Sample records for profile estimates obtained

  1. A Mathematical Technique for Estimating True Temperature Profiles of Data Obtained from Long Time Constant Thermocouples

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Graeme


    A mathematical modeling technique is described for estimating true temperature profiles of data obtained from long time constant thermocouples, which were used in fuel fire tests designed to determine...

  2. Obtaining Diagnostic Classification Model Estimates Using Mplus (United States)

    Templin, Jonathan; Hoffman, Lesa


    Diagnostic classification models (aka cognitive or skills diagnosis models) have shown great promise for evaluating mastery on a multidimensional profile of skills as assessed through examinee responses, but continued development and application of these models has been hindered by a lack of readily available software. In this article we…

  3. Obtaining and Estimating Low Noise Floors in Vibration Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard


    For some applications like seismic applications and measuring ambient vibrations in structures, it is essential that the noise floors of the sensors and other system components are low and known to the user. Some of the most important noise sources are reviewed and it is discussed how the sensor...... can be designed in order to obtain a low noise floor. Techniques to estimate the noise floors for sensors are reviewed and are demonstrated on a commercial commonly used sensor for vibration testing. It is illustrated how the noise floor can be calculated using the coherence between simultaneous...

  4. Reliability of fish size estimates obtained from multibeam imaging sonar (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Magowan, Kevin J.; Brown, Lori M.; Fox, Dewayne A.


    Multibeam imaging sonars have considerable potential for use in fisheries surveys because the video-like images are easy to interpret, and they contain information about fish size, shape, and swimming behavior, as well as characteristics of occupied habitats. We examined images obtained using a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) multibeam sonar for Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, striped bass Morone saxatilis, white perch M. americana, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus of known size (20–141 cm) to determine the reliability of length estimates. For ranges up to 11 m, percent measurement error (sonar estimate – total length)/total length × 100 varied by species but was not related to the fish's range or aspect angle (orientation relative to the sonar beam). Least-square mean percent error was significantly different from 0.0 for Atlantic sturgeon (x̄  =  −8.34, SE  =  2.39) and white perch (x̄  = 14.48, SE  =  3.99) but not striped bass (x̄  =  3.71, SE  =  2.58) or channel catfish (x̄  = 3.97, SE  =  5.16). Underestimating lengths of Atlantic sturgeon may be due to difficulty in detecting the snout or the longer dorsal lobe of the heterocercal tail. White perch was the smallest species tested, and it had the largest percent measurement errors (both positive and negative) and the lowest percentage of images classified as good or acceptable. Automated length estimates for the four species using Echoview software varied with position in the view-field. Estimates tended to be low at more extreme azimuthal angles (fish's angle off-axis within the view-field), but mean and maximum estimates were highly correlated with total length. Software estimates also were biased by fish images partially outside the view-field and when acoustic crosstalk occurred (when a fish perpendicular to the sonar and at relatively close range is detected in the side lobes of adjacent beams). These sources of

  5. Uncertainty Estimates of Psychoacoustic Thresholds Obtained from Group Tests (United States)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Christian, Andrew


    Adaptive psychoacoustic test methods, in which the next signal level depends on the response to the previous signal, are the most efficient for determining psychoacoustic thresholds of individual subjects. In many tests conducted in the NASA psychoacoustic labs, the goal is to determine thresholds representative of the general population. To do this economically, non-adaptive testing methods are used in which three or four subjects are tested at the same time with predetermined signal levels. This approach requires us to identify techniques for assessing the uncertainty in resulting group-average psychoacoustic thresholds. In this presentation we examine the Delta Method of frequentist statistics, the Generalized Linear Model (GLM), the Nonparametric Bootstrap, a frequentist method, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Posterior Estimation and a Bayesian approach. Each technique is exercised on a manufactured, theoretical dataset and then on datasets from two psychoacoustics facilities at NASA. The Delta Method is the simplest to implement and accurate for the cases studied. The GLM is found to be the least robust, and the Bootstrap takes the longest to calculate. The Bayesian Posterior Estimate is the most versatile technique examined because it allows the inclusion of prior information.

  6. Models for estimating photosynthesis parameters from in situ production profiles (United States)

    Kovač, Žarko; Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Antunović, Suzana


    photosynthesis irradiance functions and parameters for modeling in situ production profiles. In light of the results obtained in this work we argue that the choice of the primary production model should reflect the available data and these models should be data driven regarding parameter estimation.

  7. GPR amplitude reflection coefficient estimates from reflected amplitude obtained from Common Mid-Point surveys (United States)

    Kana, A. A.; West, J. L.; Clark, R.


    Ground penetrating radar offers the potential to image individual rock fractures, and can potentially provide much-needed information on fracture aperture and hence permeability. However, estimation of fracture properties from radar requires determination of the reflection co-efficient (R) of individual fractures. The reflected amplitude measured at the receiver is related to reflection coefficient, but it is also affected by other factors including transmitter power and coupling with the ground, the antenna radiation pattern, incident angle, geometric spreading and intrinsic attenuation within the rock matrix (and hence the ray path length). Hence, obtaining absolute R values for fractures is a non-trivial exercise. Here we present an approach for the estimation of bedding plane fracture R based on the variation in reflection amplitude with incident angle and polarization determined in CMP (Common Mid-Point) surveys. A 500MHz radar Common Offset (CO) profile was acquired on Carboniferous Limestone in West Yorkshire, United Kingdom. CMP data were acquired at specific points along the profile using both broadside (TE) and endfire (TM) acquisition modes. Attenuation characteristics for the limestone and antenna radiation pattern in this lithology were estimated from transillumination surveys. The variation in reflected amplitude with incident angle was determined for bedding plane fractures identified in the CMP data. After correcting these reflected amplitudes for attenuation, radiation pattern and geometric spreading, reflection amplitude versus incident angle curves were compared with theoretical predictions expected for thin water-filled parallel-sided fractures. Preliminary analysis indicate that TE and TM mode responses match theoretical predictions which suggests this approach can be used to obtain R values from CMP surveys.

  8. A note on critical dimensions in profile semiparametric estimation


    Andresen, Andreas


    This paper complements the results of Andresen et. al "Critical dimension in profile semiparametric estimation" (2014) on profile estimators in semiparametric models. We present two examples. One that illustrates that the smoothness constraint on the expected value of the contrast functional used to define the profile M-estimator is necessary for the bound derived for the critical ratio of dimension to sample size. A second one to show that in the case that the target dimension is proportiona...

  9. Can defensible estimates of canopy proximity be obtained based on single point eddy covariance measurements? (United States)

    Hurdebise, Quentin; Heinesch, Bernard; De Ligne, Anne; Vincke, Caroline; Aubinet, Marc


    Understanding if and how the spatial and temporal variability of the surrounding environment affects turbulence is essential for long-term eddy covariance measurements above growing and heterogeneous ecosystems. It requires characterizing the surrounding environment. One way to achieve this is to analyse the canopy aerodynamic distance, which is the difference between measurement height (z) and displacement height (d). In this study, twenty years of eddy covariance measurements from the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory, a site located in a mixed temperate forest, were used. Canopy aerodynamic distance (z-d) estimates were obtained using two micrometeorological methods: the first one, which is original so far as we know, was based on analysing sensible heat cospectra; the second one was derived from the wind speed profile equation. Canopy height estimates based on inventories were used to validate both methods. The micrometeorological methods allowed the z-d variations due to changes in canopy or measurement height to be detected. In addition, the results obtained using the two methods were well correlated, spatially and temporally, with the z-d derived from canopy height measurements. The micrometeorological approaches used could therefore be a promising tool for investigating z-d variability at a high directional and temporal resolution. Questions remain, however, particularly with regard to the variability observed that cannot be explained by canopy or measurement height variation. Forest management practices and the non-fulfilment of similarity relationships were suspected to be the main explanatory factors.

  10. Determination of the meniscus shape of a negative ion beam from an experimentally obtained beam profile (United States)

    Ichikawa, M.; Kojima, A.; Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Baltador, C.; Barbisan, M.; Delogu, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Marconato, N.; Nishikiori, R.; Pimazzoni, A.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Tobari, H.; Umeda, N.; Veltri, P.; Watanabe, K.; Yoshida, M.; Antoni, V.; Kashiwagi, M.


    In order to understand the physics mechanism of a negative ion extraction in negative ion sources, an emission surface of the negative ions around an aperture at a plasma grid, so-called a meniscus, has been analyzed by an inverse calculation of the negative ion trajectory in a two dimensional beam analysis code. In this method, the meniscus is defined as the final position of the negative ion trajectories which are inversely calculated from the measured beam profile to the plasma grid. In a case of the volume-produced negative ions, the calculated meniscus by the inverse calculation was similar to that obtained in conventional beam simulation codes for positive ion extractions such as BEAMORBT and SLACCAD. The negative ion current density was uniform along the meniscus. This indicates that the negative ions produced in the plasma are transported to the plasma grid uniformly as considered in the transportation of the positive ions. However, in a surface production case of negative ions, where the negative ions are generated near the plasma grid with lower work function by seeding cesium, the current density in the peripheral region of the meniscus close to the plasma grid surface was estimated to be 2 times larger than the center region, which suggested that the extraction process of the surface-produced negative ions was much different with that for the positive ions. Because this non-uniform profile of the current density made the meniscus shape strongly concave, the beam extracted from the peripheral region could have a large divergence angle, which might be one of origins of so-called beam halo. This is the first results of the determination of the meniscus based on the experiment, which is useful to improve the prediction of the meniscus shape and heat loads based on the beam trajectories including beam halo.

  11. Estimation of road profile variability from measured vehicle responses (United States)

    Fauriat, W.; Mattrand, C.; Gayton, N.; Beakou, A.; Cembrzynski, T.


    When assessing the statistical variability of fatigue loads acting throughout the life of a vehicle, the question of the variability of road roughness naturally arises, as both quantities are strongly related. For car manufacturers, gathering information on the environment in which vehicles evolve is a long and costly but necessary process to adapt their products to durability requirements. In the present paper, a data processing algorithm is proposed in order to estimate the road profiles covered by a given vehicle, from the dynamic responses measured on this vehicle. The algorithm based on Kalman filtering theory aims at solving a so-called inverse problem, in a stochastic framework. It is validated using experimental data obtained from simulations and real measurements. The proposed method is subsequently applied to extract valuable statistical information on road roughness from an existing load characterisation campaign carried out by Renault within one of its markets.

  12. Maximum likelihood estimation for predicting the probability of obtaining variable shortleaf pine regeneration densities (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jean Nkouka; Michael M. Huebschmann; James M. Guldin


    A logistic equation is the basis for a model that predicts the probability of obtaining regeneration at specified densities. The density of regeneration (trees/ha) for which an estimate of probability is desired can be specified by means of independent variables in the model. When estimating parameters, the dependent variable is set to 1 if the regeneration density (...

  13. Method for calculating the variance and prediction intervals for biomass estimates obtained from allometric equations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirton, A


    Full Text Available intervals (confidence intervals for predicted values) for allometric estimates can be obtained using an example of estimating tree biomass from stem diameter. It explains how to deal with relationships which are in the power function form - a common form... for allometric relationships - and identifies the information that needs to be provided with the allometric equation if it is to be used with confidence. Correct estimation of tree biomass with known error is very important when trees are being planted...

  14. Combining uncertainty-estimation techniques and cost-benefit analysis to obtain consistent design-flood estimators (United States)

    Botto, A.; Ganora, D.; Laio, F.; Claps, P.


    Traditionally, flood frequency analysis has been used to assess the design discharge for hydraulic infrastructures. Unfortunately, this method involves uncertainties, be they of random or epistemic nature. Despite some success in measuring uncertainty, e.g. by means of numerical simulations, exhaustive methods for their evaluation are still an open challenge to the scientific community. The proposed method aims to improve the standard models for design flood estimation, considering the hydrological uncertainties inherent with the classic flood frequency analysis, in combination with cost-benefit analysis. Within this framework, two of the main issues related to flood risk are taken into account: on the one hand statistical flood frequency analysis is complemented with suitable uncertainty estimates; on the other hand the economic value of the flood-prone land is considered, as well as the economic losses in case of overflow. Consider a case where discharge data are available at the design site: the proposed procedure involves the following steps: (i) for a given return period T the design discharge is obtained using standard statistical inference (for example, using the GEV distribution and the method of L- moments to estimate the parameters); (ii) Monte Carlo simulations are performed to quantify the parametric uncertainty related to the design-flood estimator: 10000 triplets of L-moment values are randomly sampled from their relevant multivariate distribution, and 10000 values of the T-year discharge are obtained ; (iii) a procedure called the least total expected cost (LTEC) design approach is applied as described hereafter: linear cost and damage functions are proposed so that the ratio between the slope of the damage function and the slope of the cost function is equal to T. The expected total cost (sum of the cost plus the expected damage) is obtained for each of the 10000 design value estimators, and the estimator corresponding to the minimum total cost is

  15. Computation of nonparametric convex hazard estimators via profile methods. (United States)

    Jankowski, Hanna K; Wellner, Jon A


    This paper proposes a profile likelihood algorithm to compute the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator of a convex hazard function. The maximisation is performed in two steps: First the support reduction algorithm is used to maximise the likelihood over all hazard functions with a given point of minimum (or antimode). Then it is shown that the profile (or partially maximised) likelihood is quasi-concave as a function of the antimode, so that a bisection algorithm can be applied to find the maximum of the profile likelihood, and hence also the global maximum. The new algorithm is illustrated using both artificial and real data, including lifetime data for Canadian males and females.

  16. Computation of nonparametric convex hazard estimators via profile methods (United States)

    Jankowski, Hanna K.; Wellner, Jon A.


    This paper proposes a profile likelihood algorithm to compute the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator of a convex hazard function. The maximisation is performed in two steps: First the support reduction algorithm is used to maximise the likelihood over all hazard functions with a given point of minimum (or antimode). Then it is shown that the profile (or partially maximised) likelihood is quasi-concave as a function of the antimode, so that a bisection algorithm can be applied to find the maximum of the profile likelihood, and hence also the global maximum. The new algorithm is illustrated using both artificial and real data, including lifetime data for Canadian males and females. PMID:20300560

  17. Estimates by bootstrap interval for time series forecasts obtained by theta model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Steffen


    Full Text Available In this work, are developed an experimental computer program in Matlab language version 7.1 from the univariate method for time series forecasting called Theta, and implementation of resampling technique known as computer intensive "bootstrap" to estimate the prediction for the point forecast obtained by this method by confidence interval. To solve this problem built up an algorithm that uses Monte Carlo simulation to obtain the interval estimation for forecasts. The Theta model presented in this work was very efficient in M3 Makridakis competition, where tested 3003 series. It is based on the concept of modifying the local curvature of the time series obtained by a coefficient theta (Θ. In it's simplest approach the time series is decomposed into two lines theta representing terms of long term and short term. The prediction is made by combining the forecast obtained by fitting lines obtained with the theta decomposition. The results of Mape's error obtained for the estimates confirm the favorable results to the method of M3 competition being a good alternative for time series forecast.

  18. Commentary: Can we obtain realistic HIV/AIDS estimates for India?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 4. Commentary: Can we obtain realistic HIV/AIDS estimates for India? Arni S R Srinivasa Rao. Volume 28 Issue 4 June 2003 pp 367-369. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  19. Optimized Estimation of Surface Layer Characteristics from Profiling Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreene Kang


    Full Text Available New sampling techniques such as tethered-balloon-based measurements or small unmanned aerial vehicles are capable of providing multiple profiles of the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer (MASL in a short time period. It is desirable to obtain surface fluxes from these measurements, especially when direct flux measurements are difficult to obtain. The profiling data is different from the traditional mean profiles obtained at two or more fixed levels in the surface layer from which surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat are derived based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST. This research develops an improved method to derive surface fluxes and the corresponding MASL mean profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity with a least-squares optimization method using the profiling measurements. This approach allows the use of all available independent data. We use a weighted cost function based on the framework of MOST with the cost being optimized using a quasi-Newton method. This approach was applied to seven sets of data collected from the Monterey Bay. The derived fluxes and mean profiles show reasonable results. An empirical bias analysis is conducted using 1000 synthetic datasets to evaluate the robustness of the method.

  20. Estimating Planetary Boundary Layer Heights from NOAA Profiler Network Wind Profiler Data (United States)

    Molod, Andrea M.; Salmun, H.; Dempsey, M


    An algorithm was developed to estimate planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from hourly archived wind profiler data from the NOAA Profiler Network (NPN) sites located throughout the central United States. Unlike previous studies, the present algorithm has been applied to a long record of publicly available wind profiler signal backscatter data. Under clear conditions, summertime averaged hourly time series of PBL heights compare well with Richardson-number based estimates at the few NPN stations with hourly temperature measurements. Comparisons with clear sky reanalysis based estimates show that the wind profiler PBL heights are lower by approximately 250-500 m. The geographical distribution of daily maximum PBL heights corresponds well with the expected distribution based on patterns of surface temperature and soil moisture. Wind profiler PBL heights were also estimated under mostly cloudy conditions, and are generally higher than both the Richardson number based and reanalysis PBL heights, resulting in a smaller clear-cloudy condition difference. The algorithm presented here was shown to provide a reliable summertime climatology of daytime hourly PBL heights throughout the central United States.

  1. Accurate and robust phylogeny estimation based on profile distances: a study of the Chlorophyceae (Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmann Sven


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In phylogenetic analysis we face the problem that several subclade topologies are known or easily inferred and well supported by bootstrap analysis, but basal branching patterns cannot be unambiguously estimated by the usual methods (maximum parsimony (MP, neighbor-joining (NJ, or maximum likelihood (ML, nor are they well supported. We represent each subclade by a sequence profile and estimate evolutionary distances between profiles to obtain a matrix of distances between subclades. Results Our estimator of profile distances generalizes the maximum likelihood estimator of sequence distances. The basal branching pattern can be estimated by any distance-based method, such as neighbor-joining. Our method (profile neighbor-joining, PNJ then inherits the accuracy and robustness of profiles and the time efficiency of neighbor-joining. Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of Chlorophyceae with traditional methods (MP, NJ, ML and MrBayes reveals seven well supported subclades, but the methods disagree on the basal branching pattern. The tree reconstructed by our method is better supported and can be confirmed by known morphological characters. Moreover the accuracy is significantly improved as shown by parametric bootstrap.

  2. Estimating tropical vertical motion profile shapes from satellite observations (United States)

    Back, L. E.; Handlos, Z.


    The vertical structure of tropical deep convection strongly influences interactions with larger scale circulations and climate. This research focuses on investigating this vertical structure and its relationship with mesoscale tropical weather states. We test the hypothesis that vertical motion shape varies in association with weather state type. We estimate mean state vertical motion profile shapes for six tropical weather states defined using cloud top pressure and optical depth properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The relationship between vertical motion and the dry static energy budget are utilized to set up a regression analysis that empirically determines two modes of variability in vertical motion from reanalysis data. We use these empirically determined modes, this relationship and surface convergence to estimate vertical motion profile shape from observations of satellite retrievals of rainfall and surface convergence. We find that vertical motion profile shapes vary systematically between different tropical weather states. The "isolated systems" regime exhibits a more ''bottom-heavy'' profile shape compared to the convective/thick cirrus and vigorous deep convective regimes, with maximum upward vertical motion occurring in the lower troposphere rather than the middle to upper troposphere. The variability we observe with our method does not coincide with that expected based on conventional ideas about how stratiform rain fraction and vertical motion are related.

  3. Comparison of Temperature Measurements in the Middle Atmosphere by Satellite with Profiles Obtained by Meteorological Rockets (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Feofilov, Artem; Bedrick, M.; Rose, R. Lynn


    Measurements using the inflatable falling sphere technique have occasionally been used to obtain temperature results from density data and thereby provide comparison with temperature profiles obtained by satellite sounders in the mesosphere and stratosphere. To insure density measurements within narrow time frames and close in space, the inflatable falling sphere is launched within seconds of the nearly overhead satellite pass. Sphere measurements can be used to validate remotely measured temperatures but also have the advantage of measuring small-scale atmospheric features. Even so, with the dearth of remaining falling spheres available (the manufacture of these systems has been discontinued), it may be time to consider whether the remote measurements are mature enough to stand alone. Three field studies are considered, one in 2003 from Northern Sweden, and two in 2010 from the vicinity of Kwajalein Atoll in the South Pacific and from Barking Sands, Hawaii. All three sites are used to compare temperature retrievals between satellite and in situ falling spheres. The major satellite instruments employed are SABER, MLS, and AIRS. The comparisons indicate that remotely measured temperatures mimic the sphere temperature measurements quite well. The data also confirm that satellite retrievals, while not always at the exact location required for detailed studies in space and time, compare sufficiently well to be highly useful. Although the falling sphere will provide a measurement at a specific location and time, satellites only pass a given location daily or less frequently. This report reveals that averaged satellite measurements can provide temperatures and densities comparable to those obtained from the falling sphere, thereby providing a reliable measure of global temperature

  4. Sugarcane leaf area estimate obtained from the corrected Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Moura Pereira


    Full Text Available Large farmland areas and the knowledge on the interaction between solar radiation and vegetation canopies have increased the use of data from orbital remote sensors in sugarcane monitoring. However, the constituents of the atmosphere affect the reflectance values obtained by imaging sensors. This study aimed at improving a sugarcane Leaf Area Index (LAI estimation model, concerning the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI subjected to atmospheric correction. The model generated by the NDVI with atmospheric correction showed the best results (R2 = 0.84; d = 0.95; MAE = 0.44; RMSE = 0.55, in relation to the other models compared. LAI estimation with this model, during the sugarcane plant cycle, reached a maximum of 4.8 at the vegetative growth phase and 2.3 at the end of the maturation phase. Thus, the use of atmospheric correction to estimate the sugarcane LAI is recommended, since this procedure increases the correlations between the LAI estimated by image and by plant parameters.

  5. Use of integrated modeling to enhance estimates of population dynamics obtained from limited data. (United States)

    Schaub, Michael; Gimenez, Olivier; Sierro, Antoine; Arlettaz, Raphaël


    Demographic data of rare and endangered species are often too sparse to estimate vital rates and population size with sufficient precision for understanding population growth and decline. Yet, the combination of different sources of demographic data into one statistical model holds promise. We applied Bayesian integrated population modeling to demographic data from a colony of the endangered greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). Available data were the number of subadults and adults emerging from the colony roost at dusk, the number of newborns from 1991 to 2005, and recapture data of subadults and adults from 2004 and 2005. Survival rates did not differ between sexes, and demographic rates remained constant across time. The greater horseshoe bat is a long-lived species with high survival rates (first year: 0.49 [SD 0.06]; adults: 0.91 [SD 0.02]) and low fecundity (0.74 [SD 0.12]). The yearly average population growth was 4.4% (SD 0.1%) and there were 92 (SD 10) adults in the colony in year 2005. Had we analyzed each data set separately, we would not have been able to estimate fecundity, the estimates of survival would have been less precise, and the estimate of population growth biased. Our results demonstrate that integrated models are suitable for obtaining crucial demographic information from limited data.

  6. Nonparametric estimates of drift and diffusion profiles via Fokker-Planck algebra. (United States)

    Lund, Steven P; Hubbard, Joseph B; Halter, Michael


    Diffusion processes superimposed upon deterministic motion play a key role in understanding and controlling the transport of matter, energy, momentum, and even information in physics, chemistry, material science, biology, and communications technology. Given functions defining these random and deterministic components, the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation is often used to model these diffusive systems. Many methods exist for estimating the drift and diffusion profiles from one or more identifiable diffusive trajectories; however, when many identical entities diffuse simultaneously, it may not be possible to identify individual trajectories. Here we present a method capable of simultaneously providing nonparametric estimates for both drift and diffusion profiles from evolving density profiles, requiring only the validity of Langevin/FP dynamics. This algebraic FP manipulation provides a flexible and robust framework for estimating stationary drift and diffusion coefficient profiles, is not based on fluctuation theory or solved diffusion equations, and may facilitate predictions for many experimental systems. We illustrate this approach on experimental data obtained from a model lipid bilayer system exhibiting free diffusion and electric field induced drift. The wide range over which this approach provides accurate estimates for drift and diffusion profiles is demonstrated through simulation.

  7. Fast Wideband Solutions Obtained Using Model Based Parameter Estimation with Method of Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kaburcuk


    Full Text Available Integration of the Model Based Parameter Estimation (MBPE technique into Method of Moments (MOM provides fast solutions over a wide frequency band to solve radiation and scattering problems. The MBPE technique uses the Padé rational function to approximate solutions over a wide frequency band from a solution at a fixed frequency. In this paper, the MBPE technique with MOM is applied to a thin-wire antenna. The solutions obtained by repeated simulations of MOM agree very well with the solutions obtained by MBPE technique in a single simulation. Therefore, MBPE technique according to MOM provides a remarkable saving in the computation time. Computed results show that solutions at a wider frequency band of interest are achieved in a single simulation.

  8. Application of different techniques to obtain spatial estimates of debris flows erosion and deposition depths (United States)

    Boreggio, Mauro; Gregoretti, Carlo; Degetto, Massimo; Bernard, Martino


    In Alpine regions, debris flows endanger settlements and human life. Danger mitigation strategies based on the preparation of hazard maps are necessary tools for the current land planning. To date, hazard maps are obtained by using one- or two-dimensional numerical models that are able to forecast the potential inundated areas, after careful calibration of those input parameters that directly affect the flow motion and its interaction with the ground surface (sediments entrainment or deposition). In principle, the reliability of these numerical models can be tested by flume experiments in laboratory using, for example, particles and water mixtures. However, for more realistic materials including coarse particles, the scaling effects are still difficult to account for. In some cases, where there are enough data (for example, point measures of flow depths and velocities or spatial estimation of erosion and deposition depths), these models can be tested against field observations. As it regards the spatial estimates of debris flows erosion and deposition depths, different approaches can be followed to obtain them, mainly depending on both the type and accuracy of the available initial data. In this work, we explain the methods that have been employed to obtain the maps of erosion and deposition depths for three occurred debris flows in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps). The three events are those occurred at Rio Lazer (Trento) on the 4th of November 1966, at Fiames (Belluno) on the 5th of July 2006 and at Rio Val Molinara (Trento) on the 15th of August 2010. For each case study, we present the available initial data and the related problems, the techniques that have been used to overcome them and finally the results obtained.

  9. Assessment studies on the inversion of satellite to satellite electron content to obtain electron density profiles in the ionosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Hochegger, G P


    The electron content data, obtained by satellite-to-satellite occultations of radio signals can lead to height profiles of electron density by discrete inversion. Since there is no possibility to verify such profiles by means of other measurements (practically never measurements at the same time and same location) it was necessary to simulate occultation scenarios by means of an ionosphere model to obtain a large number of comparisons sufficient for investigations on a statistical basis. The obtained electron contents were inverted and compared with electron density height profiles, obtained with the same ionospheric model for the occultation point. The differences between these profiles were investigated (difference between the F2-peak maxima, the height of the maxima, the shape of the topside and bottom side ionosphere). Since simulations were done for chosen locations (250 randomly spread on the globe) for every month and every second hour and for two solar activity levels (HSA and LSA), a whole year was '...

  10. Obtaining parsimonious hydraulic conductivity fields using head and transport observations: A bayesian geostatistical parameter estimation approach (United States)

    Fienen, M.; Hunt, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.; Clemo, T.


    Flow path delineation is a valuable tool for interpreting the subsurface hydrogeochemical environment. Different types of data, such as groundwater flow and transport, inform different aspects of hydrogeologie parameter values (hydraulic conductivity in this case) which, in turn, determine flow paths. This work combines flow and transport information to estimate a unified set of hydrogeologic parameters using the Bayesian geostatistical inverse approach. Parameter flexibility is allowed by using a highly parameterized approach with the level of complexity informed by the data. Despite the effort to adhere to the ideal of minimal a priori structure imposed on the problem, extreme contrasts in parameters can result in the need to censor correlation across hydrostratigraphic bounding surfaces. These partitions segregate parameters into faci??s associations. With an iterative approach in which partitions are based on inspection of initial estimates, flow path interpretation is progressively refined through the inclusion of more types of data. Head observations, stable oxygen isotopes (18O/16O) ratios), and tritium are all used to progressively refine flow path delineation on an isthmus between two lakes in the Trout Lake watershed, northern Wisconsin, United States. Despite allowing significant parameter freedom by estimating many distributed parameter values, a smooth field is obtained. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Seminal plasma protein profiles of ejaculates obtained by internal artificial vagina and electroejaculation in Brahman bulls. (United States)

    Rego, J P A; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; McGowan, M R; Boe-Hansen, G B


    The present study was conducted to investigate if differences exist in the seminal plasma protein profile from mature Brahman bulls using two methods of semen collection: internal artificial vagina (IAV) and electroejaculation (EEJ). Semen was collected four times from three bulls on the same day and parameters were assessed immediately post-collection. Seminal plasma proteins were evaluated by 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. Semen volume was greater (P < 0.05) for EEJ (4.6 ± 0.35 mL) than for IAV (1.86 ± 0.24 mL) but sperm concentration was greater in IAV (1505 ± 189 × 10(6) sperm/mL) than in EEJ samples (344 ± 87 × 10(6) sperm/mL). Sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm were not different between treatments. Total concentration of seminal plasma proteins was greater for samples collected by IAV as compared to EEJ (19.3 ± 0.9 compared with 13.0 ± 1.8 mg/mL, P < 0.05; respectively). Based on 2-D gels, 22 spots had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from IAV samples, corresponding to 21 proteins identified as transferrin, albumin, epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase, among others. Thirty-three spots, corresponding to 26 proteins, had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from EEJ samples. These proteins were identified as spermadhesin-1, Bovine Sperm Protin 1, 3 and 5 isoforms, angiogenin-1, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, clusterin, nucleobindin-1, cathepsins, spermadhesin Z13, annexins, among others. Thus, proteins in greater amounts in samples obtained by IAV and EEJ were mainly of epididymal origin and accessory sex glands, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Groundwater flow estimation using temperature-depth profiles in a complex environment and a changing climate. (United States)

    Irvine, Dylan J; Kurylyk, Barret L; Cartwright, Ian; Bonham, Mariah; Post, Vincent E A; Banks, Eddie W; Simmons, Craig T


    Obtaining reliable estimates of vertical groundwater flows remains a challenge but is of critical importance to the management of groundwater resources. When large scale land clearing or groundwater extraction occurs, methods based on water table fluctuations or water chemistry are unreliable. As an alternative, a number of methods based on temperature-depth (T-z) profiles are available to provide vertical groundwater flow estimates from which recharge rates may be calculated. However, methods that invoke steady state assumptions have been shown to be inappropriate for sites that have experienced land surface warming. Analytical solutions that account for surface warming are available, but they typically include unrealistic or restrictive assumptions (e.g. no flow initial conditions or linear surface warming). Here, we use a new analytical solution and associated computer program (FAST) that provides flexible initial and boundary conditions to estimate fluxes using T-z profiles from the Willunga Super Science Site, a complex, but densely instrumented groundwater catchment in South Australia. T-z profiles from seven wells (ranging from high elevation to near sea level) were utilised, in addition to mean annual air temperatures at nearby weather stations to estimate boundary conditions, and thermal properties were estimated from down borehole geophysics. Temperature based flux estimates were 5 to 23mmy-1, which are similar to those estimated using chloride mass balance. This study illustrates that T-z profiles can be studied to estimate recharge in environments where more commonly applied methods fail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Atmospheric Wet Profiles Obtained from COSMIC Radio Occultation Observations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guirong Xu


    Full Text Available Atmosperic profiles derived from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC radio occultation (RO measurements make up for the lack of operational radiosonde soundings with a high spatiotemporal distribution, and their performance over China is assessed in this paper. COSMIC-retrieved atmospheric wet profiles from 2014 to 2015 are compared to the contemporaneous radiosonde profiles from 120 stations, and the vertical mean differences are used. The results show that the vertical mean biases of temperature, pressure and vapor pressure are −0.10 K, 0.69 hPa and −0.01 hPa, respectively, and that for refractivity is 0.17 N. Moreover, the temperature differences are positively correlated with station altitude, yet both the pressure and vapor pressure differences are negatively correlated with station latitude, as is the refractivity difference. The large temperature difference arising from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP region may be associated with the complex topography of the area and the limitations in the background model used in the COSMIC profile retrieval. Furthermore, negative refractivity bias between COSMIC and radiosonde data occurs below 5 km and is large in wet southern China, with a value of less than 1%. This result may be related to more humid conditions and super-refraction.

  14. Apparent diffusion profile estimation from high angular resolution diffusion images (United States)

    Descoteaux, Maxime; Angelino, Elaine; Fitzgibbons, Shaun; Deriche, Rachid


    High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) has recently been of great interest to characterize non-Gaussian diffusion process. In the white matter of the brain, this occurs when fiber bundles cross, kiss or diverge within the same voxel. One of the important goal is to better describe the apparent diffusion process in these multiple fiber regions, thus overcoming the limitations of classical diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In this paper, we design the appropriate mathematical tools to describe noisy HARDI data. Using a meaningful modified spherical harmonics basis to capture the physical constraints of the problem, we propose a new regularization algorithm to estimate a smoother and closer diffusivity profile to the true diffusivities without noise. We exploit properties of the spherical harmonics to define a smoothing term based on the Laplace-Beltrami for functions defined on the unit sphere. An additional contribution of the paper is the derivation of the general transformation taking the spherical harmonics coefficients to the high order tensor independent elements. This allows the careful study of the state of the art high order anisotropy measures computed from either spherical harmonics or tensor coefficients. We analyze their ability to characterize the underlying diffusion process. We are able to recover voxels with isotropic, single fiber anisotropic and multiple fiber anisotropic diffusion. We test and validate the approach on diffusion profiles from synthetic data and from a biological rat phantom.

  15. Iron ions distribution profile obtained by irradiating the silicon single crystal (United States)

    Shemukhin, A. A.; Kozhemiako, A. V.; Balakshin, Y. V.; Chernysh, V. S.


    Iron ions with energies of 90 and 250 keV and the irradiation dose of 1016 ions/cm2 and xenon ions with energies of 100 keV and dose 7,7×1014 cm-2, 200 keV and dose 2,6 × 1014 cm-2 were implanted in the single crystal of silicon (110). The distribution profiles of implanted impurity, as well as the distribution profiles of the radiation defects in the crystal lattice, were studied by the Rutherford backscattering method in combination with channeling. The experimental results were compared with the results of simulations of binary collisions of the Monte Carlo method in the TRIM program. It is shown that the difference between the experimental data and the calculation program TRIM is more than 35% in all cases.

  16. Estimating Production and Consumption of Solid Reactive Fe Phases in Marine Sediments from Concentration Profiles (United States)

    Devereux, R.; Lettmann, K.; Lehrter, J. C.; Beddick, D. L., Jr.; Yates, D. F.; Hoglund, M.; Rogers, J. E.; Jarvis, B.


    1D diffusion models may be used to estimate rates of production and consumption of dissolved metabolites in marine sediments but are applied less often to the solid phase. Here we used a numerical inverse method assuming steady state conditions to estimate solid phase Fe(III) and Fe(II) consumption and production rates, respectively, from sediment concentration profiles. First, porewater concentration profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and ammonium (NH4+) in muddy northern Gulf of Mexico sediments were analyzed by the model. The runs were used to fit model concentration outputs to sediment sample data, identify zones of production and consumption, and obtain modeled fluxes across the sediment-water interface that best matched experimentally-obtained flux rates. Modeled fluxes were sensitive to coefficients of sediment irrigation and bioturbation in addition to boundary concentrations. Assuming diffusion coefficients = 0 for solid phase minerals, drivers for estimating production and consumption rates from solid phase concentrations are then the rates of sedimentation and porewater advection, and coefficients of bioturbation and irrigation. Thus, applying the model with sediment irrigation and bioturbation terms obtained in the DIC and NH4+ runs, and replacing values of porosity with 1-porosity, rates of Fe(II) production closely matched rates of Fe(III) consumption at about 10-3 nmole cm-1 sec-1. High modeled Fe transformations occurred in the upper 3.5 cm of sediment. In addition, porewater Fe2+ and dissolved Mn concentration profiles both yielded modeled production in the top 0.5 cm of sediment with consumption below that suggesting a zone of precipitation as sulfide or carbonate minerals. These results demonstrate that simple 1D models can be applied to the solid phase of marine sediments and may additionally be helpful in estimating coefficients of sediment irrigation and bioturbation.

  17. Optimal estimation of water vapour profiles using a combination of Raman lidar and microwave radiometer (United States)

    Foth, Andreas; Pospichal, Bernhard


    In this work, a two-step algorithm to obtain water vapour profiles from a combination of Raman lidar and microwave radiometer is presented. Both instruments were applied during an intensive 2-month measurement campaign (HOPE) close to Jülich, western Germany, during spring 2013. To retrieve reliable water vapour information from inside or above the cloud a two-step algorithm is applied. The first step is a Kalman filter that extends the profiles, truncated at cloud base, to the full height range (up to 10 km) by combining previous information and current measurement. Then the complete water vapour profile serves as input to the one-dimensional variational (1D-VAR) method, also known as optimal estimation. A forward model simulates the brightness temperatures which would be observed by the microwave radiometer for the given atmospheric state. The profile is iteratively modified according to its error bars until the modelled and the actually measured brightness temperatures sufficiently agree. The functionality of the retrieval is presented in detail by means of case studies under different conditions. A statistical analysis shows that the availability of Raman lidar data (night) improves the accuracy of the profiles even under cloudy conditions. During the day, the absence of lidar data results in larger differences in comparison to reference radiosondes. The data availability of the full-height water vapour lidar profiles of 17 % during the 2-month campaign is significantly enhanced to 60 % by applying the retrieval. The bias with respect to radiosonde and the retrieved a posteriori uncertainty of the retrieved profiles clearly show that the application of the Kalman filter considerably improves the accuracy and quality of the retrieved mixing ratio profiles.

  18. Calculating the variance and prediction intervals for estimates obtained from allometric relationships

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nickless, A


    Full Text Available . These relationships are referred to as allometric equations. In science it is important to quantify the error associated with an estimate in order to determine the reliability of the estimate. Therefore, prediction intervals or standard errors are usually quoted...

  19. Standard Test Method for Obtaining Char Density Profile of Ablative Materials by Machining and Weighing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the char density profile of a charred ablator that can be used with the following limitations: 1.1.1 The local surface imperfections must be removed, and the char must be able to be machined off in a plane parallel to the char-virgin material interface before the density profiles can be determined. 1.1.2 The char must be strong enough to withstand the machining and handling techniques employed. 1.1.3 The material should have orderly density variations. The total thickness of the char and degradation zone must be larger than the machining thicknesses required. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.2.1 Exception—Certain inch-pound equivalent units are included in parentheses for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establis...

  20. Adaptive Super-Twisting Observer for Estimation of Random Road Excitation Profile in Automotive Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Rath


    Full Text Available The estimation of road excitation profile is important for evaluation of vehicle stability and vehicle suspension performance for autonomous vehicle control systems. In this work, the nonlinear dynamics of the active automotive system that is excited by the unknown road excitation profile are considered for modeling. To address the issue of estimation of road profile, we develop an adaptive supertwisting observer for state and unknown road profile estimation. Under Lipschitz conditions for the nonlinear functions, the convergence of the estimation error is proven. Simulation results with Ford Fiesta MK2 demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed observer for state and unknown input estimation for nonlinear active suspension system.

  1. Magnetic resonance metabolic profiling of breast cancer tissue obtained with core needle biopsy for predicting pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Soo Choi

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether metabolic profiling of core needle biopsy (CNB samples using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS could be used for predicting pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. After institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained, CNB tissue samples were collected from 37 malignant lesions in 37 patients before NAC treatment. The metabolic profiling of CNB samples were performed by HR-MAS MRS. Metabolic profiles were compared according to pathologic response to NAC using the Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed with orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Various metabolites including choline-containing compounds were identified and quantified by HR-MAS MRS in all 37 breast cancer tissue samples obtained by CNB. In univariate analysis, the metabolite concentrations and metabolic ratios of CNB samples obtained with HR-MAS MRS were not significantly different between different pathologic response groups. However, there was a trend of lower levels of phosphocholine/creatine ratio and choline-containing metabolite concentrations in the pathologic complete response group compared to the non-pathologic complete response group. In multivariate analysis, the OPLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MR metabolic profiles showed visible discrimination between the pathologic response groups. This study showed OPLS-DA multivariate analysis using metabolic profiles of pretreatment CNB samples assessed by HR- MAS MRS may be used to predict pathologic response before NAC, although we did not identify the metabolite showing statistical significance in univariate analysis. Therefore, our preliminary results raise the necessity of further study on HR-MAS MR metabolic profiling of CNB samples for a large number of cancers.

  2. Improved Estimates of Moments and Winds from Radar Wind Profiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmus, Jonathan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ghate, Virendra P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) operates nine radar wind profilers (RWP) across its sites. These RWPs operate at 915 MHz or 1290 MHz frequency and report the first three moments of the Doppler spectrum. The operational settings of the RWP were modified in summer, 2015 to have single pulse length setting for the wind mode and two pulse length settings for the precipitation mode. The moments data collected during the wind mode are used to retrieve horizontal winds. The vendor-reported winds are available at variable time resolution (10 mins, 60 mins, etc.) and contain a significant amount of contamination due to noise and clutter. In this data product we have recalculated the moments and the winds from the raw radar Doppler spectrum and have made efforts to mitigate the contamination due to instrument noise in the wind estimates. Additionally, the moments and wind data has been reported in a harmonized layout identical for all locations and sites.

  3. Breast cancer: determining the genetic profile from ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy specimens obtained during the diagnostic workups. (United States)

    López Ruiz, J A; Zabalza Estévez, I; Mieza Arana, J A


    To evaluate the possibility of determining the genetic profile of primary malignant tumors of the breast from specimens obtained by ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsies during the diagnostic imaging workup. This is a retrospective study in 13 consecutive patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer by B-mode ultrasound-guided 12 G core needle biopsy. After clinical indication, the pathologist decided whether the paraffin block specimens seemed suitable (on the basis of tumor size, validity of the sample, and percentage of tumor cells) before sending them for genetic analysis with the MammaPrint® platform. The size of the tumors on ultrasound ranged from 0.6cm to 5cm. In 11 patients the preserved specimen was considered valid and suitable for use in determining the genetic profile. In 1 patient (with a 1cm tumor) the pathologist decided that it was necessary to repeat the core biopsy to obtain additional samples. In 1 patient (with a 5cm tumor) the specimen was not considered valid by the genetic laboratory. The percentage of tumor cells in the samples ranged from 60% to 70%. In 11/13 cases (84.62%) it was possible to do the genetic analysis on the previously diagnosed samples. In most cases, regardless of tumor size, it is possible to obtain the genetic profile from tissue specimens obtained with ultrasound-guided 12 G core biopsy preserved in paraffin blocks. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Dataset on metabolomics profile of acute leukemia blood obtained by the NMR methods


    Bogaychuk, Alexander; Zyubin, Andrey; Lavrova, Anastasiya; Kupriyanova, Galina; Babak, Svetlana; Dambieva, Mariya; Demin, Maksim; Borisova, Anastasiya; Opryshko, Nikita


    This article contains NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) experimental data, obtained by the NMR Varian 400?MHz spectrometer (USA) which can be used for the metabolites identification in human blood. Data include analyzed NMR spectra of plasma proteins extracted from human blood of 24 patients (0?5 years old) with the confirmed acute leukemia diagnosis. Data can provide information about metabolites and their concentration in blood.

  5. Dataset on metabolomics profile of acute leukemia blood obtained by the NMR methods. (United States)

    Bogaychuk, Alexander; Zyubin, Andrey; Lavrova, Anastasiya; Kupriyanova, Galina; Babak, Svetlana; Dambieva, Mariya; Demin, Maksim; Borisova, Anastasiya; Opryshko, Nikita


    This article contains NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) experimental data, obtained by the NMR Varian 400 MHz spectrometer (USA) which can be used for the metabolites identification in human blood. Data include analyzed NMR spectra of plasma proteins extracted from human blood of 24 patients (0-5 years old) with the confirmed acute leukemia diagnosis. Data can provide information about metabolites and their concentration in blood.

  6. Dataset on metabolomics profile of acute leukemia blood obtained by the NMR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bogaychuk


    Full Text Available This article contains NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance experimental data, obtained by the NMR Varian 400 MHz spectrometer (USA which can be used for the metabolites identification in human blood. Data include analyzed NMR spectra of plasma proteins extracted from human blood of 24 patients (0–5 years old with the confirmed acute leukemia diagnosis. Data can provide information about metabolites and their concentration in blood.

  7. Cognitive profiles and heritability estimates in the Old Order Amish. (United States)

    Kuehner, Ryan M; Kochunov, Peter; Nugent, Katie L; Jurius, Deanna E; Savransky, Anya; Gaudiot, Christopher; Bruce, Heather A; Gold, James; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Hong, L Elliot


    This study aimed to establish the applicability of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in the Old Order Amish (OOA) and to assess the genetic contribution toward the RBANS total score and its cognitive domains using a large family-based sample of OOA. RBANS data were collected in 103 OOA individuals from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, including 85 individuals without psychiatric illness and 18 individuals with current psychiatric diagnoses. The RBANS total score and all five cognitive domains of in nonpsychiatric OOA were within half a SD of the normative data of the general population. The RBANS total score was highly heritable (h=0.51, P=0.019). OOA with psychiatric diagnoses had a numerically lower RBANS total score and domain scores compared with the nonpsychiatric participants. The RBANS appears to be a suitable cognitive battery for the OOA population as measurements obtained from the OOA are comparable with normative data in the US population. The heritability estimated from the OOA is in line with heritabilities of other cognitive batteries estimated in other populations. These results support the use of RBANS in cognitive assessment, clinical care, and behavioral genetic studies of neuropsychological functioning in this population.

  8. The influence of random element displacement on DOA estimates obtained with (Khatri-Rao-)root-MUSIC. (United States)

    Inghelbrecht, Veronique; Verhaevert, Jo; van Hecke, Tanja; Rogier, Hendrik


    Although a wide range of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms has been described for a diverse range of array configurations, no specific stochastic analysis framework has been established to assess the probability density function of the error on DOA estimates due to random errors in the array geometry. Therefore, we propose a stochastic collocation method that relies on a generalized polynomial chaos expansion to connect the statistical distribution of random position errors to the resulting distribution of the DOA estimates. We apply this technique to the conventional root-MUSIC and the Khatri-Rao-root-MUSIC methods. According to Monte-Carlo simulations, this novel approach yields a speedup by a factor of more than 100 in terms of CPU-time for a one-dimensional case and by a factor of 56 for a two-dimensional case.

  9. The Influence of Random Element Displacement on DOA Estimates Obtained with (Khatri–Rao-)Root-MUSIC (United States)

    Inghelbrecht, Veronique; Verhaevert, Jo; van Hecke, Tanja; Rogier, Hendrik


    Although a wide range of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms has been described for a diverse range of array configurations, no specific stochastic analysis framework has been established to assess the probability density function of the error on DOA estimates due to random errors in the array geometry. Therefore, we propose a stochastic collocation method that relies on a generalized polynomial chaos expansion to connect the statistical distribution of random position errors to the resulting distribution of the DOA estimates. We apply this technique to the conventional root-MUSIC and the Khatri-Rao-root-MUSIC methods. According to Monte-Carlo simulations, this novel approach yields a speedup by a factor of more than 100 in terms of CPU-time for a one-dimensional case and by a factor of 56 for a two-dimensional case. PMID:25393783

  10. Obtaining appropriate interval estimates for age when multiple indicators are used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy; Larsen, Sara Tangmose


    indicators is not the calculation of a combined point estimate for age but the construction of an appropriate prediction interval. Ignoring the correlation between the age indicators results in intervals being too small. Boldsen et al. (2002) presented an ad-hoc procedure to construct an approximate...

  11. Marginal likelihood estimate comparisons to obtain optimal species delimitations in Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae). (United States)

    Aydin, Zeynep; Marcussen, Thomas; Ertekin, Alaattin Selcuk; Oxelman, Bengt


    Coalescent-based inference of phylogenetic relationships among species takes into account gene tree incongruence due to incomplete lineage sorting, but for such methods to make sense species have to be correctly delimited. Because alternative assignments of individuals to species result in different parametric models, model selection methods can be applied to optimise model of species classification. In a Bayesian framework, Bayes factors (BF), based on marginal likelihood estimates, can be used to test a range of possible classifications for the group under study. Here, we explore BF and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to discriminate between different species classifications in the flowering plant lineage Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae). We estimated marginal likelihoods for different species classification models via the Path Sampling (PS), Stepping Stone sampling (SS), and Harmonic Mean Estimator (HME) methods implemented in BEAST. To select among alternative species classification models a posterior simulation-based analog of the AIC through Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis (AICM) was also performed. The results are compared to outcomes from the software BP&P. Our results agree with another recent study that marginal likelihood estimates from PS and SS methods are useful for comparing different species classifications, and strongly support the recognition of the newly described species S. ertekinii.

  12. Comparison of Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Estimates Obtained from Four Portable Field Spectroradiometers (United States)

    Julitta, Tommaso; Corp, Lawrence A.; Rossini, Micol; Burkart, Andreas; Cogliati, Sergio; Davies, Neville; Hom, Milton; Mac Arthur, Alasdair; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Rascher, Uwe; hide


    Remote Sensing of Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) is a research field of growing interest because it offers the potential to quantify actual photosynthesis and to monitor plant status. New satellite missions from the European Space Agency, such as the Earth Explorer 8 FLuorescence EXplorer (FLEX) mission-scheduled to launch in 2022 and aiming at SIF mapping-and from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) sampling mission launched in July 2014, provide the capability to estimate SIF from space. The detection of the SIF signal from airborne and satellite platform is difficult and reliable ground level data are needed for calibration/validation. Several commercially available spectroradiometers are currently used to retrieve SIF in the field. This study presents a comparison exercise for evaluating the capability of four spectroradiometers to retrieve SIF. The results show that an accurate far-red SIF estimation can be achieved using spectroradiometers with an ultrafine resolution (less than 1 nm), while the red SIF estimation requires even higher spectral resolution (less than 0.5 nm). Moreover, it is shown that the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) plays a significant role in the precision of the far-red SIF measurements.

  13. Estimation of two-dimensional velocity distribution profile using General Index Entropy in open channels (United States)

    Shojaeezadeh, Shahab Aldin; Amiri, Seyyed Mehrab


    Estimation of velocity distribution profile is a challenging subject of open channel hydraulics. In this study, an entropy-based method is used to derive two-dimensional velocity distribution profile. The General Index Entropy (GIE) can be considered as the generalized form of Shannon entropy which is suitable to combine with the different form of Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF). Using the principle of maximum entropy (POME), the velocity distribution is defined by maximizing the GIE by treating the velocity as a random variable. The combination of GIE and a CDF proposed by Marini et al. (2011) was utilized to introduce an efficient entropy model whose results are comparable with several well-known experimental and field data. Consequently, in spite of less sensitivity of the related parameters of the model to flow conditions and less complexity in application of the model compared with other entropy-based methods, more accuracy is obtained in estimating velocity distribution profile either near the boundaries or the free surface of the flow.

  14. Quality and Trace Element Profile of Tunisian Olive Oils Obtained from Plants Irrigated with Treated Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Benincasa


    Full Text Available In the present work the use of treated wastewater (TWW to irrigate olive plants was monitored. This type of water is characterized by high salinity and retains a substantial amount of trace elements, organic and metallic compounds that can be transferred into the soil and into the plants and fruits. In order to evaluate the impact of TWW on the overall quality of the oils, the time of contact of the olives with the soil has been taken into account. Multi-element data were obtained using ICP-MS. Nineteen elements (Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ba and La were submitted for statistical analysis. Using analysis of variance, linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis it was possible to differentiate between oils produced from different batches of olives whose plants received different types of water. Also, the results showed that there was correlation between the elemental and mineral composition of the water used to irrigate the olive plots and the elemental and mineral composition of the oils.

  15. Improved algorithm for the transmittance estimation of spectra obtained with SOIR/Venus Express. (United States)

    Trompet, Loic; Mahieux, Arnaud; Ristic, Bojan; Robert, Séverine; Wilquet, Valérie; Thomas, Ian R; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Bertaux, Jean-Loup


    The Solar Occultation in the InfraRed (SOIR) instrument onboard the ESA Venus Express spacecraft, an infrared spectrometer sensitive from 2.2 to 4.3 μm, probed the atmosphere of Venus from June 2006 until December 2014. During this time, it performed more than 750 solar occultations of the Venus mesosphere and lower thermosphere. A new procedure has been developed for the estimation of the transmittance in order to decrease the number of rejected spectra, to check that the treated spectra are well calibrated, and to improve the quality of the calibrated spectra by reducing the noise and accurately normalizing it to the solar spectrum.

  16. Obtaining realistic exposure estimates around hot spots using probabilistic uncertainty analysis: An elk foraging model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appling, J.W.; Pye, L.H. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Denver, CO (United States)


    Screening level risk assessments for both human health and ecological receptors conducted using chemical concentrations found at hot spots often overestimate exposure and risk when the exposure area is larger than the hot spot. Making reasonable remedial decisions is difficult when risk is overestimated. Alternate methods of estimating exposure concentrations such as averaging over the area of the site may over or underestimate exposure. The authors have developed a Monte Carlo application to simulate probable large herbivore exposures to stack emissions deposited on forage under different time scenarios. The method generates a distribution of probable exposure concentrations assuming the herbivore may wander off the unfenced site and combines this with literature-based distributions of forage intake and exposure area estimates. Application of the model to realistic data sets shows that under some circumstances, when hot spot concentration exceed trigger levels, it can be shown that actual exposures are not likely to exceed trigger levels, and that if exceedances occur, they are unlikely to have significant impacts on the exposed population. If risk is excessive, remedial alternatives can be evaluated to see if they achieve acceptable risk levels. The method potentially has wide application in human and ecological risk assessments when hot spots are smaller than exposure areas for either individuals or populations.

  17. An Alternate Method for Estimating Dynamic Height from XBT Profiles Using Empirical Vertical Modes (United States)

    Lagerloef, Gary S. E.


    A technique is presented that applies modal decomposition to estimate dynamic height (0-450 db) from Expendable BathyThermograph (XBT) temperature profiles. Salinity-Temperature-Depth (STD) data are used to establish empirical relationships between vertically integrated temperature profiles and empirical dynamic height modes. These are then applied to XBT data to estimate dynamic height. A standard error of 0.028 dynamic meters is obtained for the waters of the Gulf of Alaska- an ocean region subject to substantial freshwater buoyancy forcing and with a T-S relationship that has considerable scatter. The residual error is a substantial improvement relative to the conventional T-S correlation technique when applied to this region. Systematic errors between estimated and true dynamic height were evaluated. The 20-year-long time series at Ocean Station P (50 deg N, 145 deg W) indicated weak variations in the error interannually, but not seasonally. There were no evident systematic alongshore variations in the error in the ocean boundary current regime near the perimeter of the Alaska gyre. The results prove satisfactory for the purpose of this work, which is to generate dynamic height from XBT data for coanalysis with satellite altimeter data, given that the altimeter height precision is likewise on the order of 2-3 cm. While the technique has not been applied to other ocean regions where the T-S relation has less scatter, it is suggested that it could provide some improvement over previously applied methods, as well.

  18. Vineyard Yield Estimation Based on the Analysis of High Resolution Images Obtained with Artificial Illumination at Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinia Font


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for vineyard yield estimation based on the analysis of high-resolution images obtained with artificial illumination at night. First, this paper assesses different pixel-based segmentation methods in order to detect reddish grapes: threshold based, Mahalanobis distance, Bayesian classifier, linear color model segmentation and histogram segmentation, in order to obtain the best estimation of the area of the clusters of grapes in this illumination conditions. The color spaces tested were the original RGB and the Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV. The best segmentation method in the case of a non-occluded reddish table-grape variety was the threshold segmentation applied to the H layer, with an estimation error in the area of 13.55%, improved up to 10.01% by morphological filtering. Secondly, after segmentation, two procedures for yield estimation based on a previous calibration procedure have been proposed: (1 the number of pixels corresponding to a cluster of grapes is computed and converted directly into a yield estimate; and (2 the area of a cluster of grapes is converted into a volume by means of a solid of revolution, and this volume is converted into a yield estimate; the yield errors obtained were 16% and −17%, respectively.

  19. Obtaining Acoustic Cue Rate Estimates for Some Mysticete Species Using Existing Data (United States)


    Blainville’s beaked whales ,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125(4), 1982-1994. Moore, S.E., W.A. Watkins, M.A. Daher, J.R. Davies and M.E. Dahlheim (2002)”. Blue ...several species of endangered mysticete whales on and near U.S. Navy ranges, using existing recordings from both the SCORE and PMRF hydrophone...networks. One primary focus is to obtain cue rates for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) off the California coast and on the PMRF range. To our

  20. Reliability estimation of the milling machines teeth obtained by welding deposition process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovanas Daniela Maria


    Full Text Available Currently, governments and authorities worldwide allocate annually significant amounts of money in an attempt to maintain the existing road infrastructure functional and safe. In our country too there is this concern to rehabilitate a significant number of damaged road structures and to create new modern ones. The research presented in this paper focused on applying modern manufacturing technologies, loading by welding the milling teeth for stripped asphalt road structures in order to increase their reliability. It was thus estimated the reliability of classical teeth made from 41Cr4 and teeth manufactured through loading by welding with special filler materials in the active surfaces, which grants them self-protection systems from wear and locking in rotation and which equipped a Wirtgen 50 milling machine in operation on one of the national roads.

  1. The protein profile of Theobroma cacao L. seeds as obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Bertazzo, Antonella; Agnolin, Fabio; Comai, Stefano; Zancato, Mirella; Costa, Carlo V L; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro


    The water-soluble protein profile of the seeds of green, red, and yellow Theobroma cacao L. fruits has been determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS). The seeds were powdered under liquid nitrogen and defatted. The residues were dialyzed and lyophilized. The obtained samples were suspended in the matrix solution of sinapinic acid. The obtained MALDI mass spectra showed the presence of a wide number of proteins with molecular weight ranging from 8000 to 13,000 Da and a cluster of peaks centered at 21,000 Da that were attributed to albumin. The abundance of this peak was found to depend on the different portion of the seed (husk, apical and cortical parts); however, the MALDI mass spectra obtained from the different varieties of cocoa were practically superimposable. Changes in the protein profiles were also observed after the cocoa seeds were treated by fermentation and roasting, which are processes usually employed for the commercial production of cocoa. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Use of NMR logging to obtain estimates of hydraulic conductivity in the High Plains aquifer, Nebraska, USA (United States)

    Dlubac, Katherine; Knight, Rosemary; Song, Yi-Qiao; Bachman, Nate; Grau, Ben; Cannia, Jim; Williams, John


    Hydraulic conductivity (K) is one of the most important parameters of interest in groundwater applications because it quantifies the ease with which water can flow through an aquifer material. Hydraulic conductivity is typically measured by conducting aquifer tests or wellbore flow (WBF) logging. Of interest in our research is the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging to obtain information about water-filled porosity and pore space geometry, the combination of which can be used to estimate K. In this study, we acquired a suite of advanced geophysical logs, aquifer tests, WBF logs, and sidewall cores at the field site in Lexington, Nebraska, which is underlain by the High Plains aquifer. We first used two empirical equations developed for petroleum applications to predict K from NMR logging data: the Schlumberger Doll Research equation (KSDR) and the Timur-Coates equation (KT-C), with the standard empirical constants determined for consolidated materials. We upscaled our NMR-derived K estimates to the scale of the WBF-logging K(KWBF-logging) estimates for comparison. All the upscaled KT-C estimates were within an order of magnitude of KWBF-logging and all of the upscaled KSDR estimates were within 2 orders of magnitude of KWBF-logging. We optimized the fit between the upscaled NMR-derived K and KWBF-logging estimates to determine a set of site-specific empirical constants for the unconsolidated materials at our field site. We conclude that reliable estimates of K can be obtained from NMR logging data, thus providing an alternate method for obtaining estimates of K at high levels of vertical resolution.

  3. An estimation of the column efficiency made by analyzing tailing peak profiles. (United States)

    Miyabe, Kanji; Matsumoto, Yuko; Niwa, Yusuke; Ando, Nobuho; Guiochon, Georges


    It has been shown previously that most columns are not radially homogeneous but exhibit radial distributions of the mobile phase flow velocity and the local efficiency. Both distributions are best approximated by fourth-order polynomial, with the velocity in the column center being maximum for most packed columns and minimum for monolithic columns. These distributions may be an important source of tailing of elution peaks. The numerical calculation of elution peaks shows how peak tailing is related to the characteristics of these two distributions. An approach is proposed that permits estimations of the true efficiency and of the degree of column radial heterogeneity by inversing this calculation and using the tailing profiles of the elution peaks that are experimentally measured. This method was applied in two concrete cases of tailing peak profiles that had been previously reported and were analyzed by applying this new inverse approach. The results obtained prove its validity and demonstrate that this numerical method is effective for deriving the true column efficiency from experimental tailing profiles.

  4. Estimating Surface Temperature of a Calibration Apparatus for Contact Surface Thermometers from Its Internal Temperature Profile (United States)

    Saito, I.; Nakano, T.; Tamba, J.


    A calibration apparatus for contact surface thermometers was developed. Temperature of the upper surface of a copper cube of the calibration apparatus was used as reference surface temperature, which was estimated at around 50 {°}C, 100 {°}C, and 150 {°}C by not only two conventional industrial platinum resistance thermometers (IPRTs) but also five small-sized platinum resistance thermometers (SSPRTs) calibrated based on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). These thermometers were inserted horizontally into the copper cube and aligned along the center axis of the copper cube. In the case of a no-load state without anything on the upper surface, the temperature profile inside the copper cube linearly decreased from the lower part to the upper surface, which suggests that the heat conduction inside the copper cube can be regarded as a one-dimensional steady state. On the other hand, in the case of a transient state just after the contact surface thermometer was applied to the upper surface, the temperature profile became a round shape. We obtained good agreement between the curvature of the temperature profiles and the results estimated by using an error function used for a one-dimensional transient heat conduction problem. The temperature difference between the estimated temperature by linear extrapolation using two IPRTs and that by extrapolation using the error function was within 0.2 {°}C in the transient state at around 150 {°}C. Over 10 min after the contact surface thermometer was applied, the temperature profile showed a linear shape again, which indicated that linear extrapolation using two IPRTs was well for the estimation of the reference surface temperature because the heat conduction state inside the copper cube came back to the one-dimensional steady state. Difference between the surface temperature and temperature detected by the contact surface thermometer was also observed after the contact surface thermometer touched on the

  5. Revised prediction (estimation) of Cape Kennedy, Florida, wind speed profile (United States)

    Guttman, N. B.; Crutcher, H. L.


    The prediction of the wind profile maximum speed at Cape Kennedy, Florida, is made for any selected calendar data. The prediction is based on a normal probability distribution model with 15 years of smoothed input data and is static in the sense that no dynamic principles of persistence or synoptic features are considered. Comparison with similar predictions based on 6 years of data shows the same general pattern, but the variability decreased with the increase of sample size.

  6. Metabolomics profiling of pre-and post-anesthesia plasma samples of colorectal patients obtained via Ficoll separation. (United States)

    Ghini, Veronica; Unger, Florian T; Tenori, Leonardo; Turano, Paola; Juhl, Hartmut; David, Kerstin A


    (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the metabolic consequences of general anesthesia in the plasma of two groups of patients with diagnosis for non-metastatic colorectal cancer and metastatic colorectal cancer with liver-metastasis, respectively. Patients were treated with etomidate or propofol, two frequently used sedation agents. Plasma samples were obtained via Ficoll separation. Here, we demonstrated that this procedure introduces a number of limitations for NMR-based metabolomics studies, due to the appearance of spurious signals. Nevertheless, the comparison of the (1)H NMR metabolomic profiles of patients treated with etomidate or propofol at equipotent dose ranges was still feasible and proved that both agents significantly decrease the plasma levels of several NMR-detectable metabolites. Consequently, samples collected during anesthesia are not suitable for metabolic profiling studies aimed at patient stratification, because interpersonal variability are reduced by the overall depression of metabolites levels. On the other hand, this study showed that plasma metabolomics could represent a valuable tool to monitor the effect of different sedation agents and/or the individual metabolic response to anesthesia, providing hints for an appropriate tuning of personalized sedation procedures. In our reference groups, the metabolomic signatures were slightly different in patients anesthetized with etomidate versus propofol. The importance of standardized collection procedures and availability of exhaustive metadata of the experimental design for the accurate evaluation of the significance of the observed changes in metabolites levels are critically discussed.

  7. Estimation of population profiles of two strains of the fly Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) by bootstrap simulation. (United States)

    Manzato, A J; Tadei, W J; Cordeiro, J A


    Based on experimental population profiles of strains of the fly Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae), the minimal number of sample profiles was determined that should be repeated by bootstrap simulation process in order to obtain a confident estimation of the mean population profile and present estimations of the standard error as a precise measure of the simulations made. The original data are from experimental populations founded with SR and R4 strains, with three replicates, which were kept for 33 weeks by serial transfer technique in a constant temperature room (25 +/- 1.0 degrees C). The variable used was population size and the model adopted for each profile was a stationary stochastic process. By these simulations, the three experimental population profiles were enlarged so as to determine minimum sample size. After sample size was determined, bootstrap simulations were made in order to calculate confidence intervals and to compare the mean population profiles of these two strains. The results show that with a minimum sample size of 50, stabilization of means begins.

  8. The relationship between nasalance scores and nasality ratings obtained with equal appearing interval and direct magnitude estimation scaling methods. (United States)

    Brancamp, Tami U; Lewis, Kerry E; Watterson, Thomas


    To assess the nasalance/nasality relationship and Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity when nasality ratings are obtained with both equal appearing interval (EAI) and direct magnitude estimation (DME) scaling procedures. To test the linearity of the relationship between nasality ratings obtained from different perceptual scales. STIMULI: Audio recordings of the Turtle Passage. Participants' nasalance scores and audio recordings were obtained simultaneously. A single judge rated the samples for nasality using both EAI and DME scaling procedures. Thirty-nine participants 3 to 17 years of age. Across participants, resonance ranged from normal to severely hypernasal. Nasalance scores and two nasality ratings. The magnitude of the correlation between nasalance scores and EAI ratings of nasality (r  =  .63) and between nasalance and DME ratings of nasality (r  =  .59) was not significantly different. Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity for EAI-rated nasality were .71 and .73, respectively. For DME-rated nasality, sensitivity and specificity were .62 and .70, respectively. Regression of EAI nasality ratings on DME nasality ratings did not depart significantly from linearity. No difference was found in the relationship between nasalance and nasality when nasality was rated using EAI as opposed to DME procedures. Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity were similar for EAI- and DME-rated nasality. A linear model accounted for the greatest proportion of explained variance in EAI and DME ratings. Consequently, clinicians should be able to obtain valid and reliable estimates of nasality using EAI or DME.

  9. Estimating Cross-Classified Population Counts of Multidimensional Tables: An Application to Regional Australia to Obtain Pseudo-Census Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suesse Thomas


    Full Text Available Estimating population counts for multidimensional tables based on a representative sample subject to known marginal population counts is not only important in survey sampling but is also an integral part of standard methods for simulating area-specific synthetic populations. In this article several estimation methods are reviewed, with particular focus on the iterative proportional fitting procedure and the maximum likelihood method. The performance of these methods is investigated in a simulation study for multidimensional tables, as previous studies are limited to 2 by 2 tables. The data are generated under random sampling but also under misspecification models, for which sample and target populations differ systematically. The empirical results show that simple adjustments can lead to more efficient estimators, but generally, at the expense of increased bias. The adjustments also generally improve coverage of the confidence intervals. The methods discussed in this article along with standard error estimators, are made freely available in the R package mipfp. As an illustration, the methods are applied to the 2011 Australian census data available for the Illawarra Region in order to obtain estimates for the desired three-way table for age by sex by family type with known marginal tables for age by sex and for family type.

  10. Soil profile property estimation with field and laboratory VNIR spectroscopy (United States)

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) soil sensors have the potential to provide rapid, high-resolution estimation of multiple soil properties. Although many studies have focused on laboratory-based visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy of dried soil samples, previous work has demonstrated ...

  11. Dark personality profiles: Estimating the cluster structure of the Dark Triad. (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; MacDonald, Shane


    We estimated the number of possible dark personality profiles in a large population (N = 18,088) using a subtractive clustering method, which suggested three cluster or dark personality profiles: high malevolent, intermediate malevolent, and low malevolent or benevolent. While the three profiles differed significantly in each dark trait, there was a considerably large cluster overlap. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Antioxidant activity, cytotoxic activity and metabolic profiling of juices obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) floral by-products. (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Rosa, Antonella; Montoro, Paola; Fenu, Maurizio Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo


    Juices obtained from cold-pressed saffron (Crocus sativus L.) floral by-products were evaluated as a potential source of compounds with antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Floral by-products were split in two batches for extraction 24 and 48h after flower harvesting, respectively. The in vitro anti-oxidant activity of these extracts was tested using the FRAP and DPPH assays, and two biological models of lipid oxidation (activity in preventing cholesterol degradation and protection against Cu(2+)-mediated degradation of the liposomal unsaturated fatty acids). The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using the MTT assay. The results show that extracts obtained 48h post-harvest contained higher levels of total polar phenols and had the highest antioxidant activity in all of the performed assays. The LC-DAD and LC-ESI-(HR)MS(n) metabolic profiles showed high levels of kaempferol derivatives and anthocyanins. This study suggests that juices from saffron floral by-products could potentially be used to develop new products for the food and health industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of dynamic flux profiles from metabolic time series data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou I-Chun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in modern high-throughput techniques of molecular biology have enabled top-down approaches for the estimation of parameter values in metabolic systems, based on time series data. Special among them is the recent method of dynamic flux estimation (DFE, which uses such data not only for parameter estimation but also for the identification of functional forms of the processes governing a metabolic system. DFE furthermore provides diagnostic tools for the evaluation of model validity and of the quality of a model fit beyond residual errors. Unfortunately, DFE works only when the data are more or less complete and the system contains as many independent fluxes as metabolites. These drawbacks may be ameliorated with other types of estimation and information. However, such supplementations incur their own limitations. In particular, assumptions must be made regarding the functional forms of some processes and detailed kinetic information must be available, in addition to the time series data. Results The authors propose here a systematic approach that supplements DFE and overcomes some of its shortcomings. Like DFE, the approach is model-free and requires only minimal assumptions. If sufficient time series data are available, the approach allows the determination of a subset of fluxes that enables the subsequent applicability of DFE to the rest of the flux system. The authors demonstrate the procedure with three artificial pathway systems exhibiting distinct characteristics and with actual data of the trehalose pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the proposed method successfully complements DFE under various situations and without a priori assumptions regarding the model representation. The proposed method also permits an examination of whether at all, to what degree, or within what range the available time series data can be validly represented in a particular functional format of

  14. Transcriptome profiling of sheep granulosa cells and oocytes during early follicular development obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnet Agnes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful achievement of early folliculogenesis is crucial for female reproductive function. The process is finely regulated by cell-cell interactions and by the coordinated expression of genes in both the oocyte and in granulosa cells. Despite many studies, little is known about the cell-specific gene expression driving early folliculogenesis. The very small size of these follicles and the mixture of types of follicles within the developing ovary make the experimental study of isolated follicular components very difficult. The recently developed laser capture microdissection (LCM technique coupled with microarray experiments is a promising way to address the molecular profile of pure cell populations. However, one main challenge was to preserve the RNA quality during the isolation of single cells or groups of cells and also to obtain sufficient amounts of RNA. Using a new LCM method, we describe here the separate expression profiles of oocytes and follicular cells during the first stages of sheep folliculogenesis. Results We developed a new tissue fixation protocol ensuring efficient single cell capture and RNA integrity during the microdissection procedure. Enrichment in specific cell types was controlled by qRT-PCR analysis of known genes: six oocyte-specific genes (SOHLH2, MAEL, MATER, VASA, GDF9, BMP15 and three granulosa cell-specific genes (KL, GATA4, AMH. A global gene expression profile for each follicular compartment during early developmental stages was identified here for the first time, using a bovine Affymetrix chip. Most notably, the granulosa cell dataset is unique to date. The comparison of oocyte vs. follicular cell transcriptomes revealed 1050 transcripts specific to the granulosa cell and 759 specific to the oocyte. Functional analyses allowed the characterization of the three main cellular events involved in early folliculogenesis and confirmed the relevance and potential of LCM-derived RNA. Conclusions

  15. Dual-polarization radar rainfall estimation in Korea according to raindrop shapes obtained by using a 2-D video disdrometer (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Lim; Suk, Mi-Kyung; Park, Hye-Sook; Lee, Gyu-Won; Ko, Jeong-Seok


    Polarimetric measurements are sensitive to the sizes, concentrations, orientations, and shapes of raindrops. Thus, rainfall rates calculated from polarimetric radar are influenced by the raindrop shapes and canting. The mean raindrop shape can be obtained from long-term raindrop size distribution (DSD) observations, and the shapes of raindrops can play an important role in polarimetric rainfall algorithms based on differential reflectivity (ZDR) and specific differential phase (KDP). However, the mean raindrop shape is associated with the variation of the DSD, which can change depending on precipitation types and climatic regimes. Furthermore, these relationships have not been studied extensively on the Korean Peninsula. In this study, we present a method to find optimal polarimetric rainfall algorithms for the Korean Peninsula by using data provided by both a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) and the Bislsan S-band dual-polarization radar. First, a new axis-ratio relation was developed to improve radar rainfall estimations. Second, polarimetric rainfall algorithms were derived by using different axis-ratio relations. The rain gauge data were used to represent the ground truth situation, and the estimated radar-point hourly mean rain rates obtained from the different polarimetric rainfall algorithms were compared with the hourly rain rates measured by a rain gauge. The daily calibration biases of horizontal reflectivity (ZH) and differential reflectivity (ZDR) were calculated by comparing ZH and ZDR radar measurements with the same parameters simulated by the 2DVD. Overall, the derived new axis ratio was similar to the existing axis ratio except for both small particles (≤ 2 mm) and large particles (≥ 5.5 mm). The shapes of raindrops obtained by the new axis-ratio relation carried out with the 2DVD were more oblate than the shapes obtained by the existing relations. The combined polarimetric rainfall relations using ZDR and KDP were more efficient than

  16. Greenhouse gases inventory and carbon balance of two dairy systems obtained from two methane-estimation methods. (United States)

    Cunha, C S; Lopes, N L; Veloso, C M; Jacovine, L A G; Tomich, T R; Pereira, L G R; Marcondes, M I


    The adoption of carbon inventories for dairy farms in tropical countries based on models developed from animals and diets of temperate climates is questionable. Thus, the objectives of this study were to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions through the SF6 tracer gas technique and through equations proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 and to calculate the inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from two dairy systems. In addition, the carbon balance of these properties was estimated using enteric CH4 emissions obtained using both methodologies. In trial 1, the CH4 emissions were estimated from seven Holstein dairy cattle categories based on the SF6 tracer gas technique and on IPCC equations. The categories used in the study were prepubertal heifers (n=6); pubertal heifers (n=4); pregnant heifers (n=5); high-producing (n=6); medium-producing (n=5); low-producing (n=4) and dry cows (n=5). Enteric methane emission was higher for the category comprising prepubertal heifers when estimated by the equations proposed by the IPCC Tier 2. However, higher CH4 emissions were estimated by the SF6 technique in the categories including medium- and high-producing cows and dry cows. Pubertal heifers, pregnant heifers, and low-producing cows had equal CH4 emissions as estimated by both methods. In trial 2, two dairy farms were monitored for one year to identify all activities that contributed in any way to GHG emissions. The total emission from Farm 1 was 3.21t CO2e/animal/yr, of which 1.63t corresponded to enteric CH4. Farm 2 emitted 3.18t CO2e/animal/yr, with 1.70t of enteric CH4. IPCC estimations can underestimate CH4 emissions from some categories while overestimate others. However, considering the whole property, these discrepancies are offset and we would submit that the equations suggested by the IPCC properly estimate the total CH4 emission and carbon balance of the properties. Thus, the IPCC equations should be utilized with

  17. Vertical microphysical profiles of convective clouds as a tool for obtaining aerosol cloud-mediated climate forcings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)


    Quantifying the aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative effect at a global scale requires simultaneous satellite retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and cloud base updraft velocities (Wb). Hitherto, the inability to do so has been a major cause of high uncertainty regarding anthropogenic aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative forcing. This can be addressed by the emerging capability of estimating CCN and Wb of boundary layer convective clouds from an operational polar orbiting weather satellite. Our methodology uses such clouds as an effective analog for CCN chambers. The cloud base supersaturation (S) is determined by Wb and the satellite-retrieved cloud base drop concentrations (Ndb), which is the same as CCN(S). Developing and validating this methodology was possible thanks to the ASR/ARM measurements of CCN and vertical updraft profiles. Validation against ground-based CCN instruments at the ARM sites in Oklahoma, Manaus, and onboard a ship in the northeast Pacific showed a retrieval accuracy of ±25% to ±30% for individual satellite overpasses. The methodology is presently limited to boundary layer not raining convective clouds of at least 1 km depth that are not obscured by upper layer clouds, including semitransparent cirrus. The limitation for small solar backscattering angles of <25º restricts the satellite coverage to ~25% of the world area in a single day. This methodology will likely allow overcoming the challenge of quantifying the aerosol indirect effect and facilitate a substantial reduction of the uncertainty in anthropogenic climate forcing.

  18. An Algorithm for Obtaining the Distribution of 1-Meter Lightning Channel Segment Altitudes for Application in Lightning NOx Production Estimation (United States)

    Peterson, Harold; Koshak, William J.


    An algorithm has been developed to estimate the altitude distribution of one-meter lightning channel segments. The algorithm is required as part of a broader objective that involves improving the lightning NOx emission inventories of both regional air quality and global chemistry/climate models. The algorithm was tested and applied to VHF signals detected by the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The accuracy of the algorithm was characterized by comparing algorithm output to the plots of individual discharges whose lengths were computed by hand; VHF source amplitude thresholding and smoothing were applied to optimize results. Several thousands of lightning flashes within 120 km of the NALMA network centroid were gathered from all four seasons, and were analyzed by the algorithm. The mean, standard deviation, and median statistics were obtained for all the flashes, the ground flashes, and the cloud flashes. One-meter channel segment altitude distributions were also obtained for the different seasons.

  19. A GRASS GIS module to obtain an estimation of glacier behavior under climate change: A pilot study on Italian glacier (United States)

    Strigaro, Daniele; Moretti, Massimiliano; Mattavelli, Matteo; Frigerio, Ivan; Amicis, Mattia De; Maggi, Valter


    The aim of this work is to integrate the Minimal Glacier Model in a Geographic Information System Python module in order to obtain spatial simulations of glacier retreat and to assess the future scenarios with a spatial representation. The Minimal Glacier Models are a simple yet effective way of estimating glacier response to climate fluctuations. This module can be useful for the scientific and glaciological community in order to evaluate glacier behavior, driven by climate forcing. The module, called r.glacio.model, is developed in a GRASS GIS (GRASS Development Team, 2016) environment using Python programming language combined with different libraries as GDAL, OGR, CSV, math, etc. The module is applied and validated on the Rutor glacier, a glacier in the south-western region of the Italian Alps. This glacier is very large in size and features rather regular and lively dynamics. The simulation is calibrated by reconstructing the 3-dimensional dynamics flow line and analyzing the difference between the simulated flow line length variations and the observed glacier fronts coming from ortophotos and DEMs. These simulations are driven by the past mass balance record. Afterwards, the future assessment is estimated by using climatic drivers provided by a set of General Circulation Models participating in the Climate Model Inter-comparison Project 5 effort. The approach devised in r.glacio.model can be applied to most alpine glaciers to obtain a first-order spatial representation of glacier behavior under climate change.

  20. A Solution to Modeling Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis with Data Obtained from Complex Survey Sampling to Avoid Conflated Parameter Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Yu Wu


    Full Text Available The issue of equality in the between-and within-level structures in Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MCFA models has been influential for obtaining unbiased parameter estimates and statistical inferences. A commonly seen condition is the inequality of factor loadings under equal level-varying structures. With mathematical investigation and Monte Carlo simulation, this study compared the robustness of five statistical models including two model-based (a true and a mis-specified models, one design-based, and two maximum models (two models where the full rank of variance-covariance matrix is estimated in between level and within level, respectively in analyzing complex survey measurement data with level-varying factor loadings. The empirical data of 120 3rd graders' (from 40 classrooms perceived Harter competence scale were modeled using MCFA and the parameter estimates were used as true parameters to perform the Monte Carlo simulation study. Results showed maximum models was robust to unequal factor loadings while the design-based and the miss-specified model-based approaches produced conflated results and spurious statistical inferences. We recommend the use of maximum models if researchers have limited information about the pattern of factor loadings and measurement structures. Measurement models are key components of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; therefore, the findings can be generalized to multilevel SEM and CFA models. Mplus codes are provided for maximum models and other analytical models.

  1. A Solution to Modeling Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis with Data Obtained from Complex Survey Sampling to Avoid Conflated Parameter Estimates. (United States)

    Wu, Jiun-Yu; Lin, John J H; Nian, Mei-Wen; Hsiao, Yi-Cheng


    The issue of equality in the between-and within-level structures in Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MCFA) models has been influential for obtaining unbiased parameter estimates and statistical inferences. A commonly seen condition is the inequality of factor loadings under equal level-varying structures. With mathematical investigation and Monte Carlo simulation, this study compared the robustness of five statistical models including two model-based (a true and a mis-specified models), one design-based, and two maximum models (two models where the full rank of variance-covariance matrix is estimated in between level and within level, respectively) in analyzing complex survey measurement data with level-varying factor loadings. The empirical data of 120 3rd graders' (from 40 classrooms) perceived Harter competence scale were modeled using MCFA and the parameter estimates were used as true parameters to perform the Monte Carlo simulation study. Results showed maximum models was robust to unequal factor loadings while the design-based and the miss-specified model-based approaches produced conflated results and spurious statistical inferences. We recommend the use of maximum models if researchers have limited information about the pattern of factor loadings and measurement structures. Measurement models are key components of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM); therefore, the findings can be generalized to multilevel SEM and CFA models. Mplus codes are provided for maximum models and other analytical models.

  2. Fat characteristics and fatty acid profile of sea cucumbers (Holothuria Scabra obtained from the coasts of the Bushehr province -Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jadavi


    Full Text Available Background: Sea cucumbers are belonging to echinoderms and one of the important members of the food chain in temperate ecosystems and tropical coral reefs. The medicinal and nutritional uses of these invertebrates are primordial and are important as ecological, biological and economic properties. Holothuria Scabra, as one of the most valuable commercial species of sea cucumber in the world, is the dominant species in many Persian Gulf coasts such as the Bushehr province coasts. Conspicuous characteristics such as the use of inexpensive foods in their culture, the rather rapid, easy and low cost growth and reproduction, the possibility of culture with other fish, reduce the organic substrate in pools, the broad tolerance in water factors changes such as salinity and temperature it has selected them to culture.It seems they are containing the significant amounts of nutrients, especially appreciated fatty acids. Therefore, the aims of the current study are determination of total fat content, quality and quantity evaluations of some physicochemical parameters such as acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, and refractive index (RI as well as, identify the profile of fatty acids in the fat. Materials & Methods: In this study, after collecting the 36 samples of sea cucumbers from the coasts of the bushehr province, sample preparation, and extraction of fat, their fatty acids profile were analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID. Results: The peroxide and the acid values were 0.62±0.0435 and 0.7553±0.0034. The optical refractive index of the oil was 1467 at 26°C, and total fat was also 2%. Among 19 identified fatty acids obtained from the GC analysis of Holothuria Scabra oil, fatty acids: heneicosanoic acid, linoleic acid, palimitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, and Meristic acid, with respectively amounts of 40.81%, 27.5%, 15.24%, 4.73%, 4.46% and 2.38% had the highest values, and other fatty acids were negligible

  3. Integration based profile likelihood calculation for PDE constrained parameter estimation problems (United States)

    Boiger, R.; Hasenauer, J.; Hroß, S.; Kaltenbacher, B.


    Partial differential equation (PDE) models are widely used in engineering and natural sciences to describe spatio-temporal processes. The parameters of the considered processes are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data. Due to partial observations and measurement noise, these parameter estimates are subject to uncertainty. This uncertainty can be assessed using profile likelihoods, a reliable but computationally intensive approach. In this paper, we present the integration based approach for the profile likelihood calculation developed by (Chen and Jennrich 2002 J. Comput. Graph. Stat. 11 714-32) and adapt it to inverse problems with PDE constraints. While existing methods for profile likelihood calculation in parameter estimation problems with PDE constraints rely on repeated optimization, the proposed approach exploits a dynamical system evolving along the likelihood profile. We derive the dynamical system for the unreduced estimation problem, prove convergence and study the properties of the integration based approach for the PDE case. To evaluate the proposed method, we compare it with state-of-the-art algorithms for a simple reaction-diffusion model for a cellular patterning process. We observe a good accuracy of the method as well as a significant speed up as compared to established methods. Integration based profile calculation facilitates rigorous uncertainty analysis for computationally demanding parameter estimation problems with PDE constraints.

  4. Comparing helicopter-borne profiling radar with airborne laser scanner data for forest structure estimation. (United States)

    Piermattei, Livia; Hollaus, Markus; Pfeifer, Norbert; Chen, Yuwei; Karjalainen, Mika; Hakala, Teemu; Hyyppä, Juha; Wagner, Wolfgang


    ) profile, acquired in October 2016 over a boreal test site in Evo, Finland. The intensity of the reflected backscatter energy was used to measure the height canopy distribution within an individual footprint. As the intensity of the backscatter energy from the ground is exceeding the intensity from vegetation, the estimation of canopy height and the forest structure were based on i) a threshold between canopy and ground and ii) a peak analysis of the backscattering profile. ALS data collected simultaneously was used to validate the TomoRadar results (i.e. canopy height) and to obtain elevation ground truth. The first results show a high agreement between ALS and TomoRadar derived canopy heights. The derived knowledge about the energy distribution within the canopy height profile leads to an increased understanding of the interactions between the radar signal and the forest canopy and will support optimization of future radar systems with respect to forest structure observation.

  5. The Use of Temperature Profiles Through Unsaturated Soils to Estimate Short-term Rates of Natural Groundwater Recharge (United States)

    Dripps, W. R.; Anderson, M. P.; Hunt, R. J.


    It has long been recognized that infiltration influences the vertical subsurface temperature profile. Many researchers have used changes in the temperature profile to quantify the rate of groundwater flow in saturated systems, e.g. in wetlands and streambeds. Others have considered coupled heat and flow transport through the unsaturated zone, but we are aware of only two groups (Taniguchi and Sharma, 1993; Tabbagh et al., 1999) who have previously used temperature profiles through the unsaturated zone to estimate rates of areally extensive groundwater recharge. Both groups looked at seasonal changes in soil temperature to estimate annual recharge rates, but no attempt was made to analyze individual recharge events. We collected hourly soil temperature measurements through the unsaturated zone at depths of 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 3 meters at a site in the Trout Lake basin of northern Wisconsin for the past two years. VS2DH (Healy and Ronan, 1996), a two-dimensional, numerical, coupled heat and water flow model for variably saturated media, was used to simulate the thermocouple data and estimate rates of recharge for individual recharge events. Field studies including Guelph permeameter tests, slug tests, grain size analyses, bulk density estimates, and lab measurements of soil moisture characteristic curves were used to estimate the necessary hydraulic and thermal parameters for the model. The field data were supplemented by values reported in the literature, and further refined during model calibration. Recharge rates computed using temperature data were compared with estimates based on water level fluctuations and estimates obtained using simple water balance modeling.

  6. Comparative analysis of gas production profiles obtained with buffalo and sheep ruminal fluid as the source of inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calabrò, S.; López, S.; Piccolo, V.; Dijkstra, J.; Dhanoa, M.S.; France, J.


    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate effects of inoculum source (i.e., sheep versus buffalo rumen fluid) on gas production profiles, and to evaluate the suitability of various mathematical equations to fit the profiles and provide accurate values of degradation attributes. Incubations were

  7. Analysis of cytokine profile and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma obtained by open systems and commercial columns. (United States)

    Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Antonioli, Eliane; Bucci, Daniella Zanetti; Sardinha, Luiz Roberto; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ferretti, Mario; Ejnisman, Benno; Goldberg, Anna Carla; Cohen, Moisés


    To evaluate growth factors and cytokines in samples of platelet-rich plasma obtained by three different centrifugation methods. Peripheral blood of six individuals with no hematological diseases, aged 18 to 68 years, was drawn to obtain platelet-rich plasma, using the open method and commercial columns by Medtronic and Biomet. The products obtained with the different types of centrifugation were submitted to laboratory analysis, including pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by flow cytometry assays, the concentration of fibroblast growth factors-2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1). The diverse separation methods generated systematically different profiles regarding number of platelets and leukocytes. The Medtronic system yielded a product with the highest concentration of platelets, and the open method, with the lowest concentration of platelets. The results of cytokine analysis showed that the different types of centrifugation yielded products with high concentrations of interleukin 8, interleukin 1β. The open system resulted in a product with high levels of interleukin 6. Other cytokines and chemokines measured were similar between systems. The product obtained with the open method showed higher levels of TGF-β1 in relation to other systems and low FGF-2 levels. The formed elements, growth factors and cytokines in samples of platelet-rich plasma varied according to the centrifugation technique used. Avaliar fatores de crescimento e citocinas em amostras de plasma rico em plaquetas obtidas por três diferentes métodos de centrifugação. Foi coletado sangue periférico de seis indivíduos, sem doença hematológica, com idades entre 18 e 68 anos, para obtenção de plasma rico em plaquetas, utilizando o método aberto e sistemas comerciais das empresas Medtronic e Biomet. Os produtos obtidos com os diferentes tipos de centrifugação foram submetidos às análises laboratoriais, incluindo citocinas próinflamatórias e quimiocinas

  8. Obtaining continuous BrAC/BAC estimates in the field: A hybrid system integrating transdermal alcohol biosensor, Intellidrink smartphone app, and BrAC Estimator software tools. (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Hawkins, Ashley L; Dai, Zheng; Wichmann, Raphael; Wang, Chunming; Rosen, I Gary


    Biosensors have been developed to measure transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC), but converting TAC into interpretable indices of blood/breath alcohol concentration (BAC/BrAC) is difficult because of variations that occur in TAC across individuals, drinking episodes, and devices. We have developed mathematical models and the BrAC Estimator software for calibrating and inverting TAC into quantifiable BrAC estimates (eBrAC). The calibration protocol to determine the individualized parameters for a specific individual wearing a specific device requires a drinking session in which BrAC and TAC measurements are obtained simultaneously. This calibration protocol was originally conducted in the laboratory with breath analyzers used to produce the BrAC data. Here we develop and test an alternative calibration protocol using drinking diary data collected in the field with the smartphone app Intellidrink to produce the BrAC calibration data. We compared BrAC Estimator software results for 11 drinking episodes collected by an expert user when using Intellidrink versus breath analyzer measurements as BrAC calibration data. Inversion phase results indicated the Intellidrink calibration protocol produced similar eBrAC curves and captured peak eBrAC to within 0.0003%, time of peak eBrAC to within 18min, and area under the eBrAC curve to within 0.025% alcohol-hours as the breath analyzer calibration protocol. This study provides evidence that drinking diary data can be used in place of breath analyzer data in the BrAC Estimator software calibration procedure, which can reduce participant and researcher burden and expand the potential software user pool beyond researchers studying participants who can drink in the laboratory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Estimating evaporative fraction from readily obtainable variables in mangrove forests of the Everglades, U.S.A. (United States)

    Yagci, Ali Levent; Santanello, Joseph A.; Jones, John W.; Barr, Jordan G.


    A remote-sensing-based model to estimate evaporative fraction (EF) – the ratio of latent heat (LE; energy equivalent of evapotranspiration –ET–) to total available energy – from easily obtainable remotely-sensed and meteorological parameters is presented. This research specifically addresses the shortcomings of existing ET retrieval methods such as calibration requirements of extensive accurate in situ micrometeorological and flux tower observations or of a large set of coarse-resolution or model-derived input datasets. The trapezoid model is capable of generating spatially varying EF maps from standard products such as land surface temperature (Ts) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and daily maximum air temperature (Ta). The 2009 model results were validated at an eddy-covariance tower (Fluxnet ID: US-Skr) in the Everglades using Ts and NDVI products from Landsat as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. Results indicate that the model accuracy is within the range of instrument uncertainty, and is dependent on the spatial resolution and selection of end-members (i.e. wet/dry edge). The most accurate results were achieved with the Ts from Landsat relative to the Ts from the MODIS flown on the Terra and Aqua platforms due to the fine spatial resolution of Landsat (30 m). The bias, mean absolute percentage error and root mean square percentage error were as low as 2.9% (3.0%), 9.8% (13.3%), and 12.1% (16.1%) for Landsat-based (MODIS-based) EF estimates, respectively. Overall, this methodology shows promise for bridging the gap between temporally limited ET estimates at Landsat scales and more complex and difficult to constrain global ET remote-sensing models.

  10. Estimating Evaporative Fraction From Readily Obtainable Variables in Mangrove Forests of the Everglades, U.S.A. (United States)

    Yagci, Ali Levent; Santanello, Joseph A.; Jones, John; Barr, Jordan


    A remote-sensing-based model to estimate evaporative fraction (EF) the ratio of latent heat (LE; energy equivalent of evapotranspiration -ET-) to total available energy from easily obtainable remotely-sensed and meteorological parameters is presented. This research specifically addresses the shortcomings of existing ET retrieval methods such as calibration requirements of extensive accurate in situ micro-meteorological and flux tower observations, or of a large set of coarse-resolution or model-derived input datasets. The trapezoid model is capable of generating spatially varying EF maps from standard products such as land surface temperature [T(sub s)] normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)and daily maximum air temperature [T(sub a)]. The 2009 model results were validated at an eddy-covariance tower (Fluxnet ID: US-Skr) in the Everglades using T(sub s) and NDVI products from Landsat as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. Results indicate that the model accuracy is within the range of instrument uncertainty, and is dependent on the spatial resolution and selection of end-members (i.e. wet/dry edge). The most accurate results were achieved with the T(sub s) from Landsat relative to the T(sub s) from the MODIS flown on the Terra and Aqua platforms due to the fine spatial resolution of Landsat (30 m). The bias, mean absolute percentage error and root mean square percentage error were as low as 2.9% (3.0%), 9.8% (13.3%), and 12.1% (16.1%) for Landsat-based (MODIS-based) EF estimates, respectively. Overall, this methodology shows promise for bridging the gap between temporally limited ET estimates at Landsat scales and more complex and difficult to constrain global ET remote-sensing models.

  11. Combining Satellite Microwave Radiometer and Radar Observations to Estimate Atmospheric Latent Heating Profiles (United States)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.; Shie, Chung-Lin; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo


    In this study, satellite passive microwave sensor observations from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) are utilized to make estimates of latent + eddy sensible heating rates (Q1-QR) in regions of precipitation. The TMI heating algorithm (TRAIN) is calibrated, or "trained" using relatively accurate estimates of heating based upon spaceborne Precipitation Radar (PR) observations collocated with the TMI observations over a one-month period. The heating estimation technique is based upon a previously described Bayesian methodology, but with improvements in supporting cloud-resolving model simulations, an adjustment of precipitation echo tops to compensate for model biases, and a separate scaling of convective and stratiform heating components that leads to an approximate balance between estimated vertically-integrated condensation and surface precipitation. Estimates of Q1-QR from TMI compare favorably with the PR training estimates and show only modest sensitivity to the cloud-resolving model simulations of heating used to construct the training data. Moreover, the net condensation in the corresponding annual mean satellite latent heating profile is within a few percent of the annual mean surface precipitation rate over the tropical and subtropical oceans where the algorithm is applied. Comparisons of Q1 produced by combining TMI Q1-QR with independently derived estimates of QR show reasonable agreement with rawinsonde-based analyses of Q1 from two field campaigns, although the satellite estimates exhibit heating profile structure with sharper and more intense heating peaks than the rawinsonde estimates. 2

  12. Hydraulic conductivity obtained by instantaneous profile method using retention curve and neutron probes and Genuchten model; Condutividade hidraulica obtida pelo metodo do perfil instantaneo utilizando curva de retencao e sonda de neutrons e pelo modelo de Genuchten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berretta, Ana Lucia Olmedo


    The hydraulic conductivity is one of the most important parameters to understand the movement of water in the unsaturated zone. Reliable estimations are difficult to obtain, once the hydraulic conductivity is highly variable. This study was carried out at 'Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz', Universidade de Sao Paulo, in a Kandiudalfic Eutrudox soil. The hydraulic conductivity was determined by a direct and an indirect method. The instantaneous profile method was described and the hydraulic conductivity as a function of soil water content was determined by solving the Richards equation. Tensiometers were used to estimate the total soil water potential, and the neutron probe and the soil retention curve were used to estimate soil water content in the direct method. The neutron probe showed to be not adequately sensible to the changes of soil water content in this soil. Despite of the soil retention curve provides best correlation values to soil water content as a function of water redistribution time, the soil water content in this soil did not vary too much till the depth of 50 cm, reflecting the influence of the presence of a Bt horizon. The soil retention curve was well fitted by the van Genuchten model used as an indirect method. The values of the van Genuchten and the experimental relative hydraulic conductivity obtained by the instantaneous profile method provided a good correlation. However, the values estimated by the model were always lower than that ones obtained experimentally. (author)

  13. Estimation of seabed shear-wave velocity profiles using shear-wave source data. (United States)

    Dong, Hefeng; Nguyen, Thanh-Duong; Duffaut, Kenneth


    This paper estimates seabed shear-wave velocity profiles and their uncertainties using interface-wave dispersion curves extracted from data generated by a shear-wave source. The shear-wave source generated a seismic signature over a frequency range between 2 and 60 Hz and was polarized in both in-line and cross-line orientations. Low-frequency Scholte- and Love-waves were recorded. Dispersion curves of the Scholte- and Love-waves for the fundamental mode and higher-order modes are extracted by three time-frequency analysis methods. Both the vertically and horizontally polarized shear-wave velocity profiles in the sediment are estimated by the Scholte- and Love-wave dispersion curves, respectively. A Bayesian approach is utilized for the inversion. Differential evolution, a global search algorithm is applied to estimate the most-probable shear-velocity models. Marginal posterior probability profiles are computed by Metropolis-Hastings sampling. The estimated vertically and horizontally polarized shear-wave velocity profiles fit well with the core and in situ measurements.

  14. Depth profiles of the Doppler-broadening S parameter for polymers obtained with two measuring patterns: The role of accumulated charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J. [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Yuquan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, P.; Lu, E.Y.; Cao, X.Z.; Yu, R.S. [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Yuquan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, B.Y., E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Yuquan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)


    Highlights: • Depth profiles of S parameter for polymers were obtained with two patterns. • Charges induced by high energy incident positrons can influenced the depth profile. • Depth profiles obtained with energy increase pattern can give real characteristics. - Abstract: Depth profiles of Doppler broadening S parameter for oxygen containing polymer polycarbonate (PC), fluoropolymer poly (tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and chlorine containing polymer polyvinylchloride-unplasticized (UPVC) were obtained with two measuring patterns, i.e. energy increase pattern and energy decrease pattern. The two curves can’t coincide with each other for that a trough appeared between 1 and 5 keV in the curve obtained with energy decrease pattern. It was found that charges induced by high energy incident positrons greatly influenced the annihilation of low energy incident positrons, while charges induced by low energy incident positrons showed little influence on the annihilation of high energy incident positrons. With energy increase measuring pattern, charges induced by low energy incident positrons showed little influence on the annihilation of later incident high energy positrons, thus the measurement can give the depth profile of S parameter in polymer as it was.

  15. Model-based estimation of optimal temperature profile during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Arundo donax. (United States)

    Mutturi, Sarma; Lidén, Gunnar


    A kinetic model fitted to enzymatic hydrolysis of Arundo donax was coupled to a fermentation kinetic model derived from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments at different temperatures for the determination of optimal temperature profile (between 36 and 45°C) using iterative dynamic programming (IDP). A sensitivity analysis of enzyme kinetic model not only facilitated model reduction in terms of number of parameters, but also enabled artifacts from parameter estimations to be identified. In separate fermentation experiments conducted at 35, 40, 45, and 50°C using ∼40 g/L background glucose in fiber-free liquid fraction of Arundo it was found that growth was possible at 40°C, but the fermentation capacity was completely lost after 12 h at 50°C. The final ethanol concentration obtained after 120 h in isothermal SSF experiments at 36, 39, 42, and 45°C were 10.6, 13.7, 14.2, and 12.5 g/L, respectively. The predicted optimal temperature profile in SSF determined by iterative dynamic programming was (i) gradual decrease from 40 to 37.5°C until 16 h, (ii) a linear increase upto 45°C until 80 h, and (iii) gradual decrease by 1°C until 120 h. Experimental results were in good agreement with the model predictions. The ethanol concentration after 72 h obtained in the optimal case was 13.6 g/L in comparison to 9.1, 12.2, 12.6, and 11.6 g/L for ISO-SSF at 36, 39, 42, and 45°C, respectively. Moreover this value was 95.8% of the final value achieved at the end of 120 h, indicating that the process times could be significantly shortened by using non-isothermal SSF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Postmortem interval estimation: a novel approach utilizing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based biochemical profiling. (United States)

    Kaszynski, Richard H; Nishiumi, Shin; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru; Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Asano, Migiwa; Ueno, Yasuhiro


    While the molecular mechanisms underlying postmortem change have been exhaustively investigated, the establishment of an objective and reliable means for estimating postmortem interval (PMI) remains an elusive feat. In the present study, we exploit low molecular weight metabolites to estimate postmortem interval in mice. After sacrifice, serum and muscle samples were procured from C57BL/6J mice (n = 52) at seven predetermined postmortem intervals (0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h). After extraction and isolation, low molecular weight metabolites were measured via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and examined via semi-quantification studies. Then, PMI prediction models were generated for each of the 175 and 163 metabolites identified in muscle and serum, respectively, using a non-linear least squares curve fitting program. A PMI estimation panel for muscle and serum was then erected which consisted of 17 (9.7%) and 14 (8.5%) of the best PMI biomarkers identified in muscle and serum profiles demonstrating statistically significant correlations between metabolite quantity and PMI. Using a single-blinded assessment, we carried out validation studies on the PMI estimation panels. Mean ± standard deviation for accuracy of muscle and serum PMI prediction panels was -0.27 ± 2.88 and -0.89 ± 2.31 h, respectively. Ultimately, these studies elucidate the utility of metabolomic profiling in PMI estimation and pave the path toward biochemical profiling studies involving human samples.

  17. Defect profile estimation from magnetic flux leakage signal via efficient managing particle swarm optimization. (United States)

    Han, Wenhua; Xu, Jun; Wang, Ping; Tian, Guiyun


    In this paper, efficient managing particle swarm optimization (EMPSO) for high dimension problem is proposed to estimate defect profile from magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signal. In the proposed EMPSO, in order to strengthen exchange of information among particles, particle pair model was built. For more efficient searching when facing different landscapes of problems, velocity updating scheme including three velocity updating models was also proposed. In addition, for more chances to search optimum solution out, automatic particle selection for re-initialization was implemented. The optimization results of six benchmark functions show EMPSO performs well when optimizing 100-D problems. The defect simulation results demonstrate that the inversing technique based on EMPSO outperforms the one based on self-learning particle swarm optimizer (SLPSO), and the estimated profiles are still close to the desired profiles with the presence of low noise in MFL signal. The results estimated from real MFL signal by EMPSO-based inversing technique also indicate that the algorithm is capable of providing an accurate solution of the defect profile with real signal. Both the simulation results and experiment results show the computing time of the EMPSO-based inversing technique is reduced by 20%-30% than that of the SLPSO-based inversing technique.

  18. Estimating Volume, Biomass, and Carbon in Hedmark County, Norway Using a Profiling LiDAR (United States)

    Nelson, Ross; Naesset, Erik; Gobakken, T.; Gregoire, T.; Stahl, G.


    A profiling airborne LiDAR is used to estimate the forest resources of Hedmark County, Norway, a 27390 square kilometer area in southeastern Norway on the Swedish border. One hundred five profiling flight lines totaling 9166 km were flown over the entire county; east-west. The lines, spaced 3 km apart north-south, duplicate the systematic pattern of the Norwegian Forest Inventory (NFI) ground plot arrangement, enabling the profiler to transit 1290 circular, 250 square meter fixed-area NFI ground plots while collecting the systematic LiDAR sample. Seven hundred sixty-three plots of the 1290 plots were overflown within 17.8 m of plot center. Laser measurements of canopy height and crown density are extracted along fixed-length, 17.8 m segments closest to the center of the ground plot and related to basal area, timber volume and above- and belowground dry biomass. Linear, nonstratified equations that estimate ground-measured total aboveground dry biomass report an R(sup 2) = 0.63, with an regression RMSE = 35.2 t/ha. Nonstratified model results for the other biomass components, volume, and basal area are similar, with R(sup 2) values for all models ranging from 0.58 (belowground biomass, RMSE = 8.6 t/ha) to 0.63. Consistently, the most useful single profiling LiDAR variable is quadratic mean canopy height, h (sup bar)(sub qa). Two-variable models typically include h (sup bar)(sub qa) or mean canopy height, h(sup bar)(sub a), with a canopy density or a canopy height standard deviation measure. Stratification by productivity class did not improve the nonstratified models, nor did stratification by pine/spruce/hardwood. County-wide profiling LiDAR estimates are reported, by land cover type, and compared to NFI estimates.

  19. Use of NMR logging to obtain estimates of hydraulic conductivity in the High Plains aquifer, Nebraska, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dlubac, Katherine; Knight, Rosemary; Song, Yi‐Qiao; Bachman, Nate; Grau, Ben; Cannia, Jim; Williams, John


    NMR-logging provides reliable estimates of hydraulic conductivity in aquifers Provided equations to predict hydraulic conductivity in unconsolidated materials Problems acquiring advanced geophysical...

  20. A Remote Sensing Approach to Estimate Vertical Profile Classes of Phytoplankton in a Eutrophic Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xue


    Full Text Available The extension and frequency of algal blooms in surface waters can be monitored using remote sensing techniques, yet knowledge of their vertical distribution is fundamental to determine total phytoplankton biomass and understanding temporal variability of surface conditions and the underwater light field. However, different vertical distribution classes of phytoplankton may occur in complex inland lakes. Identification of the vertical profile classes of phytoplankton becomes the key and first step to estimate its vertical profile. The vertical distribution profile of phytoplankton is based on a weighted integral of reflected light from all depths and is difficult to determine by reflectance data alone. In this study, four Chla vertical profile classes (vertically uniform, Gaussian, exponential and hyperbolic were found to occur in three in situ vertical surveys (28 May, 19–24 July and 10–12 October in a shallow eutrophic lake, Lake Chaohu. We developed and validated a classification and regression tree (CART to determine vertical phytoplankton biomass profile classes. This was based on an algal bloom index (Normalized Difference algal Bloom Index, NDBI applied to both in situ remote sensing reflectance (Rrs and MODIS Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (Rrc data in combination with data of local wind speed. The results show the potential of retrieving Chla vertical profiles information from integrated information sources following a decision tree approach.

  1. Influence of DNA extraction on oral microbial profiles obtained via 16S rRNA gene sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Abusleme


    Full Text Available Background and objective: The advent of next-generation sequencing has significantly facilitated characterization of the oral microbiome. Despite great efforts in streamlining the processes of sequencing and data curation, upstream steps required for amplicon library generation could still influence 16S rRNA gene-based microbial profiles. Among upstream processes, DNA extraction is a critical step that could represent a great source of bias. Accounting for bias introduced by extraction procedures is important when comparing studies that use different methods. Identifying the method that best portrays communities is also desirable. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate bias introduced by different DNA extraction procedures on oral microbiome profiles. Design: Four DNA extraction methods were tested on mock communities consisting of seven representative oral bacteria. Additionally, supragingival plaque samples were collected from seven individuals and divided equally to test two commonly used DNA extraction procedures. Amplicon libraries of the 16S rRNA gene were generated and sequenced via 454-pyrosequencing. Results: Evaluation of mock communities revealed that DNA yield and bacterial species representation varied with DNA extraction methods. Despite producing the lowest yield of DNA, a method that included bead beating was the only protocol capable of detecting all seven species in the mock community. Comparison of the performance of two commonly used methods (crude lysis and a chemical/enzymatic lysis+column-based DNA isolation on plaque samples showed no effect of extraction protocols on taxa prevalence but global community structure and relative abundance of individual taxa were affected. At the phylum level, the latter method improved the recovery of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Spirochaetes over crude lysis. Conclusion: DNA extraction distorts microbial profiles in simulated and clinical oral samples, reinforcing the

  2. HPLC Evaluation of Phenolic Profile, Nutritive Content, and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts Obtained from Punica granatum Fruit Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar Middha


    Full Text Available This study revealed polyphenolic content, nutritive content, antioxidant activity, and phenolic profile of methanol and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum peel extract. For this, extracts were screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The total phenolics and flavonoid recovered by methanolic (MPE and the water extract (AQPE were ranged from 185 ± 12.45 to 298.00 ± 24.86 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents/gm and 23.05 ± 1.54 to 49.8 ± 2.14 quercetin (QE mg/g, respectively. The EC50 of herbal extracts ranged from 100 µg/ml (0.38 quercetin equivalents, for AQPE, 168 µg/ml (0.80 quercetin equivalents, for MPE. The phenolic profile in the methanolic extracts was investigated by chromatographic (HPLC method. About 5 different flavonoids, phenolic acids, and their derivatives including quercetin (1, rutin (2, gallic acid (3, ellagic acid (4, and punicalagin as a major ellagitannin (5 have been identified. Among both extracts, methanolic extract was the most effective. This report may be the first to show nutritive content and correlation analysis to suggest that phenols and flavonoids might contribute the high antioxidant activity of this fruit peel and establish it as a valuable natural antioxidant source applicable in the health food industry.

  3. The effects of inbreeding on DNA profile frequency estimates using PCR-based loci. (United States)

    Budowle, B


    Estimates of inbreeding were determined using Wright's FST for loci used for PCR-based forensic analyses. The populations analyzed were African Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics, and Orientals. In most cases the FST values at each locus were less than 0.01. The FST values over all loci for African Americans, Caucasians, and Orientals ranged from 0.0015 to 0.0048. No substantial differences were observed for DNA profile frequency estimates when calculated under the assumption of independence or with the incorporation of FST.

  4. Temperature-profile methods for estimating percolation rates in arid environments (United States)

    Constantz, Jim; Tyler, Scott W.; Kwicklis, Edward


    Percolation rates are estimated using vertical temperature profiles from sequentially deeper vadose environments, progressing from sediments beneath stream channels, to expansive basin-fill materials, and finally to deep fractured bedrock underlying mountainous terrain. Beneath stream channels, vertical temperature profiles vary over time in response to downward heat transport, which is generally controlled by conductive heat transport during dry periods, or by advective transport during channel infiltration. During periods of stream-channel infiltration, two relatively simple approaches are possible: a heat-pulse technique, or a heat and liquid-water transport simulation code. Focused percolation rates beneath stream channels are examined for perennial, seasonal, and ephemeral channels in central New Mexico, with estimated percolation rates ranging from 100 to 2100 mm d−1 Deep within basin-fill and underlying mountainous terrain, vertical temperature gradients are dominated by the local geothermal gradient, which creates a profile with decreasing temperatures toward the surface. If simplifying assumptions are employed regarding stratigraphy and vapor fluxes, an analytical solution to the heat transport problem can be used to generate temperature profiles at specified percolation rates for comparison to the observed geothermal gradient. Comparisons to an observed temperature profile in the basin-fill sediments beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, yielded water fluxes near zero, with absolute values <10 mm yr−1 For the deep vadose environment beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the complexities of stratigraphy and vapor movement are incorporated into a more elaborate heat and water transport model to compare simulated and observed temperature profiles for a pair of deep boreholes. Best matches resulted in a percolation rate near zero for one borehole and 11 mm yr−1 for the second borehole.

  5. Profiling of Prosumers for the Needs of Electric Energy Demand Estimation in Microgrids


    Karol Fabisz; Agata Filipowska; Tymoteusz Hossa


    Nowadays, a lot of attention regarding smart grids' development is devoted to delivery of methods for estimation of the energy demand taking into account the behavior of network participants (being single prosumers or groups of prosumers). These methods take an advantage from an analysis of the ex-post data on energy consumption, usually with no additional data about profiles of prosumers. The goal of this paper is to present and validate a method for an energy demand forecasting based on pro...

  6. An Inverse Method for Obtaining the Attenuation Profile and Small Variations in the Sound Speed and Density Profiles of the Ocean Bottom. (United States)


    L’-(Pl’ Ing k eriiel for pr,,-fdi 7-1J41 .) 1 ~ Figure 7-30: fEC’.NL Ir. k crud L’ fr pr’cifl T-1.4 (c) P-7 Figure 7-31: L-- 1PH I :r,. - I. ’.1 7-14...Further, the data in the low frequency range are spread over a wide range of values of attenuation and there is no consistent pattern to justify a...studying the peak to null difference in the measured interference pattern . 4 3.2 Determination of the attenuation profile from the plane-wave

  7. Obtaining representative community profiles of anaerobic digesters through optimisation of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Karst, Søren Michael

    RNA gene amplicon sequencing is rapid, cheap, high throughput, and has high taxonomic resolution. However, biases are introduced in multiple steps of this approach, including non-representative DNA extraction and uneven taxonomic coverage of selected PCR primers, potentially giving a skewed view...... of the community composition . As such sample specific optimisation and standardisation of DNA extraction, as well PCR primer selection, are essential to minimising the potential for such biases. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for optimized community profiling of anaerobic digesters. The Fast......DNA SPIN kit was selected and the mechanical lysis parameters optimised for extraction of genomic DNA from mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digester samples. Different primer sets were compared for targeting the archaea and bacteria, both together and individually . Shotgun sequencing...

  8. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazutti


    Full Text Available This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC and pressure (100 to 250 bar on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, pinocarvone, 4-terpineol, ascaridole, piperitone oxide, limonene dioxide and n-eicosane in a GC/MSD. Antimicrobial tests demonstrated that the high-pressure CO2 extracts had activity against 13 bacteria and that better action was verified with extracts obtained at a lower CO2 extraction density and a higher temperature.

  9. Metabolomics profiling of pre-and post-anesthesia plasma samples of colorectal patients obtained via Ficoll separation


    Ghini, Veronica; Unger, Florian T; Tenori, Leonardo; Turano, Paola; Juhl, Hartmut; David, Kerstin A.


    1H NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the metabolic consequences of general anesthesia in the plasma of two groups of patients with diagnosis for non-metastatic colorectal cancer and metastatic colorectal cancer with liver-metastasis, respectively. Patients were treated with etomidate or propofol, two frequently used sedation agents. Plasma samples were obtained via Ficoll separation. Here, we demonstrated that this procedure introduces a number of limitations for NMR-based metabolomics...

  10. qpure: A tool to estimate tumor cellularity from genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Song

    Full Text Available Tumour cellularity, the relative proportion of tumour and normal cells in a sample, affects the sensitivity of mutation detection, copy number analysis, cancer gene expression and methylation profiling. Tumour cellularity is traditionally estimated by pathological review of sectioned specimens; however this method is both subjective and prone to error due to heterogeneity within lesions and cellularity differences between the sample viewed during pathological review and tissue used for research purposes. In this paper we describe a statistical model to estimate tumour cellularity from SNP array profiles of paired tumour and normal samples using shifts in SNP allele frequency at regions of loss of heterozygosity (LOH in the tumour. We also provide qpure, a software implementation of the method. Our experiments showed that there is a medium correlation 0.42 ([Formula: see text]-value=0.0001 between tumor cellularity estimated by qpure and pathology review. Interestingly there is a high correlation 0.87 ([Formula: see text]-value [Formula: see text] 2.2e-16 between cellularity estimates by qpure and deep Ion Torrent sequencing of known somatic KRAS mutations; and a weaker correlation 0.32 ([Formula: see text]-value=0.004 between IonTorrent sequencing and pathology review. This suggests that qpure may be a more accurate predictor of tumour cellularity than pathology review. qpure can be downloaded from

  11. Bayesian Mass Estimates of the Milky Way: Inferring the Mass Profile from Globular Cluster Kinematics (United States)

    Eadie, Gwendolyn; Harris, William E.; Springford, Aaron; Widrow, Larry


    The mass and cumulative mass profile of the Milky Way's dark matter halo is a fundamental property of the Galaxy, and yet these quantities remain poorly constrained and span almost two orders of magnitude in the literature. There are a variety of methods to measure the mass of the Milky Way, and a common way to constrain the mass uses kinematic information of satellite objects (e.g. globular clusters) orbiting the Galaxy. One reason precise estimates of the mass and mass profile remain elusive is that the kinematic data of the globular clusters are incomplete; for some both line-of-sight and proper motion measurements are available (i.e. complete data), and for others there are only line-of-sight velocities (i.e. incomplete data). Furthermore, some proper motion measurements suffer from large measurement uncertainties, and these uncertainties can be difficult to take into account because they propagate in complicated ways. Past methods have dealt with incomplete data by using either only the line-of-sight measurements (and throwing away the proper motions), or only using the complete data. In either case, valuable information is not included in the analysis. During my PhD research, I have been developing a coherent hierarchical Bayesian method to estimate the mass and mass profile of the Galaxy that 1) includes both complete and incomplete kinematic data simultaneously in the analysis, and 2) includes measurement uncertainties in a meaningful way. In this presentation, I will introduce our approach in a way that is accessible and clear, and will also present our estimates of the Milky Way's total mass and mass profile using all available kinematic data from the globular cluster population of the Galaxy.

  12. Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomic Profiling of Thrombotic Material Obtained by Endovascular Thrombectomy in Patients with Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Muñoz


    Full Text Available Thrombotic material retrieved from acute ischemic stroke (AIS patients represents a valuable source of biological information. In this study, we have developed a clinical proteomics workflow to characterize the protein cargo of thrombi derived from AIS patients. To analyze the thrombus proteome in a large-scale format, we developed a workflow that combines the isolation of thrombus by endovascular thrombectomy and peptide chromatographic fractionation coupled to mass-spectrometry. Using this workflow, we have characterized a specific proteomic expression profile derived from four AIS patients included in this study. Around 1600 protein species were unambiguously identified in the analyzed material. Functional bioinformatics analyses were performed, emphasizing a clustering of proteins with immunological functions as well as cardiopathy-related proteins with blood-cell dependent functions and peripheral vascular processes. In addition, we established a reference proteomic fingerprint of 341 proteins commonly detected in all patients. Protein interactome network of this subproteome revealed protein clusters involved in the interaction of fibronectin with 14-3-3 proteins, TGFβ signaling, and TCP complex network. Taken together, our data contributes to the repertoire of the human thrombus proteome, serving as a reference library to increase our knowledge about the molecular basis of thrombus derived from AIS patients, paving the way toward the establishment of a quantitative approach necessary to detect and characterize potential novel biomarkers in the stroke field.

  13. Thermal Loading and Lifetime Estimation for Power Device Considering Mission Profiles in Wind Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede


    As a key component in the wind turbine system, the power electronic converter and its power semiconductors suffer from complicated power loadings related to environment, and are proven to have high failure rates. Therefore, correct lifetime estimation of wind power converter is crucial...... for the reliability improvement and also for cost reduction of wind power technology. Unfortunately, the existing lifetime estimation methods for the power electronic converter are not yet suitable in the wind power application, because the comprehensive mission profiles are not well specified and included....... Consequently, a relative more advanced approach is proposed in this paper, which is based on the loading and strength analysis of devices and takes into account different time constants of the thermal behaviors in power converter. With the established methods for loading and lifetime estimation for power...

  14. Sensitivity analysis and calibration of population size estimates obtained with the zero-truncated Poisson regression model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruyff, M.J.L.F.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.


    Zero-truncated regression models for count data can be used to estimate the size of an elusive population. A frequently encountered problem is that the Poisson model underestimates the population size due to unobserved heterogeneity, while the negative binomial model is not identified. A sensitivity

  15. Gene expression profiles of Beta-cell enriched tissue obtained by laser capture microdissection from subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorella Marselli


    Full Text Available Changes in gene expression in pancreatic beta-cells from type 2 diabetes (T2D should provide insights into their abnormal insulin secretion and turnover.Frozen sections were obtained from cadaver pancreases of 10 control and 10 T2D human subjects. Beta-cell enriched samples were obtained by laser capture microdissection (LCM. RNA was extracted, amplified and subjected to microarray analysis. Further analysis was performed with DNA-Chip Analyzer (dChip and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA software. There were changes in expression of genes linked to glucotoxicity. Evidence of oxidative stress was provided by upregulation of several metallothionein genes. There were few changes in the major genes associated with cell cycle, apoptosis or endoplasmic reticulum stress. There was differential expression of genes associated with pancreatic regeneration, most notably upregulation of members of the regenerating islet gene (REG family and metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7. Some of the genes found in GWAS studies to be related to T2D were also found to be differentially expressed. IGF2BP2, TSPAN8, and HNF1B (TCF2 were upregulated while JAZF1 and SLC30A8 were downregulated.This study made possible by LCM has identified many novel changes in gene expression that enhance understanding of the pathogenesis of T2D.

  16. Metabolite profiling of Clinacanthus nutans leaves extracts obtained from different drying methods by 1H NMR-based metabolomics (United States)

    Hashim, Noor Haslinda Noor; Latip, Jalifah; Khatib, Alfi


    The metabolites of Clinacanthus nutans leaves extracts and their dependence on drying process were systematically characterized using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) multivariate data analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were able to distinguish the leaves extracts obtained from different drying methods. The identified metabolites were carbohydrates, amino acid, flavonoids and sulfur glucoside compounds. The major metabolites responsible for the separation in PLS-DA loading plots were lupeol, cycloclinacosides, betulin, cerebrosides and choline. The results showed that the combination of 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analyses could act as an efficient technique to understand the C. nutans composition and its variation.

  17. Analysis of synthetic profile of CZTS as photovoltaic material obtained with variations of titanium and TiN (United States)

    Muñoz, M.; Vera, E.; Gómez, J.; Pineda, Y.


    Semiconductor type Cu2ZnTiS4 (CZTiS) and Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS),were synthetized starting from a hydrothermal route from precursor powders such as copper, zinc, tin, titanium isopropoxide and tiocarbammide metal nitrates dissolved in deionized water in concentrations of 1molL-1. Dosed and placed in a steel autoclave equipped with a Teflon jacket under magnetic stirring (150rpm) and at a temperature of 300°C for 24 hours in order to promote the formation of the respective ceramic phases. Segregates have been repeatedly washed with ethanol at all times until obtaining crystalline-looking solids. Subsequently, in order to promote the production of pure crystalline phases, the materials were subjected to a second reaction stage in a tubular furnace at 400°C in flow (50mLmin-1) for the purpose of Reduce the concentration of secondary phases of sulphides. The characterization of the CZTiS and CZTS materials was performed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy where the presence of Kesterite type crystalline structures was confirmed in the two materials revealing that the effect of titanium with a higher ionic radius than tin produces a distortion in the cell of the CZTiS material compared to the report for the CZTS system. The results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), confirm the regular aggregates obtained with composition consistent with the proposal theoretically and validated by Energy-Dispersion X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) techniques and comparison between secondary emission spectra and Retro-dispersed.

  18. Real Mission Profile Based Lifetime Estimation of Fuel-cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede


    . This paper describes a lifetime prediction method for the power semiconductors used in the power conditioning of a fuel cell based backup system, considering both the long-term standby mode and active operation mode. The annual ambient temperature profile is taken into account to estimate its impact...... on the degradation of MOSFETs during the standby mode. At the presence of power outages, the backup system is activated into the operation mode and the MOSFETs withstand additional thermal stresses due to power losses. A study case of a 1 kW backup system is presented with two annual mission profiles in Denmark...... and India, respectively. The ambient temperature, occurrence frequency of power outages, active operation time and power levels are considered for the lifetime prediction of the applied MOSFETs. Comparisons of the accumulated lifetime consumptions are performed between standby mode and operation mode...

  19. Estimating the outer scale in altitude - L0(h) - using the GeMS profiler (United States)

    Guesalaga, A.; Neichel, B.; Fusco, T.; Oberti, S.; Valenzuela, J.; Masciadri, E.; Correia, C.; Sauvage, J. F.


    We analyze the altitude distribution of the turbulence outer scale - L0(h) - at Cerro Pachon from Gemini South MCAO (GeMS) loop data. GeMS turbulence profiler is fed with telemetry from their 5 WFSs and from the voltages applied to the deformable mirrors, providing estimations of r0, Cn2(h), wind profile (speed and direction for every layer), isoplanatic angle and the outer scale distribution L0(h). It is shown that this last parameter ranges from less than 1 meter at the ground to more than 50m (the telescope is insensitive to larger cannot detect differences above this value). The technique is based on cross correlations of the pseudo-open-loop slopes that allow to disentangle the multiple constituents of L0.

  20. Molecular structures of fluid phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers obtained from simulation-to-experiment comparisons and experimental scattering density profiles. (United States)

    Kučerka, Norbert; van Oosten, Brad; Pan, Jianjun; Heberle, Frederick A; Harroun, Thad A; Katsaras, John


    Following our previous efforts in determining the structures of commonly used PC, PG, and PS bilayers, we continue our studies of fully hydrated, fluid phase PE bilayers. The newly designed parsing scheme for PE bilayers was based on extensive MD simulations, and is utilized in the SDP analysis of both X-ray and neutron (contrast varied) scattering measurements. Obtained experimental scattering form factors are directly compared to our simulation results, and can serve as a benchmark for future developed force fields. Among the evaluated structural parameters, namely, area per lipid A, overall bilayer thickness DB, and hydrocarbon region thickness 2DC, the PE bilayer response to changing temperature is similar to previously studied bilayers with different headgroups. On the other hand, the reduced hydration of PE headgroups, as well as the strong hydrogen bonding between PE headgroups, dramatically affects lateral packing within the bilayer. Despite sharing the same glycerol backbone, a markedly smaller area per lipid distinguishes PE from other bilayers (i.e., PC, PG, and PS) studied to date. Overall, our data are consistent with the notion that lipid headgroups govern bilayer packing, while hydrocarbon chains dominate the bilayer's response to temperature changes.

  1. Estimation of the release profiles of multi-unit dose tablets of theophylline from the release profiles of their components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uhumwangho, M.U; Okor, R.S


    Purpose: The objective of this study is to investigate whether the drug release profile of a multi-unit dose form consisting of fast and slow release components can be predicted from the release profiles...

  2. Physicochemical and dissolution profile characterization of pellets containing different binders obtained by the extrusion-spheronization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Georges Issa


    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the behavior of different polymers employed as binders in small-diameter pellets for oral administration, we prepared formulations containing paracetamol and one of the following polymers: PVP, PEG 1500, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and methylcellulose, and we evaluated their different binding properties. The pellets were obtained by the extrusion/spheronization process and were subsequently subjected to fluid bed drying. In order to assess drug delivery, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP apparatus 3 (Bio-Dis was employed, in conjunction with the method described by the same pharmacopeia for the dissolution of paracetamol tablets (apparatus 1. The pellets were also evaluated for granulometry, friability, true density and drug content. The results indicate that the different binders used are capable of affecting production in different ways, and some of the physicochemical characteristics of the pellets, as well as the dissolution test, revealed that the formulations acted like immediate-release products. The pellets obtained presented favorable release characteristics for orally disintegrating tablets. USP apparatus 3 seems to be more adequate for discriminating among formulations than the basket method.Com a finalidade de se avaliar o comportamento de diferentes polímeros empregados como aglutinantes em pellets de pequeno diâmetro para uso oral foram preparadas formulações contendo paracetamol e um dos seguintes polímeros: PVP, PEG 1500, hidroxipropilmetilcelulose e metilcelulose por apresentarem diferentes propriedades aglutinantes. Os pellets foram obtidos pelo processo de extrusão/esferonização e secagem em leito fluidizado. Para avaliar a liberação do fármaco, empregou-se o método 3 da Farmacopeia Americana, também conhecido como Bio-Dis e o método preconizado pela mesma farmacopeia para comprimidos de paracetamol. Os pellets foram avaliados, ainda, com relação à granulometria, friabilidade

  3. The App SOC plus a tool to estimate and calculate organic carbon in the soil profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bautista


    Full Text Available In the world, researchers are working very intensively in the development of soil organic carbon (SOC inventories. Soil organic carbon is very important because it constitutes the largest reservoir of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Maintaining and increasing soil carbon is an option to reduce the amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere, and thereby, to reduce or mitigate climate change. The SOC is now a topic of great interest hence it is recommended to know the amount of SOC along the profile to select and evaluate those areas that should be preserved. The aims of developing App SOC plus were to eliminate the calculate errors of SOC and to make a tool to estimate SOC in field. The common units of measurement of soil properties were employed: bulk density in mg mL−1, horizon thickness in centimetres, stoniness and organic carbon in percentage. The App SOC plus was developed in the Android platform. App SOC plus involves a three-step process: introduction of soil properties, calculation of SOC to horizon and soil profile, and conversion of units using the international and English systems. As a result, there will no longer be confusions with conversion units using App SOC plus; with App SOC plus the soil organic carbon can now be calculated or/and estimated because it provides instructions (aids to estimate the soil properties necessary to calculate the SOC in the soil profile. You can save time in the calculation of SOC. App SOC plus is a tool for diagnosis in the field.

  4. Clonality, virulence determinants, and profiles of resistance of clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates obtained from a Spanish hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Dahdouh

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen that is showing increasing rates of carbapenem resistance. Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR International Clones (ICs, associated with certain oxacillinases, are being reported globally. This organism also harbors numerous virulence determinants. In this study, we aim at characterizing A. baumannii isolated from a Spanish hospital in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility, clonality, carbapenemase genes harbored, and virulence determinants expressed.Fifty nine clinical bloodstream isolates were obtained from 2009 until 2013. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing was performed according to the CLSI guidelines. PFGE and tri-locus PCR typing were then performed in order to determine local and international clonality. PCRs for the detection of common carbapenemases were also performed. Production of hemolysis, biofilms, siderophores, surface motility, and proteolysis were determined phenotypically. Doubling times for selected strains were also calculated. Finally, statistical analysis for detecting associations between these factors was conducted.Carbapenem non-susceptibility was 84.75%, suggesting the immediate need for intervention. PFGE showed the distribution of the majority of the isolates among 7 clusters. Although all three ICs were detected, IC II was predominant at 71.19%. blaOXA-24-like was the most prevalent carbapenemase (62.71%, followed by blaOXA-58-like (13.56%, and blaOXA-23-like (11.86%. Strains pertaining to IC II, and those harboring blaOXA-24-like, were positively associated with α-hemolysis, production of strong biofilms, and siderophore production. Harboring blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-58-like was associated with attenuated virulence. These associations suggest that an interplay exists between these factors that could be locally exploited.An alarmingly high rate of carbapenem non-susceptibility has been detected in this study. There was a predominance of IC II and blaOXA-24-like, and those

  5. Evaluation of volatile profiles obtained for minimally-processed pineapple fruit samples during storage by headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Crocetta TURAZZI

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the application of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME technique for the determination and monitoring of the volatile profile of minimally-processed pineapple fruit stored at various temperatures (-12 °C, 4 °C and 25 °C for different periods (1, 4 and 10 days. The SPME fiber coating composed of Car/PDMS presented the best performance. The optimal extraction conditions obtained through a Doehlert design were 60 min at 35 °C. The profiles for the volatile compounds content of the fruit at each stage of storage were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The variation in the volatile profile over time was greater when the fruit samples were stored at 25 °C and at -12 °C compared to 4 °C. Thus, according to the volatile profiles associated with the storage conditions evaluated in this study, packaged pineapple retains best its fresh fruit aroma when stored at 4 °C.

  6. Artificial neural network analysis of hydrocarbon profiles for the ageing of Lucilia sericata for post mortem interval estimation. (United States)

    Butcher, J B; Moore, H E; Day, C R; Adam, C D; Drijfhout, F P


    In analytical chemistry large datasets are collected using a variety of instruments for multiple tasks, where manual analysis can be time-consuming. Ideally, it is desirable to automate this process while obtaining an acceptable level of accuracy, two aims that artificial neural networks (ANNs) can fulfil. ANNs possess the ability to classify novel data based on their knowledge of the domain to which they have been exposed. ANNs can also analyse non-linear data, tolerate noise within data and are capable of reducing time taken to classify large amounts of novel data once trained, making them well-suited to the field of analytical chemistry where large datasets are present (such as that collected from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)). In this study, the use of ANNs for the autonomous analysis of GC-MS profiles of Lucilia sericata larvae is investigated, where ANNs are required to estimate the age of the larvae to aid in the estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI). Two ANN analysis approaches are presented, where the ANN correctly classified the data with accuracy scores of 80.8% and 87.7% and Cohen's Kappa coefficients of 0.78 and 0.86. Inspection of these results shows the ANN to confuse two consecutive days which are of the same life stage and as a result are very similar in their chemical profile, which can be expected. The grouping of these two days into one class further improved results where accuracy scores 89% and 97.5% were obtained for the two analysis approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptive Hybrid Control of Vehicle Semiactive Suspension Based on Road Profile Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yechen Qin


    Full Text Available A new road estimation based suspension hybrid control strategy is proposed. Its aim is to adaptively change control gains to improve both ride comfort and road handling with the constraint of rattle space. To achieve this, analytical expressions for ride comfort, road handling, and rattle space with respect to road input are derived based on the hybrid control, and the problem is transformed into a MOOP (Multiobjective Optimization Problem and has been solved by NSGA-II (Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II. A new road estimation and classification method, which is based on ANFIS (Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System and wavelet transforms, is then presented as a means of detecting the road profile level, and a Kalman filter is designed for observing unknown states. The results of simulations conducted with random road excitation show that the efficiency of the proposed control strategy compares favourably to that of a passive system.

  8. Experimental estimation of the photons visiting probability profiles in time-resolved diffuse reflectance measurement. (United States)

    Sawosz, P; Kacprzak, M; Weigl, W; Borowska-Solonynko, A; Krajewski, P; Zolek, N; Ciszek, B; Maniewski, R; Liebert, A


    A time-gated intensified CCD camera was applied for time-resolved imaging of light penetrating in an optically turbid medium. Spatial distributions of light penetration probability in the plane perpendicular to the axes of the source and the detector were determined at different source positions. Furthermore, visiting probability profiles of diffuse reflectance measurement were obtained by the convolution of the light penetration distributions recorded at different source positions. Experiments were carried out on homogeneous phantoms, more realistic two-layered tissue phantoms based on the human skull filled with Intralipid-ink solution and on cadavers. It was noted that the photons visiting probability profiles depend strongly on the source-detector separation, the delay between the laser pulse and the photons collection window and the complex tissue composition of the human head.

  9. Toward the optimal resolution on rainfall estimates to obtain reliable urban hydrological response : X-band polarimetric radar estimates applied to Rotterdam urban drainage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinoso Rondinel, R.R.; Bruni, G.; Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.


    Weather observations are conventionally performed by single polarization C-band weather radars with a temporal and spatial resolution of 5 min and 1 km, respectively. However, for urbanized areas, these spatial and temporal resolutions may not be sufficient to detect, monitor, and obtain accurate

  10. Genetic Polymorphisms and Phenotypic Profiles of Sulfadiazine-Resistant and Sensitive Toxoplasma gondii Isolates Obtained from Newborns with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais, Brazil. (United States)

    Silva, Letícia Azevedo; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Vítor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida


    Previous Toxoplasma gondii studies revealed that mutations in the dhps (dihydropteroate synthase) gene are associated with resistance to sulfonamides. Although Brazilian strains are genotypically different, very limited data are available regarding the susceptibility of strains obtained from human to sulfonamides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sulfadiazine (SDZ) against Brazilian isolates of T. gondii and verify whether isolates present polymorphisms in the dhps gene. We also investigated whether the virulence-phenotype and/or genotype were associated with the profile of susceptibility to SDZ. Five T. gondii isolates obtained from newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis were used to verify susceptibility. Mice were infected with 104 tachyzoites and orally treated with different doses of SDZ. The mortality curve was evaluated by the Log-rank test. The presence of polymorphisms in the dhps gene was verified using sequencing. A descriptive analysis for 11 Brazilian isolates was used to assess the association between susceptibility, genotype, and virulence-phenotype. Statistical analysis showed that TgCTBr03, 07, 08, and 16 isolates were susceptible to SDZ, whereas TgCTBr11 isolate presented a profile of resistance to SDZ. Nineteen polymorphisms were identified in dhps exons. Seven polymorphisms corresponded to non-synonymous mutations, with four being new mutations, described for the first time in this study. No association was found between the profile of susceptibility and the virulence-phenotype or genotype of the parasite. There is a high variability in the susceptibilities of Brazilian T. gondii strains to SDZ, with evidence of drug resistance. Despite the large number of polymorphisms identified, the profile of susceptibility to SDZ was not associated with any of the dhps variants identified in this study. Other genetic factors, not yet determined, may be associated with the resistance to SDZ; thus, further studies are needed as a basis

  11. Genetic Polymorphisms and Phenotypic Profiles of Sulfadiazine-Resistant and Sensitive Toxoplasma gondii Isolates Obtained from Newborns with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Azevedo Silva

    Full Text Available Previous Toxoplasma gondii studies revealed that mutations in the dhps (dihydropteroate synthase gene are associated with resistance to sulfonamides. Although Brazilian strains are genotypically different, very limited data are available regarding the susceptibility of strains obtained from human to sulfonamides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sulfadiazine (SDZ against Brazilian isolates of T. gondii and verify whether isolates present polymorphisms in the dhps gene. We also investigated whether the virulence-phenotype and/or genotype were associated with the profile of susceptibility to SDZ.Five T. gondii isolates obtained from newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis were used to verify susceptibility. Mice were infected with 104 tachyzoites and orally treated with different doses of SDZ. The mortality curve was evaluated by the Log-rank test. The presence of polymorphisms in the dhps gene was verified using sequencing. A descriptive analysis for 11 Brazilian isolates was used to assess the association between susceptibility, genotype, and virulence-phenotype.Statistical analysis showed that TgCTBr03, 07, 08, and 16 isolates were susceptible to SDZ, whereas TgCTBr11 isolate presented a profile of resistance to SDZ. Nineteen polymorphisms were identified in dhps exons. Seven polymorphisms corresponded to non-synonymous mutations, with four being new mutations, described for the first time in this study. No association was found between the profile of susceptibility and the virulence-phenotype or genotype of the parasite.There is a high variability in the susceptibilities of Brazilian T. gondii strains to SDZ, with evidence of drug resistance. Despite the large number of polymorphisms identified, the profile of susceptibility to SDZ was not associated with any of the dhps variants identified in this study. Other genetic factors, not yet determined, may be associated with the resistance to SDZ; thus, further studies are

  12. Method of LSD profile asymmetry for estimating the center of mass velocities of pulsating stars (United States)

    Britavskiy, N.; Pancino, E.; Tsymbal, V.; Romano, D.; Cacciari, C.; Clementini, C.


    We present radial velocity analysis for 20 solar neighborhood RR Lyrae and 3 Population II Cepheids. High-resolution spectra were observed with either TNG/SARG or VLT/UVES over varying phases. To estimate the center of mass (barycentric) velocities of the program stars, we utilized two independent methods. First, the 'classic' method was employed, which is based on RR Lyrae radial velocity curve templates. Second, we provide the new method that used absorption line profile asymmetry to determine both the pulsation and the barycentric velocities even with a low number of high-resolution spectra and in cases where the phase of the observations is uncertain. This new method is based on a least squares deconvolution (LSD) of the line profiles in order to an- alyze line asymmetry that occurs in the spectra of pulsating stars. By applying this method to our sample stars we attain accurate measurements (+- 2 kms^-1) of the pulsation component of the radial velocity. This results in determination of the barycentric velocity to within 5 kms^-1 even with a low number of high- resolution spectra. A detailed investigation of LSD profile asymmetry shows the variable nature of the project factor at different pulsation phases, which should be taken into account in the detailed spectroscopic analysis of pulsating stars.

  13. Profiling of RNA degradation for estimation of post mortem [corrected] interval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Sampaio-Silva

    Full Text Available An estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI is frequently touted as the Holy Grail of forensic pathology. During the first hours after death, PMI estimation is dependent on the rate of physical observable modifications including algor, rigor and livor mortis. However, these assessment methods are still largely unreliable and inaccurate. Alternatively, RNA has been put forward as a valuable tool in forensic pathology, namely to identify body fluids, estimate the age of biological stains and to study the mechanism of death. Nevertheless, the attempts to find correlation between RNA degradation and PMI have been unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to characterize the RNA degradation in different post mortem tissues in order to develop a mathematical model that can be used as coadjuvant method for a more accurate PMI determination. For this purpose, we performed an eleven-hour kinetic analysis of total extracted RNA from murine's visceral and muscle tissues. The degradation profile of total RNA and the expression levels of several reference genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. A quantitative analysis of normalized transcript levels on the former tissues allowed the identification of four quadriceps muscle genes (Actb, Gapdh, Ppia and Srp72 that were found to significantly correlate with PMI. These results allowed us to develop a mathematical model with predictive value for estimation of the PMI (confidence interval of ±51 minutes at 95% that can become an important complementary tool for traditional methods.

  14. Applying standard perikymata profiles to Pongo pygmaeus canines to estimate perikymata counts between linear enamel hypoplasias. (United States)

    O'Hara, Mackie


    Recently, studies have interpreted regular spacing and average number of perikymata between dental enamel defects in orangutans to reflect seasonal episodes of physiological stress. To estimate the amount of time between developmental defects (enamel hypoplasia), studies have relied on perikymata counts. Unfortunately, perikymata are frequently not continuously visible between defects, significantly reducing data sets. A method is presented here for estimating the number of perikymata between defects using standard perikymata profiles (SPP) that allow the number of perikymata between all pairs of defects across a tooth to be analyzed. The SPP method should allow the entire complement of defects to be analyzed within the context of an individual's crown formation time. The average number of perikymata were established per decile and charted to create male and female Pongo pygmaeus SPPs. The position of the beginning of each defect was recorded for lower canines from males (n = 6) and females (n = 17). The number of perikymata between defects estimated by the SPP was compared to the actual count (where perikymata were continuously visible). The number of perikymata between defects estimated by the SPPs was accurate within three perikymata and highly correlated with the actual counts, significantly increasing the number of analyzable defect pairs. SPPs allow all defect pairs to be included in studies of defect timing, not just those with continuously visible perikymata. Establishing an individual's entire complement of dental defects makes it possible to calculate the regularity (and potential seasonality) of defects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Conversion of a molecular classifier obtained by gene expression profiling into a classifier based on real-time PCR: a prognosis predictor for gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuni Nobuhiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of gene expression profiling was expected to dramatically improve cancer diagnosis. However, despite intensive efforts and several successful examples, the development of profile-based diagnostic systems remains a difficult task. In the present work, we established a method to convert molecular classifiers based on adaptor-tagged competitive PCR (ATAC-PCR (with a data format that is similar to that of microarrays into classifiers based on real-time PCR. Methods Previously, we constructed a prognosis predictor for glioma using gene expression data obtained by ATAC-PCR, a high-throughput reverse-transcription PCR technique. The analysis of gene expression data obtained by ATAC-PCR is similar to the analysis of data from two-colour microarrays. The prognosis predictor was a linear classifier based on the first principal component (PC1 score, a weighted summation of the expression values of 58 genes. In the present study, we employed the delta-delta Ct method for measurement by real-time PCR. The predictor was converted to a Ct value-based predictor using linear regression. Results We selected UBL5 as the reference gene from the group of genes with expression patterns that were most similar to the median expression level from the previous profiling study. The number of diagnostic genes was reduced to 27 without affecting the performance of the prognosis predictor. PC1 scores calculated from the data obtained by real-time PCR showed a high linear correlation (r = 0.94 with those obtained by ATAC-PCR. The correlation for individual gene expression patterns (r = 0.43 to 0.91 was smaller than for PC1 scores, suggesting that errors of measurement were likely cancelled out during the weighted summation of the expression values. The classification of a test set (n = 36 by the new predictor was more accurate than histopathological diagnosis (log rank p-values, 0.023 and 0.137, respectively for predicting prognosis. Conclusion

  16. Estimation of suspended sediment concentration from Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) instrument: A case study of Lembeh Strait, North Sulawesi (United States)

    Dwinovantyo, Angga; Manik, Henry M.; Prartono, Tri; Susilohadi; Ilahude, Delyuzar


    Measurement of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the parameters needed to determine the characteristics of sediment transport. However, the measurement of SSC nowadays still uses conventional technique and it has limitations; especially in temporal resolution. With advanced technology, the measurement can use hydroacoustic technology such as Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). ADCP measures the intensity of backscatter as echo intensity unit from sediment particles. The frequency of ADCP used in this study was 400 kHz. The samples were measured and collected from Lembeh Strait, North Sulawesi. The highest concentration of suspended sediment was 98.89 mg L-1 and the lowest was 45.20 mg L-1. Time series data showed the tidal condition affected the SSC. From the research, we also made correction from sound signal losses effect such as spherical spreading and sound absorption to get more accurate results by eliminating these parameters in echo intensity data. Simple linear regression analysis at echo intensity measured from ADCP to direct measurement of SSC was performed to obtain the estimation of the SSC. The comparison result of estimation of SSC from ADCP measurements and SSC from laboratory analyses was insignificantly different based on t-test statistical analysis with 95% confidence interval percentage.

  17. Quantitative precipitation estimation in complex orography using quasi-vertical profiles of dual polarization radar variables (United States)

    Montopoli, Mario; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Baldini, Luca


    Weather radars are nowadays a unique tool to estimate quantitatively the rain precipitation near the surface. This is an important task for a plenty of applications. For example, to feed hydrological models, mitigate the impact of severe storms at the ground using radar information in modern warning tools as well as aid the validation studies of satellite-based rain products. With respect to the latter application, several ground validation studies of the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) products have recently highlighted the importance of accurate QPE from ground-based weather radars. To date, a plenty of works analyzed the performance of various QPE algorithms making use of actual and synthetic experiments, possibly trained by measurement of particle size distributions and electromagnetic models. Most of these studies support the use of dual polarization variables not only to ensure a good level of radar data quality but also as a direct input in the rain estimation equations. Among others, one of the most important limiting factors in radar QPE accuracy is the vertical variability of particle size distribution that affects at different levels, all the radar variables acquired as well as rain rates. This is particularly impactful in mountainous areas where the altitudes of the radar sampling is likely several hundred of meters above the surface. In this work, we analyze the impact of the vertical profile variations of rain precipitation on several dual polarization radar QPE algorithms when they are tested a in complex orography scenario. So far, in weather radar studies, more emphasis has been given to the extrapolation strategies that make use of the signature of the vertical profiles in terms of radar co-polar reflectivity. This may limit the use of the radar vertical profiles when dual polarization QPE algorithms are considered because in that case all the radar variables used in the rain estimation process should be consistently extrapolated at the surface

  18. Evaluation of an Extended Autocorrelation Phase Estimator for Ultrasonic Velocity Profiles Using Nondestructive Testing Systems. (United States)

    Ofuchi, César Yutaka; Coutinho, Fabio Rizental; Neves, Flávio; de Arruda, Lucia Valéria Ramos; Morales, Rigoberto Eleazar Melgarejo


    In this paper the extended autocorrelation velocity estimator is evaluated and compared using a nondestructive ultrasonic device. For this purpose, three velocity estimators are evaluated and compared. The autocorrelation method (ACM) is the most used and well established in current ultrasonic velocity profiler technology, however, the technique suffers with phase aliasing (also known as the Nyquist limit) at higher velocities. The cross-correlation method (CCM) is also well known and does not suffer with phase aliasing as it relies on time shift measurements between emissions. The problem of this method is the large computational burden due to several required mathematical operations. Recently, an extended autocorrelation method (EAM) which combines both ACM and CCM was developed. The technique is not well known within the fluid engineering community, but it can measure velocities beyond the Nyquist limit without the ACM phase aliasing issues and with a lower computational cost than CCM. In this work, all three velocity estimation methods are used to measure a uniform flow of the liquid inside a controlled rotating cylinder. The root-mean-square deviation variation coefficient (CVRMSD) of the velocity estimate and the reference cylinder velocity was used to evaluate the three different methods. Results show that EAM correctly measures velocities below the Nyquist limit with less than 2% CVRMSD. Velocities beyond the Nyquist limit are only measured well by EAM and CCM, with the advantage of the former of being computationally 15 times faster. Furthermore, the maximum value of measurable velocity is also investigated considering the number of times the velocity surpasses the Nyquist limit. The combination of number of pulses and number of samples, which highly affects the results, are also studied in this work. Velocities up to six times the Nyquist limit could be measurable with CCM and EAM using a set of parameters as suggested in this work. The results validate

  19. Choice of satellite-based CO2 product (XCO¬2, vertical profile) alters surface CO2 flux estimate (United States)

    Liu, J.; Bowman, K. W.; Lee, M.; Henze, D. K.; Fisher, J. B.; Frankenberg, C.; Polhamus, A.


    The ACOS (Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space) algorithm provides column-averaged CO2 products in units of dry-air mole fraction (XCO2) based on GOSAT radiances. However, XCO2 is derived from a linear transformation of the CO2 vertical profiles estimated from the ACOS retrieval algorithm. In theory, XCO2 vertical columns should provide no more information than the original CO2 profiles. However, the different sensitivities of either CO2 profiles or XCO2 to transport errors can significantly alter surface CO2 flux estimates. Though it has been argued that XCO2 may be less sensitive to transport error than CO2 vertical profiles, there is no study so far investigating the actual impact on surface CO2 flux estimation due to the choice of observation format, which could have significant impact on future satellite CO2 profile mission concepts. In this presentation, we will present the sensitivity of surface CO2 flux estimation to a suite of CO2 observation products, which includes CO2 vertical profiles, XCO2, and the lowest 3 levels of CO2 from CO2 vertical profiles. The CO2 observations are ACOS products covering from July 2009 to June 2010. We will present both OSSE and real observation experiments. In the OSSE experiments, we will present both perfect model experiments and experiments with model errors that are introduced by changing the planetary boundary height. In the real observations, we will show the annual and seasonal CO2 flux as function of regions from using the three observation products. The accuracy of CO2 flux estimation will be examined by comparing CO2 concentrations forced by posterior CO2 flux to independent CO2 observations. The surface CO2 flux estimation framework is based on GEOS-Chem adjoint model that is developed by the Carbon Monitoring Study flux pilot project.

  20. Estimation of Errors: Mathematical Expressions of Temperature, Substrate Concentration and Enzyme Concentration based Formulas for obtaining intermediate values of the Rate of Enzymatic Reaction


    Nizam Uddin


    This research paper is based on the estimation of errors in the formulas which are used to obtaining intermediate values of the rate of enzymatic reaction. The rate of enzymatic reaction is affected by concentration of substrate, Temperature, concentration of enzyme and other factors. The rise in Temperature accelerates an Enzyme reaction. At certain Temperature known as the optimum Temperature the activity is maximum. The concentration of substrate is the limiting factor, as the substrate co...

  1. A five-factor biomarker profile obtained week 4-12 of treatment for improved prognostication in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Anne V; Geertsen, Poul F; Christensen, Ib J


    BACKGROUND: Several biomarkers of treatment efficacy have been associated with a better prognosis in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The prognostic significance of biomarkers in the early treatment phase is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a complete national cohort of m......RCC patients receiving first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) or interleukin-2 based immunotherapy (IT) from 2006 to 2010, overall survival (OS) was analysed for baseline International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) classification factors and on-treatment time-dependent biomarkers obtained day 1 each...... analyses stratified for TKI and IT (p ≤ 0.04). Concordance (C)-index for IMDC classification alone was 0.625 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) and combined with the five-factor biomarker profile 0.683 (95% CI 0.64-0.72). For patients with good (3-5 factors) and poor (0-2 factors) biomarker profile median OS were 23...

  2. Comparison of biogenic amine and polyphenol profiles of grape berries and wines obtained following conventional, organic and biodynamic agricultural and oenological practices. (United States)

    Tassoni, Annalisa; Tango, Nunzio; Ferri, Maura


    The bio-active compounds present in food and beverages have a high potential influence on the future health of humans. The levels of biogenic amines, anthocyanins, polyphenols and antioxidant activity were measured in white (Pignoletto) and red (Sangiovese) grape berries and wines from the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) obtained following conventional, organic and biodynamic agricultural and oenological practices. No significant difference was shown among the samples coming from different agricultural and winemaking practices. Principal Component Analysis was also performed. Biogenic amine amounts were higher in red than in white berries, while in the wines an opposite trend was observed, with histamine, tyramine and putrescine being the most abundant in Pignoletto wines. Red grapes and wines were richer in anthocyanins and showed higher antioxidant activity than white ones. The total level of polyphenols was similar in red and white berries, but with different metabolite profiles depending on the grape variety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of methods to estimate the essential amino acids requirements of fish from the muscle amino acid profile


    de Almeida Bicudo,Álvaro José; Possebon Cyrino,José Eurico


    Many methods to estimate amino acid requirement based on amino acid profile of fish have been proposed. This study evaluates the methodology proposed by Meyer & Fracalossi (2005) and by Tacon (1989) to estimate amino acids requirement of fish, which do exempt knowledge on previous nutritional requirement of reference amino acid. Data on amino acid requirement of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, were used to validate de accuracy of those methods. Meyer & Fracalossi's and Tacon's methodol...

  4. Estimation of Hypertension Risk from Lifestyle Factors and Health Profile: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoyuan Zheng


    Full Text Available Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and it can also lead to other diseases which seriously harm the human health. Screening the risks and finding a clinical model for estimating the risk of onset, maintenance, or the prognosis of hypertension are of great importance to the prevention or treatment of the disease, especially if the indicator can be derived from simple health profile. In this study, we investigate a chronic disease questionnaire data set of 6563 rural citizens in East China and find out a clinical signature that can assess the risk of hypertension easily and accurately. The signature achieves an accuracy of about 83% on the external test dataset, with an AUC of 0.91. Our study demonstrates that a combination of simple lifestyle features can sufficiently reflect the risk of hypertension onset. This finding provides potential guidance for disease prevention and control as well as development of home care and home-care technologies.

  5. Estimates of boundary layer parameters using measured wind and temperature profile near the ground (United States)

    Popov, Z.; Rajkovic, B.


    In almost every application related to planetary boundary layer, PBL, two parameters are of the most relevance, "friction" velocity and PBL height. The first is connected to near surface processes, while the second one appears in the problems related to the whole BL or its substantial portions. One of the most famous parametrizations of the of the PBL height is h ~u*o- f. This paper looks into this formulation for different stability classes and mean daily variation of wind and these parameters, using the approach made by Holstlag (1984), to estimate diabatic wind profile where zo is independent of stability, but depends on wind direction. The second procedure used here is the one suggested by Kramm (1989), where zo is a function of stability and u*o depends on zo and L, the Monin-Obukhov length scale, and all of them, u_*o, zo and L, are simultaneously calculated through the least square method. From these parameters two methods for wind extrapolations with height are analyzed, Beljaars and Holstlag (1990), and Grining amd Batchvarova (2007). The wind data came form the Caubauw wind mast 1987, while the second set is wind and temperature gradient from the Panonian region, synoptic weather station 13168 near the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. Finally we analyze the difference between extrapolated and measured wind speed at Caubauw mast for different values of friction velocity, roughness length and Obukhov length.

  6. Estimation of rainfall inputs and direct recharge to the deep unsaturated zone of southern Niger using the chloride profile method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bromley, J.; Edmunds, W.M.; Fellman, E.; Brouwer, J.; Gaze, S.R.; Sudlow, J.; Taupin, J.D.


    An estimate of direct groundwater recharge below a region of natural woodland (tiger bush) has been made in south-west Niger using the solute profile technique. Data has been collected from a 77 m deep well dug within the study area covered by HAPEX-Sahel (Hydrological and Atmospheric Pilot

  7. An appraisal of the properties of bottom waste obtained from bio-mass congestion to estimate the ways of its environmental use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śliwka Małgorzata


    Full Text Available The bottom waste obtained from bio-mass burning shows a huge variability of chemical and physical properties, depending on the kind of bio-mass, the type of a cauldron and burning parameters. The huge variability of the bottom ashes from the incineration plant and co-combustion of bio-mass makes it difficult to find any way to its management. In reality, only the bottom ashes from coal combustion and the small amount from lignite combustion are used, mainly in the building industry and in mining industry. The article presents the initial research, concerning the estimation of the properties of the bottom ashes obtained from bio-mass congestion in the fluidized-bed boiler to use them safely for the environment. To determine the influence of the tested waste on plants, a number of pot experiments have been conducted. The plants which have been used are recommended for phytotoxicity estimation, and are also used for biological reclamation.

  8. Technical note: a proposed method to determine the extent of degradation of a feed in the rumen from the degradation profile obtained with the in vitro gas production technique using feces as the inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanoa, M.S.; France, J.; Crompton, L.A.; Mauricio, R.M.; Kebreab, E.; Mills, J.A.N.; Sanderson, R.; Dijkstra, J.; Lopez, S.


    A method is proposed to determine the extent of degradation in the rumen involving a two-stage mathematical modeling process. In the first stage, a statistical model shifts (or maps) the gas accumulation profile obtained using a fecal inoculum to a ruminal gas profile. Then, a kinetic model

  9. Estimating Tree Height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH from Digital Surface Models and Orthophotos Obtained with an Unmanned Aerial System for a Japanese Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Iizuka


    Full Text Available Methods for accurately measuring biophysical parameters are a key component for quantitative evaluation regarding to various forest applications. Conventional in situ measurements of these parameters take time and expense, encountering difficultness at locations with heterogeneous microtopography. To obtain precise biophysical data in such situations, we deployed an unmanned aerial system (UAS multirotor drone in a cypress forest in a mountainous area of Japan. The structure from motion (SfM method was used to construct a three-dimensional (3D model of the forest (tree structures from aerial photos. Tree height was estimated from the 3D model and compared to in situ ground data. We also analyzed the relationships between a biophysical parameter, diameter at breast height (DBH, of individual trees with canopy width and area measured from orthorectified images. Despite the constraints of ground exposure in a highly dense forest area, tree height was estimated at an accuracy of root mean square error = 1.712 m for observed tree heights ranging from 16 to 24 m. DBH was highly correlated with canopy width (R2 = 0.7786 and canopy area (R2 = 0.7923, where DBH ranged from 11 to 58 cm. The results of estimating forest parameters indicate that drone-based remote-sensing methods can be utilized to accurately analyze the spatial extent of forest structures.

  10. A simple method to obtain very accurate whole atom Compton profiles from photon scattering doubly differential cross sections in relativistic regimes (United States)

    Lajohn, Larry


    Compton profiles (CP) are used in many ways such as for assessing the bonding properties of molecules and solids including semiconductors. The simplest approach to obtain a CP from doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) is to use the nonrelativistic (nr) impulse approximation (IA) expression DDCS =KJ where K is the kinematic factor and J is the CP. A relativistic version of this expression to be referred to as RKJ, an approximation to the full relativistic IA expression is used for relativistic regimes, but it does not give accurate results for the inner and middle shells of moderate to heavy atoms. For example the RKJ error ranges from 3% (Z =30) to about 28% (Z =92) for the K-shell and about 3% (Z =50) to 17% (Z =92) for the 2p shell and is at 6% for 3d (Z =92). In the present work, expressions from nonrelativistic hydrogenlike wavefunctions (with a relativistic QED K) to correct RKJ beyond the K-shell to L and M shells were derived such that relativistic contributions as well as screening effects largely cancel for any regime of energy angle and Z. As a result the RKJ error is reduced to less than 2% over 99% of the momentum distribution range of any subshell CP.

  11. Modeling the vertical soil organic matter profile using Bayesian parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.C.; Wutzler, T.; Beer, C.; Kattge, J.; Schrumpf, M.; Ahrens, B.; Schoning, I.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Kruijt, B.; Kabat, P.; Reichstein, M.


    The vertical distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) in the profile may constitute an important factor for soil carbon cycling. However, the formation of the SOM profile is currently poorly understood due to equifinality, caused by the entanglement of several processes: input from roots, mixing

  12. Modeling the vertical soil organic matter profile using Bayesian parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.C.; Wutzler, T.; Beer, C.; Kattge, J.; Schrumpf, M.; Schöning, I.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Kruijt, B.; Kabat, P.


    The vertical distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) in the profile may constitute a significant factor for soil carbon cycling. However, the formation of the SOM profile is currently poorly understood due to equifinality, caused by the entanglement of several processes: input from roots, mixing

  13. Precision and accuracy of age estimates obtained from anal fin spines, dorsal fin spines, and sagittal otoliths for known-age largemouth bass (United States)

    Klein, Zachary B.; Bonvechio, Timothy F.; Bowen, Bryant R.; Quist, Michael C.


    Sagittal otoliths are the preferred aging structure for Micropterus spp. (black basses) in North America because of the accurate and precise results produced. Typically, fisheries managers are hesitant to use lethal aging techniques (e.g., otoliths) to age rare species, trophy-size fish, or when sampling in small impoundments where populations are small. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the precision and accuracy of 2 non-lethal aging structures (i.e., anal fin spines, dorsal fin spines) in comparison to that of sagittal otoliths from known-age Micropterus salmoides (Largemouth Bass; n = 87) collected from the Ocmulgee Public Fishing Area, GA. Sagittal otoliths exhibited the highest concordance with true ages of all structures evaluated (coefficient of variation = 1.2; percent agreement = 91.9). Similarly, the low coefficient of variation (0.0) and high between-reader agreement (100%) indicate that age estimates obtained from sagittal otoliths were the most precise. Relatively high agreement between readers for anal fin spines (84%) and dorsal fin spines (81%) suggested the structures were relatively precise. However, age estimates from anal fin spines and dorsal fin spines exhibited low concordance with true ages. Although use of sagittal otoliths is a lethal technique, this method will likely remain the standard for aging Largemouth Bass and other similar black bass species.

  14. Dust vertical profile impact on global radiative forcing estimation using a coupled chemical-transport–radiative-transfer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang


    Full Text Available Atmospheric mineral dust particles exert significant direct radiative forcings and are important drivers of climate and climate change. We used the GEOS-Chem global three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM coupled with the Fu-Liou-Gu (FLG radiative transfer model (RTM to investigate the dust radiative forcing and heating rate based on different vertical profiles for April 2006. We attempt to actually quantify the sensitivities of radiative forcing to dust vertical profiles, especially the discrepancies between using realistic and climatological vertical profiles. In these calculations, dust emissions were constrained by observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD. The coupled calculations utilizing a more realistic dust vertical profile simulated by GEOS-Chem minimize the physical inconsistencies between 3-D CTM aerosol fields and the RTM. The use of GEOS-Chem simulated vertical profile of dust extinction, as opposed to the FLG prescribed vertical profile, leads to greater and more spatially heterogeneous changes in the estimated radiative forcing and heating rate produced by dust. Both changes can be attributed to a different vertical structure between dust and non-dust source regions. Values of the dust vertically resolved AOD per grid level (VRAOD are much larger in the middle troposphere, though smaller at the surface when the GEOS-Chem simulated vertical profile is used, which leads to a much stronger heating rate in the middle troposphere. Compared to the FLG vertical profile, the use of GEOS-Chem vertical profile reduces the solar radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere (TOA by approximately 0.2–0.25 W m−2 over the African and Asian dust source regions. While the Infrared (IR radiative forcing decreases 0.2 W m−2 over African dust belt, it increases 0.06 W m−2 over the Asian dust belt when the GEOS-Chem vertical profile is used. Differences in the solar radiative forcing at the surface between the use of the GEOS-Chem and

  15. Evaluation of methods to estimate the essential amino acids requirements of fish from the muscle amino acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José de Almeida Bicudo


    Full Text Available Many methods to estimate amino acid requirement based on amino acid profile of fish have been proposed. This study evaluates the methodology proposed by Meyer & Fracalossi (2005 and by Tacon (1989 to estimate amino acids requirement of fish, which do exempt knowledge on previous nutritional requirement of reference amino acid. Data on amino acid requirement of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, were used to validate de accuracy of those methods. Meyer & Fracalossi's and Tacon's methodology estimated the lysine requirement of pacu, respectively, at 13 and 23% above requirement determined using dose-response method. The values estimated by both methods lie within the range of requirements determined for other omnivorous fish species, the Meyer & Fracalossi (2005 method showing better accuracy.

  16. Programs to obtain vertical heights from mean sea level and for computing volume of sand/mineral along beaches:A case study with Kalbadevi beach profiling data and results.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    II) Program for obtaining volume of sand / mineral along profiles from M.S.L. The listing of the software is given in Annexure: I and Annexure :2 of this report. LOGIC AND FLOW DIAGRAM The logic used in first program ?Program to obtain... data points from second set up = (HC1 ? successive staff readings observed from second set up) 5 The logical flow diagram is given below Fig.1 Flow chart for obtaining vertical heights with respect to mean sea...

  17. On the energy distribution profile of interface states obtained by taking into account of series resistance in Al/TiO{sub 2}/p-Si (MIS) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakma, O., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Serin, N.; Serin, T. [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Altindal, S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, Teknikokullar, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)


    The energy distribution profile of the interface states (N{sub ss}) of Al/TiO{sub 2}/p-Si (MIS) structures prepared using the sol-gel method was obtained from the forward bias current-voltage (I-V) characteristics by taking into account both the bias dependence of the effective barrier height ({phi}{sub e}) and series resistance (R{sub s}) at room temperature. The main electrical parameters of the MIS structure such as ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height ({phi}{sub b0}) and average series resistance values were found to be 1.69, 0.519 eV and 659 {Omega}, respectively. This high value of n was attributed to the presence of an interfacial insulator layer at the Al/p-Si interface and the density of interface states (N{sub ss}) localized at the Si/TiO{sub 2} interface. The values of N{sub ss} localized at the Si/TiO{sub 2} interface were found with and without the R{sub s} at 0.25-E{sub v} in the range between 8.4x10{sup 13} and 4.9x10{sup 13} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. In addition, the frequency dependence of capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G/{omega}-V) characteristics of the structures have been investigated by taking into account the effect of N{sub ss} and R{sub s} at room temperature. It can be found out that the measured C and G/{omega} are strongly dependent on bias voltage and frequency. -- Research highlights: {yields}We successfully fabricated Al/TiO{sub 2}/p-Si device with interlayer by a sol-gel method. The facts: (i) that the technology of the fabrication of a Al/TiO{sub 2}/p-Si MIS structure much simpler and economical than that for the Si p-n junction and (b) the main advantages of TiO{sub 2} films are low densities of the surface states when compared to SiO{sub 2}.

  18. Inverse methods for estimating primary input signals from time-averaged isotope profiles (United States)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Cerling, Thure E.; Schuster, Gerard T.; Robinson, Todd F.; Roeder, Beverly L.; Krueger, Stephen K.


    Mammalian teeth are invaluable archives of ancient seasonality because they record along their growth axes an isotopic record of temporal change in environment, plant diet, and animal behavior. A major problem with the intra-tooth method is that intra-tooth isotope profiles can be extremely time-averaged compared to the actual pattern of isotopic variation experienced by the animal during tooth formation. This time-averaging is a result of the temporal and spatial characteristics of amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation), and also results from laboratory sampling. This paper develops and evaluates an inverse method for reconstructing original input signals from time-averaged intra-tooth isotope profiles. The method requires that the temporal and spatial patterns of amelogenesis are known for the specific tooth and uses a minimum length solution of the linear system Am = d, where d is the measured isotopic profile, A is a matrix describing temporal and spatial averaging during amelogenesis and sampling, and m is the input vector that is sought. Accuracy is dependent on several factors, including the total measurement error and the isotopic structure of the measured profile. The method is shown to accurately reconstruct known input signals for synthetic tooth enamel profiles and the known input signal for a rabbit that underwent controlled dietary changes. Application to carbon isotope profiles of modern hippopotamus canines reveals detailed dietary histories that are not apparent from the measured data alone. Inverse methods show promise as an effective means of dealing with the time-averaging problem in studies of intra-tooth isotopic variation.

  19. Profile soil property estimation using a VIS-NIR-EC-force probe (United States)

    Combining data collected in-field from multiple soil sensors has the potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy of soil property estimates. Optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has been used to estimate many important soil properties, such as soil carbon, water content, and texture. ...

  20. Estimation of soil profile physical and chemical properties using a VIS-NIR-EC-force probe (United States)

    Combining data collected in-field from multiple soil sensors has the potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy of soil property estimates. Optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has been used to estimate many important soil properties, such as soil carbon, water content, and texture. ...

  1. Analytic quantification of bias and variance of coil sensitivity profile estimators for improved image reconstruction in MRI. (United States)

    Stamm, Aymeric; Singh, Jolene; Afacan, Onur; Warfield, Simon K


    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides a unique in-vivo capability of visualizing tissue in the human brain non-invasively, which has tremendously improved patient care over the past decades. However, there are still prominent artifacts, such as intensity inhomogeneities due to the use of an array of receiving coils (RC) to measure the MR signal or noise amplification due to accelerated imaging strategies. It is critical to mitigate these artifacts for both visual inspection and quantitative analysis. The cornerstone to address this issue pertains to the knowledge of coil sensitivity profiles (CSP) of the RCs, which describe how the measured complex signal decays with the distance to the RC. Existing methods for CSP estimation share a number of limitations: (i) they primarily focus on CSP magnitude, while it is known that the solution to the MR image reconstruction problem involves complex CSPs and (ii) they only provide point estimates of the CSPs, which makes the task of optimizing the parameters and acquisition protocol for their estimation difficult. In this paper, we propose a novel statistical framework for estimating complex-valued CSPs. We define a CSP estimator that uses spatial smoothing and additional body coil data for phase normalization. The main contribution is to provide detailed information on the statistical distribution of the CSP estimator, which yields automatic determination of the optimal degree of smoothing for ensuring minimal bias and provides guidelines to the optimal acquisition strategy.

  2. Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) fruit using compressed propane and supercritical CO2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernandes, Ciro E. F; Scapinello, Jaqueline; Bohn, Aline; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Magro, Jacir Dall; Palliga, Marshall; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Tres, Marcus V

    .... The aim of this work to evaluate phytochemical properties, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Ilex paraguariensis fruits obtained from supercritical CO2...

  3. Programs to obtain vertical heights from mean sea level and for computing volume of sand/mineral along beaches: A case study with Kalbadevi beach profiling data and results

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    Two programs have been developed to process profile data, for obtaining vertical heights with respect to mean sea level (M.S.L.) and for computation of volume of heavy mineral / sand accumulation or erosion along the beaches. The final output...

  4. Estimating genetic parameters for fertility in dairy cows from in-line milk progesterone profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenghe, A.M.M.; Bouwman, A.C.; Berglund, B.; Strandberg, E.; Blom, J.; Veerkamp, R.F.


    The aim of this study was to define endocrine fertility traits from in-line milk progesterone (P4) records and to estimate genetic parameters for these traits. Correlations of classical fertility (calving interval and calving to first service) and milk production traits with endocrine fertility

  5. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.


    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  6. Routine use of microarray-based gene expression profiling to identify patients with low cytogenetic risk acute myeloid leukemia: accurate results can be obtained even with suboptimal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Blétière Diane Raingeard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has shown its ability to identify with high accuracy low cytogenetic risk acute myeloid leukemia such as acute promyelocytic leukemia and leukemias with t(8;21 or inv(16. The aim of this gene expression profiling study was to evaluate to what extent suboptimal samples with low leukemic blast load (range, 2-59% and/or poor quality control criteria could also be correctly identified. Methods Specific signatures were first defined so that all 71 acute promyelocytic leukemia, leukemia with t(8;21 or inv(16-AML as well as cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia samples with at least 60% blasts and good quality control criteria were correctly classified (training set. The classifiers were then evaluated for their ability to assign to the expected class 111 samples considered as suboptimal because of a low leukemic blast load (n = 101 and/or poor quality control criteria (n = 10 (test set. Results With 10-marker classifiers, all training set samples as well as 97 of the 101 test samples with a low blast load, and all 10 samples with poor quality control criteria were correctly classified. Regarding test set samples, the overall error rate of the class prediction was below 4 percent, even though the leukemic blast load was as low as 2%. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of the class assignments ranged from 91% to 100%. Of note, for acute promyelocytic leukemia and leukemias with t(8;21 or inv(16, the confidence level of the class assignment was influenced by the leukemic blast load. Conclusion Gene expression profiling and a supervised method requiring 10-marker classifiers enable the identification of favorable cytogenetic risk acute myeloid leukemia even when samples contain low leukemic blast loads or display poor quality control criterion.

  7. GC profiles of volatile constituents from human urine obtained by closed loop stripping, purge and trap technique and simultaneous stem distillation-extraction. (United States)

    Bestmann, H J; Haberkorn, K; Vostrowsky, O; Ferstl, R; Eggert, F


    Different techniques like "closed loop stripping" [CLSA], "purge and trap" [PTI], and continuous steam distillation extraction [SDE] were used to establish GC profiles of major histocompatibility complex-associated volatile constituents of human urine and statistically evaluated for reliability. Of the three methods investigated, PTI appeared to be superior for the detection of very volatile substances, whereas SDE was the most efficient one with respect to yield. A number of short to medium-chain ketones, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-styrene, menthol and nicotine were identified in preliminary analyses.

  8. Quantitative reconstruction of Ta/Si multilayer depth profiles obtained by Time-of-Flight-Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) using Cs{sup +} ion sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. [Department of Physics, Shantou University, 243 Daxue Road, Shantou, 515063 Guangdong (China); Hofmann, S. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (formerly MPI for Metals Research), Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Wang, J.Y., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Shantou University, 243 Daxue Road, Shantou, 515063 Guangdong (China); Chakraborty, B.R. [Sophisticated Instrumentation Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr.K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)


    Measured sputter depth profiles of Ta/Si multilayers consisting of 10 alternating layers of Si (10.5 nm thickness) and Ta (7.5 nm thickness) obtained by sputtering with Cs{sup +} ions of 1 keV energy, impinging under an angle of 45°, were re-evaluated by application of the Mixing-Roughness-Information depth (MRI) model for profile reconstruction. To be able to perform the latter, a decrease of the sputtering rate with sputtered depth, a strong and sputtering time dependent matrix effect of the detected Si{sup +} ion intensity as well as preferential sputtering of Si have to be taken into account. The results disclose a similar depth resolution for the Si and Ta layers composed of atomic mixing and roughness contributions. The depth resolution increases with the sputtered depth from 4.2 to 6.8 nm at 50 and 300 s sputtering time, respectively. Except for the first and the last two layers (Nos. 19 and 20), by application of the MRI model a full reconstruction of the measured profiles of the Si and Ta multilayer structure was obtained with a mean error of about ± 5%. - Highlights: • Full MRI model quantification of ToF-SIMS multilayer profiles • Correction for matrix effect and depth dependent sensitivity factor • Correction for composition dependent preferential sputtering effect • Profile representation in true depth scale coordinates based on correction 3 • Disclosing depth dependent depth resolution by atomic mixing and roughness components.

  9. Numerical method for the estimation of column radial heterogeneity and of the actual column efficiency from tailing peak profiles. (United States)

    Miyabe, Kanji; Guiochon, Georges


    It is probably impossible to prepare high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns that have a completely homogeneous packing structure. Many reports in the literature show that the radial distributions of the mobile phase flow velocity and the local column efficiency are not flat, even in columns considered as good. A degree of radial heterogeneity seems to be a common property of all HPLC columns and an important source of peak tailing, which prevents the derivation of accurate information on chromatographic behavior from a straightforward analysis of elution peak profiles. This work reports on a numerical method developed to derive from recorded peak profiles the column efficiency at the column center, the degree of column radial heterogeneity, and the polynomial function that best represents the radial distributions of the flow velocity and the column efficiency. This numerical method was applied to two concrete examples of tailing peak profiles previously described. It was demonstrated that this numerical method is effective to estimate important parameters characterizing the radial heterogeneity of chromatographic columns.

  10. Estimation of source infrared spectra profiles of acetylspiramycin active components from troches using kernel independent component analysis (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Ding, Qingzhu; Sun, Yu'an; He, Linghao; Sun, Xiaoli


    Kernel independent component analysis (KICA), a kind of independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms based on kernel, was preliminarily investigated for blind source separation (BSS) of source spectra profiles from troches. The robustness of different ICA algorithms (KICA, FastICA and Infomax) was first checked by using them in the retrieval of source infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectra (MS) from synthetic mixtures. It was found that KICA is the most robust method for retrieval of source spectra profiles. KICA algorithm is subsequently adopted in the analysis of diffuse reflection IR of acetylspiramycin (ASPM) troches. It is observed that KICA is able to isolate the theoretically predicted spectral features corresponding to the ASPM active components, excipients and other minor components as different independent (spectral) component. A troche can be authenticated and semi-quantified using the estimated ICs. KICA is an useful method for estimation of source spectral features of molecules with different geometry and stoichiometry, while features belonging to very similar molecules remain grouped.

  11. A linear programming approach for estimating the structure of a sparse linear genetic network from transcript profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Nagasuma R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A genetic network can be represented as a directed graph in which a node corresponds to a gene and a directed edge specifies the direction of influence of one gene on another. The reconstruction of such networks from transcript profiling data remains an important yet challenging endeavor. A transcript profile specifies the abundances of many genes in a biological sample of interest. Prevailing strategies for learning the structure of a genetic network from high-dimensional transcript profiling data assume sparsity and linearity. Many methods consider relatively small directed graphs, inferring graphs with up to a few hundred nodes. This work examines large undirected graphs representations of genetic networks, graphs with many thousands of nodes where an undirected edge between two nodes does not indicate the direction of influence, and the problem of estimating the structure of such a sparse linear genetic network (SLGN from transcript profiling data. Results The structure learning task is cast as a sparse linear regression problem which is then posed as a LASSO (l1-constrained fitting problem and solved finally by formulating a Linear Program (LP. A bound on the Generalization Error of this approach is given in terms of the Leave-One-Out Error. The accuracy and utility of LP-SLGNs is assessed quantitatively and qualitatively using simulated and real data. The Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods (DREAM initiative provides gold standard data sets and evaluation metrics that enable and facilitate the comparison of algorithms for deducing the structure of networks. The structures of LP-SLGNs estimated from the INSILICO1, INSILICO2 and INSILICO3 simulated DREAM2 data sets are comparable to those proposed by the first and/or second ranked teams in the DREAM2 competition. The structures of LP-SLGNs estimated from two published Saccharomyces cerevisae cell cycle transcript profiling data sets capture known

  12. Resemblance profiles as clustering decision criteria: Estimating statistical power, error, and correspondence for a hypothesis test for multivariate structure. (United States)

    Kilborn, Joshua P; Jones, David L; Peebles, Ernst B; Naar, David F


    Clustering data continues to be a highly active area of data analysis, and resemblance profiles are being incorporated into ecological methodologies as a hypothesis testing-based approach to clustering multivariate data. However, these new clustering techniques have not been rigorously tested to determine the performance variability based on the algorithm's assumptions or any underlying data structures. Here, we use simulation studies to estimate the statistical error rates for the hypothesis test for multivariate structure based on dissimilarity profiles (DISPROF). We concurrently tested a widely used algorithm that employs the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) to estimate the proficiency of clustering with DISPROF as a decision criterion. We simulated unstructured multivariate data from different probability distributions with increasing numbers of objects and descriptors, and grouped data with increasing overlap, overdispersion for ecological data, and correlation among descriptors within groups. Using simulated data, we measured the resolution and correspondence of clustering solutions achieved by DISPROF with UPGMA against the reference grouping partitions used to simulate the structured test datasets. Our results highlight the dynamic interactions between dataset dimensionality, group overlap, and the properties of the descriptors within a group (i.e., overdispersion or correlation structure) that are relevant to resemblance profiles as a clustering criterion for multivariate data. These methods are particularly useful for multivariate ecological datasets that benefit from distance-based statistical analyses. We propose guidelines for using DISPROF as a clustering decision tool that will help future users avoid potential pitfalls during the application of methods and the interpretation of results.

  13. Influence of the Laser Spot Size, Focal Beam Profile, and Tissue Type on the Lipid Signals Obtained by MALDI-MS Imaging in Oversampling Mode (United States)

    Wiegelmann, Marcel; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Soltwisch, Jens


    To improve the lateral resolution in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) beyond the dimensions of the focal laser spot oversampling techniques are employed. However, few data are available on the effect of the laser spot size and its focal beam profile on the ion signals recorded in oversampling mode. To investigate these dependencies, we produced 2 times six spots with dimensions between 30 and 200 μm. By optional use of a fundamental beam shaper, square flat-top and Gaussian beam profiles were compared. MALDI-MSI data were collected using a fixed pixel size of 20 μm and both pixel-by-pixel and continuous raster oversampling modes on a QSTAR mass spectrometer. Coronal mouse brain sections coated with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid matrix were used as primary test systems. Sizably higher phospholipid ion signals were produced with laser spots exceeding a dimension of 100 μm, although the same amount of material was essentially ablated from the 20 μm-wide oversampling pixel at all spot size settings. Only on white matter areas of the brain these effects were less apparent to absent. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that these findings can presumably be attributed to different matrix morphologies depending on tissue type. We propose that a transition in the material ejection mechanisms from a molecular desorption at large to ablation at smaller spot sizes and a concomitant reduction in ion yields may be responsible for the observed spot size effects. The combined results indicate a complex interplay between tissue type, matrix crystallization, and laser-derived desorption/ablation and finally analyte ionization.

  14. Compositional Shift in Fatty Acid Profiles of Lipids Obtained from Oleaginous Yeasts upon the Addition of Essential Oil from Citrus sinensis L. (United States)

    Uprety, Bijaya K; Rakshit, Sudip K


    Tailoring lipids from oleaginous yeasts to contain specific types of fatty acid is of considerable interest to food, fuel, and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the essential oil obtained from Citrus sinesus L. has been used to alter the fatty acid composition of two common oleaginous yeasts, Rhodosporidium toruloides and Cryptococcus curvatus. With increasing levels of essential oil in the medium, the metabolic flux of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway shifted towards saturated fatty acid production. Essential oil reduced the activities of elongase and ∆9 desaturase. This made the lipid obtained from both these yeasts rich in saturated fatty acids. At certain specific concentrations of the essential oil in the medium, the lipid obtained from R. toruloides and C. curvatus cultures was similar to mahuwa butter and palm oil, respectively. Limonene is the major constituents of orange essential oil. Its effect on one of the oleaginous yeasts, R. toruloides, was also studied separately. Effects similar to orange essential oil were obtained with limonene. Thus, we can conclude that limonene in orange essential oil brings about compositional change of microbial lipid produced in this organism.

  15. Estimating Uncertainties in the Multi-Instrument SBUV Profile Ozone Merged Data Set (United States)

    Frith, Stacey; Stolarski, Richard


    The MOD data set is uniquely qualified for use in long-term ozone analysis because of its long record, high spatial coverage, and consistent instrument design and algorithm. The estimated MOD uncertainty term significantly increases the uncertainty over the statistical error alone. Trends in the post-2000 period are generally positive in the upper stratosphere, but only significant at 1-1.6 hPa. Remaining uncertainties not yet included in the Monte Carlo model are Smoothing Error ( 1 from 10 to 1 hPa) Relative calibration uncertainty between N11 and N17Seasonal cycle differences between SBUV records.

  16. Applying indoor and outdoor modeling techniques to estimate individual exposure to PM2.5 from personal GPS profiles and diaries: a pilot study. (United States)

    Gerharz, Lydia E; Krüger, Antonio; Klemm, Otto


    Impacts of individual behavior on personal exposure to particulate matter (PM) and the associated individual health effects are still not well understood. As outdoor PM concentrations exhibit highly temporal and spatial variations, personal PM exposure depends strongly on individual trajectories and activities. Furthermore, indoor environments deserve special attention due to the large fraction of the day people spend indoors. The indoor PM concentration in turn depends on infiltrated outdoor PM and indoor particle sources, partially caused by the activities of people indoor. We present an approach to estimate PM2.5 exposure levels for individuals based upon existing data sources and models. For this pilot study, six persons kept 24-hour diaries and GPS tracks for at least one working day and one weekend day, providing their daily activity profiles and the associated geographical locations. The survey took place in the city of Münster, Germany in the winter period between October 2006 and January 2007. Environmental PM2.5 exposure was estimated by using two different models for outdoor and indoor concentrations, respectively. For the outdoor distribution, a dispersion model was used and extended by actual ambient fixed site measurements. Indoor concentrations were modeled using a simple mass balance model with the estimated outdoor concentration fraction infiltrated and indoor activities estimated from the diaries. A limited number of three 24-hour indoor measurements series for PM were performed to test the model performance. The resulting average daily exposure of the 14 collected profiles ranged from 21 to 198 microg m(-3) and showed a high variability over the day as affected by personal behavior. Due to the large contribution of indoor particle sources, the mean 24-hour exposure was in most cases higher than the daily means of the respective outdoor fixed site monitors. This feasibility study is a first step towards a more comprehensive modeling approach for

  17. Model for temperature profile estimation in the refractory of a metallurgical ladle (United States)

    Fredman, T. P.; Saxén, H.


    Modeling of the transient thermal state of metallurgical ladels is motivated by the need for estimating the drop in temperature of the liquid metal in the ladle. On-line estimation of the state is required, since the same ladle is used in a number of casting cycles with rapid changes in boundary conditions for the temperature field, and the conditions in the current as well as previous cycles affect the thermal state. Although a large number of methods for the numerical solution of conduction-diffusion partial differential equations have been developed, there are still advantages to keeping thermal field computations at a relatively simple level, in contrast to the situation in the design process of ladles, where two-dimensional modeling may be required. Extensive computations under nonverifiable boundary and initial parameter values are not especially suited for real-time simulation of industrial processes. This article presents a novel approach to the solution of the one-dimensional transient heat conduction problem applied to ladle linings, relying on classical analytical techniques in combination with numerical methods. The performance of the model was validated by a comparison of predictions to thermocouple measurements from the refractory of a steelmaking ladle during a campaign of 26 casting cycles. Reasonable agreement between the measured and simulated variables could be established, which demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.

  18. Kernel density estimation and K-means clustering to profile road accident hotspots. (United States)

    Anderson, Tessa K


    Identifying road accident hotspots is a key role in determining effective strategies for the reduction of high density areas of accidents. This paper presents (1) a methodology using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Kernel Density Estimation to study the spatial patterns of injury related road accidents in London, UK and (2) a clustering methodology using environmental data and results from the first section in order to create a classification of road accident hotspots. The use of this methodology will be illustrated using the London area in the UK. Road accident data collected by the Metropolitan Police from 1999 to 2003 was used. A kernel density estimation map was created and subsequently disaggregated by cell density to create a basic spatial unit of an accident hotspot. Appended environmental data was then added to the hotspot cells and using K-means clustering, an outcome of similar hotspots was deciphered. Five groups and 15 clusters were created based on collision and attribute data. These clusters are discussed and evaluated according to their robustness and potential uses in road safety campaigning.

  19. Estimation of Mineral and Trace Element Profile in Bubaline Milk Affected with Subclinical Mastitis. (United States)

    Singh, Mahavir; Yadav, Poonam; Sharma, Anshu; Garg, V K; Mittal, Dinesh


    The milk samples from buffaloes of Murrah breed at mid lactation stage, reared at an organised dairy farm, were screened for subclinical mastitis based on bacteriological examination and somatic cell count following International Dairy Federation criteria. Milk samples from subclinical mastitis infected and healthy buffaloes were analysed to evaluate physicochemical alterations in terms of protein, fat, pH, electrical conductivity, chloride, minerals (sodium, potassium and calcium) and trace elements (iron, zinc, copper and selenium). In the present study, protein, fat, zinc, iron, calcium and selenium content was significantly lower (P < 0.001), while pH and electrical conductivity were significantly higher in mastitic milk as compared to normal milk. Concentration of electrolytes mainly sodium and chloride significantly increased with higher somatic cell count in mastitic milk and to maintain osmolality; potassium levels decreased proportionately. Correlation matrix revealed significantly positive interdependences of somatic cell count with pH, electrical conductivity, sodium and chloride. However, protein, fat, calcium and potassium were correlated negatively with elevated somatic cell count in mastitic milk. It is concluded that udder infections resulting in elevated somatic cells may alter the mineral and trace element profile of milk, and magnitude of changes may have diagnostic and prognostic value.

  20. Statewide estimates of stalking among high school students in Kentucky: demographic profile and sex differences. (United States)

    Fisher, Bonnie S; Coker, Ann L; Garcia, Lisandra S; Williams, Corrine M; Clear, Emily R; Cook-Craig, Patricia G


    This large, statewide sample from 26 high schools provided the first population-based estimates of stalking victimization and perpetration among adolescent females and males. Our stalking definition required that pursuing tactics occurred at least 3 times in the past 12 months and included being followed, spied on, or monitored; someone showed up or waited for you when you did not want them to; and receiving unwanted messages. Among 18,013 students, 16.5% disclosed being stalked and 5.3% stalking; 2.8% disclosed both stalking victimization and perpetration. A majority of students reported being most afraid of a former boyfriend or girlfriend as the stalker. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(2) analytical profile of extracts obtained from purple sweet potato after green ultrasound-assisted extraction. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenzhou; Guan, Qingyan; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J; Roohinejad, Shahin; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Yang, Xinsun; Li, Shuyi; He, Jingren


    Ultrasound pre-treatment (UAE) was applied to assist the extraction of valuable compounds (polyphenols (especially anthocyanins), and proteins) from purple sweet potato (PSP). Under optimum conditions (ultrasound time (40min); supplementary hot extraction (80°C) up to 120min; pH: 2.5; ethanol concentration: 58%), the highest concentrations of polyphenols (3.877mg/g), anthocyanins (0.293mg/g), and proteins (0.753mg/g) were found, with minimal specific energy consumption (8406J/mg). Moreover, anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin polyphenols in PSP extract from optimized extraction temperature were identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(2). The major identified anthocyanins were peonidin-3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin-3-(6″-caffeoyl-6‴-feruloyl sophoroside)-5-glucoside, cyanidin-3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, whereas the major identified non-anthocyanin molecules were quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid-3-glucose. The amount of the predominant anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin compounds from PSP extract obtained after UAE was higher than that extracted after conventional solvent extraction. The results obtained in this work demonstrated the efficiency of UAE for the recovery of anthocyanins from PSP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Documentation of Software for Estimating Expendable Shear Profiler (XCP) Fall Rates. (United States)


    excellent predictor of probe records for the intercomparisons were obtained depth as a function of time. We conclude our in the Gulf nf Mexico , where a...temporal proximity with the probe drop. In in a reqion of strong thermal and velocity 3 gradienis in the central Gulf of Mexico in December, 1979. The...FACILITY WAP41NG 1OU3OCOO~liDn aIU V( I fIO fu#, Pib :27R38 F33 RL?3.9[ nas/lflhiq 1s:j9:O7 4COPY,G I� Coibr33i*OUTP1EoS COPIED ON 06/I11An AT Ib:Z:3

  3. Empirical model for estimating vertical concentration profiles of re-suspended, sediment-associated contaminants (United States)

    Zhu, H. W.; Cheng, P. D.; Li, W.; Chen, J. H.; Pang, Y.; Wang, D. Z.


    Vertical distribution processes of sediment contaminants in water were studied by flume experiments. Experimental results show that settling velocity of sediment particles and turbulence characteristics are the major hydrodynamic factors impacting distribution of pollutants, especially near the bottom where particle diameter is similar in size to vortex structure. Sediment distribution was uniform along the distance, while contaminant distribution slightly lagged behind the sediment. The smaller the initial sediment concentration was, the more time it took to achieve a uniform concentration distribution for suspended sediment. A contaminants transportation equation was established depending on mass conservation equations. Two mathematical estimation models of pollutant distribution in the overlying water considering adsorption and desorption were devised based on vertical distribution of suspended sediment: equilibrium partition model and dynamic micro-diffusion model. The ratio of time scale between the sediment movement and sorption can be used as the index of the models. When this ratio was large, the equilibrium assumption was reasonable, but when it was small, it might require dynamic micro-diffusion model.

  4. A five-factor biomarker profile obtained week 4-12 of treatment for improved prognostication in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Anne V; Geertsen, Poul F; Christensen, Ib J


    BACKGROUND: Several biomarkers of treatment efficacy have been associated with a better prognosis in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The prognostic significance of biomarkers in the early treatment phase is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a complete national cohort of m......RCC patients receiving first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) or interleukin-2 based immunotherapy (IT) from 2006 to 2010, overall survival (OS) was analysed for baseline International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) classification factors and on-treatment time-dependent biomarkers obtained day 1 each...... cycle week 4-12 after treatment initiation with multivariate analysis and bootstrap validation. RESULTS: A total of 735 patients received first-line TKI (59%) or IT (41%). Median OS was overall 14.0 months and 33.4, 18.5, and 5.8 months for baseline IMDC favourable, intermediate, and poor risk groups...

  5. Protein profiles of Taenia solium cysts obtained from skeletal muscles and the central nervous system of pigs: Search for tissue-specific proteins. (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Bobes, Raúl José; Villalobos, Nelly; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Soberón, Xavier; Laclette, Juan Pedro


    Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium is a parasite disease transmitted among humans and pigs, the main intermediate host. The larvae/cysts can lodge in several tissues of the pig, i.e. skeletal muscles and different locations of the central nervous system. The molecular mechanisms associated to tissue preferences of the cysts remain poorly understood. The major public health concern about this zoonosis is due to the human infections by the larval form in the central nervous system, causing a highly pleomorphic and debilitating disease known as neurocysticercosis. This study was aimed to explore the 2DE protein maps of T. solium cysts obtained from skeletal muscles and central nervous system of naturally infected pigs. The gel images were analyzed through a combination of PDQuest™ and multivariate analysis. Results showed that differences in the protein patterns of cysts obtained from both tissues were remarkably discrete. Only 7 protein spots were found specifically associated to the skeletal muscle localization of the cysts; none was found significantly associated to the central nervous system. The use of distinct protein fractions of cysts allowed preliminary identification of several tissue-specific antigenic bands. The implications of these findings are discussed, as well as several strategies directed to achieve the complete characterization of this parasite's proteome, in order to extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue localization of the cysts and to open avenues for the development of immunological tissue-specific diagnosis of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical Analysis of the Oils Obtained from Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd: Mapping Absorption-Emission Profiles in an Induced Oxidation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Acrocomia aculeata is a palm tree typical of the Brazilian savanna. Oils extracted from the pulp and kernel of Acrocomia aculeata fruits have gained considerable attention mainly due to their nutritional and medicinal features. Despite their potential applications, a detailed analysis of their oxidative stability is still needed. The present study shows a close analysis of the oxidative stability of the oils obtained from the kernel and pulp of Acrocomia aculeata fruits, evaluating the influence of the intrinsic antioxidants and the fatty acid composition on the oil’s thermal stability. A complete characterization of the physical-chemical and optical properties of the oils was performed. The results showed that 66% of the fatty acids present in the pulp oil are unsaturated, while 75% are saturated in the kernel oil. A higher content of intrinsic antioxidants was obtained in the pulp oil, and an induction period (at 110 °C of 65 and 43 h was determined for the pulp and kernel oil, respectively. Additionally, oil absorption increases due to the formation of degradation products, and a new fluorescent compound was formed during the oil oxidation process at 110 °C. Even though the pulp presented a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, the pulp oil was more stable than the kernel oil due to its higher content of intrinsic antioxidant, especially carotenoids. The results also demonstrated that oil oxidation can be optically determined by analyzing the absorption at 232 and 270 nm, as well as the emission at 424 nm.

  7. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in small abdominal aortic aneurysm: profile, safety, and mortality estimates. (United States)

    Myers, Jonathan; Powell, Alyssa; Smith, Kimberly; Fonda, Holly; Dalman, Ronald L


    Few data are available regarding exercise testing in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate safety and to characterize the hemodynamic and cardiopulmonary (CPX) response to exercise in a large group of patients with AAA. Three hundred and six patients with AAA ≥3.0 to ≤5.0 cm (mean 72 ± 8 years) underwent CPX as part of a randomized trial of exercise training. CPX and hemodynamic responses, ischemic events, rhythm disturbances, and risk estimates based on treadmill scores were quantified and compared to an age-matched group of 2155 veterans referred for exercise testing for clinical reasons. Peak VO(2) was similar between patients with AAA and the referral group (20.0 ± 6 ml/kg/min; 77 percent of age-predicted and 20.3 ± 7 ml/kg/min; 80 percent of age-predicted, respectively). The incidence of exercise-induced hypotension and hypertension was higher in AAA patients versus the referral group (2.9 and 3.6 percent vs mortality, respectively, were similar between groups. Patients with AAA have a slightly higher incidence of hyper- and hypotensive responses to exercise than age-matched referrals, but no serious events related to CPX occurred. AAA patients can undergo maximal CPX safely and have risk scores based on treadmill test results that are similar to age-matched referral subjects. These findings extend recent studies using sub-maximal evaluations to stratify risk in patients considered for surgery, and support the routine use of exercise testing for risk evaluation and the functional assessment of patients with AAA.

  8. Preliminary estimation of color inhomogeneities on the surface of Venus according to the television images obtained by the VENERA-13 and VENERA-14 automated space probes (United States)

    Shkuratov, Yu. G.; Kreslavskiy, M. A.; Bazilevskiy, A. T.


    Digital processing of images obtained by the Venera 13 and Venera 14 probes led to the discovery of faint color differences of some areas of the observed surface. Maximum color differences were observed in the right part of 14-1 panorama. Color anomaly is associated with the bedrock outcrop having slightly higher albedo than the surrounding. Possible causes of the discovered color differences are discussed.

  9. Field Aligned Currents Derived From Pressure Profiles Obtained From TWINS ENA Images for Geomagnetic Storms That Occurred On 01 June 2013 and 17 March 2015. (United States)

    Wood, K.; Perez, J. D.; Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.; Valek, P. W.


    Field aligned currents (FACs) that flow from the Earth's magnetosphere into the ionosphere are an important coupling mechanism in the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere. Assuming pressure balance and charge conservation yields an expression for the FACs in terms of plasma pressure gradients and pressure anisotropy. The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral Atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission, the first stereoscopic ENA magnetospheric imager, provides global images of the inner magnetosphere from which ion pressure distributions and pressure anisotropies are obtained. Following the formulations in Vasyliunas (1970), Vasyliunas (1984), and Heinemann (1990), and using results from TWINS observations, we calculate the distributions of field aligned currents for geomagnetic storms on 1 June 2013 and 17 March 2015, in which extended ionospheric precipitation was observed. As previous work has assumed isotropic pressure distributions, we perform calculations both assuming pressure isotropy, and using the pressure anisotropy observed by TWINS, and compare the results from the two storms. References: 1. Vasyliunas, V. M. (1970). Mathematical Models of Magnetospheric Convection and its Coupling to the Ionosphere. Particles and Fields in the Magnetosphere Astrophysics and Space Science Library, 60-71. doi:10.1007/978-94-010-3284-1_6 2. Vasyliunas, V. M. (1984). Fundamentals of current description. Magnetospheric Currents Geophysical Monograph Series, 63-66. doi:10.1029/gm028p0063 3. Heinemann, M. (1990). Representations of currents and magnetic fields in anisotropic magnetohydrostatic plasma. J. Geophys. Res. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95(A6), 7789. doi:10.1029/ja095ia06p07789

  10. Seasonal Characterization of Solar Radiation Estimates Obtained from a MSG-SEVIRI-Derived Dataset and a RAMS-Based Operational Forecasting System over the Western Mediterranean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Gómez


    Full Text Available Solar radiation is a key factor in the Earth’s energy balance and it is used as a crucial input parameter in many disciplines such as ecology, agriculture, solar energy and hydrology. Thus, accurate information of the global downward surface shortwave flux integration into the grid is of significant importance. From the different strategies used for grid integration of the surface solar radiation estimates, satellite-derived and numerical weather prediction forecasts are two interesting alternatives. In the current work, we present a comprehensive evaluation of the global downward solar radiation forecasts provided by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS and the Downwelling Surface Shortwave Flux (DSSF product, derived from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI. Both solar radiation estimates are compared to thirteen ground-based weather station measurements for the winter 2010–2011 and the summer 2011 seasons. For these periods, the most recent versions of RAMS (4.4 and 6.0 were running in parallel within the real-time weather forecasting system implemented over the Valencia Region. The solar radiation performance and accuracy are evaluated for these datasets segmented into two atmospheric conditions (clear and cloudy skies and two terrain classes (flat and hilly. DSSF shows a very good agreement over the study area. Statistical daily evaluations show that corresponding errors vary between seasons, with absolute bias ranging from −30 to 40 W·m−2, absolute root mean square errors (RMSE from 25 to 60 W·m−2, relative bias ranging from −11% to 7% and relative RMSE from 7% to 22%, depending on the sky condition and the terrain location as well, thus reproducing the observations more faithfully than RAMS, which produces higher errors in comparison to the measurements. In this regard, statistical daily evaluations show absolute bias values varying from −50 to 160 W·m−2

  11. Sensitivity of Landsat 8 Surface Temperature Estimates to Atmospheric Profile Data: A Study Using MODTRAN in Dryland Irrigated Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge


    The land surface temperature (LST) represents a critical element in efforts to characterize global surface energy and water fluxes, as well as being an essential climate variable in its own right. Current satellite platforms provide a range of spatial and temporal resolution radiance data from which LST can be determined. One of the most complete records of data comes via the Landsat series of satellites, which provide a continuous sequence that extends back to 1982. However, for much of this time, Landsat thermal data were provided through a single broadband thermal channel, making surface temperature retrieval challenging. To fully exploit the valuable time-series of thermal information that is available from these satellites requires efforts to better describe and understand the accuracy of temperature retrievals. Here, we contribute to these efforts by examining the impact of atmospheric correction on the estimation of LST, using atmospheric profiles derived from a range of in-situ, reanalysis, and satellite data. Radiance data from the thermal infrared (TIR) sensor onboard Landsat 8 was converted to LST by using the MODTRAN version 5.2 radiative transfer model, allowing the production of an LST time series based upon 28 Landsat overpasses. LST retrievals were then evaluated against in-situ thermal measurements collected over an arid zone farmland comprising both bare soil and vegetated surface types. Atmospheric profiles derived from AIRS, MOD07, ECMWF, NCEP, and balloon-based radiosonde data were used to drive the MODTRAN simulations. In addition to examining the direct impact of using various profile data on LST retrievals, randomly distributed errors were introduced into a range of forcing variables to better understand retrieval uncertainty. Results indicated differences in LST of up to 1 K for perturbations in emissivity and profile measurements, with the analysis also highlighting the challenges in modeling aerosol optical depth (AOD) over arid lands and

  12. The Use of Mixed Effects Models for Obtaining Low-Cost Ecosystem Carbon Stock Estimates in Mangroves of the Asia-Pacific. (United States)

    Bukoski, Jacob J; Broadhead, Jeremy S; Donato, Daniel C; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Gregoire, Timothy G


    Mangroves provide extensive ecosystem services that support local livelihoods and international environmental goals, including coastal protection, biodiversity conservation and the sequestration of carbon (C). While voluntary C market projects seeking to preserve and enhance forest C stocks offer a potential means of generating finance for mangrove conservation, their implementation faces barriers due to the high costs of quantifying C stocks through field inventories. To streamline C quantification in mangrove conservation projects, we develop predictive models for (i) biomass-based C stocks, and (ii) soil-based C stocks for the mangroves of the Asia-Pacific. We compile datasets of mangrove biomass C (197 observations from 48 sites) and soil organic C (99 observations from 27 sites) to parameterize the predictive models, and use linear mixed effect models to model the expected C as a function of stand attributes. The most parsimonious biomass model predicts total biomass C stocks as a function of both basal area and the interaction between latitude and basal area, whereas the most parsimonious soil C model predicts soil C stocks as a function of the logarithmic transformations of both latitude and basal area. Random effects are specified by site for both models, which are found to explain a substantial proportion of variance within the estimation datasets and indicate significant heterogeneity across-sites within the region. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the biomass C model is approximated at 24.6 Mg/ha (18.4% of mean biomass C in the dataset), whereas the RMSE of the soil C model is estimated at 4.9 mg C/cm3 (14.1% of mean soil C). The results point to a need for standardization of forest metrics to facilitate meta-analyses, as well as provide important considerations for refining ecosystem C stock models in mangroves.

  13. Estimation of canopy height using lidar and radar interferometry: an assessment of combination methods and sensitivity to instrument, terrain and canopy height profile (United States)

    Simard, M.; Neumann, M.; Pinto, N.; Brolly, M.; Brigot, G.


    The combined use of Lidar and radar interferometry to estimate canopy height can be classified into 3 categories: cross-validation, simple combination and fusion methods. In this presentation, we investigate the potential of each category for local and regional scale applications, and assess their sensitivity to instrument configuration, terrain topography and variations in the vertical forest canopy profiles. In addition to field data, we use data from TanDEM-X, UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar), LVIS (Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor) and a commercial discrete lidar. TanDEM-X is a pair of X-band spaceborne radars flying in formation to provide a global digital surface model and can also be used to perform polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (polinSAR) inversion of canopy height. The UAVSAR is an airborne fully polarimetric radar enabling repeat-pass interferometry and has been used for polinsar. While LVIS records the full waveform within a 20m footprint, the discrete lidar collects a cloud of points. The lidar data can be used to validate the polinSAR results (validation), to obtain ground elevation (simple combination with radar surface models) or within the polinSAR inversion model through a common model framework. The data was collected over the Laurentides Wildlife Reserve, a managed territory covering 7861km2 which is located between Québec city and Saguenay. The variety of management practices offers the possibility for long term and comparative studies of natural forest dynamics as well as the impact of human, fires and insect disturbances. The large elevational gradient of the region (~1000m) allows study of variations in structure and type of forests. Depending on the method used, several factors may degrade the accuracy of canopy height estimates from the combined use of lidar and radar interferometry. Here we will consider misregistration of datasets, differences in spatial resolution and viewing geometry, geometric

  14. Real Time Extraction Kinetics of Electro Membrane Extraction Verified by Comparing Drug Metabolism Profiles Obtained from a Flow-Flow Electro Membrane Extraction-Mass Spectrometry System with LC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, David; Jensen, Henrik; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig


    alternative to conventional protein precipitation followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for studying drug metabolism. Comparison of EME-MS with LC-MS for drug metabolism analysis demonstrated for the first time that real time extraction of analytes by EME is possible. Metabolism kinetics...... were investigated for three different drugs: amitriptyline, promethazine, and methadone. By comparing the EME-MS extraction profiles of the drug substances and formed drug metabolites with the metabolism profiles obtained by conventional protein precipitation followed by LC-MS good correlation......A simple to construct and operate, "dip-in" electromembrane extraction (EME) probe directly coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for rapid extraction and real time analysis of various analytes was developed. The setup demonstrated that EME-MS can be used as a viable...

  15. Comparable dose estimates of blinded whole blood samples are obtained independently of culture conditions and analytical approaches. Second RENEB gene expression study. (United States)

    Manning, Grainne; Macaeva, Ellina; Majewski, Matthaeus; Kriehuber, Ralf; Brzóska, Kamil; Abend, Michael; Doucha-Senf, Sven; Oskamp, Dominik; Strunz, Sonja; Quintens, Roel; Port, Matthias; Badie, Christophe


    This collaboration of five established European gene expression labs investigated the potential impact of culture conditions on the transcriptional response of peripheral blood to radiation exposure. Blood from one healthy donor was exposed ex vivo to a Cobalt 60 source to produce a calibration curve in addition to four unknown doses. After exposure, the blood samples were either diluted with RPMI medium or left untouched. After 24-h incubation at 37 °C the diluted blood samples were lysed, while the undiluted samples were mixed with the preservative RNALater and all samples were shipped frozen to the participating labs. Samples were processed by each lab using microarray (one lab) and QRT-PCR (four labs). We show that although culture conditions affect the total amount of RNA recovered (p analysis approaches provide comparable mean absolute difference of estimated doses relative to the true doses (p = .9) and number of out of range (>0.5 Gy) measurements (p = .6). This study confirms the robustness of gene expression as a method for biological dosimetry.

  16. Application of a method of analysis of remote sensing data obtained by targeting the estimated productivity in cane for quantifying panela NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rueda Calier


    Full Text Available The productivity estimation sugar cane is very important for Colombian economy. The Net Primary Production (NPP model is applied on present investigation from Kumar & Monteith to regional scale. Analyzing spatiotemporal with geomantic techniques and edaphoclimatic environment characterization. Field surveys were conducted too, to acquire physiological information of plants evaluated and soil conditions of the plantation under study. The data acquired was input in ArcGIS10.1 software, to make processing these. A series thematic map was resulted from data processing from spatiotemporal distribution of plantation soil characteristics and biophysical characteristics. The variables fPAR, PAR, EUR was calculate from Kumar & Monteith efficiency model. Remote sensing and mathematic models related and fraction absorbed photosynthetically active radiation derivates from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and incident photosynthetically active radiation in land sensors recorded was calculated. Chemical and physical properties in laboratory tests were realized to soil, for relation knowledge between edaphoclimatic conditions and biophysical variables related with the sugar cane biomass gainer for Panela production. The information integrated from Geographic Information System (GIS and edaphic data and climatic data in country recorded, shows the behavior of the plantation as it develops.

  17. WE-G-18C-02: Estimation of Optimal B-Value Set for Obtaining Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Free From Perfusion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, K; Hugo, G; Ford, J; Saraiya, S; Weiss, E [Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Olsen, K; Groves, R [Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)


    Purpose: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is increasingly being investigated for radiotherapy planning and response assessment. Selection of a limited number of b-values in DW-MRI is important to keep geometrical variations low and imaging time short. We investigated various b-value sets to determine an optimal set for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Methods: Seven patients had 27 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5T scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with TR=4500ms approximately, TE=74ms, pixel size=1.98X1.98mm{sub 2}, slice thickness=4–6mm and 7 axial slices. Diffusion gradients were applied to all three axes producing traceweighted images with eight b-values of 0–1000μs/μm{sup 2}. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to ADCIVIM using all b-values. To compare the relative noise in ADC maps, intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumor volumes was computed. Results: ADCIVIM, perfusion coefficient and perfusion fraction for tumor volumes were in the range of 880-1622 μm{sup 2}/s, 8119-33834 μm{sup 2}/s and 0.104–0.349, respectively. ADC values using sets of 250, 800 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250–1000μs/μm{sup 2} only were not significantly different from ADCIVIM(p>0.05, paired t-test). Error in ADC values for 0–1000, 50–1000, 100–1000, 250–1000, 500–1000, and three b-value sets- 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250, 800 and 1000μs/μm{sup 2} were 15.0, 9.4, 5.6, 1.4, 11.7, 3.7, 2.0 and 0.2% relative to the reference-standard ADCIVIM, respectively. Mean intrascan CV was 20.2, 20.9, 21.9, 24.9, 32.6, 25.8, 25.4 and 24.8%, respectively, whereas that for ADCIVIM was 23.3%. Conclusion: ADC values of two 3 b-value sets

  18. Inversely estimating the vertical profile of the soil CO2 production rate in a deciduous broadleaf forest using a particle filtering method. (United States)

    Sakurai, Gen; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Kishimoto-Mo, Ayaka W; Murayama, Shohei; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Yokozawa, Masayuki


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface, which is a major source of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems, represents the total CO2 production at all soil depths. Although many studies have estimated the vertical profile of the CO2 production rate, one of the difficulties in estimating the vertical profile is measuring diffusion coefficients of CO2 at all soil depths in a nondestructive manner. In this study, we estimated the temporal variation in the vertical profile of the CO2 production rate using a data assimilation method, the particle filtering method, in which the diffusion coefficients of CO2 were simultaneously estimated. The CO2 concentrations at several soil depths and CO2 efflux from the soil surface (only during the snow-free period) were measured at two points in a broadleaf forest in Japan, and the data were assimilated into a simple model including a diffusion equation. We found that there were large variations in the pattern of the vertical profile of the CO2 production rate between experiment sites: the peak CO2 production rate was at soil depths around 10 cm during the snow-free period at one site, but the peak was at the soil surface at the other site. Using this method to estimate the CO2 production rate during snow-cover periods allowed us to estimate CO2 efflux during that period as well. We estimated that the CO2 efflux during the snow-cover period (about half the year) accounted for around 13% of the annual CO2 efflux at this site. Although the method proposed in this study does not ensure the validity of the estimated diffusion coefficients and CO2 production rates, the method enables us to more closely approach the "actual" values by decreasing the variance of the posterior distribution of the values.

  19. Egg and whole-body amino acid profile of African bonytongue (Heterotis niloticus) with an estimation of their dietary indispensable amino acids requirements. (United States)

    Monentcham, Serge-Eric; Whatelet, Bernard; Pouomogne, Victor; Kestemont, Patrick


    African bonytongue, Heterotis niloticus, is a river fish from the Central and West Africa basin. The species presents a great potential for fish farming and has been increasingly raised in Central and South Cameroon. The total amino acid and proximate composition of the whole body of egg, larva, juvenile, immature, and adult Heterotis were determined. Ash, moisture, whole-body protein, and lipid contents were significantly affected by size (P amino acid composition of the whole-body tissue, when expressed as a percentage of dietary protein, was not significantly different among ontogenetic stages (ranging from 0.2 to 400 g mean body mass). The amino acid composition of the eggs was quite different to the one of whole-body tissue with lower levels of methionine, proline, and glycine, and higher levels of arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, valine, serine, and alanine. The A/E ratios of adult Heterotis muscle tissue are similar to those obtained for other fish species, except for histidine and tryptophan. Based on whole-body or muscle tissue indispensable amino acids (IAA) to A/E ratios, the IAA requirement profiles for Heterotis (from larva to adult) were estimated and are similar to those of other omnivorous fish species, except for tryptophan and histidine.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Avidity Distribution and Estimating General Binding Properties of Transcription Factors from Genome-Wide Binding Profiles. (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir A


    The shape of the experimental frequency distributions (EFD) of diverse molecular interaction events quantifying genome-wide binding is often skewed to the rare but abundant quantities. Such distributions are systematically deviated from standard power-law functions proposed by scale-free network models suggesting that more explanatory and predictive probabilistic model(s) are needed. Identification of the mechanism-based data-driven statistical distributions that provide an estimation and prediction of binding properties of transcription factors from genome-wide binding profiles is the goal of this analytical survey. Here, we review and develop an analytical framework for modeling, analysis, and prediction of transcription factor (TF) DNA binding properties detected at the genome scale. We introduce a mixture probabilistic model of binding avidity function that includes nonspecific and specific binding events. A method for decomposition of specific and nonspecific TF-DNA binding events is proposed. We show that the Kolmogorov-Waring (KW) probability function (PF), modeling the steady state TF binding-dissociation stochastic process, fits well with the EFD for diverse TF-DNA binding datasets. Furthermore, this distribution predicts total number of TF-DNA binding sites (BSs), estimating specificity and sensitivity as well as other basic statistical features of DNA-TF binding when the experimental datasets are noise-rich and essentially incomplete. The KW distribution fits equally well to TF-DNA binding activity for different TFs including ERE, CREB, STAT1, Nanog, and Oct4. Our analysis reveals that the KW distribution and its generalized form provides the family of power-law-like distributions given in terms of hypergeometric series functions, including standard and generalized Pareto and Waring distributions, providing flexible and common skewed forms of the transcription factor binding site (TFBS) avidity distribution function. We suggest that the skewed binding

  1. Self-consistent and robust estimation of the MHD equilibrium suitable for control oriented models of the q-profile evolution (United States)

    Garcia-Martinez, P.; Montes, P.; Schuster, E.


    The feasibility of controlling the q-profile using closed-loop controllers designed from first-principles-driven control-oriented models has been demonstrated in tokamaks like DIII-D. These control-oriented models typically use the magnetic diffusion equation for the poloidal magnetic flux profile evolution, combined with simplified models for other plasma quantities such as the electron density, the electron temperature, and the noninductive current-drives. The magnetic diffusion equation is expressed in flux coordinates thus requiring several geometric profiles that depend on the underlying MHD equilibrium of the plasma. In this work, a self-consistent method to improve the estimation of the MHD equilibrium and the required geometric profiles is proposed. The method combines a two-dimensional linear model, that takes into account the geometry of the flux surfaces, with a one-dimensional non-linear model that incorporates the evolution of the magnetic profiles resulting in a robust and fast strategy for MHD equilibrium estimation. Supported by the US DOE under DE-SC0010537, DE-SC0010661, and the Fulbright-CONICET scholar program.

  2. Obtención de modelo matemático para el desarrollo del perfil del ala de una aeronave. // Obtaining a mathematical model for the development of the profile of the airship wing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cabrera Pedroso


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está dirigido a brindar un modelo matemático que permita el cálculo y determinación de una funciónanalítica para la obtención del perfil de un ala de geometría simétrica y variable de una aeronave con el empleo de métodoscomputacionales. En el artículo se analiza los métodos para la elaboración de sistemas de cálculo basados en modelosmatemáticos obtenidos en MATLAB 7.0 e implementados con el software LabVIEW 6.0 a través de programas de diseñosasistidos por computadoras en AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. Los diferentes tópicos abordados dan a los interesados una ideaglobal del desarrollo de esta tecnología computacional y su aplicación a ramas de la mecánica, así como la metodologíaseguida para obtener el perfil aerodinámico de un ala. También se exponen aspectos generales del empleo de la funciónAUTOLISP y el código fuente del programa diseñado.Palabras claves: perfil de alas, modelos matemáticos, AutoCAD, AutoLISP, medición experimental.__________________________________________________________________________Abstract.This article was carried out to obtain a mathematical model that allows the calculation and determination of an analyticfunction of symmetrical geometry profile and variable. In the article it is analyzed the methods for the elaboration ofsystem of calculations based on mathematical models obtained with the software language LabVIEW 6.0 and it is used todeveloping the program attended by the computers AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. The approached topics give to the interestedparties a global idea of the development it gives this technology and their application to branches of the mechanicalspecialties, as well as the followed methodology to obtain the aerofoil profile of a wing. General aspects are also exposedof the employment of the function AUTOLISP and the source code on the sketch program.Key words: Wing profiles, mathematical models, AutoCAD, AutoLISP, experimental measurement.

  3. External validation of a forest inventory and analysis volume equation and comparisons with estimates from multiple stem-profile models (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Adam M. Saunders


    Sound estimation procedures are desideratum for generating credible population estimates to evaluate the status and trends in resource conditions. As such, volume estimation is an integral component of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program's reporting. In effect, reliable volume estimation procedures are...

  4. Influence of difference in cross-sectional dose profile in a CTDI phantom on X-ray CT dose estimation: a Monte Carlo study. (United States)

    Haba, Tomonobu; Koyama, Shuji; Ida, Yoshihiro


    The longitudinal dose profile in a computed tomography dose index (CTDI) phantom had been studied by many researchers. The cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom, however, has not been studied. It is also important to understand the cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom for dose estimation in X-ray CT. In this study, the cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom was calculated by use of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method. A helical or a 320-detector-row cone-beam X-ray CT scanner was simulated. The cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom from surface to surface through the center point was calculated by MC simulation. The shape of the calculation region was a cylinder of 1-mm-diameter. The length of the cylinder was 23, 100, or 300 mm to represent various CT ionization chamber lengths. Detailed analyses of the energy depositions demonstrated that the cross-sectional dose profile was different in measurement methods and phantom sizes. In this study, we also focused on the validation of the weighting factor used in weighted CTDI (CTDI w ). As it stands now, the weighting factor used in CTDI w is (1/3, 2/3) for the (central, peripheral) axes. Our results showed that an equal weighting factor, which is (1/2, 1/2) for the (central, peripheral) axes, is more suitable to estimate the average cross-sectional dose when X-ray CT dose estimation is performed.

  5. Estimation of the p-wave velocity profile of elastic real data based on surface wave inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponomarenko, A.V.; Kashtan, B.M.; Troyan, V.N.; Mulder, W.A.


    Recently, we proposed an analytical approach to invert for a smoothly varying near-surface P-wave velocity profile that has a squared slowness linearly decreasing with depth. The exact solution for such a velocity profile in the acoustic approximation can be expressed in terms of Airy functions and

  6. A randomized controlled pilot study to obtain the best estimate of the size of the effect of a thermoplastic resting splint on spasticity in the stroke-affected wrist and fingers. (United States)

    Sheehan, J L; Winzeler-Merçay, U; Mudie, M H


    To obtain the best estimate of the size of the effect of a thermoplastic resting splint on spasticity in the stroke-affected upper limb. A randomized controlled intervention involving 14 adults affected by stroke,allocated to two groups. Inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation departments. Following one week of baseline when neither group wore a splint, group 1 continued without a splint for week 2 and then wore a splint during week 3. Group 2 wore a splint during weeks 2 and 3. Both groups then wore a splint through weeks 4-7. A computerized torque apparatus was used to measure resistance at the wrist in newtons at every one-degree angle through the range of extension. Amount and rate of change in resistance was compared between the groups to obtain the best estimate of the size of the effect of splinting. Effect sizes were small and failed to reach the suggested smallest clinically worthwhile effect size for amount and rate of change in resistance in the short term. However, the average estimated size of the effect for rate of change with longer term splinting exceeded the smallest clinically worthwhile effect. These findings and the fact that confidence intervals overlapped the smallest clinically worthwhile size of the effect for amount and rate of change in both short and long term suggest that a study with a larger sample is warranted.

  7. Estimated daily flavonoid and stilbene intake from fruits, vegetables, and nuts and associations with lipid profiles in Chinese adults. (United States)

    Li, Guilan; Zhu, Yanna; Zhang, Yuan; Lang, Jing; Chen, Yuming; Ling, Wenhua


    The scientific evidence for the association of daily flavonoid and stilbene intakes with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese adults has not been reported previously. The aim of the study was to assess daily flavonoid and stilbene intakes and evaluate these compounds' association with cardiovascular risk factors such as serum lipids and carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese adults. A total of 1,393 subjects participated in this cross-sectional study from July 2008 to January 2010 in China. Dietary flavonoid and stilbene intakes as well as overall dietary intakes from foods and beverages were assessed with a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular risk factors including serum lipids, uric acid, and carotid intima-media thickness were examined. The relationship between flavonoids and stilbene intakes and these cardiovascular risk factors was examined using either partial correlation coefficients or analysis of covariance. The richest sources of flavonoids and stilbenes were the fruit group including apple, plum, pear, and peach, followed by the vegetable group containing lotus root and taro. The daily intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavonols, flavones, isoflavones, and stilbene were 165.6 mg/day, 27.6 mg/day, 123.7 mg/day, 10.7 mg/day, 3.7 mg/day, and 0.3 mg/day, respectively. Higher daily consumption of anthocyanidins was associated with elevated serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations (P trend=0.001), and higher total flavonoid and flavonol intakes were associated with lower serum triglycerides (TG) concentrations (P trend=0.020 and P trend=0.035, respectively) and TG/HDL-C ratios (P trend=0.040 and P trend=0.045, respectively) in female subjects. These significant relationships were not found in male subjects. The daily intakes of flavonoid and stilbene were estimated in the present study, and higher dietary flavonoid intake was associated with improving lipid profile in

  8. Estimation of power dissipation of a 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode with a linearly graded doping profile in the drift region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Talwar


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish the importance of a linearly graded profile in the drift region of a 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode (SBD. The power dissipation of the device is found to be considerably lower at any given current density as compared to its value obtained for a uniformly doped drift region. The corresponding values of breakdown voltages obtained are similar to those obtained with uniformly doped wafers of 4H-SiC.

  9. Linking evaporative fluxes from bare soils across surface viscous sublayer with the Monin-Obukhov atmospheric flux-profile estimates


    Haghighi Erfan; Or Dani


    The Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) provides the theoretical basis for many “atmospheric based” methods (such as eddy covariance and flux profile methods) that are widely used for quantifying surface–atmosphere exchange processes. The turbulence driven and highly nonlinear profiles of momentum air temperature and vapor densities require complex resistance expressions applied to simple gradients deduced from a single or few height measurements. Notwithstanding the success of these atmos...

  10. Development of a Multivariate Predictive Model to Estimate Ionized Calcium Concentration from Serum Biochemical Profile Results in Dogs. (United States)

    Danner, J; Ridgway, M D; Rubin, S I; Le Boedec, K


    Ionized calcium concentration is the gold standard to assess calcium status in dogs, but measurement is not always available. (1) To predict ionized calcium concentration from biochemical results and compare the diagnostic performance of predicted ionized calcium concentration (piCa) to those of total calcium concentration (tCa) and 2 corrected tCa formulas; and (2) to study the relationship between biochemical results and variation of measured ionized calcium concentration (miCa). A total of 1,719 dogs with both miCa and biochemical profile results available. Cross-sectional study. Using 1,200 dogs, piCa was determined using a multivariate adaptive regression splines model. Its accuracy and performance were tested on the remaining 519 dogs. The final model included creatinine, albumin, tCa, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, and age, with tCa, albumin, and chloride having the highest impact on miCa variation. Measured ionized calcium concentration was better correlated with piCa than with tCa and corrected tCa and had higher overall diagnostic accuracy to diagnose hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia, but not significantly for hypercalcemia. For hypercalcemia, piCa was as sensitive (64%) but more specific (99.6%) than tCa and corrected tCa. For hypocalcemia, piCa was more sensitive (21.8%) and as specific (98.4%) as tCa. Positive and negative predictive values of piCa were high for both hypercalcemia (90% and 98%, respectively) and hypocalcemia (70.8% and 87.7%, respectively). Predicted ionized calcium concentration can be obtained from readily available biochemical and patient results and seems more useful than tCa and corrected tCa to assess calcium disorders in dogs when miCa is unavailable. Validation on external data, however, is warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. The impact of in-canopy wind profile formulations on heat flux estimation using the remote sensing-based two-source model for an open orchard canopy in southern Italy (United States)

    Cammalleri, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Ciraolo, G.; D'Urso, G.; Kustas, W. P.; La Loggia, G.; Minacapilli, M.


    For open orchard and vineyard canopies containing significant fractions of exposed soil (>50%), typical of Mediterranean agricultural regions, the energy balance of the vegetation elements is strongly influenced by heat exchange with the bare soil/substrate. For these agricultural systems a "two-source" approach, where radiation and turbulent exchange between the soil and canopy elements are explicitly modelled, appears to be the only suitable methodology for reliably assessing energy fluxes. In strongly clumped canopies, the effective wind speed profile inside and below the canopy layer can highly influence the partitioning of energy fluxes between the soil and vegetation components. To assess the impact of in-canopy wind profile on model flux estimates, an analysis of three different formulations is presented, including algorithms from Goudriaan (1977), Massman (1987) and Lalic et al. (2003). The in-canopy wind profile formulations are applied to the thermal-based Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model developed by Norman et al. (1995) and modified by Kustas and Norman (1999). High resolution airborne remote sensing images, collected over an agricultural area located in the western part of Sicily (Italy) comprised primarily of vineyards, olive and citrus orchards, are used to derive all the input parameters need to apply the TSEB. The images were acquired from June to October 2008 and include a relatively wide range of meteorological and soil moisture conditions. A preliminary sensitivity analysis of the three wind profile algorithms highlight the dependence of wind speed just above the soil/substrate to leaf area index and canopy height over the typical canopy properties range of these agricultural area. It is found that differences in wind just above surface among the models is most significant under sparse and medium fractional cover conditions (20-60%). The TSEB model heat flux estimates are compared with micrometeorological measurements from a small aperture

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments obtained during the R/V Discovery EEL_2011_D365 Cruise Along Extended Ellett Line from 2011-05-20 to 2011-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0157258) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157258 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data obtained during the R/V Discovery EEL_2011_D365 Cruise Along Extended Ellett...

  13. Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.


    Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to

  14. Estimating a continuous p-wave velocity profile with constant squared-slowness gradient models from seismic field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponomarenko, A.V.; Kashtan, B.M.; Troyan, V.N.; Mulder, W.A.


    We inverted seismic field data for a continuous, laterally invariant P-wave velocity profile. Instead of the usual approach that involves horizontal layers with piecewise constant densities and velocities, we consider models of one or two layers with a constant gradient of the squared slowness above

  15. Efficacy of flagellin gene typing for epidemiological studies of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry estimated by comparison with macrorestriction profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; On, S.L.W.


    of their macrorestriction profiles using the restriction endonucleases SmaI and KpnI. PCR-Fla typing of the 30 isolates yielded 16 distinct genotypes, whereas one isolate was untypeable by this method. The dominant PCR-Fla type (1/1) was shared by eight isolates, and five additional Fla groups containing two or three...

  16. Dose profile for electron beams obtained with CaSO{sub 4}:Ce,Eu thermoluminescent dosimeters; Perfil de dose de feixes de eletrons obtidos com dosimetros termoluminescentes de CaSO{sub 4}:Ce,Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Maira G.; Rodrigues, Leticia L.C., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energerticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The calcium sulphate activated with cerium and europium (CaSO{sub 4}:Ce,Eu) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) recently developed at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute as well as the calcium sulphate activated with dysprosium (CaSO{sub 4}: Dy) and lithium fluoride activated with magnesium and titanium, (LiF:Mg,Ti; TLD-100) TLDs, with long term applications in dosimetry and considered as standards, were used to obtain the dose profile for 3.43, 5.48, 8.27 and 11.67 MeV electron beams generated by a linear accelerator Clinac 2100-C (Varian) in the reference conditions defined by the TRS-398 code of practice. The routine dosimetry of the electron beams, performed with a calibrated ionization chamber, ensures that the electron beams fulfill the requirements of flatness and symmetry established in this code of practice. Thus, as the TRS-398 Code of Practice requirements are fulfilled by the measurements performed with the new TLD type, CaSO{sub 4}:Ce,Eu may be applied in clinical dosimetry of high energy electron beams. (author)

  17. Bias of health estimates obtained from chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems using telephone population surveys in Australia: results from a representative face-to-face survey in Australia from 2010 to 2013. (United States)

    Dal Grande, Eleonora; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Campostrini, Stefano; Taylor, Anne W


    Emerging communication technologies have had an impact on population-based telephone surveys worldwide. Our objective was to examine the potential biases of health estimates in South Australia, a state of Australia, obtained via current landline telephone survey methodologies and to report on the impact of mobile-only household on household surveys. Data from an annual multi-stage, systematic, clustered area, face-to-face population survey, Health Omnibus Survey (approximately 3000 interviews annually), included questions about telephone ownership to assess the population that were non-contactable by current telephone sampling methods (2006 to 2013). Univariable analyses (2010 to 2013) and trend analyses were conducted for sociodemographic and health indicator variables in relation to telephone status. Relative coverage biases (RCB) of two hypothetical telephone samples was undertaken by examining the prevalence estimates of health status and health risk behaviours (2010 to 2013): directory-listed numbers, consisting mainly of landline telephone numbers and a small proportion of mobile telephone numbers; and a random digit dialling (RDD) sample of landline telephone numbers which excludes mobile-only households. Telephone (landline and mobile) coverage in South Australia is very high (97%). Mobile telephone ownership increased slightly (7.4%), rising from 89.7% in 2006 to 96.3% in 2013; mobile-only households increased by 431% over the eight year period from 5.2% in 2006 to 27.6% in 2013. Only half of the households have either a mobile or landline number listed in the telephone directory. There were small differences in the prevalence estimates for current asthma, arthritis, diabetes and obesity between the hypothetical telephone samples and the overall sample. However, prevalence estimate for diabetes was slightly underestimated (RCB value of -0.077) in 2013. Mixed RCB results were found for having a mental health condition for both telephone samples. Current

  18. Bias of health estimates obtained from chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems using telephone population surveys in Australia: results from a representative face-to-face survey in Australia from 2010 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Dal Grande


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging communication technologies have had an impact on population-based telephone surveys worldwide. Our objective was to examine the potential biases of health estimates in South Australia, a state of Australia, obtained via current landline telephone survey methodologies and to report on the impact of mobile-only household on household surveys. Methods Data from an annual multi-stage, systematic, clustered area, face-to-face population survey, Health Omnibus Survey (approximately 3000 interviews annually, included questions about telephone ownership to assess the population that were non-contactable by current telephone sampling methods (2006 to 2013. Univariable analyses (2010 to 2013 and trend analyses were conducted for sociodemographic and health indicator variables in relation to telephone status. Relative coverage biases (RCB of two hypothetical telephone samples was undertaken by examining the prevalence estimates of health status and health risk behaviours (2010 to 2013: directory-listed numbers, consisting mainly of landline telephone numbers and a small proportion of mobile telephone numbers; and a random digit dialling (RDD sample of landline telephone numbers which excludes mobile-only households. Results Telephone (landline and mobile coverage in South Australia is very high (97 %. Mobile telephone ownership increased slightly (7.4 %, rising from 89.7 % in 2006 to 96.3 % in 2013; mobile-only households increased by 431 % over the eight year period from 5.2 % in 2006 to 27.6 % in 2013. Only half of the households have either a mobile or landline number listed in the telephone directory. There were small differences in the prevalence estimates for current asthma, arthritis, diabetes and obesity between the hypothetical telephone samples and the overall sample. However, prevalence estimate for diabetes was slightly underestimated (RCB value of −0.077 in 2013. Mixed RCB results were found for having a

  19. The impact of in-canopy wind profile formulations on heat flux estimation in an open orchard using the remote sensing-based two-source model (United States)

    Cammalleri, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Ciraolo, G.; Durso, G.; Kustas, W. P.; La Loggia, G.; Minacapilli, M.


    For open orchard and vineyard canopies containing significant fractions of exposed soil (>50%), typical of Mediterranean agricultural regions, the energy balance of the vegetation elements is strongly influenced by heat exchange with the bare soil/substrate. For these agricultural systems a "two-source" approach, where radiation and turbulent exchange between the soil and canopy elements are explicitly modelled, appears to be the only suitable methodology for reliably assessing energy fluxes. In strongly clumped canopies, the effective wind speed profile inside and below the canopy layer can strongly influence the partitioning of energy fluxes between the soil and vegetation components. To assess the impact of in-canopy wind profile on model flux estimates, an analysis of three different formulations is presented, including algorithms from Goudriaan (1977), Massman (1987) and Lalic et al. (2003). The in-canopy wind profile formulations are applied to the thermal-based two-source energy balance (TSEB) model developed by Norman et al. (1995) and modified by Kustas and Norman (1999). High resolution airborne remote sensing images, collected over an agricultural area located in the western part of Sicily (Italy) comprised primarily of vineyards, olive and citrus orchards, are used to derive all the input parameters needed to apply the TSEB. The images were acquired from June to October 2008 and include a relatively wide range of meteorological and soil moisture conditions. A preliminary sensitivity analysis of the three wind profile algorithms highlights the dependence of wind speed just above the soil/substrate to leaf area index and canopy height over the typical range of canopy properties encountered in these agricultural areas. It is found that differences among the models in wind just above the soil surface are most significant under sparse and medium fractional cover conditions (15-50%). The TSEB model heat flux estimates are compared with micro

  20. The impact of in-canopy wind profile formulations on heat flux estimation in an open orchard using the remote sensing-based two-source model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cammalleri


    Full Text Available For open orchard and vineyard canopies containing significant fractions of exposed soil (>50%, typical of Mediterranean agricultural regions, the energy balance of the vegetation elements is strongly influenced by heat exchange with the bare soil/substrate. For these agricultural systems a "two-source" approach, where radiation and turbulent exchange between the soil and canopy elements are explicitly modelled, appears to be the only suitable methodology for reliably assessing energy fluxes. In strongly clumped canopies, the effective wind speed profile inside and below the canopy layer can strongly influence the partitioning of energy fluxes between the soil and vegetation components. To assess the impact of in-canopy wind profile on model flux estimates, an analysis of three different formulations is presented, including algorithms from Goudriaan (1977, Massman (1987 and Lalic et al. (2003. The in-canopy wind profile formulations are applied to the thermal-based two-source energy balance (TSEB model developed by Norman et al. (1995 and modified by Kustas and Norman (1999. High resolution airborne remote sensing images, collected over an agricultural area located in the western part of Sicily (Italy comprised primarily of vineyards, olive and citrus orchards, are used to derive all the input parameters needed to apply the TSEB. The images were acquired from June to October 2008 and include a relatively wide range of meteorological and soil moisture conditions. A preliminary sensitivity analysis of the three wind profile algorithms highlights the dependence of wind speed just above the soil/substrate to leaf area index and canopy height over the typical range of canopy properties encountered in these agricultural areas. It is found that differences among the models in wind just above the soil surface are most significant under sparse and medium fractional cover conditions (15–50%. The TSEB model heat flux estimates are compared with micro

  1. Analytical Void Fraction Profile Near the Walls in Low Reynolds Number Bubbly Flows in Pipes: Experimental Comparison and Estimate of the Dispersion Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfaing Olivier


    Full Text Available In a recent paper, we derived an analytical expression for the void fraction profile in low Reynolds number bubbly pipe flows, based on a balance of hydrodynamic forces on bubbles. The objective of the present work is to perform a comparison of this analytical Bubble Force Balance Formula (BFBF with an experiment from the literature. We begin by simulating this experiment with the NEPTUNE_CFD code. In particular we show that using an Rij-ε model to account for the liquid velocity fluctuations yields reasonable results. In order to compare our analytical profile with experimental measurements, we restrict ourselves to the near-wall region. In this region, the void fraction profile results from a balance between dispersion and wall forces, and the dispersion coefficient can be considered as uniform. The analytical BFBF profile is seen to be in good agreement with the measurements. We are also capable to estimate the dispersion coefficient in this near-wall region.

  2. Vertical Jump Height Estimation Algorithm based on Vertical Acceleration Profile Characteristics via Foot-Worn Inertial Sensing. (United States)

    Wang, Jianren; Xu, Junkai; Shull, Peter B


    Vertical jump height is widely used for assessing motor development, functional ability, and motor capacity. Traditional methods for estimating vertical jump height rely on force plates or optical marker-based motion capture systems limiting assessment to people with access to specialized laboratories. This paper presents a novel algorithm for estimating vertical jump height based on foot-worn inertial sensors. Twenty healthy subjects performed countermovement jumping trials and maximum jump height was determined via inertial sensors located above the toe and under the heel and was compared with the gold standard maximum jump height estimation via optical marker-based motion capture. Vertical jump height estimation with the presented algorithm via inertial sensing showed excellent reliability at the toe (ICC_(2,1)=0.98) and heel (ICC_(2,1)=0.97). There was no significant bias in the inertial sensing at the toe, but proportional bias (b=1.22) and fixed bias (a=-10.23 cm) were detected in inertial sensing at the heel. Average vertical jump height estimation errors from inertial sensing at the toe and heel were -2.2±2.1 cm and -0.4±3.8 cm, respectively. These results indicate that the presented algorithm could be applied to foot-worn inertial sensors to estimate maximum jump height enabling assessment outside of traditional laboratory settings, and to avoid bias errors, the toe may be a more suitable location for inertial sensor placement than the heel.

  3. Gene set differential analysis of time course expression profiles via sparse estimation in functional logistic model with application to time-dependent biomarker detection. (United States)

    Kayano, Mitsunori; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru


    High-throughput time course expression profiles have been available in the last decade due to developments in measurement techniques and devices. Functional data analysis, which treats smoothed curves instead of originally observed discrete data, is effective for the time course expression profiles in terms of dimension reduction, robustness, and applicability to data measured at small and irregularly spaced time points. However, the statistical method of differential analysis for time course expression profiles has not been well established. We propose a functional logistic model based on elastic net regularization (F-Logistic) in order to identify the genes with dynamic alterations in case/control study. We employ a mixed model as a smoothing method to obtain functional data; then F-Logistic is applied to time course profiles measured at small and irregularly spaced time points. We evaluate the performance of F-Logistic in comparison with another functional data approach, i.e. functional ANOVA test (F-ANOVA), by applying the methods to real and synthetic time course data sets. The real data sets consist of the time course gene expression profiles for long-term effects of recombinant interferon β on disease progression in multiple sclerosis. F-Logistic distinguishes dynamic alterations, which cannot be found by competitive approaches such as F-ANOVA, in case/control study based on time course expression profiles. F-Logistic is effective for time-dependent biomarker detection, diagnosis, and therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The combination of starch from various sources, salt and protein, are the basic formulation often found in the Indonesian traditional food. The different composition of amylopectine-amylose and the interactions among the ingredients in the formulation, determines pasting properties in order gain a suitable texture characteristics. The aim of the research is to study the interactions of severals kinds of flours with water, white egg protein, and salt and its influences to the cooking behaviour of semi-solid food. There are four formulations for each kind of flour (rice, glutenniuos rice, wheat and cassava that are: (1 water: flour = 25 : 3 g; (2 water :  flour : salt  =  25 : 3 : 0.28 g; (3 water : flour : albumen = 25 : 3 : 0.3 g; and (4 water : flour : salt : albumen = 25 : 3 : 0.28 : 0.3 g. The flours are analysed for proximate, particle size distribution and amylose-amylopectine composition. Pasting behaviour is measured using Rapid Visco Analizer (RVA to determine peak viscosity, peak temperature, and peak time gelatinisation. Rice, glutinous rice, wheat and cassava flours have different gelatinization profiles that depend on starches structural origin and amylose and amylopectin composition. Wheat flour has the lowest peak viscosity among four type of flour examined, whether cassava flour has the highest. Salt in starch-water system delays peak time. Egg white protein raises peak viscosity of starches, the addition of salt and egg white protein simultaneously into the system increases peak viscosity and causes the peak occurs earlier. In food processing, tapioca flour can be used to give viscosity at short time cooking but it could not give a sufficient viscosity to the cold products. Rice flour needs a long time cooking to give a suitable viscosity to the products, however this viscosity can hold well in cold temperature. Keywords: flour, salt, protein, gelatinisation, viscosity   ABSTRAK Kombinasi berbagai macam tepung dengan

  5. Taxa metabólica de repouso de ciclistas estimada por equações e obtida por calorimetria indireta Resting metabolic rate of cyclists estimated by mathematical equations and obtained by indirect calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Guedes Cocate


    values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Pearson bivariate correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the relationship between RMR and fat free mass (FFM. It was verified that the RMR was significantly underestimated in 23.5%, 16.7%, 16.8% and 16.9%, respectively by the equations proposed by HR, FAO/WHO/UNU, Schofield and HB in comparison to RMR obtained by IC. RMR values were significantly correlated with FFM (r=0.551, p=0.03. These results confirm that the equations evaluated in this study are not appropriate to estimate the RMR of athletes. Such results can be explained by the fact that athletes have more FFM and possibly a greater β- adrenergic receptors response to the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn leads to RMR higher than in sedentary people. Therefore, we created an equation considering the FFM and age variables to better estimate athletes´ RMR. However, this equation should be validated in a study involving a greater number of cyclists before it can be clinically used.

  6. Identification of sources and estimation of emission profiles from highly time-resolved pollutant measurements in Tampa, FL (United States)

    Pancras, Joseph Patrick; Ondov, John M.; Poor, Noreen; Landis, Matthew S.; Stevens, Robert K.

    Aerosol slurry samples were collected at 30-min intervals for sequential 1-month periods at each of two sites (Sydney and "Dairy") in the Tampa Bay area during the 2002 Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment using the University of Maryland Semicontinuous Elements in Aerosol Sampler-II (SEAS-II). More than 500 samples, believed to be affected by plumes from local utility and industrial sources, were selected for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometric analyses for elemental markers (Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, As, Ni, Zn and Cd) based on excursions in SO 2 and NO x measurements. Correlation of short-term excursions in metals and SO 2, and surface wind directions observed between May 23 and 26th, 2002, revealed the influence of an animal feed supplements production facility (AFS), 17 km upwind at a station angle of 81°, for which emissions had not previously been detected by standard monitoring methods. Emission "profiles" for this source were developed, separately, from the time series data and by using principle components analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). In addition, a local dust component was evident in Al and Fe concentration profiles during periods of elevated wind speeds and was resolved by PCA/PMF. Similarly, large but brief 1.5-h excursions in Zn (maximum, 403 ng m -3), Cd, and Pb on May 17th were correlated with winds from the direction of an incinerator (station angle, 250°) 17 km from Sydney. Lastly, large excursions in As concentrations (maximum, 86 ng m -3) observed (May 4th and 5th at Sydney and November 2nd and 3rd at the Dairy) were used to locate previously unrecognized sources, tentatively associated with combustion/production of pressure-treated lumber. Profiles developed directly from the time series data were in the range of those derived from PCA-PMF (AFS); and those for the incinerator, with previously published values.

  7. Novel approach for quantitatively estimating element retention and material balances in soil profiles of recharge basins used for wastewater reclamation. (United States)

    Eshel, Gil; Lin, Chunye; Banin, Amos


    We investigated changes in element content and distribution in soil profiles in a study designed to monitor the geochemical changes accruing in soil due to long-term secondary effluent recharge, and its impact on the sustainability of the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) system. Since the initial elemental contents of the soils at the studied site were not available, we reconstructed them using scandium (Sc) as a conservative tracer. By using this approach, we were able to produce a mass-balance for 18 elements and evaluate the geochemical changes resulting from 19 years of effluent recharge. This approach also provides a better understanding of the role of soils as an adsorption filter for the heavy metals contained in the effluent. The soil mass balance suggests 19 years of effluent recharge cause for a significant enrichment in Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mg, K, Na, S and P contents in the upper 4m of the soil profile. Combining the elements lode record during the 19 years suggest that Cr, Ni, and P inputs may not reach the groundwater (20 m deep), whereas the other elements may. Conversely, we found that 58, 60, and 30% of the initial content of Mn, Ca and Co respectively leached from the upper 2-m of the soil profile. These high percentages of Mn and Ca depletion from the basin soils may reduce the soil's ability to buffer decreases in redox potential pe and pH, respectively, which could initiate a reduction in the soil's holding capacity for heavy metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimación de la característica de Inductancia de fase del Motor de Reluctancia Conmutada MFR 132.1;Estimation of phase inductance profile of MFR 132.1 switched reluctance motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Quintana - Santos


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se enuncia la idea fundamental en la que se basan todos los métodos empleados para la estimación de los parámetros de fase de los motores de reluctancia conmutada. Se describe, además, un algoritmo de división con punto decimal fijo en lenguaje VHDL. El algoritmo descrito se utiliza posteriormente para la estimación de la inductancia de fase del motor de reluctancia conmutada MFR 132.1, mediante el empleo de la técnica invasiva de modulación de amplitud con señales de tensión pulsantes de tres estados. Se diseñó y construyó una instalación experimental sobre la base de un FPGA de Actel, de la familia ProASIC 3 modelo A3P250, para el procesamiento de las señales. Finalmente se exponen y comentan las características de inductancia de fase del motor de reluctancia MFR 132.1, obtenidas.In the present work is enunciated the fundamental idea of all the methods used for the estimation of phase parameters in the switched reluctance motors. The fixed point division algorithm employed to estimate the inactive phase inductance profile of the MFR 132.1 switched reluctance motor, is described in VHDL programming language. The algorithm implements the intrusive estimation technique of amplitude modulation with three states pulsating signals. The structure of the experimental set up for the digital signal processing, which is based on the Actel FPGA ProAsic 3 A3P250 development kit, is depicted. Finally, the inactive phase’s inductance profiles, which were experimentally obtained, are shown for different voltage values in the Direct Current converter link.

  9. Estimación de la característica de Inductancia de fase del Motor de Reluctancia Conmutada MFR 132.1 Estimation of phase inductance profile of MFR 132.1 switched reluctance motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Quintana Santos


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se enuncia la idea fundamental en la que se basan todos los métodos empleados para la estimación de los parámetros de fase de los motores de reluctancia conmutada. Se describe, además, un algoritmo de división con punto decimal fijo en lenguaje VHDL. El algoritmo descrito se utiliza posteriormente para la estimación de la inductancia de fase del motor de reluctancia conmutada MFR 132.1, mediante el empleo de la técnica invasiva de modulación de amplitud con señales de tensión pulsantes de tres estados. Se diseñó y construyó una instalación experimental sobre la base de un FPGA de Actel, de la familia ProASIC 3 modelo A3P250, para el procesamiento de las señales. Finalmente se exponen y comentan las características de inductancia de fase del motor de reluctancia MFR 132.1, obtenidas.  In the present work is enunciated the fundamental idea of all the methods used for the estimation of phase parameters in the switched reluctance motors. The fixed point division algorithm employed to estimate the inactive phase inductance profile of the MFR 132.1 switched reluctance motor, is described in VHDL programming language. The algorithm implements the intrusive estimation technique of amplitude modulation with three states pulsating signals. The structure of the experimental set up for the digital signal processing, which is based on the Actel FPGA ProAsic 3 A3P250 development kit, is depicted. Finally, the inactive phase’s inductance profiles, which were experimentally obtained, are shown for different voltage values in the Direct Current converter link.

  10. A semi-parametric approach to estimate risk functions associated with multi-dimensional exposure profiles: application to smoking and lung cancer. (United States)

    Hastie, David I; Liverani, Silvia; Azizi, Lamiae; Richardson, Sylvia; Stücker, Isabelle


    A common characteristic of environmental epidemiology is the multi-dimensional aspect of exposure patterns, frequently reduced to a cumulative exposure for simplicity of analysis. By adopting a flexible Bayesian clustering approach, we explore the risk function linking exposure history to disease. This approach is applied here to study the relationship between different smoking characteristics and lung cancer in the framework of a population based case control study. Our study includes 4658 males (1995 cases, 2663 controls) with full smoking history (intensity, duration, time since cessation, pack-years) from the ICARE multi-centre study conducted from 2001-2007. We extend Bayesian clustering techniques to explore predictive risk surfaces for covariate profiles of interest. We were able to partition the population into 12 clusters with different smoking profiles and lung cancer risk. Our results confirm that when compared to intensity, duration is the predominant driver of risk. On the other hand, using pack-years of cigarette smoking as a single summary leads to a considerable loss of information. Our method estimates a disease risk associated to a specific exposure profile by robustly accounting for the different dimensions of exposure and will be helpful in general to give further insight into the effect of exposures that are accumulated through different time patterns.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Survey to Estimate the Cat Population and Ownership Profiles in a Semirural Area of Central Italy. (United States)

    Carvelli, Andrea; Iacoponi, Francesca; Scaramozzino, Paola


    Understanding animal population size and its demographic features is essential to address Public Health policies as well as to provide valuable information to pet industries and veterinary practitioners. Nevertheless, official data on feline population are not available worldwide. In the present study, the owned cat population size, its demographic attributes, and the ownership profiles have been investigated through a face-to-face questionnaire in a semirural area of Central Italy. The human : cat ratio was equal to 6.8 (95% CI: 5.7-7.5); 29.3% of households own at least one cat. The majority of cats were living in a rural area (67.8%) and outdoors, were neutered (70.5%), and were fed with commercial food (54.8%) and they visited a veterinarian 1-2 times a year (43.3%). The cat ownership was strongly associated with people living in a rural area and owning another pet. As the cat owned population was mainly kept outdoors in rural areas, the possible relation between the owned and the stray animals is worthy to be monitored in future researches. Our study revealed that the feline owned population was larger than expected and that social and economic human factors do not influence the cat ownership. Health Authorities and veterinary practitioners should promote responsible ownership to increase the veterinary care, to intensify the official identification, and to properly manage the outdoor lifestyle.

  12. A Cross-Sectional Survey to Estimate the Cat Population and Ownership Profiles in a Semirural Area of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carvelli


    Full Text Available Understanding animal population size and its demographic features is essential to address Public Health policies as well as to provide valuable information to pet industries and veterinary practitioners. Nevertheless, official data on feline population are not available worldwide. In the present study, the owned cat population size, its demographic attributes, and the ownership profiles have been investigated through a face-to-face questionnaire in a semirural area of Central Italy. The human : cat ratio was equal to 6.8 (95% CI: 5.7–7.5; 29.3% of households own at least one cat. The majority of cats were living in a rural area (67.8% and outdoors, were neutered (70.5%, and were fed with commercial food (54.8% and they visited a veterinarian 1-2 times a year (43.3%. The cat ownership was strongly associated with people living in a rural area and owning another pet. As the cat owned population was mainly kept outdoors in rural areas, the possible relation between the owned and the stray animals is worthy to be monitored in future researches. Our study revealed that the feline owned population was larger than expected and that social and economic human factors do not influence the cat ownership. Health Authorities and veterinary practitioners should promote responsible ownership to increase the veterinary care, to intensify the official identification, and to properly manage the outdoor lifestyle.

  13. Multiple linear regression based congener profile correlation to estimate the toxicity (TEQ) and dioxin concentration in atmospheric emissions. (United States)

    Palmer, D; Pou, J O; Gonzalez-Sabaté, L; Díaz-Ferrero, J


    The formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) is governed by complex chemical reactions with complex kinetic models. The simulation of Municipal Solid Waste incinerators, or other industrial thermal processes, is a powerful tool that can be used to optimize and control them, and reducing the number of components to simulate is mandatory for a proper use. In this study it has been determined that only the formation of 3 of the 17 main PCDD/F congeners can be considered as linearly independent. This fact has been used to establish linear regression models that are able to estimate properly the total amount and toxicity of a sample considering only the amount of 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, OCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF. All models have been validated using new samples performing a close approach to the real values provided by complete analytical studies. The average relative error is 3.5% and the maximum relative error is below 9% for these new testing samples. The main goal of our investigation is to build a dynamic simulation process of a MSW facility and include the dioxins formation on it using these models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An approximate estimation of velocity profiles and turbulence factor models for air-flows along the exterior of TEFC induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenta Dardan O.


    Full Text Available Compared to a number of other existing correlations for heat transfer, the empirical correlations for forced convection from a short horizontal cylinder in axial air-flows usually do not involve the effects of changes in air-flow velocity and/or air-flow turbulence. Therefore, a common analysis of the heat transfer by using only one energy balance equation for entire outer surface of a solid is considered insufficient for induction motor applications because it fails to include aforementioned effects. This paper presents a novel, empirically-based methodology to estimate approximately the values of air-flow velocities and turbulence factors, that is, velocity profiles and turbulence factor models for stationary horizontal cylinders with and without fins (frame and two end-shields in axial air-flows. These velocity profiles and turbulence factor models can then be used in analytical modelling of steady-state heat transfer from the exterior of totally enclosed fan-cooled induction motors.

  15. Obtaining of inulin acetate


    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar


    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  16. Methane uptake in soils of Southern Spain estimated by two different techniques: Static chamber and 222radon flux and soil air concentration profiles (United States)

    Dueñas, C.; Fernández, M. C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    Measurements of methane fluxes from four differing soils in the surroundings of Málaga (Spain) were carried out by two methods: a direct method using a static accumulation chamber at the soil surface and an indirect method obtained from simultaneously measured 222Rn flux from the soil surface in parallel with the concentration profile measurements of 222Rn and CH 4 in the air of soil. The directly measured methane flux at all the investigated soils was higher than the methane fluxes derived from the indirect method. Atmospheric methane was consumed by all the soils and mean direct flux to the atmosphere were 3.25 μmol m -2 h -1. The study showed no correlation between methane uptake and soil temperature, which might be due to the dry conditions prevailing during the study period.

  17. Estimation of aerodynamic roughness at various spatial scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Ritchie, J.C.; Humes, K.S.; Parry, R.; Pachepsky, Y.; Gimenez, D.; Leguizamon, S.


    Laser measurements done with an airborne profiler were applied to determine geometric parameters of the land surface and to estimate the aerodynamic roughness length at increasing length scales. Geostatistical methods were used to obtain a measure of length scales. Long laser profiles (8 km at a

  18. Perfil de beta talassemia heterozigota obtido a partir de análise data mining em banco de dados The profile of beta thalassemia obtained by data mining analysis in a database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. B. Domingos


    Full Text Available Variations in the phenotypic expression of heterozygous beta thalassemia reflect the formation of different populations. To better understand the profile of heterozygous beta-thalassemia of the Brazilian population, we aimed at establishing parameters to direct the diagnosis of carriers and calculate the frequency from information stored in an electronic database. Using a Data Mining tool, we evaluated information on 10,960 blood samples deposited in a relational database. Over the years, improved diagnostic technology has facilitated the elucidation of suspected beta thalassemia heterozygote cases with an average frequency of 3.5% of referred cases. We also found that the Brazilian beta thalassemia trait has classic increases of Hb A2 and Hb F (60%, mainly caused by mutations in beta zero thalassemia, especially in the southeast of the country.

  19. The metabolic network of Clostridium acetobutylicum: Comparison of the approximate Bayesian computation via sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC) and profile likelihood estimation (PLE) methods for determinability analysis. (United States)

    Thorn, Graeme J; King, John R


    The Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic endospore-forming species which produces acetone, butanol and ethanol via the acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation process, leading to biofuels including butanol. In previous work we looked to estimate the parameters in an ordinary differential equation model of the glucose metabolism network using data from pH-controlled continuous culture experiments. Here we combine two approaches, namely the approximate Bayesian computation via an existing sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC) method (to compute credible intervals for the parameters), and the profile likelihood estimation (PLE) (to improve the calculation of confidence intervals for the same parameters), the parameters in both cases being derived from experimental data from forward shift experiments. We also apply the ABC-SMC method to investigate which of the models introduced previously (one non-sporulation and four sporulation models) have the greatest strength of evidence. We find that the joint approximate posterior distribution of the parameters determines the same parameters as previously, including all of the basal and increased enzyme production rates and enzyme reaction activity parameters, as well as the Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for glucose ingestion, while other parameters are not as well-determined, particularly those connected with the internal metabolites acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA. We also find that the approximate posterior is strongly non-Gaussian, indicating that our previous assumption of elliptical contours of the distribution is not valid, which has the effect of reducing the numbers of pairs of parameters that are (linearly) correlated with each other. Calculations of confidence intervals using the PLE method back this up. Finally, we find that all five of our models are equally likely, given the data available at present. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interpreting Repeated Temperature-Depth Profiles for Groundwater Flow (United States)

    Bense, Victor F.; Kurylyk, Barret L.; van Daal, Jonathan; van der Ploeg, Martine J.; Carey, Sean K.


    Temperature can be used to trace groundwater flows due to thermal disturbances of subsurface advection. Prior hydrogeological studies that have used temperature-depth profiles to estimate vertical groundwater fluxes have either ignored the influence of climate change by employing steady-state analytical solutions or applied transient techniques to study temperature-depth profiles recorded at only a single point in time. Transient analyses of a single profile are predicated on the accurate determination of an unknown profile at some time in the past to form the initial condition. In this study, we use both analytical solutions and a numerical model to demonstrate that boreholes with temperature-depth profiles recorded at multiple times can be analyzed to either overcome the uncertainty associated with estimating unknown initial conditions or to form an additional check for the profile fitting. We further illustrate that the common approach of assuming a linear initial temperature-depth profile can result in significant errors for groundwater flux estimates. Profiles obtained from a borehole in the Veluwe area, Netherlands in both 1978 and 2016 are analyzed for an illustrative example. Since many temperature-depth profiles were collected in the late 1970s and 1980s, these previously profiled boreholes represent a significant and underexploited opportunity to obtain repeat measurements that can be used for similar analyses at other sites around the world.

  1. The faster internal clock in ADHD is related to lower processing speed: WISC-IV profile analyses and time estimation tasks facilitate the distinction between real ADHD and pseudo-ADHD. (United States)

    Walg, Marco; Hapfelmeier, Gerhard; El-Wahsch, Daniel; Prior, Helmut


    Alterations in temporal processing may represent a primary cause of key symptoms in ADHD. This study is aimed at investigating the nature of time-processing alterations in ADHD and assessing the possible utility of testing time estimation for clinical diagnostics. Retrospective verbal time estimation in the range of several minutes was examined in 50 boys with ADHD and 53 boys with other mental disorders. All participants (age 7-16) attended an outpatient clinic for ADHD diagnostics. The diagnostic assessment included the WISC-IV. Subjects with ADHD made longer and less accurate duration estimates than the clinical control group. The ADHD group showed a specific WISC-IV profile with processing speed deficits. In the ADHD group there was a correlation between processing speed and quality of time estimation that was not observed in the comparison group: higher processing speed indices were related to more accurate duration estimates. The findings provide support for the presence of a faster internal clock in subjects with ADHD and lend further support to the existence of a specific WISC-IV profile in subjects with ADHD. The results show that analyzing WISC-IV profiles and time estimation tasks are useful differential diagnosis tools, particularly when it comes to distinguishing between "real ADHD" and pseudo-ADHD.

  2. Phytochemical profile and mechanisms involved in the anti-nociception caused by the hydroethanolic extract obtained from Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl.) K. Schum (Jenipapo-bravo) leaves in mice. (United States)

    Cesário, Francisco Rafael Alves Santana; de Albuquerque, Thaís Rodrigues; de Lacerda, Giovana Mendes; de Oliveira, Maria Rayane Correia; Rodrigues, Lindaiane Bezerra; Martins, Anita Oliveira Brito Pereira Bezerra; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Júnior, Lucindo José Quintans; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Vale, Mariana Lima; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar


    Tocoyena formosa, a small ornamental tree growing in the dry regions of central Brazil, is commonly known as 'genipapo do bravo'. This is a medicinal plant traditionally used as an analgesic for rheumatic pain, lower back pain and myalgia, however its use is carried out without scientific evidence, which thus justifies the development of studies to investigate and prove its therapeutic potential. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical profile of Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schlecht.) K. Schum (TFLHE) and the mechanisms involved in its anti-nociceptive effect. The TFLHE revealed the presence of gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, quercetin and luteolin. The TFLHE at doses of 200 and 400mg/kg significantly decreased acetic acid-induced abdominal contortions, the reaction time for the formalin test in both phases and increased the paw withdrawal time in the hot plate thermal stimulus test. The 200mg/kg dose also significantly inhibited the plantar mechanical hyperalgesia intensity induced by formalin within 24h. with the TFLHE did not cause significant changes in motor performance and coordination in the Rota Rod test. The investigation on the possible mechanism of antinociceptive action of TFLHE indicates the involvement of opioid, glutamatergic, nitric oxide/cGMP and vanilloid systems. It is concluded that the TFLHE has an antinociceptive effect promoted by the aforementioned mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian


    In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  4. [Erythromycin ethylsuccinate obtaining possibilities]. (United States)

    Stan, Cătălina Daniela; Stefanache, Alina; Tântaru, Gladiola; Poiată, Antonia; Dumitrache, M; Diaconu, D E; Profire, Lenuţa


    In this study we tried to improve the erythromycin ethylsuccinate obtaining, having in view to separate the erythromycin ester by crystallization in water. The erythromycin acylation and the erythromycin ethylsuccinate crystallization were realized, following the next steps: 1. the acylation of the erythromycin with a methylene chloride solution of monoethylsuccinyl chloride, at 25-28 degrees C for 3 hours in the presence of NaHCO3; 2. the transfer of the erythromycin ethylsuccinate from methylene chloride solution in acetone solution by distillation of mixture methylene chloride: acetone 1:1 at 25-28 degrees C; 3. erythromycin ethylsuccinate separation by crystallization in water at pH = 8-8.5 and 5 degrees C for 90 minutes. The quality control for the erythromycin ester was performed according to the Xth edition of Romanian Pharmacopoeia standards using national standard for erythromycin ethylsuccinate and national standard for erythromycin with an activity of 1: 937 U and 2.02% humidity. The Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 was used as a test microorganism and a thin layer cromatography was performed for qualitative control. 13.1 g of erythromycin ethylsuccinate were obtained with an output of the process of 82.02%. Using water for the separation of erythromycin ethylsuccinate the output of the process is greater (82.02%) than in case of using petroleum ether (74.14%) or hexane (80.25%). The thin layer cromatography revealed an Rf = 0.56 and the microbiological activity of the erythromycin ethylsuccinate was 98.7% compared with the standard. Using water instead of hexane or petroleum ether is gainful for the separation of erythromycin ethylsuccinate from the reaction medium. The obtained erythromycin ethylsuccinate corresponds to the Xth edition of Romanian Pharmacopoeia standards. So, the raw materials consumption is decreased, the costs are cut down, the obtained product purity is high and the output of the process is greater.

  5. Estimating Single-Tree Crown Biomass of Norway Spruce by Airborne Laser Scanning: A Comparison of Methods with and without the Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning to Obtain the Ground Reference Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Hauglin


    Full Text Available Several methods to conduct single-tree inventories using airborne laser scanning (ALS have been proposed, and even terrestrial laser scanning (TLS has recently emerged as a possible tool for the collection of forest inventory data. In the present study, a novel methodological framework for a combined use of ALS and TLS in an inventory was tested and compared to a method without the use of TLS. Single-tree Norway spruce crown biomass was predicted using an ALS-model with training data obtained by TLS. ALS and TLS data were collected for sets of sample trees, including 68 trees with both ALS and TLS data. In total, 29 destructively sampled trees were used to fit a TLS crown biomass model, which then was used to predict crown biomass in a separate set of 68 trees. This dataset was subsequently used to fit an ALS crown biomass model. When validating the model, using a separate dataset with accurately measured crown biomass obtained through destructive sampling, the mean error was 32% of the observed mean biomass. Corresponding crown biomass predictions derived with ALS-predicted diameters and the use of conventional and existing allometric models resulted in a mean error of 35%. Thus, in the present study, a slight improvement, in terms of prediction accuracy, was found when using training data with ground reference values obtained by TLS.

  6. The role of titanium oxide concentration profile of titanium oxide of RuO2-TiO2 coatings obtained by the sol-gel procedure on its electrochemical behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In order to understand the role of TiO2 in the deactivation mechanism of an active RuO2–TiO2 coating, an additional TiO2 layer was introduced in the support|coating interphase of regular Ti//[RuO2–TiO2] anode in one case and on the surface of the coating in the other. The electrochemical behavior of these, with TiO2 enriched, anodes was compared with the behavior of anodes with regular RuO2–TiO2 coatings, which were subjected to an accelerated stability test. A high-frequency semicircle in the complex plane plot, obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, for a regular RuO2–TiO2 coating corresponds to TiO2 enrichment in the coating as a consequence of anode corrosion. In the case of the coatings with additional TiO2 layers, a high-frequency semicircle was not observed. The additional TiO2 layers increase the coating overall resistance and influence the coating impedance behavior at low frequencies. Similar equivalent electrical circuits were used to analyze the impedance behavior of coatings having an additional TiO2 layer at different position within RuO2–TiO2 coating.

  7. Atmospheric Turbulence Estimates from a Pulsed Lidar (United States)

    Pruis, Matthew J.; Delisi, Donald P.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Proctor, Fred H.


    Estimates of the eddy dissipation rate (EDR) were obtained from measurements made by a coherent pulsed lidar and compared with estimates from mesoscale model simulations and measurements from an in situ sonic anemometer at the Denver International Airport and with EDR estimates from the last observation time of the trailing vortex pair. The estimates of EDR from the lidar were obtained using two different methodologies. The two methodologies show consistent estimates of the vertical profiles. Comparison of EDR derived from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model with the in situ lidar estimates show good agreement during the daytime convective boundary layer, but the WRF simulations tend to overestimate EDR during the nighttime. The EDR estimates from a sonic anemometer located at 7.3 meters above ground level are approximately one order of magnitude greater than both the WRF and lidar estimates - which are from greater heights - during the daytime convective boundary layer and substantially greater during the nighttime stable boundary layer. The consistency of the EDR estimates from different methods suggests a reasonable ability to predict the temporal evolution of a spatially averaged vertical profile of EDR in an airport terminal area using a mesoscale model during the daytime convective boundary layer. In the stable nighttime boundary layer, there may be added value to EDR estimates provided by in situ lidar measurements.

  8. Methods for quantification of in situ hybridization signals obtained by film autoradiography and phosphorimaging applied for estimation of regional levels of calmodulin mRNA classes in the rat brain. (United States)

    Vizi, S; Palfi, A; Hatvani, L; Gulya, K


    Comparative analysis of the regional abundances of the various mRNAs in neural tissues requires the quantitation of target nucleic acid sequences while their tissue distribution is preserved. A quantitative in situ hybridization protocol is presented for the assessment of regional levels of calmodulin (CaM) I, II and III mRNAs in the rat brain. Coronal brain cryostat sections were hybridized with multiple CaM [35S]cRNA probes and co-exposed to an autoradiographic film or storage phosphor screen, together with a membrane-based radioactive standard scale. The membrane scale was calibrated against a brain paste standard scale. Regression analyses of the sensitometric graphs of standard scales corresponding to the autoradiographic film and to the storage phosphor screen were performed by means of exponential (ROD=p(1)(1-exp[-p(2)x])) and linear (LI=ax) functions, respectively (ROD is relative optical density, LI is labeling intensity, and x is radioactivity). The ROD/LI values for the hybridized brain regions were converted into cRNA probe copy numbers (estimations of mRNA copy numbers) through use of the above standard scales. This method was applied to compare the regional abundances of multiple CaM mRNAs in the brains of control, dehydrated, chronic ethanol-treated and ethanol withdrawal-treated animals.

  9. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China. (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cheng, Jinping; Horii, Yuichi; Wu, Qian; Wang, Wenhua


    Environmental pollution arising from electronic waste (e-waste) disposal and recycling has received considerable attention in recent years. Treatment, at low temperatures, of e-wastes that contain polyvinylchloride and related polymers can release polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Although several studies have reported trace metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) released from e-waste recycling operations, environmental contamination and human exposure to PCDD/Fs from e-waste recycling operations are less well understood. In this study, electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total PCDD/ Fs including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil (44.5-531 pg/g dry wt) from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels (3.44-33.8 pg/g dry wt) of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/ Fs via soil/dust ingestion

  10. Estimation of the number of histological diagnosis for IgG4-related kidney disease referred to the data obtained from the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (J-RBR) questionnaire and cases reported in the Japanese Society of Nephrology Meetings. (United States)

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Takako; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Hisano, Satoshi; Nagata, Michio; Zen, Yoh; Yanagita, Motoko; Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Nishi, Shinichi; Saito, Takao


    More than 2 years have passed since the proposal of the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD). The aim of this study was to estimate the number of histological diagnosis for IgG4-RKD throughout Japan and to clarify the regional distribution of the development of this disease. A questionnaire was supplied to 140 research facilities registered in the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (J-RBR). The items of the questionnaire were the total number of renal biopsies performed and the number of cases diagnosed as IgG4-RKD in 2012 and 2013 at each facility. Age, sex, and diagnosis category were also included for the IgG4-RKD cases. The geographic distribution of the disease development was evaluated using clinical case reports presented at the Eastern/Western regional meeting of the Japanese Society of Nephrology during the 15 years following 2001. Forty-seven facilities completed the questionnaire, resulting in a collection rate of 34 %. The total numbers of renal biopsies in 2012 and 2013 were 3387 and 3591, respectively. Forty-seven of these cases (24 in 2012 and 23 in 2013) were diagnosed as IgG4-RKD. The frequency of development of IgG4-RKD per one million over 40-year-old individuals during these 15 years varied between 0.9 and 3.1, depending on Japanese geographic region of Japan. The results of the present survey indicate that the number of diagnosis for IgG4-RKD is approximately 130 cases per year throughout Japan, and no regional differences in disease frequency appear to exist.

  11. Performance changes in rowers after training aiming for improvement of the individual physiological profile estimated by five performance trials in four days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Lippets, Rutger; de Boorder, Diederik

    Introduction Rowers perform over 2000m (5.3-7.5 min), but although they follow the same training program and look similar from a physical performance point of view, genetics and training history may have a great influence upon their individual physical profile and adaptation to training. It might...... be hypothesed that individual terms should be taken, i.e. that rowers with low max power should be motivated to do special power sessions, and equivalent, less powerful rowers, a program based on steady aerobic work. Hence, they should develop against a more balanced profile. Therefore, the aim of the current...... study was 1) to evaluate performance changes during a winter season and 2) focus on individual based training for development of performance aiming a more balanced profile in a group of young talented rowers. Methods Twenty Dutch university rowers, 14 males and 6 females: age 21.2±2.0 years, systematic...

  12. Estimate of bias in Aura TES HDO/H2O profiles from comparison of TES and in situ HDO/H2O measurements at the Mauna Loa observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lee


    Full Text Available The Aura satellite Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES instrument is capable of measuring the HDO/H2O ratio in the lower troposphere using thermal infrared radiances between 1200 and 1350 cm−1. However, direct validation of these measurements is challenging due to a lack of in situ measured vertical profiles of the HDO/H2O ratio that are spatially and temporally co-located with the TES observations. From 11 October through 5 November 2008, we undertook a campaign to measure HDO and H2O at the Mauna Loa observatory in Hawaii for comparison with TES observations. The Mauna Loa observatory is situated at 3.1 km above sea level or approximately 680 hPa, which is approximately the altitude where the TES HDO/H2O observations show the most sensitivity. Another advantage of comparing in situ data from this site to estimates derived from thermal IR radiances is that the volcanic rock is heated by sunlight during the day, thus providing significant thermal contrast between the surface and atmosphere; this thermal contrast increases the sensitivity to near surface estimates of tropospheric trace gases. The objective of this inter-comparison is to better characterize a bias in the TES HDO data, which had been previously estimated to be approximately 5 % too high for a column integrated value between 850 hPa and 500 hPa. We estimate that the TES HDO profiles should be corrected downwards by approximately 4.8 % and 6.3 % for Versions 3 and 4 of the data respectively. These corrections must account for the vertical sensitivity of the TES HDO estimates. We estimate that the precision of this bias correction is approximately 1.9 %. The accuracy is driven by the corrections applied to the in situ HDO and H2O measurements using flask data taken during the inter-comparison campaign and is estimated to be less than 1 %. Future comparisons of TES data to accurate vertical profiles of in situ measurements are needed to refine this bias estimate.

  13. Statistics of Natural Populations. II. Estimating an Allele Probability in Families Descended from Cryptic Mothers. (United States)

    Arnold, J; Morrison, M L


    In population studies, adults are frequently difficult or inconvenient to identify for genotype, but a family profile of genotypes can be obtained from an unidentified female crossed with a single unidentified male. The problem is to estimate an allele frequency in the cryptic parental gene pool from the observed family profiles. For example, a worker may wish to estimate inversion frequencies in Drosophila; inversion karyotypes are cryptic in adults but visible in salivary gland squashes from larvae. A simple mixture model, which assumes the Hardy-Weinberg law, Mendelian laws and a single randomly chosen mate per female, provides the vehicle for studying three competing estimators of an allele frequency. A simple, heuristically appealing estimator called the Dobzhansky estimator is compared with the maximum likelihood estimator and a close relative called the grouped profiles estimator. The Dobzhansky estimator is computationally simple, consistent and highly efficient and is recommended in practice over its competitors.

  14. Heritability estimates for different Kleiber ratios obtained from growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental evaluation of breeding and production systems is complicated by tremendous cost in both time and money. Such limitations can partially be overcome by using mathematical computer simulation models to simulate livestock breeding and production systems (Long et al., 1975). The quantitative nature of animal ...

  15. Objective measurement of inhaler inhalation flow profile using acoustic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacalle, H.; Taylor, T.E.; Marco, S.; Reilly, R.B.


    Patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are mostly treated with inhalers that deliver medication directly to their airways. Drug delivery from dry powder inhalers (DPIs) is very much reliant on the inhalation manoeuvre, specifically the peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR), inspiratory capacity (IC) and inhalation rise time (IRT) of the inhalation. It has been widely reported that patients may not follow correct inhalation technique while using their inhaler. In this study, a novel acoustic method is proposed to accurately estimate inhalation flow profile using only one inhalation recording for calibration. An Ellipta DPI was placed inside an airtight container with a spirometer connected in order to measure inhalation flow parameters. An acoustic recording device (Inhaler Compliance Assessment (INCA)) was also attached to the DPI. Inhalation audio and flow signals were recorded simultaneously. The data were collected from 20 healthy subjects while performing inhaler inhalations at a range of inspiratory flow rates. A power law regression model was computed to obtain the relationship between the acoustic envelope of the inhalation and flow profile of each recording. Each model was tested on the remaining audio signals to estimate flow profile. The average estimation error was found to be 10.5±0.3% for estimating flow profile from audio signals. Inhalation flow profile parameters (PIFR, IC and IRT) could then be measured from the estimated flow profile with high accuracy giving information on user inhalation technique. This method may assist in improving patient inhaler adherence and overall disease control. (Author)

  16. A generic multistage compartmental model for interpreting gas production profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, S.; Dijkstra, J.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; France, J.


    The gas production technique has become a key tool in feed evaluation and rumen fermentation studies. The value of the technique relies on modelling experimental data to obtain estimates of rumen degradation parameters. One of the first models used to describe gas production profiles was the simple

  17. Obtaining evapotranspiration and surface energy fluxes with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land), a remote sensing based evapotranspiration model, has been applied with Landsat ETM+ sensor for the estimation of actual ... The land uses in this study area consists of irrigated agriculture, rain-fed agriculture and livestock grazing. The obtained results ...

  18. Similarities and Improvements of GPM Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) upon TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) in Global Precipitation Rate Estimation, Type Classification and Vertical Profiling


    Jinyu Gao; Guoqiang Tang; Yang Hong


    Spaceborne precipitation radars are powerful tools used to acquire adequate and high-quality precipitation estimates with high spatial resolution for a variety of applications in hydrological research. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, which deployed the first spaceborne Ka- and Ku-dual frequency radar (DPR), was launched in February 2014 as the upgraded successor of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). This study matches the swath data of TRMM PR and GPM DPR Leve...

  19. Raman lidar water vapor profiling over Warsaw, Poland (United States)

    Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Althausen, Dietrich


    Water vapor mixing ratio and relative humidity profiles were derived from the multi-wavelength Raman PollyXT lidar at the EARLINET site in Warsaw, using the Rayleigh molecular extinction calculation based on atmospheric temperature and pressure from three different sources: i) the standard atmosphere US 62, ii) the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) model output, and iii) the WMO 12374 radiosoundings launched at Legionowo. With each method, 136 midnight relative humidity profiles were obtained for lidar observations from July 2013 to August 2015. Comparisons of these profiles showed in favor of the latter method (iii), but it also indicated that the other two data sources could replace it, if necessary. Such use was demonstrated for an automated retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio from dusk until dawn on 19/20 March 2015; a case study related to an advection of biomass burning aerosol from forest fires over Ukraine. Additionally, an algorithm that applies thresholds to the radiosounding relative humidity profiles to estimate macro-physical cloud vertical structure was used for the first time on the Raman lidar relative humidity profiles. The results, based on a subset of 66 profiles, indicate that below 6 km cloud bases/tops can be successfully obtained in 53% and 76% cases from lidar and radiosounding profiles, respectively. Finally, a contribution of the lidar derived mean relative humidity to cloudy conditions within the range of 0.8 to 6.2 km, in comparison to clear-sky conditions, was estimated.

  20. Estimation of Leakage Potential of Selected Sites in Interstate and Tri-State Canals Using Geostatistical Analysis of Selected Capacitively Coupled Resistivity Profiles, Western Nebraska, 2004 (United States)

    Vrabel, Joseph; Teeple, Andrew; Kress, Wade H.


    With increasing demands for reliable water supplies and availability estimates, groundwater flow models often are developed to enhance understanding of surface-water and groundwater systems. Specific hydraulic variables must be known or calibrated for the groundwater-flow model to accurately simulate current or future conditions. Surface geophysical surveys, along with selected test-hole information, can provide an integrated framework for quantifying hydrogeologic conditions within a defined area. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, performed a surface geophysical survey using a capacitively coupled resistivity technique to map the lithology within the top 8 meters of the near-surface for 110 kilometers of the Interstate and Tri-State Canals in western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming. Assuming that leakage between the surface-water and groundwater systems is affected primarily by the sediment directly underlying the canal bed, leakage potential was estimated from the simple vertical mean of inverse-model resistivity values for depth levels with geometrically increasing layer thickness with depth which resulted in mean-resistivity values biased towards the surface. This method generally produced reliable results, but an improved analysis method was needed to account for situations where confining units, composed of less permeable material, underlie units with greater permeability. In this report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, the authors use geostatistical analysis to develop the minimum-unadjusted method to compute a relative leakage potential based on the minimum resistivity value in a vertical column of the resistivity model. The minimum-unadjusted method considers the effects of homogeneous confining units. The minimum-adjusted method also is developed to incorporate the effect of local lithologic heterogeneity on water

  1. Estimation of CO2 stripping/CO2 microalgae consumption ratios in a bubble column photobioreactor using the analysis of the pH profiles. Application to Nannochloropsis oculata microalgae culture. (United States)

    Valdés, F J; Hernández, M R; Catalá, L; Marcilla, A


    Nannochloropsis oculata was grown in an outdoor bubble column photobioreactor. To obtain information about the behaviour of microalgae/photobioreactor system related to the CO(2) net balance, an analysis of the pH profiles during microalgae growth was carried out. The use of the carbonate equilibrium chemistry and the overall CO(2) volumetric mass transfer in the photobioreactor has permitted to obtain information of the CO(2) losses/CO(2) microalgae consumption ratios. The simplicity of the technique used (a pH probe) could extend the use of this methodology for the correct selection of the photobioreactor/microalgae parameters with the aim to maximize the [CO(2) uptaken/(CO(2) uptaken+CO(2) stripped)] ratios. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of ruminal and intestinal digestion profiles, hourly effective degradation ratio and potential N to energy synchronization of co-products from bioethanol processing. (United States)

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G; Yu, Peiqiang


    Little research has been conducted to determine the magnitude of the differences in nutritive value among wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS), corn DDGS and blend DDGS, or between different bioethanol plants. The objectives of this study were to compare different types of DDGS and different bioethanol plants in terms of: (1) rumen degradation kinetics profile of each DDGS component and rumen availability; (2) intestinal digestion profile of rumen undegraded protein; (3) hourly effective rumen degradation ratio and potential N-to-energy synchronization; (4) the role of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen in the determination of nutrient availability of DDGS. In addition, these parameters were compared in DDGS as opposed to parental grain. (1) The effective degradability of dry matter in DDGS samples increased as the content of feedstock wheat increased. DDGS are a good source of rumen-undegradable protein. The protein content of DDGS derived from wheat is higher relative to that derived from corn; however, the undegradability of the protein fraction increases as the proportion of corn in the feedstock augments. (2) In addition, DDGS provide significant amounts of rumen-degradable protein, which increased as the content of wheat in the feedstock increased. This indicates a potential loss of N when high levels of DDGS are included in the diet. (3) Acid detergent insoluble crude protein (ADICP) levels were low across DDGS samples, revealing no effect on ruminal and intestinal disappearance of protein. However, consideration should be given to the numerical differences in digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein and the relation to ADICP content. (4) Further research with a higher number of samples and higher variability in the ADICP content should be undertaken to investigate the effect of ADICP on rumen and intestinal disappearance of DDGS protein. The digestive characteristics of each DDGS component (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and

  3. Estimated age and gender profile of individuals missed by a home-based HIV testing and counselling campaign in a Botswana community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Novitsky


    Full Text Available Introduction: It would be useful to understand which populations are not reached by home-based HIV-1 testing and counselling (HTC to improve strategies aimed at linking these individuals to care and reducing rates of onward HIV transmission. Methods: We present the results of a baseline home-based HTC (HBHTC campaign aimed at counselling and testing residents aged 16 to 64 for HIV in the north-eastern sector of Mochudi, a community in Botswana with about 44,000 inhabitants. Collected data were compared with population references for Botswana, the United Nations (UN estimates based on the National Census data and the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey IV (BAIS-IV. Analyzed data and references were stratified by age and gender. Results: A total of 6238 age-eligible residents were tested for HIV-1; 1247 (20.0%; 95% CI 19.0 to 21.0% were found to be HIV positive (23.7% of women vs. 13.4% of men. HIV-1 prevalence peaked at 44% in 35- to 39-year-old women and 32% in 40- to 44-year-old men. A lower HIV prevalence rate, 10.9% (95% CI 9.5 to 12.5%, was found among individuals tested for the first time. A significant gender gap was evident in all analyzed subsets. The existing HIV transmission network was analyzed by combining phylogenetic mapping and household structure. Between 62.4 and 71.8% of all HIV-positive individuals had detectable virus. When compared with the UN and BAIS-IV estimates, the proportion of men missed by the testing campaign (48.5%; 95% CI 47.0 to 50.0% was significantly higher than the proportion of missed women (14.2%; 95% CI 13.2 to 15.3%; p<0.0001. The estimated proportion of missed men peaked at about 60% in the age group 30 to 39 years old. The proportions of missed women were substantially smaller, at approximately 28% within the age groups 30 to 34 and 45 to 49 years old. Conclusions: The HBHTC campaign seems to be an efficient tool for reaching individuals who have never been tested previously in southern African communities

  4. Similarities and Improvements of GPM Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR upon TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR in Global Precipitation Rate Estimation, Type Classification and Vertical Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Gao


    Full Text Available Spaceborne precipitation radars are powerful tools used to acquire adequate and high-quality precipitation estimates with high spatial resolution for a variety of applications in hydrological research. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM mission, which deployed the first spaceborne Ka- and Ku-dual frequency radar (DPR, was launched in February 2014 as the upgraded successor of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM. This study matches the swath data of TRMM PR and GPM DPR Level 2 products during their overlapping periods at the global scale to investigate their similarities and DPR’s improvements concerning precipitation amount estimation and type classification of GPM DPR over TRMM PR. Results show that PR and DPR agree very well with each other in the global distribution of precipitation, while DPR improves the detectability of precipitation events significantly, particularly for light precipitation. The occurrences of total precipitation and the light precipitation (rain rates < 1 mm/h detected by GPM DPR are ~1.7 and ~2.53 times more than that of PR. With regard to type classification, the dual-frequency (Ka/Ku and single frequency (Ku methods performed similarly. In both inner (the central 25 beams and outer swaths (1–12 beams and 38–49 beams of DPR, the results are consistent. GPM DPR improves precipitation type classification remarkably, reducing the misclassification of clouds and noise signals as precipitation type “other” from 10.14% of TRMM PR to 0.5%. Generally, GPM DPR exhibits the same type division for around 82.89% (71.02% of stratiform (convective precipitation events recognized by TRMM PR. With regard to the freezing level height and bright band (BB height, both radars correspond with each other very well, contributing to the consistency in stratiform precipitation classification. Both heights show clear latitudinal dependence. Results in this study shall contribute to future development of spaceborne

  5. A rapid anion-exchange chromatography for measurement of cholesterol concentrations in five lipoprotein classes and estimation of lipoprotein profiles in male volunteers without overt diseases. (United States)

    Manita, Daisuke; Hirowatari, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi


    Analysis of lipoprotein profile gives important clinical information for lipid-lowering therapy which prevents atherosclerotic diseases. The lipoprotein classes can be isolated from serum with ultracentrifugation, which inevitably consumes a long time and needs large serum volume. We have established a method with anion-exchange chromatography with 1.0 µL of the injected volume in 5.2 min for assay of one sample. One-hundred-forty-one male volunteers without overt diseases were divided three groups (Group 1, non-dyslipidemia with LDL-cholesterol [LDL-C] cholesterol (HDL-C) ≥40 mg/dL; Group 2, borderline dyslipidemia with 120 ≤ LDL-C cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and other fraction (chylomicron + lipoprotein [a])-cholesterol (other-C). The within-day and between-day assay coefficients of variation of lipoprotein cholesterol values were 0.33-4.31% and 2.37-9.19%, respectively. The correlation coefficients between values of HDL-C, LDL-C, IDL-C and VLDL-C by the anion-exchange chromatography and those by ultracentrifugal method were 0.97, 0.92, 0.58 and 0.94, respectively. Group 3 had significantly lower HDL-C and higher concentrations of IDL-C, VLDL-C and other-C than did Group 1. Group 2, borderline dyslipidemia, had significantly higher concentrations of IDL-C and VLDL-C than did Group 1. The rapid anion-exchange chromatography assay may be sufficiently applied to the assessment of borderline dyslipidemia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Determination and estimation of pharmacokinetic profile of caffeine in form of extract of green tea leaves and its analogy with synthetic form. (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Sangeetha; Manjunatha, N; Vijayan, R; Khatwal, R B; Samanta, M K


    The aim of the study was to formulate and investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters for the tablets of herbal extract of caffeine with comparison to synthetic formulation. The tablets of the aqueous herbal extract of leaves of Camellia sinensis and synthetic caffeine were formulated by wet granulation technique. The HPLC and HPTLC were applied as analytical tools for estimation of caffeine. The batches of formulation (B1 to B7) were subjected for various pre and post-formulation studies. The pharmacokinetic of the batch B5 was assessed in rabbits, and the results were compared to synthetic batch B7. With the suitable pre and post-formulation results, the B5 showed in vitro release of 90.54% of caffeine at the end of 60 min. The release followed first order kinetics and the plot of Higuchi and Peppas confirms anomalous diffusion as the basic mechanism behind the release. B5 revealed non-significant mean C(max), t(1/2), and AUC of 1.88 μg/ml, 5.52 h and 9.67 μg.h/ml respectively compared to B7. The study highlights; no significant difference in the pharmacological effect of caffeine when administered in the form of extract. The administration of herbal extract can further provide the other health benefits lacked by synthetic caffeine.

  7. Method for obtaining Chromosomes Method for obtaining Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogart James P.


    Full Text Available It is very easy to obtain chromosomes from anuran amphibians.Amphibians have very large chromosomes which can easily be seen with an ordinary microscope. The method used has been tested in the laboratory and also at collecting sites. All that is required are a few chemicals and simple equipment.It is very easy to obtain chromosomes from anuran amphibians.Amphibians have very large chromosomes which can easily be seen with an ordinary microscope. The method used has been tested in the laboratory and also at collecting sites. All that is required are a few chemicals and simple equipment.

  8. Estimating tail probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.B.; Tolley, H.D.


    This paper investigates procedures for univariate nonparametric estimation of tail probabilities. Extrapolated values for tail probabilities beyond the data are also obtained based on the shape of the density in the tail. Several estimators which use exponential weighting are described. These are compared in a Monte Carlo study to nonweighted estimators, to the empirical cdf, to an integrated kernel, to a Fourier series estimate, to a penalized likelihood estimate and a maximum likelihood estimate. Selected weighted estimators are shown to compare favorably to many of these standard estimators for the sampling distributions investigated.

  9. Data Profiling


    Hladíková, Radka


    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    selectivity is the ratio of the rate constant of the reaction of carbocation with an externally added nucleophile, (nu, aniline) to that of the rate constant of the water. Our intention was to obtain a carbocation with high selectivity, so that one can pave a path for the synthesis of Schiff's base by the reaction of the carbocation ...

  11. Symptom profiles of subsyndromal depression in disease clusters of diabetes, excess weight, and progressive cerebrovascular conditions: a promising new type of finding from a reliable innovation to estimate exhaustively specified multiple indicators–multiple causes (MIMIC models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB


    Full Text Available Richard B Francoeur School of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Abstract: Addressing subsyndromal depression in cerebrovascular conditions, diabetes, and obesity reduces morbidity and risk of major depression. However, depression may be masked because self-reported symptoms may not reveal dysphoric (sad mood. In this study, the first wave (2,812 elders from the New Haven Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (EPESE was used. These population-weighted data combined a stratified, systematic, clustered random sample from independent residences and a census of senior housing. Physical conditions included progressive cerebrovascular disease (CVD; hypertension, silent CVD, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment [VCI] and co-occurring excess weight and/or diabetes. These conditions and interactions (clusters simultaneously predicted 20 depression items and a latent trait of depression in participants with subsyndromal (including subthreshold depression (11≤ Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score ≤27. The option for maximum likelihood estimation with standard errors that are robust to non-normality and non-independence in complex random samples (MLR in Mplus and an innovation created by the author were used for estimating unbiased effects from latent trait models with exhaustive specification. Symptom profiles reveal masked depression in 1 older males, related to the metabolic syndrome (hypertension–overweight–diabetes; silent CVD–overweight; and silent CVD–diabetes and 2 older females or the full sample, related to several diabetes and/or overweight clusters that involve stroke or VCI. Several other disease clusters are equivocal regarding masked depression; a couple do emphasize dysphoric mood. Replicating findings could identify subgroups for cost-effective screening of subsyndromal depression. Keywords: depression, diabetes, overweight, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, metabolic

  12. Wavelet based methods for improved wind profiler signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehmann


    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply wavelet thresholding for removing automatically ground and intermittent clutter (airplane echoes from wind profiler radar data. Using the concept of discrete multi-resolution analysis and non-parametric estimation theory, we develop wavelet domain thresholding rules, which allow us to identify the coefficients relevant for clutter and to suppress them in order to obtain filtered reconstructions.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing; signal processing

  13. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M


    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  14. [Drug consumption in diabetes mellitus (I). Estimate of the therapeutic profile and the prevalence in the regions of Tarragona (548,900 inhabitants). Grup per a l'Estudi de la Diabetis a Tarragona]. (United States)

    Costa, B; Utgés, P; Monclús, J F; Gomis, T; Ciurana, M R; Julve, P


    This study was carried out to estimate the treatment characteristics and prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosed in the counties of Tarragona (548,900 inhabitants) from the consumption of hypoglycemic medication. A stratified aleatory sample was made of the prescription of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) and insulin (INS) in 14 centers of primary health care. Calculation of pharmacy dispensing and prescriptions (computer network of the Institut Català de la Salut) was carried out with a relation of the mean doses of the survey and the estimate of the consumer population being made. A contrast was made of the system with the daily doses defined (DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day) of the different OHA and INS preparations. Following aleatorization a representative sample of 550 diabetics, 64 (11.6%) type I and 486 (88.4%) type II was obtained. In total, 61 were treated with diet alone (IC 95%; 8-13%, p less than 0.05); 249 (41-49%) with OHA (51% of type II) and 240 (39-47%) received insulin, all the type I and 176 (36%) type II. In 23 cases (2-5%) multiple therapy with different drugs was confirmed and 72 (10-15%) were treated with the maximal doses of OHA recommended. The rate of OHA/INS was 2.02-2.05. The prevalence of pharmaco-treated DM was 1.9% (prescriptions of public health) and 2.1-2.3% (total consumption). The method for DDD was evaluated as between 1.8% (prescriptions) and 2.0% (total consumption). Globally, during 1990 the prevalence of DM diagnosed in Tarragona was estimated as between 2.1-2.5%. The estimation of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus indicated higher numbers than those obtained in other studies providing a first line indicator for the planning of care for diabetics in this demarcation. The study also identified the real therapeutic tendencies permitting the extraction of lines of action for the education of diabetics and the formation of professionals attending these patients.

  15. Steel Energy and Environmental Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Major steelmaking processes (from ironmaking through fabrication and forming) and their associated energy requirements have been profiled in this 2001 report (PDF 582 KB). This profile by Energetics, Inc. also describes the waste streams generated by each process and estimates annual emissions of CO2 and criteria pollutants.

  16. TES/Aura L2 Summary Profiles V004 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric vertical profile estimates, along with retrieved surface temperature, cloud effective optical depth, column estimates, quality flags, and a priori...

  17. TES/Aura L2 Summary Profiles V007 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric vertical profile estimates, along with retrieved surface temperature, cloud effective optical depth, column estimates, quality flags, and a priori...

  18. TES/Aura L2 Summary Profiles V003 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric vertical profile estimates, along with retrieved surface temperature, cloud effective optical depth, column estimates, quality flags, and a priori...

  19. TES/Aura L2 Summary Profiles V005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric vertical profile estimates, along with retrieved surface temperature, cloud effective optical depth, column estimates, quality flags, and a priori...

  20. TES/Aura L2 Summary Profiles V006 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric vertical profile estimates, along with retrieved surface temperature, cloud effective optical depth, column estimates, quality flags, and a priori...

  1. Program analysis and presentation of results of the profiles and depth dose rates obtained with the PTW software MC{sub 2} MEPHYSTO; Programa de analisis y presentacion de resultados de los perfiles y porcentajes de dosis en profundidad adquiridos con el software MEPHYSTO MC2 de PTW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tato de la Cuevas, F.


    In the periodic quality control of linear accelerators is usually included acquisition and analysis of profiles and PDDs (percentage depth dose). In the protocol of Quality Control of electron accelerators for clinical use of the proposed analysis SEFM 4 Profiles for each of the energies used clinically. This involves a large number of curves to be analyzed and the subsequent introduction of the parameters in a spreadsheet or similar for your assessment as to the reference state. We have developed a program that analyzes the curves acquired by mcc Mephysto PTW software and presents the results of that analysis in a spreadsheet.

  2. Diagnosis of hydrometeor profiles from area-mean vertical-velocity data (United States)

    Braun, Scott A.; Houze, Robert A., Jr.


    A simple one-dimensional microphysical retrieval model is developed for estimating vertical profiles of liquid and frozen hydrometeor mixing ratios from observed vertical profiles of area-mean vertical velocity in regions of convective and/or stratiform precipitation. The mean vertical-velocity profiles can be obtained from Doppler radar (single and dual) or other means. The one-dimensional results are shown to be in good agreement with two-dimensional microphysical fields from a previous study. Sensitivity tests are performed.

  3. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida


    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  4. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of MAST using a ball pen probe

    CERN Document Server

    Walkden, N R; Allan, S; Dudson, B D; Elmore, S; Fishpool, G; Harrison, J; Kirk, A; Komm, M


    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ~1kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estim...

  5. Obtaining Crosswind from Single-Aperture Optical Scintillometers (United States)

    van Dinther, D.; Hartogensis, O. K.


    A scintillometer is a device that consist of a transmitter and receiver. The receiver records intensity fluctuations of the electromagnetic beam emitted at optical or microwave wavelengths by the transmitter. These fluctuations are caused by refraction of the beam upon its passage through the turbulent surface layer. An increasingly popular application of scintillometry is to estimate the area-averaged surface fluxes from these raw measurements following scintillometer theory (Tatarskii, 1961) relating the raw intensity measurements to the structure parameter of the refractive index, Cn2 and Monin-Obukhov similarity theory that relates structure parameters to surface fluxes (Meijninger et al., 2002). A less known application of scintillometry is the estimation of the crosswind, i.e. the wind perpendicular to the scintillometer path. Past research on this issue focused on multiple aperture scintillometers that use the time delay between the turbulence signals of the displaced apertures to estimate the crosswind (Andreas, 2000, Poggio et al., 2000 and Furger et al., 2001,). The goal of this study is to explore a method to obtain the crosswind from single aperture scintillometers through spectral analysis of the raw scintillometer signal. In theory the scintillometer spectrum shows an inflection at the transition of the refractive and absorption part of the spectrum. The transition frequency (fC2) is related to the ratio of the crosswind and the diameter of the receiver and transmitter (Nieveen et al., 1998) via fc2 = -u-- 1.25D where u is the crosswind speed and D the diameter of the scintillometer. Limitation of the method is that it only works properly when the crosswind is constant, i.e. with a horizontal scintillometer path, no time variation and no spatial variations of the crosswind. The prescribed method to obtain the crosswind is examined with LITFASS-2009 (Germany) and Haarweg (The Netherlands) datasets. At LITFASS-2009 different optical and microwave

  6. Estimating of higher order velocity moments and their derivatives in boundary layer by Smoke Image Velocimetry (United States)

    Mikheev, N. I.; Goltsman, A. E.; Salekhova, I. G.; Saushin, I. I.


    The results of an experimental evaluation of the third-order moments profiles of velocity fluctuations and their partial derivatives in a zero pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer are presented. Profiles of characteristics are estimated on the basis of the dynamics of two-component instantaneous velocity vector fields measured by the optical method Smoke Image Velocimetry (SIV). Comparison SIV-measurements with the results of measurements by a thermoanemometer and DNS data with similar Reθ and Reτ showed good agreement between the profiles of +, +, ∂+/∂y+ и ∂+/∂y+ obtained by SIV and DNS.

  7. Biophysical Profile (United States)

    ... and pregnancy High-risk pregnancy Biophysical profile About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  8. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian


    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  9. Estimating plant water uptake source depths with optimized stable water isotope labeling (United States)

    Seeger, Stefan; Weiler, Markus


    Depth profiles of pore water stable isotopes in soils in conjunction with measurements of stable water isotopes (SWI) in plant transpiration allow the estimation of the contributions of different soil depths to plant water uptake (PWU).
 However, SWI depth profiles that result from the variations of SWI in natural precipitation may lead to highly ambiguous results, i.e. the same SWI signature in transpiration could result from different PWU patterns or SWI depth profiles. The aim of this study was to find an optimal stable water isotope depth profile to estimate plant water uptake patterns and to compare different PWU source depth estimation methods. We used a new soil water transport model including fractionation effects of SWI and exchange between the vapor and liquid phase to simulate different irrigation scenarios. Different amounts of water with differing SWI signatures (glacier melt water, summer precipitation water, deuterated water) were applied in order to obtain a wide variety of SWI depth profiles. Based on these simulated SWI depth profiles and a set of hypothetical PWU patterns, the theoretical SWI signatures of the respective plant transpiration were computed. In the next step, two methods - Bayesian isotope mixing models (BIMs) and optimization of a parametric distribution function (beta function) - were used to estimate the PWU patterns from the different SWI depth profiles and their respective SWI signatures in the resulting transpiration. Eventually, the estimated and computed profiles were compared to find the best SWI depth profile and the best method. The results showed, that compared to naturally occurring SWI depth profiles, the application of multiple, in terms of SWI, distinct labeling pulses greatly improves the possible spatial resolution and at the same time reduces the uncertainty of PWU estimates.
 For the PWU patterns which were assumed for this study, PWU pattern estimates based on an optimized parametric distribution function

  10. Analysis of uncertainties, associated to the calculating hypothesis, in discharge tables for high flows estimating, based on mathematics models for calculating water surface profiles fore steady gradually varied flow; Analisis de las incertidumbres, asociadas a las hipotesis de calculo, en la estimacion de curvas de gasto para crcidas, basada en el empleo de modelo matematico de calculo hidraulico en regimen permanente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldana Valverde, A. L.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, J. C.


    In this paper are analyzed some of the most important factors which can influence on the results of calculating water surface profiles for steady gradually varied flow. In this case, the objective of this kind of modeling, has been the estimation of discharges tables for high flows of river station gages connected to the hydrologic automatic information system (SAIH) of the Confederacion Hidrografica del Sur de Espana, system named red Hidrosur. (Author) 3 refs

  11. Fellow Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1971 Section: Chemistry. Narasimhan, Prof. Palliakaranai Thirumalai Ph.D. (Madras), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 28 July 1928. Date of death: 3 May 2013. Specialization: Theoretical Chemistry and Magnetic Resonance Last known address: 1013, Lupine Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, USA. YouTube ...

  12. A New Maximum Likelihood Approach for Free Energy Profile Construction from Molecular Simulations. (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Sung; Radak, Brian K; Pabis, Anna; York, Darrin M


    A novel variational method for construction of free energy profiles from molecular simulation data is presented. The variational free energy profile (VFEP) method uses the maximum likelihood principle applied to the global free energy profile based on the entire set of simulation data ( e.g from multiple biased simulations) that spans the free energy surface. The new method addresses common obstacles in two major problems usually observed in traditional methods for estimating free energy surfaces: the need for overlap in the re-weighting procedure and the problem of data representation. Test cases demonstrate that VFEP outperforms other methods in terms of the amount and sparsity of the data needed to construct the overall free energy profiles. For typical chemical reactions, only ~5 windows and ~20-35 independent data points per window are sufficient to obtain an overall qualitatively correct free energy profile with sampling errors an order of magnitude smaller than the free energy barrier. The proposed approach thus provides a feasible mechanism to quickly construct the global free energy profile and identify free energy barriers and basins in free energy simulations via a robust, variational procedure that determines an analytic representation of the free energy profile without the requirement of numerically unstable histograms or binning procedures. It can serve as a new framework for biased simulations and is suitable to be used together with other methods to tackle with the free energy estimation problem.

  13. Comparação das informações sobre as prevalências de doenças crônicas obtidas pelo suplemento saúde da PNAD/98 e as estimadas pelo estudo Carga de Doença no Brasil Comparison of the information on prevalences of chronic diseases obtained by the health suplement of PNAD/98 and the estimated ones by the study Burden of Disease in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iúri da Costa Leite


    Full Text Available Neste estudo, estimativas de prevalência de cinco doenças crônicas ­ cirrose, depressão, diabetes, insuficiência renal crônica e tuberculose ­ obtidas pelo Suplemento Saúde da PNAD/98 foram comparadas com as obtidas no Projeto Carga Global de Doença no Brasil. Essas estimativas foram baseadas em análise sistemática de literatura e banco de dados de morbidade disponíveis. Os resultados mostram que a PNAD apresentou número de casos mais elevados para depressão e insuficiência renal crônica, enquanto as estimativas do Projeto Carga de Doença no Brasil apresentou maiores prevalências para cirrose, diabetes e tuberculose.In this study, prevalence estimates of five chronic disease cirrhosis, depression, diabetes, chronic rhenal insufficiency and tuberculosis based on the 1998 PNAD Health Supplement were compared to those obtained by the Brazilian Global Burden of Disease Project. These estimates were based on systematic literature review as well as on available data set of morbidities. The results show that PNAD presented higher number of cases for depression and Chronic rhenal insufficiency while the prevalence rates estimated by Brazilian Global Burden of Disease Project were higher for cirrhosis, diabetes and tuberculosis.

  14. Propargyl Recombination: Estimation of the High Temperature, Low Pressure Rate Constant from Flame Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Lund; Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Jensen, Anker


    The most important cyclization reaction in hydrocarbon flames is probably recombination of propargyl radicals. This reaction may, depending on reaction conditions, form benzene, phenyl or fulvene, as well as a range of linear products. A number of rate measurements have been reported for C3H3 + C3H......3 at temperatures below 1000 K, while data at high temperature and low pressure only can be obtained from flames. In the present work, an estimate of the rate constant for the reaction at 1400 +/- 50 K and 20 Torr is obtained from analysis of the fuel-rich acetylene flame of Westmoreland, Howard......, and Longwell. Based on an accurate modeling of the flame structure, in particular the concentration profile of propargyl, we estimate the rate constant by fitting the kinetic modeling predictions to the measured benzene and phenyl profiles. The best agreement is obtained with k = 1.3 x 10(12) cm(3)/mol...

  15. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven A. [Curtiss-Wright/Scietech, Ketchum, ID (United States); Cadwallader, Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  16. Estimation of metal temperature of MCrAlY coated IN738 components based on interdiffusion behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John


    fraction diagrams show that a precipitate free zone forms between the coating and superalloy and grows with time. The width of the growing zone was estimated on the basis of average intensity profiles obtained from experimental x-ray maps measured using energy dispersive spectroscopy in a scanning electron....... The developed model was used to estimate metal temperatures for a service exposed, first stage gas turbine blade....

  17. The Impact of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles on Short-term Weather Forecasts (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William


    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced spacebased atmospheric sounding systems. The combined AlRS/AMSU system provides radiance measurements used to retrieve temperature profiles with an accuracy of 1 K over 1 km layers under both clear and partly cloudy conditions, while the accuracy of the derived humidity profiles is 15% in 2 km layers. Critical to the successful use of AIRS profiles for weather and climate studies is the use of profile quality indicators and error estimates provided with each profile Aside form monitoring changes in Earth's climate, one of the objectives of AIRS is to provide sounding information of sufficient accuracy such that the assimilation of the new observations, especially in data sparse region, will lead to an improvement in weather forecasts. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate highresolution AIRS profile data in a regional analysis/forecast model. The paper will focus on the impact of AIRS profiles on a rapidly developing east coast storm and will also discuss preliminary results for a 30-day forecast period, simulating a quasi-operation environment. Temperature and moisture profiles were obtained from the prototype version 5.0 EOS science team retrieval algorithm which includes explicit error information for each profile. The error profile information was used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture data for every profile location and pressure level for assimilation into the ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS). The AIRS-enhanced analyses were used as initial fields for the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) system used by the SPORT project for regional weather forecast studies. The ADASWRF system will be run on CONUS domain with an emphasis on the east coast. The preliminary assessment of the impact of the AIRS profiles will focus on quality control issues associated with AIRS

  18. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Estrada Espinosa


    Full Text Available In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel’s size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel’s size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo.

  19. Dosimetric algorithm to reproduce isodose curves obtained from a LINAC. (United States)

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian


    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo.

  20. Study of Profile Changes during Mechanical Polishing using Relocation Profilometry (United States)

    Kumaran, S. Chidambara; Shunmugam, M. S.


    Mechanical polishing is a finishing process practiced conventionally to enhance quality of surface. Surface finish is improved by mechanical cutting action of abrasive particles on work surface. Polishing is complex in nature and research efforts have been focused on understanding the polishing mechanism. Study of changes in profile is a useful method of understanding behavior of the polishing process. Such a study requires tracing same profile at regular process intervals, which is a tedious job. An innovative relocation technique is followed in the present work to study profile changes during mechanical polishing of austenitic stainless steel specimen. Using special locating fixture, micro-indentation mark and cross-correlation technique, the same profile is traced at certain process intervals. Comparison of different parameters of profiles shows the manner in which metal removal takes place in the polishing process. Mass removal during process estimated by the same relocation technique is checked with that obtained using weight measurement. The proposed approach can be extended to other micro/nano finishing processes and favorable process conditions can be identified.

  1. MPI Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D K; Jones, T R


    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the de facto message-passing standard for massively parallel programs. It is often the case that application performance is a crucial factor, especially for solving grand challenge problems. While there have been many studies on the scalability of applications, there have not been many focusing on the specific types of MPI calls being made and their impact on application performance. Using a profiling tool called mpiP, a large spectrum of parallel scientific applications were surveyed and their performance results analyzed.


    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Brazil and Mozambique are experiencing growing rates of urbanization. In 2010, 87% of Brazil's population was living in urban centres; it is estimated that number will rise to 94% by. 2050. In Mozambique, 38% of the population is urban and it is predicted that this will reach 50% by 2025. In Rio de Janeiro.

  3. Mineral profile of Spanish commercial baby food. (United States)

    Mir-Marqués, Alba; González-Masó, Anna; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel


    Commercial baby foods are an important part of the daily intake of babies from 6 to 12 months. The mineral profile of commercial baby foods in Spain was determined to establish levels of essential and non-essential elements, and their contribution to adequate intake (AI) and estimated average requirement (EAR). Thirty-five jars of commercial foods containing meat, fish, vegetables and fruit were obtained from the Spanish market and the mineral composition determined for 14 elements. In general, the baby foods analysed were sufficient for an adequate mineral intake, but contributions to AI and EAR for iron, zinc and calcium were very low (5-20%, 10-60% and 10-70%, respectively). This deficiency could be associated with growth problems or diseases in adulthood, and fortification of commercial products is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 15 CFR 285.15 - Obtaining documents. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining documents. 285.15 Section... VOLUNTARY LABORATORY ACCREDITATION PROGRAM § 285.15 Obtaining documents. (a) Application forms, NVLAP handbooks, and other NVLAP documents and information may be obtained by contacting the NVLAP, National...

  5. Soil Profiles and Seismic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janotka, V.


    Full Text Available The contribution estimates different geotechnical profiles of site condition change and their influences on the computed seismic response spectra and time histories final values and forms applying on the seismic structures loading. The mentioned problems methodics attitude solution is based on the computed seismic motion parameters.

  6. Lebanon: country profile. (United States)

    Marfleet, P


    A brief profile of Lebanon's economy, people, health, culture and political situation is presented. Lebanon has an estimated 3.5 million people, with a Maronite Christian elite, a Muslim Shiite majority, and Muslim Sunnis and Druze groups. The infant mortality is estimated at 41/1000; literacy is 69% among women and 86% among men; life expectancy was 66 years, 10 years ago. The economy, previously thriving on banking, manufacturing and agriculture, is now decimated, and Lebanon's once active tourist industry, based on elegant facilities in Beirut and neighboring beaches and ski slopes, is the victim of 15 years of civil strife. Israel has invaded, supporting Maronite Christians, Syria has invaded in support Muslim and Druze militias, and Iran has aggressively supported Shiite factions.

  7. Clustering Techniques in Load Profile Analysis for Distribution Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOBRIC, E. C.


    Full Text Available The demand characteristic is the most important one in analyzing customer information. In a distribution network, there is in any moment certain degree of uncertainty about busses loads, and consequently, about load level of network, busses voltage level, and power losses. Therefore, it is very important to estimate first of all the load profiles of buses, using available data (measurements effectuated in distribution stations. The results obtained for various distribution stations demonstrate the effectiveness of the present method in overcoming the difficulties encountered in optimal planning and operation of distribution networks.

  8. Improved observations of turbulence dissipation rates from wind profiling radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. McCaffrey


    Full Text Available Observations of turbulence dissipation rates in the planetary boundary layer are crucial for validation of parameterizations in numerical weather prediction models. However, because dissipation rates are difficult to obtain, they are infrequently measured through the depth of the boundary layer. For this reason, demonstrating the ability of commonly used wind profiling radars (WPRs to estimate this quantity would be greatly beneficial. During the XPIA field campaign at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, two WPRs operated in an optimized configuration, using high spectral resolution for increased accuracy of Doppler spectral width, specifically chosen to estimate turbulence from a vertically pointing beam. Multiple post-processing techniques, including different numbers of spectral averages and peak processing algorithms for calculating spectral moments, were evaluated to determine the most accurate procedures for estimating turbulence dissipation rates using the information contained in the Doppler spectral width, using sonic anemometers mounted on a 300 m tower for validation. The optimal settings were determined, producing a low bias, which was later corrected. Resulting estimations of turbulence dissipation rates correlated well (R2 = 0. 54 and 0. 41 with the sonic anemometers, and profiles up to 2 km from the 449 MHz WPR and 1 km from the 915 MHz WPR were observed.

  9. Inversion of oceanographic profiling lidars by a perturbation to a linear regression. (United States)

    Churnside, James H; Marchbanks, Richard D


    We present a simple, robust inversion for airborne oceanographic lidar profiles. A linear regression to the logarithm of the return is followed by a perturbation to obtain a backscatter estimate. For typical thin plankton layer examples, errors are expected to be applied to lidar data off the coast of Florida, where the correlation between lidar backscatter at 5 m and surface chlorophyll concentration from satellite ocean color measurements was 0.92.

  10. Uso de informações obtidas no transporte de madeira e no inventário florestal para estimar o volume em esteréos Information obtained from timber transportation and forest inventory for the estimation of volume in steres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Carlos Lima de Andrade


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver uma metodologia para estimação do volume em estéreos sem uma amostragem prévia do empilhamento das toras. Os dados necessários são provenientes do inventário florestal e do transporte da madeira. Foi adotado o "método dos espaços vazios" para ilustrar o emprego das informações supracitadas. Foram utilizados dados de 91 parcelas de inventário pré-corte e de transporte do volume de um plantio de híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, com uma área de 243,1 ha. As equações geradas para estimar o volume em estéreos resultaram em um erro de -0,76% ou -2,34 st/ha para a equação advinda de deduções do método dos espaços vazios e de 4,54% ou 11,61 st/ha para a equação gerada com o emprego do modelo de taper de Demaerschalk. Estes resultados evidenciam que a metodologia apresentada gera resultados promissores, permitindo utilizar informações representativas da situação de uso da unidade estéreos.The objective of this work was to develop a methodology to estimate volume in steres (st without a previous log staking sampling. Data from a forest inventory and timber transportation were used. The "Empty Spaces Method" was adopted to illustrate the application of the information. Data on 91 plots of a pre-cut and transport inventory of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybride planting volume, with na area of 243.1 ha, were utilized. The equations generated to estimate the volume in steres resulted in an error of -0.76% or -2.34 st/ha, for the equation generated from the "empty spaces method" deductions and of 4.54% or 11.61 st/ha, for the equation generated from application the Demaerschalk taper model. These results indicate that this methodology generates promising results, allowing to apply representative information on the use of the steres unit.

  11. TES/Aura L2 Summary Profiles Special Observation V003 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric vertical profile estimates, along with retrieved surface temperature, cloud effective optical depth, column estimates, quality flags, and a priori...

  12. TES/Aura L2 Summary Profiles Special Observation V005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric vertical profile estimates, along with retrieved surface temperature, cloud effective optical depth, column estimates, quality flags, and a priori...

  13. TES/Aura L2 Summary Profiles Special Observation V007 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric vertical profile estimates, along with retrieved surface temperature, cloud effective optical depth, column estimates, quality flags, and a priori...

  14. TES/Aura L2 Summary Profiles Special Observation V006 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric vertical profile estimates, along with retrieved surface temperature, cloud effective optical depth, column estimates, quality flags, and a priori...

  15. Impact of the Road Profile on Vehicle Deceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Žuraulis


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the impact of the longitudinal road profile on the efficiency of car braking estimated applying deceleration value. Different formulas are used for theoretical calculations, and therefore experimental brakes in different road slopes were performed to obtain the most accurate results. Deceleration, as one of the most important safety parameters, depends on the technical condition of the braking system, road conditions and structural and dynamic properties of the other car. Road alignments can significantly affect car manageability, because of weight transfer and extra track resistance, which may change the overall balance of the car and affect the nature of dynamic characteristics that may vary from certain critical values. The results of corrections to deceleration dependence on the road profile can be used for investigating traffic accidents, optimizing traffic control arrangements and implementing advanced systems for automotive active safety.

  16. Absolute FKBP binding affinities obtained via nonequilibrium unbinding simulations. (United States)

    Ytreberg, F Marty


    We compute the absolute binding affinities for two ligands bound to the FKBP protein using nonequilibrium unbinding simulations. The methodology is straightforward requiring little or no modification to many modern molecular simulation packages. The approach makes use of a physical pathway, eliminating the need for complicated alchemical decoupling schemes. We compare our nonequilibrium results to those obtained via a fully equilibrium approach and to experiment. The results of this study suggest that to obtain accurate results using nonequilibrium approaches one should use the stiff-spring approximation with the second cumulant expansion. From this study we conclude that nonequilibrium simulation could provide a simple means to estimate protein-ligand binding affinities.

  17. Comparative studies on pectinases obtained from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies on pectinases obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger in submerged fermentation system using pectin extracted from mango, orange and pineapple peels as carbon sources.

  18. Small field depth dose profile of 6 MV photon beam in a simple air-water heterogeneity combination: A comparison between anisotropic analytical algorithm dose estimation with thermoluminescent dosimeter dose measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Mandal


    Conclusion: The trend of estimation error of AAA dose calculation algorithm with respect to measured value have been formulated throughout the radiation path length along the central axis of 6 MV photon beam in air-water heterogeneity combination for small field size photon beam generated from a 6 MV linear accelerator.

  19. Astrophysical Reaction Rates Obtained By Indirect Techniques (United States)

    Tribble, R. E.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Alharbi, A.; Äystö, J.; Banu, A.; Burjan, V.; Carstoiu, F.; Chen, X.; Clark, H. L.; Davidson, T.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Jokinen, J.; Kroha, V.; Lui, Y.-W.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Roeder, B.; Saastamoinen, A.; Simmons, E.; Tabacaru, G.; Tokimoto, Y.; Trache, L.; Woods, P. J.; Zhai, Y.


    Indirect techniques have been used to obtain information about reaction rates for several proton capture reactions that occur on short-lived nuclei. The techniques used to carry out the measurements are reviewed and the results obtained are presented. Also future prospects for further measurements with a new facility, T-REX are discussed.

  20. Transposon identification using profile HMMs (United States)


    Background Transposons are "jumping genes" that account for large quantities of repetitive content in genomes. They are known to affect transcriptional regulation in several different ways, and are implicated in many human diseases. Transposons are related to microRNAs and viruses, and many genes, pseudogenes, and gene promoters are derived from transposons or have origins in transposon-induced duplication. Modeling transposon-derived genomic content is difficult because they are poorly conserved. Profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs), widely used for protein sequence family modeling, are rarely used for modeling DNA sequence families. The algorithm commonly used to estimate the parameters of profile HMMs, Baum-Welch, is prone to prematurely converge to local optima. The DNA domain is especially problematic for the Baum-Welch algorithm, since it has only four letters as opposed to the twenty residues of the amino acid alphabet. Results We demonstrate with a simulation study and with an application to modeling the MIR family of transposons that two recently introduced methods, Conditional Baum-Welch and Dynamic Model Surgery, achieve better estimates of the parameters of profile HMMs across a range of conditions. Conclusions We argue that these new algorithms expand the range of potential applications of profile HMMs to many important DNA sequence family modeling problems, including that of searching for and modeling the virus-like transposons that are found in all known genomes. PMID:20158867

  1. Attitude Estimation or Quaternion Estimation? (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis


    The attitude of spacecraft is represented by a 3x3 orthogonal matrix with unity determinant, which belongs to the three-dimensional special orthogonal group SO(3). The fact that all three-parameter representations of SO(3) are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to the use of higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterizations, especially the four-component quaternion. In attitude estimation, we are faced with the alternatives of using an attitude representation that is either singular or redundant. Estimation procedures fall into three broad classes. The first estimates a three-dimensional representation of attitude deviations from a reference attitude parameterized by a higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterization. The deviations from the reference are assumed to be small enough to avoid any singularity or discontinuity of the three-dimensional parameterization. The second class, which estimates a higher-dimensional representation subject to enough constraints to leave only three degrees of freedom, is difficult to formulate and apply consistently. The third class estimates a representation of SO(3) with more than three dimensions, treating the parameters as independent. We refer to the most common member of this class as quaternion estimation, to contrast it with attitude estimation. We analyze the first and third of these approaches in the context of an extended Kalman filter with simplified kinematics and measurement models.

  2. Estimation of Ship Motions Using Closed-Form Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A.E.; Olsen, Anders Smærup


    A semi-analytical approach is used to derive frequency response functions for the wave-induced motions for monohull ships. The results are given as closed-form expressions and the required input information for the procedure is restricted to the main dimensions: Length, breadth, draught, block...... coefficient together with speed and heading. The formulas make it simple to obtain quick estimates of the wave-induced motions and accelerations in the conceptual design phase and to perform a sensitivity study of the variation with main dimensions and operational profile....

  3. Estimating Gear Teeth Stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    The estimation of gear stiffness is important for determining the load distribution between the gear teeth when two sets of teeth are in contact. Two factors have a major influence on the stiffness; firstly the boundary condition through the gear rim size included in the stiffness calculation...... and secondly the size of the contact. In the FE calculation the true gear tooth root profile is applied. The meshing stiffness’s of gears are highly non-linear, it is however found that the stiffness of an individual tooth can be expressed in a linear form assuming that the contact length is constant....

  4. Stereological estimation of the mean and variance of nuclear volume from vertical sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt


    size variability within benign and malignant nuclear populations can for all practical purposes be reduced to 2-D measurement of nuclear profile areas. These new powerful stereological estimators of nuclear volume and nuclear size variability provide an attractive approach to quantitative......The application of assumption-free, unbiased stereological techniques for estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vv, from vertical sections of benign and malignant nuclear aggregates in melanocytic skin tumours is described. Combining sampling of nuclei with uniform...... probability in a physical disector and Cavalieri's direct estimator of volume, the unbiased, number-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vN, of the same benign and malignant nuclear populations is also estimated. Having obtained estimates of nuclear volume in both the volume- and number distribution...

  5. Using the profile method for evaluationthe beer quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bocharova


    Full Text Available The expediency of using the profile method of analysis for assessing the influence of technological factors on the quality of beer has been established. The characteristics for the evaluation of beer quality by the profile method are chosen. The results obtained using the profile method give a more complete picture of the properties of beer than the results of the scoring method. Each of the samples was analyzed and studied. The results of analysis of such criteria as aroma, flavor, appearance and physicochemical parameters are demonstrated on profilograms. Estimation of flavor is the most difficult, since this concept includes a complex sensation of taste, aroma and consistency, determined in the oral cavity. To confirm the organoleptic properties of the «body» of the best sort of beer, rheological analysis data were presented. Such an integrated approach will allow fully studying the properties of a low-alcohol beverage and clearly demonstrating the advantages of a profile method of analysis.

  6. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T [Evergreen, CO; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie [Avondale, PA


    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  7. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services. (United States)


    ... non-profit entity that falls within one of the seven categories set forth in the definition of health... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider...

  8. Mass culture of photobacteria to obtain luciferase (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Rich, E., Jr.


    Inoculating preheated trays containing nutrient agar with photobacteria provides a means for mass culture of aerobic microorganisms in order to obtain large quantities of luciferase. To determine optimum harvest time, growth can be monitored by automated light-detection instrumentation.

  9. Estimations of gas flow maldistribution in packed-bed columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, T.; Darakchiev, R.; Semkov, K.; Darakchiev, S. [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    A review of research articles dealing with estimation of the rate of gas flow maldistribution in packed-bed columns is presented. The proposed relations for determination of the maldistribution factor are given along with the conditions at which they are obtained. It is shown that the indices of maldistribution are usually based on particular terms, i.e., variation coefficient, dispersion or standard deviation. However, they cannot be regarded as a single indicator of gas maldistribution if the gas flow irregularities are not homogeneously distributed over the cross-section. There is no unified methodology for measuring the gas flow velocity profile. Schemes for measuring the velocity profiles, as well as equations for calculating the maldistribution factor are recommended. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)


    Exposure to certain low molecular weight chemicals is associated with asthma. A simple method to identify this hazard is needed. Increased expression of Th2 cytokine mRNA in draining lymph nodes following dermal exposure and increased production of Th2 cytokines by cultured cell...

  11. The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila de Paula Pereira


    Full Text Available With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009. The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai, Orbignya martiana (Babaçu, Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu, Carapas guianensis (Andiroba, Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi, Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba, Platonia insignis (Bacuri, Theobroma cacao (Cacao, Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut. These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits. In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.

  12. The genetic profiles of two salmonid populations from Romania obtained through nuclear markers analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Nechifor


    Full Text Available The Salmonidae fish family is well represented in Romanian fauna, with a total of six species in the wild and reared in fish farms. Among them, the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario can be found in all major Romanian river basins. However, anthropogenic activities might disrupt salmonids’ habitats, so that inbreeding and genetic isolation might easily occur in the wild populations. We analyzed two wild brown trout populations from rivers targeted by anthropogenic activities, by using nuclear markers and genotyping in order to observe their genetic structure. We analyzed nine microsatellites and we observed their alleles frequencies, number of private alleles, observed and expected heterozygosity, as well as their population structure. The two populations are not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for most of the loci and the inbreeding coefficient for both populations suggests a heterozygote deficit. Further sequencing data are needed in order to have a better view upon their complete genetic structure.

  13. Polycrystalline silicon carbide dopant profiles obtained through a scanning nano-Schottky contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golt, M. C.; Strawhecker, K. E.; Bratcher, M. S. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, WMRD, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); Shanholtz, E. R. [ORISE, Belcamp, Maryland 21017 (United States)


    The unique thermo-electro-mechanical properties of polycrystalline silicon carbide (poly-SiC) make it a desirable candidate for structural and electronic materials for operation in extreme environments. Necessitated by the need to understand how processing additives influence poly-SiC structure and electrical properties, the distribution of lattice defects and impurities across a specimen of hot-pressed 6H poly-SiC processed with p-type additives was visualized with high spatial resolution using a conductive atomic force microscopy approach in which a contact forming a nano-Schottky interface is scanned across the sample. The results reveal very intricate structures within poly-SiC, with each grain having a complex core-rim structure. This complexity results from the influence the additives have on the evolution of the microstructure during processing. It was found that the highest conductivities localized at rims as well as at the interface between the rim and the core. The conductivity of the cores is less than the conductivity of the rims due to a lower concentration of dopant. Analysis of the observed conductivities and current-voltage curves is presented in the context of nano-Schottky contact regimes where the conventional understanding of charge transport to diode operation is no longer valid.

  14. Obtaining thickness profiles from the tomographic inversion of guided wave data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, J.G.P.; Luiten, E.A.; Volker, A.W.F.


    Guided wave tomography is a promising technique for the monitoring of corrosion over large areas. Guided waves have a wave speed mat depends in certain frequency-thickness regimes on the local thickness of the waveguide they follow. Therefore, the travel time of the guided wave over a fixed distance

  15. Embedding Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors to Obtain Online Pressure Profiles Inside Fiber Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kahali Moghaddam


    Full Text Available The production of large and complex parts using fiber composite materials is costly due to the frequent formation of voids, porosity and waste products. By embedding different types of sensors and monitoring the process in real time, the amount of wastage can be significantly reduced. This work focuses on developing a knowledge-based method to improve and ensure complete impregnation of the fibers before initiation of the resin cure. Piezoresistive and capacitive pressure sensors were embedded in fiber composite laminates to measure the real-time the pressure values inside the laminate. A change of pressure indicates resin infusion. The sensors were placed in the laminate and the resin was infused by vacuum. The embedded piezoresistive pressure sensors were able to track the vacuum pressure in the fiber composite laminate setup, as well as the arrival of the resin at the sensor. The pressure increase due to closing the resin inlet was also measured. In contrast, the capacitive type of sensor was found to be inappropriate for measuring these quantities. The following study demonstrates real-time monitoring of pressure changes inside the fiber composite laminate, which validate the use of Darcy’s law in porous media to control the resin flow during infusion.

  16. Type II diabetes patients in primary care : profiles of healthcare utilization obtained from observational data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C.E.; Hoekstra, T.; Verheij, R.A.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; et al, [No Value


    Background The high burden of diabetes for healthcare costs and their impact on quality of life and management of the disease have triggered the design and introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs) in many countries. The extent to which diabetes patients vary with regard to their

  17. Type II diabetes patients in primary care : Profiles of healthcare utilization obtained from observational data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C.E.; Hoekstra, T.; Verheij, R.A.; Twisk, J.W.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; de Bakker, D.H.


    Background The high burden of diabetes for healthcare costs and their impact on quality of life and management of the disease have triggered the design and introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs) in many countries. The extent to which diabetes patients vary with regard to their

  18. Molecular weight profiles of proanthocyanidin polymers (United States)

    Vincent M. Williams; Lawrence J. Porter; Richard W. Hemingway


    The MW profiles of proanthocyanidin polymers (condensed tannins) from 32 samples representing a wide range of plant tissues of many different species have been obtained by gel permeation chromatography of the peracetate derivatives. The tannins vary widely in MW, with M values for the peracetates in the range 1600-5500. The MW profiles vary greatly from those with...

  19. Proton Stopping Power of Different Density Profile Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Casas, David; Andreev, Alexander A; Schnürer, Matthias; Morales, Roberto


    In this work, the stopping power of a partially ionized plasma is analyzed by means of free electron stopping and bound electron stopping. For the first one, the RPA dielectric function is used, and for the latter one, an interpolation of high and low projectile velocity formulas is used. The dynamical energy loss of an ion beam inside a plasma is estimated by using an iterative scheme of calculation. The Abel inversion is also applied when we have a plasma with radial symmetry. Finally, we compare our methods with two kind of plasmas. In the first one, we estimate the energy loss in a plasma created by a laser prepulse, whose density is approximated by a piecewise function. For the latter one, a radial electron density is supposed and the stopping is obtained as function of radius from the calculated lateral points. In both cases, the dependence with the density profile is observed.

  20. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.


    an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  1. Profiling and Racial Profiling: An Interactive Exercise (United States)

    Semple, Philip


    Racial Profiling has been recognized as a serious problem that affects many segments of our society and is especially notable in law enforcement. Governments and police services have pronounced that racial profiling is not acceptable and will not be tolerated. They have gone to great lengths in trying to eradicate racial profiling through…

  2. System for estimating fatigue damage (United States)

    LeMonds, Jeffrey; Guzzo, Judith Ann; Liu, Shaopeng; Dani, Uttara Ashwin


    In one aspect, a system for estimating fatigue damage in a riser string is provided. The system includes a plurality of accelerometers which can be deployed along a riser string and a communications link to transmit accelerometer data from the plurality of accelerometers to one or more data processors in real time. With data from a limited number of accelerometers located at sensor locations, the system estimates an optimized current profile along the entire length of the riser including riser locations where no accelerometer is present. The optimized current profile is then used to estimate damage rates to individual riser components and to update a total accumulated damage to individual riser components. The number of sensor locations is small relative to the length of a deepwater riser string, and a riser string several miles long can be reliably monitored along its entire length by fewer than twenty sensor locations.

  3. Early estimates of SEER cancer incidence for 2012: Approaches, opportunities, and cautions for obtaining preliminary estimates of cancer incidence. (United States)

    Lewis, Denise Riedel; Chen, Huann-Sheng; Midthune, Douglas N; Cronin, Kathleen A; Krapcho, Martin F; Feuer, Eric J


    The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program collects and publishes population-based cancer incidence data from registries covering approximately 28% ( of the US population. SEER incidence rates are released annually in April from data submitted the prior November. The time needed to identify, consolidate, clean, and submit data requires the latest diagnosis year included to be 3 years before release. Approaches, opportunities, and cautions for an earlier release of data based on a February submission are described. First, cases submitted in February for the latest diagnosis year represented 92% to 98% of those in the following November submission. A reporting delay model was used to statistically adjust counts in recent diagnosis years for cases projected in the future. February submissions required larger adjustment factors than November submissions. Second, trends were checked to assess the validity. Most cancer sites had similar annual percent change (APC) trends for February and November 2013. Male colon and rectum cancer and female lung and bronchus cancer showed an acceleration in declining APC trends only in February. Average annual percent change (AAPC) trends for the 2 submissions were similar for all sites. For the first time, preliminary 2012 incidence rates, based on February submissions, are provided. An accelerated decline starting in 2008 for male colon and rectum cancer rates and male lung cancer rates did not persist when 2012 data were added. An earlier release of SEER data is possible. Caution must be exercised when one is interpreting changing trends. Use of the more conservative AAPC is advised. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  4. Soil moisture data as a constraint for groundwater recharge estimation (United States)

    Mathias, Simon A.; Sorensen, James P. R.; Butler, Adrian P.


    Estimating groundwater recharge rates is important for water resource management studies. Modeling approaches to forecast groundwater recharge typically require observed historic data to assist calibration. It is generally not possible to observe groundwater recharge rates directly. Therefore, in the past, much effort has been invested to record soil moisture content (SMC) data, which can be used in a water balance calculation to estimate groundwater recharge. In this context, SMC data is measured at different depths and then typically integrated with respect to depth to obtain a single set of aggregated SMC values, which are used as an estimate of the total water stored within a given soil profile. This article seeks to investigate the value of such aggregated SMC data for conditioning groundwater recharge models in this respect. A simple modeling approach is adopted, which utilizes an emulation of Richards' equation in conjunction with a soil texture pedotransfer function. The only unknown parameters are soil texture. Monte Carlo simulation is performed for four different SMC monitoring sites. The model is used to estimate both aggregated SMC and groundwater recharge. The impact of conditioning the model to the aggregated SMC data is then explored in terms of its ability to reduce the uncertainty associated with recharge estimation. Whilst uncertainty in soil texture can lead to significant uncertainty in groundwater recharge estimation, it is found that aggregated SMC is virtually insensitive to soil texture.

  5. A system for obtaining an optical spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a system for obtaining an optical spectrum 648 of analytes in a fluid sample, wherein a porous filter 602a, 602b is arranged so that the fluid sample may be placed onto a first region of the porous filter, and a SERS-active material 610a, 610b having a SERS...... the second region. Thereby, the porous filter enables that the fluid sample is filtered so that only sufficiently small entities in the fluid sample reach the second region where they may be probed so that an optical spectrum related to the analytes in the filtered sample may be obtained. The optical system...... also comprises a light source 634, a light detector 642, and the optical analysis system is arranged for obtaining the optical spectrum 648 of the analytes adjacent to the SERS-active material 610a, 610b exclusively from the second region of the porous filter 602a, 602b....

  6. Experiments for obtaining field influence mass particles.

    CERN Document Server

    Yahalomi, E


    Analyzing time dilation experiments the existence of a universal field interacting with moving mass particles is obtained. It is found that mass particle changes its properties depend on its velocity relative to this universal scalar field and not on its velocity relative to the laboratory. High energy proton momentum, energy and mass were calculated obtaining new results. Experiments in high energy accelerators are suggested as additional proofs for the existence of this universal field. This universal field may explain some results of other high energy experiments.

  7. A model for quantification of temperature profiles via germination times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pipper, Christian Bressen; Adolf, Verena Isabelle; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik


    Current methodology to quantify temperature characteristics in germination of seeds is predominantly based on analysis of the time to reach a given germination fraction, that is, the quantiles in the distribution of the germination time of a seed. In practice interpolation between observed...... germination fractions at given monitoring times is used to obtain the time to reach a given germination fraction. As a consequence the obtained value will be highly dependent on the actual monitoring scheme used in the experiment. In this paper a link between currently used quantile models for the germination...... time and a specific type of accelerated failure time models is provided. As a consequence the observed number of germinated seeds at given monitoring times may be analysed directly by a grouped time-to-event model from which characteristics of the temperature profile may be identified and estimated...

  8. Obtaining a minimal set of rewrite rules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors describe a new approach to rewrite rule extraction and analysis, using Minimal Representation Graphs. This approach provides a mechanism for obtaining the smallest possible rule set – within a context-dependent rewrite rule...

  9. Reverse technology transfer; obtaining feedback from managers. (United States)

    A.B. Carey; J.M. Calhoun; B. Dick; K. O' Halloran; L.S. Young; R.E. Bigley; S. Chan; C.A. Harrington; J.P. Hayes; J. Marzluff


    Forestry policy, planning, and practice have changed rapidly with implementation of ecosystem management by federal, state, tribal, and private organizations. Implementation entails new concepts, terminology, and management approaches. Yet there seems to have been little organized effort to obtain feedback from on-the-ground managers on the practicality of implementing...

  10. Obtaining Your License: Careers in Real Estate. (United States)

    Lyon, Robert

    Two steps are required to obtain a real estate salesperson's license in Texas: (1) selecting a broker to serve as an advisor, and (2) meeting personal requirements (at least 18 years old, a Texas resident, completion of a minimum of 12 semester hours of real estate and related courses, application, acceptable score on state exam, and payment of…

  11. Strategies for obtaining unpublished drug trial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, Nicole; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Bero, Lisa Anne


    Authors of systematic reviews have difficulty obtaining unpublished data for their reviews. This project aimed to provide an in-depth description of the experiences of authors in searching for and gaining access to unpublished data for their systematic reviews, and to give guidance on best practi...

  12. Obtaining the Andersen's chart, triangulation algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation or stabilizing soil response. The process of obtaining the original chart has...

  13. Isolation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, microcrystalline cellulose, coded MCC-PNF, was obtained from palm nut (Elaeis guineensis) fibres. MCC-PNF was examined for its physicochemical and powder properties. The powder properties of MCC-PNF were compared to those of the best commercial microcrystalline cellulose grade, Avicel PH 101.

  14. A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Song, Zhengyong


    In this article, we propose a simple scheme to make a metallic film on a semi-infinite substrate optically transparent, thus obtaining a completely transparent electrode in a desired frequency range. By placing a composite layer consisting of dielectric and metallic stripes on top of the metallic...

  15. Production and characterization of pectinases obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and characterization of pectinases obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus in submerged fermentation system using pectin extracted from mango peels as ... The pectinase was used to degrade pectins extracted from orange and pineapple peels and its specific activities were found to be 30U/mg and 28.39U/mg ...

  16. Strichartz Estimates in Spherical Coordinates


    Cho, Yonggeun; Lee, Sanghyuk


    In this paper we study Strichartz estimates for dispersive equations which are defined by radially symmetric pseudo-differential operators, and of which initial data belongs to spaces of Sobolev type defined in spherical coordinates. We obtain the space time estimates on the best possible range including the endpoint cases.

  17. Estimating Probabilities in Recommendation Systems


    Sun, Mingxuan; Lebanon, Guy; Kidwell, Paul


    Recommendation systems are emerging as an important business application with significant economic impact. Currently popular systems include Amazon's book recommendations, Netflix's movie recommendations, and Pandora's music recommendations. In this paper we address the problem of estimating probabilities associated with recommendation system data using non-parametric kernel smoothing. In our estimation we interpret missing items as randomly censored observations and obtain efficient computat...

  18. Load Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ivar Chr. Bjerg; Hansen, Søren Mosegaard; Brincker, Rune


    When performing operational modal analysis the dynamic loading is unknown, however, once the modal properties of the structure have been estimated, the transfer matrix can be obtained, and the loading can be estimated by inverse filtering. In this paper loads in frequency domain are estimated...... and the errors on the estimated loads are determined....

  19. The electrical conductivity of the Earth's upper mantle as estimated from satellite measured magnetic field variations. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Didwall, E. M.


    Low latitude magnetic field variations (magnetic storms) caused by large fluctuations in the equatorial ring current were derived from magnetic field magnitude data obtained by OGO 2, 4, and 6 satellites over an almost 5 year period. Analysis procedures consisted of (1) separating the disturbance field into internal and external parts relative to the surface of the Earth; (2) estimating the response function which related to the internally generated magnetic field variations to the external variations due to the ring current; and (3) interpreting the estimated response function using theoretical response functions for known conductivity profiles. Special consideration is given to possible ocean effects. A temperature profile is proposed using conductivity temperature data for single crystal olivine. The resulting temperature profile is reasonable for depths below 150-200 km, but is too high for shallower depths. Apparently, conductivity is not controlled solely by olivine at shallow depths.

  20. Theoretical Estimation of the Processes While Using Casting Methods of Obtaining MMC (United States)

    Popov, V.


    It is a well-known problem that silicone carbide particles are poorly wetted by aluminum melt, which is a main limiting factor for wide use of metal matrix composites within linear technologies. This paper seeks to find a theoretical explanation of this problem. As result, paper recommends to use solid methods for preparation of MMC with nanoreinforcements.

  1. A new estimator for vector velocity estimation [medical ultrasonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    A new estimator for determining the two-dimensional velocity vector using a pulsed ultrasound field is derived. The estimator uses a transversely modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation....... The new estimator automatically compensates for the axial velocity when determining the transverse velocity. The estimation is optimized by using a lag different from one in the estimation process, and noise artifacts are reduced by averaging RF samples. Further, compensation for the axial velocity can...... be introduced, and the velocity estimation is done at a fixed depth in tissue to reduce the influence of a spatial velocity spread. Examples for different velocity vectors and field conditions are shown using both simple and more complex field simulations. A relative accuracy of 10.1% is obtained...

  2. Acquisition strategy to obtain quantitative diffusion NMR data (United States)

    Barrère, Caroline; Thureau, Pierre; Thévand, André; Viel, Stéphane


    Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo (PGSE) diffusion NMR experiments constitute a powerful tool for analyzing complex mixtures because they can in principle separate the NMR spectra of each mixture component. However, because these experiments intrinsically rely on spin echoes, they are traditionally regarded as non-quantitative, due to the signal attenuation caused by longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) nuclear magnetic relaxation during the rather long delays of the pulse sequence. Alternatively to the quantitative Direct Exponential Curve Resolution Algorithm (qDECRA) approach proposed by Antalek (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (2006) 8402-8403), this work presents an acquisition strategy that renormalizes this relaxation attenuation using estimates of the T1 and T2 relaxation times for all the nuclei in the mixture, as obtained directly with the pulse sequence used to record the PGSE experiment. More specifically, it is shown that only three distinct PGSE experiments need to be recorded, each with a specific set of acquisition parameters. For small- and medium-sized molecules, only T1 is required for obtaining accurate quantification. For larger molecular weight species, which typically exhibit short T2 values, estimates of T2 must also be included but only a rough estimation is required. This appears fortunate because these data are especially hard to obtain with good accuracy when analyzing homonuclear scalar-coupled systems. Overall, the proposed methodology is shown to yield a quantification accuracy of ±5%, both in the absence and in the presence of spectral overlap, giving rise - at least, in our hands - to results that superseded those achieved by qDECRA, while requiring substantially less experimental time.

  3. A new retrieval algorithm for tropospheric temperature, humidity and pressure profiling based on GNSS radio occultation data (United States)

    Kirchengast, Gottfried; Li, Ying; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Schwärz, Marc; Schwarz, Jakob; Nielsen, Johannes K.


    The GNSS radio occultation (RO) technique is an important remote sensing technique for obtaining thermodynamic profiles of temperature, humidity, and pressure in the Earth's troposphere. However, due to refraction effects of both dry ambient air and water vapor in the troposphere, retrieval of accurate thermodynamic profiles at these lower altitudes is challenging and requires suitable background information in addition to the RO refractivity information. Here we introduce a new moist air retrieval algorithm aiming to improve the quality and robustness of retrieving temperature, humidity and pressure profiles in moist air tropospheric conditions. The new algorithm consists of four steps: (1) use of prescribed specific humidity and its uncertainty to retrieve temperature and its associated uncertainty; (2) use of prescribed temperature and its uncertainty to retrieve specific humidity and its associated uncertainty; (3) use of the previous results to estimate final temperature and specific humidity profiles through optimal estimation; (4) determination of air pressure and density profiles from the results obtained before. The new algorithm does not require elaborated matrix inversions which are otherwise widely used in 1D-Var retrieval algorithms, and it allows a transparent uncertainty propagation, whereby the uncertainties of prescribed variables are dynamically estimated accounting for their spatial and temporal variations. Estimated random uncertainties are calculated by constructing error covariance matrices from co-located ECMWF short-range forecast and corresponding analysis profiles. Systematic uncertainties are estimated by empirical modeling. The influence of regarding or disregarding vertical error correlations is quantified. The new scheme is implemented with static input uncertainty profiles in WEGC's current OPSv5.6 processing system and with full scope in WEGC's next-generation system, the Reference Occultation Processing System (rOPS). Results from

  4. Obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yailet Albernas Carvajal


    Full Text Available This paper describes obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery from molasses as base raw material. The operational characteristics of the main stages for obtaining superfine alcohol have been described, emphasising alcohol fermentation due to its complexity in achieving process continuity; a Gantt chart led to determining a 31-hour process time and 5-hour cycle time. The influence of fermentation yield on process profitability was determined through mass and energy balances, demonstrating that a 4ºGL degree of alcohol was feasible. The main water-consuming elements were also determined (98% in molasses dilution as well as steam consumption (91% during distillation. A preliminary analysis was made of the opportunities provided by material and energy integration, mainly for distillation, contributing towards a positive environmental impact.

  5. Processing of hydroxyapatite obtained by combustion synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Canillas


    Full Text Available One of the reasons of implants failure are the stress forces appearing in the material–tissue interface due to the differences between their mechanical properties. For this reason, similar mechanical properties to the surrounding tissue are desirable. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite by solution combustion method and its processing have been studied in order to obtain fully dense ceramic bodies with improved mechanical strength. Combustion synthesis provides nanostructured powders characterized by a high surface area to facilitate the following sintering. Moreover, synthesis was conducted in aqueous and oxidizing media. Oxidizing media improve homogenization and increase the energy released during combustion. It gives rise to particles whose morphology and size suggest lower surface energies compared with aqueous media. The obtained powders were sintered by using a controlled sintering rate schedule. Lower surfaces energies minimize the shrinkage during sintering and relative densities measurements and diametral compression test confirm improved densification and consequently mechanical properties.

  6. The quality of obtaining surgical informed consent. (United States)

    Joolaee, Soodabeh; Faghanipour, Somayeh; Hajibabaee, Fatemeh


    Informed consent goes beyond signing a form; it is a process of providing necessary information, helping patients make an informed decision, and actively participate in their treatment. This study aimed to assess the quality of obtaining surgical informed consent in hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Research design/participants/context: In a cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study, 300 patients were chosen through stratified sampling from seven hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected using a questionnaire developed by the researchers and analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics on SPSS software. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval of this study was granted by Tehran University of Medical Sciences research ethics committee. Written informed consent for participation was obtained. The participants were reassured that their information will be used anonymously and their answers will not affect their treatment and care. The mean score of quality of acquisition of informed consent was 17.13 out of 35, indicating that the quality falls in the inappropriate category. The results indicate that 48% of the signatories do not even read the form before signing it. Among the 52% who did read the consent form, 61.3% mentioned varying degrees of incomprehensibility of the consent form and 94.2% mentioned the presence of incomprehensible technical, medical and legal vocabulary. Only 12% and 18% of respondents reported that they were not in hurry and they had no fear or anxiety, respectively, when signing the form. The quality of obtaining informed consent was higher in women, younger patients, patients with higher education, and those who had special surgeries. This study shows a poor practice in obtaining surgical informed consent in Iran. It seems necessary to consider fundamental changes in the process of acquiring consent based on the temporal and local conditions of the patients.

  7. Optimization and Automation of the Construction of Smooth Free Energy Profiles. (United States)

    Schofield, Jeremy


    An adaptive procedure is introduced to construct smooth analytical profiles of the free energy along a reaction coordinate using sampled data from multiple biased simulations. The procedure is based upon identifying problematic regions encountered in maximum likelihood estimators of the profile where there are statistically relevant discrepancies between the empirical and parametrized cumulative distribution functions and preferentially improving the construction of the parametric profile in these regions. The method is designed to produce continuous and smooth analytical fits that satisfy statistical goodness-of-fit tests with a minimum number of parameters. The accuracy of the profile obtained from the adaptive construction is compared by numerical computation to that of smooth interpolations based on an optimally chosen weighted histogram method for a solvated ion pair system and for an activated process for which the analytical form of the potential of mean force is available. In the model where the exact profile is known, the adaptive procedure is shown to reduce the integrated error relative to the optimal histogram construction by a factor of 3 or more in the typical case where the sampling is not extensive. It is demonstrated that the adaptive procedure can be used to produce statistically accurate smooth analytical representations of the free energy profile that can be evaluated with little computational effort and require little user input.

  8. Profiles of Psychological Well-being and Coping Strategies among University Students (United States)

    Freire, Carlos; Ferradás, María Del Mar; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C.; Vallejo, Guillermo


    In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a) to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b) to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning). Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress. PMID:27790168

  9. Profiles of Psychological Well-being and Coping Strategies among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Freire


    Full Text Available In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress.

  10. Robust DOA Estimation of Harmonic Signals Using Constrained Filters on Phase Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll


    In array signal processing, distances between receivers, e.g., microphones, cause time delays depending on the direction of arrival (DOA) of a signal source. We can then estimate the DOA from the time-difference of arrival (TDOA) estimates. However, many conventional DOA estimators based on TDOA...... estimates are not optimal in colored noise. In this paper, we estimate the DOA of a harmonic signal source from multi-channel phase estimates, which relate to narrowband TDOA estimates. More specifically, we design filters to apply on phase estimates to obtain a DOA estimate with minimum variance. Using......-squares (WLS) DOA estimator....

  11. Measuring the Ultimate Halo Mass of Galaxy Clusters: Redshifts and Mass Profiles from the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS) (United States)

    Rines, Kenneth; Geller, Margaret J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Kurtz, Michael J.


    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a ΛCDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 noise spectra for ~200 cluster members and a comparable number of foreground/background galaxies. The cluster members trace out infall patterns around the clusters. The members define a very narrow red sequence. We demonstrate that the determination of velocity dispersion is insensitive to the inclusion of bluer members (a small fraction of the cluster population). We apply the caustic technique to define membership and estimate the mass profiles to large radii. The ultimate halo mass of clusters (the mass that remains bound in the far future of a ΛCDM universe) is on average (1.99 ± 0.11)M 200, a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M 200 and in LX demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  12. Estimated Drag Coefficients and Wind Structure of Hurricane Frances (United States)

    Zedler, S. E.; Niiler, P. P.; Stammer, D.; Terrill, E.


    As part of the Coupled Boundary Layers Air Sea Transfer (CBLAST) experiment, an array of drifters and floats was deployed from an aircraft just ahead of Hurricane Frances during it's passage to the northwest side of the Caribbean Island chain in August, 2004. The ocean and surface air conditions prior to, during, and after Hurricane Frances were documented by multiple sensors. Two independent estimates of the surface wind field suggest different storm structures. NOAA H*WINDS, an objectively analyzed product using a combination of data collected at the reconnaissance flight level, GPS profilers (dropwindsondes), satellites, and other data, suggest a 40km radius of maximum wind. A product based on the radial momentum equation balance using \\ital{in-situ} surface pressure data and wind direction measurements from the CBLAST drifter array suggests that the radius of maximum winds was 15km. We used a regional version of the MITGCM model with closed boundaries and realistic temperature and salinity fields which was forced with these wind field products to determine which wind field leads to circulation and SST structures that are most consistent with observed sea surface temperature fields and float profile data. Best estimates of the surface wind structure are then used to estimate the appropriate drag coefficient corresponding to the maximum velocity. Our results are compared with those obtained previously.

  13. Characterization of Wastewaters obtained from Hatay Tanneries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şana Sungur


    Full Text Available The leather tanning industry is one of the most significant pollutants in terms of both conventional and toxic parameters. On the other hand, leather industry has an important economic role both in Turkey and in the World. In this study, wastewater samples were taken from 15 different tanneries in the Hatay Region. Wastewaters obtained from liming process and chromium tanning process was analyzed. Sulfide, chromium (III, chromium (VI, oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS, organic matters, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, pH and alkalinity were determined according to Turkish Standard Methods. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from liming process were as following: pH 11.71; COD 16821 mg L-1; BOD 4357 mg L-1; TSS 39023 mg L-1; oil and grease 364 mg L-1; S-2 concentration 802 mg L-1; alkalinity 2115 mg L-1. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from chromium tanning process were also as following: pH 4.23; COD 6740 mg L-1; BOD 377 mg L-1; Cr+3 concentrations 372 mg L-1; Cr+6 concentrations 127 mg L-1; TSS 14553 mg L-1; oil and grease 343 mg L-1. The results of all analyzes were higher than wastewater discharge standards. As a result, it’s necessary to use more effective treatments in order to reduce the negative impacts of leather tanning industry that affect environment, natural water resources and at last human health and welfare.

  14. Propensity for obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping. (United States)

    Toomey, Traci L; Fabian, Lindsey E A; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen M


    Underage youth often obtain alcohol from adults who illegally provide the alcohol. One method for obtaining alcohol from adults is shoulder tapping, where youth approach an adult outside an alcohol establishment and ask the adult to purchase alcohol for them. The goal of this study was to assess what percentage of the general and youth-targeted adult population approached outside of a convenience/liquor store will agree to purchase and then provide alcohol to individuals who appear under age 21. We conducted 2 waves of pseudo-underage shoulder tap request attempts, using requesters who were age 21 or older but appeared 18 to 20 years old. In both waves, requests were conducted at randomly selected liquor and convenience stores, requesters explained that the reason they were asking the adult was because they did not have their identification with them, and requesters asked the adults to purchase a 6-pack of beer. During wave 1, we conducted 102 attempts, with the requester approaching the first adult entering the store alone. During wave 2, we conducted 102 attempts where the requester approached the first casually dressed male entering the store alone who appeared to be 21 to 30 years old. During wave 1, 8% of the general sample of approached adults provided alcohol to the pseudo-underage requesters. The odds of adults providing alcohol in urban areas were 9.4 times greater than in suburban areas. During wave 2, 19% of the approached young men provided alcohol to the requesters. No requester, request attempt, establishment, or community characteristics were associated with request attempt outcomes during wave 2. A small percentage of the general population of adults will agree to provide alcohol to underage youth when approached outside an alcohol establishment. The likelihood of underage youth obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping increases substantially if the youth approach young men.

  15. Reflections on the global burden of disease 2010 estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byass, Peter; de Courten, Maximilian; Graham, Wendy J


    Peter Byass and colleagues raise questions about the recent, high-profile Global Burden of Disease estimates. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.......Peter Byass and colleagues raise questions about the recent, high-profile Global Burden of Disease estimates. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary....

  16. Estimating fractional rate of NDF degradation from in vivo digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Søegaard, Karen; Lund, Peter


    Fractional rate of degradation (kd) of potential degradable NDF (dNDF) was estimated based on in situ degradation profiles.......Fractional rate of degradation (kd) of potential degradable NDF (dNDF) was estimated based on in situ degradation profiles....

  17. Comparison of ionospheric characteristic parameters obtained by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a comparison of ionospheric characteristic parameters obtained by a GPS networkand three ionosondes at Mohe (122.4^◦E, 53.5^◦N, dip angle 70.983^◦N), Zuolingzhen (114.6^◦E, 30.5^◦N, dipangle 46.350^◦N), and Fuke (109.1^◦E, 19.5^◦N, dip angle 27.083^◦N) located in China with an IRI model inthe ...

  18. Reliability of "Google" for obtaining medical information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari


    Full Text Available Internet is used by many patients to obtain relevant medical information. We assessed the impact of "Google" search on the knowledge of the parents whose ward suffered from squint. In 21 consecutive patients, the "Google" search improved the mean score of the correct answers from 47% to 62%. We found that "Google" search was useful and reliable source of information for the patients with regards to the disease etiopathogenesis and the problems caused by the disease. The internet-based information, however, was incomplete and not reliable with regards to the disease treatment.

  19. Epigenetic estimation of age in humpback whales. (United States)

    Polanowski, Andrea M; Robbins, Jooke; Chandler, David; Jarman, Simon N


    Age is a fundamental aspect of animal ecology, but is difficult to determine in many species. Humpback whales exemplify this as they have a lifespan comparable to humans, mature sexually as early as 4 years and have no reliable visual age indicators after their first year. Current methods for estimating humpback age cannot be applied to all individuals and populations. Assays for human age have recently been developed based on age-induced changes in DNA methylation of specific genes. We used information on age-associated DNA methylation in human and mouse genes to identify homologous gene regions in humpbacks. Humpback skin samples were obtained from individuals with a known year of birth and employed to calibrate relationships between cytosine methylation and age. Seven of 37 cytosines assayed for methylation level in humpback skin had significant age-related profiles. The three most age-informative cytosine markers were selected for a humpback epigenetic age assay. The assay has an R(2) of 0.787 (P = 3.04e-16) and predicts age from skin samples with a standard deviation of 2.991 years. The epigenetic method correctly determined which of parent-offspring pairs is the parent in more than 93% of cases. To demonstrate the potential of this technique, we constructed the first modern age profile of humpback whales off eastern Australia and compared the results to population structure 5 decades earlier. This is the first epigenetic age estimation method for a wild animal species and the approach we took for developing it can be applied to many other nonmodel organisms. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Modeling of Changing Electrode Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Geoffrey Allen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials and Molecular Research Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    A model for simulating the transient behavior of solid electrodes undergoing deposition or dissolution has been developed. The model accounts for ohmic drop, charge transfer overpotential, and mass transport limitations. The finite difference method, coupled with successive overrelaxation, was used as the basis of the solution technique. An algorithm was devised to overcome the computational instabilities associated with the calculations of the secondary and tertiary current distributions. Simulations were performed on several model electrode profiles: the sinusoid, the rounded corner, and the notch. Quantitative copper deposition data were obtained in a contoured rotating cylinder system, Sinusoidal cross-sections, machined on stainless steel cylinders, were used as model geometries, Kinetic parameters for use in the simulation were determined from polarization curves obtained on copper rotating cylinders, These parameters, along with other physical property and geometric data, were incorporated in simulations of growing sinusoidal profiles. The copper distributions on the sinusoidal cross-sections were measured and found to compare favorably with the simulated results. At low Wagner numbers the formation of a slight depression at the profile peak was predicted by the simulation and observed on the profile. At higher Wagner numbers, the simulated and experimental results showed that the formation of a depression was suppressed. This phenomenon was shown to result from the competition between ohmic drop and electrode curvature.

  1. An equilibrium profile model for tidal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bernabeu


    Full Text Available During a full tidal cycle, the beach profile is exposed to continuously changing hydrodynamical conditions. Consequently, the profile evolves constantly to adapt to these changes. The equilibrium condition on tidal beaches is defined in terms of the relative occurrence of swash, surf zone and shoaling processes. We have assumed that the tidal beach profile is in equilibrium when the net sediment transport along a tidal cycle is zero. In this model the contribution of swash is considered negligible. A simple and easy-to-apply equilibrium profile formulation is proposed. This model is based on the assumption that surf zone processes dominate the profile morphology wherever wave breaking occurs during the tidal cycle. The obtained equilibrium profile is valid from the high tide level to the breaker point at low tide level. The tidal influence on the profile morphology is the lengthening of the surf profile. The higher the tidal range, the longer the surf profile. The model was tested against field and laboratory data, showing reasonable predictions of measured beach profiles.

  2. A bistatic sodar for precision wind profiling in complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Stuart; Hünerbein, Sabine Von; Mikkelsen, Torben


    A new ground-based wind profiling technology-a scanned bistatic sodar-is described. The motivation for this design is to obtain a "mastlike"wind vector profile in a single atmospheric column extending from the ground to heights of more than 200 m. The need for this columnar profiling arises from...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulga S. M.


    Full Text Available Creation of liposomal forms of curcumin (diferuloilmetane was investegated in the work. The methods of preparation and determination of the obtained liposomes sizes and percentage of curcumin in liposomes are given. Soybean phospholipids, egg yolk phospholipids and sunflower phospholipids were selected for preparation of “empty” liposomes and liposomes loaded curcumin: C-SPC-L (curcumin encapsulated in SPC liposomes, C-EPC-L (curcumin encapsulated in EPC liposomes and C-SFPC-L (curcumin encapsulated in liposomes SFPC. Physical properties of different liposomes such as average size (Dl and encapsulation efficiency (EE were studed. Using photon correlation spectroscopy, the average size of three types of curcumin-loaded liposomes were found as Dl = 111 ± 3 nm for C-SPC-L, Dl = 98 ± 5 nm for C-EPC-L and Dl = 109 ± 5 nm for C-SFPC-L. Encapsulation efficiency showed the following values: EEC-SPC-L = 83 ± 4%, EEC-EPC-L = 82 ± 3%, and EEC-SFPC-L = 85 ± 4%. We determined that by using the methods of freezing and thawing or sonication it was possible to isolate liposomes sized in the range 100– 120 nm. Upon that the obtained liposomal form of curcumin was stable and freeze-thaw method was optimal for liposomal form and provides a relatively high level (more than 80% of curcumin inclusion.

  4. Alcoholic Beverages Obtained from Black Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Darias-Martín


    Full Text Available Black mulberry (Morus nigra is a fruit not known only for its nutritional qualities and its flavour, but also for its traditional use in natural medicine as it has a high content of active therapeutic compounds. However, this fruit is not widely produced in Spain but some trees are still found growing in the Canary Islands, particularly on the edges of the ravine. The inhabitants of these islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, El Hierro and Lanzarote collect the fruit and prepare homemade beverages for medicinal purposes. Numerous authors have reported that type II diabetes mellitus can be controlled by taking a mixture containing black mulberry and water. Apart from that, this fruit has been used for the treatment of mouth, tongue and throat inflammations. In this study we present some characteristics of black mulberry juice (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, citric acid, lactic acid, polyphenols, anthocyanins, the potassium etc. and alcoholic beverages (alcoholic grade, pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, tannins, phenols etc. obtained from black mulberry. Moreover, we have studied the quality of liquors obtained from black mulberry in Canary Islands.

  5. Estimating the number of contributors to forensic DNA mixtures: does maximum likelihood perform better than maximum allele count? (United States)

    Haned, Hinda; Pène, Laurent; Lobry, Jean R; Dufour, Anne B; Pontier, Dominique


    Determining the number of contributors to a forensic DNA mixture using maximum allele count is a common practice in many forensic laboratories. In this paper, we compare this method to a maximum likelihood estimator, previously proposed by Egeland et al., that we extend to the cases of multiallelic loci and population subdivision. We compared both methods' efficiency for identifying mixtures of two to five individuals in the case of uncertainty about the population allele frequencies and partial profiles. The proportion of correctly resolved mixtures was >90% for both estimators for two- and three-person mixtures, while likelihood maximization yielded success rates 2- to 15-fold higher for four- and five-person mixtures. Comparable results were obtained in the cases of uncertain allele frequencies and partial profiles. Our results support the use of the maximum likelihood estimator to report the number of contributors when dealing with complex DNA mixtures. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. The Difference Problem of Obtaining the Parameter of a Parabolic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charyyar Ashyralyyev


    is investigated. The well-posedness of this difference scheme is established. Applying the abstract result, the stability and almost coercive stability estimates for the solution of difference schemes for the approximate solution of differential equations with parameter are obtained.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POP E.S.


    Full Text Available Small capacity wind turbine performance is influenced in a large extent by the blade profiles aerodynamics. By this point of view, the paper presents the most important aspects of aerodynamic profiles, and aspects concerning their optimization in order to increase performance. The study of blade profiles polar led to the identification of a reference profile, NACA4418, for which the best aerodynamic lift drag ratio is obtained on a big range of attack angles. A flow analysis on the reference profile is performed, using a CFD model of numerical simulations in order to obtain performance for different wind speeds.

  8. Haematology, testosterone profile and spermiogram of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed at characterizing the blood, hormone and spermiogram profiles of five adult local breed of Mallard drakes which were obtained from a local farmer. Each drake was examined to be free from diseases or deformity, stabilized and managed intensively during the study period. Semen was obtained ...

  9. Estimation of temporal evolution of the helium plasmasphere based on a sequence of IMAGE/EUV images (United States)

    Nakano, S.; Fok, M.-C.; Brandt, P. C.; Higuchi, T.


    We have developed a technique for estimating the temporal evolution of the plasmaspheric helium ion density based on a sequence of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) data obtained from the IMAGE satellite. In the proposed technique, the estimation is obtained by incorporating EUV images from IMAGE into a two-dimensional fluid model of the plasmasphere using a data assimilation approach based on the ensemble transform Kalman filter. Since the motion and the spatial structure of the helium plasmasphere is strongly controlled by the electric field in the inner magnetosphere, the electric field around the plasmapause can also be estimated using the ensemble transform Kalman filter. We performed an experiment using synthetic images that were generated from the same numerical model under a certain condition. It was confirmed that the condition that generated the synthetic images was successfully reproduced. We also present some results obtained using real EUV imaging data. Finally, we discuss the possibility of estimating the density profile along a magnetic field line. Since each EUV image was taken from a different direction due to the motion of the IMAGE satellite, we could obtain the information on the density profile along a field line by combining multiple images.

  10. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli C. Bastos


    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM and acid mordenite (HM. The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]. The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper I proposed to emphasize the importance of obtaining competitive advantage by companies on EU internal market. The huge EU market, offers for participating companies the possibility to achieve significant economies of scale and numerous niches (segments market, which can be covered with large quantities of goods, the condition is that niches to be discovered in time, and the firms to be able to adapt promptly at their needs. Thus, the most important positive effect derives from the fact that companies have at their disposal a vast market consisting approximately 500 million consumers, free of customs duties and other restrictions inhindering the movement of goods. On this background, the companies can achieve high series production and thereby can reduce their cost of production and increase their competitiveness. In this context, the companies must meet the standards of the European Union, if they really want to gain competitive advantage on EU market.

  12. Analysis of loop current step response data obtained from in situ tests of temperature detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.F.; Shepard, R.L.


    Methods for obtaining unbiased parameter estimates from data obtained by in situ tests of temperature detectors are evaluated. A computer program that calculates unbiased estimates of parameters that define a dynamic model of the temperature detector and that calculates standard deviations of the model parameters and of the response time is presented. The computer program, along with the associated theoretical development, represent an extension of the previous capability for analyzing data from in situ tests of temperature detectors.

  13. Estimation of water percolation by different methods using TDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Jadavi Pereira da Silva


    Full Text Available Detailed knowledge on water percolation into the soil in irrigated areas is fundamental for solving problems of drainage, pollution and the recharge of underground aquifers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percolation estimated by time-domain-reflectometry (TDR in a drainage lysimeter. We used Darcy's law with K(θ functions determined by field and laboratory methods and by the change in water storage in the soil profile at 16 points of moisture measurement at different time intervals. A sandy clay soil was saturated and covered with plastic sheet to prevent evaporation and an internal drainage trial in a drainage lysimeter was installed. The relationship between the observed and estimated percolation values was evaluated by linear regression analysis. The results suggest that percolation in the field or laboratory can be estimated based on continuous monitoring with TDR, and at short time intervals, of the variations in soil water storage. The precision and accuracy of this approach are similar to those of the lysimeter and it has advantages over the other evaluated methods, of which the most relevant are the possibility of estimating percolation in short time intervals and exemption from the predetermination of soil hydraulic properties such as water retention and hydraulic conductivity. The estimates obtained by the Darcy-Buckingham equation for percolation levels using function K(θ predicted by the method of Hillel et al. (1972 provided compatible water percolation estimates with those obtained in the lysimeter at time intervals greater than 1 h. The methods of Libardi et al. (1980, Sisson et al. (1980 and van Genuchten (1980 underestimated water percolation.

  14. Direct volume estimation without segmentation (United States)

    Zhen, X.; Wang, Z.; Islam, A.; Bhaduri, M.; Chan, I.; Li, S.


    Volume estimation plays an important role in clinical diagnosis. For example, cardiac ventricular volumes including left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) are important clinical indicators of cardiac functions. Accurate and automatic estimation of the ventricular volumes is essential to the assessment of cardiac functions and diagnosis of heart diseases. Conventional methods are dependent on an intermediate segmentation step which is obtained either manually or automatically. However, manual segmentation is extremely time-consuming, subjective and highly non-reproducible; automatic segmentation is still challenging, computationally expensive, and completely unsolved for the RV. Towards accurate and efficient direct volume estimation, our group has been researching on learning based methods without segmentation by leveraging state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. Our direct estimation methods remove the accessional step of segmentation and can naturally deal with various volume estimation tasks. Moreover, they are extremely flexible to be used for volume estimation of either joint bi-ventricles (LV and RV) or individual LV/RV. We comparatively study the performance of direct methods on cardiac ventricular volume estimation by comparing with segmentation based methods. Experimental results show that direct estimation methods provide more accurate estimation of cardiac ventricular volumes than segmentation based methods. This indicates that direct estimation methods not only provide a convenient and mature clinical tool for cardiac volume estimation but also enables diagnosis of cardiac diseases to be conducted in a more efficient and reliable way.

  15. A Class of Modified Ratio Estimators for Estimation of Population Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani J.


    Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a class of modified ratio type variance estimators for estimation of population variance of the study variable using the known parameters of the auxiliary variable. The bias and mean squared error of the proposed estimators are obtained and also derived the conditions for which the proposed estimators perform better than the traditional ratio type variance estimator and existing modified ratio type variance estimators. Further we have compared the proposed estimators with that of the traditional ratio type variance estimator and existing modified ratio type variance estimators for certain natural populations.

  16. Prevalence and profile of cognitive deficits in a cohort of first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard


    medication, which can affect the results on specific domains such as processing speed. As part of the PECANS project (Pan European Collaboration on Antipsychotic Naïve Schizophrenia) the aim of the present study is to establish the prevalence and profile of cognitive deficits in a cohort of first...... intelligence is estimated using DART (Danish Adult Reading Test) and current intelligence is estimated from 4 subtests from WAIS-III (Wechsler´s Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd ed.). Psychopathology ratings are obtained using PANSS (Positive and Negative Symptom Scale). Results: Preliminary analyses show...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Based on one hand on the premise that the estimate is an approximate evaluation, completed with the fact that the term estimate is increasingly common and used by a variety of both theoretical and practical areas, particularly in situations where we can not decide ourselves with certainty, it must be said that, in fact, we are dealing with estimates and in our case with an accounting estimate. Completing on the other hand the idea above with the phrase "estimated value", which implies that we are dealing with a value obtained from an evaluation process, but its size is not exact but approximated, meaning is close to the actual size, it becomes obvious the neccessity to delimit the hierarchical relationship between evaluation / estimate while considering the context in which the evaluation activity is derulated at entity level.

  18. A generalizability study of the instrumental activities of daily living profile. (United States)

    Bottari, Carolina; Dassa, Clément; Rainville, Constant; Dutil, Elisabeth


    To establish generalizability estimates of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Profile when administered to persons with a moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) within their home and community environment. Generalizability theory was used to estimate generalizability and dependability coefficients as well as the relative contribution of identified sources of measurement error to total measurement error. Decision studies were used to enable the investigators to determine the optimal measurement design. The IADL Profile was administered in subjects' homes and community environments. Convenience sample of adults with a moderate or severe TBI (N=30, aged 16-65y). Not applicable. IADL Profile scores include 6 factor scores (going to the grocery store/shopping for groceries, having a meal with guests/cleaning up, putting on outdoor clothing, obtaining information, making a budget, and preparing a hot meal) and 1 total score. The greatest sources of measurement error were the subject-item interactions (3-random-facet design) and the subject-rater interactions (2-random-facet design). One hundred percent of generalizability coefficients of factor scores indicated acceptable to excellent reliability. Indices of dependability confirmed that 1 evaluator could reliably score the tool on a single occasion after having received a 3-day training workshop. The IADL Profile administered to persons with a moderate or severe TBI provides occupational therapists with a reliable set of measures of IADL independence capable of both capturing and analyzing the complex interactions between personal and environmental factors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available domanin.Romania is a country with highly touristic potential that is not exploited to maximum. In order to reach a high quality level of tourism permanent development and modernization are needed and also the establishment of new businesses That conducts other activities other than those which takes place in our country. Ways of getting funds are multiple, depending on individual needs.To develop tourism activities it is necessary to require some funding that can come from various sources: auto-financing, loans from various banks or from third parties and grants offered by the European Union. There are many programs designed to support the development of tourism, such as ROP that allows people to access grants in order to implement projects for the establishment and the development of the activity in the touristic field. The purpose of this article is to highlight funding opportunities for the tourism operators and to assist them in choosing the appropriate form of financing of the current activity or the activity they want to implement in the future and description of how to obtain the necessary funds from various sources.


    CERN Multimedia

    Head Librarian


    The wide variety of scientific and technical activity engaged in by people working at CERN means that the Library cannot always provide a deep on-site coverage in areas which are outside the core subjects of particle physics and accelerators. As many of you have already experienced, one way of solving this is to borrow books from other libraries. Our Inter-Library Loan (ILL) service currently obtains about 1000 books on loan per year for readers at CERN. However, there may be books which groups need on a more permanent basis, in which case a loan from either our own collection or via ILL is not the appropriate solution. Instead, groups might prefer to purchase such books from their own budgets. To facilitate this, the CERN Library has set up a procedure with the SPL Division, by which you can submit your purchase request to us and be charged via a TID when you receive the book. In addition, via our database interface WebLib, we can provide you with a private virtual catalogue of your group's collection, which...

  1. Evaluation of ruminal degradation profiles of forages using bags made from different textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Neves Pereira Valente


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the in situ degradation profiles of dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of different forages using nylon (50 µm, F57 (Ankom® and non-woven textile (NWT - 100 g/m² bags. Eight forage samples were used: sugarcane, corn silage, elephant grass cut at 50 and 250 days of regrowth, corn straw, signal grass hay, coast cross hay, and fresh alfalfa. Samples were incubated for 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, and 312 hours. Two bags of each textile were used at each incubation time, totaling 768 bags, using two crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers fitted with ruminal canullae. There was difference in the common rate of lag and degradation (λ of DM for all forages, except for sugarcane. In general, higher λ estimates were obtained using nylon, followed by NWT and F57. Concerning NDF degradation profiles, differences in λ were observed for all forages. Greater estimates were obtained using nylon. Degradation profiles of DM and NDF must not be evaluated using F57 and NWT. These textiles underestimate the degradation rate due to constraints regarding exchange between bags' content and rumen environment.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Galileo Radio Propagation Team Ionosphere Profile data set is small number of electron density profiles derived from radio occultation data collected while...

  3. GHGRP Industrial Profiles (United States)

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. These profiles contain detailed analyses. This page hosts data highlights for all sectors.

  4. HOPWA Performance Profiles (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOPWA Performance Profiles are generated quarterly for all agencies receiving HOPWA formula or competitive grants. Performance Profiles are available at the national...

  5. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.


    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  6. Characterization of rough interfaces obtained by boriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Silva, I. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)], E-mail:; Balankin, A.S. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Sierra, A.H. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPIICSA, Av. Te 950, Col Granjas, Mexico D.F. 08400 (Mexico); Lopez-Perrusquia, N. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Escobar-Galindo, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Morales-Matamoros, D. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas Norte, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)


    This study evaluates the morphology of borided interfaces by means of the fractal theory. The boride layers were formed in the AISI M2 steel by applying the paste boriding treatment at temperatures of 1253 and 1273 K and treatment times of 2 and 6 h, while a boron carbide paste thickness of 4 or 5 mm covered the samples surface in order to produce the boron diffusion. The morphology of interfaces formed between FeB and Fe{sub 2}B layers and between Fe{sub 2}B layer and steel substrate was analyzed by the rescaled-range (R/S), root-mean-square (RMS), and Fourier power spectrum (FPS) methods. Moreover, the multi-affine spectra of roughness exponent were obtained by calculating the q-order height-height correlation functions. We found that both interfaces are multi-affine, rather than self-affine. The multi-affine spectra of roughness exponents are found to be different for FeB/Fe{sub 2}B and Fe{sub 2}B/substrate interfaces, but independent on the treatment parameters (boron carbide paste thickness, temperature, and boriding time). Furthermore, we found that the multi-affine spectra of both interfaces behave as it is expected for 'universal multi-fractals' with the Levy index {gamma} = 1, associated with the multiplicative cascades with a log-Cauchy distribution. Furthermore, our data suggest a great homogeneity of the boron diffusion field, characterized by universal fractal dimension D{sub diff} = 2.90 {+-} 0.01. These findings provide a novel insight into the nature of phase formation during the boriding treatment.

  7. Permeability estimation from inflow data during underbalanced drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshidi, S.; Mattar, L. [Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Yu, F. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Slade, J. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Pooladi-Darvish, M. [Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)


    Underbalanced drilling is often used to prevent fluid invasion during drilling operations. Inflow from the reservoir into the wellbore is continuously measured at the wellhead during underbalanced drilling operations. This paper provided details of a mathematical model designed to estimate reservoir permeability along the wellbore using inflow measurements at the wellhead. The model accounted for the fact that producing intervals continuously increase with time. The reservoir was horizontal, isotropic and heterogeneous, with a constant thickness and porosity, and an infinite lateral extension. Radial flow in the vertical plane was neglected. Flow was 1-D and perpendicular to the wellbore. Bottomhole pressure was constant, and a mechanical skin of zero was assumed. A 1-D diffusivity equation was used to describe the instantaneous single phase flow of gas. The model was validated using data obtained from previous simulations and applied to a number of field cases. Estimated permeability values from field studies were used along with reported downhole pressure to calculate gas inflow. Gas inflow was then compared with total measured inflow. Results of the evaluation showed that good agreement was obtained between the measured and predicted inflow values. Sensitivity analyses conducted to investigate sensitivity errors in reported information showed that the estimated permeability profile remained comparatively unchanged. 10 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  8. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  9. Spaceborne PolInSAR tomography for vertical profile retrieval of forest vegetation (United States)

    Joshi, Sushil Kumar; Kumar, Shashi


    Forest height plays a crucial role in investigating the biophysical parameters of forests and the terrestrial carbon. PolInSAR-based inversion modeling has been successfully implemented on airborne and spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. SAR tomography is a recent approach to separate scatterers in the cross-range direction and generate its vertical profile. This study highlights the potential of tomographic processing of multibaseline fully polarimetric Radarsat-2 C-band SAR data to estimate radar reflectivity at different forest height levels. A teak patch of Haldwani forest in Uttarakhand state of India was chosen as the test site to perform tomography. Since SAR tomography is a spectral estimation problem, Fourier transform (FT), beamforming (BF), and Capon-based spectral estimators were applied on the dataset to obtain the backscattering power contributions at different forest height levels. Fourier showed high backscatter power retrieval at different forest heights. The radar reflectivities at different heights were significantly reduced by BF followed by Capon. Tomographic profile of FT severely suffered from high sidelobes, which was drastically reduced by implementing BF. Capon further reduced the sidelobes and achieved a substantially improved tomographic profile. The height maps were generated for these algorithms and validated with ground truth data.

  10. PROFILER: 1D galaxy light profile decomposition (United States)

    Ciambur, Bogdan C.


    Written in Python, PROFILER analyzes the radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies. It accurately models a wide range of galaxies and galaxy components, such as elliptical galaxies, the bulges of spiral and lenticular galaxies, nuclear sources, discs, bars, rings, and spiral arms with a variety of parametric functions routinely employed in the field (Sérsic, core-Sérsic, exponential, Gaussian, Moffat and Ferrers). In addition, Profiler can employ the broken exponential model (relevant for disc truncations or antitruncations) and two special cases of the edge-on disc model: namely along the major axis (in the disc plane) and along the minor axis (perpendicular to the disc plane).

  11. Processing-property relationship in ion-exchanged ESP (engineered stress profile) glasses (United States)

    Shen, Junwu


    A novel two-step ion exchange process was recently proposed to produce Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass. Important characteristics of ESP glass include high strength, relatively low strength variability and high surface damage resistance. It has been found that the mechanical reliability of ESP glass is mainly dependent on the processing conditions. Therefore, the primary objective of the current thesis is to quantitatively study the relationship between the mechanical properties of ESP glasses and the ion exchange processing conditions. Based on this relationship, processing conditions can be determined for any particular requirement of mechanical behavior for ion exchanged glass. To establish a property-processing relationship in ESP glasses, it is necessary to predict the stress profile in ion exchanged glass from the processing conditions. Since the residual stress profile in ion exchanged glass is mainly caused by the K/Na ion exchange and the stress relaxation, the diffusion process and the stress relaxation behavior of glass were studied. The K2O concentration profiles in singe-step and two-step ion exchanged soda lime silicate (SLS) glasses were calculated and found to be in a good agreement with the measured concentration profiles. The uniaxial compressive stress relaxation behavior of the SLS glass in the current thesis at typical ion exchange temperatures was studied. Since the surface composition in ion exchanged glass is significantly different from the composition of untreated glass, this composition difference could cause significant difference in glass properties including viscosity and stress relaxation. Therefore, properties of glasses with different K/Na ratios were studied, and empirical equations were obtained to estimate glass properties from the glass composition. Given the diffusion coefficient, surface concentration, composition-dependent dilation coefficient and stress relaxation data, residual stress profiles in ion-exchanged glasses

  12. Ratio estimation in poststratified sampling over two occasions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expressions for the optimum matching or replacement fractions of both estimators are obtained since the estimators are based on a partial replacement of sample units on the second occasion. Conditions under-which one estimator is to be preferred to the other estimator are obtained for repeated samples of fixed sizes.

  13. UFO: a web server for ultra-fast functional profiling of whole genome protein sequences. (United States)

    Meinicke, Peter


    Functional profiling is a key technique to characterize and compare the functional potential of entire genomes. The estimation of profiles according to an assignment of sequences to functional categories is a computationally expensive task because it requires the comparison of all protein sequences from a genome with a usually large database of annotated sequences or sequence families. Based on machine learning techniques for Pfam domain detection, the UFO web server for ultra-fast functional profiling allows researchers to process large protein sequence collections instantaneously. Besides the frequencies of Pfam and GO categories, the user also obtains the sequence specific assignments to Pfam domain families. In addition, a comparison with existing genomes provides dissimilarity scores with respect to 821 reference proteomes. Considering the underlying UFO domain detection, the results on 206 test genomes indicate a high sensitivity of the approach. In comparison with current state-of-the-art HMMs, the runtime measurements show a considerable speed up in the range of four orders of magnitude. For an average size prokaryotic genome, the computation of a functional profile together with its comparison typically requires about 10 seconds of processing time. For the first time the UFO web server makes it possible to get a quick overview on the functional inventory of newly sequenced organisms. The genome scale comparison with a large number of precomputed profiles allows a first guess about functionally related organisms. The service is freely available and does not require user registration or specification of a valid email address.

  14. Deep seismic transect across the Tonankai earthquake area obtained from the onshore- offshore wide-angle seismic study (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Obana, K.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Fujie, G.; Ito, A.; Sato, T.; Park, J.; Kaneda, Y.; Ito, K.; Iwasaki, T.


    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, M8-class great earthquake area can be divided into three segments; they are source regions of the Nankai, Tonankai and presumed Tokai earthquakes. The Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. Hypocenters of these great earthquakes were usually located off the cape Shiono, Kii Peninsula, and the rupture propagated westwards and eastwards, respectively. To obtain the deep structure of the down-dip limit of around the Nankai Trough seismogenic zone, the segment boundary and first break area off the Kii Peninsula, the onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic studies was conducted in the western and eastern part of the Kii Peninsula and their offshore area in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The result of the seismic study in 2004 is mainly shown here. Structural images along the onshore and offshore profiles have already been separately obtained. In this study, an onshore-offshore integrated image of the western part of the Kii Peninsula, ~400km in a total length, is obtained from first arrival tomography and traveltime mapping of reflection phases by combining dataset of 13 land explosions, 2269 land stations, 36 OBSs and 1806 offshore airgun shots. The subduction angle of the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) gradually increases landward up to ~20-25 degree. Beneath the onshore part, the subducting PSP is estimated at ~5km shallower than that previously derived from seismicity. Low frequency earthquakes (identified and picked by Japan Meteorological Agency) are relocated around the plate interface of the subducting PSP by using the deep seismic transect obtained in this study. The offshore research is part of 'Structure research on plate dynamics of the presumed rupture zone of the Tonankai-Nankai Earthquakes' funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The onshore research carried by the Kyoto University is part of 'Special Project for

  15. Estimating Canopy Dark Respiration for Crop Models (United States)

    Monje Mejia, Oscar Alberto


    Crop production is obtained from accurate estimates of daily carbon gain.Canopy gross photosynthesis (Pgross) can be estimated from biochemical models of photosynthesis using sun and shaded leaf portions and the amount of intercepted photosyntheticallyactive radiation (PAR).In turn, canopy daily net carbon gain can be estimated from canopy daily gross photosynthesis when canopy dark respiration (Rd) is known.

  16. Parametric dependencies of JET electron temperature profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunke, B. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Imre, K.; Riedel, K. [New York Univ., NY (United States)


    The JET Ohmic, L-Mode and H-Mode electron temperature profiles obtained from the LIDAR Thomson Scattering Diagnostic are parameterized in terms of the normalized flux parameter and a set of the engineering parameters like plasma current, toroidal field, line averages electron density... It is shown that the electron temperature profiles fit a log-additive model well. It is intended to use the same model to predict the profile shape for D-T discharges in JET and in ITER. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Aerodynamics profile not in stationary flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.А. Загорулько


    Full Text Available  Consider the question about influence of unsteady flight on the size of drag and lift coefficients of theaerodynamic profile. Distinctive features of this investigation are obtaining data about aerodynamic drag chancing in process unsteady on high angle at attack and oscillation profile in subsonic and transonic flight. Given analysis of oscillation profile show, that dynamic loops accompany change of lift and dray force. The researches show that it is necessary to clarity the mathematic model of the airplane flight dynamics by introducing numbers, with take into account unsteady effects.

  18. Comparison of specific-yield estimates for calculating evapotranspiration from diurnal groundwater-level fluctuations (United States)

    Gribovszki, Zoltán


    Methods that use diurnal groundwater-level fluctuations are commonly used for shallow water-table environments to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) and recharge. The key element needed to obtain reliable estimates is the specific yield (Sy), a soil-water storage parameter that depends on unsaturated soil-moisture and water-table fluxes, among others. Soil-moisture profile measurement down to the water table, along with water-table-depth measurements, can provide a good opportunity to calculate Sy values even on a sub-daily scale. These values were compared with Sy estimates derived by traditional techniques, and it was found that slug-test-based Sy values gave the most similar results in a sandy soil environment. Therefore, slug-test methods, which are relatively cheap and require little time, were most suited to estimate Sy using diurnal fluctuations. The reason for this is that the timeframe of the slug-test measurement is very similar to the dynamic of the diurnal signal. The dynamic characteristic of Sy was also analyzed on a sub-daily scale (depending mostly on the speed of drainage from the soil profile) and a remarkable difference was found in Sy with respect to the rate of change of the water table. When comparing constant and sub-daily (dynamic) Sy values for ET estimation, the sub-daily Sy application yielded higher correlation, but only a slightly smaller deviation from the control ET method, compared with the usage of constant Sy.

  19. Ozone height profiles using laser heterodyne radiometer (United States)

    Jain, S. L.


    The monitoring of vertical profiles of ozone and related minor constituents in the atmosphere are of great significance to understanding the complex interaction between atmospheric dynamics, chemistry and radiation budget. An ultra high spectral resolution tunable CO2 laser heterodyne radiometer has been designed, developed and set up at the National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi to obtain vertical profiles of various minor constituents the characteristic absorption lines in 9 to 11 micron spectral range. Due to its high spectral resolution the lines can be resolved completely and data obtained are inverted to get vertical profiles using an inversion technique developed by the author. In the present communication the salient features of the laser heterodyne system and the results obtained are discussed in detail.

  20. An approach to parameter estimation for breast tumor by finite element method (United States)

    Xu, A.-qing; Yang, Hong-qin; Ye, Zhen; Su, Yi-ming; Xie, Shu-sen


    The temperature of human body on the surface of the skin depends on the metabolic activity, the blood flow, and the temperature of the surroundings. Any abnormality in the tissue, such as the presence of a tumor, alters the normal temperature on the skin surface due to increased metabolic activity of the tumor. Therefore, abnormal skin temperature profiles are an indication of diseases such as tumor or cancer. This study is to present an approach to detect the female breast tumor and its related parameter estimations by combination the finite element method with infrared thermography for the surface temperature profile. A 2D simplified breast embedded a tumor model based on the female breast anatomical structure and physiological characteristics was first established, and then finite element method was used to analyze the heat diffuse equation for the surface temperature profiles of the breast. The genetic optimization algorithm was used to estimate the tumor parameters such as depth, size and blood perfusion by minimizing a fitness function involving the temperature profiles simulated data by finite element method to the experimental data obtained by infrared thermography. This preliminary study shows it is possible to determine the depth and the heat generation rate of the breast tumor by using infrared thermography and the optimization analysis, which may play an important role in the female breast healthcare and diseases evaluation or early detection. In order to develop the proposed methodology to be used in clinical, more accurate anatomy 3D breast geometry should be considered in further investigations.

  1. On the estimation of ice volume of alpine glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Ya. Macheret


    Full Text Available Volume (V − area (S scaling approach (V = kSp, where V and S are obtained from direct measurements is widely used for ice storage assessments in glacier-mountain systems. Accuracy of this approach was tested using surface area and volume dataset for 121 glaciers of different morphological type and sizes in Altay Mountains. It is shown that to increase total volume estimation accuracy, the coefficients k and p should be calculated for dominant morphological glacier types in the given region. Volume assessments for individual glaciers can be done using limited ice thickness data along the longitudinal profile. For two glaciers in Caucasus volume was calculated using parabolic and Topo to Raster approximation for cross section profiles of their surface and bedrock with acceptable accuracy (from 1 to 33%. It is also shown that ice-thickness data for 10–15 glaciers of dominant morphological type is enough for adequate estimation of the total ice storage in given mountain system with error less than 20%.

  2. Quantitative proteome profiling of normal human circulating microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer T; Iversen, Line V


    Circulating microparticles (MPs) are produced as part of normal physiology. Their numbers, origin, and composition change in pathology. Despite this, the normal MP proteome has not yet been characterized with standardized high-resolution methods. We here quantitatively profile the normal MP...... proteome using nano-LC-MS/MS on an LTQ-Orbitrap with optimized sample collection, preparation, and analysis of 12 different normal samples. Analytical and procedural variation were estimated in triply processed samples analyzed in triplicate from two different donors. Label-free quantitation was validated...... by the correlation of cytoskeletal protein intensities with MP numbers obtained by flow cytometry. Finally, the validity of using pooled samples was evaluated using overlap protein identification numbers and multivariate data analysis. Using conservative parameters, 536 different unique proteins were quantitated...

  3. Estimating The Age-Productivity Profile Using Lifetime Earnings


    Laurence J. Kotlikoff


    Understanding how productivity varies with age is important for a variety of reasons. A decline in productivity with age implies that aging societies must increasingly depend on the labor supply of the young and middle age. It also means that policies designed to keep the elderly in the work force, while potentially good for the elderly, may decrease overall productivity. A third implication is that, absent government intervention, employers may not be willing to hire the elderly for the same...

  4. A Method for the Estimation of the Atmospheric Temperature Profile. (United States)


    Some of these statistics are available in publications of the Bureau of Meteorology . McRae(ref.3) presents tables of mean and standard deviation in...Variability of Temperature and Geopotential, Australia. Surface to 100 mb". Bureau of Meteorology , Department of the Interior, 1977 4 Maher, J.V. and...34Upper Air Statistics, Australia - Lee, D.M. Surface to 5 mb, 1957 to 1975". Bureau of Meteorology , Department of the Interior, undated 5 Maher, J.V

  5. [Estimating the morbidity profile amongst Colombian civil aviation personnel]. (United States)

    Salamanca, María A; Fajardo, Hugo A


    Describing main morbidity rate amongst Colombian civil aviation cockpit and air traffic control personnel. This was a cross-sectional study. A random sample of 1,059 records (pilots, flight attendants, air traffic controllers) was taken from Colombian aeronautical authority files. Identification, background, morbidity and limitation data was reviewed for each one. 68,2 % of the records concerned males. Average age was 37. 22,9 % of the sample had some medical antecedent recorded on their first certification. Alcohol consumption (occasional) was recorded for 17,1 % of the sample and 11,9 % were smokers. The main diagnoses made were: vision disorders (52,2 %), dyslipidemias (40,6 %), being overweight (37,5 %), having hearing loss (22,0 %), being healthy (14,0 %) and suffering from hypertension (8,1 %). Each group had the same diagnoses, but occurring in a different order. Others studies have found cardiovascular disease to be the main cause of morbidity amongst cockpit and air traffic control personnel. Vision disorders were the main disorder occurring in Colombia. We do not know if there is a predisposition amongst Colombians to suffer such morbidity. Cardiovascular risk factors were found in second place in Colombia, meaning that public health prevention and promotion countermeasures should be taken.

  6. Bioequivalence tests based on individual estimates using non-compartmental or model-based analyses: evaluation of estimates of sample means and type I error for different designs (United States)

    Dubois, Anne; Gsteiger, Sandro; Pigeolet, Etienne; Mentré, France


    The main objective of this work is to compare the standard bioequivalence tests based on individual estimates of the area under the curve and the maximal concentration obtained by non compartmental analysis (NCA) to those based on individual empirical Bayes estimates (EBE) obtained by nonlinear mixed effects models. We evaluate by simulation the precision of sample means estimates and the type I error of bioequivalence tests for both approaches. Crossover trials are simulated under H0 using different numbers of subjects (N) and of samples per subject (n). We simulate concentration-time profiles with different variability settings for the between-subject and within-subject variabilities and for the variance of the residual error. Bioequivalence tests based on NCA show satisfactory properties with low and high variabilities, except when the residual error is high which leads to a very poor type I error or when n is small which leads to biased estimates. Tests based on EBE lead to an increase of the type I error when the shrinkage is above 20% which occurs notably when NCA fails. In those cases, tests based on individual estimates cannot be used. PMID:19876723

  7. Depth profiling of oxide-trapped charges in 6H-SiC MOS structures by slant etching method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Kazunari; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ohnishi, Kazunori [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Coll. of Science and Technology; Yoshikawa, Masahito; Ohshima, Takeshi; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Nashiyama, Isamu


    In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate the depth profile of trapped charges in an oxide layer on SiC. Using this method, 6H-SiC MOS structures with different oxide thickness were fabricated on the same substrate under the same oxidation condition, and the depth profile of oxide-trapped charges before and after {sup 60}Co-gamma ray irradiation were obtained. It is found, from the depth profiling, that the trapping mechanism of electrons and holes in the oxide strongly depends on the bias polarity during irradiation, and these charges are trapped near 6H-SiC/SiO{sub 2} interface. We believe that this method is very useful for estimation of the oxide-trapped charges in 6H-SiC MOS structures. (author)

  8. Quantitative estimation of carbonation and chloride penetration in reinforced concrete by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Shuzo, E-mail: [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan); Matsuo, Toyofumi; Matsumura, Takuro; Fujii, Takashi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan); Tanaka, Masayoshi Y. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan)


    The penetration profile of chlorine in a reinforced concrete (RC) specimen was determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The concrete core was prepared from RC beams with cracking damage induced by bending load and salt water spraying. LIBS was performed using a specimen that was obtained by splitting the concrete core, and the line scan of laser pulses gave the two-dimensional emission intensity profiles of 100 × 80 mm{sup 2} within one hour. The two-dimensional profile of the emission intensity suggests that the presence of the crack had less effect on the emission intensity when the measurement interval was larger than the crack width. The chlorine emission spectrum was measured without using the buffer gas, which is usually used for chlorine measurement, by collinear double-pulse LIBS. The apparent diffusion coefficient, which is one of the most important parameters for chloride penetration in concrete, was estimated using the depth profile of chlorine emission intensity and Fick's law. The carbonation depth was estimated on the basis of the relationship between carbon and calcium emission intensities. When the carbon emission intensity was statistically higher than the calcium emission intensity at the measurement point, we determined that the point was carbonated. The estimation results were consistent with the spraying test results using phenolphthalein solution. These results suggest that the quantitative estimation by LIBS of carbonation depth and chloride penetration can be performed simultaneously. - Highlights: • We estimated the carbonation depth and the apparent diffusion coefficient of chlorine sodium in the reinforced concrete with cracking damage by LIBS. • Two-dimensional profile measurement of the emission intensity in each element was performed to visualize the chloride penetration and the carbonation in the reinforced concrete. • Apparent diffusion coefficient of chlorine and sodium can be estimated using the Fick

  9. Obtaining Remote-Sensing Reflectance from Multiple Instrument Systems (United States)

    Freeman, Scott A.; Proctor, Christopher W.; Werdell, P. Jeremy


    Obtaining accurate in situ measurements of Apparent Optical Properties (AOPs) is critical to maintaining satellite data quality. One approach to ensure accuracy is to deploy several independent instruments to measure the same phenomenon. During a cruise in June 2012, off the lee coast of the island of Hawaii, repeated profiles were made with two separate radiometric systems, one from Satlantic, Inc. (Hyperpro) and the other from Biospherical Instruments, Inc. (C-Ops). The C-Ops is multispectral, while the Hyperpro is hyperspectral. Both measure above-water solar irradiance (E(sub s)), downwelling in-water irradiance (E(sub d)), and upwelling in-water radiance (L(sub u)). From these measurements remotely-sensed reflectance (R(sub rs))can be calculated and compared with satellite data. All instruments were calibrated shortly before use, and while differences are to be expected due to temporal changes and spectral weighting differences, these should be consistent and minimal. We explore these differences, and compare to data retrieved from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard Aqua (MODIS Aqua) when available. We also examine data collection and processing protocols for these systems.

  10. The worker profile autocontrolled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Omar Delgado Mora


    Full Text Available This document is part of two deliveries. In this first paper is to make an approach to the concept of self-control from the very beginning with Sakichi Toyoda, founder of what the industry Toyota Motor Company, additionally taking some excerpts of the concept issued by teachers and the psychologist Henry Murray, a professor at the university Harvard precursor test TAT personality test creator, pen applied world wide by psychologists David McCllelan, also a psychologist and a pioneer in the study of human needs and the concept of competence; Professor Jeffrey Pfeffer of Stanford University organizational behavior and theory, Frederick Hertzberg, Psychologist and strong influential in business management, Kronfly Cruz, lawyer and investigator of social and administrative sciences, Charles Perrow, a sociologist at Yale University and Stanford , who studies the impact of large organizations in society, among others. The study reflects the need to meet organizational objectives related to the physicochemical characteristics of the finished product in a plant of the company’s main beers in the country. In this paper, we intend to make an approximation of worker self -controlled, which when compared with the powers, generic, specific and technical area established by the brewery, will allow generating a methodology to adjust these competencies and to obtain the target profile drawn. This comparison and development of the methodology proposed is the subject of the second work planned.

  11. Sensing the wind profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.


    based on profiles of aerosol backscatter from ceilometer measurements. The lidar measuring technique is used to estimate momentum flux, showing high agreement compared to measurements at Hoevsoere and Horns Rev when the filtering effects of the lidar are taken into account. (au)

  12. Study on the Optimal Number of Transducers for Pipe Flow Rate Measurement Downstream of a Single Elbow Using the Ultrasonic Velocity Profile Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanehiro Wada


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new estimation method to determine the optimal number of transducers using an Ultrasonic Velocity Profile (UVP for accurate flow rate measurement downstream of a single elbow. Since UVP can measure velocity profiles over a pipe diameter and calculate the flow rate by integrating these velocity profiles, it is also expected to obtain an accurate flow rate using multiple transducers under nondeveloped flow conditions formed downstream of an elbow. The new estimation method employs a wave number of velocity profile fluctuations along a circle on a pipe cross-section using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. The optimal number of transducers is estimated based on the sampling theorem. To evaluate this method, a preliminary experiment and numerical simulations using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD are conducted. The evaluating regions of velocity profiles are located at 3 times of a pipe diameter ( for the experiment, and 1 and for the simulations downstream of an elbow, respectively. Reynolds numbers for the experiment and simulations are set at and , respectively. These results indicate the efficiency of this new method.

  13. Fractal Analysis of Rock Joint Profiles (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš


    Surface reliefs of rock joints are analyzed in geotechnics when shear strength of rocky slopes is estimated. The rock joint profiles actually are self-affine fractal curves and computations of their fractal dimensions require special methods. Many papers devoted to the fractal properties of these profiles were published in the past but only a few of those papers employed a convenient computational method that would have guaranteed a sound value of that dimension. As a consequence, anomalously low dimensions were presented. This contribution deals with two computational modifications that lead to sound fractal dimensions of the self-affine rock joint profiles. These are the modified box-counting method and the modified yard-stick method sometimes called the compass method. Both these methods are frequently applied to self-similar fractal curves but the self-affine profile curves due to their self-affine nature require modified computational procedures implemented in computer programs.

  14. Generic methodology for calibrating profiling nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borraccino, Antoine; Courtney, Michael; Wagner, Rozenn

    Improving power performance assessment by measuring at different heights has been demonstrated using ground-based profiling LIDARs. More recently, nacelle-mounted lidars studies have shown promising capabilities to assess power performance. Using nacelle lidars avoids the erection of expensive...... meteorology masts, especially offshore. A new generation of commercially developed profiling nacelle lidars has sophisticated measurement capabilities. As for any other measuring system, lidars measurements have uncertainties. Their estimation is the ultimate goal of a calibration. Field calibration...... procedures have been developed for non-profiling nacelle lidars. However, their specificity to one type of lidar or another highlights the need for developing generic calibration procedures. Such procedures should be applicable to any type of existing and upcoming lidar technology. Profiling nacelle lidars...

  15. Suspended sediment concentration profiles from synoptic satellite observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Rajawat, A; Chauhan, O.S.

    A method is developed to estimate vertical suspended sediment concentration (SSC) profiles in Gulf of Kachchh, from the sediment concentration values derived from synoptic observations of Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM). Under the influence of currents...

  16. Global Distribution of Root Profiles in Terrestrial Ecosystems (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rooting depths were estimated from a global database of root profiles assembled from the primary literature to study relationships of abiotic and biotic factors...

  17. Turbulent heat fluxes by profile and inertial dissipation methods: analysis of the atmospheric surface layer from shipboard measurements during the SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dupuis

    Full Text Available Heat flux estimates obtained using the inertial dissipation method, and the profile method applied to radiosonde soundings, are assessed with emphasis on the parameterization of the roughness lengths for temperature and specific humidity. Results from the inertial dissipation method show a decrease of the temperature and humidity roughness lengths for increasing neutral wind speed, in agreement with previous studies. The sensible heat flux estimates were obtained using the temperature estimated from the speed of sound determined by a sonic anemometer. This method seems very attractive for estimating heat fluxes over the ocean. However allowance must be made in the inertial dissipation method for non-neutral stratification. The SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE results show that, in unstable stratification, a term due to the transport terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget, has to be included in order to determine the friction velocity with better accuracy. Using the profile method with radiosonde data, the roughness length values showed large scatter. A reliable estimate of the temperature roughness length could not be obtained. The humidity roughness length values were compatible with those found using the inertial dissipation method.

  18. A new maximum likelihood blood velocity estimator incorporating spatial and temporal correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The blood flow in the human cardiovascular system obeys the laws of fluid mechanics. Investigation of the flow properties reveals that a correlation exists between the velocity in time and space. The possible changes in velocity are limited, since the blood velocity has a continuous profile in time...... of possible velocities. In the new estimator an additional similarity investigation for each evaluated velocity and the available velocity estimates in a temporal (between frames) and spatial (within frames) neighborhood is performed. An a priori probability density term in the distribution...... of the observations gives a probability measure of the correlation between the velocities. Both the MLE and the STC-MLE have been evaluated on simulated and in-vivo RF-data obtained from the carotid artery. Using the MLE 4.1% of the estimates deviate significantly from the true velocities, when the performance...

  19. Nocardia arizonensis sp. nov., obtained from human respiratory specimens. (United States)

    Lasker, Brent A; Bell, Melissa; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Schumann, Peter; Brown, June M


    In 2008, three clinical isolates (W9405(T), W9409 and W9575) were obtained from bronchial wash or sputum specimens from patients from the state of Arizona and characterised by polyphasic analysis. All three clinical isolates 16S rRNA gene sequences were found to be 100% identical to each other and showed the strains belong in the genus Nocardia. BLASTn searches in the GenBank database of near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the highest sequence similarities to the type strains of Nocardia takedensis (98.3%, sequence similarity), Nocardia lijiangensis (97.4%), Nocardia harenae (97.4%), and Nocardia xishanensis (97.1%). The DNA-DNA relatedness between isolate W9405(T) and the type strain of N. takedensis is 26.0 ± 2.4% when measured in silico using genomic DNA sequences. The G+C content of isolate W9405(T) is 68.6 mol%. Chemotaxonomic analyses of the clinical isolates were consistent with their assignment to the genus Nocardia: whole cell hydrolysates contain meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid of peptidoglycan; the whole-cell sugars are arabinose and galactose; the predominant phospholipids include diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol; MK-8-(H4)(ω-cyc) as the major menaquinone; mycolic acids ranging from 38 to 62 carbon atoms; and palmitic acid, tuberculostearic acid, palmitelaidic acid and oleic acid are the major fatty acids. Genus and species specific profiles were obtained following analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectra of the clinical isolates. All isolates were found to be intermediately resistant or resistant to minocycline and resistant to ciprofloxacin but were susceptible to amikacin, imipenem and linezolid. Our polyphasic analysis suggest the three clinical isolates obtained from patients in Arizona represent a novel species of Nocardia for which we propose the name Nocardia arizonensis, with strain W9405(T) (=DSM 45748(T) = CCUG

  20. Methane concentration inside a submarine mud volcano examined through seismic velocity profiles (United States)

    Kioka, Arata; Tsuji, Takeshi; Otsuka, Hironori; Ashi, Juichiro


    Mud volcanoes are considered to be among largest geological sources releasing hydrocarbon gases into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have revealed their origins and compositions from submarine mud volcanoes. A recent long-term observation at a submarine mud volcano sheds light on that larger volume of methane gas than expected is escaped from deep-water mud volcanoes, suggesting that the global methane flux from the seafloor is likely underestimated. Yet, estimates of the gas amount inside mud volcanoes have been still challenging, because of the difficulty of in-situ measurements. This study provides a new model to bridge methane amounts and seismic velocities in fluidized mud conduits of submarine mud volcanoes. This model is universally applicable and enables estimates of methane concentration in the mud conduits, using the seismic velocity profile derived from reflection/refraction seismic and/or downhole logging data. In this study, (1) we examine our modeled results through deep-drilling data obtained at mud volcanoes in the Olimpi mud field of the central Mediterranean Ridge accretionary margin, to evaluate the difference between in situ methane amounts and those calculated from our model, and (2) apply our model to the seismic velocity profile derived from seicmic data to estimate the methane amount inside the submarine mud volcano in the Nankai accretionary margin. Our scheme may provide an opportunity to re-estimate the total methane flux from submarine mud volcanoes.

  1. Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic...... linearity of the estimator is established under weak conditions. Indeed, we show that the bandwidth conditions employed are necessary in some cases. A bias-corrected version of the estimator is proposed and shown to be asymptotically linear under yet weaker bandwidth conditions. Consistency of an analog...... estimator of the asymptotic variance is also established. To establish the results, a novel result on uniform convergence rates for kernel estimators is obtained....

  2. Airborne Crowd Density Estimation (United States)

    Meynberg, O.; Kuschk, G.


    This paper proposes a new method for estimating human crowd densities from aerial imagery. Applications benefiting from an accurate crowd monitoring system are mainly found in the security sector. Normally crowd density estimation is done through in-situ camera systems mounted on high locations although this is not appropriate in case of very large crowds with thousands of people. Using airborne camera systems in these scenarios is a new research topic. Our method uses a preliminary filtering of the whole image space by suitable and fast interest point detection resulting in a number of image regions, possibly containing human crowds. Validation of these candidates is done by transforming the corresponding image patches into a low-dimensional and discriminative feature space and classifying the results using a support vector machine (SVM). The feature space is spanned by texture features computed by applying a Gabor filter bank with varying scale and orientation to the image patches. For evaluation, we use 5 different image datasets acquired by the 3K+ aerial camera system of the German Aerospace Center during real mass events like concerts or football games. To evaluate the robustness and generality of our method, these datasets are taken from different flight heights between 800 m and 1500 m above ground (keeping a fixed focal length) and varying daylight and shadow conditions. The results of our crowd density estimation are evaluated against a reference data set obtained by manually labeling tens of thousands individual persons in the corresponding datasets and show that our method is able to estimate human crowd densities in challenging realistic scenarios.

  3. Estimated SAGE II ozone mixing ratios in early 1993 and comparisons with Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamic Expedition measurements (United States)

    Yue, G. K.; Veiga, R. E.; Poole, L. R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Proffitt, M. H.


    An empirical time-series model for estimating ozone mixing ratios based on Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) monthly mean ozone data for the period October 1984 through June 1991 has been developed. The modeling results for ozone mixing ratios in the 10- to 30- km region in early months of 1993 are presented. In situ ozone profiles obtained by a dual-beam UV-absorption ozone photometer during the Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) campaign, May 1-14, 1993, are compared with the model results. With the exception of two profiles at altitudes below 16 km, ozone mixing ratios derived by the model and measured by the ozone photometer are in relatively good agreement within their individual uncertainties. The identified discrepancies in the two profiles are discussed.

  4. [Descriptive equations of the frontal-facial profile of Australopithecus africanus STS5 (Plesianthropus transvaalensis)]. (United States)

    Pesce Delfino, V; Scattarella, V; De Lucia, A


    By means of the method previously carried-out by performing computerized image analysis we obtained three polinomial equations (7 degree) of best curve fitting for total (fronto-facial), frontal and facial profiles respectively of a standard lateral view of the skull Plesianthropus transvaalensis. The smooth function curves approximating the historical data are perfectly coincident with the scatter diagram for frontal (variance = 0,41) and facial (variance = 0,22) equations, while for the total contour variance raises to 90,8. The finding of the best fit equation is performed by analysis of variance simultaneously to the computation of the coefficients of progressively increasing order equations starting from the second. Then coefficient of determination, standard error of estimate. Standard deviations of coefficients and variance/covariance matrix are calculated with some dimensional parameters as length, eight and projections of profile, relate indexes and arc-chord ratio.

  5. Laser Beam Profile Influence on LIBS Analytical Capabilities: Single vs. Multimode Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Lednev, Vasily N; Bunkin, Alexey F


    Single vs. multimode laser beams have been compared for laser ablation on steel samples. Laser plasma properties and analytical capabilities (precision, limit of detection) were used as key parameters for comparison. Peak fluence at focal spot has been observed to be higher for Gaussian beam despite ~14-fold lower pulse energy. A comparison of Gaussian and multimode beams with equal energy was carried out in order to estimate influence of beam profile only. Single mode lasing (Gaussian beam) results in better reproducibility of analytical signals compared to multimode lasing while laser energy reproducibility was the same for both cases. Precision improvements were attributed to more stable laser ablation due to better reproducibility of beam profile fluence at laser spot. Plasma temperature and electron density were higher for Gaussian laser beam. Calibration curves were obtained for four elements under study (Cr, Mn, Si, Cu). Two sampling (drilling and scanning procedures) and two optical detection schemes ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  7. Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamuk, Eren, E-mail:; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)


    Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.

  8. Signal vs. Noise: Obtaining a representative δ18O record in a low-accumulation region (United States)

    Münch, Thomas; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Freitag, Johannes; Meyer, Hanno; Laepple, Thomas


    Single ice cores have been proven to be a key archive to reconstruct climate changes on glacial to interglacial time scales in temperature as well as in greenhouse gases and many other climate parameters. In contrast, for the Holocene climate evolution single ice cores are likely less reliable recorders. The small amplitude of Holocene climate changes, together with the goal to reconstruct high-temporal resolution records down to subannual timescales, poses a significant challenge to the interpretation of ice core signals, especially in low-accumulation regions as the Antarctic plateau. In order to learn about the representativity of single firn cores and to optimize future ice-core based climate reconstructions, we undertook an extensive study of replicate firn coring and surface snow sampling at Kohnen station on Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. For the first time - to our knowledge - two-dimensional images of the water isotope and density structure of the upper firn have been obtained from two 45 m long and 1.2 m deep firn trenches separated at a distance of 500 m, yielding a climate proxy archive spanning roughly the last five years. In this contribution, we present the results of the stable water isotope compositions obtained from the two firn trenches. Seasonal layering of the isotopes is following an absolute depth scale likely caused by an annual reorganization of the snow surface directly related to the local dune scale. Local surface winds cause highly variable isotopic signals of the surface snow, featuring a similar range as the seasonal cycle. However, even in deeper layers, strong perturbations of the isotopic stratigraphy are found, resulting in a low representativity of single firn cores. On the contrary, the mean trench profiles are highly correlated, giving a representative climate signal over a spatial scale of at least 500 m. The decorrelation length of the stratigraphic noise is ~10 m, yielding an estimate of an optimal sampling strategy for

  9. Blind estimation of reverberation time. (United States)

    Ratnam, Rama; Jones, Douglas L; Wheeler, Bruce C; O'Brien, William D; Lansing, Charissa R; Feng, Albert S


    The reverberation time (RT) is an important parameter for characterizing the quality of an auditory space. Sounds in reverberant environments are subject to coloration. This affects speech intelligibility and sound localization. Many state-of-the-art audio signal processing algorithms, for example in hearing-aids and telephony, are expected to have the ability to characterize the listening environment, and turn on an appropriate processing strategy accordingly. Thus, a method for characterization of room RT based on passively received microphone signals represents an important enabling technology. Current RT estimators, such as Schroeder's method, depend on a controlled sound source, and thus cannot produce an online, blind RT estimate. Here, a method for estimating RT without prior knowledge of sound sources or room geometry is presented. The diffusive tail of reverberation was modeled as an exponentially damped Gaussian white noise process. The time-constant of the decay, which provided a measure of the RT, was estimated using a maximum-likelihood procedure. The estimates were obtained continuously, and an order-statistics filter was used to extract the most likely RT from the accumulated estimates. The procedure was illustrated for connected speech. Results obtained for simulated and real room data are in good agreement with the real RT values.

  10. Blind estimation of reverberation time (United States)

    Ratnam, Rama; Jones, Douglas L.; Wheeler, Bruce C.; O'Brien, William D.; Lansing, Charissa R.; Feng, Albert S.


    The reverberation time (RT) is an important parameter for characterizing the quality of an auditory space. Sounds in reverberant environments are subject to coloration. This affects speech intelligibility and sound localization. Many state-of-the-art audio signal processing algorithms, for example in hearing-aids and telephony, are expected to have the ability to characterize the listening environment, and turn on an appropriate processing strategy accordingly. Thus, a method for characterization of room RT based on passively received microphone signals represents an important enabling technology. Current RT estimators, such as Schroeder's method, depend on a controlled sound source, and thus cannot produce an online, blind RT estimate. Here, a method for estimating RT without prior knowledge of sound sources or room geometry is presented. The diffusive tail of reverberation was modeled as an exponentially damped Gaussian white noise process. The time-constant of the decay, which provided a measure of the RT, was estimated using a maximum-likelihood procedure. The estimates were obtained continuously, and an order-statistics filter was used to extract the most likely RT from the accumulated estimates. The procedure was illustrated for connected speech. Results obtained for simulated and real room data are in good agreement with the real RT values.

  11. Alternate strategies to obtain mass balance without the use of radiolabeled compounds: application of quantitative fluorine (19F) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in metabolism studies. (United States)

    Mutlib, Abdul; Espina, Robert; Atherton, James; Wang, Jianyao; Talaat, Rasmy; Scatina, JoAnn; Chandrasekaran, Appavu


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is playing an increasingly important role in the quantitation of small and large molecules. Recently, we demonstrated that (1)H NMR could be used to quantitate drug metabolites isolated in submilligram quantities from biological sources. It was shown that these metabolites, once quantitated by NMR, were suitable to be used as reference standards in quantitative LC/MS-based assays, hence circumventing the need for radiolabeled material or synthetic standards to obtain plasma exposure estimates in humans and preclinical species. The quantitative capabilities of high-field NMR is further demonstrated in the current study by obtaining the mass balance of fluorinated compounds using (19)F-NMR. Two fluorinated compounds which were radio-labeled with carbon-14 on metabolically stable positions were dosed in rats and urine and feces collected. The mass balance of the compounds was obtained initially by counting the radioactivity present in each sample. Subsequently, the same sets of samples were analyzed by (19)F-NMR, and the concentrations determined by this method were compared with data obtained using radioactivity counting. It was shown that the two methods produced comparable values. To demonstrate the value of this analytical technique in drug discovery, a fluorinated compound was dosed intravenously in dogs and feces and urine collected. Initial profiling of samples showed that this compound was excreted mainly unchanged in feces, and hence, an estimate of mass balance was obtained using (19)F-NMR. The data obtained by this method was confirmed by additional quantitative studies using mass spectrometry. Hence cross-validations of the quantitative (19)F-NMR method by radioactivity counting and mass spectrometric analysis were demonstrated in this study. A strategy outlining the use of fluorinated compounds in conjunction with (19)F-NMR to understand their routes of excretion or mass balance in animals is proposed. These

  12. Estimating stream discharge using stage and multi-level acoustic Doppler velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jane Bang; Rasmussen, Keld Rømer; Ovesen, Niels Bering

    obtained from an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and with discharge values derived by the Danish Water Authority by traditional stage-discharge analysis. The novelty of this approach is that the velocity gradient is implemented as a marker for hydraulic changes in the hydrograph estimation......, without explicit use of cross sectional area and cross sectional average velocity. The initial results show good agreement between the ADCP discharge measurements and the discharge values predicted from the stage-velocity method and suggest superiority of the stage-velocity method during abrupt changes...

  13. Estimation of Impulsive Wave-induced Loads on a FPSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, Alaa E.


    ) and for green water loads from the results of Buchner (1995) and Wang et al. (1998) are applied. The phase lag relative to the wave-induced peak and the decay rate are derived mainly from published experimental results, Sikora, (1998). The results are given in closed-form expressions and the required input...... information for the procedure is re-stricted to the main ship dimensions: Length, breadth, draught, block coefficient and bow flare coefficient. The formulas make it simple to obtain quick estimates in the conceptual design phase and to perform a sensi-tivity study of the variation of the ship’s main...... dimensions and operational profile. The procedure is applied to an FPSO and used to investigate the hull girder reliability taking into account structural degradations due to corrosions. The strength of the hull is modeled as a time function of corrosion rate. The hull girder reliability was thus determined...

  14. An improved model for estimating pesticide emissions for agricultural LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky


    , and thus the initial leaching rate of pesticide through preferential flow. A third improvement of the updated model is a simplified user interface which makes the model easier to evaluate and operate. The updated PestLCI model is demonstrated on cases involving different climatic circumstances...... products, off-target pesticide emissions need to be quantified as accurately as possible because of the considerable toxicity effects associated with chemicals designed to have a high impact on biological organisms like for example insects or weed plants. PestLCI was developed to estimate the fractions...... of the applied pesticide that is emitted from a field to the surrounding environmental compartments: air, surface water, and ground water. However, the applicability of the model has been limited to 1 typical Danish soil type and 1 climatic profile obtained from the national Danish meteorological station...

  15. Estimation of Anonymous Email Network Characteristics through Statistical Disclosure Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Portela


    Full Text Available Social network analysis aims to obtain relational data from social systems to identify leaders, roles, and communities in order to model profiles or predict a specific behavior in users’ network. Preserving anonymity in social networks is a subject of major concern. Anonymity can be compromised by disclosing senders’ or receivers’ identity, message content, or sender-receiver relationships. Under strongly incomplete information, a statistical disclosure attack is used to estimate the network and node characteristics such as centrality and clustering measures, degree distribution, and small-world-ness. A database of email networks in 29 university faculties is used to study the method. A research on the small-world-ness and Power law characteristics of these email networks is also developed, helping to understand the behavior of small email networks.

  16. Block matching and B-spline methods in deformation estimation in synthetic left ventricular model with nontransmural infarction (United States)

    Żmigrodzki, J.; Cygan, S.; Werys, K.; Leśniak-Plewińska, B.; Kowalski, M.; KałuŻyński, K.


    The cardiac elastography aims at identification of non-transmural infarctions. Two displacement estimation methods in such an application using synthetic ultrasonic data are studied. Reference was obtained from Finite Element Modelling. Models had the form of half of an ellipsoid with 15 mm wall thickness. The homogenous model, models with transmural and nontransmural inclusion were designed. Deformation of the models was simulated using Abaqus. Ultrasonic data of LAX and SAX views were generated using Field II. Radial (dR) and lateral (dL) displacements were estimated using a 2D correlation search with 2D stretching (2DCS) and B-spline (BS) method. Strains were estimated using least squares estimator. Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of the dR in the LAX view was approx. 6[μm] for 2DCS and 8[μm] for BS, that of the dL 30 and 24[μm] respectively. MAE of the second component of the principal strain (epsilon)2 was 0.10 and 0.14[%], respectively. Corresponding values for SAX view were 7, 10, 42, 52[μm] and 0.47 and 1.08[%]. In the LAX view both estimation methods result in the (epsilon)2 behavior coherent with the presence of the inclusion, with the 2DCS results closer to the reference. In the SAX view the BS approach results in high errors of the estimate. The (epsilon)2 profiles, LAX view, show minor discrepancies with respect to the reference and show the effect of the inclusion. The (epsilon)2 profiles, SAX view, obtained from displacements estimated using the BS method strongly deviate from the reference. Block matching performs better in application to the local strain estimation.

  17. Impact location estimation in anisotropic structures (United States)

    Zhou, Jingru; Mathews, V. John; Adams, Daniel O.


    Impacts are major causes of in-service damage in aerospace structures. Therefore, impact location estimation techniques are necessary components of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). In this paper, we consider impact location estimation in anisotropic composite structures using acoustic emission signals arriving at a passive sensor array attached to the structure. Unlike many published location estimation algorithms, the algorithm presented in this paper does not require the waveform velocity profile for the structure. Rather, the method employs time-of-arrival information to jointly estimate the impact location and the average signal transmission velocities from the impact to each sensor on the structure. The impact location and velocities are estimated as the solution of a nonlinear optimization problem with multiple quadratic constraints. The optimization problem is solved by using first-order optimality conditions. Numerical simulations as well as experimental results demonstrate the ability of the algorithm to accurately estimate the impact location using acoustic emission signals.

  18. Criminal Psychological Profiling (United States)


    landmark report became known to the general population. Dr. Langer’s profile broke new ground. While the practice of psychoanalysis was not new, this or college dropout. Suspect is probably suffering from one or more forms of paranoid psychosis .6 Perpetrator: Based on this profile, the police

  19. Compton profile of tantalum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scale-Compton profile is directly related to the momentum distribution of the electrons. The spectral analysis ... proximation, the Compton profile J(q) is the projection of the target's electron momentum distribution, n(p) ... densed matter and serves as a reliable test of the accuracy of the calculated wave functions. Such basic ...

  20. Reinforced aerodynamic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to the prevention of deformations in an aerodynamic profile caused by lack of resistance to the bending moment forces that are created when such a profile is loaded in operation. More specifically, the invention relates to a reinforcing element inside an aerodynamic...

  1. Chemical profiling of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, G.M.H.


    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as

  2. Characterizing Spatial Variability of Ice Algal Chlorophyll a and Net Primary Production between Sea Ice Habitats Using Horizontal Profiling Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Lange


    Full Text Available Assessing the role of sea ice algal biomass and primary production for polar ecosystems remains challenging due to the strong spatio-temporal variability of sea ice algae. Therefore, the spatial representativeness of sea ice algal biomass and primary production sampling remains a key issue in large-scale models and climate change predictions of polar ecosystems. To address this issue, we presented two novel approaches to up-scale ice algal chl a biomass and net primary production (NPP estimates based on profiles covering distances of 100 to 1,000 s of meters. This was accomplished by combining ice core-based methods with horizontal under-ice spectral radiation profiling conducted in the central Arctic Ocean during summer 2012. We conducted a multi-scale comparison of ice-core based ice algal chl a biomass with two profiling platforms: a remotely operated vehicle and surface and under ice trawl (SUIT. NPP estimates were compared between ice cores and remotely operated vehicle surveys. Our results showed that ice core-based estimates of ice algal chl a biomass and NPP do not representatively capture the spatial variability compared to the remotely operated vehicle-based estimates, implying considerable uncertainties for pan-Arctic estimates based on ice core observations alone. Grouping sea ice cores based on region or ice type improved the representativeness. With only a small sample size, however, a high risk of obtaining non-representative estimates remains. Sea ice algal chl a biomass estimates based on the dominant ice class alone showed a better agreement between ice core and remotely operated vehicle estimates. Grouping ice core measurements yielded no improvement in NPP estimates, highlighting the importance of accounting for the spatial variability of both the chl a biomass and bottom-ice light in order to get representative estimates. Profile-based measurements of ice algae chl a biomass identified sea ice ridges as an underappreciated

  3. Agricultural Pilot's Audiological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foltz, Lucas


    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural airplane pilot are daily exposed to intense noises, being susceptible to the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and its auditory and extra auditory effects. Objective: To analyze the audiological profile of this population, verifying the work's influence on its hearing. Method: It was realized a retrospective, individual, observational, and cross-sectional study through the data obtained by means of a questionnaire and audiometric thresholds of 41 agricultural pilots. To the statistical analysis were utilized the chi-square, Spearman, and Wilcoxon tests with significance level of 5%. Results: It was verified that 95,1% of the pilots use PPE ( personal protective equipment during flight and 58,5% have contact with pesticides. More than half of individuals referred to feel auditory and extra auditory symptoms, being the buzz the more frequent (29,1%. It has the occurrence of 29,3% of NIHL suggestive hearing loss and 68,3% of normality, taking this presence of unilateral notch in 24,4% and bilateral notch in 31,7%. It was found correlation statistically significant in the associations between time of service and the average of the acute frequencies in the right ear (p=0038, and in the left ear (p=0,010. It has a statistical tendency in the association between audiometric configuration and contact with pesticides (p=0,088. Conclusion: The hearing loss prevalence in this study was showed high. More than half of the sample has normal audiometric thresholds with notch configuration. Such data lead to the conclusion that the agricultural pilots, even with PPE use, they still suffer with the damages caused by noise, needing best proposals of hearing loss prevention.

  4. Freezing Time Estimation for a Cylindrical Food Using an Inverse Method (United States)

    Hu, Yao Xing; Mihori, Tomoo; Watanabe, Hisahiko

    Most of the published methods for estimating the freezing time require thermal properties of the product and any relevant heat transfer coefficients between the product and the cooling medium. However, the difficulty of obtaining thermal data for use in industrial freezing system of food has been pointed out. We have developed a new procedure for estimating the time to freeze a food of a slab by using the inverse method, which does not require the knowledge of thermal properties of the food being frozen. The method of applying inverse method to estimation of freezing time depends on the shape of the body to be frozen. In this paper, we explored the method of applying inverse method to the food body of cylindrical shape, using selected explicit expressions to describe the temperature profile. The temperature profile was found to be successfully approximated by a logarithmic function, with which an approximate equation to describe the freezing time was derived. An inversion procedure of estimating freezing time associated with the approximate equation, was validated via a numerical experiment.

  5. Performance Bounds of Quaternion Estimators. (United States)

    Xia, Yili; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Nitta, Tohru; Mandic, Danilo P


    The quaternion widely linear (WL) estimator has been recently introduced for optimal second-order modeling of the generality of quaternion data, both second-order circular (proper) and second-order noncircular (improper). Experimental evidence exists of its performance advantage over the conventional strictly linear (SL) as well as the semi-WL (SWL) estimators for improper data. However, rigorous theoretical and practical performance bounds are still missing in the literature, yet this is crucial for the development of quaternion valued learning systems for 3-D and 4-D data. To this end, based on the orthogonality principle, we introduce a rigorous closed-form solution to quantify the degree of performance benefits, in terms of the mean square error, obtained when using the WL models. The cases when the optimal WL estimation can simplify into the SWL or the SL estimation are also discussed.

  6. PolInSAR tomography for vertical profile retrieval of forest vegetation using spaceborne SAR data (United States)

    Joshi, Sushil K.; Kumar, Shashi; Agrawal, Shefali; Dinh, Ho T. M.


    Forest height plays a crucial role to investigate the bio-physical parameters of forest and the terrestrial carbon. PolInSAR based inversion modeling has been successfully implemented on airborne and space-borne SAR data. SAR tomography, which is an extension of cross-track interferometric processing is a recent approach to separate scatterers in cross range direction, thus generates its vertical profile. This study highlighted the potential of tomographic processing of fully polarimetric Radarsat-2 SAR system to retrieve backscatter power at different height levels. Teak forest in Haldwani forest division of Uttarakhand state of India was chosen as the test site. Since SAR tomography is a spectral estimation problem, Fourier transform and beamforming based spectral estimations were applied on the dataset to obtain their vertical profiles. Fourier severely suffered from high side lobes which was drastically reduced by implementing beam-forming by taking into account the multi-looking effect at the expense of radiometric accuracy. Backscattered power values were found to be different at different height levels of the forest vegetation. Vertical profile for Fourier as well as beam-forming were also retrieved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeney Lauzurique Guerra


    Full Text Available In this work the distillation by pressure reduction was evaluated through the HYSYS v3.2 process simulator. Due to the lack of data in the consulted bibliography to perform the simulation, the STATGRAPHICS Centurion XVI software was used to obtain a response surface that would define optimal operating conditions. The property package selected to work was based on the Margules model. An anhydrous ethanol molar composition of 0.9917 was obtained. Temperature profiles were analyzed as well as liquid and vapor molar flows and dehydration column composition profiles. The influence of operating parameters on the efficiency of simulated technology was determined by analyzing one case study. According to economic evaluation, the implementation of this technology is not economically profitable; taking into account current prices and costs mostly due to high energy consumption and construction costs of the tower. This result contributes to the pursuit of other profitable technologies from the economic point of view.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1 D. E. Manolakis. Efficient solution and performance analysis of 3-d position estimation by trilateration. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, volume 32(4), pages 1239–1248, October 1996. 2 D. E. Manolakis. Aircraft vertical profile prediction based on surveillance data only. IEE Proceedings on Radar, ...

  9. Brief communication "Snow profile associated measurements (SPAM) - a new instrument for quick snow profile measurements" (United States)

    Lahtinen, P.


    A new instrument concept (SPAM) for snow profile associated measurements is presented. The potential of the concept is demonstrated by presenting preliminary results obtained with the prototype instrument. With this concept it is possible to retrieve rapid snow profiles of e.g. light extinction, reflectance, temperature and snow layer structure with high vertical resolution. As a side-product, also snow depth is retrieved.

  10. Biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 24, 2011 ... determining the biofilm producing capability and antibiotic resistance profiles of the S. aureus isolated from drinking water and clinical samples from HIV patients in the Limpopo Province. S. aureus strains isolated from clinical samples including urine, sputum, and stools obtained from HIV and AIDS patients.

  11. Ensemble estimators for multivariate entropy estimation. (United States)

    Sricharan, Kumar; Wei, Dennis; Hero, Alfred O


    The problem of estimation of density functionals like entropy and mutual information has received much attention in the statistics and information theory communities. A large class of estimators of functionals of the probability density suffer from the curse of dimensionality, wherein the mean squared error (MSE) decays increasingly slowly as a function of the sample size T as the dimension d of the samples increases. In particular, the rate is often glacially slow of order O(T(-)(γ)(/)(d) ), where γ > 0 is a rate parameter. Examples of such estimators include kernel density estimators, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) density estimators, k-NN entropy estimators, intrinsic dimension estimators and other examples. In this paper, we propose a weighted affine combination of an ensemble of such estimators, where optimal weights can be chosen such that the weighted estimator converges at a much faster dimension invariant rate of O(T(-1)). Furthermore, we show that these optimal weights can be determined by solving a convex optimization problem which can be performed offline and does not require training data. We illustrate the superior performance of our weighted estimator for two important applications: (i) estimating the Panter-Dite distortion-rate factor and (ii) estimating the Shannon entropy for testing the probability distribution of a random sample.

  12. Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage 2006 and 2007 Market Estimates (United States)

    These reports provide economic profile information on sectors producing and using pesticides covered by FIFRA mandated regulatory programs. The reports contain contemporary and historical data estimating values and amounts of active ingredients used here.

  13. Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage 2008 - 2012 Market Estimates (United States)

    These reports provide economic profile information on sectors producing and using pesticides covered by FIFRA mandated regulatory programs. The reports contain contemporary and historical data estimating values and amounts of active ingredients used here.

  14. Estimating the Age Distribution of Oceanic Dissolved Organic Carbon (United States)

    Follett, C. L.; Forney, D. C.; Repeta, D.; Rothman, D.


    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a large, ubiquitous component of open ocean water at all depths and impacts atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at both short and long timescales. It is currently believed that oceanic DOC contains a multi-thousand-year-old refractory deep-water component which is mixed with a young labile component in surface waters. Unfortunately, the only evidence for this comes from a few isolated depth profiles of both DOC concentration and bulk radiocarbon. Although the profile data is consistent with a two-component mixing model, directly separating the two components has proven to be a challenge. We explore the validity of the two component mixing model by directly estimating the age distribution of oceanic DOC. The two-component model suggests that the age distribution is composed of two distinct peaks. In order to obtain an estimate of the age distribution we first record changes in both concentration and percent radiocarbon as a sample is oxidized under ultra-violet radiation [1]. We formulate a mathematical model relating the age distribution to these changes, assuming that they result from components of different radiocarbon age and UV-reactivity. This allows us to numerically invert the data and estimate the age distribution. We apply our procedure to DOC samples collected from three distinct depths (50, 500, and 2000 meters) in the north-central Pacific Ocean. [1] S.R. Beaupre, E.R.M. Druffel, and S. Griffin. A low-blank photochemical extraction system for concentration and isotopic analyses of marine dissolved organic carbon. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods, 5:174-184, 2007.

  15. A method for sex estimation using the proximal femur. (United States)

    Curate, Francisco; Coelho, João; Gonçalves, David; Coelho, Catarina; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Navega, David; Cunha, Eugénia


    The assessment of sex is crucial to the establishment of a biological profile of an unidentified skeletal individual. The best methods currently available for the sexual diagnosis of human skeletal remains generally rely on the presence of well-preserved pelvic bones, which is not always the case. Postcranial elements, including the femur, have been used to accurately estimate sex in skeletal remains from forensic and bioarcheological settings. In this study, we present an approach to estimate sex using two measurements (femoral neck width [FNW] and femoral neck axis length [FNAL]) of the proximal femur. FNW and FNAL were obtained in a training sample (114 females and 138 males) from the Luís Lopes Collection (National History Museum of Lisbon). Logistic regression and the C4.5 algorithm were used to develop models to predict sex in unknown individuals. Proposed cross-validated models correctly predicted sex in 82.5-85.7% of the cases. The models were also evaluated in a test sample (96 females and 96 males) from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection (University of Coimbra), resulting in a sex allocation accuracy of 80.1-86.2%. This study supports the relative value of the proximal femur to estimate sex in skeletal remains, especially when other exceedingly dimorphic skeletal elements are not accessible for analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A thermodynamic approach to obtain materials properties for engineering applications (United States)

    Chang, Y. Austin


    With the ever increases in the capabilities of computers for numerical computations, we are on the verge of using these tools to model manufacturing processes for improving the efficiency of these processes as well as the quality of the products. One such process is casting for the production of metals. However, in order to model metal casting processes in a meaningful way it is essential to have the basic properties of these materials in their molten state, solid state as well as in the mixed state of solid and liquid. Some of the properties needed may be considered as intrinsic such as the density, heat capacity or enthalpy of freezing of a pure metal, while others are not. For instance, the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy is not a defined thermodynamic quantity. Its value depends on the micro-segregation of the phases during the course of solidification. The objective of the present study is to present a thermodynamic approach to obtain some of the intrinsic properties and combining thermodynamics with kinetic models to estimate such quantities as the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy.

  17. Magnetic properties of nanoparticles obtained by different chemical routes. (United States)

    Andrade, Angela L; Souza, Diana M; Pereira, Márcio C; Fabris, José D; Domingues, Rosana Z


    It is well known that nano-sized materials often present chemical, electronic, magnetic, and mechanical properties that are potentially interesting for many technological applications comparatively to their corresponding bulk properties. This paper describes the main differences in magnetic properties among nanomagnetite powders prepared by three methods: (I) reduction-precipitation of ferric chloride by reaction with Na2SO3; (II) reduction of hematite with coal, and (III) reduction of hematite with hydrogen gas. The obtained materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), saturation magnetization measurements, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Saturation magnetization values varied from 60 to 86 J T(-1)kg(-1). XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy results at 298 K showed the clear effect of the preparation routes on the crystallographic structure and crystallite size of the magnetic species. Magnetite was formed in varying proportions in all samples, with crystallite sizes estimated by Scherrer formula of about 10, 26, and 33 nm for samples prepared by methods (I), (II), and (III), respectively. The Mössbauer spectrum of the sample prepared by method (I) consisted of broad lines and hyperfine field for magnetite lower than that typically reported for the bulk material.

  18. Remote remanence estimation (RRE) (United States)

    Pratt, David A.; McKenzie, K. Blair; White, Tony S.


    The remote determination of magnetic remanence in rocks is a method that has largely been ignored because of the ambiguity associated with the estimation of both the Koenigsberger ratio and remanent magnetisation direction. Our research shows that the resultant magnetisation direction can be derived directly through inversion of magnetic data for an isolated magnetic anomaly from a compact magnetic source. The resultant magnetisation direction is a property of the target magnetic rocks and a robust inversion parameter. The departure angle of the resultant magnetisation vector from that of the inducing magnetic field is an important indicator of the existence of remanent magnetisation and the inversion process can detect departures that are not easily detected by visual inspection. This departure angle is called the apparent resultant rotation angle or ARRA. The induced field vector, remanent magnetisation vector and resultant magnetisation vector lie on the plane of a great circle. We find the intersection of the transformed polar wander vector trace with the great circle plane to obtain one or more possible solutions for the remanent magnetisation vector. Geological deduction will normally allow us to reduce the ambiguity for multiple solutions to obtain the most likely remanent magnetisation direction. Once the remanent magnetisation direction is established, it is then possible to determine the Koenigsberger ratio and magnetic susceptibility for the target. We illustrate the methodology using survey data over the Black Hill Norite which also has extensive palaeomagnetic data available for comparison with the inversion results. We then apply the remote remanence estimation (RRE) method to a systematic study of a large number of intrusive pipes in the Thomson Orogen, New South Wales. The corrected magnetic susceptibility and remanence properties, spatial distribution and underlying uncertainties are evaluated for their potential use by diamond explorers. The

  19. Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles


    Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M.; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W.; Usenko, Sascha


    Currently, obtaining lifetime chemical profiles (i.e., from birth to death) is extremely rare and difficult for most of Earth’s animals. We have developed a unique approach to quantify hormone and contaminant lifetime profiles for an individual blue whale with a 6-mo resolution using the wax earplug as a natural matrix capable of archiving and preserving these temporal profiles. Using a male blue whale earplug, chemical analysis reveals lifetime patterns of mercury and organic pollutant expos...

  20. Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Crude Oil Obtained by Olive-Pomace Recentrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pasqualone


    Full Text Available In oil-mills, olive-pomace recentrifugation is a common way to reduce pomace moisture and, at the same time, to recover the oil therein. According to current rules, the obtained oil is defined as “crude olive-pomace oil.” The aim of this work is to verify the effect of recentrifugation on specific chemical and molecular parameters of the crude olive-pomace oil, by comparing it with the corresponding virgin olive oil obtained from the same olive lots. In particular, the following were considered: (i the polar compounds of the oils that include compounds originated from oxidative and hydrolytic degradation, analyzed by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC, and (ii the profile of DNA microsatellite molecular markers that was analyzed by using the High Resolution Melting (HRM technique. The obtained results evidenced the significantly higher hydrolytic degradation of crude olive-pomace oil, compared with the corresponding virgin olive oil, but at an extent unlikely able to allow the detection of fraudulent admixtures with virgin olive oils. In addition, the findings demonstrated the feasibility of the application of the HRM analysis of DNA microsatellites to crude olive-pomace oil, able to reveal the alteration of the declared varietal profile of a virgin olive oil sample by simply checking the HRM curve profiles.

  1. High resolution humidity, temperature and aerosol profiling with MeteoSwiss Raman lidar (United States)

    Dinoev, Todor; Arshinov, Yuri; Bobrovnikov, Sergei; Serikov, Ilya; Calpini, Bertrand; van den Bergh, Hubert; Parlange, Marc B.; Simeonov, Valentin


    derive vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter ratio and aerosol extinction at 355 nm. Set of Stokes and anti-Stokes PRR lines are separated by the polychromator to derive temperature profiles. The humidity profiles have vertical resolution from 15 m (within the boundary layer) to 100-450 m (within the free troposphere), time resolution of 30 min and 5 km vertical range at daytime and 10 km at night-time. The aerosol backscatter ratio and extinction profiles have similar resolution with vertical range of approximately 10 km. The temperature profiles are derived from PRR lidar signals, simultaneously recorded in analog and photon counting mode, allowing vertical range of approximately 10 km. Vaisala RS-92 and Snow-White chilled mirror hygrometer radiosondes were used for calibration of the water vapor and temperature channels. Continuous temperature profiles were obtained and were coupled with the available water vapor mixing ratio profiles to obtain relative humidity time series. Lidar derived aerosol backscatter ratio profiles will be used for estimation of the boundary layer height and validation of NWP model results. Optical thickness time series are currently compared to independent measurements from a collocated sun photometer to assess the performance of the aerosol channel.

  2. Sparse Representation Denoising for Radar High Resolution Range Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li


    Full Text Available Radar high resolution range profile has attracted considerable attention in radar automatic target recognition. In practice, radar return is usually contaminated by noise, which results in profile distortion and recognition performance degradation. To deal with this problem, in this paper, a novel denoising method based on sparse representation is proposed to remove the Gaussian white additive noise. The return is sparsely described in the Fourier redundant dictionary and the denoising problem is described as a sparse representation model. Noise level of the return, which is crucial to the denoising performance but often unknown, is estimated by performing subspace method on the sliding subsequence correlation matrix. Sliding window process enables noise level estimation using only one observation sequence, not only guaranteeing estimation efficiency but also avoiding the influence of profile time-shift sensitivity. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the return, leading to a high-quality profile.

  3. Basketball lay-up - foot loading characteristics and the number of trials necessary to obtain stable plantar pressure variables. (United States)

    Chua, YaoHui K; Quek, Raymond K K; Kong, Pui W


    This study aimed (1) to profile the plantar loading characteristics when performing the basketball lay-up in a realistic setting and (2) to determine the number of trials necessary to establish a stable mean for plantar loading variables during the lay-up. Thirteen university male basketball players [age: 23.0 (1.4) years, height: 1.75 (0.05) m, mass: 68.4 (8.6) kg] performed ten successful basketball lay-ups from a stationary position. Plantar loading variables were recorded using the Novel Pedar-X in-shoe system. Loading variables including peak force, peak pressure, and pressure-time integral were extracted from eight foot regions. Performance stability of plantar loading variables during the take-off and landing steps were assessed using the sequential averaging technique and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). High plantar loadings were experienced at the heel during the take-off steps, and both the heel and forefoot regions upon landing. The sequential estimation technique revealed a five-eight trial range to achieve a stable mean across all plantar loading variables, whereas ICC analysis was insensitive to inter-trial differences of repeated lay-up performances. Future studies and performance evaluation protocols on plantar loading during basketball lay-ups should include at least eight trials to ensure that the measurements obtained are sufficiently stable.

  4. Enhancing e-waste estimates: Improving data quality by multivariate Input–Output Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng, E-mail: [Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, Hermann-Ehler-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Design for Sustainability Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628CE Delft (Netherlands); Huisman, Jaco [Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, Hermann-Ehler-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Design for Sustainability Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628CE Delft (Netherlands); Stevels, Ab [Design for Sustainability Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628CE Delft (Netherlands); Baldé, Cornelis Peter [Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, Hermann-Ehler-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Statistics Netherlands, Henri Faasdreef 312, 2492 JP Den Haag (Netherlands)


    Highlights: • A multivariate Input–Output Analysis method for e-waste estimates is proposed. • Applying multivariate analysis to consolidate data can enhance e-waste estimates. • We examine the influence of model selection and data quality on e-waste estimates. • Datasets of all e-waste related variables in a Dutch case study have been provided. • Accurate modeling of time-variant lifespan distributions is critical for estimate. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams, which encompasses a wide and increasing spectrum of products. Accurate estimation of e-waste generation is difficult, mainly due to lack of high quality data referred to market and socio-economic dynamics. This paper addresses how to enhance e-waste estimates by providing techniques to increase data quality. An advanced, flexible and multivariate Input–Output Analysis (IOA) method is proposed. It links all three pillars in IOA (product sales, stock and lifespan profiles) to construct mathematical relationships between various data points. By applying this method, the data consolidation steps can generate more accurate time-series datasets from available data pool. This can consequently increase the reliability of e-waste estimates compared to the approach without data processing. A case study in the Netherlands is used to apply the advanced IOA model. As a result, for the first time ever, complete datasets of all three variables for estimating all types of e-waste have been obtained. The result of this study also demonstrates significant disparity between various estimation models, arising from the use of data under different conditions. It shows the importance of applying multivariate approach and multiple sources to improve data quality for modelling, specifically using appropriate time-varying lifespan parameters. Following the case study, a roadmap with a procedural guideline is provided to enhance e

  5. 3D Auger quantitative depth profiling of individual nanoscaled III–V heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourani, W. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Gorbenko, V. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LTM, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Barnes, J.-P.; Guedj, C. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Cipro, R.; Moeyaert, J.; David, S.; Bassani, F.; Baron, T. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LTM, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Martinez, E., E-mail: [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France)


    Highlights: • The nanoscale chemical characterization of III–V heterostructures is performed using Auger depth profiling below decananometric spatial resolution. • Reliable indium quantification is achieved on planar structures for thicknesses down to 9 nm. • Quantitative 3D compositional depth profiles are obtained on patterned structures, with sufficient lateral resolution to analyze one single trench. • The Auger intrinsic spatial resolution is estimated around 150–200 nm using a comparison with HAADF-STEM. • Auger and SIMS provide reliable in-depth chemical analysis of such complex 3D heterostructures, in particular regarding indium quantification. - Abstract: The nanoscale chemical characterization of III–V heterostructures is performed using Auger depth profiling below decananometric spatial resolution. This technique is successfully applied to quantify the elemental composition of planar and patterned III–V heterostructures containing InGaAs quantum wells. Reliable indium quantification is achieved on planar structures for thicknesses down to 9 nm. Quantitative 3D compositional depth profiles are obtained on patterned structures, for trench widths down to 200 nm. The elemental distributions obtained in averaged and pointed mode are compared. For this last case, we show that Zalar rotation during sputtering is crucial for a reliable indium quantification. Results are confirmed by comparisons with secondary ion mass spectrometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Auger intrinsic spatial resolution is quantitatively measured using an original methodology based on the comparison with high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements at the nanometric scale.

  6. Profiling the Mobile Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille Wegener; King, Nancy J.


    Mobile customers are increasingly being tracked and profiled by behavioural advertisers to enhance delivery of personalized advertising. This type of profiling relies on automated processes that mine databases containing personally-identifying or anonymous consumer data, and it raises a host...... of significant concerns about privacy and data protection. This second article in a two part series on "Profiling the Mobile Customer" explores how to best protect consumers' privacy and personal data through available mechanisms that include industry self-regulation, privacy-enhancing technologies...

  7. Profiler - A Fast and Versatile New Program for Decomposing Galaxy Light Profiles (United States)

    Ciambur, Bogdan C.


    I introduce Profiler, a user-friendly program designed to analyse the radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies. With an intuitive graphical user interface, Profiler can accurately model galaxies of a broad range of morphological types, with various parametric functions routinely employed in the field (Sérsic, core-Sérsic, exponential, Gaussian, Moffat, and Ferrers). In addition to these, Profiler can employ the broken exponential model for disc truncations or anti-truncations, and two special cases of the edge-on disc model: along the disc's major or minor axis. The convolution of (circular or elliptical) models with the point spread function is performed in 2D, and offers a choice between Gaussian, Moffat or a user-provided profile for the point spread function. Profiler is optimised to work with galaxy light profiles obtained from isophotal measurements, which allow for radial gradients in the geometric parameters of the isophotes, and are thus often better at capturing the total light than 2D image-fitting programs. Additionally, the 1D approach is generally less computationally expensive and more stable. I demonstrate Profiler's features by decomposing three case-study galaxies: the cored elliptical galaxy NGC 3348, the nucleated dwarf Seyfert I galaxy Pox 52, and NGC 2549, a double-barred galaxy with an edge-on, truncated disc.

  8. Cancer Related-Knowledge - Small Area Estimates (United States)

    These model-based estimates are produced using statistical models that combine data from the Health Information National Trends Survey, and auxiliary variables obtained from relevant sources and borrow strength from other areas with similar characteristics.

  9. Enhancing e-waste estimates: improving data quality by multivariate Input-Output Analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Stevels, Ab; Baldé, Cornelis Peter


    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams, which encompasses a wide and increasing spectrum of products. Accurate estimation of e-waste generation is difficult, mainly due to lack of high quality data referred to market and socio-economic dynamics. This paper addresses how to enhance e-waste estimates by providing techniques to increase data quality. An advanced, flexible and multivariate Input-Output Analysis (IOA) method is proposed. It links all three pillars in IOA (product sales, stock and lifespan profiles) to construct mathematical relationships between various data points. By applying this method, the data consolidation steps can generate more accurate time-series datasets from available data pool. This can consequently increase the reliability of e-waste estimates compared to the approach without data processing. A case study in the Netherlands is used to apply the advanced IOA model. As a result, for the first time ever, complete datasets of all three variables for estimating all types of e-waste have been obtained. The result of this study also demonstrates significant disparity between various estimation models, arising from the use of data under different conditions. It shows the importance of applying multivariate approach and multiple sources to improve data quality for modelling, specifically using appropriate time-varying lifespan parameters. Following the case study, a roadmap with a procedural guideline is provided to enhance e-waste estimation studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quasar Black Hole Mass Estimates from High-Ionization Lines: Breaking a Taboo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marziani


    Full Text Available Can high ionization lines such as CIV λ 1549 provide useful virial broadening estimators for computing the mass of the supermassive black holes that power the quasar phenomenon? The question has been dismissed by several workers as a rhetorical one because blue-shifted, non-virial emission associated with gas outflows is often prominent in CIV λ 1549 line profiles. In this contribution, we first summarize the evidence suggesting that the FWHM of low-ionization lines like H β and MgII λ 2800 provide reliable virial broadening estimators over a broad range of luminosity. We confirm that the line widths of CIV λ 1549 is not immediately offering a virial broadening estimator equivalent to the width of low-ionization lines. However, capitalizing on the results of Coatman et al. (2016 and Sulentic et al. (2017, we suggest a correction to FWHM CIV λ 1549 for Eddington ratio and luminosity effects that, however, remains cumbersome to apply in practice. Intermediate ionization lines (IP ∼ 20–30 eV; AlIII λ 1860 and SiIII] λ 1892 may provide a better virial broadening estimator for high redshift quasars, but larger samples are needed to assess their reliability. Ultimately, they may be associated with the broad-line region radius estimated from the photoionization method introduced by Negrete et al. (2013 to obtain black hole mass estimates independent from scaling laws.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anil H. T; S. D. Mahamood Pasha


    .... Relevant history was obtained. Examination and investigations were conducted. RESULTS Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference between the means of lipid profile of the patients and the control group...

  12. Price and cost estimation (United States)

    Stewart, R. D.


    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  13. Serum Protein Profile Alterations in Hemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A


    Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.

  14. Estimating demand schedules in hedonic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panduro, Toke Emil; Jensen, Cathrine Ulla; Lundhede, Thomas

    The hedonic pricing method has been used extensively to obtain implicit prices for availability of urban green space, but few hedonic studies have obtained households’ preference parameters. We estimate willingness to pay functions for park availability in Copenhagen using an approach that places...... an alternative path for estimation of demand schedules for public goods using hedonic data. The findings also stress the importance of paying attention to how public goods are defined when undertaking welfare economic policy analyses....

  15. Fishing Community Profiles (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that present...

  16. Wind Profiling Radar (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  17. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  18. Fire Management Species Profiles (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the Fire Management Species Profile project is to identify habitat management objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, clearly...

  19. Beach Profile Locations (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 275 - Obtaining Customer Authorization (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining Customer Authorization B Appendix B to... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. B Appendix B to Part 275—Obtaining Customer Authorization A. A DoD law... feasible, obtain the customer's consent. B. Any authorization obtained under paragraph A. of this appendix...