Sample records for profile escambia wood

  1. 2006 Florida LiDAR: Escambia, Santa Rosa, and Walton Counties (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESCAMBIA: The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Escambia County, Florida. These data were produced for Dewberry and...

  2. Polyphenolic profile as a useful tool to identify the wood used in wine aging. (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Hernández, Ma Teresa; Estrella, Isabel


    Although oak wood is the main material used in cooperage, other species are being considered as possible sources of wood for the production of wines and their derived products. In this work we have compared the phenolic composition of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia), chestnut (Castanea sativa), cherry (Prunus avium) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior and F. americana) heartwoods, by using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS/MS (some of these data have been showed in previous paper), as well as the changes that toasting intensity at cooperage produce in each polyphenolic profile. Before toasting, each wood shows a different and specific polyphenolic profile, with both qualitative and quantitative differences among them. Toasting notably changed these profiles, in general, proportionally to toasting intensity and led to a minor differentiation among species in toasted woods, although we also found phenolic markers in toasted woods. Thus, methyl syringate, benzoic acid, methyl vanillate, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4,5-trimethylphenol and p-coumaric acid, condensed tannins of the procyanidin type, and the flavonoids naringenin, aromadendrin, isosakuranetin and taxifolin will be a good tool to identify cherry wood. In acacia wood the chemical markers will be the aldehydes gallic and β-resorcylic and two not fully identified hydroxycinnamic compounds, condensed tannins of the prorobinetin type, and when using untoasted wood, dihydrorobinetin, and in toasted acacia wood, robinetin. In untoasted ash wood, the presence of secoiridoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, or di and oligolignols will be a good tool, especially oleuropein, ligstroside and olivil, together verbascoside and isoverbascoside in F. excelsior, and oleoside in F. americana. In toasted ash wood, tyrosol, syringaresinol, cyclolovil, verbascoside and olivil, could be used to identify the botanical origin. In addition, in ash wood, seasoned and toasted, neither hydrolysable nor condensed tannins were detected. Lastly, in chestnut wood, gallic

  3. Physician profiling: applications for the Robert Wood Johnson Profiling Project database. (United States)

    Newman, C; White, S; Burman, D


    An overview of the applications and limitations of the Center for Research in Ambulatory Health Care Administration (CRAHCA) Profiling Project database funded by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation is presented. The Profiling Project collects data from 77 practices and links organizational, provider, and patient demographics to administrative data. The Project's database has the capacity (1) to profile physicians based on the Resource Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) relative value units as a measure of work and (2) to identify practice patterns as defined by procedures used by physicians with the same diagnosis. The Project will further explore variations between physicians and specialties based on systems of care, physician specialty, and patient differences. The comparative reports generated from these data provide comparisons on selected indicators for participating practices.

  4. Profile of the lumber and wood products industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The lumber and wood products industry includes establishments engaged in cutting timber and pulpwood; sawmills, lath mills, shingle mills, cooperage stock mills (wooden casks or tubs), planing mills, plywood mills; and establishments engaged in manufacturing finished articles made entirely or mainly of wood or related materials such as reconstituted wood panel products manufacturers. The categorization corresponds to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code 24 established by Department of Commerce`s Bureau of the Census to track the flow of goods and services within the economy. In this profile, the industry`s processes are divided into four general groups: logging timber; producing lumber; panel products and wood preserving.

  5. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter


    is a renewable resource makes it predestinated for what is considered ´sustainable architecture´. But the reality is less linear and there are serious traps: In fact the lecture shows by examples that it is much easier to build very unsustainable buildings in wood than the other way round! Where does the wood...


    Phytoplankton pigments were monitored quarterly at over 50 stations in Escambia/Pensacola Bay System (Pensacola, FL) from spring of 1996 to fall 2000. HPLC accessory pigments were used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure. HPLC data suggest a dominance of blue-green a...


    Smith, Lisa M., Darrin D. Dantin and Steve Jordan. In press. Habitat Assessment Using a Random Probability Based Sampling Design: Escambia River Delta, Florida (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems...

  8. Wood (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow


    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  9. The Assessment of the Character Profile of Wood-based House Users in the Czech Republic

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    Josef Lenoch


    Full Text Available In the years 2012–2014 the authors carried out an extensive marketing research among users of wood-based buildings in the Czech Republic. The questionnaire survey had 1,000 respondents – Czech households using a wood-based house. The survey was conducted separately in each region of the Czech Republic (40–100 questionnaires per region. The results were evaluated separately for each region and for the Czech Republic as a whole. Questionnaires consisted of four thematic groups of questions. This paper deals with processing and evaluation of results of the first group of questions. This group addresses characteristics of people using wood-based family houses. The results are evaluated for individual regions and for the whole Czech Republic. The evaluation covers seven characteristics of adults using the surveyed buildings: age of users, type of the buildings’ ownership, educational attainment, sector of employment, profession, type of previous housing, and the size of municipality of the previous housing. The aim of the paper is to create profile of a “common user” of wood-based buildings. The results of the marketing research can be used to enhance competitiveness of companies in the woodworking and construction sector.

  10. Effect of oak wood barrel capacity and utilization time on phenolic and sensorial profile evolution of an Encruzado white wine. (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo; Muxagata, Sara; Correia, Ana C; Nunes, Fernando M; Cosme, Fernanda; Jordão, António M


    Several studies have reported the influence of diverse winemaking technologies in white wine characteristics. However, the impact of the use of different oak wood barrel capacities and utilization time on the evolution of white wine phenolic content and sensorial characteristics are not usually considered. Thus the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of oak wood barrel capacity and utilization time on the evolution of phenolic compounds, browning potential index and sensorial profile of an Encruzado white wine. For the 180 aging days considered, the use of new oak wood barrels induced a greater increase in global phenolic composition, including several individual compounds, such as gallic and ellagic acid, independently of the barrel capacity. Tendency for a lesser increase of the browning potential index values was detected for white wines aged in new oak wood barrels. The sensorial profile evolution, showed significant differences only for the aroma descriptors, namely for 'wood aroma' and 'aroma intensity', white wine aged in 225 L new oak wood barrels being the highest scored. The results show that, in general, the use of different capacities and utilization time of oak wood barrels used for white wine aging could play an important role in white wine quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


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    Mario Tomazelo-Filho


    Full Text Available Four annual tree-rings (2 of juvenile wood and 2 of mature wood were sampled from fast-growth plantations ofGmelina arborea in two climatic conditions (dry and wet tropical in Costa Rica. Each annual tree-ring was divided in equal parts ina radial direction. For each part, X-ray density as well as vessel percentage, length and width fiber, cell wall thickness and lumendiameter were measured. Wood density and profile patterns of cell dimension demonstrated inconsistency between juvenile andmature wood and climatic conditions. The Pearson correlation matrix showed that intra-ring wood density was positively correlatedwith the cell wall thickness and negatively correlated with vessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width. The forwardstepwise regressions determined that: (i intra-ring wood density variation could be predicted from 76 to 96% for anatomicalvariation; (ii cell wall thickness was the most important anatomical feature to produce intra-ring wood density variation and (iii thevessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width were the second most statically significant characteristics to intra-ring wooddensity, however, with low participation of the determination coefficient of stepwise regressions.

  12. Unitization and additional recovery planning in the Jay-Little Escambia Creek fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenstrite, J.J.; Hadlow, R.E.; Harris, R.W.


    Within 4 yrs of discovery, the Jay-Little Escambia Creek field was producing over 90,000 bopd and additional recovery operations had begun under unitized operations. This paper reports the planning, investment commitments, and unitization efforts that brought about these achievements in this important oil discovery. Reservoir evaluations designed to support specific planning needs and made early in the life of the Jay-Lec field were necessary for rapid and efficient development. The formation evaluation program followed throughout the development of this field provided a firm basis of factual data that aided the unitization program and supported the additional recovery planning studies. Purchase agreements that provided for precommitment for additional recovery facilities allowed initiation of water injection some 15 mo. earlier than would have been possible otherwise. Development and unitization progressed simultaneously. Final determination of participation at the effective date of unitization reduced the unitization period by 9 mo.

  13. Charring rate determination of wood pine profiles submitted to high temperatures


    Fonseca, E.M.M.; Barreira, Luísa


    The wood material presents an increasing use for structural engineering applications in buildings and other specials engineering production. To assess safety rules, this type of elements should have sufficient mechanical resistance to guarantee the design loads. Wood is a natural material and is submitted to many constantly changing influences. The high wood vulnerability, due accidental conditions, requires rigorous thermal and mechanical assessment. The combustion and the ...

  14. Chemical Profiles of Wood Components of Poplar Clones for Their Energy Utilization

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    Danica Kačíková


    Full Text Available Selected and tested poplar clones are very suitable biomass resources for various applications such as biofuels, the pulp and paper industry as well as chemicals production. In this study, we determined the content of lignin, cellulose, holocellulose, and extractives, syringyl to guaiacyl (S/G ratio in lignin, and also calculated higher heating values (HHV among eight examined clones of Populus grown on three different experimental sites. The highest lignin content for all the examined sites was determined in ‘I-214’ and ‘Baka 5’ clones, whereas the highest content of extractives was found in ‘Villafranca’ and ‘Baka 5’ clones. The highest S/G ratio for all the examined sites was determined in ‘Villafranca’ and ‘Agathe F’ clones. The chemical profiles of main wood components, extractives, and the S/G ratio in lignin were also influenced by both the experimental site and the clone × site interaction. Higher heating values, derived from calculations based on the contents of lignin and extractives (or lignin only, were in close agreement with the previously published data. The highest heating values were found for ‘Baka 5’ and ‘I-214’ clones. The optimal method of poplar biomass utilization can be chosen on basis of the lignocellulosics chemical composition and the S/G ratio in lignin.

  15. Ground-water recharge in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, Florida (United States)

    Grubbs, J.W.


    Ground water is a major component of Florida's water resources, accounting for 90 percent of all public-supply and self-supplied domestic water withdrawals, and 58 percent of self-supplied commercial-industrial and agricultural withdrawals of freshwater (Marella, 1992). Ground-water is also an important source of water for streams, lakes, and wetlands in Florida. Because of their importance, a good understanding of these resources is essential for their sound development, use, and protection. One area in which our understanding is lacking is in characterizing the rate at which ground water in aquifers is recharged, and how recharge rates vary geographically. Ground-water recharge (recharge) is the replenishment of ground water by downward infiltration of water from rainfall, streams, and other sources (American Society of Civil Engineers, 1987, p. 222). The recharge rates in many areas of Florida are unknown, of insufficient accuracy, or mapped at scales that are too coarse to be useful. Improved maps of recharge rates will result in improved capabilities for managing Florida's ground-water resources. In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, began a study to delineate high-rate recharge areas in several regions of Florida (Vecchioli and others, 1990). This study resulted in recharge maps that delineated areas of high (greater than 10 inches per year) and low (0 to 10 inches per year) recharge in three counties--Okaloosa, Pasco, and Volusia Counties--at a scale of 1:100,000. This report describes the results of a similar recharge mapping study for Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties (fig. 1), in which areas of high- and low-rates of recharge to the sand-and-gravel aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer are delineated. The study was conducted in 1992 and 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

  16. Experimental Study of the Flexural and Compression Performance of an Innovative Pultruded Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Wood Composite Profile (United States)

    Qi, Yujun; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Weiqing; Fang, Hai; Lu, Weidong


    The plate of a pultruded fiber-reinforced polymer or fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) profile produced via a pultrusion process is likely to undergo local buckling and cracking along the fiber direction under an external load. In this study, we constructed a pultruded glass-fiber-reinforced polymer-light wood composite (PGWC) profile to explore its mechanical performance. A rectangular cross-sectional PGWC profile was fabricated with a paulownia wood core, alkali-free glass fiber filaments, and unsaturated phthalate resin. Three-point bending and short column axial compression tests were conducted. Then, the stress calculation for the PGWC profile in the bending and axial compression tests was performed using the Timoshenko beam theory and the composite component analysis method to derive the flexural and axial compression rigidity of the profile during the elastic stress stage. The flexural capacity for this type of PGWC profile is 3.3-fold the sum of the flexural capacities of the wood core and the glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) shell. The equivalent flexural rigidity is 1.5-fold the summed flexural rigidity of the wood core and GFRP shell. The maximum axial compressive bearing capacity for this type of PGWC profile can reach 1.79-fold the sum of those of the wood core and GFRP shell, and its elastic flexural rigidity is 1.2-fold the sum of their rigidities. These results indicate that in PGWC profiles, GFRP and wood materials have a positive combined effect. This study produced a pultruded composite material product with excellent mechanical performance for application in structures that require a large bearing capacity. PMID:26485431

  17. Comparative metagenomic profiling reveals lignocellulose degrading systems in microbial communities associated with wood-feeding insects (United States)

    The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) is an invasive, wood-boring pest that thrives in the heartwood of deciduous tree species. The biggest impediment faced by A. glabripennis as it feeds on woody tissue is lignin, a highly recalcitrant biopolymer that reduces access to sugars locke...

  18. Profile of the wood furniture and fixtures industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The furniture and fixtures industry encompasses companies that manufacture household, office, store, public building, and restaurant furniture and fixtures. The second section provides background information on the size, geographic distribution, employment, production, sales, and economic condition of the Wood Furniture and Fixtures industry. The type of facilities described within the document are also described in terms of their Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes. Additionally, this section contains a list of the largest companies in terms of sales.

  19. A microarray-based method for the parallel analysis of genotypes and expression profiles of wood-forming tissues in Eucalyptus grandis

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    Lezar Sabine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast-growing Eucalyptus grandis trees are one of the most efficient producers of wood in South Africa. The most serious problem affecting the quality and yield of solid wood products is the occurrence of end splitting in logs. Selection of E. grandis planting stock that exhibit preferred wood qualities is thus a priority of the South African forestry industry. We used microarray-based DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis in combination with expression profiling to develop fingerprints and profile gene expression of wood-forming tissue of seven different E. grandis trees. Results A 1578-probe cDNA microarray was constructed by arraying 768 cDNA-AFLP clones and 810 cDNA library clones from seven individual E. grandis trees onto silanised slides. The results revealed that 32% of the spotted fragments showed distinct expression patterns (with a fold change of at least 1.4 or -1.4 and a p value of 0.01 could be grouped into clusters representing co-expressed genes. Evaluation of the binary distribution of cDNA-AFLP fragments on the array showed that the individual genotypes could be discriminated. Conclusion A simple, yet general method was developed for genotyping and expression profiling of wood-forming tissue of E. grandis trees differing in their splitting characteristics and in their lignin contents. Evaluation of gene expression profiles and the binary distribution of cDNA-AFLP fragments on the chip suggest that the prototype chip developed could be useful for transcript profiling and for the identification of Eucalyptus trees with preferred wood quality traits in commercial breeding programmes.

  20. Organic pollutants profiling of wood ashes from biomass power plants linked to the ash characteristics. (United States)

    Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Omil, Beatriz; Merino, Agustín; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús


    Wood ash, characterized by high content of certain nutrients and charcoal, can be applied to soils as a means of managing this waste product improving the soil quality. The associated environmental risk must be assessed. The objective of this study was to characterize the bottom and fly ash collected from 15 biomass power plants in Spain by determining the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and styrene (BTEX+S), PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbon contents of both types of ash. Biochar was also used for comparison purposes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric methods were used for the identification and determination of both BTEX+S and aliphatic hydrocarbon contents in bottom and fly ashes, as well as biochar. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for PAHs measurements. Multivariate correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between sample characteristics and pollutants identified by partial least squares regression analysis. In general, the degree to which organic matter in the sample is burned increases with T50 or the "50% burn off" temperature (possibly due to the addition of fuel), and the BTEX+S also tended to increase. However, as the Q/MO (the heat of combustion divided by organic matter mass) increased, the combustion decreased or proceeded with less oxygen, which appears to be related to an increased presence of PAHs. The results confirm that the amounts of organic pollutants (PAHs and BTEX+S, together with total aliphatic hydrocarbons) in the wood ash do not exceed limits established for different soil or industrial uses. Both types of ash, together with biochar, may therefore be suitable for application to soil as a fertilizer and an organic amendment, taking into account the target organic pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Metagenomic profiling reveals lignocellulose degrading system in a microbial community associated with a wood-feeding beetle. (United States)

    Scully, Erin D; Geib, Scott M; Hoover, Kelli; Tien, Ming; Tringe, Susannah G; Barry, Kerrie W; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Chovatia, Mansi; Herr, Joshua R; Carlson, John E


    The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophoraglabripennis) is an invasive, wood-boring pest that thrives in the heartwood of deciduous tree species. A large impediment faced by A. glabripennis as it feeds on woody tissue is lignin, a highly recalcitrant biopolymer that reduces access to sugars and other nutrients locked in cellulose and hemicellulose. We previously demonstrated that lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose are actively deconstructed in the beetle gut and that the gut harbors an assemblage of microbes hypothesized to make significant contributions to these processes. While lignin degrading mechanisms have been well characterized in pure cultures of white rot basidiomycetes, little is known about such processes in microbial communities associated with wood-feeding insects. The goals of this study were to develop a taxonomic and functional profile of a gut community derived from an invasive population of larval A. glabripennis collected from infested host trees and to identify genes that could be relevant for the digestion of woody tissue and nutrient acquisition. To accomplish this goal, we taxonomically and functionally characterized the A. glabripennis midgut microbiota through amplicon and shotgun metagenome sequencing and conducted a large-scale comparison with the metagenomes from a variety of other herbivore-associated communities. This analysis distinguished the A. glabripennis larval gut metagenome from the gut communities of other herbivores, including previously sequenced termite hindgut metagenomes. Genes encoding enzymes were identified in the A. glabripennis gut metagenome that could have key roles in woody tissue digestion including candidate lignin degrading genes (laccases, dye-decolorizing peroxidases, novel peroxidases and β-etherases), 36 families of glycoside hydrolases (such as cellulases and xylanases), and genes that could facilitate nutrient recovery, essential nutrient synthesis, and detoxification. This community could serve as a

  2. Metagenomic profiling reveals lignocellulose degrading system in a microbial community associated with a wood-feeding beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin D Scully

    Full Text Available The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophoraglabripennis is an invasive, wood-boring pest that thrives in the heartwood of deciduous tree species. A large impediment faced by A. glabripennis as it feeds on woody tissue is lignin, a highly recalcitrant biopolymer that reduces access to sugars and other nutrients locked in cellulose and hemicellulose. We previously demonstrated that lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose are actively deconstructed in the beetle gut and that the gut harbors an assemblage of microbes hypothesized to make significant contributions to these processes. While lignin degrading mechanisms have been well characterized in pure cultures of white rot basidiomycetes, little is known about such processes in microbial communities associated with wood-feeding insects. The goals of this study were to develop a taxonomic and functional profile of a gut community derived from an invasive population of larval A. glabripennis collected from infested host trees and to identify genes that could be relevant for the digestion of woody tissue and nutrient acquisition. To accomplish this goal, we taxonomically and functionally characterized the A. glabripennis midgut microbiota through amplicon and shotgun metagenome sequencing and conducted a large-scale comparison with the metagenomes from a variety of other herbivore-associated communities. This analysis distinguished the A. glabripennis larval gut metagenome from the gut communities of other herbivores, including previously sequenced termite hindgut metagenomes. Genes encoding enzymes were identified in the A. glabripennis gut metagenome that could have key roles in woody tissue digestion including candidate lignin degrading genes (laccases, dye-decolorizing peroxidases, novel peroxidases and β-etherases, 36 families of glycoside hydrolases (such as cellulases and xylanases, and genes that could facilitate nutrient recovery, essential nutrient synthesis, and detoxification. This community

  3. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp065 deployed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the East Coast - US/Canada from 2015-10-01 to 2016-01-07 (NCEI Accession 0145716) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) received the data...

  4. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp010 deployed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the East Coast - US/Canada from 2017-07-07 to 2017-09-12 (NCEI Accession 0166618) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)...

  5. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp066 deployed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the East Coast - US/Canada from 2015-12-17 to 2016-04-06 (NCEI Accession 0153789) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) received the data...

  6. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp066 deployed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the East Coast - US/Canada from 2016-08-18 to 2016-09-28 (NCEI Accession 0156697) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) received the data...

  7. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp010 deployed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the East Coast - US/Canada from 2015-04-09 to 2015-06-25 (NCEI Accession 0139261) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) received the data...

  8. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp055 deployed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the East Coast - US/Canada from 2015-07-16 to 2015-10-16 (NCEI Accession 0145714) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) received the data...

  9. Determination of density profiles of unevenly compressed wood of Po­pu­lus tremula using the X – RAY DENSE – LAB laboratory device

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    Aleš Dejmal


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the measuring of the density profile of unevenly pressed wood of European aspen (Populus tremula L.. The main aim of the work is to examine in an experimental way the possibilities of using the X – RAY DENSE – LAB laboratory equipment designed for the determination of density profiles of agglomerated and plied large-area materials. The work uses the X – RAY DENSE – LAB equipment to determine the density profile of the cross-section of unevenly pressed aspen wood, plasticized hydrothermically, without the presence of chemical substances. The work also presents calculations of the level of compression/densification in dependence on the density and it describes the factors that can influence the density profile of compressed/densified wood; at the same time, it presents the possible ways to determine the density profile in the cross-section. Further, it includes the creation of the methodology for sample preparation so that the results do not get distorted during measuring. It describes the preparation of sample pieces, the orientation of the anatomic structure, the methodology of pressing, air conditioning, sample preparation, their measuring and analysis. The paper also describes the theory and the principles of measuring with use of X – RAY DENSE – LAB and its calibration. The paper analyses the obtained results of density profiles and searches for and describes the causes of the uneven distribution of the density in the cross-section. It concludes by summarizing the results and recommending the procedure for future measuring.

  10. Wood flour (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons


    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture.” Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  11. Wood flour (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caufield


    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture”. Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  12. Transcriptional profiles of hybrid Eucalyptus genotypes with contrasting lignin content reveal that monolignol biosynthesis-related genes regulate wood composition

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    Tomotaka eShinya


    Full Text Available Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected three-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis genotypes (AM063 and AM380 that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0% and 48.2%, -cellulose contents, respectively. We investigated the correlation between wood properties and transcript levels of wood formation-related genes using RNA-seq with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. Transcript levels of cell wall construction genes such as cellulose synthase (CesA and sucrose synthase (SUSY were almost the same in both genotypes. However, AM063 exhibited higher transcript levels of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP and xyloglucan endotransglucoxylase (XTH than those in AM380. Most monolignol biosynthesis- related isozyme genes showed higher transcript levels in AM380. These results indicate monolignol biosynthesis-related genes may regulate wood composition in Eucalyptus. Flavonoids contents were also observed at much higher levels in AM380 as a result of the elevated transcript levels of common phenylpropanoid pathway genes, phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL. Secondary plant cell wall formation is regulated by many transcription factors. We analyzed genes encoding NAC, WRKY, AP2/ERF and KNOX transcription factors and found higher transcript levels of these genes in AM380. We also observed increased transcription of some MYB and LIM domain transcription factors in AM380 compared to AM063. All these results show that genes related to monolignol biosynthesis may regulate the wood composition and help maintain the ratio of cellulose and lignin contents

  13. Functional genomics and microbiome profiling of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) reveal insights into the digestive physiology and nutritional ecology of wood feeding beetles. (United States)

    Scully, Erin D; Geib, Scott M; Carlson, John E; Tien, Ming; McKenna, Duane; Hoover, Kelli


    Wood-feeding beetles harbor an ecologically rich and taxonomically diverse assemblage of gut microbes that appear to promote survival in woody tissue, which is devoid of nitrogen and essential nutrients. Nevertheless, the contributions of these apparent symbionts to digestive physiology and nutritional ecology remain uncharacterized in most beetle lineages. Through parallel transcriptome profiling of beetle- and microbial- derived mRNAs, we demonstrate that the midgut microbiome of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), a member of the beetle family Cerambycidae, is enriched in biosynthetic pathways for the synthesis of essential amino acids, vitamins, and sterols. Consequently, the midgut microbiome of A. glabripennis can provide essential nutrients that the beetle cannot obtain from its woody diet or synthesize itself. The beetle gut microbiota also produce their own suite of transcripts that can enhance lignin degradation, degrade hemicellulose, and ferment xylose and wood sugars. An abundance of cellulases from several glycoside hydrolase families are expressed endogenously by A. glabripennis, as well as transcripts that allow the beetle to convert microbe-synthesized essential amino acids into non-essential amino acids. A. glabripennis and its gut microbes likely collaborate to digest carbohydrates and convert released sugars and amino acid intermediates into essential nutrients otherwise lacking from their woody host plants. The nutritional provisioning capabilities of the A. glabripennis gut microbiome may contribute to the beetles' unusually broad host range. The presence of some of the same microbes in the guts of other Cerambycidae and other wood-feeding beetles suggests that partnerships with microbes may be a facilitator of evolutionary radiations in beetles, as in certain other groups of insects, allowing access to novel food sources through enhanced nutritional provisioning.



    Marcos Theodoro Muller; Rafael Rodolfo de Melo; Diego Martins Stangerlin


    The term "wood welding" designates what can be defined as "welding of wood surfaces". This new process, that it provides the joint of wood pieces without the use of adhesives or any other additional material, provokes growing interest in the academic environment, although it is still in laboratorial state. Linear friction welding induced bymechanical vibration yields welded joints of flat wood surfaces. The phenomenon of the welding occurs in less time than 10 seconds, with the temperature in...

  15. Wood composites (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell


    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  16. Functional Wood


    Cronhjort, Yrsa (ed.); Hughes, Mark (ed.); Paakkanen, Mikko (ed.); Sahi, Karola (ed.); Tukiainen, Pekka (ed.); Tulamo, Tomi (ed.); Vahtikari, Katja (ed.)


    Design has been recognized as a key discipline to bring ideas to the market. In addition to current research on human perceptions and the functional capacities of wood, this publication demonstrates the potential of wood in various applications. The designs are the results of three design courses, implemented during 2015 and 2016 at Aalto University in Finland. The Masters student courses included two Wood Studios at Aalto University’s School of Arts, Design and Architecture and the Integrate...

  17. Wood preservation (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach


    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  18. Glass-Transition Temperature Profile Measured in a Wood Cell Wall Using Scanning Thermal Expansion Microscope (SThEM) (United States)

    Antoniow, J. S.; Maigret, J.-E.; Jensen, C.; Trannoy, N.; Chirtoc, M.; Beaugrand, J.


    This study aims to assess the in situ spatial distribution of glass-transition temperatures ( T g) of the main lignocellulosic biopolymers of plant cell walls. Studies are conducted using scanning thermal expansion microscopy to analyze the cross-section of the cell wall of poplar. The surface topography is mapped over a range of probe-tip temperatures to capture the change of thermal expansion on the sample surface versus temperature. For different temperature values chosen between 20 °C and 250 °C, several quantitative mappings were made to show the spatial variation of the thermal expansion. As the glass transition affects the thermal expansion coefficient and elastic modulus considerably, the same data line of each topography image was extracted to identify specific thermal events in their topographic evolution as a function of temperature. In particular, it is shown that the thermal expansion of the contact surface is not uniform across the cell wall and a profile of the glass-transition temperature could thus be evidenced and quantified corresponding to the mobility of lignocellulosic polymers having a role in the organization of the cell wall structures.

  19. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material. (United States)

    Forest Products Laboratory


    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  20. Wood as an adherend (United States)

    Bryan H. River; Charles B. Vick; Robert H. Gillespie


    Wood is a porous, permeable, hygroscopic, orthotropic, biological composite material of extreme chemical diversity and physical intricacy. Table 1.1 provides an overview of the may variables, including wood variables, that bear on the bonding and performance of wood in wood joints and wood-based materials. Of particular note is the fact that wood properties vary...

  1. Wood Availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.; Layos Mayr, Marian


    Estimation of the amount of wood that could potentially be harvested in a country can be accomplished using several approaches. A simple indicator is the balance between annual fellings and Net Annual Increment. However, this indicator does not take into account the actual age-class distribution of

  2. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding. (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone


    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  3. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian


    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  4. Wood Specific Gravity Variations and Biomass of Central African Tree Species: The Simple Choice of the Outer Wood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Bastin

    Full Text Available Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood specific gravity varies widely among and within species and also within individual trees. Notably, contrasted patterns of radial variation of wood specific gravity have been demonstrated and related to regeneration guilds (light demanding vs. shade-bearing. However, although being repeatedly invoked as a potential source of error when estimating the biomass of trees, both intraspecific and radial variations remain little studied. In this study we characterized detailed pith-to-bark wood specific gravity profiles among contrasted species prominently contributing to the biomass of the forest, i.e., the dominant species, and we quantified the consequences of such variations on the biomass.Radial profiles of wood density at 8% moisture content were compiled for 14 dominant species in the Democratic Republic of Congo, adapting a unique 3D X-ray scanning technique at very high spatial resolution on core samples. Mean wood density estimates were validated by water displacement measurements. Wood density profiles were converted to wood specific gravity and linear mixed models were used to decompose the radial variance. Potential errors in biomass estimation were assessed by comparing the biomass estimated from the wood specific gravity measured from pith-to-bark profiles, from global repositories, and from partial information (outer wood or inner wood.Wood specific gravity profiles from pith-to-bark presented positive, neutral and negative trends. Positive trends mainly characterized light-demanding species, increasing up to 1.8 per meter for Piptadeniastrum africanum, and negative trends characterized shade-bearing species, decreasing up to 1 per meter for Strombosia pustulata. The linear mixed model showed the greater part of wood specific gravity

  5. Wood Specific Gravity Variations and Biomass of Central African Tree Species: The Simple Choice of the Outer Wood. (United States)

    Bastin, Jean-François; Fayolle, Adeline; Tarelkin, Yegor; Van den Bulcke, Jan; de Haulleville, Thales; Mortier, Frederic; Beeckman, Hans; Van Acker, Joris; Serckx, Adeline; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles


    Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood specific gravity varies widely among and within species and also within individual trees. Notably, contrasted patterns of radial variation of wood specific gravity have been demonstrated and related to regeneration guilds (light demanding vs. shade-bearing). However, although being repeatedly invoked as a potential source of error when estimating the biomass of trees, both intraspecific and radial variations remain little studied. In this study we characterized detailed pith-to-bark wood specific gravity profiles among contrasted species prominently contributing to the biomass of the forest, i.e., the dominant species, and we quantified the consequences of such variations on the biomass. Radial profiles of wood density at 8% moisture content were compiled for 14 dominant species in the Democratic Republic of Congo, adapting a unique 3D X-ray scanning technique at very high spatial resolution on core samples. Mean wood density estimates were validated by water displacement measurements. Wood density profiles were converted to wood specific gravity and linear mixed models were used to decompose the radial variance. Potential errors in biomass estimation were assessed by comparing the biomass estimated from the wood specific gravity measured from pith-to-bark profiles, from global repositories, and from partial information (outer wood or inner wood). Wood specific gravity profiles from pith-to-bark presented positive, neutral and negative trends. Positive trends mainly characterized light-demanding species, increasing up to 1.8 per meter for Piptadeniastrum africanum, and negative trends characterized shade-bearing species, decreasing up to 1 per meter for Strombosia pustulata. The linear mixed model showed the greater part of wood specific gravity variance was

  6. Defining stem profile model for wood valuation of red pine in Ontario and Michigan with consideration of stand density influence on tree taper (United States)

    W. T. Zakrzewski; M. Penner; D. W. MacFarlane


    As part of the Canada-United States Great Lakes Stem Profile Modelling Project, established to support the local timber production process and to enable cross-border comparisons of timber volumes, here we present results of fitting Zakrzewski's (1999) stem profile model for red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) growing in Michigan, United States, and...

  7. Mathematical modelling of wood and briquettes torrefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfli, Felix Fonseca; Luengo, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos; Soler, Pedro Beaton [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Fac. de Ingenieria Mecanica. Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica; Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)


    A mathematical model valid for the torrefaction of wood logs and biomass briquettes is presented. The model described both chemical and physical processes, which take place in a moist piece of wood heated at temperatures between 503 and 573 K. Calibration measurements of the temperature profile and mass loss, were performed on dry cylinders of wood samples during torrefaction in an inert atmosphere at 503, 533, and 553 K. The calculated data shows a good agreement with experiments. The model can be a useful tool to estimate projecting and operating parameters for torrefaction furnaces such as minimum time of torrefaction, energy consumption and the mass yield. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Derya Gezer


    Full Text Available The production of wood based structural panel and lumber composites become to increase since the wood supply is changing due to the limit of larger dimension solid sawn lumber and insufficient solid woods with enough high strength as well. As we substitute wood composites for solid wood in protected application, these composite must show resistance to wood-destroying organisms such as fungi and insects. Accordingly, the exterior structural composites is required to be treated with preservatives. This paper provides an understanding of preservative treated wood composites. The objectives of this paper includes studying how to add preservative to wood composites, examining additive effect on glue-line and evaluating the best method of manufacturing wood composites treated with preservatives.

  9. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele


    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  10. Wood impregnation of yeast lees for winemaking. (United States)

    Palomero, Felipe; Bertani, Paolo; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Benito, Santiago; Morata, Antonio; Suárez-Lepe, José A


    This study develops a new method to produce more complex wines by means of an indirect diffusion of wood aromas from yeast cell-walls. An exogenous lyophilized biomass was macerated with an ethanol wood extract solution and subsequently dried. Different times were used for the adsorption of polyphenols and volatile compounds to the yeast cell-walls. The analysis of polyphenols and volatile compounds (by HPLC/DAD and GC-MS, respectively) demonstrate that the adsorption/diffusion of these compounds from the wood to the yeast takes place. Red wines were also aged with Saccharomyces cerevisiae lees that had been impregnated with wood aromas and subsequently dried. Four different types of wood were used: chestnut, cherry, acacia and oak. Large differences were observed between the woods studied with regards to their volatile and polyphenolic profiles. Sensory evaluations confirmed large differences even with short-term contact between the wines and the lees, showing that the method could be of interest for red wine making. In addition, the results demonstrate the potential of using woods other than oak in cooperage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr


    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  12. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  13. Iron Stain on Wood (United States)

    Mark Knaebe


    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  14. Energy from wood (United States)

    J.I. Zerbe


    In most developing countries wood and charcoal are the predominant fuels for preparation of food to maintain the quality of life that encompasses the majority of citizens. In many developing countries wood fuels are also important for small and medium size industries. Moreover, energy from wood continues to be important in industrial countries. In the USA biomass...

  15. Wood Formation in Trees (United States)

    Melanie Mauriat; Gregoire Le Provost; Phillippe Rozenberg; Sylvain Delzon; Nathalie Breda; Bruno Clair; Catherine Coutand; Jean-Christoph Domec; Thierry Fourcaud; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati; Raul Herrera; Jean-Charles Leple; Nicolas Richet; Jean-Francois Trontin; Christophe Plomion


    Among the ecosystem services provided by forests, wood provisioning takes a central position. Wood and derived products have played a critical role in the evolution of human kind and demand for raw material is increasing in a foreseeable future. Wood is used for energy production, construction and a wide variety of products for which different properties are required....

  16. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina


    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  17. Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.



    In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given to...

  18. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.


    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  19. Structure and function of wood (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Regis B. Miller


    Despite the many human uses to which various woods are suited, at a fundamental level wood is a complex biological structure, itself a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of the plant. Although humans have striven to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood...

  20. Chapter 9: Wood Energy (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee


    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  1. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.


    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  2. Heat sterilization of wood (United States)

    Xiping Wang


    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  3. Wood supply and demand (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever


    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  4. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob


    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners.......The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...

  5. PNG formatted images of EdgeTech SB-512i seismic-reflection profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey - Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center offshore of the Gulf Islands, MS, 2010. (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, MA and St. Petersburg, FL, in partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District conducted...

  6. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  7. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt


    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  8. Application of Algae as Cosubstrate To Enhance the Processability of Willow Wood for Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Zhao, Xueli


    This work proposes a novel strategy to improve the continuous processing of wood slurries in hydrothermal liquefaction systems by coprocessing with algae. Of all algae tested, brown seaweeds and microalgae perform best in preventing slurries dewatering, the main reason for pumpability issues...... with wood slurries. Rheological tests (viscosity–shear rate profile) indicate that the addition of these two algae to the wood slurry causes the highest increase in viscosity, which coincides with improved wood slurries stability and pumpability. Hydrothermal liquefaction of wood-algae slurries at 400 °C...

  9. Structure and Function of Wood (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft


    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many cell types and chemistries acting together to serve the needs of living plant. Attempting to understand wood inthe context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants-conduction of water from the...

  10. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben


    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...


    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  12. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror


    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  13. Adenocarcinoma and wood. (United States)

    Schraub, S; Belon-Leneutre, M; Mercier, M; Bourgeois, P


    The relation of adenocarcinoma of the facial sinuses and exposure to wood dust has been recognized for 20 years. As the tracheobronchial mucosa is similar to that lining the sinuses, a link between bronchial adenocarcinoma and wood dust exposure has been postulated. To test this hypothesis, a case-control study was conducted, based on all the histologically proven cases of adenocarcinoma of the lung reported to the tumor registry of the Doubs region of France from 1978 to 1985 and random population controls matched for age and residence. A questionnaire on occupational exposure and tobacco consumption was completed by 53 cases and 160 controls. Exposure to wood was similar for both groups, the crude relative risk (odds ratio) being 1.06; adjustment for tobacco consumption did not modify this value. Exposure to wood dust does not seem to be an occupational risk factor in the genesis of bronchial adenocarcinoma.

  14. Wood - a carbon depot


    Lipušček, Igor; Tišler, Vesna


    The article examines the global movement of carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas due to its large quantities. We studied the carbon cycle with possibilities of its extension, and analysed the mechanisms that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and bind it into solid substances for a longer period of time. The focus was on carbon dioxide sink into biomass and carbon deposit in wood. On the basis of wood component data and chemical analysis of the components, we calculated th...

  15. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt


    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  16. Photodegradation of thermally modified wood. (United States)

    Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K


    Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (ΔE(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Malkoçoğlu


    Full Text Available Wood is basic raw material for furniture and joinery industries with wood structures. Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth condition, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Wood properties have been characterized within two groups as natural and manufacturing factors that effects finishing performance. Grow rate, density, knots, moisture content, extractives and juvenile wood are natural characteristics. Grain orientation, texture, drying and performance expectations are manufacturing characteristics. In this review, the effects of natural and manufacturing characteristics are discussed on the surface finishing performance of wood.

  18. Precision wood particle feedstocks (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N


    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  19. Wood energy-commercial applications (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.


    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  20. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.


    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  1. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S


    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  2. TCP HolyWood


    Oscar Núñez Mori


    We introduce a new end-to-end, sender side Transport Control Protocol called TCP HolyWood or in short TCP-HW. In a simulated wired environment, TCP HolyWood outperforms in average throughput, three of the more important TCP protocols ever made, we are talking about TCP Reno, TCP Westwood, and TCP Vegas; and in average jitter to TCP Reno and TCP Vegas too. In addition, according to Jain’s index, our proposal is as fair as TCP Reno, the Standard. Apresentamos um novo Protocolo de Controle de...

  3. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben


    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  4. Structure and function of wood (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft


    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants― conduction of water...

  5. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets (United States)

    Joseph A. Roos; Allen Brackley


    This study examines the three major wood pellet markets in Asia: China, Japan, and South Korea. In contrast to the United States, where most wood pellets are used for residential heating with pellet stoves, a majority of the wood pellets in Asia are used for co-firing at coal-fired power plants. Our analysis indicated that Japan is the largest importer of wood pellets...

  6. Classroom Demonstrations of Wood Properties. (United States)

    Foulger, A. N.

    Presented in this manual are 20 activities selected to show some of the properties of wood and how these properties relate to the cellular structure of wood. Each activity includes stated objectives, indicates materials needed, and explains procedures. Illustrations related to the activities, glossary of terms, and photographs of wood structure…

  7. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Westra, L.I.T.


    In this article, a general description of the microscopic wood anatomy of Annonaceae is given. We provide a description of the wood anatomical features of the family and of all subfamilies and tribes, all from material in the Utrecht Wood collection. Hand-lens images can be an important help in

  8. Ovalbumin as a Wood Adhesive (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Holly Satori; Zhu Rongxian; Michael J. Birkeland


    Use of proteins to bond wood dominated industrial production until the middle of the 20th century (1). The ensuing creation of the plywood and glulam beam industries allowed for more efficient use of wood resources than is possible with solid wood products. Many protein sources have been used as adhesives, including plant (soybean) and animal (blood, fish scales,...

  9. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood (United States)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio


    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability.

  10. Gene Expression Analysis of Copper Tolerance and Wood Decay in the Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa (United States)

    J. D. Tang; L. A. Parker; A. D. Perkins; T. S. Sonstegard; S. G. Schroeder; D. D. Nicholas; S. V. Diehl


    High-throughput transcriptomics was used to identify Fibroporia radiculosa genes that were differentially regulated during colonization of wood treated with a copper-based preservative. The transcriptome was profiled at two time points while the fungus was growing on wood treated with micronized copper quat (MCQ). A total of 917 transcripts were...

  11. Identification of coniferous woods (United States)

    B. Francis Kukachka


    The identification of coniferous woods is generally regarded as being more difficult than for the hardwood species. This is due to the fact that conifers are more elemental in their structure and, as a consequence, the number of diagnostic features that may he employed is proportionately smaller. Instructions are given here in the sequential use of primary diagnostic...

  12. Grant Wood: "American Gothic." (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.


    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  13. Chapter 3: Wood Decay (United States)

    Dan Cullen


    A significant portion of global carbon is sequestered in forest systems. Specialized fungi have evolved to efficiently deconstruct woody plant cell walls. These important decay processes generate litter, soil bound humic substances, or carbon dioxide and water. This chapter reviews the enzymology and molecular genetics of wood decay fungi, most of which are members of...

  14. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)


    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J.


    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  16. History of wood machining (United States)

    Peter Koch


    The history of wood machining is closely tied to advanced in metallurgy and power sources. It has been strongly and continuously shaped by prevailing economic forces and the rise and decline of other contemporary industries. This paper sketches a few of the highlights, with emphasis on developments in North America.

  17. Harvesting wood for energy. (United States)

    Rodger A. Arola; Edwin W. Miyata


    Illustrates the potential of harvesting wood for industrial energy, based on the results of five harvesting studies. Presents information on harvesting operations, equipment costs, and productivity. Discusses mechanized thinning of hardwoods, clearcutting of low-value stands and recovery of hardwood tops and limbs. Also includes basic information on the physical and...

  18. Application of the differential colorimetry and polyphenolic profile to the evaluation of the chromatic quality of Tempranillo red wines elaborated in warm climate. Influence of the presence of oak wood chips during fermentation. (United States)

    Gordillo, Belén; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J


    The effect of adding American oak wood chips during fermentation on Tempranillo red wines elaborates in a warm climate has been studied. Our attention was focused on the tristimulus colorimetry, differential colorimetry and phenolic compounds related to wine colour. This technique was applied as an oenological alternative to the conventional winemaking for avoiding the common fall of colour of red wines elaborated in warm climates. The addition of oak wood chips promoted the colour enhancement and stabilisation, producing wines with a notably darker colour and with more bluish tonality. This fact was also related to the significantly higher content of some phenolic compounds. On the basis of the results, it could be affirmed that the addition of oak wood chips during fermentation induced visually perceptible colour changes (by the analysis of ΔEab(*), %Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C and %Δ(2)H), mainly in a quantitative way, and also a lower percentage of diminution of colour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Market assessment for wood as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The report presented summaries the findings of a market study to assess the potential acceptance of wood as a commercial fuel in SW England and the Southern half of Scotland, carried out during the period March to November 1986. The overall aim was to obtain information that would help achieve the successful market development of wood as a fuel. The principal objectives were to analyse available information on the supply and location of forestry waste, to profile potential industrial, commercial and institutional users of forestry waste as a fuel, to assess the scope for matching forestry waste supply with potential demands and to identify prospective host organisations for demonstration projects on the use of forestry wastes as fuel.

  20. Analysis of microbial volatile organic compounds produced by wood-decay fungi. (United States)

    Konuma, Rumi; Umezawa, Kiwamu; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Kawarada, Kensuke; Yoshida, Makoto


    Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) produced by the brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris and white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor grown on wood chip and potato dextrose agar were analyzed by GC-MS. In total, 110 organic compounds were identified as MVOCs. Among them, only 23 were MVOCs commonly observed in both types of fungi, indicating that the fungi have differential MVOC expression profiles. In addition, F. palustris and T. versicolor produced 38 and 22 MVOCs, respectively, which were detected only after cultivation on wood chip. This suggests that the fungi specifically released these MVOCs when degrading the cell-wall structure of the wood. Time course analysis of MVOC emission showed that both types of fungi produced the majority of MVOCs during the active phase of wood degradation. As both fungi produced specific MVOCs in the course of wood degradation indicates the possibility of the application of MVOCs as detection markers for wood-decay fungus existing in woody materials.

  1. Lignin‐Retaining Transparent Wood (United States)

    Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin


    Abstract Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light‐transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high‐lignin‐content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK−1, and work‐tofracture of 1.2 MJ m−3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy‐saving buildings. PMID:28719095

  2. Cellulolytic activities of wild type fungi isolated from decayed wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mycological profile of decayed wood cuttings sourced from a saw mill located at Uwasota Road, Benin City was investigated using serial dilution and pour plate techniques. The mean fungal counts ranged from 0.9 ×106 cfu/g to 2.7 ×106 cfu/g respectively. Four fungal species were identified; Aspergillus niger, ...

  3. Lump wood combustion process (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan


    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  4. Air pollution from residential wood combustion in a Danish village. Measuring campaign and analysis of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H.; Bossi, R.; Stubkjaer, J.


    A campaign took place in the winter 2006/2007 comprising measurements of many air pollution components at two sites: a wood smoke exposed site within the village Slagslunde, and a background site 500 m outside of the village. The report describes the campaign and its results. A central result is a so-called 'wood smoke source profile', which relates several measures of wood smoke pollution to each other. This is based on a 'cleaned' data set, for which the effect of other sources than wood smoke was small. The wood smoke profile links the measures PM2.5, particle volume, soot, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan and mannosan) and different PAHs to each other. Particle number N does not have a close link to the other measures. (author)

  5. Mechanical properties of wood (United States)

    David W. Green; Jerrold E. Winandy; David E. Kretschmann


    The mechanical properties presented in this chapter were obtained from tests of small pieces of wood termed “clear” and “straight grained” because they did not contain characteristics such as knots, cross grain, checks, and splits. These test pieces did have anatomical characteristics such as growth rings that occurred in consistent patterns within each piece. Clear...

  6. Wood Composite Adhesives (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  7. Interaction of copper wood preservatives and adhesives (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart


    Compared to other substrates, wood is generally easy to bond. However, adhesion is diminished when the wood surface is covered by chemicals, whether natural oils and resins or added chemicals. Among the chemicals added to wood are fire retardants and wood preservatives. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been widely used to protect wood against rot and termites, but...

  8. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by University of Hawaii at Manoa and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution at OceanSITES site WHOTS from 2004-08-12 to 2016-09-02 (NCEI Accession 0131449) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT...

  9. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution at OceanSITES site Stratus from 2000-10-07 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0131163) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT...

  10. In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution at OceanSITES site NTAS from 2001-03-30 to 2016-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0131154) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, meteorological, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT...

  11. Controlling mold on wood Pallets (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen


    THE WOOD PALLET AND CONTAINER INDUSTRY CONSUMES 4.5 billion board feet (BBF) of hardwoods and 1.8 BBF of softwoods for the annual production of 400-500 million solid wood pallets. While alternative materials such as plastic, corrugated paperboard and metal have entered the market, solid wood remains the material of choice for a majority of pallets on the market (more...

  12. Chapter 1: Wood and Society (United States)

    Chrisopher D. Risbrudt


    Forests, and the wood they produce, have played an important role in human activity since before recorded history. Indeed, one of the first major innovations was utilizing fire, fueled by wood, for cooking and heating. It is very likely that early hominids used wood fires for cooking, as long as 1.5 million years ago (Clark and Harris 1985). Clear evidence of this use...

  13. Wood products and green chemistry


    Pizzi, Antonio


    International audience; Key message Green chemistry for and from wood has developed numerous industrial products, namely biosourced, green wood adhesives and preservatives, foams, composite matrices, laminates, hard and flexible plastics, flexible films, and abrasive grinding discs, and their number is still growing.IntroductionThis review addresses (1) the elimination of toxic aldehydes from the most common wood panel adhesive, the one based on urea, itself a natural product, (2) biosourced ...

  14. Survival, growth, wood basic density and wood biomass of seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A performance comparison of seven-year-old individuals of 13 Casuarina species/provenances in terms of survival, growth (diameter, height and volume), wood basic density and wood biomass was undertaken at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania. The trial was laid out using a randomised complete block design with four ...

  15. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka


    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  16. Effect of Wood Preservatives on Surface Properties of Coated Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Ozdemir


    Full Text Available Effect of wood preservatives (waterborne and organicborne on the performance of surface finishing properties is investigated. Sapwood of scots pine, (Pinus sylvestris L., oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky, and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. specimens (300 × 100 × 15 mm along the grain were impregnated with aqueous solution of 2% CCA, 2% Tanalith E, 1% boric acid, and Immersol aqua. Surface roughness, dry film thickness, adhesion strength, gloss measurement, scratch, and abrasion resistance were determined according to related standards for treated and untreated samples. The results indicated that surface roughness and adhesion strength depended on wood species and the chemical composition of preservatives. Generally, waterborne wood preservatives increased the surface roughness of wood while the organic-based wood preservatives decreased it. The organic-based wood preservatives decreased adhesion but they increased gloss value. Wood preservatives did not affect the scratch resistance which was found to depend on properties of the coating. All the wood preservatives increased abrasion resistance.

  17. Advances in European cord wood testing and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll

    Wood stoves have the potential of providing CO2-neutral energy without transmission loss—but with the significant drawbacks of high emissions of pollutants and particulate matter at low altitude close to private homes, and with an uneven heat release profile, which produces non-optimal heating...... comfort.A collaboration project between the CHEC research centre at DTU Chemical Engineering and the stove manufacturing company HWAM A/S has led to development of an automatic control system forwood stoves, and the first version of an automatically controlled wood stove was launched on the market in 2012...

  18. A chemometric investigation of aromatic emission profiles from a marine engine in comparison with residential wood combustion and road traffic: Implications for source apportionment inside and outside sulphur emission control areas (United States)

    Czech, Hendryk; Stengel, Benjamin; Adam, Thomas; Sklorz, Martin; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf


    Ship emissions are known to cause severe impacts on human health, but are less restricted than land-based emissions. A regulation to improve air quality in coastal regions and frequented waterways is the limitation of fuel sulphur content to 0.1% in sulphur emission control areas (SECAs), which has caused a switch from heavy fuel oil (HFO) towards diesel-like marine gas oil (MGO) or marine diesel oil (MDO). The fraction of aromatic organic vapours in the exhaust from a marine engine, operating on HFO and MGO, was investigated by resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). MGO with fuel sulphur content (FSC) below 0.1% and HFO with an average FSC of 2.7% denote representative marine fuels inside and outside SECAs, respectively. The obtained emission spectra were combined with data of previous REMPI-TOFMS studies of combustion engines and wood combustion in statistical analyses to derive marker substances for ship emissions inside and outside SECAs. A diagnostic ratio of C2-naphthalenes to methyl-naphthalenes was found to hold for a good discriminator between ship emissions on the one hand and road traffic and wood combustion on the other hand. Furthermore, random REMPI spectra from all emission sources were mixed with different proportions in a simulation to create a model based on partial least square (PLS) regression for the prediction of ship contribution to aromatic organic vapours. We point out that in particular PAHs with higher degree of alkylation are significant markers for primary ship emissions which may support source apportionment studies inside and outside SECAs to assess the benefits of fuel sulphur content regulation on air quality.

  19. In situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution at OceanSITES site LINE-W from 2001-10-05 to 2008-09-23 (NCEI Accession 0130038) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including CURRENT SPEED - EAST/WEST COMPONENT (U), CURRENT SPEED - NORTH/SOUTH...

  20. Properties of seven Colombian woods (United States)

    B. A. Bendtsen; M. Chudnoff


    Woods from abroad are an important raw material to the forest products industries in the United States. A major concern in effective utilization of this resource is the lack of technical information on many species. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the mechanical properties of small, clear specimens of seven Colombian woods. These results are...

  1. The wood of Merovingian weaponry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tegel, W.; Muigg, B.; Büntgen, Ulf


    Roč. 65, JAN (2016), s. 148-153 ISSN 0305-4403 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Merovingian weaponry * Mineralised wood * Wood anatomy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2016

  2. Wood anatomy of the Rhizophoraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.


    The wood anatomy of 127 samples of 65 species of all 18 genera of the Rhizophoraceae is described in detail; features not observed here, but recorded in the literature are added. Wood anatomically several groups can be recognized. Three distinct groups are very homogeneous, coinciding with the

  3. Public opinion and wood energy (United States)

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; Teppo Hujala; J. Peter Brosius


    As wood-based bioenergy continues to develop around the world, it will utilize forestlands in new ways and will have different effects on a number of stakeholders, including forest landowners, local communities, extant industries, policymakers, investors, and others. As more stakeholders become involved in the wood energy web, and as the general public becomes more...

  4. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.


    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 1, 2013 ... permeability, swellability in organic liquids and organic liquid separation potentials. The ... currently employed to deal with some of these wastes, ... a waste. This is because the wood has poor mechanical strength and cannot be used as structural support in most buildings. Although used as fuel(fire wood) ...

  6. Metal bats more like wood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardiner, Andy


    ... Coefficient of Resolution (BBCOR), which brings bats even closer to duplicating the properties of wood. "I would have preferred to go more slowly," said Mark Marquess, who has two national championships during his 35 years as Stanford's coach. "Everyone likes the idea of becoming more like wood, but let's say all our games were 2-1 and our attendanc...

  7. Composites from wood and plastics (United States)

    Craig Clemons


    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  8. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition......The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...

  9. Origin of Petrified Wood Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mustoe


    Full Text Available Fossil forests have world-wide distribution, commonly preserving mineralized wood that displays vivid hues and complex color patterns. However, the origin of petrified color has received little scientific attention. Color of silicified wood may be influenced by the presence of relict organic matter, but the most significant contribution comes from trace metals. This study reports quantitative analysis of trace metals in 35 silicified wood samples, determined using LA-ICP-MS spectrometry. The most important of these metals is Fe, which can produce a rainbow of hues depending on its abundance and oxidation state. Cr is the dominant colorant for bright green fossil wood from Arizona, USA and Zimbabwe, Africa. Complex color patterns result from the progressive nature of the fossilization process, which causes wood to have varying degrees of permeability during successive episodes of permineralization. These processes include simple diffusion, chromatographic separation, infiltration of groundwater along fractures and void spaces, and oxidation/reduction.

  10. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku


    Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

  11. The Comparative Study of Element Accumulation in Wood Fen Peat (Latvia) (United States)

    Krumins, Janis; Klavins, Maris; Kuske, Eliza; Seglins, Valdis; Kaup, Enn


    Mires belong to the most representative archives of past environmental conditions in large areas of temperate and subarctic zone. Moreover, mires keep evidence of ancient cultures and modern human activity. Consequently the research of mires is an integral part of global change studies. Fens are less studied than bogs; one of the reasons is the complexity of factors that impact peat formation. Bogs, due to dome-shaped structure, are affected by precipitation, while other external influences are negligible and simply separable. The aim of this research was the characterization of accumulation patterns of metallic elements in wood fen peat profiles and to assess their accumulation regularities in relation with peat properties. The general idea was to find out how admixtures of plant remains in different stages of decomposition change properties and the element accumulation character in a wood peat. In obtained profiles were separated five types of wood peat: wood, wood-sedge, wood-reed, wood-grass and wood- sphagnum peat. Peat was sampled in four Latvian fens: Elki, Viki, Svetupe and Sala. Similar environment, origin and development of sites suggest similar development of peat properties thus there is no reason to assume different impact on peat development among mires. Despite a slow decomposition rate, results point to a higher decomposition degree of wood peat, in comparison with other types of fen peat. In average, wood peat forms the thickest layers, but it must be taken into account that thickness depends on coating layers, presence of decomposed plant remains etc. The accumulation pattern of metallic elements in a wood fen peat slightly differs among sites, but the difference among wood peat types is clearly evident. For instance, the highest amount of iron is characteristic to wood-reed peat, while, the lowest, is in wood-sphagnum peat. At the same time, in wood-reed peat the lowest amounts of magnesium were found while the highest amount of Mg was in wood

  12. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material......- and machine industry we fabricated a 1:1 demonstrator show casing the potential for performance due to digital fabrication in this sustainable material. The production of a custom made design tool helped not only to explore design variations while keeping up the link to digital production machinery...

  13. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  14. Treatments that enhance physical properties of wood (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; Peggy Konkol


    This paper was prepared for anyone who wants to know more about enhancing wood’s physical properties, from the amateur wood carver to the president of a forest products company. The authors describe chemical and physical treatments of wood that enhance the strength, stiffness, water repellency, and stability of wood. Five types of treatments are described: 1. water-...

  15. Physical properties and moisture relations of wood (United States)

    William Simpson; Anton TenWolde


    The versatility of wood is demonstrated by a wide variety of products. This variety is a result of a spectrum of desirable physical characteristics or properties among the many species of wood. In many cases, more than one property of wood is important to the end product. For example, to select a wood species for a product, the value of appearance- type properties,...

  16. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka


    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  17. Wood Condition Assessment Manual: Second Edition (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Robert H. White


    This report summarizes information on condition assessment of in-service wood, including visual inspection of wood and timbers, use of ultrasound and probing/boring techniques for inspection, and assessment of wood and timbers that have been exposed to fire. The report also includes information on assigning allowable design values for in-service wood.

  18. The challenge of bonding treated wood (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart


    Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many...

  19. Fire resistance of exposed wood members (United States)

    Robert H. White


    Fire resistance data on exposed wood beams and columns are plentiful, but few studies have been done on exposed wood members in tension and in decks. To provide data to verify the application of a new calculation procedure, a limited series of fire resistance tests were conducted on wood members loaded in tension and on exposed wood decks.

  20. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 19, 2011 ... Collect wood flour or chips from the lathe or table saw or vertical sander from other machines that produce the desired wood particles/ sawdust. If it is possible grind appropriate dry wood for use. Note: Wood flour or chips from cherry, maple (temperate trees) mahogany, teak and walnut (ekom in Ibibio ...

  1. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products (United States)

    Oatman, Olan


    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  2. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl


    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  3. The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Maureen Puettmann; Adam Taylor; Kenneth E. Skog


    Wood products have many environmental advantages over nonwood alternatives. Documenting and publicizing these merits helps the future competitiveness of wood when climate change impacts are being considered. The manufacture of wood products requires less fossil fuel than nonwood alternative building materials such as concrete, metals, or plastics. By nature, wood is...

  4. Bioprocessing preservative-treated waste wood (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang; Les. Ferge


    Disposal of preservative-treated waste wood is a growing problem worldwide. Bioprocessing the treated wood offers one approach to waste management under certain conditions. One goal is to use wood decay fungi to reduce the volume of waste with an easily managed system in a cost-effective manner. Wood decay fungi were obtained from culture collections in the Mycology...

  5. Oxalate analysis methodology for decayed wood (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; William Kenealy; Patricia K. Lebow


    Oxalate from partially decayed southern pine wood was analyzed by HPLC or colorimetric assay. Oxalate extraction efficiency, assessed by comparing analysis of whole wood cubes with ground wood, showed that both wood geometries could be extracted with comparable efficiency. To differentiate soluble oxalate from total oxalate, three extraction methods were assessed,...

  6. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van


    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the

  7. Wood Scrap Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachy, D.


    This study investigated Utah's sawmill residue, logging residue and pinyon-juniper resource for use as an energy resource to replace supplement conventional fuels now in use. This was accomplished by analyzing existing and future supplies of wood suitable for energy use on a renewable basis and the cost effectiveness of using wood as compared to coal, natural gas, and propane. The promotion of the use and development of wood as a renewable resource to reduce Utah's dependency for selected residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial markets for conventional non-renewable forms of energy is also considered. 84 references, 21 figures, 32 tables.

  8. USANS study of wood structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, Christopher J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail:; Knott, Robert B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Searson, Matthew [Centre for Horticulture and Plant Sciences, Hawkesbury Campus, University of Western Sydney (Australia); Conroy, Jann P. [Centre for Horticulture and Plant Sciences, Hawkesbury Campus, University of Western Sydney (Australia)


    Wood performs a vascular and structural function in trees. In this study we used the double-crystal diffractometer BT5 at the NIST Center for Neutron Scattering (Gaithersburg, USA) to study the pore structure inside wood sections. The slit-smeared intensity of scattered neutrons was measured from wood sections in directions parallel, orthogonal and transverse to the tree's trunk axis over a scattering vector range 0.00004-0.002 A{sup -1}. The interpretation of the data in terms of a reductionist model consisting of infinitely long cylinders (cell lumens) is discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS


    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  10. Does reintroducing large wood influence the hydraulic landscape of a lowland river system? (United States)

    Matheson, Adrian; Thoms, Martin; Reid, Michael


    Our understanding of the effectiveness of reintroduced large wood for restoration is largely based on studies from high energy river systems. By contrast, few studies of the effectiveness of reintroducing large wood have been undertaken on large, low energy, lowland river systems: river systems where large wood is a significant physical feature on the in-channel environment. This study investigated the effect of reintroduced large wood on the hydraulic landscape of the Barwon-Darling River, Australia, at low flows. To achieve this, the study compared three hydraulic landscapes of replicated reference (naturally wooded), control (unwooded,) and managed (wood reintroduced) treatments on three low flow periods. These time periods were prior to the reintroduction of large wood to managed reaches; several months after the reintroduction of large wood into the managed reaches; and then more than four years after wood reintroduction following several large flood events. Hydraulic landscapes of reaches were characterised using a range of spatial measures calculated from velocity measurements taken with a boat-mounted Acoustic Doppler Profiler. We hypothesised that reintroduced large wood would increase the diversity of the hydraulic landscape at low flows and that managed reaches would be more similar to the reference reaches. Our results suggest that the reintroduction of large wood did not significantly change the character of the hydraulic landscape at the reach scale after several months (p = 0.16) or several years (p = 0.29). Overall, the character of the hydraulic landscape in the managed reaches was more similar to the hydraulic landscape of the control reaches than the hydraulic landscape of the reference reaches, at low flows. Some variability in the hydraulic landscapes was detected over time, and this may reflect reworking of riverbed sediments and sensitivity to variation in discharge. The lack of a response in the low flow hydraulic landscape to the

  11. Cellular aspects of wood formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fromm, Jörg


    With today's ever growing economic and ecological problems, wood as a raw material takes on increasing significance as the most important renewable source of energy and as industrial feedstock for numerous products...

  12. On Erdos–Wood's conjecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Woods conjecture with = 2 is at least /(log ) for some positive constant > 2. ... Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, 4th Cross Street, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India; Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, ...

  13. Wood-pastures of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hartel, Tibor; Martín-López, Berta


    Wood-pastures are archetypes of High Nature Value Farmlands in Europe and hold exceptional ecological, social, and cultural values. Yet, wood-pastures have been through a sharp decline all over Europe, mainly due to processes of agricultural intensification and abandonment. Recently, wood......-pastures have found increasing attention from conservation science and policy across Europe. In this paper we (i) perform the first pan-European assessment of wood-pastures, considering individual countries and biogeographic regions, (ii) present the ecological and social-cultural values of a wide diversity......). They are distributed across all biogeographical regions, but more abundantly in the Mediterranean and Eastern European countries. Substantial ecological values are revealed in terms of landscape level biodiversity, ecosystem dynamics, and genetic resources. Social-cultural values are related to aesthetic values...

  14. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  15. Intelligent Heat System - High-Energy Efficient Wood Stoves with Low Emissions. Field Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Nickelsen, Joachim; Hansen, Brian Brun


    Wood stoves have the potential of providing CO2-neutral energy without transmission loss—but with the significant drawbacks of high emissions of pollutants and particulate matter at low altitude close to private homes, and with an uneven heat release profile which produces non-optimal heating com...... in 2012. The automatic control system developed for wood stoves in this project ensures optimal combustion conditions, thereby minimizing the emissions throughout a complete wood log combustion cycle. This improved performance has been verified by field tests in private homes....

  16. Wood siding : installing, finishing, maintaining (United States)

    W.C. Feist; A.E. Oviatt


    Wood siding is put on houses for many good reasons. One reason is that it will keep the bright new “face” of any home attractive for many years to come. In fact, given reasonable care, wood siding will retain its beauty for centuries, as has been amply proved by its performance on houses that date back to early colonial times. It also has great versatility; and the...



    Marius C. BARBU


    Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limit...

  18. Profilowe zróżnicowanie form żelaza i glinu w glebach pod świerczyn górnoreglową Plagiothecio-Piccetum tatricum w Gorcach jako wskaźnik aktualnych procesów glebotwórczych / Distribution of Iron and Aluminum Forms as an Indicator of Present-Day Soil-Forming Processes in Soil Profiles under Wooded Spruce Plagiothecio-Piccetum Tatricum in the Gorce Mts. (Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miechówka Anna


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine soil-forming processes in soils formed from the Magura sandstones (Carpathian flysch under wooded spruce Plagiothecio-Piccetum tatricum in the Gorce Mts., southern Poland. The research focused on distribution of non-silicate forms of iron and aluminum in soil profiles. The content of pyrophosphate, oxalate, and dithionite phases of iron and aluminum in the genetic horizons of four soil profiles was measured and selected pedogenic factors were calculated. Based on the obtained results podzolization and brunification are dominant soil-forming processes in the studied soils. The brunification effect was more common in the soils under the large share of Athyrium distentifolium, whereas podzolization predominates in the soils where Vaccinium myrtillus prevails in forest floor. Studied soils were classified as Dystric Endoskeletic Cambisol (Loamic, Humic, Dystric Cambisol (Siltic, Humic and Skeletic Folic Albic Podzol (Arenic.

  19. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods


    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli


    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  20. Cyclic impulsive compression loading along the radial and tangential wood directions causes localized fatigue (United States)

    Salmi, Ari; Montonen, Risto; Salminen, Lauri I.; Suuronen, Jussi-Petteri; Serimaa, Ritva; Hæggström, Edward


    We report for the first time on the existence of a localized reduction in elasticity caused by repeated compression impaction applied along the tangential wood direction. Previous research indicates that localized strain profiles are generated by such cyclic impacting on wood along its radial direction. This finding is significant for the paper/board-making industry where wood is exposed to cyclic unipolar compression during grinding. However, the effect of the impacting direction, with respect to the orientation of the annual rings, on the localization phenomenon is unknown. In addition, the shape of the developing fatigue layer is unclear. We revisit the localization phenomenon with a focus on tangential impacting. We employed ultrasonics and x-ray tomography to quantify the induced fatigue. An interlacing technique increased the precision of the ultrasonic stiffness depth profiling technique. We studied both radial and tangential wood annual ring geometries. We used ultrasound to quantify the drop in shear modulus resulting from impacting. Both radial and tangential geometries featured strain localization, but the shape of the fatigued layer was different in the radial and tangential wood geometries (steeper profile in the radial geometry). The fatiguing reduced the shear modulus. These results tell us about the ratio of the number of hits that need to be delivered along the radial and tangential direction of the ground wood, respectively. This insight may translate into a design pattern for an energy saving grind stone surface.

  1. A guide to residential wood heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Wood heating has a long history in Canada. Currently over three million Canadian households use wood-burning appliances for heating, or just to enjoy the ambience of a wood fire. This guide is one of a series of guides on renewable energy systems for residential use, compiled to assist Canadian householders to make informed decisions on renewable energy. This particular guide focuses on such matters as how to maintain the safety and efficiency of a wood heating system; how to purchase and store fuel wood; how to use fire management techniques for cleaner, virtually smokeless fires; and provides tips on what to ask when consulting wood-heating professionals. tabs., figs.

  2. Mechanical and physical properties of Tipuana tipu Wood deteriorated by decaying fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Brazolin


    Full Text Available The tipuana was widely used in urban arborization. In general, inadequate management exposes the wood to the action of wood decaying fungi and insects, often associated with the fall of the trees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of sound and rotten tipuana wood from São Paulo City´s afforestation. Thirteen old trees with symptoms of wood deterioration were removed. From the basal region of the trunk were cut 1 m-length stem segments, to characterize the physical and mechanical properties of sound and decayed wood. The results indicated that through the radial wood density profile by X-ray densitometry were classified seven pattern of wood biodeterioration, named (EXS with accumulation of extractives and sound, (ZR with the reaction zone and sound, (NS normal and sound, (PBINC; PBINT incipient and intense white rot (PMINC; PMINT incipient and intense soft rot, with apparent densities of 0.94, 0.92, 0.82, 0.66, 0.41, 0.67 and 0.44, respectively. The mechanical tests showed that wood classified as (ZR (EXS presented the highest values of strength and stiffness of 84 and 80 MPa and 6461 MPa and 5826, respectively; the (NS showed values of 62 and 4642 MPa, and the (PBINC (PMINTthe significant and lowest values of strength and stiffness, enhancing (PBINT with values of 5 and 571 MPa. The reduction of density, strength and stiffness of wood is related to the biodeterioration of wood cell walls of trees tipuana by decaying fungi.

  3. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo

    of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles...... at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation...... reactivity. Char yield from fast pyrolysis (104 – 105 K/s) was as low as 1 to 6 % on a dry ash free basis, whereas it was about 15-17 % for slow pyrolysis (10 - 20 K/min); char yield decreased as pyrolysis temperature increased. During fast pyrolysis wood particles underwent melting, yet to different extents...

  4. Ergonomics and safety in secondary wood processing (United States)

    Rado Gazo; James D. McGlothlin; Yuehwern, Wiedenbeck, Jan Yih; Yuehwern Yih


    The main goal of the project was to initiate a pilot program in ergonomics for the secondary wood products industry. Case studies were conducted at three Midwest secondary wood product companies in 2000 and 2001.

  5. Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project. (United States)

    Wales, Andrew


    Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  6. Three Construction Projects with Wood Scraps (United States)

    Levine, Elizabeth


    Wood, a natural material, appeals to children of all ages. Wood construction allows children the flexibility of moving parts of their work around until they are satisfied with the arrangement. Three projects are described. (Author/RK)


    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  8. Wood: a construction material for tall buildings (United States)

    Wimmers, Guido


    Wood has great potential as a building material, because it is strong and lightweight, environmentally friendly and can be used in prefabricated buildings. However, only changes in building codes will make wood competitive with steel and concrete.

  9. Effects of wood fiber characteristics on mechanical properties of wood/polypropylene composites (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Robert E. Rowlands


    Commercial wood flour, the most common wood-derived filler for thermoplastics, is produced in a mixture of particle sizes and generally has a lower aspect ratio than wood and other natural fibers. To understand how wood flour and fiber characteristics influence the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites, we first investigated the effect of different sizes of...

  10. Wood preservatives and pressure-treated wood: considerations for historic-preservation projects (United States)

    Ronald W. Anthony; Stan T. Lebow


    Wood, an abundant resource throughout most of the world, has been used as a building material for thousands of years. Many historic buildings have been built primarily of wood, and masonry and stone buildings generally have wood elements, both structural and architectural. As a biological material, wood is both remarkably complex and yet quite durable if well...

  11. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  12. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)


    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  13. Selected mechanical properties of modified beech wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Holan


    Full Text Available This thesis deals with an examination of mechanical properties of ammonia treated beach wood with a trademark Lignamon. For determination mechanical properties were used procedures especially based on ČSN. From the results is noticeable increased density of wood by 22% in comparison with untreated beach wood, which makes considerable increase of the most mechanical wood properties. Considering failure strength was raised by 32% and modulus of elasticity was raised at average about 46%.

  14. Wood fuel markets in Northern Europe


    Olsson, Olle


    High fossil fuel prices and ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have increased demand for renewable energy and are changing wood fuel market structures. Wood fuels are to a rapidly growing degree used in industrial proportions and traded in commercial markets. Wood fuels are seen as a key component to achieve policy goals related to climate change, especially in the EU. In the six papers that form the basis for this thesis, prices of wood fuels in Northern Europe are analyzed by mea...

  15. Improved molecular methods to characterise Serpula lacrymans and other Basidiomycetes involved in wood decay. (United States)

    Maurice, Sundy; Le Floch, Gaétan; Le Bras-Quéré, Marie; Barbier, Georges


    Early detection of indoor wood-decay fungi is crucial to prevent building deterioration and thereby avoid considerable economic loss. Due to their increased sensitivity, two reliable DNA-based fingerprinting techniques, capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), were used to identify Serpula lacrymans and to profile wood-rot Basidiomycetes in the built environment. Molecular fungal diversity was assessed on 74 environmental samples, collected from 2003 to 2009 from infected buildings in France. S. lacrymans, the most widespread, indoor wood-decay fungus accounted for 64% of total wood-rot Basidiomycetes. A number of other common wood-rot fungi such as Coniophora puteana, Trametes versicolor and Donkioporia expansa were identified. Other Basidiomycetes such as Phlebiopsis gigantea and Scleroderma verrucosum were detected for the first time in the built environment. Reliable diagnostic tools were developed using two PCR-based molecular typing techniques, one for routine diagnosis and another one for community inventories. Together they provided useful data for characterising the complexity of wood-decay ecosystems and helped reveal the coexistence of different wood-decay fungi within the same microbiotope. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology. (United States)

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  17. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)


    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

  18. Wood properties affecting finish service life (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; Charles. Jourdain; George I. Daisey; Robert W. Springate


    Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth conditions, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Some of the more important wood properties as they relate to wood finishing are discussed, e.g., growth rate, density, knots, extractives, juvenile...

  19. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa


    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  20. Using a wood stove to heat greenhouses (United States)

    Gloria Whitefeather-Spears


    The Red Lake Tribal Forestry Greenhouse in Red Lake, MN, utilizes four types of outdoor furnaces for heating through the fall, winter, and spring. The WoodMaster® is a highly efficient, wood-fired furnace that provides forced-air heat to the greenhouse. The HeatmorTM furnace is an economical wood-fired alternative that can provide lower...

  1. Effects of phosphoramides on wood dimensional stability (United States)

    Hong-Lin. Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell


    To evaluate the dimensional stability of phosphoramide-reacted wood, wood was reacted with a mixture which was derived from compounding phosphorus pentoxide and each of 12 amines including alkyl, halophenyl, and phenyl amines in N,N-dimethylformamide. Dimensional stability of such reacted wood was analyzed by antishrink efficiency (ASE) using the water-soak method....

  2. Use of wood in buildings and bridges (United States)

    Russell C. Moody; Anton TenWolde


    In North America, most housing and commercial structures built prior to the 20th century used wood as the major structural material. The abundant wood resource formed the basic structure for most houses, commercial buildings, bridges, and utility poles. Today, houses and many light commercial and industrial buildings are made using modern wood structural materials....

  3. Balsa wood as an energy dissipator (United States)

    Knoell, A. C.


    Studies have been undertaken to determine response of balsa wood in variety of environmental conditions. Response is dependent upon state of balsa wood as well as environment to which it is exposed, but certain combinations of conditions serve to increase significantly energy-dissipating capacity of wood relative to its normal capacity.

  4. Build Green: Wood Can Last for Centuries (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Samuel V. Glass


    This report updates and revises information from the 1976 Forest Service publication by Rodney C. DeGroot, “Your Wood Can Last for Centuries.” It explains why wood decays, alerts the homeowner to conditions that can result in decay in buildings, and describes measures to prevent moisture-related damage to wood.

  5. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang


    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  6. Effects of Acid Deposition on Wood (United States)

    Mark Knaebe


    Since acid deposition increases the rate of deterioration of unpainted wood, it can also affect the performance of paint applied to this weathered wood. In tests conducted near Madison, Wisconsin, smooth-planed wood was allowed to weather before painting. Exposure for as little as 2 weeks shortened the service life of the subsequently applied paint. The paint bond was...

  7. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites (United States)

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala


    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  8. Wood structure and adhesive bond strength (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart


    Much of the literature on the bonding of wood and other lignocellulosic materials has concentrated on traditional adhesion theories. This has led to misconceptions because wood is a porous material on both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. A better understanding of wood bonding can be developed by investigating the theories of adhesion and bond strength, taking...

  9. Reusing remediated CCA-treated wood (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen


    Options for recycling and reusing chromated-copper-arsenate- (CCA) treated material include dimensional lumber and round wood size reduction, composites, and remediation. Size reduction by remilling, shaving, or resawing CCA-treated wood reduces the volume of landfilled waste material and provides many options for reusing used treated wood. Manufacturing composite...

  10. Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazia FOUCHAL


    Full Text Available In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

  11. Wood decomposing abilities of diverse lignicolous fungi on nondecayed and decayed beech wood. (United States)

    Fukasawa, Yu; Osono, Takashi; Takeda, Hiroshi


    We tested the decay abilities of 28 isolates from 28 lignicolous fungal species (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Zygomycota) with the pure culture test. We used beech wood powder in varying moisture conditions and decay stages (nondecayed, intermediately decayed and well decayed) as substrates. The weight loss in wood powder was -0.2-17.8%. Five isolates of Basidiomycota (Bjerkandera adusta, Mycena haematopus, Omphalotus guepiniformis, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor) caused high weight losses in nondecayed wood. We detected significant effects of decay stage on weight loss in wood in most isolates tested, whereas moisture content rarely had an effect on weight loss. Among Basidiomycota and Xylariaceae in Ascomycota weight loss was greater for nondecayed wood than for intermediately and well decayed wood. In contrast four isolates in Ascomycota (Scytalidium lignicola, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningii) caused substantial weight loss in intermediately and well decayed wood, although they rarely caused weight loss in nondecayed wood. Zygomycota caused low weight loss in wood. Wood decay stages also affected decomposition of wood chemical components. Acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) decomposition was reduced, whereas holocellulose decomposition was stimulated by some strains of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in well decayed wood. T. harzianum in particular caused significant weight loss of holocellulose in well decayed wood, although this fungus caused negligible weight loss of both AUR and holocellulose in nondecayed wood. We discuss these changes in the decay patterns of AUR and holocellulose with varying wood decay stages in relation to the role of fungal decomposition of woody debris in forests.

  12. Body of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Michon


    not only a defrocked friar with the guys or on the street; he donned the silk babouches when he went home too. He dispossessed himself of the Seine that rolled on before his eyes; the small girl who lived on her feet, whom he puts to death in all his books, he hardly saw her; the loveliest girls of his day, the finest too for sure, who wanted him, so that he happened to come – he dispossessed himself of them, whether he came or opted to come no more, which amounted to the same thing; no apples from Norman orchards, no trees deep in the woods, no unlaced Louise Colet, no lilies, no young laughter, no Louise Colet weeping at his door, he kissed it all off, laughed over it and kissed it off, cried about it and kissed it off, he was not there. In fact he had nothing, he was deprived of everything, since it was in his head.

  13. China: changing wood products markets (United States)

    Daowei Zhang; Junchang Liu; James Granskog; Jianbang Gan


    In the 1980's, China emerged as the world's second largest importer of forest products and the second largest importer of U.S. forest products. However, U.S. wood products exports to China declined nearly 93 percent from 1988 to 1996, from >/=448 million to >/=33 million. Little is known about the reasons that caused this decline. Less is probably known...

  14. Microwave drying of wood strands (United States)

    Guanben Du; Siqun Wang; Zhiyong Cai


    Characteristics of microwave drying of wood strands with different initial moisture contents and geometries were investigated using a commercial small microwave oven under different power inputs. Temperature and moisture changes along with the drying efficiency were examined at different drying scenarios. Extractives were analyzed using gas chromatography=mass...

  15. Adhesive bonding of wood materials (United States)

    Charles B. Vick


    Adhesive bonding of wood components has played an essential role in the development and growth of the forest products industry and has been a key factor in the efficient utilization of our timber resource. The largest use of adhesives is in the construction industry. By far, the largest amounts of adhesives are used to manufacture building materials, such as plywood,...

  16. Wood anatomy of the Combretaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.


    The wood anatomy of all genera of the Combretaceae (Meiostemon excepted) is described in detail on the basis of 120 samples representing 90 species from 19 genera. Additional data from the literature are added. The structural variation of the vestured pits is described and classified. There are two

  17. Wood quality of white willow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclercq


    Full Text Available Based upon an exhaustive work made by Sacré (1974 and a review of the literature sine 1960, the author gathered together the anatomical, physical and mechanical characteristics, the machining behaviour (industrial sawing, planing, surfacing, shaping, mortising and nailing and wood end-uses of white willow.

  18. Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, T. (ed.)


    A textbook containing 22 chapters by various authors covers the structure of wood, the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls, metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, cell organelles and their function in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, cutin, suberin and associated waxes, phenolic acids and monolignols, quinones, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes and terpenoid wood extractives, the occurrence of extractives, the metabolism of phenolic acids, wood degradation by micro-organisms and fungi, and biodegradation of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and aromatic extractives of wood. An index is included.

  19. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.


    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Ünver


    Full Text Available Wood raw material production without barked round is 3.5 billion m3 in the world. According to their amounts, industrial wood products set out log, fiber chip and pulp wood respectively in. Wood raw material produced in Turkey is not enough for market demand, so 9% of industrial wood demand has been imported. For this reason, the quality loses are as important as the quantity loses, which can be occurred during wood raw material production. Both preserving of continuity of forest sources and saving of addition to country economy are important during wood raw material production. To reduce the quality losses on the wood raw material is possible with the usage of developed techniques, taking into consideration sector demand, storing of wood raw material by suitable conditions and being worked the experienced worker.

  1. Influence of wood structure on wood properties of tropical species


    Baar, Jan


    The presented thesis is focused on aesthetical and acoustic properties of tropical wood. The discussed tropical species are utilized in Europe mainly for their unusual appearance and colour in joinery and furniture production. The irreplacable acoustic properties like low internal friction predestine specific species for production of musical instruments. The colour of six selected tropical species - jatoba (Hymenea courbaril L.), massaranduba (Manilkara bidentata A. Chev.), muiracatiara (Ast...

  2. Volatile compounds in acacia, chestnut, cherry, ash, and oak woods, with a view to their use in cooperage. (United States)

    de Simón, Brígida Fernández; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel M; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam


    Extracts of wood from acacia, European ash, American ash, chestnut, cherry, and three oak species (Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus alba and Quercus petraea) before and after toasting in cooperage were studied by GC-MS. 110 compounds were detected, and 97 of them were identified. In general, all studied woods showed more lignin derivatives than lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, with a higher variety of compounds detected and abundance of them. The toasting led to an increase in the concentrations of most of these compounds, and this increase is especially important in acacia, chestnut and ash woods. The cis and trans isomers of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone and isobutyrovanillone were only detected in oak wood, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde only in acacia wood, and p-anisaldehyde and benzylsalicylate only in cherry wood, before and after toasting, and these compounds could be considered chemical markers for each one of these woods. Moreover, each wood has a characteristic volatile composition, from a quantitative point of view, and therefore we can expect a characteristic sensorial profile. The oak wood turned out to be the most balanced, since although it provides a lot of volatile compounds to the aroma and flavor of aged wine, it can do so without masking their primary and secondary aroma. On the whole, toasted acacia and chestnut woods showed a very high richness of studied compounds, as lignin as lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, while cherry and ash were much richer than toasted oak wood in lignin derivatives, but much poorer in lipid and carbohydrate derivatives.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon


    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  4. Method for quantifying percentage wood failure in block-shear specimens by a laser scanning profilometer (United States)

    C. T. Scott; R. Hernandez; C. Frihart; R. Gleisner; T. Tice


    A new method for quantifying percentage wood failure of an adhesively bonded block-shear specimen has been developed. This method incorporates a laser displacement gage with an automated two-axis positioning system that functions as a highly sensitive profilometer. The failed specimen is continuously scanned across its width to obtain a surface failure profile. The...

  5. Application of conductive polymer analysis for wood and woody plant identifications (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson; D.G. Lester; Charisse S. Oberle


    An electronic aroma detection (EAD) technology known as conductive polymer analysis (CPA) was evaluated as a means of identifying and discriminating woody samples of angiosperms and gymnosperms using an analytical instrument (electronic nose) that characterizes the aroma profiles of volatiles released from excised wood into sampled headspace. The instrument measures...

  6. Serpula lacrymans, Wood and Buildings. (United States)

    Watkinson, S C; Eastwood, D C


    Serpula lacrymans, the causative agent of dry rot timber decay in buildings, is a Basidiomycete fungus in the Boletales clade. It owes its destructiveness to a uniquely well-developed capacity to colonize by rapid mycelial spread from sites of initial spore infection, coupled with aggressive degradation of wood cellulose. Genomic methods have recently elucidated the evolution and enzymic repertoire of the fungus, suggesting that it has a distinctive mode of brown rot wood decay. Using novel methods to image nutrient translocation, its mycelium has been modeled as a highly responsive resource-supply network. Dry rot is preventable by keeping timber dry. However, in established outbreaks, further mycelial spread can be arrested by inhibitors of translocation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial (United States)

    Zeng, N.


    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

  8. Chapter 02: Basic wood biology—Anatomy for identification (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft


    Before the topics of using a hand lens, preparing wood for observation, and understanding the characters used in wood identification can be tackled, a general introduction to the biology of wood must be undertaken. The woods in commercial trade in Central America come almost exclusively from trees, so the discussion of wood biology is restricted to trees here, though...

  9. Status of Wood Processing and Storage in Nigeria | Ohagwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work showcases wood processing and storage operations in Nigeria. The importance of wood as a multipurpose biomaterial were discussed as well as its nature, characteristics, lumbering pattern and other product derived from wood. The available wood/timber in Nigeria as well as the unit operations in wood ...

  10. Nigerian Wood Waste: A Potential Resource for Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore aims to highlight the potentials of wood waste as a viable resource for economic growth and sustainable development and thereby pique the people's interest in the proper management and harnessing of wood waste. Keywords: Sustainable development, Wood waste, Wood waste management, Wood ...

  11. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning


    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU


    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to

  13. Designated fiber stress for wood poles (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Robert O. Kluge


    Wood poles have been used to support utility distribution lines for well over 100 years. Over that time, specifications for a “wood utility pole” have evolved from the closest available tree stem more than 15 ft in length to straight, durable timbers of lengths ranging up 125 ft and base diameters of as much as 27 in. The continued success of wood poles in this...

  14. Forest biomass and wood waste resources (United States)

    K. Skog; P. Lebow; D.. Dykstra; P.. Miles; B.J. Stokes; R.D. Perlack; M. Buford; J. Barbour; D. McKeever


    This chapter provides estimates of forest biomass and wood waste quantities, as well as roadside costs (i.e., supply curves) for each county in the contiguous United States. Roadside price is the price a buyer pays for wood chips at a roadside in the forest, at a processing mill location in the case of mill residue, or at a landfill for urban wood wastes prior to any...

  15. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.


    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  16. Wood Energy Potential in Northwestern South Carolina (United States)

    James W. McMinn


    The quantity of unused wood in an Ill-county area in northwestern South Carolina was projected to be more than 16 million tons annually. Wood that is unsuitable for products other than fuel amounts to nearly 9 million tons annually.The most likely energy demand by industrial plants that are good candidates for wood fuel systems is 1.5 million tons annually.Maximum...

  17. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf


    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  18. Wood-rotting fungi of North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbertson, R.L.


    The biology of wood-rotting fungi is reviewed. Discussions are presented in taxonomy, species diversity, North American distribution, developmental response to environmental factors, edibility and toxicity, medical uses, relationships of fungi with insects and birds, the role of fungi as mycorrhiza, pathological relationships with trees, role in wood decay, and ecology. Threats to the continuing existence of these fungi as a result of increased utilization of wood as fuel are also discussed. (ACR)

  19. Durable wood bonding with epoxy adhesives (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart


    Although wood was one of the earliest materials to be adhesively bonded, the factors that contribute to strong wood bonds are still not well understood. Wood is a very complex substrate in that it is non-uniform in most aspects. On the macro scale, it is a porous structure with different sized and shaped voids for fluid flow. The structural cells contain four different...

  20. Application of molecular genetic methods for identification of wood-decaying fungi in wood constructions


    Elena Bobeková; Michal Tomšovský; Petr Horáček


    The aim of the paper is to evaluate the utilization of molecular biology methods for detection of wood decaying fungi directly from decomposed wood using a commercial DNA extraction kit developed for soil substrates (PowerSoil™ DNA isolation kit). The experiment based on dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) detection from inoculated wooden pieces under laboratory conditions was followed by field detection of wood-decaying fungi from wood structures on building constructions. Fungal DNA was ide...

  1. Laboratory investigations of moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber insulation


    Geving, Stig; Lunde, Erik; Holme, Jonas


    - The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber thermal insulation in a Nordic climate. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 15 different wall configurations. The test results showed that the wall configurations with wood fiber insulation performed rather similar as those with mineral wool, in regard to measured relative humidity at the external side of the insulation layer. The laboratory tests showed that wood fiber insulati...

  2. Laboratory investigations of moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber insulation


    Geving, Stig; Lunde, Erik; Holme, Jonas


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber thermal insulation in a Nordic climate. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 15 different wall configurations. The test results showed that the wall configurations with wood fiber insulation performed rather similar as those with mineral wool, in regard to measured relative humidity at the external side of the insulation layer. The laboratory tests showed that wood fiber insulation in...

  3. Novel perspectives in wood certification and forensics: dry wood as a source of DNA.


    Deguilloux, Marie-France; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Petit, Rémy J.


    The importance of wood for human societies can hardly be understated. If dry wood were amenable to molecular genetic investigations, this could lead to major applications in wood forensics, certification, archaeology and palaeobotany. To evaluate the potential of wood for molecular genetic investigations, we have attempted to isolate and amplify, by PCR, DNA fragments of increasing size corresponding to all three plant genomes from different regions of 10 oak logs. Stringent procedures to avo...

  4. The use of new, aqueous chemical wood modifications to improve the durability of wood-plastic composites (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; George C. Chen


    The wood flour used in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) can biologically deteriorate and thus the overall mechanical performance of WPCs decrease when exposed to moisture and fungal decay. Protecting the wood flour by chemical modification can improve the durability of the wood in a nontoxic way so it is not harmful to the environment. WPCs were made with modified wood...

  5. Tropical-wood-induced bullous erythema multiforme. (United States)

    Shimizu, S; Chen, K R; Pratchyapruit, W O; Shimizu, H


    We report a case of bullous erythema multiforme caused by an exotic wood, pao ferro (Machaerium scleroxylon). A 25-year-old female, a luthier (guitar maker) who often handles a variety of woods, developed bullous erythema multiforme. A patch test confirmed a positive reaction to one of the exotic woods, pao ferro. A subsequent accidental short contact with pao ferro 5 months following the first incidence induced a similar exudative erythema. Exotic woods such as pao ferro should be added to the list of contact allergens that can induce bullous erythema multiforme. Copyright (R) 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Wood chemistry in the service of agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, V.S.


    This paper was presented to the general assembly of the Lativan Acadmey of Sciences on the theme of implementaion of the domestic food supply programme. The research work of the Institute of Wood Chemistry, Riga, in this direction is summarized, mainly with regard to wood hydrolysis for fodder production, and utilization of the lignin obtained as a byproduct. Other projects have been concerned with tree leaf fodder, the oleoresin-based fungicide Selmid, improved wood for farm buildings, and related topics outside the wood industry such as straw of improved digestibility to ruminats, and plastic structures.

  7. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hartel, Tibor


    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions....... This book examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers of decline, which are shown...... conservation policies and management approaches for wood-pastures....

  8. Wood energy 2000; Bois energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druette, L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 44 - Nantes (France); Lacome, T. [AFNOR, 75 - Paris (France); Roy, C. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others


    The deregulation of the Electric Market and the opening of the Green Certificate exchange market force the set up of renewable energies. The wood, which is for most of european countries an important part of renewable fuel, should see the increase of its utilization. This conference on the wood energy deals the main aspects of this energy development. The papers present the wood burning furnaces technology assessment, the wood fuel market and the standardization of the appliances in this domain. Some papers also include the consequences of the big storms of december 1999. (A.L.B.)

  9. Quantitative Wood Anatomy-Practical Guidelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Arx, Georg; Crivellaro, Alan; Prendin, Angela L; Čufar, Katarina; Carrer, Marco


    Quantitative wood anatomy analyzes the variability of xylem anatomical features in trees, shrubs, and herbaceous species to address research questions related to plant functioning, growth, and environment...

  10. Detection of wood failure by image processing method: influence of algorithm, adhesive and wood species (United States)

    Lanying Lin; Sheng He; Feng Fu; Xiping Wang


    Wood failure percentage (WFP) is an important index for evaluating the bond strength of plywood. Currently, the method used for detecting WFP is visual inspection, which lacks efficiency. In order to improve it, image processing methods are applied to wood failure detection. The present study used thresholding and K-means clustering algorithms in wood failure detection...

  11. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp. (United States)

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R


    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  12. The Wood Anatomy of Rubiaceae tribes Anthospermeae and Paederieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Puff, Ch.


    Detailed wood anatomical descriptions are given for the genera Anthospermum, Nenax, Phyllis, Carpacoce, Coprosma, Neogaillonia, Crocyllis, Plocama and Spermadictyon, and miscellaneous wood anatomical data on the genera Normandia, Pomax, Opercularia, Leptodermis and Aitchisonia. The wood anatomical

  13. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrante


    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  14. Beech wood – correlations between the quality of trees, logs and sawn wood


    Marenče, Jurij; Gornik Bučar , Dominika; Šega, Bogdan


    The research addresses beech wood, from a standing tree to sawn wood. It focuses on the quality evaluation of individual trees and its impact on the later products made of the respective wood. For the needs of observing the quality of standing trees, the current 5-class scale for quality evaluation of the Slovenia Forest Service (SFS) was used. To evaluate the wood assortment, the SIST EN 1316-1:2013 standard was applied, while the evaluation of sawn wood was performed as per the rules of ...

  15. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi. (United States)

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J


    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste (United States)

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott


    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  17. Wood properties from roundwood to timber engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kuilen, J.W.G.; Eberhardsteiner, J.; Winter, W.; Fadai, A.; Pöll, M.


    Measuring and assessing wood properties during the production chain is getting more and more important for an optimal use of the resource. Over the years, research has been performed with the focus on establishing important wood properties, with the final goal of an

  18. Waste-wood-derived fillers for plastics (United States)

    Brent English; Craig M. Clemons; Nicole Stark; James P. Schneider


    Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper...

  19. The market for wood picnic structures. (United States)

    Jerry A. Sesco


    Most of the picnic structures in six north-central states studied were constructed of wood. Service life of structure varied greatly. Vandalism and decay were the major reasons for repairing and replacing picnic tables. More than half the tables were made by the recreation agencies themselves. These results describe a market that existing and potential wood...

  20. Wood anatomy of the Neotropical Melastomataceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter Ben J.H.; Koek-Noorman, Jifke


    The wood anatomy of 47 genera of the neotropical Melastomataceae is described in detail. The wood anatomy of the neotropical part of this pantropical family supports the subdivision into two groups: the subfamily Memecyloideae (the genus Mouriri) and the subfamily Melastomatoideae (all other

  1. Wood and fish residuals composting in Alaska (United States)

    David Nicholls; Thomas Richard; Jesse A. Micales


    The unique climates and industrial mix in southeast and south central Alaska are challenges being met by the region's organics recyclers. OMPOSTING wood residuals in Alaska has become increasingly important in recent years as wood processors and other industrial waste managers search for environmentally sound and profitable outlets. Traditionally, Alaska?s...

  2. Evaluation of Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites (United States)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was employed as a bio-filler and blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) via extrusion. Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled through a 1-mm screen then separated via shaking into various particle fractions using sieves (#30 - #2...

  3. Chapter 01: Wood identification and pattern recognition (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft


    Wood identification is a combination of art and science. Although the bulk of this manual focuses on the scientific characteristics used to make accurate field identifications of wood, the contribution of the artistic component to the identification process should be neither overlooked nor understated. Though the accumulation of scientific knowledge and experience is...

  4. Wood Sculpture in the Elementary School (United States)

    Boschen, Joyce


    The article discusses various approaches used by first to fifth graders in designing, constructing and sculpting wood pieces. In this case, small wooden parts were donated by a local factory. Article includes useful hints, such as that soft woods are better for younger children, trial and error methods increase enjoyment. (PD)

  5. Protecting wood fences for yard and garden (United States)

    R. C. De Groot; W. C. Feist; W. E. Eslyn; L. R. Gjovik

    For maximum protection against wood decay and termites, use posts that have an in-depth preservative treatment, preferably a pressure treatment for below ground use. When selecting posts of naturally decay-resistant woods, choose posts with mostly heartwood. Horizontal rails require more protection from decay than do vertical boards. In regions of high and moderate...

  6. Wood decay and the cleanup crew (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser


    Arborists are encouraged to recognize the wood-decay process as an important factor in tree health and public safety. Technical experts who develop training materials to recognize wood-decay processes in living trees are frequently forest pathologists. Much of the history of forest pathology was to support production of sound, high-quality timber. That heritage is...

  7. Micromechanical measurement of wood substructure properties. (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; Troy W. Schmidt; Roderic S. Lakes; Steven M. Cramer


    The annual rings of softwoods are visually obvious and represent cylindrical layers of primarily cellulosic material that possess significantly different properties. For simplicity, wood construction products are designed assuming a material homogeneity that does not exist. As rapidly grown plantation trees are used for wood products, fewer rings are contained in an...

  8. Wood as a sustainable building material (United States)

    Robert H. Falk


    Few building materials possess the environmental benefits of wood. It is not only our most widely used building material but also one with characteristics that make it suitable for a wide range of applications. As described in the many chapters of this handbook, efficient, durable, and useful wood products produced from trees can range from a minimally processed log at...

  9. Surface thermodynamic parameters of modified wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokrovskaya Elena


    Full Text Available Energy characteristics of modified wood are studied in the paper. Application of this approach during the study of wooden materials allows forecasting the efficiency of modifiers for surface layer of wood. Phosphites, the efficient fire-retarders, were applied as modifiers. Using the example of a number of ethers with various alkoxy substituents of phosphorus atom, we have made an attempt to associate surface thermodynamic properties of modified wood and formation of properties for fire-, bio- and smoke protection. The dependence of change of energy characteristics and surface structure of wood on the nature of modifiers is determined. To study energy characteristics of wood, modified by various compounds, the following characteristics were used: σ surface tension and ΔG free enthalpy gradient. Easy Drop setting and the corresponding software were used to determine these values. According to the obtained data, the conclusion is made about the influence of modifiers on energy characteristics of wood. The high degree of modification (% P causes bigger change of Gibbs energy, which determines formation of high-level fire-, bio- and smoke protection. Diethyl phosphite is the most efficient modifier. Formation of fire-protective properties stipulates long-term operation of wood and wood-based materials.

  10. Chapter 9:Wood Adhesion and Adhesives (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart


    The recorded history of bonding wood dates back at least 3000 years to the Egyptians (Skeist and Miron 1990, River 1994a), and adhesive bonding goes back to early mankind (Keimel 2003). Although wood and paper bonding are the largest applications for adhesives, some of the fundamental aspects leading to good bonds are not fully understood. Better understanding of these...

  11. Ultrasound Transmission Times in Biologically Deteriorated Wood (United States)

    Christopher Adam Senalik; Robert J. Ross; Rodney DeGroot


    The use of a variety of stress wave transmission techniques for the in-service condition assessment of deteriorated wood is well documented. This paper summarizes results from an extensive study designed to examine the relationship between ultrasound transmission times and the deterioration of exposed wood. Two hundred seventy (270) southern pine lumber specimens were...

  12. Wood anatomy of the Palaeotropical Melastomataceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.


    The wood anatomy of the palaeotropical Melastomataceae is described in detail on the basis of 134 samples of 107 species from 36 genera. On the wood anatomy, three subfamilies are recognized, Memecyloideae, Melastomatoideae, and Crypteronioideae. The Memecyloideae stand out through their

  13. Turbulence and Araki-Woods factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasyk, R.; Törnquist, A.; Törnquist, Asger Dag


    Using Baire category techniques we prove that Araki-Woods factors are not classifiable by countable structures. As a result, we obtain a far reaching strengthening as well as a new proof of the well-known theorem of Woods that the isomorphism problem for ITPFI factors is not smooth. We derive as ...


    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  15. Chapter 13:Wood/Nonwood Thermoplastic Composites (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Roger M. Rowell; David Plackett; B. Kristoffer Segerholm


    Composites made from wood, other biomass resources and polymers have existed for a long time but the nature of many of these composites has changed in recent decades. Wood-thermoset composites date to the early 1900s. "Thermosets" or thermosetting polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins such as epoxies...

  16. Chapter 16: Soy Proteins as Wood Adhesives (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Christopher G. Hunt; Michael J. Birkeland


    Protein adhesives allowed the development of bonded wood products such as plywood and glulam in the early 20th century. Petrochemical-based adhesives replaced proteins in most wood bonding applications because of lower cost, improved production efficiencies, and enhanced durability. However, several technological and environmental factors have led to a resurgence of...

  17. Camp Lejeune Energy from Wood (CLEW) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Purvis, C.R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)


    This demonstration project converts wood energy to electrical power, uses waste and alleviates pollution. The 1 MWe plant operates a reciprocating engine-generator set on synthetic gas from a down-draft wood gasifier. This paper discusses plant descriptions, operational characteristics, performance data, and needed modifications. (author)

  18. (Maryland) wood heating project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The following recommendations and suggestions may be made to the homeowner and small business that might use supplemental wood heat up to 150,000 Btu requirement: (1) The cost of firewood must be kept as low as possible. If costs presently are much over $90/cord there must be very efficient use of the equipment. An owner may be willing to write off the cost of his own labor, but that can rather quickly turn sour if they are not used to heavy work and have the proper equipment to work with. (2) Care must be taken in selecting manufacturer and dealer so that parts and warranty repair are available in the future. We have run into this problem and an owner must beware. (3) A wood or wood/coal furnace is a much better investment than a large wood stove. Costs are less and heat distribution is superior. (4) A small moderately priced stove is better for heating a small area. (5) Wood units must burn hot for satisfactory combustion and heat production. (6) Burning a wood unit in moderate weather creates more problems than it solves. (7) Follow the instructions in the provided manual to the letter. (8) Study wood heat principals before investing in equipment. (9) Insulated chimneys are superior to all others from a practical standpoint. (10) Satisfaction comes only with adequate research and planning all aspects of wood burning. If all personnel involved are not dedicated to its use, results will be less than desirable.

  19. NeighbourWoods for Better Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis; Schipperijn, Jasper Jan

    This publication aims to contribute to the development af NeighbourWoods through socially-inclusive planning, design and management. It presents experiences from an international project supported by the European Commission which evaluated and developed approaches and tools to assist NeighbourWood...

  20. Analysis of acetylated wood by electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sander, C.; Beckers, E.P.J.; Militz, H.; Veenendaal, van W.


    The properties of acetylated solid wood were investigated earlier, in particular the anti-shrink efficiency and the resistance against decay. This study focuses on the possible changes and damage to the wood structure due to an acetylation process leading to weight per cent gains of up to 20%.

  1. The wood structure of Dicranostyles (Convolvulaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, Alberta M.W.


    The anatomy of the mature wood of three species of the South American genus of woody climbers Dicranostyles Bth. is described and compared with that of the secondary wood of other genera of the Convolvulaceae. The stems are characterized by the occurrence of concentric rings of included phloem

  2. Finishability of CCA pressure-treated wood (United States)

    Alan Ross; Richard Carlson; William Feist; Steven Bussjaeger


    Thus, a need arose for the development of surface finishes for CCA-treated wood that could address the special requirements of this substrate and provide protection against the ravages of water, sunlight, mildew, and other aspects of weathering and wear. Initially, this need was not addressed, most wood preserving companies had little expertise in surface finishes and...

  3. Wood and leaf anatomy of Opiliaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Rijckevorsel, v. P.


    The wood and leaf anatomy of representatives of the 9 genera of the Opiliaceae are described in detail. It is possible to separate the genera on the base of both wood- and leaf anatomical characters. Herein the presence of cystoliths of varying shape and size is important. Some comments on the

  4. Wood energy markets, 2011-2012 (United States)

    Francisco Aguilar; Rens Hartkamp; Warren Mabee; Kenneth Skog


    To celebrate the 2012 International Year of Sustainable Energy for All, in this chapter we consider in some depth the sustainability of wood energy. To do so, we evaluate the traditional economic, environmental and social dimensions of the sustainability concept. We also address how public policy has influenced wood energy sustainability across the UNECE region.

  5. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and use of wood preservatives in Nigeria should address not only the cost and demand functions but also the potential hazards in environmental equations. Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ...

  6. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  7. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality (United States)

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan


    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  8. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality. (United States)

    Farrell, Ross R; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N; Nichols, David S; Breadmore, Michael C; Shellie, Robert A; Yeretzian, Chahan


    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 (o)C. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  9. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL


    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  10. Threshold for ion movements in wood cell walls below fiber saturation observed by X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelinka, Samuel L.; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Vogt, Stefan; Rodriguez Lopez, Gabriela M.; Jakes, Joseph E.


    Diffusion of chemicals and ions through the wood cell wall plays an important role in wood damage mechanisms. In the present work, free diffusion of ions through wood secondary walls and middle lamellae has been investigated as a function of moisture content (MC) and anatomical direction. Various ions (K, Cl, Zn, Cu) were injected into selected regions of 2 mu m thick wood sections with a microinjector and then the ion distribution was mapped by means of X-ray fluorescence microscopy with submicron spatial resolution. The MC of the wood was controlled in situ by means of climatic chamber with controlled relative humidity (RH). For all ions investigated, there was a threshold RH below which the concentration profiles did not change. The threshold RH depended upon ionic species, cell wall layer, and wood anatomical orientation. Above the threshold RH, differences in mobility among ions were observed and the mobility depended upon anatomical direction and cell wall layer. These observations support a recently proposed percolation model of electrical conduction in wood. The results contribute to understanding the mechanisms of fungal decay and fastener corrosion that occur below the fiber saturation point.

  11. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei


    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1 decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2 increased ln(HF-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.

  12. Use of nanofillers in wood coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Lawther, John Mark; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh


    Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection...... with nanometal oxides that allow wood texture to remain seen and higher resilience to scratch and abrasion with use of different nanoparticle shapes are some of the applications that are reviewed here. A variety of possible applications together with a high level of improvements, alongside commercial factors...... like a low level of loading, have already established nanoparticles in some areas of wood coatings. This article is a comprehensive scientific review of the published work in the use of nanofillers in wood coatings....

  13. Optimising hydrogen bonding in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang


    The chemical bonds of wood are both covalent bonds within the wood polymers and hydrogen bonds within and between the polymers. Both types of bonds are responsible for the coherence, strength and stiffness of the material. The hydrogen bonds are more easily modified by changes in load, moisture...... and temperature distorting the internal bonding state. A problem arises when studying hydrogen bonding in wood since matched wood specimens of the same species will have very different internal bonding states. Thus, possible changes in the bonding state due to some applied treatment such as conditioning...... maintaining 100 % moisture content of the wood. The hypothesis was that this would enable a fast stress relaxation as a result of reorganization of bonds, since moisture plasticizes the material and temperature promotes faster kinetics. Hereby, all past bond distortions caused by various moisture, temperature...

  14. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others


    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  15. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Bolling


    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  16. CFD modeling and experience of waste-to-energy plant burning waste wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajh, B.; Yin, Chungen; Samec, N.


    of waste wood combustion in a 13 MW grate-fired boiler in a WtE plant is presented. As a validation effort, the temperature profiles at a number of ports in the furnace are measured and the experimental results are compared with the CFD predictions. In the simulation, a 1D model is developed to simulate...... the conversion of the waste wood in the fuel bed on the grate, which provides the appropriate inlet boundary condition for the freeboard 3D CFD simulation. The CFD analysis reveals the detailed mixing and combustion characteristics in the waste wood-fired furnace, pinpointing how to improve the design......Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is being increasingly used in industry for in-depth understanding of the fundamental mixing, combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation in combustion processes and for design and optimization of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. In this paper, CFD modeling...

  17. Structure and function of flexure wood in Abies fraseri. (United States)

    Telewski, F W


    Wood produced during flexure in one-year-old leaders of Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Fraser fir) was analyzed anatomically and radio-densitometrically. More xylem cells were produced in stems subjected to flexing than in stems that were not flexed. The lumens of tracheids produced in response to flexure were smaller than the lumens of tracheids in normal wood. This was manifest as an increase in the cell wall area/cell lumen area ratio. Microfibril orientation in flexure-induced wood approached the less extreme values found in compression wood. The growth ring composed of flexure-induced wood also had a greater density than normal wood. Compression wood, as defined by cellular characteristics observed in transverse section, was absent in flexed stems. Detailed analysis of the anatomical structure, wood density and biomechanical properties of flexure-induced wood indicated that it has more in common with compression wood than with normal wood.

  18. Wood surface roughness: an impact of wood species, grain direction and grit size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Vitosytė


    Full Text Available For the research the samples of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., birch (Betula L., black alder (Alnus glutinosa L., Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L. and spruce (Picea abies L. wood were used with dimensions of 270×215×15 mm. All wood samples were tangentially planed, defect free and kiln dried. Before the research, the average moisture content, wood density, number of annual rings per 1 cm, average width of annual ring and wood surface grain direction were evaluated. Different wood surface roughness of the samples was obtained sanding wood samples in the eccentric sanding stand, using standard open-type sandpaper with different grit size. The arithmetic mean value of the single roughness depths of consecutive sampling lengths parameter Rz of the sanded wood samples were measured in five sectors along the wood grain, across and in the angle of 45°, using a contact stylus profilometer. In total 1800 measurements were done during testing series. Obtained measurement results were processed by digital Gaussian filter according to DIN EN ISO 11562. In the research the dependence of wood surface on wood species, grain direction and grit size of abrasive material was evaluated.DOI:

  19. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)


    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  20. Wood density and its radial variation in six canopy tree species differing in shade-tolerance in western Thailand (United States)

    Nock, Charles A.; Geihofer, Daniela; Grabner, Michael; Baker, Patrick J.; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Hietz, Peter


    Background and Aims Wood density is a key variable for understanding life history strategies in tropical trees. Differences in wood density and its radial variation were related to the shade-tolerance of six canopy tree species in seasonally dry tropical forest in Thailand. In addition, using tree ring measurements, the influence of tree size, age and annual increment on radial density gradients was analysed. Methods Wood density was determined from tree cores using X-ray densitometry. X-ray films were digitized and images were measured, resulting in a continuous density profile for each sample. Mixed models were then developed to analyse differences in average wood density and in radial gradients in density among the six tree species, as well as the effects of tree age, size and annual increment on radial increases in Melia azedarach. Key Results Average wood density generally reflected differences in shade-tolerance, varying by nearly a factor of two. Radial gradients occurred in all species, ranging from an increase of (approx. 70%) in the shade-intolerant Melia azedarach to a decrease of approx. 13% in the shade-tolerant Neolitsea obtusifolia, but the slopes of radial gradients were generally unrelated to shade-tolerance. For Melia azedarach, radial increases were most-parsimoniously explained by log-transformed tree age and annual increment rather than by tree size. Conclusions The results indicate that average wood density generally reflects differences in shade-tolerance in seasonally dry tropical forests; however, inferences based on wood density alone are potentially misleading for species with complex life histories. In addition, the findings suggest that a ‘whole-tree’ view of life history and biomechanics is important for understanding patterns of radial variation in wood density. Finally, accounting for wood density gradients is likely to improve the accuracy of estimates of stem biomass and carbon in tropical trees. PMID:19454592

  1. Quantitative wood anatomy - practical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg evon Arx


    Full Text Available Quantitative wood anatomy analyzes the variability of xylem anatomical features in trees, shrubs and herbaceous species to address research questions related to plant functioning, growth and environment. Among the more frequently considered anatomical features are lumen dimensions and wall thickness of conducting cells, fibers and several ray properties. The structural properties of each xylem anatomical feature are mostly fixed once they are formed, and define to a large extent its functionality, including transport and storage of water, nutrients, sugars and hormones, and providing mechanical support. The anatomical features can often be localized within an annual growth ring, which allows to establish intra-annual past and present structure-function relationships and its sensitivity to environmental variability. However, there are many methodological obstacles to overcome when aiming at producing (large data sets of xylem anatomical data.Here we describe the different steps from wood sample collection to xylem anatomical data, provide guidance and identify pitfalls, and present different image-analysis tools for the quantification of anatomical features, in particular conducting cells. We show that each data production step from sample collection in the field, microslide preparation in the lab, image capturing through an optical microscope and image analysis with specific tools can readily introduce measurement errors between 5 to 30% and more, whereby the magnitude usually increases the smaller the anatomical features. Such measurement errors – if not avoided or corrected – may make it impossible to extract meaningful xylem anatomical data in light of the rather small range of variability in many anatomical features as observed, for example, within time series of individual plants. Following a rigid protocol and quality control as proposed in this paper is thus mandatory to use quantitative data of xylem anatomical features as a powerful

  2. Finite Element Analysis Of Boron Diffusion In Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl


    The coupled heat and mass transfer equations for air, water and heat transfer are supplemented with a conservation equation for an additional species representing the concentration of boron in wood. Boundary conditions for wood-air. wood-soil and wood-boron interfaces arc discussed and finally...

  3. The compression of wood/thermoplastic fiber mats during consolidation (United States)

    Karl R. Englund; Michael P. Wolcott; John C. Hermanson


    Secondary processing of non-woven wood and wood/thermoplastic fiber mats is generally performed using compression molding, where heated platens or dies form the final product. Although the study and use of wood-fiber composites is widespread, few research efforts have explicitly described the fundamentals of mat consolidation. In contrast, the wood composite literature...

  4. Housing and the wood industry, trends & market conditions (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Al Schuler; K. Koenig


    Housing markets continue to have major impacts on the secondary wood industry. So, what are the steps being taken by wood products manufacturers in order to stay viable? As a follow-up to last year's article, "Housing Market's Impact on the Secondary Woodworking Industry" (Wood & Wood Products, July 2010), the focus of this year's study was...

  5. The use and market for wood in the electrometallurgical industry (United States)

    Jeffery L. Wartluft; Jeffery L. Wartluft


    Wood residues, particularly large chips, play an important role in the electric smelting of certain ferro-alloys. This is a report on the characteristics and growth potential of the market for wood in the electrometallurgicaI industry, including a brief account of how wood is used in electrometallurgical processes, a discussion of the preferred form of wood used, a...

  6. Raman spectroscopic characterization of wood and pulp fibers (United States)

    Umesh Prasad Agarwal


    This chapter reviews applications of Raman spectroscopy in the field of wood and pulp fibers. Most of the literature examined was published between 1998 and 2006. In addition to introduction, this chapter contains sections on wood and components, mechanical pulp, chemical pulp, modified/treated wood, cellulose I crystallinity of wood fibers, and the self-absorption...

  7. Achieving wood energy potentials: evidence in northeastern Minnesota. (United States)

    Dennis P. Bradley; David C. Lothner


    A study of wood energy potential in northeastern Minnesota concludes that (1) the forests of the region could support a much larger wood energy harvest without significant cost increases for other forest products; (2) existing stands are predominantly overmature and cutting more now will enhance future wood supplies for all users; (3) converting to wood energy could...

  8. Selection and application of exterior stains for wood (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist


    Exterior stains for wood protect the wood surface from sunlight and moisture. Because stains are formulated to penetrate the wood surface, they are not prone to crack or peel as can film-forming finishes, such as paints. This publication describes the properties of stains and wood, methods for applying stains, and the expected service life of stains.

  9. Wood construction codes issues in the United States (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer


    The current wood construction codes find their origin in the 1935 Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material published by the USDA Forest Service. Many of the current design recommendations can be traced back to statements from this book. Since this time a series of development both historical and recent has led to a multi-layered system for use of wood products in...

  10. Electrochemical corrosion testing of fasteners in extracts of treated wood (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer; Donald S. Stone


    A recent change in wood preservatives has highlighted the need for a rapid, quantitative test to measure the corrosion rates of metals in contact with treated wood that could be used to evaluate new fasteners or new wood preservatives. A new method was developed where polarisation resistance tests were conducted on fasteners exposed to a water extract of wood treated...

  11. Logistics Significance of Wood Product Manufacturing on Competitiveness Based Management


    Fedotova, K; Geipele, I; Geipele, S


    Topicality is associated with the important contribution of wood products manufacturing in Latvian economy. Important role in development of wood products manufacturing has improvement of wood products manufacturing that includes acceptance of strategic management decisions and solutions for wwod resource flow optimization throughout wood products added value chain, as well as an interference with related industries.

  12. Consumer preference study of characteristics of Hawaiian koa wood bowls (United States)

    Eini C Lowell; Katherine Wilson; Jan Wiedenbeck; Catherine Chan; J. B. Friday; Nicole Evans


    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray), a species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, has ecological, cultural, and economic significance. Its wood is prized globally but today, most woodworkers only use koa wood from dead and dying old-growth trees. The general perception of wood from young-growth koa is that it lacks the color and figure of old-growth wood and is...

  13. Relationship of wood surface energy to surface composition (United States)

    Feipeng P. Liu; Timothy G. Rials; John Simonsen


    The wood cell wall is composed of cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, and extractives. Thus, the surface energy of the wood material must be some combination of the surface energies of these components. The influence of extractives on wood surface chemistry can be important in diverse industrial applications, such as coating, pulping, and wood-based composites. In this...

  14. Factors that lead to failure with wood adhesive bonds (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; James F. Beecher


    Understanding what makes a good wood adhesive is difficult since the type of adhesive, wood species, bonding process, and resultant products vary considerably. Wood bonds are subjected to a variety of tests that reflect the different product performance criteria in diverse countries. The most common tests involve some type of moisture resistance; both wood and adhesive...

  15. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings - Canada (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling


    Low-rise nonresidential building construction is an important market in Canada for lumber, engineered wood products, structural wood panels, and nonstructural wood panels. This report examines wood products consumption in 2012 for construction of selected low-rise nonresidential buildings types that have six or fewer stories. Buildings with more than six stories are...

  16. Acetylation of wood components and fourier transform infra-red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the reactivity of wood components with acetic anhydride or vinyl acetate was studied. It was found that the reactivity of wood components was virgin wood flour > holocellulose >> a-cellulose. Acetylation of Turkish pine or cedar wood flour with acetic anhydride was significantly improved in the presence of ...

  17. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes


    process, suggesting that sealing the ends of timber logs while in the green moisture state could considerably reduce the development of end-cracks. The initial moisture content and the shrinkage properties of the wood varied markedly from pith to bark. The importance of taking material inhomogeneities......Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood...... into account when modelling crack propagation in solid wood is emphasized. © 2011 Taylor & Francis....

  18. Amatoxins in wood-rotting Galerina marginata. (United States)

    Enjalbert, Françoise; Cassanas, Geneviéve; Rapior, Sylvie; Renault, Corinne; Chaumont, Jean-Pierre


    Amatoxins, bicyclic octapeptide derivatives responsible for severe hepatic failure, are present in several Basidiomycota species belonging to four genera, i.e. Amanita, Conocybe, Galerina and Lepiota. DNA studies for G. autumnalis, G. marginata, G. oregonensis, G. unicolor and G. venenata (section Naucoriopsis) determined that these species are the same, supporting the concept of Galerina marginata complex. These mostly lignicolous species are designated as white-rot fungi having a broad host range and capable of degrading both hardwoods and softwoods. Twenty-seven G. marginata basidiomes taken from different sites and hosts (three sets) as well as 17 A. phalloides specimens (three sets) were collected in French locations. The 44 basidiomes were examined for amatoxins and phallotoxins using high-performance liquid chromatography. Toxinological data for the wood-rotting G. marginata and the ectomycorrhizal A. phalloides species were compared and statistically analyzed. The acidic and neutral phallotoxins were not detected in any G. marginata specimen, whereas the acidic (β-Ama) and neutral (α-Ama and γ-Ama) amanitins were found in all basidiomes from either Angiosperms or Gymnosperms hosts. The G. marginata amatoxin content varied from 78.17 to 243.61 μ of fresh weight and was elevated significantly in one set out of three. The amanitin amounts from certain Galerina specimens were higher than those from some A. phalloides basidiomes. Relationship between the amanitin distribution and the chemical composition of substrate was underlined and statistically validated for the white-rot G. marginata. Changes in nutritional components from decayed host due to enzymatic systems and genetic factors as well as environmental conditions seem to play a determinant role in the amanitin profile. Variability noticed in the amanitin distribution for the white-rot G. marginata basidiomes was not observed for the ectomycorrhizal A. phalloides specimens.

  19. Weathering Characteristics of Wood Plastic Composites Reinforced with Extracted or Delignified Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chen


    Full Text Available This study investigated weathering performance of an HDPE wood plastic composite reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF. The wood flour was pre-extracted with three different solvents, toluene/ethanol (TE, acetone/water (AW, and hot water (HW, or sodium chlorite/acetic acid. The spectral properties of the composites before and after artificial weathering under accelerated conditions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, the surface color parameters were analyzed using colorimetry, and the mechanical properties were determined by a flexural test. Weathering of WPC resulted in a surface lightening and a decrease in wood index (wood/HDPE and flexural strength. WPCs that were reinforced with delignified wood flour showed higher ΔL* and ΔE* values, together with lower MOE and MOR retention ratios upon weathering when compared to those with non-extracted control and extracted WF.

  20. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)


    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  1. Physical and mechanical properties of bio-composites from wood particles and liquefied wood resin (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse


    Compression molded composites were made from wood particles and a liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde co-condensed resin. Based on our previous research, a phenol to wood (P/W) ratio of 2/1 was chosen for this study. The two experimental variables selected were: 1) liquefaction temperature (150o and 180oC) and 2) cooking method (atmospheric and sealed). Panels were...

  2. Comparative LCA of Wood from Conventional Forestry and Wood from Short Rotation Coppice


    Kunstmann, Martin


    Worldwide there is an increasing demand of natural resources. In future, non renewable resources get substituted by renewable resources in the energetic sector as well as in the material sector. That implies a stronger usage of renewable resources especially - wood. In 2009 there was a usage of 77 million cubic meters of wood for material applications and a quantity of 55 million cubic meters for energetic applications in Germany alone. Furthermore, there is an increasing demand on wood for e...

  3. LCA-based optimization of wood utilization under special consideration of a cascading use of wood. (United States)

    Höglmeier, Karin; Steubing, Bernhard; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele; Richter, Klaus


    Cascading, the use of the same unit of a resource in multiple successional applications, is considered as a viable means to improve the efficiency of resource utilization and to decrease environmental impacts. Wood, as a regrowing but nevertheless limited and increasingly in demand resource, can be used in cascades, thereby increasing the potential efficiency per unit of wood. This study aims to assess the influence of cascading wood utilization on optimizing the overall environmental impact of wood utilization. By combining a material flow model of existing wood applications - both for materials provision and energy production - with an algebraic optimization tool, the effects of the use of wood in cascades can be modelled and quantified based on life cycle impact assessment results for all production processes. To identify the most efficient wood allocation, the effects of a potential substitution of non-wood products were taken into account in a part of the model runs. The considered environmental indicators were global warming potential, particulate matter formation, land occupation and an aggregated single score indicator. We found that optimizing either the overall global warming potential or the value of the single score indicator of the system leads to a simultaneous relative decrease of all other considered environmental impacts. The relative differences between the impacts of the model run with and without the possibility of a cascading use of wood were 7% for global warming potential and the single score indicator, despite cascading only influencing a small part of the overall system, namely wood panel production. Cascading led to savings of up to 14% of the annual primary wood supply of the study area. We conclude that cascading can improve the overall performance of a wood utilization system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Continued growth expected for wood energy despite turbulence of the economic crisis : wood energy markets, 2008-2009 (United States)

    Rens Hartkamp; Bengt Hillring; Warren Mabee; Olle Olsson; Kenneth Skog; Henry Spelter; Johan Vinterback; Antje Wahl


    The economic crisis has not reduced the demand for wood energy, which is expected to continue to grow. The downturn in sawmill production caused a shortage of raw material supply for wood pellet producers. With decreased demand for pulpwood-quality roundwood for wood and paper products in 2009, some pulpwood is being converted into wood energy. Economies of scale are...

  5. The economic potential of wood pellet production from alternative, low-value wood sources in the southeast of the US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre


    The global demand for wood pellets used for energy purposes is growing. Therefore, increased amounts of wood pellets are produced from primary forestry products, such as pulp wood. The present analysis demonstrates that substantial amounts of alternative, low-value wood resources are available that

  6. Analysis of three-year Wisconsin temperature histories for roof systems using wood, wood-thermoplastic composite, and fiberglass shingles (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Cherilyn A. Hatfield


    Temperature histories for various types of roof shingles, wood roof sheathing, rafters, and nonventilated attics were monitored in outdoor attic structures using simulated North American light-framed construction. In this paper, 3-year thermal load histories for wood-based composite roof sheathing, wood rafters, and attics under western redcedar (WRC) shingles, wood-...

  7. Chemical composition and sensory properties of non-wooded and wooded Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) wine as affected by vineyard row orientation and grape ripeness level. (United States)

    Hunter, Jacobus J; Volschenk, Cornelis G


    The study aimed to unravel vineyard row orientation (NS, EW, NE-SW, NW-SE) and grape ripeness level (23, 25, 27 °Balling) implications for grape and wine composition and sensory properties/style (non-wooded/wooded wines) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz (rootstock 101-14 Mgt). Soluble solid/titratable acidity ratios were lowest for EW, whereas warmer canopy sides (NW, N, NE) advanced grape ripening. Skin anthocyanins and phenolics generally decreased with ripening. NW-SE rows and S, SE, E and NE canopy sides showed highest skin total anthocyanins and phenolics. Wine total anthocyanins and phenolics increased with grape ripening; EW had lower values. Wine phenolic contents differed between canopy sides; N, NE, E and SE tended higher. Wine sensory profiles increased with grape ripening. For non-wooded wines, NW-SE and NE-SW row orientations generally resulted in highest scores, followed by NS. For EW rows, the N side presented better wines. Wood addition enhanced specific sensory descriptor perceptions. A large collection of wine styles surfaced in the same vineyard and terroir, increasing options to contribute positively to sustainable products. The study generated globally applicable, novel information vital for unlocking and valorising terroir/site potential for grape and wine chemical composition and wine sensory/style properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Common wood decay fungi found in the Caribbean Basin (United States)

    D. Jean. Lodge


    There are hundreds of wood-decay fungi in the Caribbean Basin, but relatively few of these are likely to grow on manmade structures built of wood or wood-composites. The wood-decay fungi of greatest concern are those that cause brown-rot, and especially brown-rot fungi that are resistant to copper-based wood preservatives. Some fungi that grow in the Caribbean and...

  9. Application of molecular genetic methods for identification of wood-decaying fungi in wood constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bobeková


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the utilization of molecular biology methods for detection of wood decaying fungi directly from decomposed wood using a commercial DNA extraction kit developed for soil substrates (PowerSoil™ DNA isolation kit. The experiment based on dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans detection from inoculated wooden pieces under laboratory conditions was followed by field detection of wood-decaying fungi from wood structures on building constructions. Fungal DNA was identified using the PCR–based methods including species-specific PCR and sequencing of amplified ITS region of ribosomal DNA.

  10. The effect of tension wood on roughness of poplar wood and its modification by steaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    اصغر طارمیان


    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of tension wood on the roughness of poplar wood in tangential and radial sections was investigated. Steaming at120 ̊C for 30 and 60 min was aslo applied to reduce the roughness. The potential use of roughness measurement technique for macroscopically detection of tension wood was one of the main objectives of this research. Before roughness measurement and for accurate sampling, the detection of tension wood was carried out using Herzberg reagent and microscopic studies. The roughness of samples was measured by stylus profilometer at 12 % moisture content and the surface quality was also studied by stereo-microscope. Results showed that there is no significant difference in the radial and tangential roughness between tension and normal wood. No difference was also observed between the roughness of tangential and radial sections of both types of woods. In contrast, stereo-microscopic studies clearly showed the higher roughness of tension wood. Steaming for 30 min increased the roughness but the treatment for 60 min had a decreasing effect on the roughness of both types of woods. Overall, it can be concluded that the roughness measurement technique cannot be used as a suitable method to nondestructively detect the poplar tension wood.

  11. 2015 OLC Lidar DEM: Big Wood, ID (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Big Wood 2015 study area. This study area is located in...

  12. Cleaning Up Contaminated Wood-Treating Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Peter


    n 1994 the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) was asked to evaluate technical alternatives to incineration for cleaning up the Texarkana Wood Preserving Company Superfund site, in Texarkana, Texas...

  13. Beneficiation of Compression Debarked Wood Chips (United States)

    James A. Mattson


    Presents the results of a preliminary study of secondary beneficiation of compression debarked chips to reduce residual bark to acceptable amounts. Ballmilling is a feasible method of reducing residual bark and minimizing wood loss.

  14. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants (United States)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.


    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  15. Wood Machining Highlights, 1972 and 1973 (United States)

    C.W. McMillin


    Important wood machining research published during 1972 and 1973 is highlighted to provide the reader with a concise summary of activity in 17 fields of endeavor. The review is based on 427 references and contains 154 citations.



    Lech Muszyński


    Wood plastic composites are complex, anisotropic, and heterogeneous materials. A key to increasing the share of the WPC materials in the market is developing stronger, highly engineered WPCs characterized by greater structural performance and increased durability. These are achieved by enhanced manufacturing processes, more efficient profile designs, and new formulations providing better interaction between the wood particles and the plastic matrix. Significant progress in this area is hard t...

  17. Wood durability and stability without toxicity (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; Rebecca E. Ibach; Thomas Nilsson


    Part of a sustainable future for wood products depends on extending the lifetime of wood used in adverse environments. For some products such as the daily news paper, the average life of the products is one day. For packaging, the products average life time may be as few days to a few weeks. For pallets and wooden containers, the lifetime may be several months. For...

  18. Structure and Properties Relationships of Densified Wood


    Kultikova, Elena V.


    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of applied compressive strain in various environments, on the strength and stiffness of compressed wood samples. It is believed that transverse compression of wood at specific conditions of temperature and moisture will result in improved mechanical properties, which can be attributed to increased density and perhaps other physical or chemical changes. Specimens of both mature and juvenile southern pine (Pinus taeda) and yell...

  19. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates. (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D


    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Three broad conclusions can be reached from the available literature. First, wood decomposition is largely driven by microbial activity but invertebrates also play a significant role in both temperate and tropical environments. Primary mechanisms include enzymatic digestion (involving both endogenous enzymes and those produced by endo- and ectosymbionts), substrate alteration (tunnelling and fragmentation), biotic interactions and nitrogen fertilization (i.e. promoting nitrogen fixation by endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria). Second, the effects of individual invertebrate taxa or functional groups can be accelerative or inhibitory but the cumulative effect of the entire community is generally to accelerate wood decomposition, at least during the early stages of the process (most studies are limited to the first 2-3 years). Although methodological differences and design limitations preclude meta-analysis, studies aimed at quantifying the contributions of invertebrates to wood decomposition commonly attribute 10-20% of wood loss to these organisms. Finally, some taxa appear to be particularly influential with respect to promoting wood decomposition. These include large wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) and termites (Termitoidae), especially fungus-farming macrotermitines. The presence or absence of these species may be more consequential than species richness and the influence of invertebrates is likely to vary biogeographically. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Characterization of volatile constituents in commercial oak wood chips. (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Muiño, Iria; Cadahía, Estrella


    The volatile composition of the different oak wood pieces (chips of Quercus spp.) that can be found on the market to be used as alternatives to barrels for aging wines, as well as of chips of Quercus pyrenaica which are being introduced, was studied, evaluating the contents of volatile phenols, lactones, furanic compounds, pyranones, phenolic aldehydes, phenolic ketones, and others. In regard to the overall results, the volatile composition of these products varies widely and has not been clearly laid out according to either the oak species or the wood toasting intensity. Taking into account that the different characteristics of alternatives to barrel products are reflected in the wine treated with them and that an oenological profile based on these variables (origin and toasting level) cannot be defined, only an appropriate chemical analysis would reveal the quality of alternative-to-barrel products and allow us to attempt to foresee its effects on the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the wines treated with them. On the other hand, the Q. pyrenaica alternative products are very similar to those of other species, with some aromatic particularities, such as their high levels of furanic compounds, eugenol, Furaneol, and cis-whiskylactone, and low levels of vanillin.

  1. Network analysis reveals the relationship among wood properties, gene expression levels and genotypes of natural Populus trichocarpa accessions. (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; Klápště, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Friedmann, Michael C; Hannemann, Jan; Ehlting, Juergen; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Mansfield, Shawn D; Douglas, Carl J


    High-throughput approaches have been widely applied to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of industrially important wood properties. Wood traits are polygenic in nature, but gene hierarchies can be assessed to identify the most important gene variants controlling specific traits within complex networks defining the overall wood phenotype. We tested a large set of genetic, genomic, and phenotypic information in an integrative approach to predict wood properties in Populus trichocarpa. Nine-yr-old natural P. trichocarpa trees including accessions with high contrasts in six traits related to wood chemistry and ultrastructure were profiled for gene expression on 49k Nimblegen (Roche NimbleGen Inc., Madison, WI, USA) array elements and for 28,831 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Pre-selected transcripts and SNPs with high statistical dependence on phenotypic traits were used in Bayesian network learning procedures with a stepwise K2 algorithm to infer phenotype-centric networks. Transcripts were pre-selected at a much lower logarithm of Bayes factor (logBF) threshold than SNPs and were not accommodated in the networks. Using persistent variables, we constructed cross-validated networks for variability in wood attributes, which contained four to six variables with 94-100% predictive accuracy. Accommodated gene variants revealed the hierarchy in the genetic architecture that underpins substantial phenotypic variability, and represent new tools to support the maximization of response to selection. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.


    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  3. DNA Damage among Wood Workers Assessed with the Comet Assay (United States)

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta; Hopf, Nancy B.


    Exposure to wood dust, a human carcinogen, is common in wood-related industries, and millions of workers are occupationally exposed to wood dust worldwide. The comet assay is a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for determining DNA damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the DNA damage associated with occupational exposure to wood dust using the comet assay (peripheral blood samples) among nonsmoking wood workers (n = 31, furniture and construction workers) and controls (n = 19). DNA damage was greater in the group exposed to composite wood products compared to the group exposed to natural woods and controls (P < 0.001). No difference in DNA damage was observed between workers exposed to natural woods and controls (P = 0.13). Duration of exposure and current dust concentrations had no effect on DNA damage. In future studies, workers’ exposures should include cumulative dust concentrations and exposures originating from the binders used in composite wood products. PMID:27398027

  4. DNA Damage among Wood Workers Assessed with the Comet Assay. (United States)

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta; Hopf, Nancy B


    Exposure to wood dust, a human carcinogen, is common in wood-related industries, and millions of workers are occupationally exposed to wood dust worldwide. The comet assay is a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for determining DNA damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the DNA damage associated with occupational exposure to wood dust using the comet assay (peripheral blood samples) among nonsmoking wood workers (n = 31, furniture and construction workers) and controls (n = 19). DNA damage was greater in the group exposed to composite wood products compared to the group exposed to natural woods and controls (P woods and controls (P = 0.13). Duration of exposure and current dust concentrations had no effect on DNA damage. In future studies, workers' exposures should include cumulative dust concentrations and exposures originating from the binders used in composite wood products.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Aydın


    Full Text Available Some visual characteristics of wood such as color, pattern and texture determine the quality of manufactured products. Surface properties of wood material are important both in production and marketing after production. Initial studies related to the roughness of wood surface were begun in early 1950’s. However, no general agreed standardization can not have been developed for wood surfaces. Surface roughness of wood is function of the production process, product type and the natural anatomical properties of wood. Contact and non-contact tracing methods are used to measure of wood surface roughness. Surface roughness also affects the gluability and wettability of wood surfaces. The success in finishing also depends on the surface roughness of wood.

  6. Directory of wood-framed building deconstruction and reused wood building materials companies, 2004 (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; G. Bradley Guy


    This is a directory of companies involved in wood-framed building deconstruction, dismantling and reused building materials, with an emphasis on those that use, resell, and/or re-manufacture salvaged wood. Companies in this directory range in scope from those that carryout targeted building removals, such as historic barns, strictly for the purpose of harvesting the...

  7. A review of wood thermal pretreatments to improve wood composite properties (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Raul. Espinoza-Herrera


    The objective of this paper is to review the published literature on improving properties of wood composites through thermal pretreatment of wood. Thermal pretreatment has been conducted in moist environments using hot water or steam at temperatures up to 180 and 230 ˚C, respectively, or in dry environments using inert gases at temperatures up to 240 ...

  8. Properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour (United States)

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan


    The water sorption and mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) made of extracted and delignified wood flour (WF) has been investigated. WF was prepared by extraction with the solvent systems toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW), and its delignification was conducted by means of sodium chlorite/acetic acid (AA) solution. A 2 4...

  9. An assessment of management practices of wood and wood-related wastes in the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that yard waste{sup 1} accounts for approximately 16% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream (US EPA, 1994). Until recently, specific data and related information on this component of the (MSW) stream has been limited. The purposes of this study, phase two of the three-phase assessment of urban wood waste issues, are to assess and describe current alternatives to landfills for urban wood waste management; provide guidance on the management of urban wood waste to organizations that produce or manage wood waste; and clarify state regulatory and policy positions affecting these organizations. For this study, urban wood waste is defined as solid waste generated by tree and landscape maintenance services (public and private). Urban wood waste includes the following materials: unchipped mixed wood, unchipped logs, and unchipped tops and brush; clearing and grubbing waste; fall leaves and grass clippings; and chips and whole stumps. Construction and demolition debris and consumer-generated yard waste are not included in this study. Generators of urban wood waste include various organizations; municipal, county, and commercial tree care divisions; nurseries, orchards, and golf courses; municipal park and recreation departments; and electric and telephone utility power line maintenance, excavator and land clearance, and landscape organizations. (1) US EPA defines yard waste as ''yard trimmings'' which includes ''grass, leaves and tree brush trimmings from residential, institutional, and commercial sources.''

  10. Decay resistance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao


    The moisture and decay resistance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF) was investigated. Three different extractions were preformed: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW). Delignification (DL) was performed using a sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. All WPCs specimens were made with 50% by...

  11. Remilling of salvaged wood siding coated with lead-based paint. Part 2, Wood product yield (United States)

    John J. Janowiak; Robert H. Falk; Brian W. Beakler; Richard G. Lampo; Thomas R. Napier


    Many U.S. military buildings being targeted for removal contain large quantities of potentially reusable wood materials. In this study, we evaluated approximately 2180 m (7,152 ft) of painted Douglas-fir siding salvaged from U.S. Army barracks. Utilizing a conventional woodworking molder, we evaluated the feasibility of producing several standardized wood product...

  12. Chapter 6: Above Ground Deterioration of Wood and Wood-Based Materials (United States)

    Grant Kirker; Jerrold Winandy


    Wood as a material has unique properties that make it ideal for above ground exposure in a wide range of structural and non-strucutral applications. However, no material is without limitations. Wood is a bio-polymer which is subject to degradative processes, both abiotic and biotic. This chapter is a general summary of the abiotic and biotic factors that impact service...

  13. Wood-plastic composites utilizing wood flours derived from fast- growing trees common to the midwest (United States)

    There are several non- or under-utilized hardwood trees common to the Midwestern states. Wood flour (WF) derived from fast-growing Midwest trees (Osage orange, Black Locust and Red Mulberry) were evaluated as a source of bio-based fiber reinforcements. Wood plastic composites (WPC) of high density p...

  14. Long term durability of wood-plastic composites made with chemically modified wood (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons


    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) have slower moisture sorption than solid wood, but over time moisture can impact the strength, stiffness, and decay of the composite. These changes will become increasingly important if WPCs are used in more challenging environments such as in ground-contact applications. There are several options for mitigating the moisture sorption of...

  15. Acoustic emission and acousto-ultrasonic techniques for wood and wood-based composites: a review (United States)

    Sumire Kawamoto; R. Sam Williams


    This review focuses on the feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) and acousto-ultrasonic (AU) techniques for monitoring defects in wood, particularly during drying. The advantages and disadvantages of AE and AU techniques are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the propagation and attenuation of ultrasonic waves in wood and the associated measurement problems....

  16. Extraction of chromium, copper, and arsenic from CCA-treated wood by using wood vinegar. (United States)

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Ahn, Byoung Jun; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok


    In the present study, wood vinegar was used to extract chromium, copper, and arsenic from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. The extraction efficiency for CCA elements was evaluated using various concentrations of wood vinegar, extraction temperatures, and extraction periods. The extraction efficiency for CCA elements increased with increasing the concentration of wood vinegar and the extraction conditions, resulting in maximal removal rate of copper (95.7%), followed by arsenic (92.7%) and chromium (86.3%). Since wood vinegar afforded high levels of copper extraction, its use was extended to copper-based preservative-treated wood, wherein significant extraction of copper up to 97.6% and 95.7% was obtained from alkaline copper quats (ACQ)- and copper azole (CuAz)-treated sawdust, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the application of wood vinegar for the extraction of metal elements from CCA-treated wood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wood-anatomy and relationship. Taxonomic Notes in connection with the Key to the Javanese Woods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssonius, H.H.


    During the long years I was engaged in writing my “Mikrographie” (1), my main purpose was to give a survey of the wood-anatomy of as many representatives of the javanesc wood flora as I could lay hands on, in connection with Koorders’ and Valeton’s “Bijdragen” (2). My attention being almost

  18. Wood evidence : proper collection, documentation, and storage of wood evidence from a crime scene (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft


    Wood can be found at crime scenes in many forms: as a murder weapon, as material used to hide a body, or as trace evidence from forced entry or vandalism. In the course of my work at the Forest Products Laboratory, Center for Wood Anatomy Research, I have been part of several forensic investigations that were adversely affected by inappropriate procedures used to...

  19. Exposure to wood dust and endotoxin in small-scale wood industries in Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongo, L.M.B.; Msamanga, G.I.; Burstyn, I.; Barten, F.J.M.H.; Dolmans, W.M.V.; Heederik, D.


    Workers in small-scale wood industries (SSWI) have increased risks of developing asthma and other respiratory diseases. Wood dust and microbial agents have both been suggested to play a role, but few studies have measured endotoxin exposure in SSWI in Africa. We assessed inhalable dust levels in 281

  20. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)


    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration

  1. Chemical composition and speciation of particulate organic matter from modern residential small-scale wood combustion appliances. (United States)

    Czech, Hendryk; Miersch, Toni; Orasche, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Sippula, Olli; Tissari, Jarkko; Michalke, Bernhard; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Streibel, Thorsten; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Zimmermann, Ralf


    Combustion technologies of small-scale wood combustion appliances are continuously developed decrease emissions of various pollutants and increase energy conversion. One strategy to reduce emissions is the implementation of air staging technology in secondary air supply, which became an established technique for modern wood combustion appliances. On that account, emissions from a modern masonry heater fuelled with three types of common logwood (beech, birch and spruce) and a modern pellet boiler fuelled with commercial softwood pellets were investigated, which refer to representative combustion appliances in northern Europe In particular, emphasis was put on the organic constituents of PM2.5, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and phenolic species, by targeted and non-targeted mass spectrometric analysis techniques. Compared to conventional wood stoves and pellet boilers, organic emissions from the modern appliances were reduced by at least one order of magnitude, but to a different extent for single species. Hence, characteristic ratios of emission constituents and emission profiles for wood combustion identification and speciation do not hold for this type of advanced combustion technology. Additionally, an overall substantial reduction of typical wood combustion markers, such as phenolic species and anhydrous sugars, were observed. Finally, it was found that slow ignition of log woods changes the distribution of characteristic resin acids and phytosterols as well as their thermal alteration products, which are used as markers for specific wood types. Our results should be considered for wood combustion identification in positive matrix factorisation or chemical mass balance in northern Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Wood biomass potentials in Brandenburg - growing competition between industry timber and energy wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasse, D. (CEBra - Centre for Energy Technology Brandenburg GmbH, Cottbus (Germany)); Laufer, S. (University of Applied Sciences Eberswalde (Germany))


    The paper presents a survey of dramatic timber market developments in recent years. It shows the significant increase of wood processing capacities in Brandenburg and neighbouring regions and the expansion of the wood energy branch at the same time which fostered a growing competition between the industrial and energetic use of wood. The comparison between the annual timber consumption and the annual timber yield potential in Brandenburg forests reflects a widening gap which cannot be covered by conventional means of forestry management. This gap amounted to 1 million m3 in 2006 and will probably double in 2007. Rapidly growing is the importance of wood from short rotation coppices on agricultural set-aside fields and former open cast mining areas. The development of alternative land use systems for the sustainable production of energy wood is a main focus of several R and D projects in Brandenburg. (orig.)

  3. Temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. (United States)

    Thomas, D S; Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P


    Wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. Disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. In general, there is a positive relationship between temperature and wood density of eucalypts, although this relationship has broken down in recent years with wood density decreasing as global temperatures have risen. To determine the anatomical causes of the effects of temperature on wood density, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings were grown in controlled-environment cabinets at constant temperatures from 10 to 35 degrees C. The 20% increase in wood density of E. grandis seedlings grown at the higher temperatures was variously related to a 40% reduction in lumen area of xylem vessels, a 10% reduction in the lumen area of fiber cells and a 10% increase in fiber cell wall thickness. The changes in cell wall characteristics could be considered analogous to changes in carbon supply. Lumen area of fiber cells declined because of reduced fiber cell expansion and increased fiber cell wall thickening. Fiber cell wall thickness was positively related to canopy CO2 assimilation rate (Ac), which increased 26-fold because of a 24-fold increase in leaf area and a doubling in leaf CO2 assimilation rate from minima at 10 and 35 degrees C to maxima at 25 and 30 degrees C. Increased Ac increased seedling volume, biomass and wood density; but increased wood density was also related to a shift in partitioning of seedling biomass from roots to stems as temperature increased.

  4. [Application of near infrared spectroscopy in analysis of wood properties]. (United States)

    Yao, Sheng; Pu, Jun-wen


    There is substantial interest in the improvement of wood properties through genetic selection or a change in silviculture prescription. Tree breeding purpose requires measurement of a large number of samples. However, traditional methods of assessing wood properties are both time consuming and destructive, limiting the numbers of samples that can be processed, so new method would be needed to find. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) is an advanced spectroscopic tool for nondestructive evaluation of wood and it can quickly, accurately estimate the properties of increment core, solid wood or wood meal. The present paper reviews the advances in the research on the wood chemistry properties and anatomical properties using NIR.

  5. Visual associative learning in wood ants. (United States)

    Fernandes, A Sofia D; Buckley, Christopher L; Niven, Jeremy E


    Wood ants are a model system for studying visual learning and navigation. They can forage for food and navigate to their nests effectively by forming memories of visual features in their surrounding environment. Previous studies of freely behaving ants have revealed many of the behavioural strategies and environmental features necessary for successful navigation. However, little is known about the exact visual properties of the environment that animals learn or the neural mechanisms that allow them to achieve this. As a first step towards addressing this, we developed a classical conditioning paradigm for visual learning in harnessed wood ants that allows us to control precisely the learned visual cues. In this paradigm, ants are fixed and presented with a visual cue paired with an appetitive sugar reward. Using this paradigm, we found that visual cues learnt by wood ants through Pavlovian conditioning are retained for at least 1 h. Furthermore, we found that memory retention is dependent upon the ants' performance during training. Our study provides the first evidence that wood ants can form visual associative memories when restrained. This classical conditioning paradigm has the potential to permit detailed analysis of the dynamics of memory formation and retention, and the neural basis of learning in wood ants. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. General Regularities of Wood Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGOSS, Endre


    Full Text Available The surface roughness of wood products is depending on many factors related both towood properties and wood working operational parameters. Probably this is the reason why there areno generally valid correlation determining surface roughness parameters as a function of influencingfactors. In particular, the account of wood structure in the surface roughness interpretation proved tobe difficult.In the last years an important progress was made in recognizing the role of the anatomicalstructure of wood species in the attainable surface roughness. The introduction of a structure numbermade it possible to express and characterize the different wood species numerically.The aim of these studies was the separation of roughness components due to the anatomicalstructure and the woodworking operation. Using a special finishing technique, the roughnesscomponent due to woodworking operations was not significant and could be separated. The samespecimens were also subjected to different woodworking operations using cutting velocities between10 and 50 m/s. The processing of experimental data resulted in a chart showing the minimumroughness component due to different woodworking operations. Special experimental investigationwas conducted to clear the influence of edge dullness on the surface roughness, especially on itsAbbott-parameters. The measurements showed that the Rk-parameter is a good indicator to predictedge dullness.

  7. Gasification research on wood grow project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanigan, V J


    The GROW (Gasification Research on Wood) project consists of a research project on thermochemical degradation of wood particles (sawdust or hammermilled wood) on a pilot plant scale and utilizes a 100 cm (40 in.) diameter fluidized sand bed reactor at capacities of up to 1000 Kg/Hr (2200 lb/hr). Supplementary facilities include wood preparation and air conveying, a wood feed bin, feed and transfer screws, an air compressor with storage and filter tanks, an electrical preheater, a propane-fired preheater, a cyclone separator removing solids from product gas, a water scrubber to cool and clean product gas, a scrubber wate settling tank, a scrubber water cooler, a knockout drum, a demister to be installed in the future, a recycle compressor for recirculation, a recycle gas storage tank, a flare and stack with air blower to dispose of the gas, 2 CO/sub 2/ stripper columns to be installed in the future to remove CO/sub 2/ by caustic adsorption, caustic tanks, and the necessary piping, pumps, sampling, and measurement facilities. A brief report of progress on the project is given, followed by the safety implementation plan and operating, maintenance, and safety procedures. (MHR)

  8. Wood-fired fuel cells in selected buildings (United States)

    McIlveen-Wright, D. R.; McMullan, J. T.; Guiney, D. J.

    The positive attributes of fuel cells for high efficiency power generation at any scale and of biomass as a renewable energy source which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store, suggest that a combined heat and power (CHP) system consisting of a fuel cell integrated with a wood gasifier (FCIWG) may offer a combination for delivering heat and electricity cleanly and efficiently. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) systems, fuelled by natural gas, have already been used in a range of CHP applications in urban settings. Some of these applications are examined here using integrated biomass gasification/fuel cell systems in CHP configurations. Five building systems, which have different energy demand profiles, are assessed. These are a hospital, a hotel, a leisure centre, a multi-residential community and a university hall of residence. Heat and electricity use profiles for typical examples of these buildings were obtained and the FCIWG system was scaled to the power demand. The FCIWG system was modelled for two different types of fuel cell, the molten carbonate and the phosphoric acid. In each case an oxygen-fired gasification system is proposed, in order to eliminate the need for a methane reformer. Technical, environmental and economic analyses of each version were made, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. Since fuel cell lifetimes are not yet precisely known, economics for a range of fuel cell lifetimes have been produced. The wood-fired PAFC system was found to have low electrical efficiency (13-16%), but much of the heat could be recovered, so that the overall efficiency was 64-67%, suitable where high heat/electricity values are required. The wood-fired molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system was found to be quite efficient for electricity generation (24-27%), with an overall energy efficiency of 60-63%. The expected capital costs of both systems would currently make them uncompetitive for general use, but the specific features

  9. Data Profiling


    Hladíková, Radka


    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  10. Characterization of wood mulch and leachate/runoff from three wood recycling facilities. (United States)

    Kannepalli, Sarat; Strom, Peter F; Krogmann, Uta; Subroy, Vandana; Giménez, Daniel; Miskewitz, Robert


    Large-scale open storage of wood mulch is common practice at wood recycling facilities. During rain and snow melt, leachate with soluble compounds and suspended particles is released from mulch stockpiles. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of leachate/runoff from wood recycling facilities to evaluate its potential to contaminate receiving waterbodies. Wood mulch (n = 30) and leachate/runoff (n = 26) samples were collected over 1.5 years from three wood recycling facilities in New Jersey, USA. Differences by site were found (p recycling facilities should not be released to surface waters as it is a potential source of organic contamination and low levels of nutrients. A study in which runoff from a controlled drainage area containing wood mulch of known properties is monitored would allow for better assessment of the potential impact of stormwater runoff from wood recycling facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic improvement of trees for wood production, with particular refeference to wood traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocetti M


    Full Text Available The use of selected propagation material from tree improvement programs is expected to lead to a more homogenous product, generally appreciated by industry. So far, breeding strategy have been mainly targeted to maximize acclimation/adaptation to specific environment conditions, tree growth and disease resistance, but it is not obvious that such strategy might lead to improvement of wood characteristics at the same time. Therefore, it seems important to introduce wood traits improvement as specific target of the selection process in tree breeding programs, and/or to assess heritability of wood technological properties of trees previously selected based on different criteria. Investigations reported so far have revealed that several wood traits are under a medium to high genetic control. The main goal of this work is to discuss the suitability of wood traits improvement as main target of specific breeding programs, with particular attention to wood technological characteristics to be considered in the tree selection process. Finally, we focused on noble hardwoods, that have been the target species for many improvement programs developed in Italy, and particularly on wild cherry, where studies on the genetic control of wood traits are rare.

  12. Novel perspectives in wood certification and forensics: dry wood as a source of DNA. (United States)

    Deguilloux, Marie-France; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Petit, Rémy J


    The importance of wood for human societies can hardly be understated. If dry wood were amenable to molecular genetic investigations, this could lead to major applications in wood forensics, certification, archaeology and palaeobotany. To evaluate the potential of wood for molecular genetic investigations, we have attempted to isolate and amplify, by PCR, DNA fragments of increasing size corresponding to all three plant genomes from different regions of 10 oak logs. Stringent procedures to avoid contamination with external DNA were used in order to demonstrate the authenticity of the fragments amplified. This authenticity was further confirmed by demonstrating genetic uniformity within each log using both nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites. For most wood samples DNA was degraded, and the sequences that gave the best results were those of small size and present in high copy number (chloroplast, mitochondrial, or repeated nuclear sequences). Both storage conditions and storage duration play a role in DNA conservation. Overall, this work demonstrates that molecular markers from all three plant genomes can be used for genetic analysis on dry oak wood, but outlines some limitations and the need for further evaluation of the potential of wood for DNA analysis.

  13. Wood flow problems in the Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics


    In this paper we give an overview of the wood-flow in Sweden including a description of organization and planning. Based on that, we will describe a number of applications or problem areas in the wood-flow chain that are currently considered by the Swedish forest companies to be important and potential in order to improve overall operations. We have focused on applications which are short term planning or operative planning. We do not give any final results as much of the development is currently ongoing or is still in a planning phase. Instead we describe what kind of models and decision support systems that could be applied in order to improve co-operation within and integration of the wood-flow chain 13 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  14. Surefire wood fuel harvester development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The development of a prototype mobile wood fuel chipping machine, the Surefire Woodfuel Harvester, is described. The machine, which has been developed with support from the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and EAGGF, was designed to enable potential woodland supplies in East Anglia to be utilised as a source of biomass electricity generation. The machine has a high speed on/off rolling chassis, hydrostatic transmission for field use, a chipper with at least 30 mm capacity with sliver reduction measures, a crane to feed chipper, a felling-head /grapple fitted to the crane, a high-performance hydraulic system and a wrench for skidding inaccessible timber to within the crane's reach. The developing wood fuel market in the UK, major wood fuel sources in East Anglia, the project's objectives, forward planning, machine specification, design work, machine construction, testing and operation (a case study from Hall Farm, Garboldisham) are described.

  15. The Amer demolition wood gasification project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willeboer, W. [NV EPZ, Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    A project is described in which low quality demolition wood, which cannot be recycled to the chip board industry, is gasified. The product gas is cooled, dedusted, washed and subsequently burnt in the boiler of the coal fired co-generation unit Amer 9. This unit has a net production capacity of 600 MWe and 350 MWe heat. The unit has stringent emission limits for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} and produces a certified fly ash. This means that it is very important to avoid any negative effects of the wood gas on emissions and rest products of the unit. Based upon the above starting points and boundary conditions, the project has been specified with the following key figures: waste wood input 150,000 t/a; coal input saving of 70,000 t/a; CO{sub 2} emission reduction of 170,000 t/a; and electric efficiency over 35%.

  16. Brazilian Market Structure of Wood Briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentil, L.V. (Univ. of Brasilia, Forest Dept, Brasilia (Brazil)). E-mail:; Vieira, A.M.C. (Univ. of Brasilia, Dept. of Statistics, Brasilia (Brazil))


    The bioenergy market and wood briquette market grew starting from the oil crisis in 1973, when it began the fossil fuels replacement. Lignocellulosic wastes have larger specific calorific power and quality than agricultural, peat and sugar cane bagasse. Knowledge of the briquette market with larger efficient scientific tools and smaller costs, is as important in this work as using improved SWOT Analysis of research market with a Multiple Mode and a Correspondence Analysis Mode. The results of this research show that the supply strengths are the quality and amount of energy from wood briquette. The supply weaknesses are expensive freight and briquette vulnerability to the moisture. The demand opportunities are the many uses of wood briquette in several market segments. The demand threats are the absence of a good distribution and expensive freight for the delivery

  17. Juniper wood structure under the microscope. (United States)

    Bogolitsyn, Konstantin G; Zubov, Ivan N; Gusakova, Maria A; Chukhchin, Dmitry G; Krasikova, Anna A


    The investigations confirm the physicochemical nature of the structure and self-assembly of wood substance and endorse its application in plant species. The characteristic morphological features, ultra-microstructure, and submolecular structure of coniferous wood matrix using junipers as the representative tree were investigated by scanning electron (SEM) and atomic-force microscopy (AFM). Novel results on the specific composition and cell wall structure features of the common juniper (Juniperus Communis L.) were obtained. These data confirm the possibility of considering the wood substance as a nanobiocomposite. The cellulose nanofibrils (20-50 nm) and globular-shaped lignin-carbohydrate structures (diameter of 5-60 nm) form the base of such a nanobiocomposite.

  18. Structural changes in wood during ozonation (United States)

    Ben'ko, E. M.; Manisova, O. R.; Murav'eva, G. P.; Lunin, V. V.


    It is found that ozone treatment of aspen wood leads to changes in its structural characteristics, i.e., its specific surface area and the crystallinity index of cellulose. Using optical microscopy, it is shown that ozonation is accompanied by a decrease in the average size and visible surface of wood particles. The values for the specific area of the outer surface of samples are calculated. The specific surface area available to the enzyme molecules is determined from data on the adsorption of inert protein hemoglobin on wood. It is shown that this value is an order of magnitude higher than that of the outer surface and increases considerably for an ozonized sample. Based on the results from X-ray analysis, it is established that the structure of cellulose is disordered during ozone delignification, as is indicated by a reduction in the crystallinity index and crystallite sizes.

  19. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood (United States)

    Kelley, Stephen S.


    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  20. Before you install exterior wood-based siding (United States)

    Mark T. Knaebe


    Moisture accumulation and extreme fluctuations in moisture levels can adversely affect the service life of components, such as wood siding and windows. Adverse moisture conditions can induce checking, warping, paint failure, and in severe cases, rotting of the wood.

  1. USE OF CANDEIA’S (Eremanthus erythropappus WASTE WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos


    Full Text Available The candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus is a native forest species with multiple uses and specially utilized as essential oils source. The use of the candeia´s waste wood after oil extraction for particle panels production becomes a viable alternative, avoiding environmental problems and increasing the availability of these products in the consuming market. This work verified the viability of producing wood-cement panels using waste wood generated after the extraction of candeia’s oil, in association with pinus and eucalipto woods. The experiment was installed according to a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The treatments were arranged according to a factorial 2 x 3 scheme (two wooden species and three replacement percentages of the woods by candeia’s waste. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of candeia waste wood, after oil extraction, in association with pinus and eucalipto wood for manufacturing wood-cement panels.

  2. A Survey of Wood Protection Chemicals, Tree Killers and Sprayers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemicals used in wood protection (preservation) within Makurdi metropolis. A purposive, non-random sampling was undertaken in Makurdi metropolis to identify wood protection chemicals/tree-killers available in agrochemical stores, ...

  3. Fatigue testing of wood-concrete composite beams. (United States)


    Currently, wood-concrete composite structural members are usually applied in building structures. There are a relatively small number (in the low 100s) of known bridge applications involving wood-concrete composites. A problem with using these novel ...

  4. The Statistics of wood assays for preservative retention (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Scott W. Conklin


    This paper covers general statistical concepts that apply to interpreting wood assay retention values. In particular, since wood assays are typically obtained from a single composited sample, the statistical aspects, including advantages and disadvantages, of simple compositing are covered.

  5. Micromechanical modelling of mechanical behaviour and strength of wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Qing, Hai


    An overview of the micromechanical theoretical and numerical models of wood is presented. Different methods of analysis of the effects of wood microstructures at different scale levels on the mechanical behaviour, deformation and strength of wood are discussed and compared. Micromechanical models...... of deformation and strength of wood are divided into three groups: cellular models (applied most often to the mesoscale or cell scale analysis of the wood deformation), continuum micromechanics and homogenization based methods, models which consider wood as a composite and are applied mainly to the analysis...... of wood at the microscale (cell wall scale) level and multiscale models. Lattice and composite models, which are used to analyze the damage and fracture of wood, are considered in a separate section. The areas of applicability and strong sides of each approach are discussed. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All...

  6. Relationships within balsaminoid Ericales: a wood anatomical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Dressler, S.; Jansen, S.; Van Evelghem, L.; Smets, E.


    Wood samples of 49 specimens representing 31 species and 11 genera of woody balsaminoids, i.e., Balsaminaceae, Marcgraviaceae, Pellicieraceae, and Tetrameristaceae, were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The wood structure of Marcgraviaceae, Pellicieraceae, and


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    . Nigerian grown rubber in south eastern state of Abia, so as to relate the wood quality with a range of industrial usefulness of the species and the possibility of controlling the wood fibre features silviculturally and genetically.

  8. Lung function: occupational exposure to wood dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran S


    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Occupational exposure to wood dust has been shown to cause several respiratory disorders, such as allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, sino-nasal adenocarcinoma, and impairment of lung function. The aim of the study was to estimate lung function (in the woodworking industry among workers employed by wood processing, who run the risk of being expose to wood dust. Methods The study concerns a group of 70 workers aged 24-55. All the workers underwent general and laryngological examination. A group of 20 workers, working at the positions where dustiness exceeded TLV (threshold limit value took X-ray of the chest and spirometry. The following parameters were measured: VC, IC, ERV, TV, BF, FEV1, FVC, PEF, MEF25-75, FEV1%FVC, FEV1%VC. The data are presented as means ± SD and the authors applied references values according to ERS guidelines. Results The results show that there was no decline in FEV1 (3.7 ± 0.7 and FVC (4.5 ± 0.8. Normal lung function was defined as FEV1/VC ratio ≥0.7. None of the tested workers had obstructive pattern in spirometry. The mean FEV1%VC was 77.1 ± 10.2. These results suggest that wood dust exposure might not lead to significant pulmonary damage. Conclusions These data do not corroborate that wood dust plays significant role in lung function impairment. Future studies of respiratory health among workers exposed to wood dust are needed.

  9. Synthesis and cure kinetics of liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde resins (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse


    Wood liquefaction was conducted at a 2/1 phenol/wood ratio in two different reactors: (1) an atmospheric three-necked flask reactor and (2) a sealed Parr reactor. The liquefied wood mixture (liquefied wood, unreacted phenol, and wood residue) was further condensed with formaldehyde under acidic conditions to synthesize two novolac-type liquefied wood/phenol/...

  10. Energy wood resources in Northwest Russia and international trade of wood fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karjalainen, T.; Gerasimov, Y. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), e-mail:, e-mail:; Kholodkov, V. (Biocenter, Leningrad (Russian Federation), Lisino Forestry College), e-mail:


    Bioenergy sector is not yet well developed in Russia, but there are signs that development is about to begin. There are good basis for the development: there is plenty of wood available for energy production, and central heating network, which requires reconstruction and modernisation. Regional bioenergy programmes support utilisation of local renewable energy sources, which is energy wood in most of the cases.This paper provides brief information about the energy supply and use, energy wood resources and their use, and about pellet production and use in particular in Northwest Russia. (orig.)

  11. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  12. Resistance to Crack Propagation of Algerian Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim DAOUI


    Full Text Available Wood is the most building materials widely used since prehistory for the construction of houses, tools, weapons. Accidents occurring during the use of materials caused by different defaults, as: knots, resin pockets, cracks. These various defaults and others are the starting point of the principle of crack mechanics. Our present work focuses on determining the resistance to crack propagation of three types of Algerians wood, (Aleppo pine, eucalyptus and oak, by calculating the energy release rate G (mode I. The estimation of factor G allows the possibility of fracture propagation.

  13. NeighbourWoods - Med skoven som nabo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis; Schipperijn, Jasper Jan; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    NeighbourWoods er skove lige i nærheden, der er en integreret del af lokalsamfundet. Hæftet formidlter europæiske erfaringer med etablering af naboskove. Målet med hæftet er at bidrage til etableringen af flere naboskove.......NeighbourWoods er skove lige i nærheden, der er en integreret del af lokalsamfundet. Hæftet formidlter europæiske erfaringer med etablering af naboskove. Målet med hæftet er at bidrage til etableringen af flere naboskove....

  14. Overview of the wood adhesives industry in China (United States)

    Chung-Yun. Hse


    Adhesives products and demand for them in China are discussed in this paper, with special emphasis on wood adhesives products in this decade. In 1994, the wood industries in China con­sumed more than 330,000 tons of adhesives. The estimated demand for wood adhesives will be more than 560,000 tons in the year 2000. The main wood adhesive used is urea-formaldehyde resin...

  15. Analysis of China's primary wood products market - sawnwood and plywood


    Wan, Minli


    China's primary wood processing industry and wood consuming sectors have experienced rapid growth in recent years. Industries like sawnwood and plywood have developed very quickly. The purpose of this study is to: 1) provide an overview of the demand, supply, imports and exports of raw wood and primary wood products in the China market between 1993 and 2007, 2) present quantitative estimates of the relative importance of factors influencing the demand, supply and exports of Chinese plywood, 3...

  16. Genetics of wood quality attributes in Western Larch


    Ratcliffe, Blaise; Hart, Foster J.; Klápště, Jaroslav; Jaquish, Barry; Mansfield, Shawn D.; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.


    International audience; & Context Wood quality traits are important to balance the negative decline of wood quality associated with selection for growth attributes in gymnosperm breeding programs. Obtaining wood quality estimates quickly is crucial for suc-cessful incorporation in breeding programs. & Aims The aims of this paper are to: (1) Estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations between growth and wood quality attributes, (2) Estimate heritability of the studied traits, and (3) Assess t...

  17. Wood and Wood-Based Materials as Sensors—A Review of the Piezoelectric Effect in Wood (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Jiangming Kan; Xiping Wang; Julie Blankenburg; Janet I. Stockhausen; Roy F. Pellerin


    A variety of techniques have been investigated for use in assessing the physical and mechanical properties of wood products and structures. Ultrasound, transverse vibration, and stress-wave based methods are all techniques that have shown promise for many nondestructive evaluation applications. These techniques and others rely on the use of measurement systems to...

  18. The biodiversity and biotic integration in the oak-wood of middle Russian partially wooded steppe districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Reutskaya


    Full Text Available In this article there are givin the problems of biotic integration in the oak-wood of partially wooded steppe destrikts. There was studying the vitality dependens of oaks from their composition diversity.

  19. Environmental Degradation of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Fasteners in Wood (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer


    This paper examines the durability of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) nails in treated wood. The FRP nails were exposed to four conditions: (1) accelerated weathering, consisting of exposure to ultraviolet light and condensation; (2) 100% relative humidity (RH); (3) being driven into untreated wood and exposed to 100% RH; and (4) being driven into wood treated with...

  20. Influence of wood defects on some mechanical properties of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of slope of wood grain, knot, split, ingrowth and sapwood on some mechanical wood properties of Pterygota macrocarpa (Kyere) and Piptadeniastrum africanum (Dahoma) have been studied, using structural size specimens and a 60 tonne structural wood testing machine. The study on the two tropical hardwoods ...

  1. Climate and growth influences on wood formation and utilisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, it is not surprising that the variation in wood properties within a stem is large and that in seasonal climates, the greatest variation is typically found within an annual ring. A great advantage for the study of wood is that the net product of seasonal processes is recorded in the wood structure of the annual ring.

  2. Direct current testing to measure corrosiveness of wood preservatives (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer; Donald S. Stone; James T. Gilbertson


    A qualitative test that mimics the corrosion behaviour of metals in contact with treated wood without using wood specimens would be of great value in rapidly evaluating the corrosiveness of new wood preservatives. The objective of this study was to determine whether the linear polarisation resistance of metals immersed in a solution of preservative chemicals is related...

  3. Flavanoid biocides: Wood preservatives based on condensed tannins (United States)

    Peter Laks; Peggy A. McKaig; Richard W. Hemingway


    The condensed tannins are natural wood preservatives found in high concentrations in the bark and wood of some tree species. Condensed tannin-containing bark extracts from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) were evaluated as wood preservatives using standard methods. Bark extracts by themselves did not cause any reduction in weight loss of pressure-treated...

  4. Mechanism of Transport Through Wood Cell Wall Polymers (United States)

    Joseph E. Jakes; Nayomi Plaza; Donald S. Stone; Christopher G. Hunt; Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka


    The movement of chemicals through wood is necessary for decay and fastener corrosion to occur in forest products. However, the mechanism responsible for the onset of fastener corrosion and decay in wood is not known. The onset occurs before the formation of free water in wood cavities and aqueous chemical transport would be possible. Here, we propose that the onset...

  5. Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilgard, A.; Treu, A.; Zeeland, van A.N.T.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Westin, M.


    The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl

  6. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation from...

  7. Flexural properties of wood cement board fabricated from cropping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to investigate the possibilities of producing cement bonded particle boards from wood wastes generated from 3 urban wood species in University of Ibadan with a view to evaluating the bending properties of cement boards so produced. The materials used for the boards' fabrication were wood ...

  8. Global Wood Pellet Industry and Trade Study 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrän, D.; Peetz, D.; Schaubach, K.; Mai-Moulin, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412461021; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Lamers, P.; Visser, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534839


    The report Global Wood Pellet Industry Market published in 2011 has always been the most downloaded document of IEA Bioenergy Task 40. We have decided to update the report and bring new insights on market trends and trade of the global wood pellets. The global wood pellet market has increased

  9. Molecular Dissection of Xylan Biosynthesis During Wood Formation in Poplar (United States)

    Xylan, being the second most abundant polysaccharide in dicot wood, is considered to be one of the factors contributing to wood biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. To better utilize wood as biofuel feedstock, it is crucial to functionally characterize all the genes invo...

  10. Chapter 23: Corrosion of Metals in Wood Products (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka


    The corrosion of metals in contact with wood has been studied for over 80 years, and in most situations wood is not corrosive [1]. Recently, however, the durability of fasteners in preservative--treated wood has become a concern. Changes in legislation and certification in the United States, the European Union, and Australasia have restricted the use of chromated...

  11. Insect-mediated nitrogen dynamics in decomposing wood (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen


    1.Wood decomposition is characterised by complex and poorly understood nitrogen (N) dynamics with unclear implications for forest nutrient cycling and productivity.Wood-dwelling microbes have developed unique strategies for coping with the N limitations imposed by their substrate, including the translocation of N into wood by cord-forming fungi and the fixation of...

  12. 7 CFR 2902.42 - Wood and concrete sealers. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wood and concrete sealers. 2902.42 Section 2902.42... Items § 2902.42 Wood and concrete sealers. (a) Definition. (1) Products that are penetrating liquids formulated to protect wood and/or concrete, including masonry and fiber cement siding, from damage caused by...

  13. The Relative Performance of New and Used GMA Wood Pallets (United States)

    Marshall S. White


    The USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station at Virginia Tech has funded wood pallet recycling research which includes documenting the relative performance of new and used GMA style wood pallets. An understanding of the relationship between pallet repair methods and pallet performance will lead to improved procedures for the recycling of wood pallets.

  14. U.S. wood pallet material use trends (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Robert J. Bush; E.Bradley Hager


    A series of five studies conducted by the Virginia Tech Department of Wood Science and Forest Products, in collaboration with the USDA – Forest Service (Blacksburg, Virginia), have tracked activity in the U.S. wood pallet and container industry between 1992 and 2006. The studies determined trends in wood use and pallet production within the industry, both new and...

  15. Exterior wood in the South : selection, applications, and finishes (United States)

    Daniel L. Cassens; William C. Feist


    Wood continues to play an important role as a structural material in today’s high-tech society. As lumber and in reconstituted products, wood is commonly used for house siding, trim, decks, fences, and countless other exterior and interior applications. When wood is exposed to the elements, particularly sunlight and moisture, special precautions must be taken in...

  16. 75 FR 79019 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... reason of imports from China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings 4409.10, 4409.29... multilayered wood flooring. The following companies are members of the CAHP: Anderson Hardwood Floors, LLC...

  17. 76 FR 76435 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings 4409.10, 4409.29, 4412.31, 4412.32... of multilayered wood flooring. The following companies are members of the CAHP: Anderson Hardwood...

  18. Advanced wood- and bio-composites : enhanced performance and sustainability (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy


    Use of wood-based-composites technology to create value-added commodities and traditional construction materials is generally accepted worldwide. Engineered wood- and lignocellulosic-composite technologies allow users to add considerable value to a diverse number of wood- and lignocellulosic feedstocks including small-diameter timber, fast plantation-grown timber,...

  19. Purdue Plane Structures Analyzer II : a computerized wood engineering system (United States)

    S. K. Suddarth; R. W. Wolfe


    The Purdue Plane Structures Analyzer (PPSA) is a computer program developed specifically for the analysis of wood structures. It uses recognized analysis procedures, in conjunction with recommendations of the 1982 National Design Specification for Wood Construction, to determine stresses and deflections of wood trusses and frames. The program offers several options for...

  20. Still rethinking the value of high wood density. (United States)

    Larjavaara, Markku; Muller-Landau, Helene C


    In a previous paper, we questioned the traditional interpretation of the advantages and disadvantages of high wood density (Functional Ecology 24: 701-705). Niklas and Spatz (American Journal of Botany 97: 1587-1594) challenged the biomechanical relevance of studying properties of dry wood, including dry wood density, and stated that we erred in our claims regarding scaling. We first present the full derivation of our previous claims regarding scaling. We then examine how the fresh modulus of rupture and the elastic modulus scale with dry wood density and compare these scaling relationships with those for dry mechanical properties, using almost exactly the same data set analyzed by Niklas and Spatz. The derivation shows that given our assumptions that the modulus of rupture and elastic modulus are both proportional to wood density, the resistance to bending is inversely proportional to wood density and strength is inversely proportional with the square root of wood density, exactly as we previously claimed. The analyses show that the elastic modulus of fresh wood scales proportionally with wood density (exponent 1.05, 95% CI 0.90-1.11) but that the modulus of rupture of fresh wood does not, scaling instead with the 1.25 power of wood density (CI 1.18-1.31). The deviation from proportional scaling for modulus of rupture is so small that our central conclusion remains correct: for a given construction cost, trees with lower wood density have higher strength and higher resistance to bending.

  1. Integrated harvesting for conventional log and energy wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the integrated energy wood harvesting plot, 37 m3 ha−1 of energy wood was extracted in addition to the sawlog and pulp log volumes. Extracting the additional energy wood reduced the productivity of the forwarder and increased the cost of extraction (AU$2.7 m−3) compared with the control plot (AU$2.2 m−3).

  2. Primary wood-product industries of southern New England - 1971 (United States)

    James T. Bones


    The results of a complete canvass of the primary wood manufacturers in southern New England. The report contains data about wood production and receipts for the states of the region. Comparisons are made with a similar 1952 survey and trends in industrial wood output are noted.

  3. Industrial wood productivity in the United States, 1900-1998 (United States)

    Peter J. Ince


    The productivity of U.S. wood and paper product output in terms of wood input is computed and displayed in graphs. Background tables provide supporting data. The productivity trend parallels trends in the recovered paper utilization rate. Recycling and wood residue use are key factors in productivity gains.

  4. Potential use of wood from forests damaged by industrial emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J.


    The amount of sawdust during chipping from dead, overdry trees in Czechoslovakia was found to increase with the time since the tree died; those dead for 4 and 8 years produced 6 and 12% more, respectively, than did fresh wood. Dry dead wood yielded less pulp, which was of a lower quality than that from fresh wood. 2 references.

  5. Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Green, Frederick; Clausen, Carol A.


    Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in certain temperate regions of the world, namely northern Europe, Japan, and Australia. Previously, copper-based wood preservatives were commonly used for pressure treatment of wood for buildin...

  6. Characterizing phenolformaldehyde adhesive cure chemistry within the wood cell wall (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph


    Adhesive bonding of wood using phenol-formaldehyde remains the industrial standard in wood product bond durability. Not only does this adhesive infiltrate the cell wall, it also is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers, particularly guaiacyl lignin. However, the mechanism by which phenol-formaldehyde adhesive intergrally interacts and bonds to...

  7. Adhesive Penetration of Wood and Its Effect on Bond Strength (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart


    Woodworkers know that wood is porous in that adhesive flows into lumens for a mechanical interlock (1) and that wood absorbs water, allowing the use of water-borne adhesives. However, the anatomical aspects of wood that lend to its porosity are much more complicated and have a greater influence on adhesive performance than is normallyrealized or discussed. This...

  8. Nanoindentation methods for wood-adhesive bond lines (United States)

    Joseph E. Jakes; Donald S. Stone; Charles R. Frihart


    As an adherend, wood is structurally, chemically, and mechanically more complex than metals or plastics, and the largest source of this complexity is wood’s chemical and mechanical inhomogeneities. Understanding and predicting the performance of adhesively bonded wood requires knowledge of the interactions occurring at length scales ranging from the macro down to the...

  9. Considerations in recycling of wood-plastic composites (United States)

    J.E. Winandy; N.M. Stark; C.M. Clemons


    Wood-plastic composite decking has made major advances in material performance, processing and user acceptance. The growth of wood-plastic composite decking in North America has grown from less than 1 % in mid- 0's to over 10% today with growth projected by several studies to reach +20% before the end of this decade (2010). Preservative-treated wood decking...

  10. Structural condition assessment of in-service wood (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; Xiping Wang


    Wood is used extensively for both interior and exterior applications in the construction of a variety of structures (residential, agricultural, commercial, government, religious). The deterioration of an in-service wood member may result from a variety of causes during the life of a structure. It is important, therefore, to periodically assess the condition of wood...

  11. The fracture of wood in relation to its structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeronimides, G.


    The work of fracture of wood has been measured and the experimental results have been discussed in relation to a model based on various morphological aspects of wood structure. The asymmetrical helical structure of the S2 wall layers appears to be relevant to the fracture behaviour of wood in

  12. Innovations in Wood Protection in the age of Nanotechnology (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen


    Advances in wood protection based on nanotechnology are being developed to improve resistance of wood products to biodeterioration, reduce environmental impacts from chemical leaching and resist UV degradation of in-service wood. A number of different approaches have been explored. First, the nanometals zinc oxide and copper oxide were evaluated as preservative...

  13. Theoretical modeling and experimental analyses of laminated wood composite poles (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Vijaya Gopu; Chung Y. Hse


    Wood laminated composite poles consist of trapezoid-shaped wood strips bonded with synthetic resin. The thick-walled hollow poles had adequate strength and stiffness properties and were a promising substitute for solid wood poles. It was necessary to develop theoretical models to facilitate the manufacture and future installation and maintenance of this novel...

  14. Characterization of liquefied wood residues from different liquefaction conditions (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd f. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse


    The amount of wood residue is used as a measurement of the extent of wood liquefaction. Characterization of the residue from wood liquefaction provides a new approach to understand some fundamental aspects of the liquefaction reaction. Residues were characterized by wet chemical analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and...

  15. The wood anatomy of Gardenieae, Ixoreae and Mussaendeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, Jifke


    The tribe Gardenieae in the restricted delimitation proposed by Bremekamp and Verdcourt is wood anatomically homogeneous. The genera of the Ixoreae studied by me also agree with each other in wood structure. Within the tribe Mussaendeae in the delimitation accepted by Schumann the wood anatomy shows

  16. Wood-hoopoes: are Phoeniculus purpureus niloticus (Neumann ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Green Wood-hoopoe Phoeniculus purpureus (Miller 1784) is represented in all savanna regions of Africa, and has long been the subject of debate (Turner 2014). In addition, birds referred to as the Violet Wood-hoopoe (damarensis and granti) and. Black-billed Wood-hoopoe (somaliensis) appear very closely related to ...

  17. Calorific values of wood species of Nigerian origin | Kulla | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calorific values of samples of fuel wood and charcoal from nine different wood species were determined by using a bomb calorimeter. The wood species azadritcha indica and cassia siamea had the highest calorific values of 358.0 and 300.6 kJ/kg respectively, while the charcoals of poliostigma thonningii, anageissus ...

  18. Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood preservatives (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen; Bo Jensen


    Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in certain temperate regions of the world, namely northern Europe, Japan, and Australia. Previously, copper-based wood preservatives were commonly used for pressure treatment of wood for building construction, but some decay fungi are known to be copper tolerant. In...

  19. Engineering economic assessment of residential wood heating in NY (United States)

    We provide insight into the recent resurgence in residential wood heating in New York by: (i) examining the lifetime costs of outdoor wood hydronic heaters (OWHHs) and other whole-house residential wood heat devices,(ii) comparing these lifetime costs with those of competing tech...

  20. On-line product analysis of pine wood pyrolysis using synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Weng, Junjie; Jia, Liangyuan; Sun, Shaobo; Wang, Yu; Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Zhongyue; Qi, Fei


    The pyrolysis process of pine wood, a promising biofuel feedstock, has been studied with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. The mass spectra at different photon energies and temperatures as well as time-dependent profiles of several selected species during pine wood pyrolysis process were measured. Based on the relative contents of three lignin subunits, the data indicate that pine wood is typical of softwood. As pyrolysis temperature increased from 300 to 700 °C, some more details of pyrolysis chemistry were observed, including the decrease of oxygen content in high molecular weight species, the observation of high molecular weight products from cellulose chain and lignin polymer, and potential pyrolysis mechanisms for some key species. The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was also observed, as well as three series of pyrolysis products derived from PAHs with mass difference of 14 amu. The time-dependent profiles show that the earliest products are formed from lignin, followed by hemicellulose products, and then species from cellulose.

  1. Corrosion of metals in wood : comparing the results of a rapid test method with long-term exposure tests across six wood treatments (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Donald S. Stone


    This paper compares two methods of measuring the corrosion of steel and galvanized steel in wood: a long-term exposure test in solid wood and a rapid test method where fasteners are electrochemically polarized in extracts of wood treated with six different treatments. For traditional wood preservatives, the electrochemical extract method correlates with solid wood...

  2. Untargeted Identification of Wood Type-Specific Markers in Particulate Matter from Wood Combustion. (United States)

    Weggler, Benedikt A; Ly-Verdu, Saray; Jennerwein, Maximilian; Sippula, Olli; Reda, Ahmed A; Orasche, Jürgen; Gröger, Thomas; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Zimmermann, Ralf


    Residential wood combustion emissions are one of the major global sources of particulate and gaseous organic pollutants. However, the detailed chemical compositions of these emissions are poorly characterized due to their highly complex molecular compositions, nonideal combustion conditions, and sample preparation steps. In this study, the particulate organic emissions from a masonry heater using three types of wood logs, namely, beech, birch, and spruce, were chemically characterized using thermal desorption in situ derivatization coupled to a GCxGC-ToF/MS system. Untargeted data analyses were performed using the comprehensive measurements. Univariate and multivariate chemometric tools, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA), and ANOVA simultaneous component analysis (ASCA), were used to reduce the data to highly significant and wood type-specific features. This study reveals substances not previously considered in the literature as meaningful markers for differentiation among wood types.

  3. Service Life Prediction of Wood Claddings by in-situ Measurement of Wood Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Lindegaard, Berit; Morsing, Niels


    The Danish Technological Institute is in co-operation with industry partners running a project aiming at predicting the service life of different wood protecting systems. The project focuses on examining the moisture reducing effect of different protecting systems for timber claddings...... and the ability of these to maintain the appearance of the surfaces, when the wood is used in service class 3 (EN 335-1 1992). A façade construction is exposed to weathering at the field test area of the Danish Technological Institute (near Copenhagen). In specific locations of the construction measurements...... of wood moisture are done by in-situ resistance moisture meters (Lindegaard and Morsing 2006). The aim is that the test should form the basis of evaluation of the maintenance requirements and the prediction of service life of the surface treatment and the wood/construction. At the moment 60 test racks...

  4. Image-based characterization of cement pore structure using Wood`s metal intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, K.L.; Abell, A.B.; Lange, D.A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    Mercury intrusion porosimetry is a widely used technique for characterization of the pore size distribution of cement-based materials. However, the technique has several limitations, among which are the ink bottle effect and a cylindrical pore geometry assumption that lead to inaccurate pore size distribution curves. By substituting Wood`s metal for mercury as the intruding liquid, scanning electron microscopy and imaging techniques can be applied to the sample after intrusion. The molten Wood`s metal solidifies within the pore structure of the sample, which allows it to be sectioned and observed in the scanning electron microscopy. From here, the sample can be analyzed both qualitatively, by observing the changes in the appearance of the sample as the intrusion process progresses, and quantitatively, by applying image analysis techniques. This study provides insight for better interpretation of mercury intrusion porosimetry results and the possibility for quantitative characterization of the spatial geometry of pores in cement-based materials.

  5. Chemical characterization and stable carbon isotopic composition of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons issued from combustion of 10 Mediterranean woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillon


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from particulate matter emitted during wood combustion and to determine, for the first time, the isotopic signature of PAHs from nine wood species and Moroccan coal from the Mediterranean Basin. In order to differentiate sources of particulate-PAHs, molecular and isotopic measurements of PAHs were performed on the set of wood samples for a large panel of compounds. Molecular profiles and diagnostic ratios were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS and molecular isotopic compositions (δ13C of particulate-PAHs were determined by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS. Wood species present similar molecular profiles with benz(aanthracene and chrysene as dominant PAHs, whereas levels of concentrations range from 1.8 to 11.4 mg g−1 OC (sum of PAHs. Diagnostic ratios are consistent with reference ratios from literature but are not sufficient to differentiate the species of woods. Concerning isotopic methodology, PAH molecular isotopic compositions are specific for each species and contrary to molecular fingerprints, significant variations of δ13C are observed for the panel of PAHs. This work allows differentiating wood combustion (with δ13CPAH = −28.7 to −26.6‰ from others origins of particulate matter (like vehicular exhaust using isotopic measurements but also confirms the necessity to investigate source characterisation at the emission in order to help and complete source assessment models. These first results on woodburnings will be useful for the isotopic approach to source tracking.

  6. Science supporting the economic and environmental benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Kenneth Skog; Richard Bergman


    The objective of this report is to summarize the scientific findings that support the environmental and economic benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction. Despite documented advantages in many peer-reviewed scientific articles, most building professionals and members of the public do not recognize wood as a renewable resource or the role...

  7. Demineralization of wood using wood-derived acid: Towards a selective pyrolysis process for fuel and chemicals production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, Stijn; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; Aldenkamp, N.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; Kersten, Sascha R.A.


    A process concept for the pyrolysis of demineralized wood to obtain high organic and especially levoglucosan yields is proposed and tested experimentally. The wood is demineralized using organic acids, produced and concentrated within the same pyrolysis process. Pine wood was pyrolyzed in a

  8. Wood-based composite materials : panel products, glued-laminated timber, structural composite lumber, and wood-nonwood composite materials (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Zhiyong Cai; Charles Carll


    This chapter gives an overview of the general types and composition of wood-based composite products and the materials and processes used to manufacture them. It describes conventional wood-based composite panels and structural composite materials intended for general construction, interior use, or both. This chapter also describes wood–nonwood composites. Mechanical...

  9. The influence of irradiated wood filler on some properties of polypropylene - wood composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Điporović-Momčilović Milanka


    Full Text Available The problem of compatibility between the wood filler and thermoplastic matrix is of essential importance in composite production. Numerous methods have been developed for increasing this compatibility, which is still representing a challenging objective of composite research throughout the world. The research into these methods is primarily directed towards their efficiency from the viewpoint of the composite performance and their economical acceptability. The latter is of particular importance for the composite production in the developing countries with respect to the shortage of the corresponding funds. With this respect, the utilization of ionizing radiation might have considerable advantages. In this research, the beech wood flour was irradiated by a dose of 10 kGy of 60Co gamma rays for purpose of provoking the changes by the ionizing effect. The effects of ionizing radiation upon the properties of wood particles have been examined by IR spectroscopy and by determination of contents of hydroxyl groups in wood by acetylating as an indirect method. All these methods have been expected to reveal the chemical effects of the applied radiation treatment. The irradiated and the control wood flour were used in order to produce the samples of composite with polypropylene. The polypropylene-wood flour (PP-WF composites were produced with 40% of wood particles having fraction size 0.3 mm. The melt-blended composites were modified with amido-acrylic acid (AMACA as a new coupling agent synthesized for this propose in amount of 6 wt.% (based on wood filler and successively with 0.05 wt.% (based on PP of organic peroxide during mixing step. The composites containing coupling agents showed superior mechanical properties, compared to the untreated one. The highest extent of improvement of tensile was achieved in PP-WFl composites modified with AMACA coupling agent.

  10. Adoption of engineered wood products in Alaska (United States)

    Joseph A. Roos; Indroneil Ganguly; Allen Brackley


    Based on an in-grade testing program, the Ketchikan Wood Technology Center has registered three proprietary grademarks for Alaska species of hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach), and spruce (combined Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr...

  11. Thermomechanical pulping of loblolly pine juvenile wood (United States)

    Gary C. Myers


    Intensive forest management, with a heavy emphasis on ecosystem management and restoring or maintaining forest health, will result in the removal of smaller diameter materials from the forest. This increases the probability of higher juvenile wood content in the harvested materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of loblolly pine juvenile and...

  12. Combustion properties of wood impregnated with commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine some combustion properties of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) wood specimens impregnated with aqueous solutions of commercial fertilizers. Ammonium sulphate (AS) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were used as commercial fertilizers. Diammonium phosphate and ...

  13. Corrosion avoidance with new wood preservatives (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer


    The increased use of alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) and copper azole (CuAz) as wood preservatives for residential construction has led to concerns about the corrosion performance of fasteners. Information on the effects of these preservatives on the corrosion rate is limited, although Simpson Strong Tie has published a technical bulletin indicating that both ACQ and...

  14. Wood preservatives : choosing the right one (United States)

    Matt Humphries; Stan Lebow; David Moses


    If you are having trouble choosing the right wood preservative system for your application, you are not alone. Dozens of products are available, some older types have gone out of use, others may be completely inappropriate for your application. As designers, specifiers and builders, you need to understand key information to be able to navigate through all of these...

  15. Prototype wood chunker used on Populus 'Tristis' (United States)

    Rodger A. Arola; Roger C. Radcliffe; Sharon A. Winsauer


    Populus 'Tristis' trees grown under short-rotation, intensive culture were sampled and chunked in a prototype experimental wood chunking machine. Data presented describe the character of the trees chunked, the energy and power requirements for chunking, and the chunking rates Specific energy requirements for chunking Populus 'Tristis...

  16. Factors effecting paint performance on wood siding (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; R. Sam Williams; Mark Knaebe; Peter Sotos; Steven Lacher


    Several different studies are compared to assess the effectiveness of commercial water repellent preservatives (WRP’s) in the late 1990’s on vertical and horizontal siding. Besides WRP, variables included wood species, exposure location (Wisconsin or Mississippi), and solid color stain vs. primer + paint. Data on substrate checking and paint flaking are presented....

  17. Wood combustion systems: status of environmental concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunwoody, J.E.; Takach, H.; Kelley, C.S.; Opalanko, R.; High, C.; Fege, A.


    This document addresses the uncertainties about environmental aspects of Wood Combustion Systems that remain to be resolved through research and development. The resolution of these uncertainties may require adjustments in the technology program before it can be commercialized. The impacts and concerns presented in the document are treated generically without reference to specific predetermined sites unless these are known. Hence, site-specific implications are not generally included in the assessment. The report consists of two main sections which describe the energy resource base involved, characteristics of the technology, and introduce the environmental concerns of implementing the technology; and which review the concerns related to wood combustion systems which are of significance for the environment. It also examines the likelihood and consequence of findings which might impede wood commercialization such as problems and uncertainties stemming from current or anticipated environmental regulation, or costs of potential environmental controls. This document is not a formal NEPA document. Appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared after a formal wood combustion commercialization program is approved by DOE.

  18. Some thoughts on wood utilization research (United States)

    P. Koch


    For over 17 years our small group of scientists has worked to improve utilization of southern wood species. From these years of experience, I have distilled some thoughts on research objectives, attributes of scientists who accomplish the objectives, administration of research, and transferring results from laboratory to industry. I would like to share these thoughts...

  19. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.


    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  20. Incorporating biopulping technology into wood yard operations (United States)

    Gary M. Scott; Eric. Horn; Masood. Akhtar; Ross E. Swaney; Michael J. Lentz; David F. Shipley


    Biopulping is the treatment of wood chips and other lignocellulosic materials with lignin-degrading fungi prior to pulping. Ten years of industry-sponsored research has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the technology for mechanical pulping at a laboratory scale. Two 50-ton outdoor chip pile trials recently conducted at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products...

  1. Raw materials for wood-polymer composites. (United States)

    Craig Clemons


    To understand wood-plastic composites (WPCs) adequately, we must first understand the two main constituents. Though both are polymer based, they are very different in origin, structure, and performance. Polymers are high molecular weight materials whose performance is largely determined by its molecular architecture. In WPCs, a polymer matrix forms the continuous phase...

  2. Criterion 6, indicator 32 : exports as a share of wood and wood products production and imports as a share of wood and wood products production (United States)

    James L. Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth E. Skog


    The United States has become progressively more reliant on imports to meet consumption needs. In roundwood equivalents, imports of wood and paper products as a share of consumption increased from 13% to 30% between 1965 and 2005. This increase is due largely to increased softwood lumber import share, which increased from 15% in 1965 to 38% in 2006. The import share for...

  3. Wood energy markets, 2010-2011 (United States)

    Francisco Aguilar; Christopher Gaston; Rens Hartkamp; Warren Mabee; Kenneth Skog


    Global wood energy markets continue to grow, driven primarily by demand in the EU and its commitment to meet 20% of energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Large investments in industrial pellet-production capacity have been made under expectations of a continuously growing demand, mainly from the EU. Concern about how energy and climate-change policies may...

  4. Compression Debarking of Stored Wood Chips (United States)

    James A. Mattson


    Two 750 ft. piles of unbarked chips were stored for 1 year to evaluate the effect of chip storage on the effectiveness of bark-chip separations-segregation methods under study. in processing stored chips suffered more wood loss than fresh chips.

  5. Pallets: A Growing Source of Recycled Wood (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Vijay S. Reddy; Philip A. Araman


    Considerable volumes of solid hardwoods, solid softwoods, and wood panels are used to manufacture pallets and containers in the United States. Increasing quantities of these materials are recovered from the waste stream for reuse and recycling. Two important groups involved in this recovery and recycling are firms in the pallet industry (SIC 2448) and landfill...

  6. Myxomycetes of the rotting cherry wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Stojanowska


    Full Text Available During the years 1974-1975 on rotting cherry wood development of some Myxomycetes was observed. In that time 6 species of slime molds were noted: Arcyria denudata, Comatricha typhoides, Dyctidium cancellatum, Lycogala epidendrum, Physarum cinereum, Stemonitis ferruginea. In the decomposition of organic compounds apart from Myxomycetes other organism (Coprinus dessiminafus also take part.

  7. Specific heat of ovendry loblolly pine wood (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin


    In the range of 333 K to 413 K, the specific heat of ovendry loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) wood was expressed by a linear function of temperature. No relationship was detected with specific gravity, growth rate, or distance from the pith; nor were differences found between earlywood and latewood.

  8. Housing trends and impact on wood manufacturing (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; Karen. Koenig


    Demand from housing and other construction-related sectors continues to be an important issue for the secondary wood products industry. Conducted in early 2013, this fourth annual survey provides updated information on the status and actions of U.S. manufacturers affected by these industries. The study is a joint effort by Virginia Tech, the USDA Forest Service, and...

  9. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wood anchors around the high level of unemployment among the youths in. Nigeria. This unemployment is attributable to great emphasis placed on white collar jobs to the detriment of psychoproductive skills. In an effort to solve this problem, the informal sector has taken up the challenge through entrepreneurial exploits ...

  10. Liquefaction of torrefied wood using microwave irradiation (United States)

    Mengchao Zhou; Thomas Eberhardt; Pingping Xin; Chung-Yun Hse; Hui Pan


    Torrefaction is an effective pretreatment method to improve the uniformity and quality of lignocellulosic biomass before further thermal processing (e.g., gasification, combustion). The objective of this study was to determine the impacts of torrefaction as a pretreatment before liquefaction. Wood chips were torrefied for 2 h at three different temperatures (230, 260,...

  11. Domestic competitiveness in secondary wood industries (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Albert Schuler; Rich Christianson


    As imports capture a substantial portion of the domestic wood furniture market, there is much speculation and concern as to the future of this and related industries. This study sought to obtain an industry perspective of trends in domestic manufacturing and importing, and to identify factors that might enhance domestic competitiveness. A mail survey was conducted...

  12. Use of wood in buildings and bridges (United States)

    James P. Wacker


    In this chapter, the features of various types of building systems are described. Emphasis is placed on how these systems have adapted to the use of modern materials and techniques. For example, where floor, wall, and roof sheathing for light-frame construction were once commonly made from wood boards, sheathing is now commonly made from structural panel products, such...

  13. Air pressures in wood frame walls (United States)

    Anton. TenWolde; Charles G. Carll; Vyto. Malinauskas


    Wind pressures can play an important role in the wetting of exterior walls (driving rain). In response, the rain screen concept, including compartmentalization and air spaces, has been developed to provide pressure equalization and limit water entry into the wall. However, conventional construction such as wood lap siding has not been evaluated as to its ability to...

  14. Wood adhesives containing proteins and carbohydrates (United States)

    In recent years there has been resurgent interest in using biopolymers as sustainable and environmentally friendly ingredients in wood adhesive formulations. Among them, proteins and carbohydrates are the most commonly used. In this chapter, an overview is given of protein-based and carbohydrate-...

  15. Chapter 5:Biological Properties of Wood (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach


    There are numerous biological degradations that wood is exposed to in various environments. Biological damage occurs when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Biological organisms such as bacteria, mold, stain, decay fungi, insects, and marine borers depend heavily on temperature and moisture conditions to grow. Figure 5.1...

  16. Wood machining review, 1963 through 1965 (United States)

    Peter Koch; Charles W. McMillin


    The purpose of this paper is to review significant research that has not previously been digested in recent Engligh-language texts1 and bibliographies2,3,4. In general, only findings published during 1963, 1964, and 1965 are considered. The reviewers' principal sources were the major world journals in wood science and...

  17. Wood preservation of low-temperature carbonisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Krosse, A.M.A.; Putten, van der J.C.; Kolk, van der J.C.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Dam, van J.E.G.


    Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood with dimensions (100 x 10 x 10mm) was thermally treated at 275degreesC in a muffle oven to impart resistance to microbial degradation. Low-temperature carbonised pine resulted in a visually homogeneously treated product with a substantial (about 70% w/w) reduced

  18. Kuidas tuua Eestisse Tiger Woods / Raul Ranne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ranne, Raul


    Reaalselt arvestades on tõenäosus, et Eestit väisab golfistaar Tiger Woods, muidugi olematu. Teoreetiliselt on see siiski võimalik. Vestlusest Jõelähtme golfiväljakut opereeriv Estonian Golf Country Clubi presidendi Mait Schmidtiga

  19. Pilot project: Wood chip combustion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malsburg, G. von.


    Wood chip combustion systems as an alternative heating system can be operated at a justifiable expense of money and work. With the present cost structure such a system becomes interesting at an annual heating oil consumption of 10.000 l or more. The economic efficiency depends on the one hand on the level of the fixed costs and on the price of m/sup 3/ of wood chips on the other. Satisfactory automatic operation of a wood-chip combustion system is possible. The fuel, however, must be more or less homogeneous. The system uses feeder screws and due to the little space it needs it can be fitted to almost any existing heating system. If the heat demand and the chip feed are matched well and if the exchanger surfaces are cleaned regularly the waste gas temperatures will be low. Overheating does not occur and pollution is expected to be lower than in piece-wood fueled systems because the combustion process actually alternates between full operation mode and standstill. In standstill mode only a small fire is being maintained so that the production of nitric oxides, gases and emissions (tar, soot, dust etc.) is expected to drop sharply. Measurements of all these substances will be carried out during the heating period 1983/84.

  20. Duration of load effects of solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    Test methods for studying the effect of long-term loading on the load carrying capacity of structural wood are discussed. The impact of sampling procedures on test results is investigated and is exemplified. It is concluded from this investigation that the sampling method has a significant impact...

  1. Wood structure of the genus Talisia (Sapindaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, Alberta M.W.


    A description of the wood structure of 15 species of Talisia from the Guianas and adjacent areas is given. Among the neogean genera of the Sapindaceae Talisia is readily recognized by the combination of moderately few vessels, uniseriate or bi-seriate homocellular rays, aliformconfluent to banded

  2. Performance Assessment Of The Cameroon Wood Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baseline data were collected using structured questionnaire private discussions and personal observations to determine institutional and infrastructural capacity needs of 38 wood processing complexes. The data were ... Forest legislation is not enforceable enough to guarantee protection. Defining a new sectoral policy

  3. Limiting conditions for decay in wood systems (United States)

    Paul I. Morris; Jerrold E. Winandy


    Hygrothermal models can predict temperature and moisture conditions in wall components subjected to real weather data, but specific data and a fundamental understanding of how temperature and wood moisture content dictate the progression of decay under these conditions is required for modellers to predict consequences of decay on building performance. It is well...

  4. Housing trends & impacts on wood products manufacturing (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; Karen. Koenig


    While there are some signs of improvement in the business conditions and sales volume faced by the secondary wood industry in relation to the housing market, they are slow in coming. This third annual housing market survey looks at the trends in the industry and analyzes what has changed in terms of market conditions, company performance and the actions being taken by...

  5. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijderveen, M. van; Bramer, E.A.; Brem, G.


    To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The

  6. Wood-framed houses for earthquake zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Wood-framed houses with a sheathing are suitable for use in earthquake zones. The Direction describes a method of determining the earthquake forces in a house and shows how these forces can be resisted by diaphragm action in the walls, floors, and roof, of the house. An appendix explains how...

  7. Wood use by Ohio's Amish furniture cluster (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; Robert Romig; William Luppold


    Much has been reported regarding the decline of the U.S. wood furniture manufacturing industry. One segment that seems to be maintaining its competitiveness is the Amish-made furniture sector. The Amish traditionally have undertaken agriculture-related occupations (Stinner et al. 1989); however, as farmland has become increasingly scarce and expensive, and as the Amish...

  8. Relationship between ecological indicators and teak wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Tchorogo teak plantation in the Central Region of Togo (1°00'E, 8°21'N), a contribution to the sustainable forest management was implemented through the study of the relationship between ecological indicators and anatomical parameters of teak wood. To do this, three phytocoenoses have been described in the ...

  9. Anisotropy of Wood in the Microwave Region (United States)

    Ziherl, Sasa; Bajc, Jurij; Urankar, Bernarda; Cepic, Mojca


    Wood is transparent for microwaves and due to its anisotropic structure has anisotropic dielectric properties. A laboratory experiment that allows for the qualitative demonstration and quantitative measurements of linear dichroism and birefringence in the microwave region is presented. As the proposed experiments are based on the anisotropy (of…

  10. 100 years of Wood's lamp revised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatte, J. L.; van der Beek, N.; Kemperman, P. M. J. H.


    The Wood's lamp is a diagnostic tool in dermatology. Unfortunately, this useful tool is often overlooked in the busy and hectic outdoor dermatology clinic. To emphasize its value in modern dermatology, we present an updated review of the principles and applications and shed new light on its proper

  11. Report on mobile workers in the Wood Buffalo region of Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Since commercial development of oil sands deposits began in the 1970s, mobile workers have been a presence in the Wood Buffalo region. Mobile workers are expected to remain in the Wood Buffalo region for some time, particularly given the investment plans of existing and new oil sands developers in the region. This report presented the findings of a study of mobile workers in the Wood Buffalo region. The purpose of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the general characteristics of mobile workers in the region; the impacts of the presence of mobile workers in terms of services, traffic, and money spent; and, how to attract workers to work or relocate in the region. The report outlined the background of the study, with particular reference to previous studies on mobile workers; study objectives; key questions; and study processes. The report also discussed methodological considerations and described the research process in detail. A demographic profile of mobile workers in the Wood Buffalo region was also provided and the time they spent working in the region was summarized. Last, the report provided an analysis of the interactions that mobile workers had with the urban service area of Fort McMurray rural communities, the backcountry in the rural areas of the region, and the town of Lac La Biche. It was concluded that mobile workers could be expected to remain a fixture of the industrial landscape in the Wood Buffalo region. Mobile workers in the heavy industrial construction industry have not considered settling in the region. 6 refs., 29 tabs., 5 figs., 3 appendices.

  12. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)


    The research project 'Torrefaction of woody biomasses as energy carriers for the European markets' was carried out within the Tekes BioRefine programme in 2010-2012 and was coordinated by VTT. The main objective of the project was to create a discussion platform and collate basic information for the Finnish industrial stakeholders involved in developing torrefaction technology or planning to include torrefied biomass in their fuel supply for energy production. Given the availability of torrefaction pilot facilities in Europe, it was decided at an early phase of the national torrefaction research project not to build and operate separate pilot equipment, and thus save time and money. Experimental research was conducted in cooperation with ECN, The Netherlands. Finnish wood chips and crushed forest residue were tested at different torrefaction temperatures in the PATRIG torrefaction test rig with great success, and large quantities of torrefied wood chips and pellets were produced. CFD simulation work was carried out at VTT to investigate the feasibility of torrefied fuels to replace part of the coal. From the combustion point of view it seems feasible to replace coal by torrefied wood biomass with shares up to 50% by weight. Basic, small-scale experiments were carried out to compare torrefied wood pellets with conventional wood and straw pellets with regard to their handling and storage properties. The experiments showed that the torrefied pellets are clearly more hydrophobic than wood and straw pellets and do not disintegrate completely on exposure to water. A study on dust explosion and self-ignition characteristics indicated that the torrefied dust does not differ significantly from the normal biomass dust, but is clearly more reactive than coal dust. Commercial development of torrefaction is currently in its early phase. The current general view is that most of the demonstration plants have technical problems, which have delayed their commercial

  13. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas


    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An

  14. Cavitation of intercellular spaces is critical to establishment of hydraulic properties of compression wood of Chamaecyparis obtusa seedlings. (United States)

    Nakaba, Satoshi; Hirai, Asami; Kudo, Kayo; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Kitin, Peter; Funada, Ryo


    When the orientation of the stems of conifers departs from the vertical as a result of environmental influences, conifers form compression wood that results in restoration of verticality. It is well known that intercellular spaces are formed between tracheids in compression wood, but the function of these spaces remains to be clarified. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of these spaces in artificially induced compression wood in Chamaecyparis obtusa seedlings. We monitored the presence or absence of liquid in the intercellular spaces of differentiating xylem by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. In addition, we analysed the relationship between intercellular spaces and the hydraulic properties of the compression wood. Initially, we detected small intercellular spaces with liquid in regions in which the profiles of tracheids were not rounded in transverse surfaces, indicating that the intercellular spaces had originally contained no gases. In the regions where tracheids had formed secondary walls, we found that some intercellular spaces had lost their liquid. Cavitation of intercellular spaces would affect hydraulic conductivity as a consequence of the induction of cavitation in neighbouring tracheids. Our observations suggest that cavitation of intercellular spaces is the critical event that affects not only the functions of intercellular spaces but also the hydraulic properties of compression wood. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  15. The effect of chemical treatment of wood flour on some of properties of wood plastic composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ismaeilimoghadam


    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the effect of chemical treatment of wood flour on some of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of wood plastic composite. Chemical treatment of wood flour at 7 levels without treatment, acetylation, benzoylation, mercerization, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and warm water treatment were considered as variable factors. For evaluate reaction of wood flour with chemical materials, weight percent gain (WPG were calculated. After chemical treatment, Wood flour and polypropylene with weight ratio of 60 to 40 and 4 per hundred compound (phc of coupling agent mixed in the extruder device and then the specimens were fabricated by injection molding method. Then mechanical tests Included tensile, flexural and impact strength and physical examination, including water absorption and thickness swelling was performed on specimens according to (ASTM standard. Also to study the morphology of the composites, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used. The results showed that by chemical treatment the mechanical strength increased and physical properties such as water absorption and thickness swelling decreased. Also the highest chemical treatments of wood flour was related to the banzylation treatment. As well as obtained results of scanning electron microscopy was indicate improve in cross linking between fibers and polymeric matrix on effect of chemical treatment, so that in treatment samples exiting of fibers into the matrix not observed.

  16. Multi-Physics Simulation of Wood Drying in COMSOL Multiphysics 3.4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval-Torres Sadoth


    Full Text Available In this work, the numerical simulation of drying of Pinus pesudostrobus wood is presented by using a phenomenological model. The model is developed by considering the heat and mass balance in the representative elementary volume (REV, which involves the solid, liquid and gas phases. We obtained a system of partial differential equations which was solved by numerical factorization by using COMSOL multiphysics 3.4. Three primary variables were solved: the moisture content, the temperature, and the dry-air mass. The numerical results were compared against experimental data and the semi-empirical model. Our results are satisfactory; we describe the drying kinetics, the moisture distribution within the wood, the dry-air mass evolution and the temperature profiles.

  17. Factors controlling large-wood transport in a mountain river (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Zawiejska, Joanna; Hajdukiewicz, Maciej; Stoffel, Markus


    As with bedload transport, wood transport in rivers is governed by several factors such as flow regime, geomorphic configuration of the channel and floodplain, or wood size and shape. Because large-wood tends to be transported during floods, safety and logistical constraints make field measurements difficult. As a result, direct observation and measurements of the conditions of wood transport are scarce. This lack of direct observations and the complexity of the processes involved in wood transport may result in an incomplete understanding of wood transport processes. Numerical modelling provides an alternative approach to addressing some of the unknowns in the dynamics of large-wood in rivers. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of controls governing wood transport in mountain rivers, combining numerical modelling and direct field observations. By defining different scenarios, we illustrate relationships between the rate of wood transport and discharge, wood size, and river morphology. We test these relationships for a wide, multithread reach and a narrower, partially channelized single-thread reach of the Czarny Dunajec River in the Polish Carpathians. Results indicate that a wide range of quantitative information about wood transport can be obtained from a combination of numerical modelling and field observations and from document contrasting patterns of wood transport in single- and multithread river reaches. On the one hand, log diameter seems to have a greater importance for wood transport in the multithread channel because of shallower flow, lower flow velocity, and lower stream power. Hydrodynamic conditions in the single-thread channel allow transport of large-wood pieces, whereas in the multithread reach, logs with diameters similar to water depth are not being moved. On the other hand, log length also exerts strong control on wood transport, more so in the single-thread than in the multithread reach. In any case, wood transport strongly

  18. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    When CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) treated wood is removed from service and turns into waste, the contents of Cu, Cr and As is still high due to the strong fixation of CCA in the wood. This high content of toxic compounds presents a disposal challenge. Incineration of CCA treated waste wood...... study the utility of the method Electrodialytic Remediation was demonstrated for handling of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale. The electrodialytic remediation method, which uses a low level DC current as the cleaning agent, combines elektrokinetic movement of ions in the wood matrix with the princi...

  19. Strength of wood versus rate of testing - A theoretical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang


    of the considered wood. Low quality wood shows lesser influence of testing rate. This observation agrees with the well-known statement made by Borg Madsen that weak wood subjected to a constant load, has a longer lifetime than strong wood. In general, the influence of testing rate on strength increases......Strength of wood is normally measured in ramp load experiments. Experience shows that strength increases with increasing rate of testing. This feature is considered theoretically in this paper. It is shown that the influence of testing rate is a phenomenon, which depends on the quality...

  20. Nontraditional sources of wood for the paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J; Fabian, P.


    The nontraditional sources studied were wood waste from the forest industry (thinnings, limbs, roots and bark), and from the wood conversion industry (cuttings, slabs and sawdust) and wastes from the chemical processing of wood (spend liquors, sawdust and bark). Pulp produced from waste wood was more costly and of lower quality than pulp from tree stems. Bark pulping gave lower yields than wood pulping; pulps from tree tops and limbs had a lower average fibre length. The properties of beech kraft pulps produced from the stem, whole-tree and tree-top chips are tabulated and show that the stem gave the best pulp. 6 references.

  1. Wood fuel markets in Northern Europe. Price formation and internationalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Olle


    High fossil fuel prices and ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have increased demand for renewable energy and are changing wood fuel market structures. Wood fuels are to a rapidly growing degree used in industrial proportions and traded in commercial markets. Wood fuels are seen as a key component to achieve policy goals related to climate change, especially in the EU. In the six papers that form the basis for this thesis, prices of wood fuels in Northern Europe are analyzed by means of time series analysis to increase understanding about the factors that govern market development. In Paper I, it is found that whereas the Austrian and German residential-quality wood pellet markets are integrated, Sweden is a separate market. The conclusion from Paper II is that despite a long history of trade in wood fuels between Estonia and Sweden, the two markets cannot be considered integrated. The results from Paper III indicate that refined and unrefined wood fuels should be seen as two separate markets, and that forest chips prices follow different trajectories depending on whether they are used in district heating or in forest industries. In Paper IV, it is acknowledged that although high and volatile oil prices are an important driver for the growth in demand for wood fuels, no significant spillover from oil price developments into Swedish wood fuel prices could be discerned in the time period 1993-2010. In Paper V, the conclusion is that prices of industrial roundwood and unrefined wood fuels followed a common trend in Sweden in the first decade of the 21st century. Paper VI shows that there is a significantly higher level of market maturity and internationalization in the Danish wood pellet market compared to the wood chip market in the country. In conclusion, this thesis uncovers some of the mechanisms that affect wood fuel markets, including the differences between unrefined wood fuels - such as wood chips - and the dynamic market for wood pellets. Whereas

  2. Energy use of decayed wood; Lahopuun maeaerae, sisaeltoe ja hankintakustannukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, M.; Lipponen, K. [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)


    A study of the quality, amounts and delivery costs of decayed wood available for possible energy use will be carried out in co-operation by Metsaeteho and Forest Research Institute. The work will consist of the following sub-studies: Quality of decayed wood available for possible energy use, quantities of decayed wood available for possible energy use by municipalities in Western and Southern Finland, harvesting, transport and chipping costs of decayed wood in different delivery alternatives and as a practical example, quantities of decayed wood available for possible energy use in two potential consumption municipalities. (orig.)

  3. XPS characterization of naturally aged wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela, E-mail: [Romanian Academy, ' P.Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Physical Chemistry of Polymers Laboratory, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, Ro 700487, Iasi (Romania); Tibirna, Carmen-Mihaela [Centre de Recherche sur le Bois (CRB), Departement des Sciences du Bois et de la Foret, Laval University, Quebec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); Vasile, Cornelia [Romanian Academy, ' P.Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Physical Chemistry of Polymers Laboratory, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, Ro 700487, Iasi (Romania)


    Wood deterioration over time (by a simultaneously biological, chemical or physical attack) is an inevitable continuous process in the environment. This process destroys all heritage resulting in a loss of valuable old wooden structures and their properties. What type of deterioration occurs and how these processes impact the wood are important questions that need consideration if old wooden structures are to be studied and properly preserved. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to analyze the undegraded (sound wood of {approx}6 years) and degraded lime wood ({approx}150 years, {approx}180 years, {approx}250 years) from painting supports, differing in terms of the provenance, conservation status and environmental conditions of storage. Elaborated XPS analysis (comparison of C and O individual spectra, decomposition for each atomic component, calculation of O/C ratio) provided a view of the composition of the sample surfaces analyzed. On the basis of these results, it was confirmed that significant changes occurred in the first period of ageing, the {approx}150 years lime wood sample having the highest percent of the carbon atoms and the lowest percentage of oxygen atoms and, respectively O/C ratio. According to our previous studies (X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, analytical pyrolysis combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and ESR-spectroscopy results), these features could be attributed to the fact that hemicelluloses and amorphous cellulose are degraded in time, whereas the crystalline fraction of cellulose decreases more slowly than the amorphous one. Consequently, the observation may be made that lignin is not so easily degraded under the environmental conditions where paintings are frequently exposed.

  4. Degradation Characteristics of Wood Using Supercritical Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeban Poudel


    Full Text Available In this work, the characteristics of wood degradation using supercritical alcohols have been studied. Supercritical ethanol and supercritical methanol were used as solvents. The kinetics of wood degradation were analyzed using the nonisothermal weight loss technique with heating rates of 3.1, 9.8, and 14.5 °C/min for ethanol and 5.2, 11.3, and 16.3 °C/min for methanol. Three different kinetic analysis methods were implemented to obtain the apparent activation energy and the overall reaction order for wood degradation using supercritical alcohols. These were used to compare with previous data for supercritical methanol. From this work, the activation energies of wood degradation in supercritical ethanol were obtained as 78.0–86.0, 40.1–48.1, and 114 kJ/mol for the different kinetic analysis methods used in this work. The activation energies of wood degradation in supercritical ethanol were obtained as 78.0–86.0, 40.1–48.1, and 114 kJ/mol. This paper also includes the analysis of the liquid products obtained from this work. The characteristic analysis of liquid products on increasing reaction temperature and time has been performed by GC-MS. The liquid products were categorized according to carbon numbers and aromatic/aliphatic components. It was found that higher conversion in supercritical ethanol occurs at a lower temperature than that of supercritical methanol. The product analysis shows that the majority of products fall in the 2 to 15 carbon number range.

  5. Signature wood modifications reveal decomposer community history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Schilling

    Full Text Available Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as 'signatures' that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot to infer rot type (binary and fungal nutritional mode (gradient, respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1 spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias, and 2 brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects. Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying 'rot type' along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot, as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case. These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the

  6. Wood ash. A potential forest fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuokkanen, M.; Kuokkanen, T. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)). email: toivo,; Poeykioe, R. (City of Kemi (Finland)); Nurmesniemi, H. (Stora Enso Oyj, Veitsiluoto Mill, Kemi (Finland))


    The enhancement of wood-derived energy plays an important role in the Finnish energy and climate strategies. The use of new and upgraded biomass fuels, e.g. pellets and briquettes, has become more common in recent years, especially fuel pellets which are well suited for home heating applications. Although electrical and district heating are still the most popular heating systems in news detached and row houses in Finland, stoves and fireplaces which burn biomass fuels, e.g. logs, pellets and briquettes, are commonly used as a secondary heating system. It has been estimated that about 100 000 wood fired heating systems are currently in operation in Finland. Thousands of small-scale boilers are sold annually, and about 30% of the wood heating systems are fuelled by wood chips or pellets. Compared to traditional firewood, pellets provide possibilities for automation and optimization in the same way as for oil, with high combustion efficiency and small combustion residues. In addition, wood pellets can be stored and traded at the regional, national and international level. These features, combined with the other advantages such as environmental benefits (i.e. CO{sub 2} neutral fuel), low moisture content and bulk density (i.e. 0.28 bulk-m3 of wood pellets is equivalent to 1 bulk-m3 of wood chips), as well as a relatively high heating (i.e. calorific) value (about 17 MJ/kg), which allows long-distance transport without affecting the energy balance make wood pellets attractive in many countries from both the demand and the supply side of the market. Wood ash usually contains mineral plant nutrients, especially base cations (e.g. Ca, Mg, K), and has a strongly alkaline pH. For this reason, it would be ecologically beneficial if the ash that contains plant nutrients could be returned back to the forest ecosystem. This would save primary resources and can be seen as an example of the sustainable use of biomass. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical and

  7. Mechanical properties of wood disproportionately increase with increasing density. (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Spatz, Hanns-Christof


    Prior work using a large data set has shown that the mechanical properties of wood disproportionately increase with increasing wood density across diverse species, e.g., stems composed of denser wood are stiffer and stronger than stems with equivalent cross-sections composed of less dense wood. However, an alternative approach, introducing the precondition of constant construction cost for the same data set, adduces that for any given construction cost, stems composed of lesser dense woods are stiffer and stronger then stems composed of denser woods. We evaluated these two approaches using generic allometric principles and the same large data set. This evaluation shows that construction costs cannot be constant over an entire ensemble of stems composed of different species of wood. For any specified construction cost (denoted by a k-value), only a particular subgroup of stems is addressed. The conclusions derived for this subgroup cannot be generalized to the entire ensemble of stems composed of different species of wood. Stems composed of denser wood are, on average as stiff and strong, or stiffer and stronger than stems with equivalent cross-sections composed of less dense wood. Denser wood may have a higher carbon construction cost, but its mechanical benefits likely outweigh the extra cost.

  8. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Dybdahl, M. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, National Food Institute, Dept. of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Soeborg (Denmark)); Larsen, Poul Bo (Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark))


    The number of residential wood burning devices has increased in Denmark during the latest years and it has been estimated that there in 2005 were about 551,000 wood stoves and about 48,000 wood boilers in Denmark. This has resulted in an increased exposure of the general Danish population to pollutants associated with residential wood smoke. New Danish monitoring results on particulate matter (PM) in ambient air have shown elevated PM levels in areas with many wood stoves, particularly during wintertime when wood burning is common. Due to the size distribution of wood smoke particles essentially all will be contained in the PM{sub 2.5} fraction. It has been estimated that about 17,665 tonnes PM{sub 2.5} per year (2005) in Denmark come from residential wood combustion. Therefore, there is an increasing concern that adverse human health effects might be associated with the increased exposure to residential wood smoke. This project has been set up in order to review the scientific literature concerning adverse health effects of pollutants associated with residential wood smoke with the main focus on particulate matter and to quantify and evaluate, if possible, the impact on human health of the increased exposure to particles in residential wood smoke. (au)

  9. Aspen SUCROSE TRANSPORTER3 allocates carbon into wood fibers. (United States)

    Mahboubi, Amir; Ratke, Christine; Gorzsás, András; Kumar, Manoj; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Niittylä, Totte


    Wood formation in trees requires carbon import from the photosynthetic tissues. In several tree species, including Populus species, the majority of this carbon is derived from sucrose (Suc) transported in the phloem. The mechanism of radial Suc transport from phloem to developing wood is not well understood. We investigated the role of active Suc transport during secondary cell wall formation in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). We show that RNA interference-mediated reduction of PttSUT3 (for Suc/H(+) symporter) during secondary cell wall formation in developing wood caused thinner wood fiber walls accompanied by a reduction in cellulose and an increase in lignin. Suc content in the phloem and developing wood was not significantly changed. However, after (13)CO2 assimilation, the SUT3RNAi lines contained more (13)C than the wild type in the Suc-containing extract of developing wood. Hence, Suc was transported into developing wood, but the Suc-derived carbon was not efficiently incorporated to wood fiber walls. A yellow fluorescent protein:PttSUT3 fusion localized to plasma membrane, suggesting that reduced Suc import into developing wood fibers was the cause of the observed cell wall phenotype. The results show the importance of active Suc transport for wood formation in a symplasmically phloem-loading tree species and identify PttSUT3 as a principal transporter for carbon delivery into secondary cell wall-forming wood fibers.

  10. X-ray initiated polymerization of wood impregnants (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.; Berejka, Anthony J.; Montoney, Daniel; Driscoll, Mark; Smith, Leonard; Scott Larsen, L.


    X-rays, derived from a high energy, high-current electron beam (EB), initiated in-situ polymerization of a unique class of monomers that were found to penetrate the cell walls of wood. X-rays initiated an auto-catalytic acrylic polymerization and penetrated through thick pieces of wood. The final cured product having the polymerizate, a polymer, both in the wood cell lumens and in the cell walls is called wood impregnated with a wood-polymer penetrant (WPP). The controlled lower dose rate of X-rays overcame disproportionation encountered when using higher dose-rate electron beam initiation. With X-rays, the in-situ polymerization took place in one exposure of modest dose. With EB, multiple passes were needed to avoid excessive heat build-up and monomer volatilization. Having entered the cell walls of the wood and then being polymerized within the cell walls, these radiation-cured unique monomers imparted outstanding dimensional stability upon exposure of the impregnated wood to humidity cycling. The preferred monomer system was also chemically modified prior to impregnation with agents that would remain in the wood and prevent the growth of fungi and other microbials. This technique differs from historic uses of monomers that merely filled the lumens of the wood (historic wood-polymer composites), which are only suitable for indoor use. The WPP impregnated wood that was either X-ray cured or EB cured demonstrated enhanced structural properties, dimensional stability, and decay resistance.

  11. Penetration and Effectiveness of Micronized Copper in Refractory Wood Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Civardi

    Full Text Available The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP, which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH2, with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect. The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP. One of the most common species is Norway spruce wood, which is poorly treatable i.e. refractory due to the anatomical properties, like pore size and structure, and chemical composition, like pit membrane components or presence of wood extractives. Therefore, MC formulations may not suitable for refractory wood species common in the European market, despite their good performance in SYP. We evaluated the penetration effectiveness of MC azole (MCA in easily treatable Scots pine and in refractory Norway spruce wood. We assessed the effectiveness against the Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungus Rhodonia placenta. Our findings show that MCA cannot easily penetrate refractory wood species and could not confirm the presence of a reservoir effect.

  12. Radial variations in cation exchange capacity and base saturation rate in the wood of pedunculate oak and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbauts, J.; Penninckx, V.; Gruber, W.; Meerts, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire de genetique et d' ecologie vegetales, Brussels (Belgium)


    Visual observation of pedunculate oak trees and European beech trees in a mixed forest stand in the Belgian Ardennes revealed decreasing cation concentration profiles in wood. In order to determine whether these profiles are attributable to endogenous factors or to decreased availability of cations in the soil, radial profiles of water-soluble, exchangeable and total cations were investigated. Cation exchange capacity of wood was also determined. Results showed wood cation exchange capacity to decrease from pith to bark in European beech and from pith to outer heartwood in pedunculate oak. Decreasing profiles of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in peduncular oak and exchangeable calcium in European beech were found to be strongly constrained by cation exchange capacity, and thus not related to environmental change. Base cation saturation rate showed no consistent radial change in either species. It was concluded that the results did not provide convincing evidence to attribute the decrease in divalent cation concentration in pedunculate oak and European beech in this location to be due to atmospheric pollution. 42 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  13. The use of urban wood waste as an energy resource (United States)

    Khudyakova, G. I.; Danilova, D. A.; Khasanov, R. R.


    The capabilities use of wood waste in the Ekaterinburg city, generated during the felling of trees and sanitation in the care of green plantations in the streets, parks, squares, forest parks was investigated in this study. In the cities at the moment, all the wood, that is removed from city streets turns into waste completely. Wood waste is brought to the landfill of solid household waste, and moreover sorting and evaluation of the quantitative composition of wood waste is not carried out. Several technical solutions that are used in different countries have been proposed for the energy use of wood waste: heat and electrical energy generation, liquid and solid biofuel production. An estimation of the energy potential of the city wood waste was made, for total and for produced heat and electrical energy based on modern engineering developments. According to our estimates total energy potential of wood waste in the city measure up more 340 thousand GJ per year.

  14. How chip size impacts steam pretreatment effectiveness for biological conversion of poplar wood into fermentable sugars. (United States)

    DeMartini, Jaclyn D; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Jung, Seokwon; Kumar, Rajeev; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Wyman, Charles E


    -uniformity in temperature and digestibility profiles that can result from high temperature and short pretreatment times. Furthermore, this study also demonstrated that wood chips were hydrated primarily through the natural pore structure during pretreatment, suggesting that preserving the natural grain and transport systems in wood during storage and chipping processes could likely promote pretreatment efficacy and uniformity.

  15. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activity of Wood Vinegar from Litchi chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Ferng Yang


    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of wood vinegar from Litchi chinensis, and its components have been studied. The chemical compositions of wood vinegar were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 17 chemical compounds were identified, representing 83.96% of the compositions in the wood vinegar. Three major components, included 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (syringol, 29.54%, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol, 12.36%, and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene (11.07%, were found in the wood vinegar. Antioxidant activities of the acids were investigated from the aspects of 1,1-Diphyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals scavenging capacity, superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity, and reducing power. The pyroligneous acid exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards (vitamin C and butylated hydroxyl toluene at the same dose with IC50 values of 36.5 ppm calculated by the DPPH radical scavenging assay, 38.38 g Trolox equivalent/100 g DW by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay, and 67.9 by the reducing power analysis. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically antibiotic resistant isolates. The major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with a range of disc inhibition zoon between 15–19 mm. The minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericide concentration against the test strains was ranging in 0.95–3.80 μL/100 μL and 1.90–3.80 μL/100 μL, respectively. Most of the antibiotic resistant strains were more susceptible to the wood vinegar than the non-antibiotic resistant strain except the strain of ornithine resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the chemical profile, it was considered that the strongest antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Litchi chinensis wood vinegar was due to its highly phenolic compositions. This study revealed

  16. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activity of Wood Vinegar from Litchi chinensis. (United States)

    Yang, Jyh-Ferng; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Liang, Ming-Tsai; Gao, Zi-Jie; Wu, Yuh-Wern; Chuang, Li-Yeh


    The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of wood vinegar from Litchi chinensis, and its components have been studied. The chemical compositions of wood vinegar were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 17 chemical compounds were identified, representing 83.96% of the compositions in the wood vinegar. Three major components, included 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (syringol, 29.54%), 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol, 12.36%), and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene (11.07%), were found in the wood vinegar. Antioxidant activities of the acids were investigated from the aspects of 1,1-Diphyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals scavenging capacity, superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity, and reducing power. The pyroligneous acid exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards (vitamin C and butylated hydroxyl toluene) at the same dose with IC50 values of 36.5 ppm calculated by the DPPH radical scavenging assay, 38.38 g Trolox equivalent/100 g DW by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, and 67.9 by the reducing power analysis. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically antibiotic resistant isolates. The major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with a range of disc inhibition zoon between 15-19 mm. The minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericide concentration against the test strains was ranging in 0.95-3.80 μL/100 μL and 1.90-3.80 μL/100 μL, respectively. Most of the antibiotic resistant strains were more susceptible to the wood vinegar than the non-antibiotic resistant strain except the strain of ornithine resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the chemical profile, it was considered that the strongest antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Litchi chinensis wood vinegar was due to its highly phenolic compositions. This study revealed that the Litchi


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengky Satria Yoresta


    Full Text Available Certain wood has a tensile strength that almost equal with steel rebar in reinforced concrete beams. This research aims to understand the capacity and flexural behavior of concrete beams reinforced by wood (wood-concrete composite beam. Two different types of beams based on placement positions of wood layers are proposed in this study. Two kinds of wood used are consisted of Bangkirai (Shorea laevifolia and Kamper (Cinnamomum camphora, meanwhile the concrete mix ratio for all beams is 1 cement : 2 fine aggregates : 3 coarse aggregates. Bending test is conducted by using one-point loading method. The results show that composite beam using Bangkirai wood is stronger than beams using Kamper wood. More thicker wood layer in tensile area will increase the flexural strength of beams. Crack patterns identified could be classified into flexural cracks, shear cracks, and split on wood layer   Beberapa jenis kayu tertentu memiliki kekuatan tarik yang hampir sama dengan tulangan baja pada balok beton bertulang. Penelitian ini bertujuan memahami kapasitas dan perilaku lentur balok beton bertulang yang diperkuat menggunakan kayu (balok komposit beton-kayu. Dua tipe balok yang berbeda berdasarkan posisi penempatan kayu digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Dua jenis kayu yang digunakan adalah kayu Bangkirai (Shorea laevifolia and Kamper (Cinnamomum camphora, sementara itu rasio campuran beton untuk semua balok menggunakan perbandingan 1 semen : 2 agregat halus : 3 agregat kasar. Pengujian lentur dilakukan menggunakan metode one-point loading. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa balok komposit dengan kayu Bangkirai lebih kuat dibandingkan balok dengan kayu Kamper. Semakin tebal lapisan kayu yang berada di daerah tarik akan meningkatkan kekuatan lentur balok. Pola kerusakan yang teridentifikasi dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi retak lentur, retak geser, dan pecah pada kayu REFERENCES Boen T. (2010. Retrofitting Simple Buildings Damaged by Earthquakes. World Seismic

  18. Effect of Production Conditions of Wood Powder on Bending Properties of Wood Powder Molding Material without Adhesive (United States)

    Imanishi, Hiroshi; Soma, Naho; Yamashita, Osamu; Miki, Tsunehisa; Kanayama, Kozo

    The effect of production conditions of wood powder on the bending properties of wood powder molding material was investigated. Wood powder was produced by milling wood into powder under conditions of different temperatures (25°C, 100°C) and moisture contents (0%MC, about 30%MC). Molding materials were produced from wood powder in stream atmosphere of high temperature and high pressure (175°C, 900kPa) using self-bonding ability of the wood powder. Adhesives, such as a synthetic resin, were not used. To evaluate the bending properties of the molding materials, the modulus of elasticity and the bending strength were examined by static three-point bending test. As for the characteristic of wood particle, in case of wood particle produced by milling wood under a condition of high temperature and high moisture content (100°C and about 30%MC), tendencies for intercellular layer to be exposed on surface of a particle and for the aspect ratio of particles to be large were confirmed. And in that case, the molding material showed the highest value in modulus of elasticity and bending strength. It is highly probable that the inprovement of the self-bonding ability of wood powder and the increase of the aspect ratio of wood particle take part in the improvement of strength properties of molding material.

  19. Wood decay in desert riverine environments (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas; Stricker, Craig A.; Nelson, S. Mark


    Floodplain forests and the woody debris they produce are major components of riverine ecosystems in many arid and semiarid regions (drylands). We monitored breakdown and nitrogen dynamics in wood and bark from a native riparian tree, Fremont cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. wislizeni), along four North American desert streams. We placed locally-obtained, fresh, coarse material [disks or cylinders (∼500–2000 cm3)] along two cold-desert and two warm-desert rivers in the Colorado River Basin. Material was placed in both floodplain and aquatic environments, and left in situ for up to 12 years. We tested the hypothesis that breakdown would be fastest in relatively warm and moist aerobic environments by comparing the time required for 50% loss of initial ash-free dry matter (T50) calculated using exponential decay models incorporating a lag term. In cold-desert sites (Green and Yampa rivers, Colorado), disks of wood with bark attached exposed for up to 12 years in locations rarely inundated lost mass at a slower rate (T50 = 34 yr) than in locations inundated during most spring floods (T50 = 12 yr). At the latter locations, bark alone loss mass at a rate initially similar to whole disks (T50 = 13 yr), but which subsequently slowed. In warm-desert sites monitored for 3 years, cylinders of wood with bark removed lost mass very slowly (T50 = 60 yr) at a location never inundated (Bill Williams River, Arizona), whereas decay rate varied among aquatic locations (T50 = 20 yr in Bill Williams River; T50 = 3 yr in Las Vegas Wash, an effluent-dominated stream warmed by treated wastewater inflows). Invertebrates had a minor role in wood breakdown except at in-stream locations in Las Vegas Wash. The presence and form of change in nitrogen content during exposure varied among riverine environments. Our results suggest woody debris breakdown in desert riverine ecosystems is primarily a microbial process with rates determined by landscape position

  20. Environmental controls of wood entrapment in upper Midwestern streams (United States)

    Merten, Eric C.; Finlay, Jacques; Johnson, Lucinda; Newman, Raymond; Stefan, Heinz; Vondracek, Bruce C.


    Wood deposited in streams provides a wide variety of ecosystem functions, including enhancing habitat for key species in stream food webs, increasing geomorphic and hydraulic heterogeneity and retaining organic matter. Given the strong role that wood plays in streams, factors that influence wood inputs, retention and transport are critical to stream ecology. Wood entrapment, the process of wood coming to rest after being swept downstream at least 10 m, is poorly understood, yet important for predicting stream function and success of restoration efforts. Data on entrapment were collected for a wide range of natural wood pieces (n = 344), stream geomorphology and hydraulic conditions in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. Locations of pieces were determined in summer 2007 and again following an overbank stormflow event in fall 2007. The ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio) and the weight of the piece were important in a multiple logistic regression model that explained 25% of the variance in wood entrapment. Entrapment remains difficult to predict in natural streams, and often may simply occur wherever wood pieces are located when high water recedes. However, this study can inform stream modifications to discourage entrapment at road crossings or other infrastructure by applying the model formula to estimate the effective width required to pass particular wood pieces. Conversely, these results could also be used to determine conditions (e.g. pre-existing large, stable pieces) that encourage entrapment where wood is valued for ecological functions.