

    1948-03-22

    Quantities of the order of ten million to 100 million radioactive particles per month were emitted from the stacks over a period of several months. High activity in the range 0.1 to 3..mu..c was probably confined to large carrier particles of corrosion debris from iron ductwork in the separations plant ventilation air system. This report discusses chemical, physical and radiochemical properties of the particles, and possible biological and health effects of exposure to them. (ACR)

  18. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Young, J

    2000-01-01

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability.

  19. Component framework technology for adaptable and manageable protocol stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Michiels, Sam

    2003-01-01

    The context of this dissertation and the corresponding challenges are formed by network services and their requirements to the underlying protocol stack. The relevance of this research is confirmed by three recent trends in network services and their execution environment: growing reliance of businesses and individuals on network connectivity, highly dynamic network characteristics, and a wide range of connected client device types. These three trends reveal a common challenge for protocol...

  20. Electron transmission through a stacking domain boundary in multilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Nguyen N. T.; Koshino, Mikito

    2015-06-01

    We present a theoretical study of the electron transmission through the AB-BA stacking boundary in multilayer graphenes. Using the tight-binding model and the transfer matrix method, we calculate the electron transmission probability through the boundary as a function of electron Fermi energy in multilayers from bilayer to five-layer. We find that the transmission is strongly suppressed particularly near the band touching point, suggesting that the electronic conductivity in general multilayer graphenes is significantly interfered with by stacking fault. The conductivity suppression by stacking fault is the strongest in the bilayer graphene, while it is gradually relaxed as the number of layers increases. At a large carrier density, we observe an even-odd effect where the transmission is relatively lower in trilayer and five-layer than in bilayer and four-layer, and this is related to the existence of a monolayerlike linear band in odd layers. For bilayer graphene, we also study the effect of the perpendicular electric field opening an energy gap, and show that the band deformation enhances the electron transmission at a fixed carrier density.

  1. Simulation Of Networking Protocols On Software Emulated Network Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrushikesh Nimkar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number and complexity of network based applications the need to easy configuration development and integration of network applications has taken a high precedence. Trivial activities such as configuration can be carried out efficiently if network services are software based rather than hardware based. Project aims at enabling the network engineers to easily include network functionalities into hisher configuration and define hisher own network stack without using the kernel network stack. Having thought of this we have implemented two functionalities UPNP and MDNS. The multicast Domain Name System MDNS resolves host names to IP addresses within small ad-hoc networks and without having need of special DNS server and its configuration. MDNS application provides every host with functionality to register itself to the router make a multicast DNS request and its resolution. To make adding network devices and networked programs to a network as easy as it is to plug in a piece of hardware into a PC we make use of UPnP. The devices and programs find out about the network setup and other networked devices and programs through discovery and advertisements of services and configure themselves accordingly. UPNP application provides every host with functionality of discovering services of other hosts and serving requests on demand. To implement these applications we have used snabbswitch framework which an open source virtualized ethernet networking stack.

  2. Deep Network Based on Stacked Orthogonal Convex Incremental ELM Autoencoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme learning machine (ELM as an emerging technology has recently attracted many researchers’ interest due to its fast learning speed and state-of-the-art generalization ability in the implementation. Meanwhile, the incremental extreme learning machine (I-ELM based on incremental learning algorithm was proposed which outperforms many popular learning algorithms. However, the incremental algorithms with ELM do not recalculate the output weights of all the existing nodes when a new node is added and cannot obtain the least-squares solution of output weight vectors. In this paper, we propose orthogonal convex incremental learning machine (OCI-ELM with Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization method and Barron’s convex optimization learning method to solve the nonconvex optimization problem and least-squares solution problem, and then we give the rigorous proofs in theory. Moreover, in this paper, we propose a deep architecture based on stacked OCI-ELM autoencoders according to stacked generalization philosophy for solving large and complex data problems. The experimental results verified with both UCI datasets and large datasets demonstrate that the deep network based on stacked OCI-ELM autoencoders (DOC-IELM-AEs outperforms the other methods mentioned in the paper with better performance on regression and classification problems.

  3. Calculated stacking-fault energies of elemental metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengaard, N. M.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1993-01-01

    We have performed ab initio calculations of twin, intrinsic, and extrinsic face-centered-cubic stacking faults for all the 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals by means of a Green's-function technique, based on the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals method within the tight-binding and atomic-sphere approxima......We have performed ab initio calculations of twin, intrinsic, and extrinsic face-centered-cubic stacking faults for all the 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals by means of a Green's-function technique, based on the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals method within the tight-binding and atomic......-sphere approximations. The results are in excellent agreement with recent layer Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's-function calculations where stacking-fault energies for Ni, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, and Au were found by means of the the so-called force theorem. We find that the self-consistent fault energies for all the metals...

  4. Multiprocessor architecture for multiple path stack sequential decoders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belanger, N.; Haccoun, D.; Savaria, Y. [Ecole Poytechnique de Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    1994-02-01

    The Zigangirov-Jelinek (stack) algorithm allows decoding convolutional codes with a small computational effort compared to the optimum Viterbi algorithm. However, it suffers from a variability of the computational effort that is highly undesirable. This paper describes an architecture that implements a multiple-path-like stack algorithm for reducing this variability. This architecture is organized as a linear structure comprising special processors for extending tree nodes, called extenders, and priority stacks for storing nodes in sorted metric order. The architecture is shown to have a good potential for reducing the computational variability without adding much overhead to the system. Simulations have shown that this architecture effectively reduces computational variability as the number of processors increases, even for a relatively large number of extenders. Simulations run for up to 16 extenders have also shown that using 4 to 16 extenders is a good choice. The architecture is also shown to reduce computational variability like the multiple path algorithm does, while having a better time performance. 12 refs.

  5. Determinants of fuels stacking behaviour among households in Bauchi Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ado Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is an important determinant of the socio economic status of citizens across the globe especially the consumption of modern energy. According to the energy ladder hypothesis households move along the energy ladder as their income increases. At the lower rung of the ladder are the low income and usually uneducated households who mainly consume traditional fuels while the middle class and those at upper echelon of the society largely consume transitional and modern fuels. However the prevalence of energy stacking behaviour where households adopt more than one fuel type has been observed even among the middle and upper income families. The question is why is the observed energy consumption pattern in violation of the energy ladder hypothesis? The paper assesses the combined influence of four variables which include income level of households, education level/exposure of households, households’ size and modern fuels supply security on fuels stacking behaviour of households. Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess the combined influence of the IVs on the DV. The model has an R2 value of .252 meaning that the model explains about 25% variation in the DV. Individually the variables that make significant and unique contribution to the model are educational level of households, income level of households and family size of households. We therefore recommend improved macroeconomic management to improve households’ income, improved educational system and increased supply and diffusion of modern fuel as a way of reducing the prevalence of energy stacking behaviour of households.

  6. Oxidative unzipping of stacked nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haifeng; Zhao, Yong; Tang, Yifan; Burkert, Seth C; Star, Alexander

    2015-05-27

    We demonstrate a facile synthesis of different nanostructures by oxidative unzipping of stacked nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube cups (NCNCs). Depending on the initial number of stacked-cup segments, this method can yield graphene nanosheets (GNSs) or hybrid nanostructures comprised of graphene nanoribbons partially unzipped from a central nanotube core. Due to the stacked-cup structure of as-synthesized NCNCs, preventing complete exposure of graphitic planes, the unzipping mechanism is hindered, resulting in incomplete unzipping; however, individual, separated NCNCs are completely unzipped, yielding individual nitrogen-doped GNSs. Graphene-based materials have been employed as electrocatalysts for many important chemical reactions, and it has been proposed that increasing the reactive edges results in more efficient electrocatalysis. In this paper, we apply these graphene conjugates as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to determine how the increase in reactive edges affects the electrocatalytic activity. This investigation introduces a new method for the improvement of ORR electrocatalysts by using nitrogen dopants more effectively, allowing for enhanced ORR performance with lower overall nitrogen content. Additionally, the GNSs were functionalized with gold nanoparticles (GNPs), resulting in a GNS/GNP hybrid, which shows efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering and expands the scope of its application in advanced device fabrication and biosensing.

  7. Slip-stacking Dynamics and the 20 Hz Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffery; Zwaska, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Slip-stacking is an accumulation technique used at Fermilab since 2004 which nearly doubles the proton intensity. The Proton Improvement Plan II intensity upgrades require a reduction in slip-stacking losses by approximately a factor of 2. We study the single-particle dynamics that determine the stability of slip-stacking particles. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We show the particle loss as a function of time. We calculate the injection efficiency as a function of longitudinal emittance and aspect-ratio. We demonstrate that the losses from RF single particle dynamics can be reduced by a factor of 4-10 (depending on beam parameters) by upgrading the Fermilab Booster from a 15-Hz cycle-rate to a 20-Hz cycle-rate. We recommend a change in injection scheme to eliminate the need for a greater momentum aperture in the Fermilab Recycler.

  8. Framework for Analyzing Android I/O Stack Behavior: From Generating theWorkload to Analyzing the Trace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooman Jeong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The existing I/O workload generators and trace capturing tools are not adaptable to generating nor capturing the I/O requests of Android apps. The Android platform needs proper tools to capture and replay real world workload in the Android platform to verify the result of benchmark tools. This paper introduces Android Storage Performance Analysis Tool, AndroStep, which is specifically designed for characterizing and analyzing the behavior of the I/O subsystem in Android based devices. The AndroStep consists of Mobibench (workload generator, MOST (Mobile Storage Analyzer, and Mobigen (workload replayer. Mobibench is an Android app that generates a filesystem as well as SQLite database operations. Mobibench can also vary the number of concurrent threads to examining the filesystem scalability to support concurrency, e.g., metadata updates, journal file creation/deletion. MOST captures the trace and extracts key filesystem access characteristics such as access pattern with respect to file types, ratio between random vs. sequential access, ratio between buffered vs. synchronous I/O, fraction of metadata accesses, etc. MOST implements reverse mapping feature (finding an inode for a given block and retrospective reverse mapping (finding an inode for a deleted file. Mobigen is a trace capturing and replaying tool that is specifically designed to perform the user experiment without actual human intervention. Mobigen records the system calls generated from the user behavior and sanitizes the trace for replayable form. Mobigen can replay this trace on different Android platforms or with different I/O stack configurations. As an example of using AndroStep, we analyzed the performances of twelve Android smartphones and the SQLite performances on five different filesystems. AndroStep makes otherwise time consuming I/O stack analysis extremely versatile. AndroStep makes a significant contribution in terms of shedding light on internal behavior of

  9. Generation of stacking faults in 4H-SiC epilayer induced by oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asafuji, Ryosuke; Hijikata, Yasuto

    2018-01-01

    Stacking faults (SFs) generated by thermal oxidation of a 4H-SiC epilayer were investigated using photoluminescence (PL) imaging/mapping and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Line-shaped and band-shaped faults perpendicular to the off-cut direction in the epilayer were formed by thermal oxidation. In addition, the line-shaped faults increased and were stretched with the oxidation time. Triangular SFs were also formed under UV laser irradiation from both types of faults as starting points, and expanded along the basal plane toward the sample surface. The oxidation time dependence of the line-shaped fault density indicated that line-shaped faults are predominantly formed close to 1100 °C. The atomic structures of the line-shaped faults and triangular SFs were observed using cross-sectional TEM. Line-shaped faults were present at the epilayer/bulk interface with which double Shockley SFs stretch into the bulk layer. PL mapping results indicated that the band-shaped faults are probably intrinsic Frank-type SFs.

  10. Comparison of strain fields in truncated and un-truncated quantum dots in stacked InAs/GaAs nanostructures with varying stacking periods

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, H; Yoo, Y H

    2003-01-01

    Strain fields in truncated and un-truncated InAs quantum dots with the same height and base length have been compared numerically when the dots are vertically stacked in a GaAs matrix at various stacking periods. The compressive hydrostatic strain in truncated dots decreases slightly as compared with the un-truncated dots without regard to the stacking period studied. However, the reduction in tensile biaxial strain, compressive radial strain and tensile axial strain was salient in the truncated dot and the reduction increased with decreasing stacking period. From such changes in strain, changes in the band gap and related properties are anticipated.

  11. The computational optimization of heat exchange efficiency in stack chimneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Goch, T.A.J.

    2012-02-15

    For many industrial processes, the chimney is the final step before hot fumes, with high thermal energy content, are discharged into the atmosphere. Tapping into this energy and utilizing it for heating or cooling applications, could improve sustainability, efficiency and/or reduce operational costs. Alternatively, an unused chimney, like the monumental chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology, could serve as an 'energy channeler' once more; it can enhance free cooling by exploiting the stack effect. This study aims to identify design parameters that influence annual heat exchange in such stack chimney applications and optimize these parameters for specific scenarios to maximize the performance. Performance is defined by annual heat exchange, system efficiency and costs. The energy required for the water pump as compared to the energy exchanged, defines the system efficiency, which is expressed in an efficiency coefficient (EC). This study is an example of applying building performance simulation (BPS) tools for decision support in the early phase of the design process. In this study, BPS tools are used to provide design guidance, performance evaluation and optimization. A general method for optimization of simulation models will be studied, and applied in two case studies with different applications (heating/cooling), namely; (1) CERES case: 'Eindhoven University of Technology monumental stack chimney equipped with a heat exchanger, rejects heat to load the cold source of the aquifer system on the campus of the university and/or provides free cooling to the CERES building'; and (2) Industrial case: 'Heat exchanger in an industrial stack chimney, which recoups heat for use in e.g. absorption cooling'. The main research question, addressing the concerns of both cases, is expressed as follows: 'what is the optimal set of design parameters so heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually for the cases in which a

  12. Theory and experiment on electromagnetic-wave-propagation velocities in stacked superconducting tunnel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, S.; Ustinov, A. V.; Kohlstedt, H.

    1994-01-01

    focused on. Furthermore, under the assumption that all parameters of the layers are equal, analytic solutions for a generic N-fold stack are presented. The velocities of the waves in two- and three-junction stacks by Nb-Al-AlOx-Nb systems are experimentally obtained by measuring the cavity resonance......Characteristic velocities of the electromagnetic waves propagating in vertically stacked Josephson transmission are theoretically discussed. An equation for solving n velocities of the waves in an n Josephson-junction stack is derived. The solutions of two- and threefold stacks are especially...

  13. Mean temperature profile at the entrance of a thermoacoustic stacked screen heat exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bühler, Simon; wilcox, D; Oosterhuis, Joris; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2015-01-01

    In thermoacoustic devises, the thermoacoustic e ect occurs in the regenerator placed between two heat exchangers. The entrance e ects of such heat exchanger are investigated with two computational uid dynamics (CFD) test cases. The rst CFD test case models an ideal heat exchanger adjacent to an open

  14. Okeanos Explorer (EX1504L1): CAPSTONE NWHI Exploration Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam and singlebeam mapping operations will be conducted 24 hours a day throughout the cruise. Sub-bottom profile mapping will be conducted 24 hours a day at...

  15. Okeanos Explorer (EX1604): CAPSTONE Wake Island PRIMNM (Preliminary Mapping)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam and singlebeam mapping operations will be conducted 24 hours a day throughout the cruise. Sub-bottom profile mapping will be conducted 24 hours a day at...

  16. Preliminary study on rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP/Ti stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, W L; Pei, Z J; Treadwell, C

    2014-08-01

    Reported drilling methods for CFRP/Ti stacks include twist drilling, end milling, core grinding, and their derived methods. The literature does not have any report on drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM). This paper, for the first time, reports a study on drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using RUM. It also compares results on drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using RUM with reported results on drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using other methods. When drilling CFRP/Ti stacks using RUM, cutting force, torque, and CFRP surface roughness were lower, hole size variation was smaller, CFRP groove depth was smaller, tool life was longer, and there was no obvious Ti exit burr and CFRP entrance delamination. Ti surface roughness when drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using RUM was about the same as those when using other methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Stacking-dependent electronic property of trilayer graphene epitaxially grown on Ru(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que, Yande; Xiao, Wende, E-mail: wdxiao@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn; Chen, Hui; Wang, Dongfei; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hong-Jun, E-mail: wdxiao@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-12-28

    The growth, atomic structure, and electronic property of trilayer graphene (TLG) on Ru(0001) were studied by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy in combined with tight-binding approximation (TBA) calculations. TLG on Ru(0001) shows a flat surface with a hexagonal lattice due to the screening effect of the bottom two layers and the AB-stacking in the top two layers. The coexistence of AA- and AB-stacking in the bottom two layers leads to three different stacking orders of TLG, namely, ABA-, ABC-, and ABB-stacking. STS measurements combined with TBA calculations reveal that the density of states of TLG with ABC- and ABB-stacking is characterized by one and two sharp peaks near to the Fermi level, respectively, in contrast to the V-shaped feature of TLG with ABA-stacking. Our work demonstrates that TLG on Ru(0001) might be an ideal platform for exploring stacking-dependent electronic properties of graphene.

  18. Dependence of equilibrium stacking fault width on thickness of Cu thin films: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohith, P.; Sainath, G.; Choudhary, B. K.

    2017-05-01

    In face centered cubic systems, due to decrease in energy all perfect dislocations dissociates into two Shockley partials separated by stacking fault width. The stacking fault width, which influences the deformation behavior depends on many factors such as composition, stacking fault energy, temperature, surface energy and applied stress. Additionally in thin films, thickness also influences the stacking fault width of dissociated dislocations. In this paper, we investigate the effect of thin film thickness on stacking fault width in Cu using molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that with increase in film thickness from 1.25 nm to 11 nm, the stacking fault width increases from 1.6 nm to 3.12 nm. A bi-linear behavior has been observed. Above 11 nm thickness, the width of stacking fault has attained a saturation at higher thickness. This thickness dependent dissociation has been explained using the concept of image dislocations and associated image forces.

  19. Gravitational redshift and asymmetric redshift-space distortions for stacked clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan-Chuan; Kaiser, Nick; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    We derive the expression for the observed redshift in the weak field limit in the observer's past light cone, including all relativistic terms up to second order in velocity. We then apply it to compute the cluster-galaxy cross-correlation functions (CGCF) using N-body simulations. The CGCF is asymmetric along the line of sight owing to the presence of the small second-order terms such as the gravitational redshift (GRedshift). We identify two systematics in the modelling of the GRedshift signal in stacked clusters. First, it is affected by the morphology of dark matter haloes and the large-scale cosmic-web. The non-spherical distribution of galaxies around the central halo and the presence of neighbouring clusters systematically reduce the GRedshift signal. This bias is approximately 20 per cent for Mmin ≃ 1014 M⊙ h-1, and is more than 50 per cent for haloes with Mmin ≃ 2 × 1013 M⊙ h-1 at r > 4 Mpc h-1. Secondly, the best-fitting GRedshift profiles as well as the profiles of all other relativistic terms are found to be significantly different in velocity space compared to their real space versions. We find that the relativistic Doppler redshift effect, like other second-order effects, is subdominant to the GRedshift signal. We discuss some subtleties relating to these effects in velocity space. We also find that the S/N of the GRedshift signal increases with decreasing halo mass.

  20. Question Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  1. Causal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2006-01-01

    The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method......The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method...

  2. Soil resilience mapping in selective wetlands, West Suez Canal, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    W.A. Abdel Kawy; Abdel-Aziz Belal

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study are: (1) producing a geometrically corrected physiographic-soil map scale 1:50,000 reduced to the attached map; (2) detecting some soil characteristics as (effective soil depth, salinity and alkalinity) of the investigated area during the last 28 years to produce the soil resilience maps. To fulfill the first aim, eight soil profiles were selected from 30 profiles to represent the different mapping units. Morphological description was carried out and soil samples wer...

  3. Time-of-Flight Bragg Scattering from Aligned Stacks of Lipid Bilayers using the Liquids Reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction experiments on aligned stacks of lipid bilayers using the horizontal Liquids Reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source are reported. Specific details are given regarding the instrumental setup, data collection and reduction, phase determination of the structure factors, and reconstruction of the one-dimensional neutron scattering length density (NSLD) profile. The validity of using TOF measurements to determine the one-dimensional NSLD profile is demonstrated by reproducing the results of two well known lipid bilayer structures. The method is then applied to show how an antimicrobial peptide affects membranes with and without cholesterol.

  4. Effect of operative conditions on a PEFC stack performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, Francesco; Barbera, Orazio; Giacoppo, Giosue; Squadrito, Gaetano; Passalacqua, Enza [CNR-ITAE (Istituto di Tecnologie Avanzate per l' Energia ' Nicola Giordano' ), Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse, 5-98126 Messina (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    The operative conditions influence the performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). In particular, when a multi-cell (stack) instead of a single cell is investigated, a proper water management and flow stoichiometric ratio are essential for obtaining high electrical conversion efficiency. In this paper, a five cell air cooled PEM fuel cell stack was designed and realized, and systematic studies on the influence of the reactants humidification have been carried out to optimize the operative conditions. Polarization curves and time test at a fixed current have been conducted for various cathode (RHC) and anode (RHA) inlet humidity conditions. In particular, a small decay and low performance were obtained for RHA and <70% and a considerable decay and low performance for RHA and >70%. A good compromise for water management, in terms of decay and performance, is obtained when a symmetrical RH of 70% was used, because in this case an optimal water balance was probably reached considering that high flow of gases was used. In fact, insufficient water content implies a lower ion conductivity of the membrane whereas excess of water yields to flooding of the electrodes and parasitic losses due to the presence of water in the gas channels. Consequently, these effects lead to a lowering of voltages during lifetime tests. In any case, the cathode RH has a stronger influence on the stack decay compared to the anode one. In the optimal selected conditions of RH a constant and stable power of about 55 W (at 20 A) was obtained during the 15 h of operation. (author)

  5. Nanocomposite Materials of Alternately Stacked C60 Monolayer and Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ishikawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized the novel nanocomposite consisting alternately of a stacked single graphene sheet and a C60 monolayer by using the graphite intercalation technique in which alkylamine molecules help intercalate large C60 molecules into the graphite. Moreover, it is found that the intercalated C60 molecules can rotate in between single graphene sheets by using C13 NMR measurements. This preparation method provides a general way for intercalating huge fullerene molecules into graphite, which will lead to promising materials with novel mechanical, physical, and electrical properties.

  6. Broadband infrared absorbers with stacked double chromium ring resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Huixu; Stan, Liliana; Czaplewski, David A.; Gao, Jie; Yang, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    A broadband absorber in the infrared wavelength range from 1 μm up to 5 μm is designed and demonstrated with stacked double chromium ring resonators on a reflective chromium mirror. The near-perfect broadband absorption is realized by combining the multilayer impedance match in the short wavelength range and the double plasmonic resonances in the long wavelength range, which is illustrated with an equivalent circuit model for the impedance analysis. The broadband absorber is proved to be angle-insensitive and polarization-independent due to the geometrical symmetry. The thermal analysis for heat generation and temperature distributions inside the absorber structure is also investigated.

  7. Electrically tunable plasma excitations in AA-stacked multilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Fa; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Wu, Jhao-Ying

    2012-09-01

    We use a tight-binding model and the random-phase approximation to study the Coulomb excitations in simple-hexagonal-stacking multilayer graphene and discuss the field effects. The calculation results include the energy bands, the response functions, and the plasmon dispersions. A perpendicular electric field is predicted to induce significant charge transfer and thus is capable of manipulating the energy, intensity, and the number of plasmon modes. This could be further validated by inelastic light scattering or electron-energy-loss spectroscopy.

  8. Electron-electron Interactions in ABC-stacked Multilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; MacDonald, Allan

    2010-03-01

    The electronic band structures of ABC-stacked multilayer graphene systems are obtained by the tight-binding calculation and the density function theory. We predict that the electron- electron interactions drive the neutral graphene multilayer systems to pseudospin magnets in which the charge density contribution spontaneously shifts to either the top or the bottom layers, based on the HF and PRG calculations. We show that the spin and valley degrees of freedom enhance the instabilities. We investigate the influence on the broken symmetry phase by the trigonal warping, the external electric field and the number of coupled graphene layers.

  9. Development of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhathathreyan, K.S.; Sridhar, P.; Sasikumar, G.; Ghosg, K.K.; Velayutham, G.; Rajalakshmi, N.; Subramaniam, C.K.; Raja, M.; Ramya, K. [Centre for Elecrochemical and Energy Research, SPIC Science Foundation, Chennai (India)

    1999-11-01

    The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the strongest contenders as a power source for space, electric vehicle and domestic applications. Since 1988 intensive research is being carried out at our centre to develop PEMFCs. The main R and D activities are: (i) to develop a method for the electrode preparation (ii) to enhance platinum utilisation using low platinum loading and (iii) to design multicell stacks. The results of R and D development of the above activities are discussed in this paper. (author)

  10. CSNS computing environment Based on OpenStack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yakang; Qi, Fazhi; Chen, Gang; Wang, Yanming; Hong, Jianshu

    2017-10-01

    Cloud computing can allow for more flexible configuration of IT resources and optimized hardware utilization, it also can provide computing service according to the real need. We are applying this computing mode to the China Spallation Neutron Source(CSNS) computing environment. So, firstly, CSNS experiment and its computing scenarios and requirements are introduced in this paper. Secondly, the design and practice of cloud computing platform based on OpenStack are mainly demonstrated from the aspects of cloud computing system framework, network, storage and so on. Thirdly, some improvments to openstack we made are discussed further. Finally, current status of CSNS cloud computing environment are summarized in the ending of this paper.

  11. Online assessment of dimensional numerical answers using STACK in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, C. J.; Harjula, M.

    2017-05-01

    In this article we report research into the computer representation and automatic assessment of expressions which are dimensional numerical quantities. We consider how machines represent and manipulate dimensional numerical data. Through action research we examine how students enter dimensional numerical data into a machine for online assessment, and examine the properties of such answers which practical teachers seek to establish. We consider the extent to which these properties can be established automatically, and report the outcomes of our action research: extensions to the STACK online assessment system which implement both syntactic and semantic layers to represent dimensional numerical quantities in a form suitable for online assessment.

  12. Radiation Induced Removal of Stacking Faults in Quenched Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergenlid, U.

    1965-12-15

    The effect of neutron irradiation on specimens of quenched aluminium containing Frank sessile dislocation loops has been studied by means of electron microscopy. The Frank loops were found to trans. form into perfect loops at doses less than 10{sup 17} nvt. A possible reason for the removal of the stacking faults is the displacement of a number of atoms at the faults, leading to the passage of a Shockley partial. Unfaulting induced by stress fields from dislocations, released during the irradiation, can also be important.

  13. Stacking power MOSFETs for use in high speed instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. J.; Johnson, B. P.

    1992-12-01

    A reliable circuit configuration is described for stacking power metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The resulting circuit has a hold off voltage N times larger than a single power MOSFET, where N is the number of power MOSFETs used. The capability to switch higher voltages and thus greater amounts of power, into a 50 Ω load, in approximately the same time as a single device is realized. Design considerations are presented for selecting a power MOSFET. Using the design method presented, a 1.4 kV pulse generator, into 50 Ω, with a 2 ns rise time and negligible jitter is designed.

  14. Stacking fault tetrahedra formation in the neighbourhood of grain boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Samaras, M; Van Swygenhoven, H; Victoria, M

    2003-01-01

    Large scale molecular dynamics computer simulations are performed to study the role of the grain boundary (GB) during the cascade evolution in irradiated nanocrystalline Ni. At all primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies in cascades near GBs, the damage produced after cooling down is vacancy dominated. Truncated stacking fault tetrahedra (TSFTs) are easily formed at 10 keV and higher PKA energies. At the higher energies a complex partial dislocation network forms, consisting of TSFTs. The GB acts as an interstitial sink without undergoing major structural changes.

  15. Stacking fault-mediated ultrastrong nanocrystalline Ti thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K.; Zhang, J. Y.; Li, G.; Wang, Y. Q.; Cui, J. C.; Liu, G.; Sun, J.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we prepared nanocrystalline (NC) Ti thin films with abundant stacking faults (SFs), which were created via partial dislocations emitted from grain boundaries and which were insensitive to grain sizes. By employing the nanoindentation test, we investigated the effects of SFs and grain sizes on the strength of NC Ti films at room temperature. The high density of SFs significantly strengthens NC Ti films, via dislocation-SF interactions associated with the reported highest Hall-Petch slope of ˜20 GPa nm1/2, to an ultrahigh strength of ˜4.4 GPa, approaching ˜50% of its ideal strength.

  16. Aromatic stacking interactions govern catalysis in aryl-alcohol oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Aitor; Lucas, Fatima; Carro, Juan; Herguedas, Beatriz; Borrelli, Kenneth W.; Guallar, Víctor; Martínez, Angel T.; Medina, Milagros

    2015-01-01

    This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: [Ferreira, P., Hernández-Ortega, A., Lucas, F., Carro, J., Herguedas, B., Borrelli, K. W., Guallar, V., Martínez, A. T. and Medina, M. (2015), Aromatic stacking interactions govern catalysis in aryl-alcohol oxidase. FEBS J, 282: 3091–3106. doi:10.1111/febs.13221], which has been published in final form at [10.1111/febs.13221]. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-...

  17. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human-made disasters has become one focal point for environmental knowledge production. This type of digital map has been highlighted as a processual turn in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism......, it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This article looks at computer-assisted cartography as part of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the data-journalism platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example...

  18. Data Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hladíková, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  19. Radiatio Detector Characterization at APO While Stacking pbars in 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveling, A.F.; /Fermilab

    2000-02-09

    The Main Injector provided beam for pbar stacking for the first time in 1999 over the period 12/20 to 12/21. The purpose of this memo is to record some observations on the response of various radiation detectors as a function of beam on the pbar targel. The detectors include a Scarecrow in the APO Vault, a Chipmunk just upstream of the APO vault, and a Chipmunk in the water cage adjacent to the Pulsed Magnet pump skid in the water systems cage. In addition, there are air monitors, one sampling in the PreVault enclosure and one sampling at the exhaust stack at the upstream end of lhe PreTarget enclosure. All data was collected by the ACNET system Lumberjack data logger. Beam intensity data was summed over consecutive 10 minute periods and normalized to an hourly intensity. The Chipmunk, Scarecrow, and Air Monitor data are based 10 minute averages taken over periods which coincide with normalized beam intensity.

  20. Water diffusion and fracture in organosilicate glass film stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Youbo [Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138-2901 (United States); Tsui, Ting Y. [Silicon Technology Development, Texas Instruments Inc., 13121 TI Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75243 (United States); Vlassak, Joost J. [Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138-2901 (United States)]. E-mail: vlassak@esag.harvard.edu

    2007-04-15

    Organosilicate glass (OSG) coatings with low dielectric permittivity are widely used as dielectrics in high-performance integrated circuits. OSG is very brittle and it is susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking in water-containing environments. We have investigated the adhesion degradation of silicon nitride/OSG and silicon carbonitride/OSG interfaces caused by water diffusion. Experimental results are in good quantitative agreement with an analytical model that combines water diffusion with subcritical crack growth. Fracture experiments show that water diffusion in OSG film stacks is remarkably fast and that it has an activation energy of 0.27 eV. The adhesion degradation is completely reversible under mild annealing conditions. Interfacial plasma treatments result in a significant enhancement of the adhesion in the absence of water, but this enhancement is lost almost completely upon exposure of the film stack to water. A diffusion study using deuterium as an isotopic tracer shows that the Si/OSG interface is the main diffusion path.

  1. Low hydrostatic head electrolyte addition to fuel cell stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothmann, Richard E.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell and system for supply electrolyte, as well as fuel and an oxidant to a fuel cell stack having at least two fuel cells, each of the cells having a pair of spaced electrodes and a matrix sandwiched therebetween, fuel and oxidant paths associated with a bipolar plate separating each pair of adjacent fuel cells and an electrolyte fill path for adding electrolyte to the cells and wetting said matrices. Electrolyte is flowed through the fuel cell stack in a back and forth fashion in a path in each cell substantially parallel to one face of opposite faces of the bipolar plate exposed to one of the electrodes and the matrices to produce an overall head uniformly between cells due to frictional pressure drop in the path for each cell free of a large hydrostatic head to thereby avoid flooding of the electrodes. The bipolar plate is provided with channels forming paths for the flow of the fuel and oxidant on opposite faces thereof, and the fuel and the oxidant are flowed along a first side of the bipolar plate and a second side of the bipolar plate through channels formed into the opposite faces of the bipolar plate, the fuel flowing through channels formed into one of the opposite faces and the oxidant flowing through channels formed into the other of the opposite faces.

  2. Magnetization loss for stacks of ReBCO tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovsky, N.; De Marzi, G.; Uglietti, D.; Bruzzone, P.; Muzzi, L.

    2017-02-01

    The AC loss measurements of the high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable prototype in the EDIPO test facility motivated detailed investigations of the loss contributions from the tape, strand and cable stages of the HTS fusion conductor design proposed at the Swiss Plasma Center. As an initial step of the task, magnetization tests of soldered stacks of HTS tapes were carried out at temperatures of 5 and 77 {{K}} and magnetic fields up to 12 {{T}} using the vibrating sample magnetometer technique. The influence on the magnetization loss of the number of tapes, width of the tape, field’s orientation and tape’s manufacturer is studied experimentally performing both the major and minor magnetization loops with different ramp rates of the applied magnetic field. In order to validate the test results, a numerical model is developed and presented in this work. From the numerical model we also deduced an analytical approach for the magnetization loss in the stacks of tapes with arbitrary number of tapes in the critical state model. Comparison between the measured and estimated magnetization loss of the cable prototypes is reported as well.

  3. Spectral multiplexing using stacked volume-phase holographic gratings - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanutta, A.; Landoni, M.; Riva, M.; Bianco, A.

    2017-08-01

    Many focal-reducer spectrographs, currently available at state-of-the-art telescopes facilities, would benefit from a simple refurbishing that could increase both the resolution and spectral range in order to cope with the progressively challenging scientific requirements, but, in order to make this update appealing, it should minimize the changes in the existing structure of the instrument. In the past, many authors proposed solutions based on stacking subsequently layers of dispersive elements and recording multiple spectra in one shot (multiplexing). Although this idea is promising, it brings several drawbacks and complexities that prevent the straightforward integration of such a device in a spectrograph. Fortunately, nowadays, the situation has changed dramatically, thanks to the successful experience achieved through photopolymeric holographic films, used to fabricate common volume-phase holographic gratings (VPHGs). Thanks to the various advantages made available by these materials in this context, we propose an innovative solution to design a stacked multiplexed VPHG that is able to secure efficiently different spectra in a single shot. This allows us to increase resolution and spectral range enabling astronomers to greatly economize their awarded time at the telescope. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of our solution, both in terms of expected performance and feasibility, supposing the upgrade of the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS).

  4. Migration velocity analysis using pre-stack wave fields

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-08-25

    Using both image and data domains to perform velocity inversion can help us resolve the long and short wavelength components of the velocity model, usually in that order. This translates to integrating migration velocity analysis into full waveform inversion. The migration velocity analysis part of the inversion often requires computing extended images, which is expensive when using conventional methods. As a result, we use pre-stack wavefield (the double-square-root formulation) extrapolation, which includes the extended information (subsurface offsets) naturally, to make the process far more efficient and stable. The combination of the forward and adjoint pre-stack wavefields provides us with update options that can be easily conditioned to improve convergence. We specifically use a modified differential semblance operator to split the extended image into a residual part for classic differential semblance operator updates and the image (Born) modelling part, which provides reflections for higher resolution information. In our implementation, we invert for the velocity and the image simultaneously through a dual objective function. Applications to synthetic examples demonstrate the features of the approach.

  5. Degradation measurement and analysis for cells and stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmen, Randall S.; Williams, Mark C.; Gerdes, Kirk

    Past research in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) performance assessment and improvement has focused on cell operating voltage (efficiency). Related to this metric, but distinct and equally important, is performance degradation. This paper examines cell degradation, provides key definitions needed for its characterization, and discusses the relationship of various cell performance variables. To characterize degradation, two parameters are defined, namely, area-specific resistance (ASR), and degradation rate (DR). The ASR of a cell/stack increases as a result of degradation, and therefore needs to be modeled as a time-dependent parameter. A model for SOFC cell performance is used to describe polarization losses, and to predict degradation performance. The model is then used to demonstrate the use of ASR and DR in the assessment of degradation. Available experimental data is separately used to do the same. ASR is shown to be insensitive to certain variations in test conditions and therefore is the preferred parameter for fuel cell developers when comparing performance differences arising from incremental changes in design/materials. DR is the preferred parameter for determining changes in efficiency over the lifetime of the cell/stack, which is a key concern for end users.

  6. A large sample of shear-selected clusters from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program S16A Wide field mass maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune; Hamana, Takashi; Shirasaki, Masato; Koike, Michitaro; Komiyama, Yutaka; Umetsu, Keiichi; Utsumi, Yousuke; Okabe, Nobuhiro; More, Surhud; Medezinski, Elinor; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyatake, Hironao; Murayama, Hitoshi; Ota, Naomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki

    2017-12-01

    We present the result of searching for clusters of galaxies based on weak gravitational lensing analysis of the ˜160 deg2 area surveyed by Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) as a Subaru Strategic Program. HSC is a new prime focus optical imager with a 1.5°-diameter field of view on the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. The superb median seeing on the HSC i-band images of 0{^''.}56 allows the reconstruction of high angular resolution mass maps via weak lensing, which is crucial for the weak lensing cluster search. We identify 65 mass map peaks with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio larger than 4.7, and carefully examine their properties by cross-matching the clusters with optical and X-ray cluster catalogs. We find that all the 39 peaks with S/N > 5.1 have counterparts in the optical cluster catalogs, and only 2 out of the 65 peaks are probably false positives. The upper limits of X-ray luminosities from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) imply the existence of an X-ray underluminous cluster population. We show that the X-rays from the shear-selected clusters can be statistically detected by stacking the RASS images. The inferred average X-ray luminosity is about half that of the X-ray-selected clusters of the same mass. The radial profile of the dark matter distribution derived from the stacking analysis is well modeled by the Navarro-Frenk-White profile with a small concentration parameter value of c500 ˜ 2.5, which suggests that the selection bias on the orientation or the internal structure for our shear-selected cluster sample is not strong.

  7. Thermally triggered reversible transformation between parallel staggered stacking and plywood-like stacking of 1D coordination polymer chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Ke; Jin, Xu-Hui; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Jie

    2010-08-02

    An unusual example showing reversible interconversion of chain-like isomers under controlled experimental settings is reported, which illustrates the key role of assembly conditions for the target packing architecture with related properties. The reaction of Mn(II) ions with an organic ligand 2-hydroxypyrimidine-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (H(3)hpdc) at room temperature gives a coordination polymer {[Mn(3)(hpdc)(2)(H(2)O)(6)] x 2 H(2)O}(n) containing parallel staggered stacking, whereas the reaction under hydrothermal conditions at 150 degrees C affords a compound {[Mn(3)(hpdc)(2)(H(2)O)(6)] x H(2)O}(n) possessing plywood-like stacking. Interestingly, two compounds contain similar one-dimensional chain components with different orientations that can be controlled by thermodynamic factors. Thermally triggered reversible interconversion of the two compounds was verified by X-ray powder, IR, and element analysis. The spin-canted antiferromagnetic behaviors are observed in as-synthesized samples, and the influence of chain orientations on magnetic properties has been detected.

  8. Slip-stacking Dynamics for High-Power Proton Beams at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Slip-stacking is a particle accelerator configuration used to store two particle beams with different momenta in the same ring. The two beams are longitudinally focused by two radiofrequency (RF) cavities with a small frequency difference between them. Each beam is synchronized to one RF cavity and perturbed by the other RF cavity. Fermilab uses slip-stacking in the Recycler so as to double the power of the 120 GeV proton beam in the Main Injector. This dissertation investigates the dynamics of slip-stacking beams analytically, numerically and experimentally. In the analytic analysis, I find the general trajectory of stable slip-stacking particles and identify the slip-stacking parametric resonances. In the numerical analysis, I characterize the stable phase-space area and model the particle losses. In particular, I evaluate the impact of upgrading the Fermilab Booster cycle-rate from 15 Hz to 20 Hz as part of the Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II). The experimental analysis is used to verify my approach to simulating slip-stacking loss. I design a study for measuring losses from the longitudinal single-particle dynamics of slip-stacking as a function of RF cavity voltage and RF frequency separation. I further propose the installation of a harmonic RF cavity and study the dynamics of this novel slip-stacking configuration. I show the harmonic RF cavity cancels out parametric resonances in slip-stacking, reduces emittance growth during slip-stacking, and dramatically enhances the stable phase-space area. The harmonic cavity is expected to reduce slip-stacking losses to far exceed PIP-II requirements. These results raise the possibility of extending slip-stacking beyond the PIP-II era.

  9. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell stack three-dimensional model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed distributed mathematical model of phosphoric acid fuel cell stack have been developed, with the FORTRAN computer program, for analyzing the temperature distribution in the stack and the associated current density distribution on the cell plates. Energy, mass, and electrochemical analyses in the stack were combined to develop the model. Several reasonable assumptions were made to solve this mathematical model by means of the finite differences numerical method.

  10. Asymptotics for local maximal stack scores with general loop penalty function

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Niels Richard

    2007-01-01

    A stack is a structural unit in an RNA structure that is formed by pairs of hydrogen bonded nucleotides. Paired nucleotides are scored according to their ability to hydrogen bond. We consider stack/hairpin-loop structures for a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables with values in a finite alphabet, and we show how to obtain an asymptotic Poisson distribution of the number of stack/hairpin-loop structures with a score exceeding a high thresho...

  11. Fuel Cell Stack Testing and Durability in Support of Ion Tiger UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    This report covers efforts by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii under the ONR-funded Ion Tiger UAV award that included testing of Ion Tiger fuel cell stacks in HNEI’s Hawaii Fuel Cell Test Facility located in Honolulu, Hawaii. Work was focused on steady-state stack characteristics of Protonex fuel cell stacks under various operating conditions. In addition, Hardware-in-the-Loop testing was performed to characterize dynamic

  12. SOCTESQA - Solid Oxide Cell and Stack Testing, Safety and Quality Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    Auer, Corinna; Lang, Michael; Couturier, Karine; Nielsen, Eva Ravn; Mc Phail, Stephen; Tsotridis, Georgios; FU, Qingxi

    2014-01-01

    Many research facilities and industrial companies worldwide are engaged in the development and the improvement of solid oxide fuel cells/stacks (SOFC) and also of solid oxide electrolysis cells/stacks (SOEC). However, the successful application of fuel and electrolysis cells/stacks in real world conditions requires reliable assessment, testing and prediction of performance and durability. Therefore the EU-project SOCTESQA will start at the beginning of May with the aim to develop uniform and ...

  13. From the Catalog to the Book on the Shelf: Building a Mapping Application for Vufind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Bauer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At Yale University Library (YUL, recorded reference transactions revealed that after finding a book in the catalog patrons had difficulty knowing how to use the call number to find the book on the shelf. The Library created a mobile service to help locate the call number in the library stacks. From any call number of a book in Sterling Memorial Library at YUL, a map will be displayed which highlights that call number’s general area on a floor in the stacks. YUL introduced the mapping application in Yufind, a catalog in place at Yale since 2008 which is based on Vufind.

  14. Plume trajectory formation under stack tip self-enveloping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, A. M.; Zroichikov, N. A.; Prokhorov, V. B.

    2017-10-01

    The phenomenon of stack tip self-enveloping and its influence upon the conditions of plume formation and on the trajectory of its motion are considered. Processes are described occurring in the initial part of the plume while the interaction between vertically directed flue gases outflowing from the stack and a horizontally directed moving air flow at high wind velocities that lead to the formation of a flag-like plume. Conditions responsible for the origin and evolution of interaction between these flows are demonstrated. For the first time, a plume formed under these conditions without bifurcation is registered. A photo image thereof is presented. A scheme for the calculation of the motion of a plume trajectory is proposed, the quantitative characteristics of which are obtained based on field observations. The wind velocity and direction, air temperature, and atmospheric turbulence at the level of the initial part of the trajectory have been obtained based on data obtained from an automatic meteorological system (mounted on the outer parts of a 250 m high stack no. 1 at the Naberezhnye Chelny TEPP plant) as well as based on the results of photographing and theodolite sighting of smoke puffs' trajectory taking into account their velocity within its initial part. The calculation scheme is supplemented with a new acting force—the force of self-enveloping. Based on the comparison of the new calculation scheme with the previous one, a significant contribution of this force to the development of the trajectory is revealed. A comparison of the natural full-scale data with the results of the calculation according to the proposed new scheme is made. The proposed calculation scheme has allowed us to extend the application of the existing technique to the range of high wind velocities. This approach would make it possible to simulate and investigate the trajectory and full rising height of the calculated the length above the mouth of flue-pipes, depending on various modal

  15. Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walawage, Sriema L; Britton, Monica T; Leslie, Charles A; Uratsu, Sandra L; Li, YingYue; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2013-10-01

    Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100% control in some lines

  16. Submillimeter Stacking in Overdense Environments at z>2: Exploring Galaxies’ ISM Content in the COSMOS Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Richard; Hung, Chao-Ling; Casey, Caitlin M.; Chiang, Yi-Kuan

    2018-01-01

    A galaxy’s evolution is affected by its environment. Today, we see quiescent elliptical galaxies preferentially in the high-density environments of galaxy clusters, while star-forming galaxies are found only in lower density environments. However, this trend is less clear at z > 2, with some works arguing for a possible reversal of star formation with environmental density. While star formation is quenched in the cores of today's galaxy clusters, their progenitors likely had ongoing star formation in line with cosmic downsizing. In order to better understand when and how the cores of galaxy protoclusters formed their stars, We search for a dependence between environment and gas content in galaxy protoclusters at z > 2. To do this, we utilize the 2deg^2 COSMOS survey and SCUBA2 850 micron maps of the COSMOS field to trace galaxy gas content and environment. We conduct a stacking analysis with the code SIMSTACK to aide in our search for a relationship between environment and gas content.

  17. Development of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack for an underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In-Su; Kho, Back-Kyun; Cho, Sungbaek

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack that is specifically designed for the propulsion of an underwater vehicle (UV). The stack for a UV must be continuously operated in a closed space using hydrogen and pure oxygen; it should meet various performance requirements such as high hydrogen and oxygen utilizations, low hydrogen and oxygen consumptions, a high ramp-up rate, and a long lifetime. To this end, a cascade-type stack design is employed and the cell components, including the membrane electrode assembly and bipolar plate, are evaluated using long-term performance tests. The feasibility of a fabricated 4-kW-class stack was confirmed through various performance evaluations. The proposed cascade-type stack exhibited a high efficiency of 65% and high hydrogen and oxygen utilizations of 99.89% and 99.68%, respectively, resulting in significantly lesser purge-gas emissions to the outside of the stack. The load-following test was successfully performed at a high ramp-up rate. The lifetime of the stack was confirmed by a 3500-h performance test, from which the degradation rate of the cell voltage was obtained. The advantages of the cascade-type stack were also confirmed by comparing its performance with that of a single-stage stack operating in dead-end mode.

  18. Planar SOFC technology: stack design and development for lower cost and manufacturability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyke, S.H.; Howard, P.J.; Leah, R.T.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to examine the performance of an externally manifolded solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack based on a planar, anode-supported cells geometry, and to develop sealing materials and a design for a SOFC stack for potential low cost manufacture. The testing of short stacks, the development of innovative glass-ceramic sealing materials, and the development of an SOFC model to assess cell performance are described along with the development of a new stack geometry based on an internally manifolded geometry.

  19. Power sources involving ~ 300W PEMFC fuel cell stacks cooled by different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two constructions of ~300W PEMFC stacks, cooled by different media, were analysed. An open-cathode ~300W PEMFC stack cooled by air (Horizon, Singapore and a PEMFC F-42 stack cooled by a liquid medium (Schunk, Germany were chosen for all of the investigations described in this paper. The potential for the design and construction of power sources involving fuel cells, as well as of a hybrid system (fuel cell-lithium battery for mobile and stationary applications, is presented and discussed. The impact of certain experimental parameters on PEMFC stack performance is analysed and discussed.

  20. Very Weak Signals (VWS detected by stacking method according to different astronomical periodicities (HiCum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Ruymbeke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A stacking method to detect very weak signals is introduced in this paper. This method is to stack observed data in different well known periodicities according to the astronomical clock since majority geophysical observations are time based. We validated this method by applying it in four different cases. Interactions behind the observed parameters become obviously after it is stacked in two diurnal and semidiurnal tidal periodical waves. Amplitude and phase variations will be also measurable when a sliding windows stacking is used. This could be an important reference to find precursors before some earthquakes and volcanic events, corresponding to attenuations of medium patterns.

  1. Performance of air-cathode stacked microbial fuel cells systems for wastewater treatment and electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Arriaga, Edson Baltazar; Guillen-Alonso, Yvonne; Morales-Morales, Cornelio; García-Sánchez, Liliana; Bahena-Bahena, Erick Obed; Guadarrama-Pérez, Oscar; Loyola-Morales, Félix

    2017-07-01

    Two different air-cathode stacked microbial fuel cell (MFC) configurations were evaluated under continuous flow during the treatment of municipal wastewater and electricity production at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3, 1, and 0.5 d. Stacked MFC 1 was formed by 20 individual air-cathode MFC units. The second stacked MFC (stacked MFC 2) consisted of 40 air-cathode MFC units placed in a shared reactor. The maximum voltages produced at closed circuit (1,000 Ω) were 170 mV for stacked MFC 1 and 94 mV for stacked MFC 2. Different power densities in each MFC unit were obtained due to a potential drop phenomenon and to a change in chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations inside reactors. The maximum power densities from individual MFC units were up to 1,107 mW/m 2 for stacked MFC 1 and up to 472 mW/m 2 for stacked MFC 2. The maximum power densities in stacked MFC 1 and MFC 2 connected in series were 79 mW/m 2 and 4 mW/m 2 , respectively. Electricity generation and COD removal efficiencies were reduced when the HRT was decreased. High removal efficiencies of 84% of COD, 47% of total nitrogen, and 30% of total phosphorus were obtained during municipal wastewater treatment.

  2. Simulation and Optimization of Air-Cooled PEMFC Stack for Lightweight Hybrid Vehicle Application

    OpenAIRE

    Jingming Liang; Zefeng Wu

    2015-01-01

    A model of 2 kW air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack has been built based upon the application of lightweight hybrid vehicle after analyzing the characteristics of heat transfer of the air-cooled stack. Different dissipating models of the air-cooled stack have been simulated and an optimal simulation model for air-cooled stack called convection heat transfer (CHT) model has been figured out by applying the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, based on which, th...

  3. Stack Parameters Effect on the Performance of Anharmonic Resonator Thermoacoustic Heat Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Nouh, Mostafa A.

    2014-01-01

    A thermoacoustic heat engine (TAHE) converts heat into acoustic power with no moving parts. It exhibits several advantages over traditional engines, such as simple design, stable functionality, and environment-friendly working gas. In order to further improve the performance of TAHE, stack parameters need to be optimized. Stack\\'s position, length and plate spacing are the three main parameters that have been investigated in this study. Stack\\'s position dictates both the efficiency and the maximum produced acoustic power of the heat engine. Positioning the stack closer to the pressure anti-node might ensure high efficiency on the expense of the maximum produced acoustic power. It is noticed that the TAHE efficiency can further be improved by spacing the plates of the stack at a value of 2.4 of the thermal penetration depth, δk . Changes in the stack length will not affect the efficiency much as long as the temperature gradient across the stack, as a ratio of the critical temperature gradient ψ is more than 1. Upon interpreting the effect of these variations, attempts are made towards reaching the engine\\'s most powerful operating point.

  4. Stacking fault energies in Si doped GaN: A first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, J. A.; Bristowe, P. D.

    2000-07-01

    The variation of stacking fault energy in GaN as a function of silicon doping is calculated using density functional theory. It is found that the stacking fault energy reduces with increasing silicon concentration in agreement with experimental observations of higher stacking fault densities in Si doped GaN compared to undoped GaN. The result is explained in terms of a decrease in the magnitude of the Mulliken charges on the atoms as silicon is incorporated into the lattice and an increase in the overlap populations. We propose that Mulliken charges can be used to predict how any substitutional impurity will influence the stacking fault formation energy.

  5. A first principles investigation of stacking fault energies and bonding in wurtzite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, J. A.; Bristowe, P. D.

    1999-07-01

    Basal plane stacking fault energies for GaN, AlN, InN and BeO are calculated using density functional theory. A relation which links the stacking fault energy to a parameter of the material is sought in order to explain the different stacking fault concentrations observed in each material. An investigation into fully relaxed structures shows that the formation energy is lower in materials with higher c/a ratios. A Mulliken population analysis shows that for the case of the group-III nitrides the stacking fault energy increases monotonically with increasing Mulliken charge.

  6. Lazy Spilling for a Time-Predictable Stack Cache: Implementation and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Jordan, Alexander; Brandner, Florian

    2014-01-01

    of the cache content to main memory, if the content was not modified in the meantime. At first sight, this appears to be an average-case optimization. Indeed, measurements show that the number of cache blocks spilled is reduced to about 17% and 30% in the mean, depending on the stack cache size. Furthermore...... this problem. A stack cache, for instance, allows the compiler to efficiently cache a program's stack, while static analysis of its behavior remains easy. Likewise, its implementation requires little hardware overhead. This work introduces an optimization of the standard stack cache to avoid redundant spilling...

  7. A 3-D Model of Stacked Thrusts in the Sevier Thrust Belt, Eastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R. W.; Clayton, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Using published and new geologic map data and two exploratory wells for control, we constructed a three-dimensional geological model of the Pine Creek area in the Big Hole Mountains of eastern Idaho, where stacked Sevier thrust sheets are exposed at the surface. In this area, Cretaceous crustal shortening displaced and folded strata from Cambrian to Cretaceous in age. Using geologic map data as a primary input to a 3-D model presents a number of challenges, especially representing fault geometries at depth and maintaining strata thicknesses. The highly variable attitudes measured at the surface are also difficult to represent in a subsurface model because they require extensive extrapolation to depth. To overcome these challenges we EarthVision software, which has tools for model construction with minimal data inputs and uses a minimum tension algorithm to create geologically realistic surfaces. We also constructed two primary cross-sections to constrain strata and fault geometries according to structural principles, and used these to guide construction of fault and horizon surfaces. We then designated horizons with the best control as reference horizons to constrain strata geometries, and built the remaining horizons using isochores to add or subtract from those surfaces. The model shows classic flat-ramp thrust geometries as seen farther southeast in the Wyoming section of the thrust belt. The model also shows uniform southwestward tilting of faults and strata in the north end above younger thrusts, but strong effects from a duplex on a younger thrust fault encountered in the southern well, which rotated the strata and older faults above it.

  8. ALFALFA H I data stacking - I. Does the bulge quench ongoing star formation in early-type galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabello, Silvia; Catinella, Barbara; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Haynes, Martha P.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Schiminovich, David

    2011-02-01

    We have carried out an H I stacking analysis of a volume-limited sample of ˜5000 galaxies with imaging and spectroscopic data from GALEX and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which lie within the current footprint of the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. Our galaxies are selected to have stellar masses greater than 1010 M⊙ and redshifts in the range 0.025 extract a subsample of 1833 `early-type' galaxies with inclinations less than 70°, with concentration indices C > 2.6 and with light profiles that are well fit by a De Vaucouleurs model. We then stack H I line spectra extracted from the ALFALFA data cubes at the 3D positions of the galaxies from these two samples in bins of stellar mass, stellar mass surface density, central velocity dispersion and NUV-r colour. We use the stacked spectra to estimate the average H I gas fractions ?/M* of the galaxies in each bin. Our main result is that the H I content of a galaxy is not influenced by its bulge. The average H I gas fractions of galaxies in both our samples correlate most strongly with NUV-r colour and with stellar surface density. The relation between average H I fraction and these two parameters is independent of concentration index C. We have tested whether the average H I gas content of bulge-dominated galaxies on the red sequence differs from that of late-type galaxies on the red sequence. We find no evidence that galaxies with a significant bulge component are less efficient at turning their available gas reservoirs into stars. This result is in contradiction with the `morphological quenching' scenario proposed by Martig et al.

  9. OMPS-NPP L2 NP Ozone (O3) Vertical Profile swath orbital NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NP Ozone (O3) Total Column swath orbital product provides ozone profile retrievals from the Ozone Mapping and Profiling Suite (OMPS) Nadir-Profiler...

  10. CALS Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Ib; Nielsen, Povl Holm; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1998-01-01

    To enhance the industrial applications of CALS, CALS Center Danmark has developed a cost efficient and transparent assessment, CALS Mapping, to uncover the potential of CALS - primarily dedicated to small and medium sized enterprises. The idea behind CALS Mapping is that the CALS State...... of the enterprise is compared with a Reference Enterprise Model (REM). The REM is a CALS idealised enterprise providing full product support throughout the extended enterprise and containing different manufacturing aspects, e.g. component industry, process industry, and one-piece production. This CALS idealised...... enterprise is, when applied in a given organisation modified with respect to the industry regarded, hence irrelevant measure parameters are eliminated to avoid redundancy. This assessment of CALS Mapping, quantify the CALS potential of an organisation with the purpose of providing decision support to the top...

  11. Ultrahigh charge carrier mobility in nanotube encapsulated coronene stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Saientan; Maiti, Prabal K.

    2017-12-01

    Achieving high charge-carrier mobility is the holy grail of organic electronics. In this paper we report an ultrahigh charge-carrier mobility of 14.93 cm2V-1s-1 through a coronene stack encapsulated in a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) by using a multiscale modeling technique which combines molecular dynamics simulations, first-principle calculations, and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. For a CNT having a diameter of 1.56 nm we find a highly ordered defect-free organization of coronene molecules inside the CNT which is responsible for the high charge-carrier mobility. The encapsulated coronene molecules are correlated with a large correlation length of ˜18 Å , which is independent of the length of the coronene column. Our simulation further suggests that coronene molecules can spontaneously enter the CNT, suggesting that the encapsulation is experimentally realizable.

  12. Sodium-Induced Reordering of Atomic Stacks in Black Phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2017-01-12

    While theoretical simulations predict contradictory results about how the intercalation of foreign metal atoms affects the order of atomic layers in black phosphorus (BP), no direct experimental visualization work has yet clarified this ambiguity. By in situ electrochemical sodiation of BP inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and first-principles calculations, we found that sodium intercalation induces a relative glide of/ ⟨010⟩ {001}, resulting in reordering of atomic stacks from AB to AC in BP. The observed local amorphization in our experiments is triggered by lattice constraints. We predict that intercalation of sodium or other metal atoms introduces n-type carriers in BP. This potentially opens a new field for two-dimensional electronics based on BP.

  13. Stacked, Filtered Multi-Channel X-Ray Diode Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNeil, Lawrence P. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Dutra, Eric C. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Raphaelian, Mark; Compton, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Jacoby, Barry [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    This system meets the need for a low-cost, robust X-ray diode array to use for experiments in hostile environments on multiple platforms, and for experiments utilizing forces that may destroy the diode(s). Since these uses require a small size with a minimal single line-of-sight, a parallel array often cannot be used. So a stacked, filtered multi-channel X-ray diode array was developed that was called the MiniXRD. The design was modeled, built, and tested at National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) Livermore Operations (LO) to determine fundamental characteristics. Then, several different systems were fielded as ancillary “ridealong” diagnostics at several national facilities to allow us to iteratively improve the design and usability. Presented here are design considerations and experimental results. This filtered diode array is currently at Technical Readiness Level (TRL) 6.

  14. Multiple layer identification label using stacked identification symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An automatic identification system and method are provided which employ a machine readable multiple layer label. The label has a plurality of machine readable marking layers stacked one upon another. Each of the marking layers encodes an identification symbol detectable using one or more sensing technologies. The various marking layers may comprise the same marking material or each marking layer may comprise a different medium having characteristics detectable by a different sensing technology. These sensing technologies include x-ray, radar, capacitance, thermal, magnetic and ultrasonic. A complete symbol may be encoded within each marking layer or a symbol may be segmented into fragments which are then divided within a single marking layer or encoded across multiple marking layers.

  15. Network Intrusion Detection through Stacking Dilated Convolutional Autoencoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection is one of the most important parts for cyber security to protect computer systems against malicious attacks. With the emergence of numerous sophisticated and new attacks, however, network intrusion detection techniques are facing several significant challenges. The overall objective of this study is to learn useful feature representations automatically and efficiently from large amounts of unlabeled raw network traffic data by using deep learning approaches. We propose a novel network intrusion model by stacking dilated convolutional autoencoders and evaluate our method on two new intrusion detection datasets. Several experiments were carried out to check the effectiveness of our approach. The comparative experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model can achieve considerably high performance which meets the demand of high accuracy and adaptability of network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs. It is quite potential and promising to apply our model in the large-scale and real-world network environments.

  16. Development of Thread-compatible Open Source Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Lukas; Mars, Nidhal; Schappacher, Manuel; Sikora, Axel

    2017-07-01

    The Thread protocol is a recent development based on 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4), but with extensions regarding a more media independent approach, which - additionally - also promises true interoperability. To evaluate and analyse the operation of a Thread network a given open source 6LoWPAN stack for embedded devices (emb::6) has been extended in order to comply with the Thread specification. The implementation covers Mesh Link Establishment (MLE) and network layer functionality as well as 6LoWPAN mesh under routing mechanism based on MAC short addresses. The development has been verified on a virtualization platform and allows dynamical establishment of network topologies based on Thread’s partitioning algorithm.

  17. Full scale phosphoric acid fuel cell stack technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, L.; Faroque, M.

    1984-01-01

    The technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cells is summarized. The preparation, heat treatment, and characterization of carbon composites used as bipolar separator plates are described. Characterization included resistivity, porosity, and electrochemical corrosion. High density glassy carbon/graphite composites performed well in long-term fuel cell endurance tests. Platinum alloy cathode catalysts and low-loaded platinum electrodes were evaluated in 25 sq cm cells. Although the alloys displayed an initial improvement, some of this improvement diminished after a few thousand hours of testing. Low platinum loading (0.12 mg/sq cm anodes and 0.3 mg/sq cm cathodes) performed nearly as well as twice this loading. A selectively wetproofed anode backing paper was tested in a 5 by 15 inch three-cell stack. This material may provide for acid volume expansion, acid storage, and acid lateral distribution.

  18. Intrinsic superconductivity in ABA-stacked trilayer graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwen Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the phonon-mediated superconductivity in light doped ABA-stacked trilayer graphene system by means of two theoretical models. We find superconducting transition temperature TC can be greatly enlarged by tuning the Fermi energy away from neutral point. Utilizing realistic parameters, we find Tc is approximately 1 K even under weak doping condition EF = 0.1 eV. Specifically, we give out the analytical expression for superconductivity gap △ and superconducting transition temperature Tc for negative-U Hubbard model. Further, we consider the thermal fluctuation and calculate the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless critical temperature TBKT. Besides, we consider a two-band BCS model in comparision with the negative-U Hubbard model. The results for both models are qualitatively consistent. Our study provides a promising possibility for realizing intrinsic superconductivity in multilayer graphene systems.

  19. Optimization Design of Bipolar Plate Flow Field in PEM Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; He, Kanghao; Li, Peilong; Yang, Lei; Deng, Li; Jiang, Fei; Yao, Yong

    2017-12-01

    A new design of bipolar plate flow field in proton exchange membrane (PEM) stack was presented to develop a high-performance transfer efficiency of the two-phase flow. Two different flow fields were studied by using numerical simulations and the performance of the flow fields was presented. the hydrodynamic properties include pressure gap between inlet and outlet, the Reynold’s number of the two types were compared based on the Navier–Stokes equations. Computer aided optimization software was implemented in the design of experiments of the preferable flow field. The design of experiments (DOE) for the favorable concept was carried out to study the hydrodynamic properties when changing the design parameters of the bipolar plate.

  20. Multi-channel temperature measurement system for automotive battery stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, Radoslaw; Wojtkowski, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    A multi-channel temperature measurement system for monitoring of automotive battery stack is presented in the paper. The presented system is a complete battery temperature measuring system for hybrid / electric vehicles that incorporates multi-channel temperature measurements with digital temperature sensors communicating through 1-Wire buses, individual 1-Wire bus for each sensor for parallel computing (parallel measurements instead of sequential), FPGA device which collects data from sensors and translates it for CAN bus frames. CAN bus is incorporated for communication with car Battery Management System and uses additional CAN bus controller which communicates with FPGA device through SPI bus. The described system can parallel measure up to 12 temperatures but can be easily extended in the future in case of additional needs. The structure of the system as well as particular devices are described in the paper. Selected results of experimental investigations which show proper operation of the system are presented as well.