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Sample records for profile dna methylation

  1. Quantitative DNA Methylation Profiling in Cancer.

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    Ammerpohl, Ole; Haake, Andrea; Kolarova, Julia; Siebert, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are fundamental for the regulation of gene expression. Epigenetic alterations can lead to the development and the evolution of malignant tumors as well as the emergence of phenotypically different cancer cells or metastasis from one single tumor cell. Here we describe bisulfite pyrosequencing, a technology to perform quantitative DNA methylation analyses, to detect aberrant DNA methylation in malignant tumors.

  2. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from evidence material for investigative leads

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    Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Soong Deok; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is emerging as an attractive marker providing investigative leads to solve crimes in forensic genetics. The identification of body fluids that utilizes tissue-specific DNA methylation can contribute to solving crimes by predicting activity related to the evidence material. The age estimation based on DNA methylation is expected to reduce the number of potential suspects, when the DNA profile from the evidence does not match with any known person, including those stored in the forensic database. Moreover, the variation in DNA implicates environmental exposure, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, thereby suggesting the possibility to be used as a marker for predicting the lifestyle of potential suspect. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of DNA methylation variations and the utility of DNA methylation as a forensic marker for advanced investigative leads from evidence materials. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 359-369] PMID:27099236

  3. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from evidence material for investigative leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Soong Deok; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation is emerging as an attractive marker providing investigative leads to solve crimes in forensic genetics. The identification of body fluids that utilizes tissue-specific DNA methylation can contribute to solving crimes by predicting activity related to the evidence material. The age estimation based on DNA methylation is expected to reduce the number of potential suspects, when the DNA profile from the evidence does not match with any known person, including those stored in the forensic database. Moreover, the variation in DNA implicates environmental exposure, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, thereby suggesting the possibility to be used as a marker for predicting the lifestyle of potential suspect. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of DNA methylation variations and the utility of DNA methylation as a forensic marker for advanced investigative leads from evidence materials. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 359-369].

  4. Adiposity is associated with DNA methylation profile in adipose tissue.

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    Agha, Golareh; Houseman, E Andres; Kelsey, Karl T; Eaton, Charles B; Buka, Stephen L; Loucks, Eric B

    2015-08-01

    Adiposity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, suggesting an important role for adipose tissue in the development of these conditions. The epigenetic underpinnings of adiposity are not well understood, and studies of DNA methylation in relation to adiposity have rarely focused on target adipose tissue. Objectives were to evaluate whether genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in subcutaneous adipose tissue and peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with measures of adiposity, including central fat mass, body fat distribution and body mass index. Participants were 106 men and women (mean age 47 years) from the New England Family Study. DNA methylation was evaluated using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. Adiposity phenotypes included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-assessed android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio and trunk:limb fat ratio, as well as body mass index. Adipose tissue genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were associated with all four adiposity phenotypes, after adjusting for race, sex and current smoking (omnibus p-values DNA methylation in several genes that are biologically relevant to the development of adiposity, such as AOC3, LIPE, SOD3, AQP7 and CETP. Blood DNA methylation profiles were not associated with adiposity, before or after adjustment for blood leukocyte cell mixture effects. Findings show that DNA methylation patterns in adipose tissue are associated with adiposity. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  5. DNA methylation profiling of human chromosomes 6, 20 and 22

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    Eckhardt, Florian; Lewin, Joern; Cortese, Rene; Rakyan, Vardhman K.; Attwood, John; Burger, Matthias; Burton, John; Cox, Tony V.; Davies, Rob; Down, Thomas A.; Haefliger, Carolina; Horton, Roger; Howe, Kevin; Jackson, David K.; Kunde, Jan; Koenig, Christoph; Liddle, Jennifer; Niblett, David; Otto, Thomas; Pettett, Roger; Seemann, Stefanie; Thompson, Christian; West, Tony; Rogers, Jane; Olek, Alex; Berlin, Kurt; Beck, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation constitutes the most stable type of epigenetic modifications modulating the transcriptional plasticity of mammalian genomes. Using bisulfite DNA sequencing, we report high-resolution methylation reference profiles of human chromosomes 6, 20 and 22, providing a resource of about 1.9 million CpG methylation values derived from 12 different tissues. Analysis of 6 annotation categories, revealed evolutionary conserved regions to be the predominant sites for differential DNA methylation and a core region surrounding the transcriptional start site as informative surrogate for promoter methylation. We find 17% of the 873 analyzed genes differentially methylated in their 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTR) and about one third of the differentially methylated 5′-UTRs to be inversely correlated with transcription. While our study was controlled for factors reported to affect DNA methylation such as sex and age, we did not find any significant attributable effects. Our data suggest DNA methylation to be ontogenetically more stable than previously thought. PMID:17072317

  6. Mass Spectrometry Based Ultrasensitive DNA Methylation Profiling Using Target Fragmentation Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiang-Cheng; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tang, Hao; Yu, Ru-Qin; Jiang, Jian-Hui

    2016-01-19

    Efficient tools for profiling DNA methylation in specific genes are essential for epigenetics and clinical diagnostics. Current DNA methylation profiling techniques have been limited by inconvenient implementation, requirements of specific reagents, and inferior accuracy in quantifying methylation degree. We develop a novel mass spectrometry method, target fragmentation assay (TFA), which enable to profile methylation in specific sequences. This method combines selective capture of DNA target from restricted cleavage of genomic DNA using magnetic separation with MS detection of the nonenzymatic hydrolysates of target DNA. This method is shown to be highly sensitive with a detection limit as low as 0.056 amol, allowing direct profiling of methylation using genome DNA without preamplification. Moreover, this method offers a unique advantage in accurately determining DNA methylation level. The clinical applicability was demonstrated by DNA methylation analysis using prostate tissue samples, implying the potential of this method as a useful tool for DNA methylation profiling in early detection of related diseases.

  7. DNA methylation profiling of esophageal adenocarcinoma using Methylation Ligation-dependent Macroarray (MLM).

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    Guilleret, Isabelle; Losi, Lorena; Chelbi, Sonia T; Fonda, Sergio; Bougel, Stéphanie; Saponaro, Sara; Gozzi, Gaia; Alberti, Loredana; Braunschweig, Richard; Benhattar, Jean

    2016-10-14

    Most types of cancer cells are characterized by aberrant methylation of promoter genes. In this study, we described a rapid, reproducible, and relatively inexpensive approach allowing the detection of multiple human methylated promoter genes from many tissue samples, without the need of bisulfite conversion. The Methylation Ligation-dependent Macroarray (MLM), an array-based analysis, was designed in order to measure methylation levels of 58 genes previously described as putative biomarkers of cancer. The performance of the design was proven by screening the methylation profile of DNA from esophageal cell lines, as well as microdissected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Using the MLM approach, we identified 32 (55%) hypermethylated promoters in EAC, and not or rarely methylated in normal tissues. Among them, 21promoters were found aberrantly methylated in more than half of tumors. Moreover, seven of them (ADAMTS18, APC, DKK2, FOXL2, GPX3, TIMP3 and WIF1) were found aberrantly methylated in all or almost all the tumor samples, suggesting an important role for these genes in EAC. In addition, dysregulation of the Wnt pathway with hypermethylation of several Wnt antagonist genes was frequently observed. MLM revealed a homogeneous pattern of methylation for a majority of tumors which were associated with an advanced stage at presentation and a poor prognosis. Interestingly, the few tumors presenting less methylation changes had a lower pathological stage. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of MLM for DNA methylation profiling of FFPE tissue samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA methylation profiling distinguishes histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy A.; Alokail, Majed; Gentle, Dean; Yao, Masahiro; Kovacs, Gyula; Maher, Eamonn R.

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for around 3% of cancers in the UK, and both incidence and mortality are increasing with the aging population. RCC can be divided into several subtypes: conventional RCC (the most common, comprising 75% of all cases), papillary RCC (15%) and chromophobe RCC (5%). Renal oncocytoma is a benign tumor and accounts for 5% of RCC. Cancer and epigenetics are closely associated, with DNA hypermethylation being widely accepted as a feature of many cancers. In this study the DNA methylation profiles of chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytomas were investigated by utilizing the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Cancer-specific hypermethylation was identified in 9.4% and 5.2% of loci in chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytoma samples, respectively, while the majority of the genome was hypomethylated. Thirty (hypermethylated) and 41 (hypomethylated) genes were identified as differentially methylated between chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytomas (p renal oncocytoma in relation to the other histological subtypes, providing insight into the pathology of RCC subtypes and classification of renal tumors. PMID:23428843

  9. The DNA methylation profile of activated human natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiencke, John K; Butler, Rondi; Hsuang, George; Eliot, Melissa; Kim, Stephanie; Sepulveda, Manuel A; Siegel, Derick; Houseman, E Andres; Kelsey, Karl T

    2016-05-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells are now recognized to exhibit characteristics akin to cells of the adaptive immune system. The generation of adaptive memory is linked to epigenetic reprogramming including alterations in DNA methylation. The study herein found reproducible genome wide DNA methylation changes associated with human NK cell activation. Activation led predominately to CpG hypomethylation (81% of significant loci). Bioinformatics analysis confirmed that non-coding and gene-associated differentially methylated sites (DMS) are enriched for immune related functions (i.e., immune cell activation). Known DNA methylation-regulated immune loci were also identified in activated NK cells (e.g., TNFA, LTA, IL13, CSF2). Twenty-one loci were designated high priority and further investigated as potential markers of NK activation. BHLHE40 was identified as a viable candidate for which a droplet digital PCR assay for demethylation was developed. The assay revealed high demethylation in activated NK cells and low demethylation in naïve NK, T- and B-cells. We conclude the NK cell methylome is plastic with potential for remodeling. The differentially methylated region signature of activated NKs revealed similarities with T cell activation, but also provided unique biomarker candidates of NK activation, which could be useful in epigenome-wide association studies to interrogate the role of NK subtypes in global methylation changes associated with exposures and/or disease states.

  10. DNA Methylation Profiles of Blood Cells Are Distinct between Early-Onset Obese and Control Individuals

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    Je-Keun Rhee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a highly prevalent, chronic disorder that has been increasing in incidence in young patients. Both epigenetic and genetic aberrations may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Therefore, in-depth epigenomic and genomic analyses will advance our understanding of the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying obesity and aid in the selection of potential biomarkers for obesity in youth. Here, we performed microarray-based DNA methylation and gene expression profiling of peripheral white blood cells obtained from six young, obese individuals and six healthy controls. We observed that the hierarchical clustering of DNA methylation, but not gene expression, clearly segregates the obese individuals from the controls, suggesting that the metabolic disturbance that occurs as a result of obesity at a young age may affect the DNA methylation of peripheral blood cells without accompanying transcriptional changes. To examine the genome-wide differences in the DNA methylation profiles of young obese and control individuals, we identified differentially methylated CpG sites and investigated their genomic and epigenomic contexts. The aberrant DNA methylation patterns in obese individuals can be summarized as relative gains and losses of DNA methylation in gene promoters and gene bodies, respectively. We also observed that the CpG islands of obese individuals are more susceptible to DNA methylation compared to controls. Our pilot study suggests that the genome-wide aberrant DNA methylation patterns of obese individuals may advance not only our understanding of the epigenomic pathogenesis but also early screening of obesity in youth.

  11. Simultaneous Profiling of DNA Mutation and Methylation by Melting Analysis Using Magnetoresistive Biosensor Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Lee, Jung-Rok; Dahl, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are gaining increasing interest as complementary information to DNA mutations for cancer diagnostics and prognostics. We introduce a method to simultaneously profile DNA mutation and methylation events for an array of sites with single site...... specificity. Genomic (mutation) or bisulphite-treated (methylation) DNA is amplified using nondiscriminatory primers, and the amplicons are then hybridized to a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor array followed by melting curve measurements. The GMR biosensor platform offers scalable multiplexed detection...... of DNA hybridization, which is insensitive to temperature variation. The melting curve approach further enhances the assay specificity and tolerance to variations in probe length. We demonstrate the utility of this method by simultaneously profiling five mutation and four methylation sites in human...

  12. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  13. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols.

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    Shiwa, Yuh; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryohei; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ono, Kanako; Kudo, Hisaaki; Hata, Jun; Hozawa, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Matsuda, Koichi; Minegishi, Naoko; Satoh, Mamoru; Tanno, Kozo; Yamaji, Taiki; Wakai, Kenji; Hitomi, Jiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03) when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50) when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λ adjusted = 1.14) by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12-1.45) and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λ adjusted = 1.00-1.17). These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models.

  14. Profiling the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern of porcine ovaries using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing.

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    Yuan, Xiao-Long; Gao, Ning; Xing, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Liu, Jing; He, Jin-Long; Xu, Yuan; Lin, Wen-Mian; Chen, Zan-Mou; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jia-Qi

    2016-02-25

    Substantial evidence has shown that DNA methylation regulates the initiation of ovarian and sexual maturation. Here, we investigated the genome-wide profile of DNA methylation in porcine ovaries at single-base resolution using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. The biological variation was minimal among the three ovarian replicates. We found hypermethylation frequently occurred in regions with low gene abundance, while hypomethylation in regions with high gene abundance. The DNA methylation around transcriptional start sites was negatively correlated with their own CpG content. Additionally, the methylation level in the bodies of genes was higher than that in their 5' and 3' flanking regions. The DNA methylation pattern of the low CpG content promoter genes differed obviously from that of the high CpG content promoter genes. The DNA methylation level of the porcine ovary was higher than that of the porcine intestine. Analyses of the genome-wide DNA methylation in porcine ovaries would advance the knowledge and understanding of the porcine ovarian methylome.

  15. Epigenomic profiling of DNA methylation in paired prostate cancer versus adjacent benign tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geybels, Milan S; Zhao, Shanshan; Wong, Chao-Jen; Bibikova, Marina; Klotzle, Brandy; Wu, Michael; Ostrander, Elaine A; Fan, Jian-Bing; Feng, Ziding; Stanford, Janet L

    2015-12-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation may promote prostate carcinogenesis. We investigated epigenome-wide DNA methylation profiles in prostate cancer (PCa) compared to adjacent benign tissue to identify differentially methylated CpG sites. The study included paired PCa and adjacent benign tissue samples from 20 radical prostatectomy patients. Epigenetic profiling was done using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Linear models that accounted for the paired study design and False Discovery Rate Q-values were used to evaluate differential CpG methylation. mRNA expression levels of the genes with the most differentially methylated CpG sites were analyzed. In total, 2,040 differentially methylated CpG sites were identified in PCa versus adjacent benign tissue (Q-value < 0.001), the majority of which were hypermethylated (n = 1,946; 95%). DNA methylation profiles accurately distinguished between PCa and benign tissue samples. Twenty-seven top-ranked hypermethylated CpGs had a mean methylation difference of at least 40% between tissue types, which included 25 CpGs in 17 genes. Furthermore, for 10 genes over 50% of promoter region CpGs were hypermethylated in PCa versus benign tissue. The top-ranked differentially methylated genes included three genes that were associated with both promoter hypermethylation and reduced gene expression: SCGB3A1, HIF3A, and AOX1. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data provided confirmatory evidence for our findings. This study of PCa versus adjacent benign tissue showed many differentially methylated CpGs and regions in and outside gene promoter regions, which may potentially be used for the development of future epigenetic-based diagnostic tests or as therapeutic targets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in cultured eutopic and ectopic endometrial stromal cells.

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    Yoshiaki Yamagata

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of isolated endometrial stromal cells obtained from eutopic endometria with (euESCa and without endometriosis (euESCb and ovarian endometrial cysts (choESC. Three samples were analyzed in each group. The infinium methylation array identified more hypermethylated and hypomethylated CpGs in choESC than in euESCa, and only a few genes were methylated differently in euESCa and euESCb. A functional analysis revealed that signal transduction, developmental processes, immunity, etc. were different in choESC and euESCa. A clustering analysis and a principal component analysis performed based on the methylation levels segregated choESC from euESC, while euESCa and euESCb were identical. A transcriptome analysis was then conducted and the results were compared with those of the DNA methylation analysis. Interestingly, the hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses showed that choESC were segregated from euESCa and euESCb in the DNA methylation analysis, while no segregation was recognized in the transcriptome analysis. The mRNA expression levels of the epigenetic modification enzymes, including DNA methyltransferases, obtained from the specimens were not significantly different between the groups. Some of the differentially methylated and/or expressed genes (NR5A1, STAR, STRA6 and HSD17B2, which are related with steroidogenesis, were validated by independent methods in a larger number of samples. Our findings indicate that different DNA methylation profiles exist in ectopic ESC, highlighting the benefits of genome wide DNA methylation analyses over transcriptome analyses in clarifying the development and characterization of endometriosis.

  17. DNA methylation profiles of elderly individuals subjected to indentured childhood labor and trauma.

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    Marinova, Zoya; Maercker, Andreas; Küffer, Andreas; Robinson, Mark D; Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Walitza, Susanne; Grünblatt, Edna; Burri, Andrea

    2017-02-27

    Childhood trauma is associated with increased vulnerability to mental and somatic disorders later in life. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation are one potential mechanism through which such long-lasting impairments/consequences can be explained. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether childhood trauma is associated with long-term DNA methylation alterations in old age. We assessed genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in a cohort of former indentured child laborers ("Verdingkinder") who suffered severe childhood adversities (N = 30; M age = 75.9 years), and compared them to control group with similar demographic characteristics (N = 15, M age = 72.8 years). DNA was isolated from epithelial buccal cells and hybridized to the Illumina Infinium 450 k DNA methylation array, which provides coverage of 485,000 methylation sites. After accounting for batch effects, age, gender and multiple testing, 71 differentially methylated CpG positions were identified between the two groups. They were annotated among others to genes involved in neuronal projections and neuronal development. Some of the identified genes with differential methylation (DLG associated protein 2, mechanistic target of rapamycin) have previously been associated with traumatic stress. The results indicate specific epigenetic alterations in elderly individuals who were subjected to childhood adversities. Psychiatric and somatic comorbidities as well as differences in buccal epithelial cells proportion may contribute to the observed epigenetic differences.

  18. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from minimal traces: How low can we go?

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    Naue, Jana; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Kloosterman, Ate D; Verschure, Pernette J

    2018-03-01

    Analysis of human DNA methylation (DNAm) can provide additional investigative leads in crime cases, e.g. the type of tissue or body fluid, the chronological age of an individual, and differentiation between identical twins. In contrast to the genetic profile, the DNAm level is not the same in every cell. At the single cell level, DNAm represents a binary event at a defined CpG site (methylated versus non-methylated). The DNAm level from a DNA extract however represents the average level of methylation of the CpG of interest of all molecules in the forensic sample. The variance of DNAm levels between replicates is often attributed to technological issues, i.e. degradation of DNA due to bisulfite treatment, preferential amplification of DNA, and amplification failure. On the other hand, we show that stochastic variations can lead to gross fluctuation in the analysis of methylation levels in samples with low DNA levels. This stochasticity in DNAm results is relevant since low DNA amounts (1pg - 1ng) is rather the norm than the exception when analyzing forensic DNA samples. This study describes a conceptual analysis of DNAm profiling and its dependence on the amount of input DNA. We took a close look at the variation of DNAm analysis due to DNA input and its consequences for different DNAm-based forensic applications. As can be expected, the 95%-confidence interval of measured DNAm becomes narrower with increasing amounts of DNA. We compared this aspect for two different DNAm-based forensic applications: body fluid identification and chronological age determination. Our study shows that DNA amount should be well considered when using DNAm for forensic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genomic DNA Methylation Analyses Reveal the Distinct Profiles in Castor Bean Seeds with Persistent Endosperms1

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    Yang, Tianquan; Dong, Xue; Li, De-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of genomic DNA methylation in seeds have been restricted to a few model plants. The endosperm genomic DNA hypomethylation has been identified in angiosperm, but it is difficult to dissect the mechanism of how this hypomethylation is established and maintained because endosperm is ephemeral and disappears with seed development in most dicots. Castor bean (Ricinus communis), unlike Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), endosperm is persistent throughout seed development, providing an excellent model in which to dissect the mechanism of endosperm genomic hypomethylation in dicots. We characterized the DNA methylation-related genes encoding DNA methyltransferases and demethylases and analyzed their expression profiles in different tissues. We examined genomic methylation including CG, CHG, and CHH contexts in endosperm and embryo tissues using bisulfite sequencing and revealed that the CHH methylation extent in endosperm and embryo was, unexpectedly, substantially higher than in previously studied plants, irrespective of the CHH percentage in their genomes. In particular, we found that the endosperm exhibited a global reduction in CG and CHG methylation extents relative to the embryo, markedly switching global gene expression. However, CHH methylation occurring in endosperm did not exhibit a significant reduction. Combining with the expression of 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) mapped within transposable element (TE) regions and genes involved in the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway, we demonstrate that the 24-nucleotide siRNAs played a critical role in maintaining CHH methylation and repressing the activation of TEs in persistent endosperm development. This study discovered a novel genomic DNA methylation pattern and proposes the potential mechanism occurring in dicot seeds with persistent endosperm. PMID:27208275

  20. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from minimal traces : How low can we go?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naue, J.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Kloosterman, A.D.; Verschure, P.J.

    Analysis of human DNA methylation (DNAm) can provide additional investigative leads in crime cases, e.g. the type of tissue or body fluid, the chronological age of an individual, and differentiation between identical twins. In contrast to the genetic profile, the DNAm level is not the same in every

  1. DNA methylation profile of Aire-deficient mouse medullary thymic epithelial cells.

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    Wu, Guoying; Hirabayashi, Keiji; Sato, Shinya; Akiyama, Nobuko; Akiyama, Taishin; Shiota, Kunio; Yagi, Shintaro

    2012-11-02

    Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) are characterized by ectopic expression of self-antigens during the establishment of central tolerance. The autoimmune regulator (Aire), which is specifically expressed in mTECs, is responsible for the expression of a large repertoire of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) and plays a role in the development of mTECs. However, Aire-deficient mTECs still express TRAs. Moreover, a subset of mTECs, which are considered to be at a stage of terminal differentiation, exists in the Aire-deficient thymus. The phenotype of a specific cell type in a multicellular organism is governed by the epigenetic regulation system. DNA methylation modification is an important component of this system. Every cell or tissue type displays a DNA methylation profile, consisting of tissue-dependent and differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs), and this profile is involved in cell-type-specific genome usage. The aim of this study was to examine the DNA methylation profile of mTECs by using Aire-deficient mTECs as a model. We identified the T-DMRs of mTECs (mTEC-T-DMRs) via genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of Aire(-/-) mTECs by comparison with the liver, brain, thymus, and embryonic stem cells. The hypomethylated mTEC-T-DMRs in Aire(-/-) mTECs were associated with mTEC-specific genes, including Aire, CD80, and Trp63, as well as other genes involved in the RANK signaling pathway. While these mTEC-T-DMRs were also hypomethylated in Aire(+/+) mTECs, they were hypermethylated in control thymic stromal cells. We compared the pattern of DNA methylation levels at a total of 55 mTEC-T-DMRs and adjacent regions and found that the DNA methylation status was similar for Aire(+/+) and Aire(-/-) mTECs but distinct from that of athymic cells and tissues. These results indicate a unique DNA methylation profile that is independent of Aire in mTECs. This profile is distinct from other cell types in the thymic microenvironment and is indicated to be involved in the

  2. DNA methylation profile of Aire-deficient mouse medullary thymic epithelial cells

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    Wu Guoying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs are characterized by ectopic expression of self-antigens during the establishment of central tolerance. The autoimmune regulator (Aire, which is specifically expressed in mTECs, is responsible for the expression of a large repertoire of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs and plays a role in the development of mTECs. However, Aire-deficient mTECs still express TRAs. Moreover, a subset of mTECs, which are considered to be at a stage of terminal differentiation, exists in the Aire-deficient thymus. The phenotype of a specific cell type in a multicellular organism is governed by the epigenetic regulation system. DNA methylation modification is an important component of this system. Every cell or tissue type displays a DNA methylation profile, consisting of tissue-dependent and differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs, and this profile is involved in cell-type-specific genome usage. The aim of this study was to examine the DNA methylation profile of mTECs by using Aire-deficient mTECs as a model. Results We identified the T-DMRs of mTECs (mTEC-T-DMRs via genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of Aire−/− mTECs by comparison with the liver, brain, thymus, and embryonic stem cells. The hypomethylated mTEC-T-DMRs in Aire−/− mTECs were associated with mTEC-specific genes, including Aire, CD80, and Trp63, as well as other genes involved in the RANK signaling pathway. While these mTEC-T-DMRs were also hypomethylated in Aire+/+ mTECs, they were hypermethylated in control thymic stromal cells. We compared the pattern of DNA methylation levels at a total of 55 mTEC-T-DMRs and adjacent regions and found that the DNA methylation status was similar for Aire+/+ and Aire−/− mTECs but distinct from that of athymic cells and tissues. Conclusions These results indicate a unique DNA methylation profile that is independent of Aire in mTECs. This profile is distinct from other cell types in the thymic

  3. PTEN loss is associated with prostate cancer recurrence and alterations in tumor DNA methylation profiles.

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    Geybels, Milan S; Fang, Min; Wright, Jonathan L; Qu, Xiaoyu; Bibikova, Marina; Klotzle, Brandy; Fan, Jian-Bing; Feng, Ziding; Ostrander, Elaine A; Nelson, Peter S; Stanford, Janet L

    2017-10-13

    Prostate cancer (PCa) with loss of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN has an unfavorable prognosis. DNA methylation profiles associated with PTEN loss may provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying these more aggressive, clinically relevant tumors. The cohort included patients with clinically localized PCa. Samples taken from the primary tumor were used to determine PTEN genomic deletions using FISH, and to analyze epigenome-wide DNA methylation profiles. Patients were followed for PCa recurrence on average for 8 years after diagnosis. The study included 471 patients with data on PTEN loss, and the frequency of hemi- and homozygous PTEN loss was 10.0% and 4.5%, respectively. Loss of PTEN was associated with a significantly higher risk of recurrence (any vs. no PTEN loss; HR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.03-2.93). Hazard ratios for hemi- and homozygous loss were 1.39 (95% CI: 0.73-2.64) and 2.84 (95% CI: 1.30-6.19), respectively. Epigenome-wide methylation profiling identified 4,208 differentially methylated CpGs (FDR Q-value < 0.01) in tumors with any versus no PTEN loss. There were no genome-wide significant differentially methylated CpGs in homo- versus hemizygous deleted tumors. Tumor methylation data were used to build a methylation signature of PTEN loss in our cohort, which was confirmed in TCGA, and included CpGs in ATP11A, GDNF, JAK1, JAM3, and VAPA. Loss of PTEN was positively associated with PCa recurrence. Prostate tumors with PTEN loss harbor a distinct methylation signature, and these aberrantly methylated CpG sites may mediate tumor progression when PTEN is deleted.

  4. Genome-wide nucleosome occupancy and DNA methylation profiling of four human cell lines

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    Aaron L. Statham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation and nucleosome positioning are two key mechanisms that contribute to the epigenetic control of gene expression. During carcinogenesis, the expression of many genes is altered alongside extensive changes in the epigenome, with repressed genes often being associated with local DNA hypermethylation and gain of nucleosomes at their promoters. However the spectrum of alterations that occur at distal regulatory regions has not been extensively studied. To address this we used Nucleosome Occupancy and Methylation sequencing (NOMe-seq to compare the genome-wide DNA methylation and nucleosome occupancy profiles between normal and cancer cell line models of the breast and prostate. Here we describe the bioinformatic pipeline and methods that we developed for the processing and analysis of the NOMe-seq data published by (Taberlay et al., 2014 [1] and deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus with accession GSE57498.

  5. MethylRAD: a simple and scalable method for genome-wide DNA methylation profiling using methylation-dependent restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi; Lv, Jia; Zhang, Lingling; Dou, Jinzhuang; Sun, Yan; Li, Xue; Fu, Xiaoteng; Dou, Huaiqian; Mao, Junxia; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-11-01

    Characterization of dynamic DNA methylomes in diverse phylogenetic groups has attracted growing interest for a better understanding of the evolution of DNA methylation as well as its function and biological significance in eukaryotes. Sequencing-based methods are promising in fulfilling this task. However, none of the currently available methods offers the 'perfect solution', and they have limitations that prevent their application in the less studied phylogenetic groups. The recently discovered Mrr-like enzymes are appealing for new method development, owing to their ability to collect 32-bp methylated DNA fragments from the whole genome for high-throughput sequencing. Here, we have developed a simple and scalable DNA methylation profiling method (called MethylRAD) using Mrr-like enzymes. MethylRAD allows for de novo (reference-free) methylation analysis, extremely low DNA input (e.g. 1 ng) and adjustment of tag density, all of which are still unattainable for most widely used methylation profiling methods such as RRBS and MeDIP. We performed extensive analyses to validate the power and accuracy of our method in both model (plant Arabidopsis thaliana) and non-model (scallop Patinopecten yessoensis) species. We further demonstrated its great utility in identification of a gene (LPCAT1) that is potentially crucial for carotenoid accumulation in scallop adductor muscle. MethylRAD has several advantages over existing tools and fills a void in the current epigenomic toolkit by providing a universal tool that can be used for diverse research applications, e.g. from model to non-model species, from ordinary to precious samples and from small to large genomes, but at an affordable cost. © 2015 The Authors.

  6. Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiling of CpG Islands in Hypospadias

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    Choudhry, Shweta; Deshpande, Archana; Qiao, Liang; Beckman, Kenneth; Sen, Saunak; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Hypospadias is one of the most frequent genital malformations in the male newborn, and results from abnormal penile and urethral development. The etiology of hypospadias remains largely unknown despite intensive investigations. Fetal androgens have a crucial role in genital differentiation. Recent studies have suggested that molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects of androgens on the fetus may involve disruption of epigenetic programming of gene expression during development. We assessed whether epigenetic modification of DNA methylation is associated with hypospadias in a case-control study of 12 hypospadias and 8 control subjects. Materials and Methods Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling was performed on the study subjects using the Illumina Infinium® HumanMethylation450 Bead-Chip, which enables the direct investigation of methylation status of more than 485,000 individual CpG sites throughout the genome. The methylation level at each CpG site was compared between cases and controls using the t test and logistic regression. Results We identified 14 CpG sites that were associated with hypospadias with p hypospadias using a unique and novel epigenetic approach. Our findings suggest DNA methylation patterns are useful in identifying new genes such as SCARB1 and MYBPH that may be involved in the etiology of hypospadias. PMID:22906644

  7. Differential DNA methylation profiles in gynecological cancers and correlation with clinico-pathological data

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    Tsang Percy CK

    2006-08-01

    .7% (DAPK in cervical cancer. Aberrant methylation for some genes (BRCA1, DAPK, hMLH1, MGMT, p14, p16, and PTEN was also associated with clinico-pathological data. Conclusion Thus, differential methylation profiles occur in the three types of gynecologic cancer. Detection of methylation for critical loci is potentially useful as epigenetic markers in tumor classification. More studies using a much larger sample size are needed to define the potential role of DNA methylation as marker for cancer management.

  8. DNA methylation profiling for a confirmatory test for blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Jung, Sang-Eun; Lee, Eun Hee; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The ability to predict the type of tissues or cells from molecular profiles of crime scene samples has important practical implications in forensics. A previously reported multiplex assay using DNA methylation markers could only discriminate between 4 types of body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ. In the present study, we selected 15 menstrual blood-specific CpG marker candidates based on analysis of 12 genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of vaginal fluid and menstrual blood. The menstrual blood-specificity of the candidate markers was confirmed by comparison with HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array data obtained for 58 samples including 12 blood, 12 saliva, 12 semen, 3 vaginal fluid, and 19 skin epidermis samples. Among 15CpG marker candidates, 3 were located in the promoter region of the SLC26A10 gene, and 2 of them (cg09696411 and cg18069290) showed high menstrual blood specificity. DNA methylation at the 2CpG markers was further tested by targeted bisulfite sequencing of 461 additional samples including 49 blood, 52 saliva, 34 semen, 125 vaginal fluid, and 201 menstrual blood. Because the 2 markers showed menstrual blood-specific methylation patterns, we modified our previous multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction to include these 2 markers. In addition, a blood marker cg01543184 with cross reactivity to semen was replaced with cg08792630, and a semen-specific unmethylation marker cg17621389 was removed. The resultant multiplex methylation SNaPshot allowed positive identification of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the 9CpG markers which show a methylation signal only in the target body fluids. Because of the complexity in cell composition, menstrual bloods produced DNA methylation profiles that vary with menstrual cycle and sample collection methods, which are expected to provide more insight into forensic menstrual blood test. Moreover, because the developed

  9. Global LINE-1 DNA methylation is associated with blood glycaemic and lipid profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mark S; McConnell, James C; Potter, Catherine; Barrett, Laura M; Parker, Louise; Mathers, John C; Relton, Caroline L

    2012-01-01

    Background Patterns of DNA methylation change with age and these changes are believed to be associated with the development of common complex diseases. The hypothesis that Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element 1 (LINE-1) DNA methylation (an index of global DNA methylation) is associated with biomarkers of metabolic health was investigated in this study. Methods Global LINE-1 DNA methylation was quantified by pyrosequencing in blood-derived DNA samples from 228 individuals, aged 49–51 years, from the Newcastle Thousand Families Study (NTFS). Associations between log-transformed LINE-1 DNA methylation levels and anthropometric and blood biochemical measurements, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, fasting glucose and insulin secretion and resistance were examined. Results Linear regression, after adjustment for sex, demonstrated positive associations between log-transformed LINE-1 DNA methylation and fasting glucose {coefficient 2.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39–5.22]}, total cholesterol [4.76 (95% CI 1.43–8.10)], triglycerides [3.83 (95% CI 1.30–6.37)] and LDL-cholesterol [5.38 (95% CI 2.12–8.64)] concentrations. A negative association was observed between log-transformed LINE-1 methylation and both HDL cholesterol concentration [−1.43 (95% CI −2.38 to −0.48)] and HDL:LDL ratio [−1.06 (95% CI −1.76 to −0.36)]. These coefficients reflect the millimoles per litre change in biochemical measurements per unit increase in log-transformed LINE-1 methylation. Conclusions These novel associations between global LINE-1 DNA methylation and blood glycaemic and lipid profiles highlight a potential role for epigenetic biomarkers as predictors of metabolic disease and may be relevant to future diagnosis, prevention and treatment of this group of disorders. Further work is required to establish the role of confounding and reverse causation in the observed associations

  10. Acute stress affects the global DNA methylation profile in rat brain: modulation by physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Gelson M; Toffoli, Leandro V; Manfredo, Marcelo H; Francis-Oliveira, José; Silva, Andrey S; Raquel, Hiviny A; Martins-Pinge, Marli C; Moreira, Estefânia G; Fernandes, Karen B; Pelosi, Gislaine G; Gomes, Marcus V

    2015-02-15

    The vulnerability of epigenetic marks of brain cells to environmental stimuli and its implication for health have been recently debated. Thus, we used the rat model of acute restraint stress (ARS) to evaluate the impact of stress on the global DNA methylation and on the expression of the Dnmt1 and Bdnf genes of hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Furthermore, we verified the potential of physical exercise to modulate epigenetic responses evoked by ARS. Sedentary male Wistar rats were submitted to ARS at the 75th postnatal day (PND), whereas animals from a physically active group were previously submitted to swimming sessions (35-74th PND) and to ARS at the 75th PND. Global DNA methylation profile was quantified using an ELISA-based method and the quantitative expression of the Dnmt1 and Bdnf genes was evaluated by real-time PCR. ARS induced a decrease in global DNA methylation in hippocampus, cortex and PAG of sedentary animals and an increased expression of Bdnf in PAG. No change in DNA methylation was associated with ARS in the exercised animals, although it was associated with abnormal expression of Dnmt1 and Bdnf in cortex, hypothalamus and PAG. Our data reveal that ARS evokes adaptive changes in global DNA methylation of rat brain that are independent of the expression of the Dnmt1 gene but might be linked to abnormal expression of the Bdnf gene in the PAG. Furthermore, our evidence indicates that physical exercise has the potential to modulate changes in DNA methylation and gene expression consequent to ARS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide mapping of imprinted differentially methylated regions by DNA methylation profiling of human placentas from triploidies

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    Yuen Ryan KC

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imprinting is an important epigenetic process involved in regulating placental and foetal growth. Imprinted genes are typically associated with differentially methylated regions (DMRs whereby one of the two alleles is DNA methylated depending on the parent of origin. Identifying imprinted DMRs in humans is complicated by species- and tissue-specific differences in imprinting status and the presence of multiple regulatory regions associated with a particular gene, only some of which may be imprinted. In this study, we have taken advantage of the unbalanced parental genomic constitutions in triploidies to further characterize human DMRs associated with known imprinted genes and identify novel imprinted DMRs. Results By comparing the promoter methylation status of over 14,000 genes in human placentas from ten diandries (extra paternal haploid set and ten digynies (extra maternal haploid set and using 6 complete hydatidiform moles (paternal origin and ten chromosomally normal placentas for comparison, we identified 62 genes with apparently imprinted DMRs (false discovery rate FAM50B, as well as novel imprinted DMRs associated with known imprinted genes (for example, CDKN1C and RASGRF1 can be identified by using this approach. Furthermore, we have demonstrated how comparison of DNA methylation for known imprinted genes (for example, GNAS and CDKN1C between placentas of different gestations and other somatic tissues (brain, kidney, muscle and blood provides a detailed analysis of specific CpG sites associated with tissue-specific imprinting and gestational age-specific methylation. Conclusions DNA methylation profiling of triploidies in different tissues and developmental ages can be a powerful and effective way to map and characterize imprinted regions in the genome.

  12. Peripheral blood DNA methylation profiles are indicative of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Scott M.; Koestler, Devin C; Christensen, Brock C; Butler, Rondi A; Wiencke, John K; Nelson, Heather H; Houseman, E Andres; Marsit, Carmen J

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck cancer accounts for an estimated 47,560 new cases and 11,480 deaths annually in the United States, the majority of which are squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). The overall 5 year survival is approximately 60% and declines with increasing stage at diagnosis, indicating a need for non-invasive tests that facilitate the detection of early disease. DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic modification that is amenable to measurement and readily available in peripheral blood. We used a semi-supervised recursively partitioned mixture model (SS-RPMM) approach to identify novel blood DNA methylation markers of HNSCC using genome-wide methylation array data for peripheral blood samples from 92 HNSCC cases and 92 cancer-free control subjects. To assess the performance of the resultant markers, we constructed receiver operating characteristic (RJC) curves and calculated the corresponding area under the curve (AUC). Cases and controls were best differentiated by a methylation profile of six CpG loci (associated with FGD4, SERPINF1, WDR39, IL27, HYAL2 and PLEKHA6), with an AUC of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.62–0.82). After adjustment for subject age, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption and HPV16 serostatus, the AUC increased to 0.85 (95% CI: 0.76–0.92). We have identified a novel blood-based methylation profile that is indicative of HNSCC with a high degree of accuracy. This profile demonstrates the potential of DNA methylation measured in blood for development of non-invasive applications for detection of head and neck cancer. PMID:22430805

  13. The Effect of Culture on Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Focus on DNA Methylation Profiles

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    Angela Bentivegna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs are the best characterized multipotent adult stem cells. Their self-renewal capacity, multilineage differentiation potential, and immunomodulatory properties have indicated that they can be used in many clinical therapies. In a previous work we studied the DNA methylation levels of hBM-MSC genomic DNA in order to delineate a kind of methylation signature specific for early and late passages of culture. In the present work we focused on the modification of the methylation profiles of the X chromosome and imprinted loci, as sites expected to be more stable than whole genome. We propose a model where cultured hBM-MSCs undergo random modifications at the methylation level of most CGIs, nevertheless reflecting the original methylation status. We also pointed out global genome-wide demethylation connected to the long-term culture and senescence. Modification at CGIs promoters of specific genes could be related to the decrease in adipogenic differentiation potential. In conclusion, we showed important changes in CGIs methylation due to long-term in vitro culture that may affect the differentiation potential of hBM-MSCs. Therefore it is necessary to optimize the experimental conditions for in vitro expansion in order to minimize these epigenetic changes and to standardize safer procedures.

  14. DNA methylation profiling across the spectrum of HPV-associated anal squamous neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jonathan M; Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget; Eschrich, Steven; Elahi, Abul; Qu, Xiaotao; Ajidahun, Abidemi; Berglund, Anders; Coppola, Domenico; Grady, William M; Giuliano, Anna R; Shibata, David

    2012-01-01

    Changes in host tumor genome DNA methylation patterns are among the molecular alterations associated with HPV-related carcinogenesis. However, there is little known about the epigenetic changes associated specifically with the development of anal squamous cell cancer (SCC). We sought to characterize broad methylation profiles across the spectrum of anal squamous neoplasia. Twenty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples from 24 patients were evaluated and included adjacent histologically normal anal mucosa (NM; n = 3), SCC-in situ (SCC-IS; n = 11) and invasive SCC (n = 15). Thirteen women and 11 men with a median age of 44 years (range 26-81) were included in the study. Using the SFP(10) LiPA HPV-typing system, HPV was detected in at least one tissue from all patients with 93% (27/29) being positive for high-risk HPV types and 14 (93%) of 15 invasive SCC tissues testing positive for HPV 16. Bisulfite-modified DNA was interrogated for methylation at 1,505 CpG loci representing 807 genes using the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array. When comparing the progression from normal anal mucosa and SCC-IS to invasive SCC, 22 CpG loci representing 20 genes demonstrated significant differential methylation (p<0.01). The majority of differentially methylated gene targets occurred at or close to specific chromosomal locations such as previously described HPV methylation "hotspots" and viral integration sites. We have identified a panel of differentially methlylated CpG loci across the spectrum of HPV-associated squamous neoplasia of the anus. To our knowledge, this is the first reported application of large-scale high throughput methylation analysis for the study of anal neoplasia. Our findings support further investigations into the role of host-genome methylation in HPV-associated anal carcinogenesis with implications towards enhanced diagnosis and screening strategies.

  15. DNA methylation profiling across the spectrum of HPV-associated anal squamous neoplasia.

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    Jonathan M Hernandez

    Full Text Available Changes in host tumor genome DNA methylation patterns are among the molecular alterations associated with HPV-related carcinogenesis. However, there is little known about the epigenetic changes associated specifically with the development of anal squamous cell cancer (SCC. We sought to characterize broad methylation profiles across the spectrum of anal squamous neoplasia.Twenty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples from 24 patients were evaluated and included adjacent histologically normal anal mucosa (NM; n = 3, SCC-in situ (SCC-IS; n = 11 and invasive SCC (n = 15. Thirteen women and 11 men with a median age of 44 years (range 26-81 were included in the study. Using the SFP(10 LiPA HPV-typing system, HPV was detected in at least one tissue from all patients with 93% (27/29 being positive for high-risk HPV types and 14 (93% of 15 invasive SCC tissues testing positive for HPV 16. Bisulfite-modified DNA was interrogated for methylation at 1,505 CpG loci representing 807 genes using the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array. When comparing the progression from normal anal mucosa and SCC-IS to invasive SCC, 22 CpG loci representing 20 genes demonstrated significant differential methylation (p<0.01. The majority of differentially methylated gene targets occurred at or close to specific chromosomal locations such as previously described HPV methylation "hotspots" and viral integration sites.We have identified a panel of differentially methlylated CpG loci across the spectrum of HPV-associated squamous neoplasia of the anus. To our knowledge, this is the first reported application of large-scale high throughput methylation analysis for the study of anal neoplasia. Our findings support further investigations into the role of host-genome methylation in HPV-associated anal carcinogenesis with implications towards enhanced diagnosis and screening strategies.

  16. DNA Methylation Profiles of Selected Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolia, Vincenzina; Cavallaro, Rosaria A; López-González, Irene; Maccarrone, Mauro; Scarpa, Sigfrido; Ferrer, Isidre; Fuso, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    By means of functional genomics analysis, we recently described the mRNA expression profiles of various genes involved in the neuroinflammatory response in the brains of subjects with late-onset Alzheimer Disease (LOAD). Some of these genes, namely interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, showed distinct expression profiles with peak expression during the first stages of the disease and control-like levels at later stages. IL-1β and IL-6 genes are modulated by DNA methylation in different chronic and degenerative diseases; it is also well known that LOAD may have an epigenetic basis. Indeed, we and others have previously reported gene-specific DNA methylation alterations in LOAD and in related animal models. Based on these data, we studied the DNA methylation profiles, at single cytosine resolution, of IL-1β and IL-6 5'-flanking region by bisulphite modification in the cortex of healthy controls and LOAD patients at 2 different disease stages: Braak I-II/A and Braak V-VI/C. Our analysis provides evidence that neuroinflammation in LOAD is associated with (and possibly mediated by) epigenetic modifications. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High-definition DNA methylation profiles from breast and ovarian carcinoma cell lines with differing doxorubicin resistance.

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    Michael Boettcher

    Full Text Available Acquired drug resistance represents a frequent obstacle which hampers efficient chemotherapy of cancers. The contribution of aberrant DNA methylation to the development of drug resistant tumor cells has gained increasing attention over the past decades. Hence, the objective of the presented study was to characterize DNA methylation changes which arise from treatment of tumor cells with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. DNA methylation levels from CpG islands (CGIs linked to twenty-eight genes, whose expression levels had previously been shown to contribute to resistance against DNA double strand break inducing drugs or tumor progression in different cancer types were analyzed. High-definition DNA methylation profiles which consisted of methylation levels from 800 CpG sites mapping to CGIs around the transcription start sites of the selected genes were determined. In order to investigate the influence of CGI methylation on the expression of associated genes, their mRNA levels were investigated via qRT-PCR. It was shown that the employed method is suitable for providing highly accurate methylation profiles, comparable to those obtained via clone sequencing, the gold standard for high-definition DNA methylation studies. In breast carcinoma cells with acquired resistance against the double strand break inducing drug doxorubicin, changes in methylation of specific cytosines from CGIs linked to thirteen genes were detected. Moreover, similarities between methylation profiles obtained from breast and ovarian carcinoma cell lines with acquired doxorubicin resistance were found. The expression levels of a subset of analyzed genes were shown to be linked to the methylation levels of the analyzed CGIs. Our results provide detailed DNA methylation information from two separate model systems for acquired doxorubicin resistance and suggest the occurrence of similar methylation changes in both systems upon exposure to the drug.

  18. Prognostic Classifier Based on Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiling in Well-Differentiated Thyroid Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisarro Dos Reis, Mariana; Barros-Filho, Mateus Camargo; Marchi, Fábio Albuquerque

    2017-01-01

    . Objective: To identify a prognostic epigenetic signature in thyroid cancer. Design: Genome-wide DNA methylation assays (450k platform, Illumina) were performed in a cohort of 50 nonneoplastic thyroid tissues (NTs), 17 benign thyroid lesions (BTLs), and 74 thyroid carcinomas (60 papillary, 8 follicular, 2......Context: Even though the majority of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) is indolent, a number of cases display an aggressive behavior. Cumulative evidence suggests that the deregulation of DNA methylation has the potential to point out molecular markers associated with worse prognosis...... Hürthle cell, 1 poorly differentiated, and 3 anaplastic). A prognostic classifier for WDTC was developed via diagonal linear discriminant analysis. The results were compared with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Results: A specific epigenetic profile was detected according to each histological...

  19. DNA methylation in obesity

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    Małgorzata Pokrywka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes, have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described.

  20. Critical evaluation of the Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip microarray for whole-genome DNA methylation profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidsley, Ruth; Zotenko, Elena; Peters, Timothy J; Lawrence, Mitchell G; Risbridger, Gail P; Molloy, Peter; Van Djik, Susan; Muhlhausler, Beverly; Stirzaker, Clare; Clark, Susan J

    2016-10-07

    In recent years the Illumina HumanMethylation450 (HM450) BeadChip has provided a user-friendly platform to profile DNA methylation in human samples. However, HM450 lacked coverage of distal regulatory elements. Illumina have now released the MethylationEPIC (EPIC) BeadChip, with new content specifically designed to target these regions. We have used HM450 and whole-genome bisulphite sequencing (WGBS) to perform a critical evaluation of the new EPIC array platform. EPIC covers over 850,000 CpG sites, including >90 % of the CpGs from the HM450 and an additional 413,743 CpGs. Even though the additional probes improve the coverage of regulatory elements, including 58 % of FANTOM5 enhancers, only 7 % distal and 27 % proximal ENCODE regulatory elements are represented. Detailed comparisons of regulatory elements from EPIC and WGBS show that a single EPIC probe is not always informative for those distal regulatory elements showing variable methylation across the region. However, overall data from the EPIC array at single loci are highly reproducible across technical and biological replicates and demonstrate high correlation with HM450 and WGBS data. We show that the HM450 and EPIC arrays distinguish differentially methylated probes, but the absolute agreement depends on the threshold set for each platform. Finally, we provide an annotated list of probes whose signal could be affected by cross-hybridisation or underlying genetic variation. The EPIC array is a significant improvement over the HM450 array, with increased genome coverage of regulatory regions and high reproducibility and reliability, providing a valuable tool for high-throughput human methylome analyses from diverse clinical samples.

  1. Concordance of DNA methylation profiles between breast core biopsy and surgical excision specimens containing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youdinghuan; Marotti, Jonathan D; Jenson, Erik G; Onega, Tracy L; Johnson, Kevin C; Christensen, Brock C

    2017-08-01

    The utility and reliability of assessing molecular biomarkers for translational applications on pre-operative core biopsy specimens assume consistency of molecular profiles with larger surgical specimens. Whether DNA methylation in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), measured in core biopsy and surgical specimens are similar, remains unclear. Here, we compared genome-scale DNA methylation measured in matched core biopsy and surgical specimens from DCIS, including specific DNA methylation biomarkers of subsequent invasive cancer. DNA was extracted from guided 2mm cores of formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens, bisulfite-modified, and measured on the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. DNA methylation profiles of core biopsies exhibited high concordance with matched surgical specimens. Within-subject variability in DNA methylation was significantly lower than between-subject variability (all Pcore biopsy and surgical specimens, 15%, and a pathway analysis of these CpGs indicated enrichment for genes related with wound healing. Our results indicate that DNA methylation measured in core biopsies are representative of the matched surgical specimens and suggest that DCIS biomarkers measured in core biopsies can inform clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. DNA methylation profiling of the human major histocompatibility complex: a pilot study for the human epigenome project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardhman K Rakyan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Human Epigenome Project aims to identify, catalogue, and interpret genome-wide DNA methylation phenomena. Occurring naturally on cytosine bases at cytosine-guanine dinucleotides, DNA methylation is intimately involved in diverse biological processes and the aetiology of many diseases. Differentially methylated cytosines give rise to distinct profiles, thought to be specific for gene activity, tissue type, and disease state. The identification of such methylation variable positions will significantly improve our understanding of genome biology and our ability to diagnose disease. Here, we report the results of the pilot study for the Human Epigenome Project entailing the methylation analysis of the human major histocompatibility complex. This study involved the development of an integrated pipeline for high-throughput methylation analysis using bisulphite DNA sequencing, discovery of methylation variable positions, epigenotyping by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry, and development of an integrated public database available at http://www.epigenome.org. Our analysis of DNA methylation levels within the major histocompatibility complex, including regulatory exonic and intronic regions associated with 90 genes in multiple tissues and individuals, reveals a bimodal distribution of methylation profiles (i.e., the vast majority of the analysed regions were either hypo- or hypermethylated, tissue specificity, inter-individual variation, and correlation with independent gene expression data.

  3. DNA Methylation Profiling of the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex: A Pilot Study for the Human Epigenome Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakyan, Vardhman K; Hildmann, Thomas; Novik, Karen L; Lewin, Jörn; Tost, Jörg; Cox, Antony V; Andrews, T. Dan; Howe, Kevin L; Otto, Thomas; Olek, Alexander; Fischer, Judith; Gut, Ivo G; Berlin, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    The Human Epigenome Project aims to identify, catalogue, and interpret genome-wide DNA methylation phenomena. Occurring naturally on cytosine bases at cytosine–guanine dinucleotides, DNA methylation is intimately involved in diverse biological processes and the aetiology of many diseases. Differentially methylated cytosines give rise to distinct profiles, thought to be specific for gene activity, tissue type, and disease state. The identification of such methylation variable positions will significantly improve our understanding of genome biology and our ability to diagnose disease. Here, we report the results of the pilot study for the Human Epigenome Project entailing the methylation analysis of the human major histocompatibility complex. This study involved the development of an integrated pipeline for high-throughput methylation analysis using bisulphite DNA sequencing, discovery of methylation variable positions, epigenotyping by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry, and development of an integrated public database available at http://www.epigenome.org. Our analysis of DNA methylation levels within the major histocompatibility complex, including regulatory exonic and intronic regions associated with 90 genes in multiple tissues and individuals, reveals a bimodal distribution of methylation profiles (i.e., the vast majority of the analysed regions were either hypo- or hypermethylated), tissue specificity, inter-individual variation, and correlation with independent gene expression data. PMID:15550986

  4. Role of epigenetics in human aging and longevity: genome-wide DNA methylation profile in centenarians and centenarians' offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilini, Davide; Mari, Daniela; Castaldi, Davide; Remondini, Daniel; Ogliari, Giulia; Ostan, Rita; Bucci, Laura; Sirchia, Silvia M; Tabano, Silvia; Cavagnini, Francesco; Monti, Daniela; Franceschi, Claudio; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Vitale, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    The role of epigenetics in the modulation of longevity has not been studied in humans. To this aim, (1) we evaluated the DNA methylation from peripheral leukocytes of 21 female centenarians, their 21 female offspring, 21 offspring of both non-long-lived parents, and 21 young women through ELISA assay, pyrosequencing analysis of Alu sequences, and quantification of methylation in CpG repeats outside CpG islands; (2) we compared the DNA methylation profiles of these populations through Infinium array for genome-wide CpG methylation analysis. We observed an age-related decrease in global DNA methylation and a delay of this process in centenarians' offspring. Interestingly, literature data suggest a link between the loss of DNA methylation observed during aging and the development of age-associated diseases. Genome-wide methylation analysis evidenced DNA methylation profiles specific for aging and longevity: (1) aging-associated DNA hypermethylation occurs predominantly in genes involved in the development of anatomical structures, organs, and multicellular organisms and in the regulation of transcription; (2) genes involved in nucleotide biosynthesis, metabolism, and control of signal transmission are differently methylated between centenarians' offspring and offspring of both non-long-lived parents, hypothesizing a role for these genes in human longevity. Our results suggest that a better preservation of DNA methylation status, a slower cell growing/metabolism, and a better control in signal transmission through epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the process of human longevity. These data fit well with the observations related to the beneficial effects of mild hypothyroidism and insulin-like growth factor I system impairment on the modulation of human lifespan.

  5. DNA methylation analysis in the intestinal epithelium-effect of cell separation on gene expression and methylation profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas C Jenke

    Full Text Available Epigenetic signatures are highly cell type specific. Separation of distinct cell populations is therefore desirable for all epigenetic studies. However, to date little information is available on whether separation protocols might influence epigenetic and/or gene expression signatures and hence might be less beneficial. We investigated the influence of two frequently used protocols to isolate intestinal epithelium cells (IECs from 6 healthy individuals.Epithelial cells were isolated from small bowel (i.e. terminal ileum biopsies using EDTA/DTT and enzymatic release followed by magnetic bead sorting via EPCAM labeled microbeads. Effects on gene/mRNA expression were analyzed using a real time PCR based expression array. DNA methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing of bisulfite converted DNA and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP.While cell purity was >95% using both cell separation approaches, gene expression analysis revealed significantly higher mRNA levels of several inflammatory genes in EDTA/DTT when compared to enzymatically released cells. In contrast, DNA methylation of selected genes was less variable and only revealed subtle differences. Comparison of DNA methylation of the epithelial cell marker EPCAM in unseparated whole biopsy samples with separated epithelium (i.e. EPCAM positive and negative fraction demonstrated significant differences in DNA methylation between all three tissue fractions indicating cell type specific methylation patterns can be masked in unseparated tissue samples.Taken together, our data highlight the importance of considering the potential effect of cell separation on gene expression as well as DNA methylation signatures. The decision to separate tissue samples will therefore depend on study design and specific separation protocols.

  6. DNA Methylation Analysis in the Intestinal Epithelium—Effect of Cell Separation on Gene Expression and Methylation Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Andreas C.; Postberg, Jan; Raine, Timothy; Nayak, Komal M.; Molitor, Malte; Wirth, Stefan; Kaser, Arthur; Parkes, Miles; Heuschkel, Robert B.; Orth, Valerie; Zilbauer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Epigenetic signatures are highly cell type specific. Separation of distinct cell populations is therefore desirable for all epigenetic studies. However, to date little information is available on whether separation protocols might influence epigenetic and/or gene expression signatures and hence might be less beneficial. We investigated the influence of two frequently used protocols to isolate intestinal epithelium cells (IECs) from 6 healthy individuals. Materials and Methods Epithelial cells were isolated from small bowel (i.e. terminal ileum) biopsies using EDTA/DTT and enzymatic release followed by magnetic bead sorting via EPCAM labeled microbeads. Effects on gene/mRNA expression were analyzed using a real time PCR based expression array. DNA methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing of bisulfite converted DNA and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP). Results While cell purity was >95% using both cell separation approaches, gene expression analysis revealed significantly higher mRNA levels of several inflammatory genes in EDTA/DTT when compared to enzymatically released cells. In contrast, DNA methylation of selected genes was less variable and only revealed subtle differences. Comparison of DNA methylation of the epithelial cell marker EPCAM in unseparated whole biopsy samples with separated epithelium (i.e. EPCAM positive and negative fraction) demonstrated significant differences in DNA methylation between all three tissue fractions indicating cell type specific methylation patterns can be masked in unseparated tissue samples. Conclusions Taken together, our data highlight the importance of considering the potential effect of cell separation on gene expression as well as DNA methylation signatures. The decision to separate tissue samples will therefore depend on study design and specific separation protocols. PMID:23409010

  7. Transcriptome sequencing in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies fusion genes associated with distinct DNA methylation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marincevic-Zuniga, Yanara; Dahlberg, Johan; Nilsson, Sara; Raine, Amanda; Nystedt, Sara; Lindqvist, Carl Mårten; Berglund, Eva C; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Cavelier, Lucia; Forestier, Erik; Heyman, Mats; Lönnerholm, Gudmar; Nordlund, Jessica; Syvänen, Ann-Christine

    2017-08-14

    Structural chromosomal rearrangements that lead to expressed fusion genes are a hallmark of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of 134 primary ALL patient samples to comprehensively detect fusion transcripts. We combined fusion gene detection with genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, gene expression profiling, and targeted sequencing to determine molecular signatures of emerging ALL subtypes. We identified 64 unique fusion events distributed among 80 individual patients, of which over 50% have not previously been reported in ALL. Although the majority of the fusion genes were found only in a single patient, we identified several recurrent fusion gene families defined by promiscuous fusion gene partners, such as ETV6, RUNX1, PAX5, and ZNF384, or recurrent fusion genes, such as DUX4-IGH. Our data show that patients harboring these fusion genes displayed characteristic genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression signatures in addition to distinct patterns in single nucleotide variants and recurrent copy number alterations. Our study delineates the fusion gene landscape in pediatric ALL, including both known and novel fusion genes, and highlights fusion gene families with shared molecular etiologies, which may provide additional information for prognosis and therapeutic options in the future.

  8. Transcriptome sequencing in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies fusion genes associated with distinct DNA methylation profiles

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    Yanara Marincevic-Zuniga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural chromosomal rearrangements that lead to expressed fusion genes are a hallmark of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of 134 primary ALL patient samples to comprehensively detect fusion transcripts. Methods We combined fusion gene detection with genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, gene expression profiling, and targeted sequencing to determine molecular signatures of emerging ALL subtypes. Results We identified 64 unique fusion events distributed among 80 individual patients, of which over 50% have not previously been reported in ALL. Although the majority of the fusion genes were found only in a single patient, we identified several recurrent fusion gene families defined by promiscuous fusion gene partners, such as ETV6, RUNX1, PAX5, and ZNF384, or recurrent fusion genes, such as DUX4-IGH. Our data show that patients harboring these fusion genes displayed characteristic genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression signatures in addition to distinct patterns in single nucleotide variants and recurrent copy number alterations. Conclusion Our study delineates the fusion gene landscape in pediatric ALL, including both known and novel fusion genes, and highlights fusion gene families with shared molecular etiologies, which may provide additional information for prognosis and therapeutic options in the future.

  9. DNA methylation profile in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia associates with distinct clinical, biological and genetic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Laura; Malinverni, Roberto; Cabezón, Marta; Xicoy, Blanca; Arnan, Montserrat; Coll, Rosa; Pomares, Helena; García, Olga; Fuster-Tormo, Francisco; Grau, Javier; Feliu, Evarist; Solé, Francesc; Buschbeck, Marcus; Zamora, Lurdes

    2017-11-21

    Chromosomal abnormalities are detected in 20-30% of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and correlate with prognosis. On the mutation level, disruptive alterations are particularly frequent in chromatin regulatory genes. However, little is known about the consequential alterations in the epigenetic marking of the genome. Here, we report the analysis of genomic DNA methylation patterns of 64 CMML patients and 10 healthy controls, using a DNA methylation microarray focused on promoter regions. Differential methylation analysis between patients and controls allowed us to identify abnormalities in DNA methylation, including hypermethylation of specific genes and large genome regions with aberrant DNA methylation. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis identified two main clusters that associated with the clinical, biological, and genetic features of patients. Group 1 was enriched in patients with adverse clinical and biological characteristics and poorer overall and progression-free survival. In addition, significant differences in DNA methylation were observed between patients with low risk and intermediate/high risk karyotypes and between TET2 mutant and wild type patients. Taken together, our results demonstrate that altered DNA methylation patterns reflect the CMML disease state and allow to identify patient groups with distinct clinical features.

  10. DNA methylation profiles of polycystic ovarian syndrome in Chinese women: A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Duan, Hongmei; Zhu, D

    interference of the genome with the environment through integrative biological mechanisms including epigenetics. We have performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on polycystic ovarian syndrome using Illumina’s HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. We identifi ed a substantial number of genomic sites diff...

  11. Whole-Genome saliva and blood DNA methylation profiling in individuals with a respiratory allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langie, Sabine A. S.; Szic, Katarzyna Szarc vel; Declerck, Ken

    2016-01-01

    development. High compliance rates can be expected in these studies when data is collected using non-invasive and convenient procedures. Saliva is an attractive biofluid to analyze changes in DNA methylation patterns. We investigated in a pilot study the differential methylation in saliva of RA (n = 5...

  12. Determinants of maternal pregnancy one-carbon metabolism and newborn human DNA methylation profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Mil, Nina; Bouwl-Both, Marieke I.; Stolk, Lisette; Verbiest, Michael; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent; Verhulst, Frank; Eilers, Paul; Uitterlinden, André; Steegers, Eric; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMaternal one-carbon (1-C) metabolism provides methylgroups for fetal development and programing by DNA methylation as one of the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. We aimed to investigate maternal 1-C biomarkers, folic acid supplement use, and MTHFR C677T genotype as determinants of 1-C metabolism in early pregnancy in association with newborn DNA methylation levels of fetal growth and neurodevelopment candidate genes. The participants were 463 mother-child pairs of Dutch national ...

  13. Determinants of maternal pregnancy one-carbon metabolism and newborn human DNA methylation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mil, Nina H; Bouwland-Both, Marieke I; Stolk, Lisette; Verbiest, Michael M P J; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Eilers, Paul H C; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Steegers, Eric A P; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M

    2014-12-01

    Maternal one-carbon (1-C) metabolism provides methylgroups for fetal development and programing by DNA methylation as one of the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. We aimed to investigate maternal 1-C biomarkers, folic acid supplement use, and MTHFR C677T genotype as determinants of 1-C metabolism in early pregnancy in association with newborn DNA methylation levels of fetal growth and neurodevelopment candidate genes. The participants were 463 mother-child pairs of Dutch national origin from a large population-based birth cohort in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. In early pregnancy (median 13.0 weeks, 90% range 10.4-17.1), we assessed the maternal folate and homocysteine blood concentrations, folic acid supplement use, and the MTHFR C677T genotype in mothers and newborns. In newborns, DNA methylation was measured in umbilical cord blood white blood cells at 11 regions of the seven genes: NR3C1, DRD4, 5-HTT, IGF2DMR, H19, KCNQ1OT1, and MTHFR. The associations between the 1-C determinants and DNA methylation were examined using linear mixed models. An association was observed between maternal folate deficiency and lower newborn DNA methylation, which attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders. The maternal MTHFR TT genotype was significantly associated with lower DNA methylation. However, maternal homocysteine and folate concentrations, folic acid supplement use, and the MTHFR genotype in the newborn were not associated with newborn DNA methylation. The maternal MTHFR C677T genotype, as a determinant of folate status and 1-C metabolism, is associated with variations in the epigenome of a selection of genes in newborns. Research on the implications of these variations in methylation on gene expression and health is recommended. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  14. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling reveals parity-associated hypermethylation of FOXA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sagar; Gu, Fei; Wang, Chou-Miin; Lin, Chun-Lin; Liu, Joseph; Wang, Howard; Ravdin, Peter; Hu, Yanfen; Huang, Tim H M; Li, Rong

    2014-10-01

    Early pregnancy in women by the age of 20 is known to have a profound effect on reduction of lifelong breast cancer risk as compared to their nulliparous counterparts. Additional pregnancies further enhance the protection against breast cancer development. Nationwide trend of delayed pregnancy may contribute to the recently reported increase in the incidence of advanced breast cancer among young women in this country. The underlying mechanism for the parity-associated reduction of breast cancer risk is not clearly understood. The purpose of the current study is to use whole-genome DNA methylation profiling to explore a potential association between parity and epigenetic changes in breast tissue from women with early parity and nulliparity. Breast tissue was collected from age-matched cancer-free women with early parity (age parity-associated hypermethylated genes were further verified by locus-specific pyrosequencing, using an expanded cohort of parous (n = 19) and nulliparous (n = 16) women that included the initial samples used in the global analysis. Our study identified six genes that are hypermethylated in the parous group (P parity-associated hypermethylation at multiple CpG islands of the FOXA1 gene, which encodes a pioneer factor that facilitates chromatin binding of estrogen receptor α. Our work identifies several potential methylation biomarkers for parity-associated breast cancer risk assessment. In addition, the results are consistent with the notion that parity-associated epigenetic silencing of FOXA1 contributes to long-term attenuation of the estrogenic impact on breast cancer development.

  15. DNA methylation profiling reveals the presence of population-specific signatures correlating with phenotypic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Anil K; Bharadwaj, Soham; Banerjee, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Shraddha; Parekatt, Vaisak; Rajashekar, Donaka; Tomar, Abhishek; Ravindran, Aarthi; Basu, Analabha; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

    2017-06-01

    Phenotypic characteristics are known to vary substantially among different ethnicities around the globe. These variations are mediated by number of stochastic events and cannot be attributed to genetic architecture alone. DNA methylation is a well-established mechanism that sculpts our epigenome influencing phenotypic variation including disease manifestation. Since DNA methylation is an important determinant for health issues of a population, it demands a thorough investigation of the natural differences in genome wide DNA methylation patterns across different ethnic groups. This study is based on comparative analyses of methylome from five different ethnicities with major focus on Indian subjects. The current study uses hierarchical clustering approaches, principal component analysis and locus specific differential methylation analysis on Illumina 450K methylation data to compare methylome of different ethnic subjects. Our data indicates that the variations in DNA methylation patterns of Indians are less among themselves compared to other global population. It empirically correlated with dietary, cultural and demographical divergences across different ethnic groups. Our work further suggests that Indians included in this study, despite their genetic similarity with the Caucasian population, are in close proximity with Japanese in terms of their methylation signatures.

  16. MethVisual - visualization and exploratory statistical analysis of DNA methylation profiles from bisulfite sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackay, Arie; Steinhoff, Christine

    2010-12-15

    Exploration of DNA methylation and its impact on various regulatory mechanisms has become a very active field of research. Simultaneously there is an arising need for tools to process and analyse the data together with statistical investigation and visualisation. MethVisual is a new application that enables exploratory analysis and intuitive visualization of DNA methylation data as is typically generated by bisulfite sequencing. The package allows the import of DNA methylation sequences, aligns them and performs quality control comparison. It comprises basic analysis steps as lollipop visualization, co-occurrence display of methylation of neighbouring and distant CpG sites, summary statistics on methylation status, clustering and correspondence analysis. The package has been developed for methylation data but can be also used for other data types for which binary coding can be inferred. The application of the package, as well as a comparison to existing DNA methylation analysis tools and its workflow based on two datasets is presented in this paper. The R package MethVisual offers various analysis procedures for data that can be binarized, in particular for bisulfite sequenced methylation data. R/Bioconductor has become one of the most important environments for statistical analysis of various types of biological and medical data. Therefore, any data analysis within R that allows the integration of various data types as provided from different technological platforms is convenient. It is the first and so far the only specific package for DNA methylation analysis, in particular for bisulfite sequenced data available in R/Bioconductor enviroment. The package is available for free at http://methvisual.molgen.mpg.de/ and from the Bioconductor Consortium http://www.bioconductor.org.

  17. MethVisual - visualization and exploratory statistical analysis of DNA methylation profiles from bisulfite sequencing

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    Zackay Arie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exploration of DNA methylation and its impact on various regulatory mechanisms has become a very active field of research. Simultaneously there is an arising need for tools to process and analyse the data together with statistical investigation and visualisation. Findings MethVisual is a new application that enables exploratory analysis and intuitive visualization of DNA methylation data as is typically generated by bisulfite sequencing. The package allows the import of DNA methylation sequences, aligns them and performs quality control comparison. It comprises basic analysis steps as lollipop visualization, co-occurrence display of methylation of neighbouring and distant CpG sites, summary statistics on methylation status, clustering and correspondence analysis. The package has been developed for methylation data but can be also used for other data types for which binary coding can be inferred. The application of the package, as well as a comparison to existing DNA methylation analysis tools and its workflow based on two datasets is presented in this paper. Conclusions The R package MethVisual offers various analysis procedures for data that can be binarized, in particular for bisulfite sequenced methylation data. R/Bioconductor has become one of the most important environments for statistical analysis of various types of biological and medical data. Therefore, any data analysis within R that allows the integration of various data types as provided from different technological platforms is convenient. It is the first and so far the only specific package for DNA methylation analysis, in particular for bisulfite sequenced data available in R/Bioconductor enviroment. The package is available for free at http://methvisual.molgen.mpg.de/ and from the Bioconductor Consortium http://www.bioconductor.org.

  18. Whole-Genome Saliva and Blood DNA Methylation Profiling in Individuals with a Respiratory Allergy.

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    Sabine A S Langie

    Full Text Available The etiology of respiratory allergies (RA can be partly explained by DNA methylation changes caused by adverse environmental and lifestyle factors experienced early in life. Longitudinal, prospective studies can aid in the unravelment of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the disease development. High compliance rates can be expected in these studies when data is collected using non-invasive and convenient procedures. Saliva is an attractive biofluid to analyze changes in DNA methylation patterns. We investigated in a pilot study the differential methylation in saliva of RA (n = 5 compared to healthy controls (n = 5 using the Illumina Methylation 450K BeadChip platform. We evaluated the results against the results obtained in mononuclear blood cells from the same individuals. Differences in methylation patterns from saliva and mononuclear blood cells were clearly distinguishable (PAdj0.2, though the methylation status of about 96% of the cg-sites was comparable between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and saliva. When comparing RA cases with healthy controls, the number of differentially methylated sites (DMS in saliva and blood were 485 and 437 (P0.1, respectively, of which 216 were in common. The methylation levels of these sites were significantly correlated between blood and saliva. The absolute levels of methylation in blood and saliva were confirmed for 3 selected DMS in the PM20D1, STK32C, and FGFR2 genes using pyrosequencing analysis. The differential methylation could only be confirmed for DMS in PM20D1 and STK32C genes in saliva. We show that saliva can be used for genome-wide methylation analysis and that it is possible to identify DMS when comparing RA cases and healthy controls. The results were replicated in blood cells of the same individuals and confirmed by pyrosequencing analysis. This study provides proof-of-concept for the applicability of saliva-based whole-genome methylation analysis in the field of respiratory allergy.

  19. DNA methylation: hemodialysis versus hemodiafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigolea, Adrian-Bogdan; Moldovan, Raluca Argentina; Gherman-Caprioara, Mirela

    2015-04-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is an emerging characteristic of chronic kidney disease including dialysis patients. It appears to be associated to inflammation. We compared the global DNA methylation status in 10 control subjects compared to 80 dialysis patients (N = 40 on-line hemodiafiltration, N = 40 high-flux hemodialysis) in relation to the dialysis technique and inflammation. Whole blood DNA methylation was assessed with a 5-mc DNA enzyme linked immunosorbent assay Kit. Global DNA methylation was higher in hemodialysis (HD) compared to on-line hemodiafiltration (HDF) patients (0.045 vs. 0.039; P patients according to the median value of 5-mC. DNA methylation was highest in inflamed patients on hemodialysis. The dialysis technique was the only independent predictor of global DNA methylation in dialysis patients. On-line HDF could be associated with a favorable DNA methylation profile. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  20. Comparison of gene expression and genome-wide DNA methylation profiling between phenotypically normal cloned pigs and conventionally bred controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Gao; Luo, Yonglun; Li, Shengting

    2011-01-01

    Animal breeding via Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) has enormous potential in agriculture and biomedicine. However, concerns about whether SCNT animals are as healthy or epigenetically normal as conventionally bred ones are raised as the efficiency of cloning by SCNT is much lower than natural...... breeding or In-vitro fertilization (IVF). Thus, we have conducted a genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiling between phenotypically normal cloned pigs and control pigs in two tissues (muscle and liver), using Affymetrix Porcine expression array as well as modified methylation......-specific digital karyotyping (MMSDK) and Solexa sequencing technology. Typical tissue-specific differences with respect to both gene expression and DNA methylation were observed in muscle and liver from cloned as well as control pigs. Gene expression profiles were highly similar between cloned pigs and controls...

  1. Comparison of the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles between fast-growing and slow-growing broilers.

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    Yongsheng Hu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Growth traits are important in poultry production, however, little is known for its regulatory mechanism at epigenetic level. Therefore, in this study, we aim to compare DNA methylation profiles between fast- and slow-growing broilers in order to identify candidate genes for chicken growth. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq was used to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in high and low tails of Recessive White Rock (WRR(h; WRR(l and that of Xinhua Chickens (XH(h; XH(l at 7 weeks of age. The results showed that the average methylation density was the lowest in CGIs followed by promoters. Within the gene body, the methylation density of introns was higher than that of UTRs and exons. Moreover, different methylation levels were observed in different repeat types with the highest in LINE/CR1. Methylated CGIs were prominently distributed in the intergenic regions and were enriched in the size ranging 200-300 bp. In total 13,294 methylated genes were found in four samples, including 4,085 differentially methylated genes of WRR(h Vs. WRR(l, 5,599 of XH(h Vs. XH(l, 4,204 of WRR(h Vs. XH(h, as well as 7,301 of WRR(l Vs. XH(l. Moreover, 132 differentially methylated genes related to growth and metabolism were observed in both inner contrasts (WRR(h Vs. WRR(l and XH(h Vs. XH(l, whereas 129 differentially methylated genes related to growth and metabolism were found in both across-breed contrasts (WRR(h Vs. XH(h and WRR(l Vs. XH(l. Further analysis showed that overall 75 genes exhibited altered DNA methylation in all four contrasts, which included some well-known growth factors of IGF1R, FGF12, FGF14, FGF18, FGFR2, and FGFR3. In addition, we validate the MeDIP-seq results by bisulfite sequencing in some regions. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the global DNA methylation pattern of chicken muscle, and identified candidate genes that potentially regulate muscle development at 7 weeks of age at methylation

  2. Comparison of the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles between fast-growing and slow-growing broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongsheng; Xu, Haiping; Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Xuejuan; Jia, Xinzheng; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2013-01-01

    Growth traits are important in poultry production, however, little is known for its regulatory mechanism at epigenetic level. Therefore, in this study, we aim to compare DNA methylation profiles between fast- and slow-growing broilers in order to identify candidate genes for chicken growth. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq) was used to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in high and low tails of Recessive White Rock (WRR(h); WRR(l)) and that of Xinhua Chickens (XH(h); XH(l)) at 7 weeks of age. The results showed that the average methylation density was the lowest in CGIs followed by promoters. Within the gene body, the methylation density of introns was higher than that of UTRs and exons. Moreover, different methylation levels were observed in different repeat types with the highest in LINE/CR1. Methylated CGIs were prominently distributed in the intergenic regions and were enriched in the size ranging 200-300 bp. In total 13,294 methylated genes were found in four samples, including 4,085 differentially methylated genes of WRR(h) Vs. WRR(l), 5,599 of XH(h) Vs. XH(l), 4,204 of WRR(h) Vs. XH(h), as well as 7,301 of WRR(l) Vs. XH(l). Moreover, 132 differentially methylated genes related to growth and metabolism were observed in both inner contrasts (WRR(h) Vs. WRR(l) and XH(h) Vs. XH(l)), whereas 129 differentially methylated genes related to growth and metabolism were found in both across-breed contrasts (WRR(h) Vs. XH(h) and WRR(l) Vs. XH(l)). Further analysis showed that overall 75 genes exhibited altered DNA methylation in all four contrasts, which included some well-known growth factors of IGF1R, FGF12, FGF14, FGF18, FGFR2, and FGFR3. In addition, we validate the MeDIP-seq results by bisulfite sequencing in some regions. This study revealed the global DNA methylation pattern of chicken muscle, and identified candidate genes that potentially regulate muscle development at 7 weeks of age at methylation level.

  3. DNA methylation profiles of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene as a potent diagnostic biomarker in major depression.

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    Manabu Fuchikami

    Full Text Available Major depression, because of its recurring and life-threatening nature, is one of the top 10 diseases for global disease burden. Major depression is still diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms in patients. The search for specific biological markers is of great importance to advance the method of diagnosis for depression. We examined the methylation profile of 2 CpG islands (I and IV at the promoters of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene, which is well known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. We analyzed genomic DNA from peripheral blood of 20 Japanese patients with major depression and 18 healthy controls to identify an appropriate epigenetic biomarker to aid in the establishment of an objective system for the diagnosis of depression. Methylation rates at each CpG unit was measured using a MassArray® system (SEQUENOM, and 2-dimensional hierarchical clustering analyses were undertaken to determine the validity of these methylation profiles as a diagnostic biomarker. Analyses of the dendrogram from methylation profiles of CpG I, but not IV, demonstrated that classification of healthy controls and patients at the first branch completely matched the clinical diagnosis. Despite the small number of subjects, our results indicate that classification based on the DNA methylation profiles of CpG I of the BDNF gene may be a valuable diagnostic biomarker for major depression.

  4. Differential DNA methylation profiles of coding and non-coding genes define hippocampal sclerosis in human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Delaney, Suzanne F C; Bryan, Kenneth; Das, Sudipto; McKiernan, Ross C; Bray, Isabella M; Reynolds, James P; Gwinn, Ryder; Stallings, Raymond L; Henshall, David C

    2015-03-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with large-scale, wide-ranging changes in gene expression in the hippocampus. Epigenetic changes to DNA are attractive mechanisms to explain the sustained hyperexcitability of chronic epilepsy. Here, through methylation analysis of all annotated C-phosphate-G islands and promoter regions in the human genome, we report a pilot study of the methylation profiles of temporal lobe epilepsy with or without hippocampal sclerosis. Furthermore, by comparative analysis of expression and promoter methylation, we identify methylation sensitive non-coding RNA in human temporal lobe epilepsy. A total of 146 protein-coding genes exhibited altered DNA methylation in temporal lobe epilepsy hippocampus (n = 9) when compared to control (n = 5), with 81.5% of the promoters of these genes displaying hypermethylation. Unique methylation profiles were evident in temporal lobe epilepsy with or without hippocampal sclerosis, in addition to a common methylation profile regardless of pathology grade. Gene ontology terms associated with development, neuron remodelling and neuron maturation were over-represented in the methylation profile of Watson Grade 1 samples (mild hippocampal sclerosis). In addition to genes associated with neuronal, neurotransmitter/synaptic transmission and cell death functions, differential hypermethylation of genes associated with transcriptional regulation was evident in temporal lobe epilepsy, but overall few genes previously associated with epilepsy were among the differentially methylated. Finally, a panel of 13, methylation-sensitive microRNA were identified in temporal lobe epilepsy including MIR27A, miR-193a-5p (MIR193A) and miR-876-3p (MIR876), and the differential methylation of long non-coding RNA documented for the first time. The present study therefore reports select, genome-wide DNA methylation changes in human temporal lobe epilepsy that may contribute to the molecular architecture of the epileptic brain. © The

  5. Adult monozygotic twins discordant for intra-uterine growth have indistinguishable genome-wide DNA methylation profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Low birth weight is associated with an increased adult metabolic disease risk. It is widely discussed that poor intra-uterine conditions could induce long-lasting epigenetic modifications, leading to systemic changes in regulation of metabolic genes. To address this, we acquire genome-wide DNA methylation profiles from saliva DNA in a unique cohort of 17 monozygotic monochorionic female twins very discordant for birth weight. We examine if adverse prenatal growth conditions experienced by the smaller co-twins lead to long-lasting DNA methylation changes. Results Overall, co-twins show very similar genome-wide DNA methylation profiles. Since observed differences are almost exclusively caused by variable cellular composition, an original marker-based adjustment strategy was developed to eliminate such variation at affected CpGs. Among adjusted and unchanged CpGs 3,153 are differentially methylated between the heavy and light co-twins at nominal significance, of which 45 show sensible absolute mean β-value differences. Deep bisulfite sequencing of eight such loci reveals that differences remain in the range of technical variation, arguing against a reproducible biological effect. Analysis of methylation in repetitive elements using methylation-dependent primer extension assays also indicates no significant intra-pair differences. Conclusions Severe intra-uterine growth differences observed within these monozygotic twins are not associated with long-lasting DNA methylation differences in cells composing saliva, detectable with up-to-date technologies. Additionally, our results indicate that uneven cell type composition can lead to spurious results and should be addressed in epigenomic studies. PMID:23706164

  6. DNA methylation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyushin, B F

    2006-01-01

    DNA in plants is highly methylated, containing 5-methylcytosine (m5C) and N6-methyladenine (m6A); m5C is located mainly in symmetrical CG and CNG sequences but it may occur also in other non-symmetrical contexts. m6A but not m5C was found in plant mitochondrial DNA. DNA methylation in plants is species-, tissue-, organelle- and age-specific. It is controlled by phytohormones and changes on seed germination, flowering and under the influence of various pathogens (viral, bacterial, fungal). DNA methylation controls plant growth and development, with particular involvement in regulation of gene expression and DNA replication. DNA replication is accompanied by the appearance of under-methylated, newly formed DNA strands including Okazaki fragments; asymmetry of strand DNA methylation disappears until the end of the cell cycle. A model for regulation of DNA replication by methylation is suggested. Cytosine DNA methylation in plants is more rich and diverse compared with animals. It is carried out by the families of specific enzymes that belong to at least three classes of DNA methyltransferases. Open reading frames (ORF) for adenine DNA methyltransferases are found in plant and animal genomes, and a first eukaryotic (plant) adenine DNA methyltransferase (wadmtase) is described; the enzyme seems to be involved in regulation of the mitochondria replication. Like in animals, DNA methylation in plants is closely associated with histone modifications and it affects binding of specific proteins to DNA and formation of respective transcription complexes in chromatin. The same gene (DRM2) in Arabidopsis thaliana is methylated both at cytosine and adenine residues; thus, at least two different, and probably interdependent, systems of DNA modification are present in plants. Plants seem to have a restriction-modification (R-M) system. RNA-directed DNA methylation has been observed in plants; it involves de novo methylation of almost all cytosine residues in a region of siRNA-DNA

  7. Early life lead exposure causes gender-specific changes in the DNA methylation profile of DNA extracted from dried blood spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Arko; Heredia, Nicole; Senut, Marie-Claude; Hess, Matthew; Land, Susan; Qu, Wen; Hollacher, Kurt; Dereski, Mary O; Ruden, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Aims In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that early life lead (Pb) exposure associated DNA methylation (5mC) changes are dependent on the sex of the child and can serve as biomarkers for Pb exposure. Methods In this pilot study, we measured the 5mC profiles of DNA extracted from dried blood spots (DBS) in a cohort of 43 children (25 males and 18 females; ages from 3 months to 5 years) from Detroit. Result & Discussion We found that the effect of Pb-exposure on the 5-mC profiles can be separated into three subtypes: affected methylation loci which are conserved irrespective of the sex of the child (conserved); affected methylation loci unique to males (male-specific); and affected methylation loci unique to females (female-specific). PMID:26077427

  8. Integration of gene expression and DNA methylation profiles provides a molecular subtype for risk assessment in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sheng-Chao; Zhang, Hui-Ping; Kong, Fan-Qi; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Cheng; He, Yang-Yang; Wang, Yan-Hua; Yang, An-Ning; Tian, Ju; Yang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Ming-Hao; Xu, Hua; Jiang, Yi-Deng; Yu, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify an effective method for detecting early‑phase atherosclerosis (AS), as well as to provide useful DNA methylation profiles to serve as biomarkers for the detection of AS. A total of 300 individuals (150 AS patients and 150 healthy subjects) were recruited for peripheral blood DNA methylation analyses at 12 gene promoter loci using nested methylation‑specific polymerase chain reaction in a test set. Based on the test set, the promoter methylation of TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1), ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were determined to be candidate biomarkers; demonstrating the highest sensitivity (88%) and specificity (90%). The biomarkers that were candidates for early AS detection were validated in an independent validation set (n=100). In the validation set, the combination of TIMP1, ABCA1 and ACAT1 methylation achieved sensitivity, specificity and coincidence rate values of 88, 70 and 79%, respectively. In the current pilot study, the patterns of DNA methylation of AS‑associated genes were observed to be significantly altered in the peripheral blood of AS patients. Thus, the AS-specific methylation of the three‑gene panel (TIMP1, ABCA1, and ACAT1) may serve as a valuable biomarker for the early detection of AS.

  9. Determinants of maternal pregnancy one-carbon metabolism and newborn human DNA methylation profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.H. van Mil (Nina); M.I. Bouwl-Both (Marieke I.); L. Stolk (Lisette); M.M.P.J. Verbiest (Michael); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); P.H.C. Eilers (Paul); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMaternal one-carbon (1-C) metabolism provides methylgroups for fetal development and programing by DNA methylation as one of the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. We aimed to investigate maternal 1-C biomarkers, folic acid supplement use, and MTHFR C677T genotype as determinants of 1-C

  10. Molecular Profiling of Non-small Cell Lung Carcinomas : A Genome-wide DNA Methylation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hughes Carvalho (Rejane)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDNA methylation is a signaling marker used by the cell to control gene expression, to keep genes silenced or active. It is an important part of what is called epigenetic controlling mechanisms (epi- Greek: επί- over, above, outer). We are just beginning to understand the intricate

  11. Differential DNA methylation profile of key genes in malignant prostate epithelial cells transformed by inorganic arsenic or cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelch, Katherine E.; Tokar, Erik J. [National Toxicology Program Laboratory, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Merrick, B. Alex [Molecular Toxicology and Informatics Group, Biomolecular Screening Branch, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Morrisville, NC 27560 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P., E-mail: waalkes@niehs.nih.gov [National Toxicology Program Laboratory, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Previous work shows altered methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic (iAs)- or cadmium (Cd)-transformed epithelial cells. Here, the methylation status near the transcriptional start site was assessed in the normal human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) that was malignantly transformed by 10 μM Cd for 11 weeks (CTPE) or 5 μM iAs for 29 weeks (CAsE-PE), at which time cells showed multiple markers of acquired cancer phenotype. Next generation sequencing of the transcriptome of CAsE-PE cells identified multiple dysregulated genes. Of the most highly dysregulated genes, five genes that can be relevant to the carcinogenic process (S100P, HYAL1, NTM, NES, ALDH1A1) were chosen for an in-depth analysis of the DNA methylation profile. DNA was isolated, bisulfite converted, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites, which was confirmed with bisulfite sequencing. Four of the five genes showed differential methylation in transformants relative to control cells that was inversely related to altered gene expression. Increased expression of HYAL1 (> 25-fold) and S100P (> 40-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypomethylation near the transcriptional start site. Decreased expression of NES (> 15-fold) and NTM (> 1000-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypermethylation near the transcriptional start site. ALDH1A1 expression was differentially expressed in transformed cells but was not differentially methylated relative to control. In conclusion, altered gene expression observed in Cd and iAs transformed cells may result from altered DNA methylation status. - Highlights: • Cd and iAs are known human carcinogens, yet neither appears directly mutagenic. • Prior data suggest epigenetic modification plays a role in Cd or iAs induced cancer. • Altered methylation of four misregulated genes was found in Cd or iAs transformants. • The resulting altered gene expression may be relevant to cellular

  12. Whole-Genome DNA Methylation Profiling Identifies Epigenetic Signatures of Uterine Carcinosarcoma

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    Jing Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS is a form of endometrial cancer simultaneously exhibiting carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements, but the underlying molecular and epigenetic basis of this disease is poorly understood. We generated complete DNA methylomes for both the carcinomatous and the sarcomatous components of three UCS samples separated by laser capture microdissection and compared DNA methylomes of UCS with those of normal endometrium as well as methylomes derived from endometrioid carcinoma, serous endometrial carcinoma, and endometrial stromal sarcoma. We identified epigenetic lesions specific to carcinosarcoma and specific to its two components. Hallmarks of DNA methylation abnormalities in UCS included global hypomethylation, especially in repetitive elements, and hypermethylation of tumor suppressor gene promoters. Among these, aberrant DNA methylation of MIR200 genes is a key feature of UCS. The carcinoma component of UCS was characterized by hypermethylation of promoters of EMILIN1, NEFM, and CLEC14A, genes that are associated with tumor vascularization. In contrast, DNA methylation changes of PKP3, FAM83F, and TCP11 were more characteristic of the sarcoma components. Our findings highlight the epigenetic signatures that distinguish the two components of UCS, providing a valuable resource for investigation of this disease.

  13. Methylation profile analysis of DNA repair genes in hepatocellular carcinoma with MS-MLPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ozge; Bilezikci, Banu; Aktas, Sema; Sahin, Feride I

    2013-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the rare tumors with well-defined risk factors. The multifactorial etiology of HCC can be explained by its complex molecular pathogenesis. In the current study, the methylation status of 7 genes involved in DNA repair mechanisms, namely MLH1, PMS2, MSH6, MSH2, MGMT, MSH3, and MLH3, was investigated in tumor samples from HCC patients, using the methylation-specific-multiplex ligated probe amplification method and the results were correlated with available clinical findings. The most common etiological factor in these cases was the presence of hepatitis B alone (47.2%). Among the 56 cases that were studied, promoter methylation was detected in at least one of the genes in 27 (48.2%) cases, only in 1 gene in 13 (23.2%) cases, and in >1 gene in 14 (25%) cases. Of the 7 genes investigated, methylation was most frequently observed in MSH3, in 14 (25%) cases. Methylation of at least 1 gene was significantly more frequent in patients with single tumors than multifocal tumors. There were significant differences regarding hepatitis B status, Child Class, tumor number, grade, and TNM stage in cases where PMS2 methylation was detected. Our results suggest that methylation of genes involved in mismatch repair may be responsible in the pathogenesis of HCC, and evaluating changes in multiple genes in these pathways simultaneously would be more informative. Despite being a robust and relatively inexpensive method, the methylation-specific-multiplex ligated probe amplification assay could be more extensively applied with improvements in the currently intricate data analysis component.

  14. Profiling of childhood adversity-associated DNA methylation changes in alcoholic patients and healthy controls.

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    Huiping Zhang

    Full Text Available The increased vulnerability to alcohol dependence (AD seen in individuals with childhood adversity (CA may result in part from CA-induced epigenetic changes. To examine CA-associated DNA methylation changes in AD patients, we examined peripheral blood DNA methylation levels of 384 CpGs in promoter regions of 82 candidate genes in 279 African Americans [AAs; 88 with CA (70.5% with AD and 191 without CA (38.2% with AD] and 239 European Americans [EAs; 61 with CA (86.9% with AD and 178 without CA (46.6% with AD] using Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array assays. The effect of CA on methylation of individual CpGs and overall methylation in promoter regions of genes was evaluated using a linear regression analysis (with consideration of sex, age, and ancestry proportion of subjects and a principal components-based analysis, respectively. In EAs, hypermethylation of 10 CpGs in seven genes (ALDH1A1, CART, CHRNA5, HTR1B, OPRL1, PENK, and RGS19 were cross validated in AD patients and healthy controls who were exposed to CA. P values of two CpGs survived Bonferroni correction when all EA samples were analyzed together to increase statistical power [CHRNA5_cg17108064: P(adjust = 2.54×10(-5; HTR1B_cg06031989: P(adjust  = 8.98×10(-5]. Moreover, overall methylation levels in the promoter regions of three genes (ALDH1A1, OPRL1 and RGS19 were elevated in both EA case and control subjects who were exposed to CA. However, in AAs, CA-associated DNA methylation changes in AD patients were not validated in healthy controls. Our findings suggest that CA could induce population-specific methylation alterations in the promoter regions of specific genes, thus leading to changes in gene transcription and an increased risk for AD and other disorders.

  15. Effects of chronic restraint stress on the global DNA methylation profile of rat lung cells: Modulation by physical exercise.

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    Toffoli, L V; Volpini, V L; Nascimento, L M; Silva, W R; Verissimo, L F; Estrada, V B; Pelosi, G G; Gomes, M V

    2017-07-28

    The potential of behavioral stress to affect epigenetic mechanisms of non-encephalic tissues is still underestimated. In the present study we evaluated the effects of chronic behavioral stress on the DNA methylation profile of rat lung cells. Furthermore, we evaluated the potential of physical exercise to modulate the changes evoked by behavioral stress in lung cells. Male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: (1) animals submitted to chronic restraint stress (CRS) (ST group) during the period of the 67th-80th postnatal day (PND); (2) animals submitted to physical exercise (EX group) during the 53rd-79th PND; (3) animals submitted to swimming during the 53rd-79th PND and to CRS during the 67th-80th PND (EX-ST group); and (4) animals not submitted to stress or swimming protocols (CTL). Global DNA methylation was quantified using an ELISA-based approach and gene expression was evaluated by real time PCR. A decreased global DNA methylation profile was observed in the ST group, however physical exercise demonstrated protection of lung cells from this stress-related hypomethylation. Increased expression of the Dnmt1 gene was evidenced in the ST group, whereas physical exercise was shown to protect lung cells from this stress-related effect in the EX-ST group. Comparative analysis of the ST and EX groups revealed opposite effects on the expression of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b; however, a stress-related increase in expression of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b was not seen in the EX-ST group. Our data showed that behavioral stress induced significant changes in the DNA methylation profile of rat lung cells and that this could be modulated by physical exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the association between CIMP and BRAF in colorectal cancer by DNA methylation profiling.

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    Toshinori Hinoue

    Full Text Available A CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP is displayed by a distinct subset of colorectal cancers with a high frequency of DNA hypermethylation in a specific group of CpG islands. Recent studies have shown that an activating mutation of BRAF (BRAF(V600E is tightly associated with CIMP, raising the question of whether BRAF(V600E plays a causal role in the development of CIMP or whether CIMP provides a favorable environment for the acquisition of BRAF(V600E. We employed Illumina GoldenGate DNA methylation technology, which interrogates 1,505 CpG sites in 807 different genes, to further study this association. We first examined whether expression of BRAF(V600E causes DNA hypermethylation by stably expressing BRAF(V600E in the CIMP-negative, BRAF wild-type COLO 320DM colorectal cancer cell line. We determined 100 CIMP-associated CpG sites and examined changes in DNA methylation in eight stably transfected clones over multiple passages. We found that BRAF(V600E is not sufficient to induce CIMP in our system. Secondly, considering the alternative possibility, we identified genes whose DNA hypermethylation was closely linked to BRAF(V600E and CIMP in 235 primary colorectal tumors. Interestingly, genes that showed the most significant link include those that mediate various signaling pathways implicated in colorectal tumorigenesis, such as BMP3 and BMP6 (BMP signaling, EPHA3, KIT, and FLT1 (receptor tyrosine kinases and SMO (Hedgehog signaling. Furthermore, we identified CIMP-dependent DNA hypermethylation of IGFBP7, which has been shown to mediate BRAF(V600E-induced cellular senescence and apoptosis. Promoter DNA hypermethylation of IGFBP7 was associated with silencing of the gene. CIMP-specific inactivation of BRAF(V600E-induced senescence and apoptosis pathways by IGFBP7 DNA hypermethylation might create a favorable context for the acquisition of BRAF(V600E in CIMP+ colorectal cancer. Our data will be useful for future investigations toward

  17. DNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation Profile of CD34+-Enriched Cell Products Intended for Autologous CD34+ Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Jasmina-Ziva; Pohar Perme, Maja; Jez, Mojca; Malicev, Elvira; Krasna, Metka; Vrtovec, Bojan; Rozman, Primoz

    2017-09-01

    Epigenetic dysregulation has been shown to limit functional capacity of aging hematopoietic stem cells, which may contribute to impaired outcome of hematopoietic stem cell-based therapies. The aim of our study was to gain better insight into the epigenetic profile of CD34+-enriched cell products intended for autologous CD34+ cell transplantation in patients with cardiomyopathy. We found global DNA methylation content significantly higher in immunoselected CD34+ cells compared to leukocytes in leukapheresis products (2.33 ± 1.03% vs. 1.84 ± 0.86%, p = 0.04). Global DNA hydroxymethylation content did not differ between CD34+ cells and leukocytes (p = 0.30). By measuring methylation levels of 94 stem cell transcription factors on a ready-to-use array, we identified 15 factors in which average promoter methylation was significantly different between leukocytes and CD34+ cells. The difference was highest for HOXC12 (58.18 ± 6.47% vs. 13.34 ± 24.18%, p = 0.0009) and NR2F2 (51.65 ± 25.89% vs. 7.66 ± 21.43%, p = 0.0045) genes. Our findings suggest that global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation patterns as well as target methylation profile of selected genes in CD34+-enriched cell products do not differ significantly compared to leukapheresis products and, thus, can tell us little about the functional capacity and regenerative properties of CD34+ cells. Future studies should examine other CD34+ cell graft characteristics, which may serve as prognostic tools for autologous CD34+ cell transplantation.

  18. Integration of gene expression and DNA-methylation profiles improves molecular subtype classification in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskesen, Erdogan; Babaei, Sepideh; Reinders, Marcel M J; de Ridder, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is characterized by various cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities. Detection of these abnormalities is important in the risk-classification of patients but requires laborious experimentation. Various studies showed that gene expression profiles (GEP), and the gene signatures derived from GEP, can be used for the prediction of subtypes in AML. Similarly, successful prediction was also achieved by exploiting DNA-methylation profiles (DMP). There are, however, no studies that compared classification accuracy and performance between GEP and DMP, neither are there studies that integrated both types of data to determine whether predictive power can be improved. Here, we used 344 well-characterized AML samples for which both gene expression and DNA-methylation profiles are available. We created three different classification strategies including early, late and no integration of these datasets and used them to predict AML subtypes using a logistic regression model with Lasso regularization. We illustrate that both gene expression and DNA-methylation profiles contain distinct patterns that contribute to discriminating AML subtypes and that an integration strategy can exploit these patterns to achieve synergy between both data types. We show that concatenation of features from both data sets, i.e. early integration, improves the predictive power compared to classifiers trained on GEP or DMP alone. A more sophisticated strategy, i.e. the late integration strategy, employs a two-layer classifier which outperforms the early integration strategy. We demonstrate that prediction of known cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities in AML can be further improved by integrating GEP and DMP profiles.

  19. Apoptosis and DNA Methylation

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    Richard R. Meehan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms assist in maintaining gene expression patterns and cellular properties in developing and adult tissues. The molecular pathology of disease states frequently includes perturbation of DNA and histone methylation patterns, which can activate apoptotic pathways associated with maintenance of genome integrity. This perspective focuses on the pathways linking DNA methyltransferases and methyl-CpG binding proteins to apoptosis, and includes new bioinformatic analyses to characterize the evolutionary origin of two G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylases, MBD4 and TDG.

  20. First evidence of DNA methylation in insect Tribolium castaneum: environmental regulation of DNA methylation within heterochromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Parazajder, Josip; Akrap, Ivana; Ugarković, Durđica

    2013-05-01

    DNA methylation has been studied in many eukaryotic organisms, in particular vertebrates, and was implicated in developmental and phenotypic variations. Little is known about the role of DNA methylation in invertebrates, although insects are considered as excellent models for studying the evolution of DNA methylation. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera), no evidence of DNA methylation has been found till now. In this paper, a cytosine methylation in Tribolium castaneum embryos was detected by methylation sensitive restriction endonucleases and immuno-dot blot assay. DNA methylation in embryos is followed by a global demethylation in larvae, pupae and adults. DNA demethylation seems to proceed actively through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, most probably by the action of TET enzyme. Bisulfite sequencing of a highly abundant satellite DNA located in pericentromeric heterochromatin revealed similar profile of cytosine methylation in adults and embryos. Cytosine methylation was not only restricted to CpG sites but was found at CpA, CpT and CpC sites. In addition, complete cytosine demethylation of heterochromatic satellite DNA was induced by heat stress. The results reveal existence of DNA methylation cycling in T. castaneum ranging from strong overall cytosine methylation in embryos to a weak DNA methylation in other developmental stages. Nevertheless, DNA methylation is preserved within heterochromatin during development, indicating its role in heterochromatin formation and maintenance. It is, however, strongly affected by heat stress, suggesting a role for DNA methylation in heterochromatin structure modulation during heat stress response.

  1. DNA methylation-based chromatin compartments and ChIP-seq profiles reveal transcriptional drivers of prostate carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Poppy; Loomis, Erick; Curry, Edward

    2017-06-07

    Profiles of DNA methylation of many tissues relevant in human disease have been obtained from microarrays and are publicly available. These can be used to generate maps of chromatin compartmentalization, demarcating open and closed chromatin across the genome. Additionally, large sets of genome-wide transcription factor binding profiles have been made available thanks to ChIP-seq technology. We have identified genomic regions with altered chromatin compartmentalization in prostate adenocarcinoma tissue relative to normal prostate tissue, using DNA methylation microarray data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. DNA binding profiles from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) ChIP-seq studies have been systematically screened to find transcription factors with inferred DNA binding sites located in discordantly open/closed chromatin in malignant tissue (compared with non-cancer control tissue). We have combined this with tests for corresponding up-/downregulation of the transcription factors' putative target genes to obtain an integrated measure of cancer-specific regulatory activity to identify likely transcriptional drivers of prostate cancer. Generally, we find that the degree to which transcription factors preferentially bind regions of chromatin that become more accessible during prostate carcinogenesis is significantly associated to the level of systematic upregulation of their targets, at the level of gene expression. Our approach has yielded 11 transcription factors that show strong cancer-specific transcriptional activation of targets, including the novel candidates KAT2A and TRIM28, alongside established drivers of prostate cancer MYC, ETS1, GABP and YY1. This approach to integrated epigenetic and transcriptional profiling using publicly available data represents a cheap and powerful technique for identifying potential drivers of human disease. In our application to prostate adenocarcinoma data, the fact that well-known drivers are amongst the top candidates

  2. Efficiency of methylated DNA immunoprecipitation bisulphite sequencing for whole-genome DNA methylation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hae Min; Lee, Sangseon; Chae, Heejoon; Kim, RyongNam; Kwon, Mi Jeong; Oh, Ensel; Choi, Yoon-La; Kim, Sun; Shin, Young Kee

    2016-08-01

    We compared four common methods for measuring DNA methylation levels and recommended the most efficient method in terms of cost and coverage. The DNA methylation status of liver and stomach tissues was profiled using four different methods, whole-genome bisulphite sequencing (WG-BS), targeted bisulphite sequencing (Targeted-BS), methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq) and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation bisulphite sequencing (MeDIP-BS). We calculated DNA methylation levels using each method and compared the results. MeDIP-BS yielded the most similar DNA methylation profile to WG-BS, with 20 times less data, suggesting remarkable cost savings and coverage efficiency compared with the other methods. MeDIP-BS is a practical cost-effective method for analyzing whole-genome DNA methylation that is highly accurate at base-pair resolution.

  3. DNA methylation profile associated with rapid decline in kidney function: findings from the CRIC Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Maria R.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Joffe, Marshall M.; Xie, Dawei; Feldman, Harold I.; Dominic, Elizabeth A.; Guzman, Nicolas J.; Ramezani, Ali; Susztak, Katalin; Herman, James G.; Cope, Leslie; Harmon, Brennan; Kwabi-Addo, Bernard; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Go, Alan S.; He, Jiang; Lash, James P.; Kusek, John W.; Raj, Dominic S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epigenetic mechanisms may be important in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods We studied the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern associated with rapid loss of kidney function using the Infinium HumanMethylation 450 K BeadChip in 40 Chronic Renal Insufficiency (CRIC) study participants (n = 3939) with the highest and lowest rates of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate. Results The mean eGFR slope was 2.2 (1.4) and −5.1 (1.2) mL/min/1.73 m2 in the stable kidney function group and the rapid progression group, respectively. CpG islands in NPHP4, IQSEC1 and TCF3 were hypermethylated to a larger extent in subjects with stable kidney function (P-values of 7.8E−05 to 9.5E−05). These genes are involved in pathways known to promote the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis. Other CKD-related genes that were differentially methylated are NOS3, NFKBIL2, CLU, NFKBIB, TGFB3 and TGFBI, which are involved in oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways (P-values of 4.5E−03 to 0.046). Pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that gene networks related to cell signaling, carbohydrate metabolism and human behavior are epigenetically regulated in CKD. Conclusions Epigenetic modifications may be important in determining the rate of loss of kidney function in patients with established CKD. PMID:24516231

  4. Relationship between nucleosome positioning and DNA methylation

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    Chodavarapu, Ramakrishna K.; Feng, Suhua; Bernatavichute, Yana V.; Chen, Pao-Yang; Stroud, Hume; Yu, Yanchun; Hetzel, Jonathan; Kuo, Frank; Kim, Jin; Cokus, Shawn J.; Casero, David; Bernal, Maria; Huijser, Peter; Clark, Amander T.; Krämer, Ute; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleosomes compact and regulate access to DNA in the nucleus, and are composed of approximately 147 bases of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer1, 2. Here we report a genome-wide nucleosome positioning analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana utilizing massively parallel sequencing of mononucleosomes. By combining this data with profiles of DNA methylation at single base resolution, we identified ten base periodicities in the DNA methylation status of nucleosome-bound DNA and found that nucleosomal DNA was more highly methylated than flanking DNA. These results suggest that nucleosome positioning strongly influences DNA methylation patterning throughout the genome and that DNA methyltransferases preferentially target nucleosome-bound DNA. We also observed similar trends in human nucleosomal DNA suggesting that the relationships between nucleosomes and DNA methyltransferases are conserved. Finally, as has been observed in animals, nucleosomes were highly enriched on exons, and preferentially positioned at intron-exon and exon-intron boundaries. RNA Pol II was also enriched on exons relative to introns, consistent with the hypothesis that nucleosome positioning regulates Pol II processivity. DNA methylation is enriched on exons, consistent with the targeting of DNA methylation to nucleosomes, and suggesting a role for DNA methylation in exon definition. PMID:20512117

  5. Male fertility status is associated with DNA methylation signatures in sperm and transcriptomic profiles of bovine preimplantation embryos.

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    Kropp, Jenna; Carrillo, José A; Namous, Hadjer; Daniels, Alyssa; Salih, Sana M; Song, Jiuzhou; Khatib, Hasan

    2017-04-05

    Infertility in dairy cattle is a concern where reduced fertilization rates and high embryonic loss are contributing factors. Studies of the paternal contribution to reproductive performance are limited. However, recent discoveries have shown that, in addition to DNA, sperm delivers transcription factors and epigenetic components that are required for fertilization and proper embryonic development. Hence, characterization of the paternal contribution at the time of fertilization is warranted. We hypothesized that sire fertility is associated with differences in DNA methylation patterns in sperm and that the embryonic transcriptomic profiles are influenced by the fertility status of the bull. Embryos were generated in vitro by fertilization with either a high or low fertility Holstein bull. Blastocysts derived from each high and low fertility bulls were evaluated for morphology, development, and transcriptomic analysis using RNA-Sequencing. Additionally, DNA methylation signatures of sperm from high and low fertility sires were characterized by performing whole-genome DNA methylation binding domain sequencing. Embryo morphology and developmental capacity did not differ between embryos generated from either a high or low fertility bull. However, RNA-Sequencing revealed 98 genes to be differentially expressed at a false discovery rate fertility bull derived embryos, and 33 genes were upregulated in low fertility derived embryos. Expression of the genes CYCS, EEA1, SLC16A7, MEPCE, and TFB2M was validated in three new pairs of biological replicates of embryos. The role of the differentially expressed gene TFB2M in embryonic development was further assessed through expression knockdown at the zygotic stage, which resulted in decreased development to the blastocyst stage. Assessment of the epigenetic signature of spermatozoa between high and low fertility bulls revealed 76 differentially methylated regions. Despite similar morphology and development to the blastocyst

  6. DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis

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    Delpu, Yannick; Cordelier, Pierre; Cho, William C.; Torrisani, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in the physiological control of genome expression. DNA methylation patterns are largely modified in cancer cells and can therefore be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal tissues. This review describes the main technologies available for the detection and the discovery of aberrantly methylated DNA patterns. It also presents the different sources of biological samples suitable for DNA methylation studies. We discuss the interest and perspectives on the use of DNA methylation measurements for cancer diagnosis through examples of methylated genes commonly documented in the literature. The discussion leads to our consideration for why DNA methylation is not commonly used in clinical practice through an examination of the main requirements that constitute a reliable biomarker. Finally, we describe the main DNA methylation inhibitors currently used in clinical trials and those that exhibit promising results. PMID:23873296

  7. DNA methylation profiling of the fibrinogen gene landscape in human cells and during mouse and zebrafish development.

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    Silja Vorjohann

    Full Text Available The fibrinogen genes FGA, FGB and FGG show coordinated expression in hepatocytes. Understanding the underlying transcriptional regulation may elucidate how their tissue-specific expression is maintained and explain the high variability in fibrinogen blood levels. DNA methylation of CpG-poor gene promoters is dynamic with low methylation correlating with tissue-specific gene expression but its direct effect on gene regulation as well as implications of non-promoter CpG methylation are not clear. Here we compared methylation of CpG sites throughout the fibrinogen gene cluster in human cells and mouse and zebrafish tissues. We observed low DNA methylation of the CpG-poor fibrinogen promoters and of additional regulatory elements (the liver enhancers CNC12 and PFE2 in fibrinogen-expressing samples. In a gene reporter assay, CpG-methylation in the FGA promoter reduced promoter activity, suggesting a repressive function for DNA methylation in the fibrinogen locus. In mouse and zebrafish livers we measured reductions in DNA methylation around fibrinogen genes during development that were preceded by increased fibrinogen expression and tri-methylation of Histone3 lysine4 (H3K4me3 in fibrinogen promoters. Our data support a model where changes in hepatic transcription factor expression and histone modification provide the switch for increased fibrinogen gene expression in the developing liver which is followed by reduction of CpG methylation.

  8. DNA Methylation Profiling of the Fibrinogen Gene Landscape in Human Cells and during Mouse and Zebrafish Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorjohann, Silja; Pitetti, Jean-Luc; Nef, Serge; Gonelle-Gispert, Carmen; Buhler, Leo; Fish, Richard J.; Neerman-Arbez, Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    The fibrinogen genes FGA, FGB and FGG show coordinated expression in hepatocytes. Understanding the underlying transcriptional regulation may elucidate how their tissue-specific expression is maintained and explain the high variability in fibrinogen blood levels. DNA methylation of CpG-poor gene promoters is dynamic with low methylation correlating with tissue-specific gene expression but its direct effect on gene regulation as well as implications of non-promoter CpG methylation are not clear. Here we compared methylation of CpG sites throughout the fibrinogen gene cluster in human cells and mouse and zebrafish tissues. We observed low DNA methylation of the CpG-poor fibrinogen promoters and of additional regulatory elements (the liver enhancers CNC12 and PFE2) in fibrinogen-expressing samples. In a gene reporter assay, CpG-methylation in the FGA promoter reduced promoter activity, suggesting a repressive function for DNA methylation in the fibrinogen locus. In mouse and zebrafish livers we measured reductions in DNA methylation around fibrinogen genes during development that were preceded by increased fibrinogen expression and tri-methylation of Histone3 lysine4 (H3K4me3) in fibrinogen promoters. Our data support a model where changes in hepatic transcription factor expression and histone modification provide the switch for increased fibrinogen gene expression in the developing liver which is followed by reduction of CpG methylation. PMID:23991173

  9. DNA damage, homology-directed repair, and DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Cuozzo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore the link between DNA damage and gene silencing, we induced a DNA double-strand break in the genome of Hela or mouse embryonic stem (ES cells using I-SceI restriction endonuclease. The I-SceI site lies within one copy of two inactivated tandem repeated green fluorescent protein (GFP genes (DR-GFP. A total of 2%-4% of the cells generated a functional GFP by homology-directed repair (HR and gene conversion. However, approximately 50% of these recombinants expressed GFP poorly. Silencing was rapid and associated with HR and DNA methylation of the recombinant gene, since it was prevented in Hela cells by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. ES cells deficient in DNA methyl transferase 1 yielded as many recombinants as wild-type cells, but most of these recombinants expressed GFP robustly. Half of the HR DNA molecules were de novo methylated, principally downstream to the double-strand break, and half were undermethylated relative to the uncut DNA. Methylation of the repaired gene was independent of the methylation status of the converting template. The methylation pattern of recombinant molecules derived from pools of cells carrying DR-GFP at different loci, or from an individual clone carrying DR-GFP at a single locus, was comparable. ClustalW analysis of the sequenced GFP molecules in Hela and ES cells distinguished recombinant and nonrecombinant DNA solely on the basis of their methylation profile and indicated that HR superimposed novel methylation profiles on top of the old patterns. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA analysis revealed that DNA methyl transferase 1 was bound specifically to HR GFP DNA and that methylation of the repaired segment contributed to the silencing of GFP expression. Taken together, our data support a mechanistic link between HR and DNA methylation and suggest that DNA methylation in eukaryotes marks homologous recombined segments.

  10. Free energy profiles for two ubiquitous damaging agents: methylation and hydroxylation of guanine in B-DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüber, R; Aranda, J; Bellili, A; Tuñón, I; Dumont, E

    2017-06-07

    DNA methylation and hydroxylation are two ubiquitous reactions in DNA damage induction, yet insights are scarce concerning the free energy of activation within B-DNA. We resort to multiscale simulations to investigate the attack of a hydroxyl radical and of the primary diazonium onto a guanine embedded in a solvated dodecamer. Reaction free energy profiles characterize two strongly exergonic processes, yet allow unprecedented quantification of the barrier towards this damage reaction, not higher than 6 kcal mol-1 and sometimes inexistent, and of the exergonicities. In the case of the [G(C8)-OH]˙ intermediate, we challenge the functional dependence of such simulations: recently-proposed functionals, such as M06-2X and LC-BLYP, agree on a ∼4 kcal mol-1 barrier, whereas the hybrid GGA B3LYP functional predicts a barrier-less pathway. In the long term, multiscale approaches can help build up a unified panorama of DNA lesion induction. These results stress the importance of DFT/MM-MD simulations involving new functionals towards the sound modelling of biomolecule damage even in the ground state.

  11. DNA methylation dynamics in neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqin; Tang, Beisha; He, Yuquan; Jin, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis is not limited to the embryonic stage, but continually proceeds in the adult brain throughout life. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification and noncoding RNA, play important roles in neurogenesis. For decades, DNA methylation was thought to be a stable modification, except for demethylation in the early embryo. In recent years, DNA methylation has proved to be dynamic during development. In this review, we summarize the latest understanding about DNA methylation dynamics in neurogenesis, including the roles of different methylation forms (5-methylcytosine, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine), as well as their ‘writers’, ‘readers’ and interactions with histone modifications. PMID:26950681

  12. Breast cancer DNA methylation profiles are associated with tumor size and alcohol and folate intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brock C Christensen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Although tumor size and lymph node involvement are the current cornerstones of breast cancer prognosis, they have not been extensively explored in relation to tumor methylation attributes in conjunction with other tumor and patient dietary and hormonal characteristics. Using primary breast tumors from 162 (AJCC stage I-IV women from the Kaiser Division of Research Pathways Study and the Illumina GoldenGate methylation bead-array platform, we measured 1,413 autosomal CpG loci associated with 773 cancer-related genes and validated select CpG loci with Sequenom EpiTYPER. Tumor grade, size, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and triple negative status were significantly (Q-values <0.05 associated with altered methylation of 209, 74, 183, 69, and 130 loci, respectively. Unsupervised clustering, using a recursively partitioned mixture model (RPMM, of all autosomal CpG loci revealed eight distinct methylation classes. Methylation class membership was significantly associated with patient race (P<0.02 and tumor size (P<0.001 in univariate tests. Using multinomial logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders, patient age and tumor size, as well as known disease risk factors of alcohol intake and total dietary folate, were all significantly (P<0.0001 associated with methylation class membership. Breast cancer prognostic characteristics and risk-related exposures appear to be associated with gene-specific tumor methylation, as well as overall methylation patterns.

  13. Integrated Analysis of DNA Methylation and mRNA Expression Profiles to Identify Key Genes in Severe Oligozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe oligozoospermia (SO is a complex disorder, whose etiology is the combined effect of genetic factors and epigenetic conditions. In this study, we examined DNA methylation and mRNA expression status in a set of testicular tissues of SO patients (n = 3, and compared methylated data with those derived from obstructive azoospermia (OA patients (n = 3 with normal spermatogenesis phenotype. We identified 1,960 differentially methylated CpG sites showing significant alterations in SO vs. OA using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 bead array. By integrating above DNA methylation data and mRNA expression results, we totally identified 72 methylated CpG sites located in 65 genes with anti-correlation between DNA methylation and mRNA expression. Integrated pathways analysis indicates that these genes are involved in response to hormone stimulus, activation of protein kinase activity, and apoptotic process, among others. We also observed some genes with inversely correlated difference is novel in male infertility field, including PTPRN2, EPHX1, SERPINB9, SLIT3, etc. Our results lay a groundwork for further biological study of SO. Moreover, we generated a workflow for integrated analysis of DNA methylation and mRNA expression, which is expandable to other study types.

  14. Identification of pathogenic genes related to rheumatoid arthritis through integrated analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Ma, Shiyun; Wang, Huailiang; Su, Hang; Su, Ke; Li, Longjie

    2017-11-15

    The purpose of our study was to identify new pathogenic genes used for exploring the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To screen pathogenic genes of RA, an integrated analysis was performed by using the microarray datasets in RA derived from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The functional annotation and potential pathways of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were further discovered by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. Afterwards, the integrated analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression profiling was used to screen crucial genes. In addition, we used RT-PCR and MSP to verify the expression levels and methylation status of these crucial genes in 20 synovial biopsy samples obtained from 10 RA model mice and 10 normal mice. BCL11B, CCDC88C, FCRLA and APOL6 were both up-regulated and hypomethylated in RA according to integrated analysis, RT-PCR and MSP verification. Four crucial genes (BCL11B, CCDC88C, FCRLA and APOL6) identified and analyzed in this study might be closely connected with the pathogenesis of RA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. DNA Methylation in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Lotta-Katrin; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Kenis, Gunter

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric condition that displays a complex phenotype. A multitude of genetic susceptibility loci have now been identified, but these fail to explain the high heritability estimates of schizophrenia. In addition, epidemiologically relevant environmental risk factors for schizophrenia may lead to permanent changes in brain function. In conjunction with genetic liability, these environmental risk factors-likely through epigenetic mechanisms-may give rise to schizophrenia, a clinical syndrome characterized by florid psychotic symptoms and moderate to severe cognitive impairment. These pathophysiological features point to the involvement of epigenetic processes. Recently, a wave of studies examining aberrant DNA modifications in schizophrenia was published. This chapter aims to comprehensively review the current findings, from both candidate gene studies and genome-wide approaches, on DNA methylation changes in schizophrenia.

  16. Diagnosis and prognostication of ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas based on genome-wide DNA methylation profiling by bacterial artificial chromosome array-based methylated CpG island amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Masahiro; Arai, Eri; Wakai-Ushijima, Saori; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Kosuge, Tomoo; Hosoda, Fumie; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Kondo, Tadashi; Yokoi, Sana; Imoto, Issei; Inazawa, Johji; Kanai, Yae

    2011-01-01

    To establish diagnostic criteria for ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas (PCs), bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array-based methylated CpG island amplification was performed using 139 tissue samples. Twelve BAC clones, for which DNA methylation status was able to discriminate cancerous tissue (T) from noncancerous pancreatic tissue in the learning cohort with a specificity of 100%, were identified. Using criteria that combined the 12 BAC clones, T-samples were diagnosed as cancers with 100% sensitivity and specificity in both the learning and validation cohorts. DNA methylation status on 11 of the BAC clones, which was able to discriminate patients showing early relapse from those with no relapse in the learning cohort with 100% specificity, was correlated with the recurrence-free and overall survival rates in the validation cohort and was an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling may provide optimal diagnostic markers and prognostic indicators for patients with PCs.

  17. Diagnosis and Prognostication of Ductal Adenocarcinomas of the Pancreas Based on Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiling by Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Array-Based Methylated CpG Island Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Gotoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish diagnostic criteria for ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas (PCs, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC array-based methylated CpG island amplification was performed using 139 tissue samples. Twelve BAC clones, for which DNA methylation status was able to discriminate cancerous tissue (T from noncancerous pancreatic tissue in the learning cohort with a specificity of 100%, were identified. Using criteria that combined the 12 BAC clones, T-samples were diagnosed as cancers with 100% sensitivity and specificity in both the learning and validation cohorts. DNA methylation status on 11 of the BAC clones, which was able to discriminate patients showing early relapse from those with no relapse in the learning cohort with 100% specificity, was correlated with the recurrence-free and overall survival rates in the validation cohort and was an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling may provide optimal diagnostic markers and prognostic indicators for patients with PCs.

  18. DNA methylation program during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng C

    2012-12-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark when occurring in the promoter and enhancer regions regulates the accessibility of the binding protein and gene transcription. DNA methylation is inheritable and can be de novo-synthesized, erased and reinstated, making it arguably one of the most dynamic upstream regulators for gene expression and the most influential pacer for development. Recent progress has demonstrated that two forms of cytosine methylation and two pathways for demethylation constitute ample complexity for an instructional program for orchestrated gene expression and development. The forum of the current discussion and review are whether there is such a program, if so what the DNA methylation program entails, and what environment can change the DNA methylation program. The translational implication of the DNA methylation program is also proposed.

  19. DNA methylation profiling of sorted cells from myelofibrosis patients reveals aberrant epigenetic regulation of immune pathways and identifies early MPN driver genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Myrtue; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Kristensen, Lasse Sommer

    2015-01-01

    , PV) toadvancedMF. Multiple studies report frequent mutations in epigenetic regulators. However, the association to epigenetic changes and the role of epigenetic aberrations in different cell populations is still unknown. Aims: We therefore performed DNA methylation profiling of sorted cells from MF...... patients to unravel pathways contributing to disease phenotype and gain insight into MF pathogenesis. As an aberrant DNA methylation pattern may be an early event in tumorigenesis and may be crucial for progression of the malignant clone towards the more aggressive forms of MPN, we further aimed...

  20. The Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profile of Peripheral Blood Is Not Systematically Changed by Short-Time Storage at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicklas Heine Staunstrup

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epigenetic epidemiology has proven an important research discipline in the delineation of diseases of complex etiology. The approach, in such studies, is often to use bio-banked clinical material, however, many such samples were collected for purposes other than epigenetic studies and, thus, potentially not processed and stored appropriately. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC includes more than 100,000 peripheral and umbilical cord blood samples shipped from maternity wards by ordinary mail in EDTA tubes. While this and other similar cohorts hold great promises for DNA methylation studies the potential systematic changes prompted by storage at ambient temperatures have never been assessed on a genome-wide level. Methods and Results: In this study, matched EDTA whole blood samples were stored up to three days at room temperature prior to DNA extraction and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (MeDIP-seq. We established that the quality of the MeDIP-seq libraries was high and comparable across samples; and that the methylation profiles did not change systematically during the short-time storage at room temperature. Conclusion: The global DNA methylation profile is stable in whole blood samples stored for up to three days at room temperature in EDTA tubes making genome-wide methylation studies on such material feasible.

  1. Targeting DNA methylation with green tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia C

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic alterations in the genome such as DNA methylation play a significant role in cancer development. Green tea catechins have been reported to modulate epigenetic processes. This review aims to synthesize evidence on the modulation of DNA methylation by green tea catechins. Green tea catechins have been reported to reverse DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes and increase transcription of these genes. Green tea catechins and especially epigallocatechin gallate modulate DNA methylation by attenuating the effect of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). However, the exact mechanism of DNMT1 inhibition is not delineated. Suggested mechanisms include direct enzymatic inhibition, indirect enzymatic inhibition, reduced DNMT1 expression and translation. The possible effect of green tea catechins on other pathways of DNA methylation, i.e. methyl-CpG binding domain proteins, has not been investigated. Furthermore, the link between redox properties and epigenetic modulation by green tea catechins has not been defined either. Since green tea catechins are natural compounds with a rather acceptable safety profile, further research on their action as inhibitors of DNA methylation seems worthwhile. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Genome wide DNA methylation profiles provide clues to the origin and pathogenesis of germ cell tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Rijlaarsdam (Martin); D.M.J. Tax (David); A.J.M. Gillis (Ad); L.C.J. Dorssers (Lambert); Koestler, D.C. (Devin C.); De Ridder, J. (Jeroen); L.H.J. Looijenga (Leendert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the

  3. Genome wide DNA methylation profiles provide clues to the origin and pathogenesis of germ cell tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, M.A.; Tax, D.M.J.; Gillis, A.J.M.; Dorssers, L.C.J.; Koestler, D.C.; De Ridder, J.; Looijenga, L.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the yolk sac to

  4. Methods of DNA methylation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

  5. DNA methylation in metabolic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Zierath, Juleen R

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity are associated with profound alterations in gene expression that are caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recent reports...... have provided evidence that environmental factors at all ages could modify DNA methylation in somatic tissues, which suggests that DNA methylation is a more dynamic process than previously appreciated. Because of the importance of lifestyle factors in metabolic disorders, DNA methylation provides...... a mechanism by which environmental factors, including diet and exercise, can modify genetic predisposition to disease. This article considers the current evidence that defines a role for DNA methylation in metabolic disorders....

  6. META2: Intercellular DNA Methylation Pairwise Annotation and Integrative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Binhua Tang

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide deciphering intercellular differential DNA methylation as well as its roles in transcriptional regulation remains elusive in cancer epigenetics. Here we developed a toolkit META2 for DNA methylation annotation and analysis, which aims to perform integrative analysis on differentially methylated loci and regions through deep mining and statistical comparison methods. META2 contains multiple versatile functions for investigating and annotating DNA methylation profiles. Benchmarked w...

  7. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  8. Association between DNA methylation profiles in leukocytes and serum levels of persistent organic pollutants in Dutch men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den Myrthe; Murk, A.J.; Kampman, Ellen; Steegenga, Wilma T.; Gils-Kok, van Dieuwertje

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of polluted fish may lead to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in humans, potentially causing adverse health effects. Altered DNA methylation has been suggested as a possible contributor to a variety of adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the

  9. DNA Methylation Profiling Using Long-Read Single Molecule Real-Time Bisulfite Sequencing (SMRT-BS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao; Scott, Stuart A

    2017-01-01

    For the past two decades, bisulfite sequencing has been a widely used method for quantitative CpG methylation detection of genomic DNA. Coupled with PCR amplicon cloning, bisulfite Sanger sequencing allows for allele-specific CpG methylation assessment; however, its time-consuming protocol and inability to multiplex has recently been overcome by next-generation bisulfite sequencing techniques. Although high-throughput sequencing platforms have enabled greater accuracy in CpG methylation quantitation as a result of increased bisulfite sequencing depth, most common sequencing platforms generate reads that are similar in length to the typical bisulfite PCR size range (~300-500 bp). Using the Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) sequencing platform, we developed single molecule real-time bisulfite sequencing (SMRT-BS), which is an accurate targeted CpG methylation analysis method capable of a high degree of multiplexing and long read lengths. SMRT-BS is reproducible and was found to be concordant with other lower throughput quantitative CpG methylation methods. Moreover, the ability to sequence up to ~1.5-2.0 kb amplicons, when coupled with an optimized bisulfite-conversion protocol, allows for more thorough assessment of CpG islands and increases the capacity for studying the relationship between single nucleotide variants and allele-specific CpG methylation.

  10. Gene transcription profiles, global DNA methylation and potential transgenerational epigenetic effects related to Zn exposure history in Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegehuchte, Michiel B., E-mail: michiel.vandegehuchte@ugent.b [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Coninck, Dieter [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandenbrouck, Tine; De Coen, Wim M. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Janssen, Colin R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    A reduced level of DNA methylation has recently been described in both Zn-exposed and non-exposed offspring of Daphnia magna exposed to Zn. The hypothesis examined in this study is that DNA hypomethylation has an effect on gene transcription. A second hypothesis is that accumulative epigenetic effects can affect gene transcription in non-exposed offspring from parents with an exposure history of more than one generation. Transcriptional gene regulation was studied with a cDNA microarray. In the exposed and non-exposed hypomethylated daphnids, a large proportion of common genes were similarly up- or down-regulated, indicating a possible effect of the DNA hypomethylation. Two of these genes can be mechanistically involved in DNA methylation reduction. The similar transcriptional regulation of two and three genes in the F{sub 0} and F{sub 1} exposed daphnids on one hand and their non-exposed offspring on the other hand, could be the result of a one-generation temporary transgenerational epigenetic effect, which was not accumulative. - Zn-induced DNA hypomethylation is related to gene transcription in Daphnia magna and Zn exposure potentially induced limited temporary transgenerational effects on gene transcription.

  11. Cigarette smoking and DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken W.K Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic modification, capable of controlling gene expression in the contexts of normal traits or diseases. It is highly dynamic during early embryogenesis and remains relatively stable throughout life, and such patterns are intricately related to human development. DNA methylation is a quantitative trait determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic variants at a specific locus can influence both regional and distant DNA methylation. The environment can have varying effects on DNA methylation depending on when the exposure occurs, such as during prenatal life or during adulthood. In particular, cigarette smoking in the context of both current smoking and prenatal exposure is a strong modifier of DNA methylation. Epigenome-wide association studies have uncovered candidate genes associated with cigarette smoking that have biologically relevant functions in the etiology of smoking-related diseases. As such, DNA methylation is a potential mechanistic link between current smoking and cancer, as well as prenatal cigarette-smoke exposure and the development of adult chronic diseases.

  12. DNA methylation analysis in human cancer

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Eileen; Goggins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The functional impact of aberrant DNA methylation and the widespread alterations in DNA methylation in cancer development has led to the development of a variety of methods to characterize the DNA methylation patterns. This chapter will critique and describe the major approaches to analyzing DNA methylation.

  13. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Serra-Juh?, Clara; Cusc?, Ivon; Homs, A?da; Flores, Raquel; Tor?n, N?ria; P?rez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylat...

  14. Identification and characterization of bovine regulator of telomere length elongation helicase gene (RTEL: molecular cloning, expression distribution, splice variants and DNA methylation profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ShaoHua

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic basis of telomere length heterogeneity among mammalian species is still not well understood. Recently, a gene named regulator of telomere length elongation helicase (RTEL was identified and predicted to be an essential participant in species-specific telomere length regulation in two murine species. To obtain broader insights into its structure and biological functions and to ascertain whether RTEL is also a candidate gene in the regulation of telomere length diversity in other mammalian species, data from other mammals may be helpful. Results Here we report the cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal location, alternative splicing pattern, expression distribution and DNA methylation profile of the bovine homolog of RTEL. The longest transcript of bovine RTEL is 4440 nt, encompassing 24.8 kb of genomic sequence that was mapped to chromosome 13q2.2. It encodes a conserved helicase-like protein containing seven characterized helicase motifs in the first 750 aa and a PIP box in the C-terminus. Four splice variants were identified within the transcripts in both the coding and 5'-untranslated regions; Western blot revealed that the most abundant splice variant SV-1 was translated to a truncated isoform of RTEL. The different 5'UTRs imply alternative transcription start sites in the promoter; Bovine RTEL was transcribed at the blastocyst stage, and expression levels were highest in adult testis, liver and ovary. DNA methylation analysis of tissues that differed significantly in expression level indicated that relatively low DNA methylation is associated with higher expression. Conclusion In this study, we have identified and characterized a bovine RTEL homolog and obtained basic information about it, including gene structure, expression distribution, splice variants and profile of DNA methylation around two putative transcription start sites. These data may be helpful for further comparative and functional analysis

  15. Epigenetic clustering of lung adenocarcinomas based on DNA methylation profiles in adjacent lung tissue: Its correlation with smoking history and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takashi; Arai, Eri; Kohno, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Soejima, Kenzo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Kanai, Yae

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during lung carcinogenesis. Infinium assay was performed using 139 paired samples of non-cancerous lung tissue (N) and tumorous tissue (T) from a learning cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs). Fifty paired N and T samples from a validation cohort were also analyzed. DNA methylation alterations on 1,928 probes occurred in N samples relative to normal lung tissue from patients without primary lung tumors, and were inherited by, or strengthened in, T samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using DNA methylation levels in N samples on all 26,447 probes subclustered patients into Cluster I (n = 32), Cluster II (n = 35) and Cluster III (n = 72). LADCs in Cluster I developed from the inflammatory background in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in heavy smokers and were locally invasive. Most patients in Cluster II were non-smokers and had a favorable outcome. LADCs in Cluster III developed in light smokers were most aggressive (frequently showing lymphatic and blood vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and an advanced pathological stage), and had a poor outcome. DNA methylation levels of hallmark genes for each cluster, such as IRX2, HOXD8, SPARCL1, RGS5 and EI24, were again correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in the validation cohort. DNA methylation profiles reflecting carcinogenetic factors such as smoking and COPD appear to be established in non-cancerous lung tissue from patients with LADCs and may determine the aggressiveness of tumors developing in individual patients, and thus patient outcome.

  16. Heterogeneity of DNA methylation in multifocal prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenaite, Inga; Daniunaite, Kristina; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Laurinavicius, Arvydas; Petroska, Donatas; Lazutka, Juozas R; Jarmalaite, Sonata

    2015-01-01

    Most prostate cancer (PCa) cases are multifocal, and separate foci display histological and molecular heterogeneity. DNA hypermethylation is a frequent alteration in PCa, but interfocal heterogeneity of these changes has not been extensively investigated. Ten pairs of foci from multifocal PCa and 15 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) samples were obtained from prostatectomy specimens, resulting altogether in 35 samples. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was used to evaluate methylation status of nine tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), and a set of selected TSGs was quantitatively analyzed for methylation intensity by pyrosequencing. Promoter sequences of the RASSF1 and ESR1 genes were methylated in all paired PCa foci, and frequent (≥75 %) DNA methylation was detected in RARB, GSTP1, and ABCB1 genes. MSP revealed different methylation status of at least one gene in separate foci in 8 out of 10 multifocal tumors. The mean methylation level of ESR1, GSTP1, RASSF1, and RARB differed between the paired foci of all PCa cases. The intensity of DNA methylation in these TSGs was significantly higher in PCa cases than in BPH (p methylation profile of paired PCa foci, while the foci from separate cases with biochemical recurrence showed similar methylation profile and the highest mean levels of DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that PCa tissue is heterogeneous, as between paired foci differences in DNA methylation status were found. Common epigenetic profile of recurrent tumors can be inferred from our data.

  17. Effect of DNA methylation profile on OATP3A1 and OATP4A1 transcript levels in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawłuszko-Wieczorek, Agnieszka Anna; Horst, Nikodem; Horbacka, Karolina; Bandura, Artur Szymon; Świderska, Monika; Krokowicz, Piotr; Jagodziński, Paweł Piotr

    2015-08-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that 17β-estradiol (E2) prevents colorectal cancer (CRC). Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are involved in the cellular uptake of various endogenous and exogenous substrates, including hormone conjugates. Because transfer of estrone sulfate (E1-S) can contribute to intra-tissue conversion of estrone to the biologically active form -E2, it is evident that the expression patterns of OATPs may be relevant to the analysis of CRC incidence and therapy. We therefore evaluated DNA methylation and transcript levels of two members of the OATP family, OATP3A1 and OATP4A1, that may be involved in E1-S transport in colorectal cancer patients. We detected a significant reduction in OATP3A1 and a significant increase in OATP4A1 mRNA levels in cancerous tissue, compared with histopathologically unchanged tissue (n=103). Moreover, we observed DNA hypermethylation in the OATP3A1 promoter region in a small subset of CRC patients and in HCT116 and Caco-2 colorectal cancer cell lines. We also observed increased OATP3A1 transcript following treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and sodium butyrate. The OATP4A1 promoter region was hypomethylated in analyzed tissues and CRC cell lines and was not affected by these treatments. Our results suggest a potential mechanism for OATP3A1 downregulation that involves DNA methylation during colorectal carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Negative regulation of DNA methylation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saze, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Taku; Kakutani, Tetsuji

    2008-01-01

    Cytosine methylation of repeats and genes is important for coordination of genome stability and proper gene function. In plants, DNA methylation is regulated by DNA methyltransferases, chromatin remodeling factors and RNAi machinery. Ectopic DNA hypermethylation at genes causes transcriptional repression and silencing, and the methylation patterns often become heritable over generations. DNA methylation is antagonized by the DNA demethylation enzymes. Recently, we identified a novel jmjC-domain containing gene IBM1 (increase in bonsai methylation1) that also negatively regulates DNA methylation in Arabidopsis. The ibm1 plants show a variety of developmental phenotypes. IBM1 prevents ectopic accumulation of DNA methylation at the BNS genic region, likely through removal of heterochromatic H3K9 methylation mark. DNA and histone demethylation pathways are important for genome-wide patterning of DNA methylation and for epigenetic regulation of plant development.

  19. Understanding the relationship between DNA methylation and histone lysine methylation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nathan R.; Klose, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation acts as an epigenetic modification in vertebrate DNA. Recently it has become clear that the DNA and histone lysine methylation systems are highly interrelated and rely mechanistically on each other for normal chromatin function in vivo. Here we examine some of the functional links between these systems, with a particular focus on several recent discoveries suggesting how lysine methylation may help to target DNA methylation during development, and vice versa. In addition, the emerging role of non-methylated DNA found in CpG islands in defining histone lysine methylation profiles at gene regulatory elements will be discussed in the context of gene regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Methylation: A Multifaceted Modification — looking at transcription and beyond. PMID:24560929

  20. DNA Methylation in Thyroid Tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, Josena K., E-mail: jstephe2@hfhs.org [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Chitale, Dhananjay [Department of Pathology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Narra, Vinod [Essex Surgical Associates, PC, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Chen, Kang Mei; Sawhney, Raja; Worsham, Maria J. [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2011-03-29

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer with 1,690 deaths each year. There are four main types of which the papillary and follicular types together account for >90% followed by medullary cancers with 3% to 5% and anaplastic carcinomas making up <3%. Epigenetic events of DNA hypermethylation are emerging as promising molecular targets for cancer detection. Our immediate and long term goal is to identify DNA methylation markers for early detection of thyroid cancer. This pilot study comprised of 21 patients to include 11 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), 2 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 5 normal thyroid cases, and 3 hyperthyroid cases. Aberrant promoter methylation was examined in 24 tumor suppressor genes using the methylation specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) assay and in the NIS gene using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). The frequently methylated genes were CASP8 (17/21), RASSF1 (16/21) and NIS (9/21). In the normal samples, CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were methylated in 5/5, 4/5 and 1/5 respectively. In the hyperthyroid samples, CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were methylated in 3/3, 2/3 and 1/3 respectively. In the thyroid cancers, CASP8, RASSF1, and NIS were methylated in 9/13, 10/13, and 7/13 respectively. CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were also methylated in concurrently present normal thyroid tissue in 3/11, 4/11 and 3/11 matched thyroid cancer cases (matched for presence of both normal thyroid tissue and thyroid cancer), respectively. Our data suggests that aberrant methylation of CASP8, RASSF1, and NIS maybe an early change in thyroid tumorigenesis regardless of cell type.

  1. Evolution of DNA Methylation across Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Kevin J.; Moore, Allen J.; Schmitz, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation contributes to gene and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, and therefore has been hypothesized to facilitate the evolution of plastic traits such as sociality in insects. However, DNA methylation is sparsely studied in insects. Therefore, we documented patterns of DNA methylation across a wide diversity of insects. We predicted that underlying enzymatic machinery is concordant with patterns of DNA methylation. Finally, given the suggestion that DNA methylation facilitated social evolution in Hymenoptera, we tested the hypothesis that the DNA methylation system will be associated with presence/absence of sociality among other insect orders. We found DNA methylation to be widespread, detected in all orders examined except Diptera (flies). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing showed that orders differed in levels of DNA methylation. Hymenopteran (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) had some of the lowest levels, including several potential losses. Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) show all possible patterns, including a potential loss of DNA methylation in a eusocial species whereas solitary species had the highest levels. Species with DNA methylation do not always possess the typical enzymatic machinery. We identified a gene duplication event in the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) that is shared by some Hymenoptera, and paralogs have experienced divergent, nonneutral evolution. This diversity and nonneutral evolution of underlying machinery suggests alternative DNA methylation pathways may exist. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons revealed no evidence that supports evolutionary association between sociality and DNA methylation. Future functional studies will be required to advance our understanding of DNA methylation in insects. PMID:28025279

  2. Whole-genome methylation caller designed for methyl-DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA methylation is an indispensable epigenetic modification required for regulating the expression of mammalian genomes. Continued efforts have been made to unravel the methylation states genome-wide, featuring the methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) coupled with next-generation sequencing. Our method ...

  3. Epigenomic profiling reveals an association between persistence of DNA methylation and metabolic memory in the DCCT/EDIC type 1 diabetes cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Miao, Feng; Paterson, Andrew D; Lachin, John M; Zhang, Lingxiao; Schones, Dustin E; Wu, Xiwei; Wang, Jinhui; Tompkins, Joshua D; Genuth, Saul; Braffett, Barbara H; Riggs, Arthur D; Natarajan, Rama

    2016-05-24

    We examined whether persistence of epigenetic DNA methylation (DNA-me) alterations at specific loci over two different time points in people with diabetes are associated with metabolic memory, the prolonged beneficial effects of intensive vs. conventional therapy during the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) on the progression of microvascular outcomes in the long-term follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) Study. We compared DNA-me profiles in genomic DNA of whole blood (WB) isolated at EDIC Study baseline from 32 cases (DCCT conventional therapy group subjects showing retinopathy or albuminuria progression by EDIC Study year 10) vs. 31 controls (DCCT intensive therapy group subjects without complication progression by EDIC year 10). DNA-me was also profiled in blood monocytes (Monos) of the same patients obtained during EDIC Study years 16-17. In WB, 153 loci depicted hypomethylation, and 225 depicted hypermethylation, whereas in Monos, 155 hypomethylated loci and 247 hypermethylated loci were found (fold change ≥1.3; P epigenetic explanation for metabolic memory.

  4. Methylation of DNA in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Maekawa, Masato

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Global changes in the epigenetic landscape are a hallmark of cancer. Methylation of cytosine bases in DNA provides a layer of epigenetic control in many eukaryotes that has important implications for normal biology and disease. DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic modification of the genome that is involved in regulating many cellular processes. These include embryonic development, transcription, chromatin structure, X-chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting, and chromosome stability. Consistent with these important roles, a growing number of human diseases including cancer have been found to be associated with aberrant DNA methylation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have described extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, such as DNA demethylation. Hypomethylation of the genome largely affects the intergenic and intronic regions of the DNA, particularly repeat sequences and transposable elements, and it is believed to result in chromosomal instability and increased mutation events. Therefore, we propose that R/G-chromosome band boundaries, which correspond with the early/late-switch regions of replication timing and a transition in relative GC content, correspond to "unstable" genomic regions in which concentrated occurrences of repetitive sequences and transposable elements including LINE and Alu elements are hypomethylated during tumorigenesis. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of alterations in DNA methylation composing the epigenetic landscape that occurs in cancer compared with normal cells, the roles of these changes in cancer initiation and progression, and the potential use of this knowledge in designing more

  5. DNA Methylation and Potential for Epigenetic Regulation in Pygospio elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesäniemi, Jenni E.; Heikkinen, Liisa; Knott, K. Emily

    2016-01-01

    Transitions in developmental mode are common evolutionarily, but how and why they occur is not understood. Developmental mode describes larval phenotypes, including morphology, ecology and behavior of larvae, which typically are generalized across different species. The polychaete worm Pygospio elegans is one of few species polymorphic in developmental mode, with multiple larval phenotypes, providing a possibility to examine the potential mechanisms allowing transitions in developmental mode. We investigated the presence of DNA methylation in P. elegans, and, since maternal provisioning is a key factor determining eventual larval phenotype, we compared patterns of DNA methylation in females during oogenesis in this species. We demonstrate that intragenic CpG site DNA methylation and many relevant genes necessary for DNA methylation occur in P. elegans. Methylation-sensitive AFLP analysis showed that gravid females with offspring differing in larval developmental mode have significantly different methylation profiles and that the females with benthic larvae and non-reproductive females from the same location also differ in their epigenetic profiles. Analysis of CpG sites in transcriptome data supported our findings of DNA methylation in this species and showed that CpG observed/expected ratios differ among females gravid with embryos destined to different developmental modes. The differences in CpG site DNA methylation patterns seen among the samples suggest a potential for epigenetic regulation of gene expression (through DNA methylation) in this species. PMID:27008314

  6. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, M. L.; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  7. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M. L. de; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L., E-mail: umbertofulco@gmail.com; Albuquerque, E. L. [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Freire, V. N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Caetano, E. W. S. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Moura, F. A. B. F. de; Lyra, M. L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-900 Maceió-AL (Brazil)

    2015-11-16

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  8. Direct detection of methylation in genomic DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, A.; van Passel, M. W. J.; van Amsterdam, K.; van der Ende, A.

    2005-01-01

    The identification of methylated sites on bacterial genomic DNA would be a useful tool to study the major roles of DNA methylation in prokaryotes: distinction of self and nonself DNA, direction of post-replicative mismatch repair, control of DNA replication and cell cycle, and regulation of gene

  9. Targeted deep DNA methylation analysis of circulating cell-free DNA in plasma using massively parallel semiconductor sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Oliver, Javier; Nogueira da Costa, Andre; Merle, Philippe; McKay, James; Herceg, Zdenko; Holmila, Reetta

    2015-01-01

    To set up a targeted methylation analysis using semiconductor sequencing and evaluate the potential for studying methylation in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Methylation of VIM, FBLN1, LTBP2, HINT2, h19 and IGF2 was analyzed in plasma cfDNA and white blood cell DNA obtained from eight hepatocellular carcinoma patients and eight controls using Ion Torrent™ PGM sequencer. h19 and IGF2 showed consistent methylation levels and methylation was detected for VIM and FBLN1, whereas LTBP2 and HINT2 did not show methylation for target regions. VIM gene promoter methylation was higher in HCC cfDNA than in cfDNA of controls or white blood cell DNA. Semiconductor sequencing is a suitable method for analyzing methylation profiles in cfDNA. Furthermore, differences in cfDNA methylation can be detected between controls and hepatocellular carcinoma cases, even though due to the small sample set these results need further validation.

  10. A collaborative exercise on DNA methylation based body fluid typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Eun; Cho, Sohee; Antunes, Joana; Gomes, Iva; Uchimoto, Mari L; Oh, Yu Na; Di Giacomo, Lisa; Schneider, Peter M; Park, Min Sun; van der Meer, Dieudonne; Williams, Graham; McCord, Bruce; Ahn, Hee-Jung; Choi, Dong Ho; Lee, Yang Han; Lee, Soong Deok; Lee, Hwan Young

    2016-10-01

    A collaborative exercise on DNA methylation based body fluid identification was conducted by seven laboratories. For this project, a multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction composed of seven CpG markers was used for the identification of four body fluids, including blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal fluid. A total of 30 specimens were prepared and distributed to participating laboratories after thorough testing. The required experiments included four increasingly complex tasks: (1) CE of a purified single-base extension reaction product, (2) multiplex PCR and multiplex single-base extension reaction of bisulfite-modified DNA, (3) bisulfite conversion of genomic DNA, and (4) extraction of genomic DNA from body fluid samples. In tasks 2, 3 and 4, one or more mixtures were analyzed, and specimens containing both known and unknown body fluid sources were used. Six of the laboratories generated consistent body fluid typing results for specimens of bisulfite-converted DNA and genomic DNA. One laboratory failed to set up appropriate conditions for capillary analysis of reference single-base extension products. In general, variation in the values obtained for DNA methylation analysis between laboratories increased with the complexity of the required experiments. However, all laboratories concurred on the interpretation of the DNA methylation profiles produced. Although the establishment of interpretational guidelines on DNA methylation based body fluid identification has yet to be performed, this study supports the addition of DNA methylation profiling to forensic body fluid typing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. DNA methylation increases throughout Arabidopsis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-García, L; Cervera, M T; Martínez-Zapater, J M

    2005-10-01

    We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) to analyze the stability of DNA methylation throughout Arabidopsis development. AFLP can detect genome-wide changes in cytosine methylation produced by DNA demethylation agents, such as 5-azacytidine, or specific mutations at the DDM1 locus. In both cases, cytosine demethylation is associated with a general increase in the presence of amplified fragments. Using this approach, we followed DNA methylation at methylation sensitive restriction sites throughout Arabidopsis development. The results show a progressive DNA methylation trend from cotyledons to vegetative organs to reproductive organs.

  12. Evolution of DNA Methylation across Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Adam J; Vogel, Kevin J; Moore, Allen J; Schmitz, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation contributes to gene and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, and therefore has been hypothesized to facilitate the evolution of plastic traits such as sociality in insects. However, DNA methylation is sparsely studied in insects. Therefore, we documented patterns of DNA methylation across a wide diversity of insects. We predicted that underlying enzymatic machinery is concordant with patterns of DNA methylation. Finally, given the suggestion that DNA methylation facilitated social evolution in Hymenoptera, we tested the hypothesis that the DNA methylation system will be associated with presence/absence of sociality among other insect orders. We found DNA methylation to be widespread, detected in all orders examined except Diptera (flies). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing showed that orders differed in levels of DNA methylation. Hymenopteran (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) had some of the lowest levels, including several potential losses. Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) show all possible patterns, including a potential loss of DNA methylation in a eusocial species whereas solitary species had the highest levels. Species with DNA methylation do not always possess the typical enzymatic machinery. We identified a gene duplication event in the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) that is shared by some Hymenoptera, and paralogs have experienced divergent, nonneutral evolution. This diversity and nonneutral evolution of underlying machinery suggests alternative DNA methylation pathways may exist. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons revealed no evidence that supports evolutionary association between sociality and DNA methylation. Future functional studies will be required to advance our understanding of DNA methylation in insects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Gestational Diabetes Alters Offspring DNA Methylation Profiles in Human and Rat: Identification of Key Pathways Involved in Endocrine System Disorders, Insulin Signaling, Diabetes Signaling, and ILK Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Sophie; Guillemin, Claire; Ergaz, Zivanit; Dimov, Sergiy; Suderman, Matthew; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Ornoy, Asher; Szyf, Moshe

    2015-06-01

    Gestational diabetes is associated with risk for metabolic disease later in life. Using a cross-species approach in rat and humans, we examined the hypothesis that gestational diabetes during pregnancy triggers changes in the methylome of the offspring that might be mediating these risks. We show in a gestation diabetes rat model, the Cohen diabetic rat, that gestational diabetes triggers wide alterations in DNA methylation in the placenta in both candidate diabetes genes and genome-wide promoters, thus providing evidence for a causal relationship between diabetes during pregnancy and DNA methylation alterations. There is a significant overlap between differentially methylated genes in the placenta and the liver of the rat offspring. Several genes differentially methylated in rat placenta exposed to maternal diabetes are also differentially methylated in the human placenta of offspring exposed to gestational diabetes in utero. DNA methylation changes inversely correlate with changes in expression. The changes in DNA methylation affect known functional gene pathways involved in endocrine function, metabolism, and insulin responses. These data provide support to the hypothesis that early-life exposures and their effects on metabolic disease are mediated by DNA methylation changes. This has important diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  14. A DNA methylation fingerprint of 1628 human samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Agustin F.; Assenov, Yassen; Martin-Subero, Jose Ignacio; Balint, Balazs; Siebert, Reiner; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Hidalgo, Manuel; Tan, Aik-Choon; Galm, Oliver; Ferrer, Isidre; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse; Villanueva, Alberto; Carmona, Javier; Sanchez-Mut, Jose V.; Berdasco, Maria; Moreno, Victor; Capella, Gabriel; Monk, David; Ballestar, Esteban; Ropero, Santiago; Martinez, Ramon; Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Prosper, Felipe; Agirre, Xabier; Fraga, Mario F.; Graña, Osvaldo; Perez-Jurado, Luis; Mora, Jaume; Puig, Susana; Prat, Jaime; Badimon, Lina; Puca, Annibale A.; Meltzer, Stephen J.; Lengauer, Thomas; Bridgewater, John; Bock, Christoph; Esteller, Manel

    2012-01-01

    Most of the studies characterizing DNA methylation patterns have been restricted to particular genomic loci in a limited number of human samples and pathological conditions. Herein, we present a compromise between an extremely comprehensive study of a human sample population with an intermediate level of resolution of CpGs at the genomic level. We obtained a DNA methylation fingerprint of 1628 human samples in which we interrogated 1505 CpG sites. The DNA methylation patterns revealed show this epigenetic mark to be critical in tissue-type definition and stemness, particularly around transcription start sites that are not within a CpG island. For disease, the generated DNA methylation fingerprints show that, during tumorigenesis, human cancer cells underwent a progressive gain of promoter CpG-island hypermethylation and a loss of CpG methylation in non-CpG-island promoters. Although transformed cells are those in which DNA methylation disruption is more obvious, we observed that other common human diseases, such as neurological and autoimmune disorders, had their own distinct DNA methylation profiles. Most importantly, we provide proof of principle that the DNA methylation fingerprints obtained might be useful for translational purposes by showing that we are able to identify the tumor type origin of cancers of unknown primary origin (CUPs). Thus, the DNA methylation patterns identified across the largest spectrum of samples, tissues, and diseases reported to date constitute a baseline for developing higher-resolution DNA methylation maps and provide important clues concerning the contribution of CpG methylation to tissue identity and its changes in the most prevalent human diseases. PMID:21613409

  15. DNA methylation-based variation between human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Farzeen; Ghai, Meenu

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have proved that DNA methylation affects regulation of gene expression and development. Epigenome-wide studies have reported variation in methylation patterns between populations, including Caucasians, non-Caucasians (Blacks), Hispanics, Arabs, and numerous populations of the African continent. Not only has DNA methylation differences shown to impact externally visible characteristics, but is also a potential biomarker for underlying racial health disparities between human populations. Ethnicity-related methylation differences set their mark during early embryonic development. Genetic variations, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental factors, such as age, dietary folate, socioeconomic status, and smoking, impacts DNA methylation levels, which reciprocally impacts expression of phenotypes. Studies show that it is necessary to address these external influences when attempting to differentiate between populations since the relative impacts of these factors on the human methylome remain uncertain. The present review summarises several reported attempts to establish the contribution of differential DNA methylation to natural human variation, and shows that DNA methylation could represent new opportunities for risk stratification and prevention of several diseases amongst populations world-wide. Variation of methylation patterns between human populations is an exciting prospect which inspires further valuable research to apply the concept in routine medical and forensic casework. However, trans-generational inheritance needs to be quantified to decipher the proportion of variation contributed by DNA methylation. The future holds thorough evaluation of the epigenome to understand quantification, heritability, and the effect of DNA methylation on phenotypes. In addition, methylation profiling of the same ethnic groups across geographical locations will shed light on conserved methylation differences in populations.

  16. DNA Methylation Patterns in the Hypothalamus of Female Pubertal Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Ye, Jing; Li, Xiumei; Gao, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Kaifa; Luo, Lei; Ding, Jianping; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Yunsheng; Cao, Hongguo; Ling, Yinghui; Zhang, Xiaorong; Liu, Ya; Fang, Fugui

    2016-01-01

    Female pubertal development is tightly controlled by complex mechanisms, including neuroendocrine and epigenetic regulatory pathways. Specific gene expression patterns can be influenced by DNA methylation changes in the hypothalamus, which can in turn regulate timing of puberty onset. In order to understand the relationship between DNA methylation changes and gene expression patterns in the hypothalamus of pubertal goats, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and RNA-sequencing analyses were carried out. There was a decline in DNA methylation levels in the hypothalamus during puberty and 268 differentially methylated regions (DMR) in the genome, with differential patterns in different gene regions. There were 1049 genes identified with distinct expression patterns. High levels of DNA methylation were detected in promoters, introns and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs). Levels of methylation decreased gradually from promoters to 5'-UTRs and increased from 5'-UTRs to introns. Methylation density analysis demonstrated that methylation level variation was consistent with the density in the promoter, exon, intron, 5'-UTRs and 3'-UTRs. Analyses of CpG island (CGI) sites showed that the enriched gene contents were gene bodies, intergenic regions and introns, and these CGI sites were hypermethylated. Our study demonstrated that DNA methylation changes may influence gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus of goats during the onset of puberty, which may provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in pubertal onset.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants alter DNA methylation during human adipocyte differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den Myrthe; Murk, Tinka; Steegenga, Wilma; Gils-Kok, van Dieuwertje

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling was performed in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiated into adipocytes (day 10) while being continuously exposed to either one of three different persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely TCDD, PFOS, and TBT. The Illumina Infinium 450K Human DNA

  18. Epigenetic biomarkers of colorectal cancer: Focus on DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2014-01-28

    The original theory of the multi-step process of colorectal cancer (CRC), suggesting that the disease resulted from the accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in colonic mucosa cells, has been largely revised following the observation that epigenetic modifications of several genes occur in the average CRC genome. Therefore, the current opinion is that CRCs are the consequence of the accumulation of both mutations and epigenetic modifications of several genes. This mini-review article focuses on DNA methylation biomarkers in CRC. Recent large-scale DNA methylation studies suggest that CRCs can be divided into at least three-four subtypes according to the frequency of DNA methylation and those of mutations in key CRC genes. Despite hundreds of genes might be epigenetically modified in CRC cells, there is interest in the identification of DNA methylation biomarkers to be used for CRC diagnosis, progression, tendency to tissue invasion and metastasis, prognosis, and response to chemotherapeutic agents. Moreover, DNA methylation largely depends on one-carbon metabolism, the metabolic pathway required for the production of S-adenosylmethionine, the major intracellular methylating agent. Complex interactions are emerging among dietary one-carbon nutrients (folates, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, methionine, and others), their metabolic genes, CRC risk, and DNA methylation profiles in CRC. Moreover, active research is also focused on the possible contribution of folic acid dietary fortification during pregnancy and the possible methylation of CRC-related genes in the offspring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DNA Methylation Profiling of Human Prefrontal Cortex Neurons in Heroin Users Shows Significant Difference between Genomic Contexts of Hyper- and Hypomethylation and a Younger Epigenetic Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kozlenkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We employed Illumina 450 K Infinium microarrays to profile DNA methylation (DNAm in neuronal nuclei separated by fluorescence-activated sorting from the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC of heroin users who died from heroin overdose (N = 37, suicide completers (N = 22 with no evidence of heroin use and from control subjects who did not abuse illicit drugs and died of non-suicide causes (N = 28. We identified 1298 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs between heroin users and controls, and 454 DMSs between suicide completers and controls (p < 0.001. DMSs and corresponding genes (DMGs in heroin users showed significant differences in the preferential context of hyper and hypo DM. HyperDMSs were enriched in gene bodies and exons but depleted in promoters, whereas hypoDMSs were enriched in promoters and enhancers. In addition, hyperDMGs showed preference for genes expressed specifically by glutamatergic as opposed to GABAergic neurons and enrichment for axonogenesis- and synaptic-related gene ontology categories, whereas hypoDMGs were enriched for transcription factor activity- and gene expression regulation-related terms. Finally, we found that the DNAm-based “epigenetic age” of neurons from heroin users was younger than that in controls. Suicide-related results were more difficult to interpret. Collectively, these findings suggest that the observed DNAm differences could represent functionally significant marks of heroin-associated plasticity in the OFC.

  20. META2: Intercellular DNA Methylation Pairwise Annotation and Integrative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binhua Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide deciphering intercellular differential DNA methylation as well as its roles in transcriptional regulation remains elusive in cancer epigenetics. Here we developed a toolkit META2 for DNA methylation annotation and analysis, which aims to perform integrative analysis on differentially methylated loci and regions through deep mining and statistical comparison methods. META2 contains multiple versatile functions for investigating and annotating DNA methylation profiles. Benchmarked with T-47D cell, we interrogated the association within differentially methylated CpG (DMC and region (DMR candidate count and region length and identified major transition zones as clues for inferring statistically significant DMRs; together we validated those DMRs with the functional annotation. Thus META2 can provide a comprehensive analysis approach for epigenetic research and clinical study.

  1. DNA Methylation Modulates Nociceptive Sensitization after Incision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Sun

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism controlling DNA accessibility and gene expression. Blockade of DNA methylation can significantly affect pain behaviors implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of DNA methylation with regard to postoperative pain has not yet been explored. In this study we sought to investigate the role of DNA methylation in modulating incisional pain and identify possible targets under DNA methylation and contributing to incisional pain. DNA methyltranferase (DNMT inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine significantly reduced incision-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal sensitivity. Aza-2'-deoxycytidine also reduced hindpaw swelling after incision, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Global DNA methylation and DNMT3b expression were increased in skin after incision, but none of DNMT1, DNMT3a or DNMT3b was altered in spinal cord or DRG. The expression of proopiomelanocortin Pomc encoding β-endorphin and Oprm1 encoding the mu-opioid receptor were upregulated peripherally after incision; moreover, Oprm1 expression was further increased under DNMT inhibitor treatment. Finally, local peripheral injection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone significantly exacerbated incision-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. These results suggest that DNA methylation is functionally relevant to incisional nociceptive sensitization, and that mu-opioid receptor signaling might be one methylation regulated pathway controlling sensitization after incision.

  2. miRNAting control of DNA methylation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    miRNAting control of DNA methylation. ASHWANI JHA and RAVI SHANKAR. Supplementary figure 1. Enrichment analysis of the genes methylated in the presence of IDNl1 and/or IDNl2 for molecular function and biological process. Supplementary figure 2. Enrichment analysis of the genes methylated by DRM2 for ...

  3. Minimal evidence for consistent changes in maize DNA methylation patterns following environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Eichten

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a chromatin modification that is sometimes associated with epigenetic regulation of gene expression. As DNA methylation can be reversible at some loci, it is possible that methylation patterns may change within an organism that is subjected to environmental stress. In order to assess the effects of abiotic stress on DNA methylation patterns in maize (Zea mays, seeding plants were subjected to heat, cold, and UV stress treatments. Tissue was later collected from individual adult plants that had been subjected to stress or control treatments and used to perform DNA methylation profiling to determine whether there were consistent changes in DNA methylation triggered by specific stress treatments. DNA methylation profiling was performed by immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by microarray hybridization to allow for quantitative estimates of DNA methylation abundance throughout the low-copy portion of the maize genome. By comparing the DNA methylation profiles of each individual plant to the average of the control plants it was possible to identify regions of the genome with variable DNA methylation. However, we did not find evidence of consistent DNA methylation changes resulting from the stress treatments used in this study. Instead, the data suggest that there is a low-rate of stochastic variation that is present in both control and stressed plants.

  4. Establishment and functions of DNA methylation in the germline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kathleen R; Veselovska, Lenka; Kelsey, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications established during gametogenesis regulate transcription and other nuclear processes in gametes, but also have influences in the zygote, embryo and postnatal life. This is best understood for DNA methylation which, established at discrete regions of the oocyte and sperm genomes, governs genomic imprinting. In this review, we describe how imprinting has informed our understanding of de novo DNA methylation mechanisms, highlight how recent genome-wide profiling studies have provided unprecedented insights into establishment of the sperm and oocyte methylomes and consider the fate and function of gametic methylation and other epigenetic modifications after fertilization. PMID:27659720

  5. Electrochemical biosensing strategies for DNA methylation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Tanvir; Mahmudunnabi, Golam; Masud, Mostafa Kamal; Islam, Md Nazmul; Ooi, Lezanne; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Martinac, Boris; Alici, Gursel; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A

    2017-08-15

    DNA methylation is one of the key epigenetic modifications of DNA that results from the enzymatic addition of a methyl group at the fifth carbon of the cytosine base. It plays a crucial role in cellular development, genomic stability and gene expression. Aberrant DNA methylation is responsible for the pathogenesis of many diseases including cancers. Over the past several decades, many methodologies have been developed to detect DNA methylation. These methodologies range from classical molecular biology and optical approaches, such as bisulfite sequencing, microarrays, quantitative real-time PCR, colorimetry, Raman spectroscopy to the more recent electrochemical approaches. Among these, electrochemical approaches offer sensitive, simple, specific, rapid, and cost-effective analysis of DNA methylation. Additionally, electrochemical methods are highly amenable to miniaturization and possess the potential to be multiplexed. In recent years, several reviews have provided information on the detection strategies of DNA methylation. However, to date, there is no comprehensive evaluation of electrochemical DNA methylation detection strategies. Herein, we address the recent developments of electrochemical DNA methylation detection approaches. Furthermore, we highlight the major technical and biological challenges involved in these strategies and provide suggestions for the future direction of this important field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Incorporating DNA Methylation Dynamics Into Epigenetic Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulwach, Keith E.; Jin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Summary Genomic function is dictated by a combination of DNA sequence and the molecular mechanisms controlling access to genetic information. Access to DNA can be determined by the interpretation of covalent modifications that influence the packaging of DNA into chromatin, including DNA methylation and histone modifications. These modifications are believed to be forms of “epigenetic codes” that exist in discernable combinations that reflect cellular phenotype. Although DNA methylation is known to play important roles in gene regulation and genomic function, its contribution to the encoding of epigenetic information is just beginning to emerge. Here we discuss paradigms associated with the various components of DNA methylation/demethylation and recent advances in the understanding of its dynamic regulation in the genome, integrating these mechanisms into a framework to explain how DNA methylation could contribute to epigenetic codes. PMID:24242211

  7. DNA Methylation Patterns in Crassostrea gigas

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Claire; Roberts, Steven; Gavery, Mackenzie

    2013-01-01

    Poster presented at the NSA conference in Nashville in 2013.  This research uses the Pacific Oyster as a model organism to characterize the distribution and identify potential functions of DNA methylation.  We examined genome-wide methylation patterns to elucidate the mechanisms by which DNA methylation impacts transcriptional processes. ___________________________________________ This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1158119. ...

  8. DNA methyltransferase 1 and DNA methylation patterning contribute to germinal center B-cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaknovich, Rita; Cerchietti, Leandro; Tsikitas, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    The phenotype of germinal center (GC) B cells includes the unique ability to tolerate rapid proliferation and the mutagenic actions of activation induced cytosine deaminase (AICDA). Given the importance of epigenetic patterning in determining cellular phenotypes, we examined DNA methylation...... and the role of DNA methyltransferases in the formation of GCs. DNA methylation profiling revealed a marked shift in DNA methylation patterning in GC B cells versus resting/naive B cells. This shift included significant differential methylation of 235 genes, with concordant inverse changes in gene expression...... affecting most notably genes of the NFkB and MAP kinase signaling pathways. GC B cells were predominantly hypomethylated compared with naive B cells and AICDA binding sites were highly overrepresented among hypomethylated loci. GC B cells also exhibited greater DNA methylation heterogeneity than naive B...

  9. Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Human Amnion

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    Jinsil Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The amnion is a specialized tissue in contact with the amniotic fluid, which is in a constantly changing state. To investigate the importance of epigenetic events in this tissue in the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of human amnion from term (with and without labor and preterm deliveries. Using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, we identified genes exhibiting differential methylation associated with normal labor and preterm birth. Functional analysis of the differentially methylated genes revealed biologically relevant enriched gene sets. Bisulfite sequencing analysis of the promoter region of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene detected two CpG dinucleotides showing significant methylation differences among the three groups of samples. Hypermethylation of the CpG island of the solute carrier family 30 member 3 (SLC30A3 gene in preterm amnion was confirmed by methylation-specific PCR. This work provides preliminary evidence that DNA methylation changes in the amnion may be at least partially involved in the physiological process of labor and the etiology of preterm birth and suggests that DNA methylation profiles, in combination with other biological data, may provide valuable insight into the mechanisms underlying normal and pathological pregnancies.

  10. DNA methylation pathways and their crosstalk with histone methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiamu; Johnson, Lianna M.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of DNA and of histone 3 at Lys 9 (H3K9) are highly correlated with gene silencing in eukaryotes from fungi to humans. Both of these epigenetic marks need to be established at specific regions of the genome and then maintained at these sites through cell division. Protein structural domains that specifically recognize methylated DNA and methylated histones are key for targeting enzymes that catalyse these marks to appropriate genome sites. Genetic, genomic, structural and biochemical data reveal connections between these two epigenetic marks, and these domains mediate much of the crosstalk. PMID:26296162

  11. Optical biosensing strategies for DNA methylation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazmul Islam, Md; Yadav, Sharda; Hakimul Haque, Md; Munaz, Ahmed; Islam, Farhadul; Al Hossain, Md Shahriar; Gopalan, Vinod; Lam, Alfred K; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A

    2017-06-15

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification of DNA, where a methyl group is added at the fifth carbon of the cytosine base to form 5 methyl cytosine (5mC) without altering the DNA sequences. It plays important roles in regulating many cellular processes by modulating key genes expression. Alteration in DNA methylation patterns becomes particularly important in the aetiology of different diseases including cancers. Abnormal methylation pattern could contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer either by silencing key tumor suppressor genes or by activating oncogenes. Thus, DNA methylation biosensing can help in the better understanding of cancer prognosis and diagnosis and aid the development of therapies. Over the last few decades, a plethora of optical detection techniques have been developed for analyzing DNA methylation using fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), electrochemiluminescence and colorimetric readouts. This paper aims to comprehensively review the optical strategies for DNA methylation detection. We also present an overview of the remaining challenges of optical strategies that still need to be focused along with the lesson learnt while working with these techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [DNA sperm methylation in assisted reproductive techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaïb, M; Ajina, M; Braun, V; Niveleau, A; Guérin, J-F

    2006-09-01

    In the last few years, many tests were developed to study the fertilizing properties of the spermatozoa. However none of them was useful to obtain a prognostic factor. Indeed, the integrity of the spermatic DNA is also necessary to a successful fertilization for obtaining a pregnancy. DNA integrity could be evaluated by the measurement of the level of DNA methylation. Indeed, in the mammals, the methylation of the ADN is involved in diverse processes amongst them the regulation of the genome expression during the embryonic development. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the level of methylation of the spermatic DNA in the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF), in terms of rate of fertilization, quality of the embryos and rate of pregnancy. The immunostaining of the 5-methylecytosine, then the quantification by image analysis or with flow cytometry, allowed an objective evaluation of the level of total methylation of spermatic DNA. Our data show that the level of DNA methylation influences neither the fertilization rate nor the embryos quality. On the other hand, the rate of pregnancy is decreased if the total level of DNA methylation is lower than a threshold value. The level of spermatic DNA methylation represents a new parameter of spermatic maturation.

  13. Genome-wide profiling identifies a DNA methylation signature that associates with TET2 mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Fazila; Punj, Vasu; Christensen, Jesper Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    The discovery that the Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) hydroxylases cause DNA demethylation has fundamentally changed the notion of how DNA methylation is regulated. Clonal analysis of the hematopoetic stem cell compartment suggests that TET2 mutations can be early events in hematologic cancers...... and recent investigations have shown TET2 mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. However, the detection rates and the types of TET2 mutations vary, and the relation to global methylation patterns has not been investigated. Here, we show TET2 mutations in 12 of 100 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with 7...

  14. Integration of gene expression and DNA-methylation profiles improves molecular subtype classification in acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taskesen, E.; Babaei, S.; Reinders, M.J.M.; De Ridder, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is characterized by various cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities. Detection of these abnormalities is important in the risk-classification of patients but requires laborious experimentation. Various studies showed that gene expression profiles (GEP), and

  15. Dietary and lifestyle factors of DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Unhee; Song, Min-Ae

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking, physical activity, and body weight management, are known to constitute the majority of cancer causes. Epigenetics has been widely proposed as a main mechanism that mediates the reversible effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on carcinogenesis. This chapter reviews human studies on potential dietary and lifestyle determinants of DNA methylation. Apart from a few prospective investigations and interventions of limited size and duration, evidence mostly comes from cross-sectional observational studies and supports some associations. Studies to date suggest that certain dietary components may alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation levels in systemic and target tissues, affecting genomic stability and transcription of tumor suppressors and oncogenes. Most data and supportive evidence exist for folate, a key nutritional factor in one-carbon metabolism that supplies the methyl units for DNA methylation. Other candidate bioactive food components include alcohol and other key nutritional factors of one-carbon metabolism, polyphenols and flavonoids in green tea, phytoestrogen, and lycopene. Some data also support a link of DNA methylation with physical activity and energy balance. Effects of dietary and lifestyle exposures on DNA methylation may be additionally modified by common genetic variants, environmental carcinogens, and infectious agents, an aspect that remains largely unexplored. In addition, growing literature supports that the environmental conditions during critical developmental stages may influence later risk of metabolic disorders in part through persistent programming of DNA methylation. Further research of these modifiable determinants of DNA methylation will improve our understanding of cancer etiology and may present certain DNA methylation markers as attractive surrogate endpoints for prevention research. Considering the plasticity of epigenetic marks and correlated nature of lifestyle factors, more

  16. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles and their replationship with mRNA and the microRNA transcriptome in bovine muscle tissue (Bos Taurine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in mammals, having essential and important roles in muscle development. We sample longissimus thoracis tissues from a well-known elite native breed of Chinese Qinchuan cattle living within comparable environments at fetal and adult stages, using methy...

  17. The trans fatty acid elaidate affects the global DNA methylation profile of cultured cells and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Sierra, José; Arredondo-Guerrero, Martín; Cervantes-Paz, Braulio

    2016-01-01

    group) show any epigenetic change after exposure. Results: EA induced a biphasic effect on global DNA methylation in THP-1 cells, i.e. hypermethylation in the 1-50 μM concentration range, followed by hypomethylation up to the 200 μM dose. On the other hand, the cis isomer oleic acid (OA), a fatty acid...

  18. DNA Methylation Biomarkers: Cancer and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeska, Thomas; Craig, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are naturally-occurring characteristics by which a particular pathological process or disease can be identified or monitored. They can reflect past environmental exposures, predict disease onset or course, or determine a patient’s response to therapy. Epigenetic changes are such characteristics, with most epigenetic biomarkers discovered to date based on the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation. Many tissue types are suitable for the discovery of DNA methylation biomarkers including cell-based samples such as blood and tumor material and cell-free DNA samples such as plasma. DNA methylation biomarkers with diagnostic, prognostic and predictive power are already in clinical trials or in a clinical setting for cancer. Outside cancer, strong evidence that complex disease originates in early life is opening up exciting new avenues for the detection of DNA methylation biomarkers for adverse early life environment and for estimation of future disease risk. However, there are a number of limitations to overcome before such biomarkers reach the clinic. Nevertheless, DNA methylation biomarkers have great potential to contribute to personalized medicine throughout life. We review the current state of play for DNA methylation biomarkers, discuss the barriers that must be crossed on the way to implementation in a clinical setting, and predict their future use for human disease. PMID:25229548

  19. DNA Methylation Biomarkers: Cancer and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mikeska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are naturally-occurring characteristics by which a particular pathological process or disease can be identified or monitored. They can reflect past environmental exposures, predict disease onset or course, or determine a patient’s response to therapy. Epigenetic changes are such characteristics, with most epigenetic biomarkers discovered to date based on the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation. Many tissue types are suitable for the discovery of DNA methylation biomarkers including cell-based samples such as blood and tumor material and cell-free DNA samples such as plasma. DNA methylation biomarkers with diagnostic, prognostic and predictive power are already in clinical trials or in a clinical setting for cancer. Outside cancer, strong evidence that complex disease originates in early life is opening up exciting new avenues for the detection of DNA methylation biomarkers for adverse early life environment and for estimation of future disease risk. However, there are a number of limitations to overcome before such biomarkers reach the clinic. Nevertheless, DNA methylation biomarkers have great potential to contribute to personalized medicine throughout life. We review the current state of play for DNA methylation biomarkers, discuss the barriers that must be crossed on the way to implementation in a clinical setting, and predict their future use for human disease.

  20. Epigenetic DNA Methylation Linked to Social Dominance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapa Lenkov

    Full Text Available Social status hierarchies are ubiquitous in vertebrate social systems, including humans. It is well known that social rank can influence quality of life dramatically among members of social groups. For example, high-ranking individuals have greater access to resources, including food and mating prerogatives that, in turn, have a positive impact on their reproductive success and health. In contrast low ranking individuals typically have limited reproductive success and may experience lasting social and physiological costs. Ultimately, social rank and behavior are regulated by changes in gene expression. However, little is known about mechanisms that transduce social cues into transcriptional changes. Since social behavior is a dynamic process, we hypothesized that a molecular mechanism such as DNA methylation might play a role these changes. To test this hypothesis, we used an African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, in which social rank dictates reproductive access. We show that manipulating global DNA methylation state strongly biases the outcomes of social encounters. Injecting DNA methylating and de-methylating agents in low status animals competing for status, we found that animals with chemically increased methylation states were statistically highly likely to ascend in rank. In contrast, those with inhibited methylation processes and thus lower methylation levels were statistically highly unlikely to ascend in rank. This suggests that among its many roles, DNA methylation may be linked to social status and more generally to social behavior.

  1. Global DNA methylation in neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhas, Benet Bosco; Antony, Hiasindh Ashmi; Bhat, Vishnu; Newton, Banupriya; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2015-04-01

    To find out whether gDNA methylation can be used as a diagnostic/prognostic method for neonatal sepsis. The study was conducted in the neonatal division of a tertiary care referral hospital. Fifty one newborns as cases and thirty seven newborns as controls were enrolled in the study. Using 5-mC DNA ELISA method, the percentage of genomic DNA methylated in these newborns was established. Highly significant difference in percentage of gDNA methylated was found between the cases and controls (Cases: 2.4 ± 0.39; 2.07 ± 0.35; P sepsis (clinical, probable and culture positive) and without sepsis. Although the global DNA methylation was not a highly sensitive diagnostic method, this study reveals that DNA methylation might play a vital role in neonatal sepsis susceptibility. Identification of the specific differentially methylated genes might serve as a promising future diagnostic/prognostic marker for neonatal sepsis.

  2. Locus-Specific DNA Methylation Reprogramming During Early Porcine Embryogenesis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Tao; Rivera, Rocio M.; Prather, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT During early mammalian embryogenesis, there is a wave of DNA demethylation postfertilization and de novo methylation around implantation. The paternal genome undergoes active DNA demethylation, whereas the maternal genome is passively demethylated after fertilization in most mammals except for sheep and rabbits. However, the emerging genome-wide DNA methylation landscape has revealed a regulatory and locus-specific DNA methylation reprogramming pattern in mammalian preimplantation embryos. Here we optimized a bisulfite sequencing protocol to draw base-resolution DNA methylation profiles of several selected genes in gametes, early embryos, and somatic tissue. We observed locus-specific DNA methylation reprogramming in early porcine embryos. First, some pluripotency genes (POU5F1 and NANOG) followed a typical wave of DNA demethylation and remethylation, whereas CpG-rich regions of SOX2 and CDX2 loci were hypomethylated throughout development. Second, a differentially methylated region of an imprint control region in the IGF2/H19 locus exhibited differential DNA methylation which was maintained in porcine early embryos. Third, a centromeric repeat element retained a moderate DNA methylation level in gametes, early embryos, and somatic tissue. The diverse DNA methylation reprogramming during early embryogenesis is thought to be possibly associated with the multiple functions of DNA methylation in transcriptional regulation, genome stability and genomic imprinting. The latest technology such as oxidative bisulfite sequencing to identify 5-hydroxymethylcytosine will further clarify the DNA methylation reprogramming during porcine embryonic development. PMID:23303676

  3. Analysis of DNA methylation in various swine tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is known to play an important role in regulating gene expression during biological development and tissue differentiation in eukaryotes. In this study, we used the fluorescence-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP method to assess the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation in muscle, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and stomach from the swine strain Laiwu, and we also examined specific methylation patterns in the seven tissues. In total, 96,371 fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both EcoRI + HpaII and EcoRI + MspI, the HpaII and MspI are isoschizomeric enzymes, were amplified using 16 pairs of selective primers. A total of 50,094 sites were found to be methylated at cytosines in seven tissues. The incidence of DNA methylation was approximately 53.99% in muscle, 51.24% in the heart, 50.18% in the liver, 53.31% in the spleen, 51.97% in the lung, 51.15% in the kidney and 53.39% in the stomach, as revealed by the incidence of differential digestion. Additionally, differences in DNA methylation levels imply that such variations may be related to specific gene expression during tissue differentiation, growth and development. Three types of bands were generated in the F-MSAP profile, the total numbers of these three types of bands in the seven tissues were 46,277, 24,801 and 25,293, respectively.In addition, different methylation patterns were observed in seven tissues from pig, and almost all of the methylation patterns detected by F-MSAP could be confirmed by Southern analysis using the isolated amplified fragments as probes. The results clearly demonstrated that the F-MSAP technique can be adapted for use in large-scale DNA methylation detection in the pig genome.

  4. Maternal Methyl-Group Donor Intake and Global DNA (HydroxyMethylation before and during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pauwels

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is still unclear to which extent methyl-group intake during pregnancy can affect maternal global DNA (hydroxylmethylation. Pregnancy methylation profiling and its link with methyl-group intake in a healthy population could enhance our understanding of the development of pregnancy related disorders. One hundred forty-eight women were enrolled in the MANOE (MAternal Nutrition and Offspring’s Epigenome study. Thiry-four women were enrolled before pregnancy and 116 during the first trimester of pregnancy. Global DNA (hydroxymethylation in blood using LC-MS/MS and dietary methyl-group intake (methionine, folate, betaine, and choline using a food-frequency questionnaire were estimated pre-pregnancy, during each trimester, and at delivery. Global DNA (hydroxymethylation levels were highest pre-pregnancy and at weeks 18–22 of pregnancy. We observed a positive relation between folic acid and global DNA methylation (p = 0.04 and hydroxymethylation (p = 0.04. A high intake of methionine pre-pregnancy and in the first trimester showed lower (hydroxymethylation percentage in weeks 11–13 and weeks 18–22, respectively. Choline and betaine intake in the first weeks was negatively associated with hydroxymethylation. Women with a high intake of these three methyl groups in the second and third trimester showed higher hyrdoxymethylation/methylation levels in the third trimester. To conclude, a time trend in DNA (hydroxymethylation was found and women with higher methyl-group intake showed higher methylation in the third trimester, and not in earlier phases of pregnancy.

  5. DNA Methylation, Nuclear Organization, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madakashira, Bhavani P; Sadler, Kirsten C

    2017-01-01

    The dramatic re-organization of the cancer cell nucleus creates telltale morphological features critical for pathological staging of tumors. In addition, the changes to the mutational and epigenetic landscape in cancer cells alter the structure and stability of the genome and directly contribute to malignancy. DNA methylation is one of the best studied epigenetic changes in cancer, as nearly every type of cancer studied shows a loss of DNA methylation spread across most of the genome. This global hypomethylation is accompanied by hypermethylation at distinct loci, and much of the work on DNA methylation in cancer has focused on how local changes contribute to gene expression. However, the emerging picture is that the changes to DNA methylation in cancer cells has little direct effect on gene expression but instead impacts the organization of the genome in the nucleus. Several recent studies that take a broad view of the cancer epigenome find that the most profound changes to the cancer methylome are spread across large segments of the genome, and that the focal changes are reflective of a whole reorganization of epigenome. Hallmarks of nuclear reorganization in cancer are found in the long regions of chromatin marked by histone methylation (LOCKs) and nuclear lamina interactions (LADs). In this review, we focus on a novel perspective that DNA methylation changes in cancer impact the global structure of heterochromatin, LADs and LOCKs, and how these global changes, in turn, contribute to gene expression changes and genomic stability.

  6. DNA Methylation, Nuclear Organization, and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani P. Madakashira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic re-organization of the cancer cell nucleus creates telltale morphological features critical for pathological staging of tumors. In addition, the changes to the mutational and epigenetic landscape in cancer cells alter the structure and stability of the genome and directly contribute to malignancy. DNA methylation is one of the best studied epigenetic changes in cancer, as nearly every type of cancer studied shows a loss of DNA methylation spread across most of the genome. This global hypomethylation is accompanied by hypermethylation at distinct loci, and much of the work on DNA methylation in cancer has focused on how local changes contribute to gene expression. However, the emerging picture is that the changes to DNA methylation in cancer cells has little direct effect on gene expression but instead impacts the organization of the genome in the nucleus. Several recent studies that take a broad view of the cancer epigenome find that the most profound changes to the cancer methylome are spread across large segments of the genome, and that the focal changes are reflective of a whole reorganization of epigenome. Hallmarks of nuclear reorganization in cancer are found in the long regions of chromatin marked by histone methylation (LOCKs and nuclear lamina interactions (LADs. In this review, we focus on a novel perspective that DNA methylation changes in cancer impact the global structure of heterochromatin, LADs and LOCKs, and how these global changes, in turn, contribute to gene expression changes and genomic stability.

  7. The potential role of DNA methylation in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryer, Evan J; Ronning, Kaitryn E; Erdman, Robert; Schworer, Charles M; Elmore, James R; Peeler, Thomas C; Nevius, Christopher D; Lillvis, John H; Garvin, Robert P; Franklin, David P; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Tromp, Gerard

    2015-05-18

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disorder that has a significant impact on the aging population. While both genetic and environmental risk factors have been implicated in AAA formation, the precise genetic markers involved and the factors influencing their expression remain an area of ongoing investigation. DNA methylation has been previously used to study gene silencing in other inflammatory disorders and since AAA has an extensive inflammatory component, we sought to examine the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in mononuclear blood cells of AAA cases and matched non-AAA controls. To this end, we collected blood samples and isolated mononuclear cells for DNA and RNA extraction from four all male groups: AAA smokers (n = 11), AAA non-smokers (n = 9), control smokers (n = 10) and control non-smokers (n = 11). Methylation data were obtained using the Illumina 450k Human Methylation Bead Chip and analyzed using the R language and multiple Bioconductor packages. Principal component analysis and linear analysis of CpG island subsets identified four regions with significant differences in methylation with respect to AAA: kelch-like family member 35 (KLHL35), calponin 2 (CNN2), serpin peptidase inhibitor clade B (ovalbumin) member 9 (SERPINB9), and adenylate cyclase 10 pseudogene 1 (ADCY10P1). Follow-up studies included RT-PCR and immunostaining for CNN2 and SERPINB9. These findings are novel and suggest DNA methylation may play a role in AAA pathobiology.

  8. Pulmonary endothelial cell DNA methylation signature in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautefort, Aurélie; Chesné, Julie; Preussner, Jens; Pullamsetti, Soni S; Tost, Jorg; Looso, Mario; Antigny, Fabrice; Girerd, Barbara; Riou, Marianne; Eddahibi, Saadia; Deleuze, Jean-François; Seeger, Werner; Fadel, Elie; Simonneau, Gerald; Montani, David; Humbert, Marc; Perros, Frédéric

    2017-08-08

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and incurable pulmonary vascular disease. One of the primary origins of PAH is pulmonary endothelial dysfunction leading to vasoconstriction, aberrant angiogenesis and smooth muscle cell proliferation, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, thrombosis and inflammation. Our objective was to study the epigenetic variations in pulmonary endothelial cells (PEC) through a specific pattern of DNA methylation. DNA was extracted from cultured PEC from idiopathic PAH ( n = 11), heritable PAH ( n = 10) and controls ( n = 18). DNA methylation was assessed using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 Assay. After normalization, samples and probes were clustered according to their methylation profile. Differential clusters were functionally analyzed using bioinformatics tools. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering allowed the identification of two clusters of probes that discriminates controls and PAH patients. Among 147 differential methylated promoters, 46 promoters coding for proteins or miRNAs were related to lipid metabolism. Top 10 up and down-regulated genes were involved in lipid transport including ABCA1, ABCB4, ADIPOQ, miR-26A, BCL2L11. NextBio meta-analysis suggested a contribution of ABCA1 in PAH. We confirmed ABCA1 mRNA and protein downregulation specifically in PAH PEC by qPCR and immunohistochemistry and made the proof-of-concept in an experimental model of the disease that its targeting may offer novel therapeutic options. In conclusion, DNA methylation analysis identifies a set of genes mainly involved in lipid transport pathway which could be relevant to PAH pathophysiology.

  9. Detection of DNA methylation in eucaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulewska, Anetta; Niklinska, Wieslawa; Kozlowski, Miroslaw; Minarowski, Lukasz; Naumnik, Wojciech; Niklinski, Jacek; Dabrowska, Katarzyna; Chyczewski, Lech

    2007-01-01

    The methods of molecular biology allow for analyzing the methylation pattern in the whole genome and in particular genes. We differentiate methylated sequences from unmethylated ones by means of cutting the genomic template with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes or by sodium bisulfite DNA modification. Chemical modification precedes most quantitative and qualitative PCR techniques: MS-PCR, MS-nested PCR, Real-Time PCR, QAMA, HeavyMethyl, MSHRM. Restriction enzymes, on the other hand, may be used together with PCR or hybridisation methods (Southern blot and microarrays). PCRs are conducted with primers specific for methylated and unmethylated sequences and sometimes, similarly to hybridisation techniques, with specifically labeled probes or dyes intercalating to double-stranded nucleic acids. The most advanced methylation detection techniques (MALDI-TOF MS and HPLC) significantly reduce the amount of biological material used for tests, but they require specialist equipment.

  10. Detection of DNA methylation in eucaryotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods of molecular biology allow for analyzing the methylation pattern in the whole genome and in particular genes. We differentiate methylated sequences from unmethylated ones by means of cutting the genomic template with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes or by sodium bisulfite DNA modification. Chemical modification precedes most quantitative and qualitative PCR techniques: MS-PCR, MS-nested PCR, Real-Time PCR, QAMA, HeavyMethyl, MSHRM. Restriction enzymes, on the other hand, may be used together with PCR or hybridisation methods (Southern blot and microarrays. PCRs are conducted with primers specific for methylated and unmethylated sequences and sometimes, similarly to hybridisation techniques, with specifically labeled probes or dyes intercalating to double-stranded nucleic acids. The most advanced methylation detection techniques (MALDI-TOF MS and HPLC significantly reduce the amount of biological material used for tests, but they require specialist equipment.

  11. DNA Methylation Landscapes of Human Fetal Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker, Roderick C; Roost, Matthias S; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Suchiman, H Eka D; Tobi, Elmar W; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P; Slagboom, P Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2015-01-01

    Remodelling the methylome is a hallmark of mammalian development and cell differentiation. However, current knowledge of DNA methylation dynamics in human tissue specification and organ development largely stems from the extrapolation of studies in vitro and animal models. Here, we report on the DNA

  12. DNA Methylation Dynamics of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlik, Matthias; Halbritter, Florian; Müller, Fabian; Choudry, Fizzah A; Ebert, Peter; Klughammer, Johanna; Farrow, Samantha; Santoro, Antonella; Ciaurro, Valerio; Mathur, Anthony; Uppal, Rakesh; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Ouwehand, Willem H; Laurenti, Elisa; Lengauer, Thomas; Frontini, Mattia; Bock, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to all blood cells in a differentiation process that involves widespread epigenome remodeling. Here we present genome-wide reference maps of the associated DNA methylation dynamics. We used a meta-epigenomic approach that combines DNA methylation profiles across many small pools of cells and performed single-cell methylome sequencing to assess cell-to-cell heterogeneity. The resulting dataset identified characteristic differences between HSCs derived from fetal liver, cord blood, bone marrow, and peripheral blood. We also observed lineage-specific DNA methylation between myeloid and lymphoid progenitors, characterized immature multi-lymphoid progenitors, and detected progressive DNA methylation differences in maturing megakaryocytes. We linked these patterns to gene expression, histone modifications, and chromatin accessibility, and we used machine learning to derive a model of human hematopoietic differentiation directly from DNA methylation data. Our results contribute to a better understanding of human hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and provide a framework for studying blood-linked diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA Methylation Signatures of the Plant Chromomethyltransferases.

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    Quentin Gouil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation in plants is traditionally partitioned into CG, CHG and CHH contexts (with H any nucleotide but G. By investigating DNA methylation patterns in trinucleotide contexts in four angiosperm species, we show that such a representation hides spatial and functional partitioning of different methylation pathways and is incomplete. CG methylation (mCG is largely context-independent whereas, at CHG motifs, there is under-representation of mCCG in pericentric regions of A. thaliana and tomato and throughout the chromosomes of maize and rice. In A. thaliana the biased representation of mCCG in heterochromatin is related to specificities of H3K9 methyltransferase SUVH family members. At CHH motifs there is an over-representation of different variant forms of mCHH that, similarly to mCCG hypomethylation, is partitioned into the pericentric regions of the two dicots but dispersed in the monocot chromosomes. The over-represented mCHH motifs in A. thaliana associate with specific types of transposon including both class I and II elements. At mCHH the contextual bias is due to the involvement of various chromomethyltransferases whereas the context-independent CHH methylation in A. thaliana and tomato is mediated by the RNA-directed DNA methylation process that is most active in the gene-rich euchromatin. This analysis therefore reveals that the sequence context of the methylome of plant genomes is informative about the mechanisms associated with maintenance of methylation and the overlying chromatin structure.

  14. Exposure to high levels of fumarate and succinate leads to apoptotic cytotoxicity and altered global DNA methylation profiles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Johannes F; Lewies, Angélique; Bronkhorst, Abel J; van Dyk, Etresia; du Plessis, Lissinda H; Pretorius, Piet J

    2017-04-01

    In the Krebs cycle, succinate is oxidized to fumarate by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), followed by the conversion of fumarate to malate by fumarate hydratase (FH). In cells with defective SDH and FH, the Krebs cycle is congested, respiration impaired and fumarate and succinate accumulates. Several studies have indicated that the accumulation of these substrates are associated with cytotoxicity and oncogenesis. High levels of succinate and fumarate induce hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1A) hydroxylases, leading to the activation of oncogenic HIF pathways. However, the role of HIF as primary inducer of oncogenic change has been questioned, as other non-enzymatic mechanisms have been shown to interfere with cellular metabolism, cell signalling as well as disrupting protein function. Owing to the essential roles that SDH and FH play in cellular energy metabolism, and their associated tumor suppressor capacity, it is vital to understand the biochemical effects resulting from the accumulation of their associated metabolites. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of high concentrations of succinate and fumarate exposure on cell viability, genome integrity and global DNA methylation using a human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell culture model. It was found that relatively high concentrations of succinate and fumarate cause a loss of cell viability, which seems to be orchestrated through an apoptotic pathway. Cells exposed to high levels of succinate also presented with elevated caspase 3 and/or caspase 7 levels. In addition, elevated levels of fumarate lead to extensive DNA fragmentation, which may contribute pathophysiologically by inducing chromosomal instability, while succinate demonstrated lower genotoxicity. Furthermore, both succinate and fumarate altered the global DNA methylation patterns via significant DNA hypermethylation. Since numerous studies have reported correlations between aberrant DNA methylation and oncogenesis, hypermethylation may

  15. Bisulfite sequencing reveals that Aspergillus flavus holds a hollow in DNA methylation.

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    Si-Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus first gained scientific attention for its production of aflatoxin. The underlying regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis has been serving as a theoretical model for biosynthesis of other microbial secondary metabolites. Nevertheless, for several decades, the DNA methylation status, one of the important epigenomic modifications involved in gene regulation, in A. flavus remains to be controversial. Here, we applied bisulfite sequencing in conjunction with a biological replicate strategy to investigate the DNA methylation profiling of A. flavus genome. Both the bisulfite sequencing data and the methylome comparisons with other fungi confirm that the DNA methylation level of this fungus is negligible. Further investigation into the DNA methyltransferase of Aspergillus uncovers its close relationship with RID-like enzymes as well as its divergence with the methyltransferase of species with validated DNA methylation. The lack of repeat contents of the A. flavus' genome and the high RIP-index of the small amount of remanent repeat potentially support our speculation that DNA methylation may be absent in A. flavus or that it may possess de novo DNA methylation which occurs very transiently during the obscure sexual stage of this fungal species. This work contributes to our understanding on the DNA methylation status of A. flavus, as well as reinforces our views on the DNA methylation in fungal species. In addition, our strategy of applying bisulfite sequencing to DNA methylation detection in species with low DNA methylation may serve as a reference for later scientific investigations in other hypomethylated species.

  16. An Integrated Analysis of the Genome-Wide Profiles of DNA Methylation and mRNA Expression Defining the Side Population of a Human Malignant Mesothelioma Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Chul; Kim, Na-Yon; Seo, Yu-Ri; Kim, Yongbaek

    2016-01-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity is a hallmark of all cancers and functions as the major barrier against effective cancer therapy. In contrast to genetic mutations, the role of epigenetic modifications in the generation and maintenance of heterogeneous cancer cells remains largely undetermined. This study was performed to evaluate the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the tumor cell heterogeneity using side population (SP) and non-SP cells isolated from a human malignant mesothelioma (HMM) cell line. The subpopulations of cancer cells were analyzed by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing (MeDIP-seq) and RNA-seq methodology. The RNA-seq data were analyzed with the MeDIP-seq data in an integrated way to identify the epigenetically modified genes that defined the SP. Concomitant changes in mRNA expression and DNA methylation were found in 122 genes, including 118 down-regulated genes with hypermethylation and 4 up-regulated genes with hypomethylation. Gene ontology revealed that a large portion of the genes belonged to the groups of biological processes such as stem cell maintenance, stem cell development, stem cell differentiation, and the negative regulation of the developmental process. Among these genes, BNC1, RPS6KA3, TWSG1 and DUSP15 contained aberrant methylation in the CpG islands of the promoter region, indicating that the genes regulated by DNA methylation characterized a distinct subpopulation of HMM cells. The present study provided valuable information to shed light on the epigenetic contributions to the generation and maintenance of tumor cell heterogeneity.

  17. On-Chip DNA Methylation Analysis Using Osmium Complexation

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    Kaori Sugizaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a reaction for detecting the presence/absence of one methyl group in a long DNA strand is a chemically and biologically challenging research subject. A newly designed chemical assay on a chip for the typing of DNA methylation has been developed. A methylation-detection probe fixed at the bottom of microwells was crosslinked with methylated DNA mediated by osmium complexation and contributes to selective amplification of methylated DNA.

  18. Assessing DNA methylation in the developing human intestinal epithelium: potential link to inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiczy, J; Nayak, K; Ross, A; Raine, T; Mak, T N; Gasparetto, M; Cario, E; Rakyan, V; Heuschkel, R; Zilbauer, M

    2016-05-01

    DNA methylation is one of the major epigenetic mechanisms implicated in regulating cellular development and cell-type-specific gene expression. Here we performed simultaneous genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression analysis on purified intestinal epithelial cells derived from human fetal gut, healthy pediatric biopsies, and children newly diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Results were validated using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR, and immunostaining. The functional impact of DNA methylation changes on gene expression was assessed by employing in-vitro assays in intestinal cell lines. DNA methylation analyses allowed identification of 214 genes for which expression is regulated via DNA methylation, i.e. regulatory differentially methylated regions (rDMRs). Pathway and functional analysis of rDMRs suggested a critical role for DNA methylation in regulating gene expression and functional development of the human intestinal epithelium. Moreover, analysis performed on intestinal epithelium of children newly diagnosed with IBD revealed alterations in DNA methylation within genomic loci, which were found to overlap significantly with those undergoing methylation changes during intestinal development. Our study provides novel insights into the physiological role of DNA methylation in regulating functional maturation of the human intestinal epithelium. Moreover, we provide data linking developmentally acquired alterations in the DNA methylation profile to changes seen in pediatric IBD.

  19. Rapid microfluidic solid-phase extraction system for hyper-methylated DNA enrichment and epigenetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Arpita; Sparreboom, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin

    Genetic sequence and hyper-methylation profile information from the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes are important for cancer disease investigation. Since hyper-methylated DNA (hm-DNA) is typically present in ultra-low concentrations in biological samples, such as stool, urine, and saliva,

  20. Prognostic DNA Methylation Markers for Prostate Cancer

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    Siri H. Strand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181 and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC.

  1. Intragenic DNA methylation prevents spurious transcription initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Francesco; Rapelli, Stefania; Krepelova, Anna; Incarnato, Danny; Parlato, Caterina; Basile, Giulia; Maldotti, Mara; Anselmi, Francesca; Oliviero, Salvatore

    2017-03-02

    In mammals, DNA methylation occurs mainly at CpG dinucleotides. Methylation of the promoter suppresses gene expression, but the functional role of gene-body DNA methylation in highly expressed genes has yet to be clarified. Here we show that, in mouse embryonic stem cells, Dnmt3b-dependent intragenic DNA methylation protects the gene body from spurious RNA polymerase II entry and cryptic transcription initiation. Using different genome-wide approaches, we demonstrate that this Dnmt3b function is dependent on its enzymatic activity and recruitment to the gene body by H3K36me3. Furthermore, the spurious transcripts can either be degraded by the RNA exosome complex or capped, polyadenylated, and delivered to the ribosome to produce aberrant proteins. Elongating RNA polymerase II therefore triggers an epigenetic crosstalk mechanism that involves SetD2, H3K36me3, Dnmt3b and DNA methylation to ensure the fidelity of gene transcription initiation, with implications for intragenic hypomethylation in cancer.

  2. Altered DNA methylation in leukocytes with trisomy 21.

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    Kristi Kerkel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary abnormality in Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21, is well known; but how this chromosomal gain produces the complex DS phenotype, including immune system defects, is not well understood. We profiled DNA methylation in total peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL and T-lymphocytes from adults with DS and normal controls and found gene-specific abnormalities of CpG methylation in DS, with many of the differentially methylated genes having known or predicted roles in lymphocyte development and function. Validation of the microarray data by bisulfite sequencing and methylation-sensitive Pyrosequencing (MS-Pyroseq confirmed strong differences in methylation (p<0.0001 for each of 8 genes tested: TMEM131, TCF7, CD3Z/CD247, SH3BP2, EIF4E, PLD6, SUMO3, and CPT1B, in DS versus control PBL. In addition, we validated differential methylation of NOD2/CARD15 by bisulfite sequencing in DS versus control T-cells. The differentially methylated genes were found on various autosomes, with no enrichment on chromosome 21. Differences in methylation were generally stable in a given individual, remained significant after adjusting for age, and were not due to altered cell counts. Some but not all of the differentially methylated genes showed different mean mRNA expression in DS versus control PBL; and the altered expression of 5 of these genes, TMEM131, TCF7, CD3Z, NOD2, and NPDC1, was recapitulated by exposing normal lymphocytes to the demethylating drug 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (5aza-dC plus mitogens. We conclude that altered gene-specific DNA methylation is a recurrent and functionally relevant downstream response to trisomy 21 in human cells.

  3. Linkage of DNA Methylation Quantitative Trait Loci to Human Cancer Risk

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    Holger Heyn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulation and, in particular, DNA methylation have been linked to the underlying genetic sequence. DNA methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL have been identified through significant associations between the genetic and epigenetic codes in physiological and pathological contexts. We propose that interrogating the interplay between polymorphic alleles and DNA methylation is a powerful method for improving our interpretation of risk alleles identified in genome-wide association studies that otherwise lack mechanistic explanation. We integrated patient cancer risk genotype data and genome-scale DNA methylation profiles of 3,649 primary human tumors, representing 13 solid cancer types. We provide a comprehensive meQTL catalog containing DNA methylation associations for 21% of interrogated cancer risk polymorphisms. Differentially methylated loci harbor previously reported and as-yet-unidentified cancer genes. We suggest that such regulation at the DNA level can provide a considerable amount of new information about the biology of cancer-risk alleles.

  4. Decreased Fecundity and Sperm DNA Methylation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Timothy G.; Aston, Kenneth I.; Meyer, Tyson D.; Hotaling, James M.; Shamsi, Monis B.; Johnstone, Erica B.; Cox, Kyley J.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Porucznik, Christina A.; Carrell, Douglas T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between epigenetic patterns in sperm and fecundity. Design Prospective study of couples trying to conceive, utilizing semen samples collected through the HOPE study, at the University of Utah. Setting Academic Andrology and IVF Laboratory Patients DNA methylation alterations associated with fecundity were analyzed in 124 semen samples. 27 semen samples from couples who conceived within 2 months of attempting a pregnancy and a total of 29 semen samples from couples who were unable to achieve a pregnancy within 12 months were analyzed to identify regions of interest. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Genome-wide assessment of differential sperm DNA methylation and standard semen analysis. Results No differences in sperm count, sperm morphology, or semen volume were observed between the patients achieving a pregnancy within 2 months of study time and those not obtaining a pregnancy within 12 months. However, using data from the Human Methylation 450k array analysis we did identify 2 genomic regions with significantly decreased (FDR <0.01) methylation and 3 genomic regions with significantly increased methylation in the “failure-to-conceive” group. Interestingly, the only two sites where decreased methylation was associated with reduced fecundity are at closely related genes known to be expressed in sperm, HSPA1L and HSPA1B. Conclusions Our data suggest that there are genomic loci where DNA methylation alterations are associated with decreased fecundity. We have thus identified candidate loci for future study to verify these results and investigate the causative or contributory relationship between altered sperm methylation and decreased fecundity. PMID:26453269

  5. Repeated methamphetamine and modafinil induce differential cognitive effects and specific histone acetylation and DNA methylation profiles in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Betina; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Gomez, Natalia; Torres, Oscar V; Sosa, Máximo H; Bernardi, Alejandra; Urbano, Francisco J; García-Rill, Edgar; Cadet, Jean-Lud; Bisagno, Verónica

    2017-12-13

    Methamphetamine (METH) and modafinil are psychostimulants with different long-term cognitive profiles: METH is addictive and leads to cognitive decline, whereas modafinil has little abuse liability and is a cognitive enhancer. Increasing evidence implicates epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation behind the lasting changes that drugs of abuse and other psychotropic compounds induce in the brain, like the control of gene expression by histones 3 and 4 tails acetylation (H3ac and H4ac) and DNA cytosine methylation (5-mC). Mice were treated with a seven-day repeated METH, modafinil or vehicle protocol and evaluated in the novel object recognition (NOR) test or sacrificed 4days after last injection for molecular assays. We evaluated total H3ac, H4ac and 5-mC levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), H3ac and H4ac promotor enrichment (ChIP) and mRNA expression (RT-PCR) of neurotransmitter systems involved in arousal, wakefulness and cognitive control, like dopaminergic (Drd1 and Drd2), α-adrenergic (Adra1a and Adra1b), orexinergic (Hcrtr1 and Hcrtr2), histaminergic (Hrh1 and Hrh3) and glutamatergic (AMPA Gria1 and NMDA Grin1) receptors. Repeated METH and modafinil treatment elicited different cognitive outcomes in the NOR test, where modafinil-treated mice performed as controls and METH-treated mice showed impaired recognition memory. METH-treated mice also showed i) decreased levels of total H3ac and H4ac, and increased levels of 5-mC, ii) decreased H3ac enrichment at promoters of Drd2, Hcrtr1/2, Hrh1 and Grin1, and increased H4ac enrichment at Drd1, Hrh1 and Grin1, iii) increased mRNA of Drd1a, Grin1 and Gria1. Modafinil-treated mice shared none of these effects and showed increased H3ac enrichment and mRNA expression at Adra1b. Modafinil and METH showed similar effects linked to decreased H3ac in Hrh3, increased H4ac in Hcrtr1, and decreased mRNA expression of Hcrtr2. The specific METH-induced epigenetic and transcriptional changes described here may be

  6. DNA methylation and healthy human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meaghan J; Goodman, Sarah J; Kobor, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The process of aging results in a host of changes at the cellular and molecular levels, which include senescence, telomere shortening, and changes in gene expression. Epigenetic patterns also change over the lifespan, suggesting that epigenetic changes may constitute an important component of the aging process. The epigenetic mark that has been most highly studied is DNA methylation, the presence of methyl groups at CpG dinucleotides. These dinucleotides are often located near gene promoters and associate with gene expression levels. Early studies indicated that global levels of DNA methylation increase over the first few years of life and then decrease beginning in late adulthood. Recently, with the advent of microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, increases in variability of DNA methylation with age have been observed, and a number of site-specific patterns have been identified. It has also been shown that certain CpG sites are highly associated with age, to the extent that prediction models using a small number of these sites can accurately predict the chronological age of the donor. Together, these observations point to the existence of two phenomena that both contribute to age-related DNA methylation changes: epigenetic drift and the epigenetic clock. In this review, we focus on healthy human aging throughout the lifetime and discuss the dynamics of DNA methylation as well as how interactions between the genome, environment, and the epigenome influence aging rates. We also discuss the impact of determining 'epigenetic age' for human health and outline some important caveats to existing and future studies. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Epigenetic features in the oyster Crassostrea gigas suggestive of functionally relevant promoter DNA methylation in invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is evolutionarily conserved. Vertebrates exhibit high, widespread DNA methylation whereas invertebrate genomes are less methylated, predominantly within gene bodies. DNA methylation in invertebrates is associated with transcription level, alternative splicing, and genome evolution, but functional outcomes of DNA methylation remain poorly described in lophotrochozoans. Recent genome-wide approaches improve understanding in distant taxa such as molluscs, where the phylogenetic position, and life traits of Crassostrea gigas make this bivalve an ideal model to study the physiological and evolutionary implications of DNA methylation. We review the literature about DNA methylation in invertebrates and focus on DNA methylation features in the oyster. Indeed, though our MeDIP-seq results confirm predominant intragenic methylation, the profiles depend on the oyster's developmental and reproductive stage. We discuss the perspective that oyster DNA methylation could be biased toward the 5′-end of some genes, depending on physiological status, suggesting important functional outcomes of putative promoter methylation from cell differentiation during early development to sustained adaptation of the species to the environment. PMID:24778620

  8. Epigenetic features in the oyster Crassostrea gigas suggestive of functionally relevant promoter DNA methylation in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eRiviere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is evolutionarily conserved. Vertebrates exhibit high, widespread DNA methylation whereas invertebrate genomes are less methylated, predominantly within gene bodies. DNA methylation in invertebrates is associated with transcription level, alternative splicing and genome evolution, but functional outcomes of DNA methylation remain poorly described in lophotrochozoans. Recent genome-wide approaches improve understanding in distant taxa such as molluscs, where the phylogenetic position and life traits of Crassostrea gigas make this bivalve an ideal model to study the physiological and evolutionary implications of DNA methylation. We review the literature about DNA methylation in invertebrates and focus on DNA methylation features in the oyster. Indeed, though our MeDIP-seq results confirm predominant intragenic methylation, the profiles depend on the oyster’s developmental and reproductive stage. We discuss the perspective that oyster DNA methylation could be biased toward the 5’-end of some genes, depending on physiological status, suggesting important functional outcomes of putative promoter methylation from cell differentiation during early development to sustained adaptation of the species to the environment.

  9. Epigenetic features in the oyster Crassostrea gigas suggestive of functionally relevant promoter DNA methylation in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is evolutionarily conserved. Vertebrates exhibit high, widespread DNA methylation whereas invertebrate genomes are less methylated, predominantly within gene bodies. DNA methylation in invertebrates is associated with transcription level, alternative splicing, and genome evolution, but functional outcomes of DNA methylation remain poorly described in lophotrochozoans. Recent genome-wide approaches improve understanding in distant taxa such as molluscs, where the phylogenetic position, and life traits of Crassostrea gigas make this bivalve an ideal model to study the physiological and evolutionary implications of DNA methylation. We review the literature about DNA methylation in invertebrates and focus on DNA methylation features in the oyster. Indeed, though our MeDIP-seq results confirm predominant intragenic methylation, the profiles depend on the oyster's developmental and reproductive stage. We discuss the perspective that oyster DNA methylation could be biased toward the 5'-end of some genes, depending on physiological status, suggesting important functional outcomes of putative promoter methylation from cell differentiation during early development to sustained adaptation of the species to the environment.

  10. DNA methylation, heterochromatin and epigenetic carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, C B; Costa, M

    1997-04-01

    This paper will explore emerging concepts related to alternative carcinogenic mechanisms of 'non-mutagenic,' and hence epigenetic, carcinogens that may heritably alter DNA methylation without changing the underlying DNA sequence. In this review, we will touch on the basic concepts of DNA methylation, and will elaborate in greater detail on related topics including chromatin condensation, and heterochromatin spreading that is well known to induce gene silencing by position effect variegation in Drosophila and other species. Data from our model transgenic G12 cell system will be presented to support our hypothesis that certain carcinogens, such as nickel, may be carcinogenic not primarily because of their overt mutability, but rather as the result of their ability to promote DNA hypermethylation of important cancer-related genes. We will conclude with a discussion of the broader relevance of our findings and its application to other so-called 'epigenetic' carcinogens.

  11. Inter-individual variation in DNA methylation is largely restricted to tissue-specific differentially methylated regions in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, Massimiliano; Echegoyen-Nava, Rodrigo Antonio; Rodríguez-Ríos, Dalia; Zaina, Silvio; Lund, Gertrud

    2017-02-23

    Variation in DNA methylation across distinct genetic populations, or in response to specific biotic or abiotic stimuli, has typically been studied in leaf DNA from pooled individuals using either reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) or methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP). The latter represents a useful alterative when sample size is large, or when analysing methylation changes in genomes that have yet to be sequenced. In this study we compared variation in methylation across ten individual leaf and endosperm samples from maize hybrid and inbred lines using MSAP. We also addressed the methodological implications of analysing methylation variation using pooled versus individual DNA samples, in addition to the validity of MSAP compared to WGBS. Finally, we analysed a subset of variable and non-variable fragments with respect to genomic location, vicinity to repetitive elements and expression patterns across leaf and endosperm tissues. On average, 30% of individuals showed inter-individual methylation variation, mostly of leaf and endosperm-specific differentially methylated DNA regions. With the exception of low frequency demethylation events, the bulk of inter-individual methylation variation (84 and 80% in leaf and endosperm, respectively) was effectively captured in DNA from pooled individuals. Furthermore, available genome-wide methylation data largely confirmed MSAP leaf methylation profiles. Most variable methylation that mapped within genes was associated with CG methylation, and many of such genes showed tissue-specific expression profiles. Finally, we found that the hAT DNA transposon was the most common class II transposable element found in close proximity to variable DNA regions. The relevance of our results with respect to future studies of methylation variation is the following: firstly, the finding that inter-individual methylation variation is largely restricted to tissue

  12. Insulin and Glucose Alter Death-Associated Protein Kinase 3 (DAPK3) DNA Methylation in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudry, Jonathan M; Lassiter, David G; Nylén, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    of selected genes was determined in muscle from healthy and type 2 diabetic men before and after a glucose tolerance test. Insulin altered DNA methylation in the 3'UTR of the calcium pump ATP2A3 gene. Insulin increased DNA methylation in the gene body of DAPK3, a gene involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis......DNA methylation is altered by environmental factors. We hypothesized DNA methylation is altered in skeletal muscle in response to either insulin or glucose exposure. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in muscle from healthy men before and after insulin exposure. DNA methylation...... glucose incorporation to glycogen was unaltered by siRNA against DAPK3, palmitate oxidation was increased. In conclusion, insulin and glucose exposure acutely alter the DNA methylation profile of skeletal muscle, indicating DNA methylation constitutes a rapidly and adaptive epigenetic mark. Furthermore...

  13. Twin birth changes DNA methylation of subsequent siblings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shuai Li; Eunae Kim; Ee Ming Wong; Ji-Hoon Eric Joo; Tuong L Nguyen; Jennifer Stone; Yun-Mi Song; Louisa B Flander; Richard Saffery; Graham G Giles; Melissa C Southey; Joohon Sung; John L Hopper

    2017-01-01

    We asked if twin birth influences the DNA methylation of subsequent siblings. We measured whole blood methylation using the HumanMethylation450 array for siblings from two twin and family studies in Australia and Korea...

  14. Genes associated with genotype-specific DNA methylation in squamous cell carcinoma as candidate drug targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrant DNA methylation is often associated with cancers. Thus, screening genes with cancer-associated aberrant DNA methylation is a useful method to identify candidate cancer-causing genes. Aberrant DNA methylation is also genotype dependent. Thus, the selection of genes with genotype-specific aberrant DNA methylation in cancers is potentially important for tailor-made medicine. The selected genes are important candidate drug targets. Results The recently proposed principal component analysis based selection of genes with aberrant DNA methylation was applied to genotype and DNA methylation patterns in squamous cell carcinoma measured using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. SNPs that are frequently found in cancers are usually highly methylated, and the genes that were selected using this method were reported previously to be related to cancers. Thus, genes with genotype-specific DNA methylation patterns will be good therapeutic candidates. The tertiary structures of the proteins encoded by the selected genes were successfully inferred using two profile-based protein structure servers, FAMS and Phyre2. Candidate drugs for three of these proteins, tyrosine kinase receptor (ALK), EGLN3 protein, and NUAK family SNF1-like kinase 1 (NUAK1), were identified by ChooseLD. Conclusions We detected genes with genotype-specific DNA methylation in squamous cell carcinoma that are candidate drug targets. Using in silico drug discovery, we successfully identified several candidate drugs for the ALK, EGLN3 and NUAK1 genes that displayed genotype-specific DNA methylation. PMID:24565165

  15. The relationship of DNA methylation with age, gender and genotype in twins and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco P Boks

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cytosine-5 methylation within CpG dinucleotides is a potentially important mechanism of epigenetic influence on human traits and disease. In addition to influences of age and gender, genetic control of DNA methylation levels has recently been described. We used whole blood genomic DNA in a twin set (23 MZ twin-pairs and 23 DZ twin-pairs, N = 92 as well as healthy controls (N = 96 to investigate heritability and relationship with age and gender of selected DNA methylation profiles using readily commercially available GoldenGate bead array technology. Despite the inability to detect meaningful methylation differences in the majority of CpG loci due to tissue type and locus selection issues, we found replicable significant associations of DNA methylation with age and gender. We identified associations of genetically heritable single nucleotide polymorphisms with large differences in DNA methylation levels near the polymorphism (cis effects as well as associations with much smaller differences in DNA methylation levels elsewhere in the human genome (trans effects. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of array-based approaches in studies of DNA methylation and highlight the vast differences between individual loci. The identification of CpG loci of which DNA methylation levels are under genetic control or are related to age or gender will facilitate further studies into the role of DNA methylation and disease.

  16. Genome-Wide Scan for Methylation Profiles in Keloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamont R. Jones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Keloids are benign fibroproliferative tumors of the skin which commonly occur after injury mainly in darker skinned patients. Medical treatment is fraught with high recurrence rates mainly because of an incomplete understanding of the biological mechanisms that lead to keloids. The purpose of this project was to examine keloid pathogenesis from the epigenome perspective of DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiling used the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip to interrogate DNA from 6 fresh keloid and 6 normal skin samples from 12 anonymous donors. A 3-tiered approach was used to call out genes most differentially methylated between keloid and normal. When compared to normal, of the 685 differentially methylated CpGs at Tier 3, 510 were hypomethylated and 175 were hypermethylated with 190 CpGs in promoter and 495 in nonpromoter regions. The 190 promoter region CpGs corresponded to 152 genes: 96 (63% were hypomethylated and 56 (37% hypermethylated. This exploratory genome-wide scan of the keloid methylome highlights a predominance of hypomethylated genomic landscapes, favoring nonpromoter regions. DNA methylation, as an additional mechanism for gene regulation in keloid pathogenesis, holds potential for novel treatments that reverse deleterious epigenetic changes. As an alternative mechanism for regulating genes, epigenetics may explain why gene mutations alone do not provide definitive mechanisms for keloid formation.

  17. Regulation and function of DNA methylation in plants and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin-Jian; Chen, Taiping; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark involved in diverse biological processes. In plants, DNA methylation can be established through the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway, an RNA interference pathway for transcriptional gene silencing (TGS), which requires 24-nt small interfering RNAs. In mammals, de novo DNA methylation occurs primarily at two developmental stages: during early embryogenesis and during gametogenesis. While it is not clear whether establishment of DNA methylation patterns in mammals involves RNA interference in general, de novo DNA methylation and suppression of transposons in germ cells require 24-32-nt piwi-interacting small RNAs. DNA methylation status is dynamically regulated by DNA methylation and demethylation reactions. In plants, active DNA demethylation relies on the repressor of silencing 1 family of bifunctional DNA glycosylases, which remove the 5-methylcytosine base and then cleave the DNA backbone at the abasic site, initiating a base excision repair (BER) pathway. In animals, multiple mechanisms of active DNA demethylation have been proposed, including a deaminase- and DNA glycosylase-initiated BER pathway. New information concerning the effects of various histone modifications on the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation has broadened our understanding of the regulation of DNA methylation. The function of DNA methylation in plants and animals is also discussed in this review. PMID:21321601

  18. Regulation and function of DNA methylation in plants and animals

    KAUST Repository

    He, Xinjian

    2011-02-15

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark involved in diverse biological processes. In plants, DNA methylation can be established through the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway, an RNA interference pathway for transcriptional gene silencing (TGS), which requires 24-nt small interfering RNAs. In mammals, de novo DNA methylation occurs primarily at two developmental stages: during early embryogenesis and during gametogenesis. While it is not clear whether establishment of DNA methylation patterns in mammals involves RNA interference in general, de novo DNA methylation and suppression of transposons in germ cells require 24-32-nt piwi-interacting small RNAs. DNA methylation status is dynamically regulated by DNA methylation and demethylation reactions. In plants, active DNA demethylation relies on the repressor of silencing 1 family of bifunctional DNA glycosylases, which remove the 5-methylcytosine base and then cleave the DNA backbone at the abasic site, initiating a base excision repair (BER) pathway. In animals, multiple mechanisms of active DNA demethylation have been proposed, including a deaminase- and DNA glycosylase-initiated BER pathway. New information concerning the effects of various histone modifications on the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation has broadened our understanding of the regulation of DNA methylation. The function of DNA methylation in plants and animals is also discussed in this review. © 2011 IBCB, SIBS, CAS All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling spatiotemporal dynamics of DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövkvist, Cecilia Elisabet

    Epigenetics explains how cells with identical genetic material can have different gene expression patterns and thereby varying phenotypes. By the definition used in this thesis, a “mark” is considered to be epigenetic, if it affects gene expression, is stable over time, and is inherited upon cell...... division. The patterns of epigentic marks depend on enzymes that ensure their maintenance and introduction. Using theoretical models, this thesis proposes new mechanisms for how enzymes operate to maintain patterns of epigenetic marks. Through analysis of experimental data this work gives new insight...... into how epigenetic marks are distributed in the human genome. In the first part of the thesis, we investigate DNA methylation and maintenance of methylation patterns throughout cell division. We argue that collaborative models, those where the methylation of CpG sites depends on the methylation status...

  20. Global DNA methylation of ischemic stroke subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Soriano-Tárraga

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke (IS, a heterogeneous multifactorial disorder, is among the leading causes of mortality and long-term disability in the western world. Epidemiological data provides evidence for a genetic component to the disease, but its epigenetic involvement is still largely unknown. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, change over time and may be associated with aging processes and with modulation of the risk of various pathologies, such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. We analyzed 2 independent cohorts of IS patients. Global DNA methylation was measured by luminometric methylation assay (LUMA of DNA blood samples. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the methylation differences between the 3 most common IS subtypes, large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA, small-artery disease (SAD, and cardio-aortic embolism (CE. A total of 485 IS patients from 2 independent hospital cohorts (n = 281 and n = 204 were included, distributed across 3 IS subtypes: LAA (78/281, 59/204, SAD (97/281, 53/204, and CE (106/281, 89/204. In univariate analyses, no statistical differences in LUMA levels were observed between the 3 etiologies in either cohort. Multivariate analysis, adjusted by age, sex, hyperlipidemia, and smoking habit, confirmed the lack of differences in methylation levels between the analyzed IS subtypes in both cohorts. Despite differences in pathogenesis, our results showed no global methylation differences between LAA, SAD, and CE subtypes of IS. Further work is required to establish whether the epigenetic mechanism of methylation might play a role in this complex disease.

  1. Androgen receptor function links human sexual dimorphism to DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerpohl, Ole; Bens, Susanne; Appari, Mahesh; Werner, Ralf; Korn, Bernhard; Drop, Stenvert L S; Verheijen, Frans; van der Zwan, Yvonne; Bunch, Trevor; Hughes, Ieuan; Cools, Martine; Riepe, Felix G; Hiort, Olaf; Siebert, Reiner; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences are well known to be determinants of development, health and disease. Epigenetic mechanisms are also known to differ between men and women through X-inactivation in females. We hypothesized that epigenetic sex differences may also result from sex hormone functions, in particular from long-lasting androgen programming. We aimed at investigating whether inactivation of the androgen receptor, the key regulator of normal male sex development, is associated with differences of the patterns of DNA methylation marks in genital tissues. To this end, we performed large scale array-based analysis of gene methylation profiles on genomic DNA from labioscrotal skin fibroblasts of 8 males and 26 individuals with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) due to inactivating androgen receptor gene mutations. By this approach we identified differential methylation of 167 CpG loci representing 162 unique human genes. These were significantly enriched for androgen target genes and low CpG content promoter genes. Additional 75 genes showed a significant increase of heterogeneity of methylation in AIS compared to a high homogeneity in normal male controls. Our data show that normal and aberrant androgen receptor function is associated with distinct patterns of DNA-methylation marks in genital tissues. These findings support the concept that transcription factor binding to the DNA has an impact on the shape of the DNA methylome. These data which derived from a rare human model suggest that androgen programming of methylation marks contributes to sexual dimorphism in the human which might have considerable impact on the manifestation of sex-associated phenotypes and diseases.

  2. Androgen receptor function links human sexual dimorphism to DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Ammerpohl

    Full Text Available Sex differences are well known to be determinants of development, health and disease. Epigenetic mechanisms are also known to differ between men and women through X-inactivation in females. We hypothesized that epigenetic sex differences may also result from sex hormone functions, in particular from long-lasting androgen programming. We aimed at investigating whether inactivation of the androgen receptor, the key regulator of normal male sex development, is associated with differences of the patterns of DNA methylation marks in genital tissues. To this end, we performed large scale array-based analysis of gene methylation profiles on genomic DNA from labioscrotal skin fibroblasts of 8 males and 26 individuals with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS due to inactivating androgen receptor gene mutations. By this approach we identified differential methylation of 167 CpG loci representing 162 unique human genes. These were significantly enriched for androgen target genes and low CpG content promoter genes. Additional 75 genes showed a significant increase of heterogeneity of methylation in AIS compared to a high homogeneity in normal male controls. Our data show that normal and aberrant androgen receptor function is associated with distinct patterns of DNA-methylation marks in genital tissues. These findings support the concept that transcription factor binding to the DNA has an impact on the shape of the DNA methylome. These data which derived from a rare human model suggest that androgen programming of methylation marks contributes to sexual dimorphism in the human which might have considerable impact on the manifestation of sex-associated phenotypes and diseases.

  3. Topoisomerase II regulates the maintenance of DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin-Yu; Kuang, Henry; Korakavi, Gautam; Yu, Xiaochun

    2015-01-09

    The maintenance of DNA methylation in nascent DNA is a critical event for numerous biological processes. Following DNA replication, DNMT1 is the key enzyme that strictly copies the methylation pattern from the parental strand to the nascent DNA. However, the mechanism underlying this highly specific event is not thoroughly understood. In this study, we identified topoisomerase IIα (TopoIIα) as a novel regulator of the maintenance DNA methylation. UHRF1, a protein important for global DNA methylation, interacts with TopoIIα and regulates its localization to hemimethylated DNA. TopoIIα decatenates the hemimethylated DNA following replication, which might facilitate the methylation of the nascent strand by DNMT1. Inhibiting this activity impairs DNA methylation at multiple genomic loci. We have uncovered a novel mechanism during the maintenance of DNA methylation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Information Thermodynamics of Cytosine DNA Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Robersy; Mackenzie, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM) is a stable epigenetic modification to the genome and a widespread regulatory process in living organisms that involves multicomponent molecular machines. Genome-wide cytosine methylation patterning participates in the epigenetic reprogramming of a cell, suggesting that the biological information contained within methylation positions may be amenable to decoding. Adaptation to a new cellular or organismal environment also implies the potential for genome-wide redistribution of CDM changes that will ensure the stability of DNA molecules. This raises the question of whether or not we would be able to sort out the regulatory methylation signals from the CDM background ("noise") induced by thermal fluctuations. Here, we propose a novel statistical and information thermodynamic description of the CDM changes to address the last question. The physical basis of our statistical mechanical model was evaluated in two respects: 1) the adherence to Landauer's principle, according to which molecular machines must dissipate a minimum energy ε = kBT ln2 at each logic operation, where kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature and 2) whether or not the binary stretch of methylation marks on the DNA molecule comprise a language of sorts, properly constrained by thermodynamic principles. The study was performed for genome-wide methylation data from 152 ecotypes and 40 trans-generational variations of Arabidopsis thaliana and 93 human tissues. The DNA persistence length, a basic mechanical property altered by CDM, was estimated with values from 39 to 66.9 nm. Classical methylome analysis can be retrieved by applying information thermodynamic modelling, which is able to discriminate signal from noise. Our finding suggests that the CDM signal comprises a language scheme properly constrained by molecular thermodynamic principles, which is part of an epigenomic communication system that obeys the same thermodynamic rules as do current

  5. DNA methylation profiling of ovarian carcinomas and their in vitro models identifies HOXA9, HOXB5, SCGB3A1, and CRABP1 as novel targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tropé Claes G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epigenetics of ovarian carcinogenesis remains poorly described. We have in the present study investigated the promoter methylation status of 13 genes in primary ovarian carcinomas (n = 52 and their in vitro models (n = 4; ES-2, OV-90, OVCAR-3, and SKOV-3 by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP. Direct bisulphite sequencing analysis was used to confirm the methylation status of individual genes. The MSP results were compared with clinico- pathological features. Results Eight out of the 13 genes were hypermethylated among the ovarian carcinomas, and altogether 40 of 52 tumours were methylated in one or more genes. Promoter hypermethylation of HOXA9, RASSF1A, APC, CDH13, HOXB5, SCGB3A1 (HIN-1, CRABP1, and MLH1 was found in 51% (26/51, 49% (23/47, 24% (12/51, 20% (10/51, 12% (6/52, 10% (5/52, 4% (2/48, and 2% (1/51 of the carcinomas, respectively, whereas ADAMTS1, MGMT, NR3C1, p14ARF, and p16INK4a were unmethylated in all samples. The methylation frequencies of HOXA9 and SCGB3A1 were higher among relatively early-stage carcinomas (FIGO I-II than among carcinomas of later stages (FIGO III-IV; P = 0.002, P = 0.020, respectively. The majority of the early-stage carcinomas were of the endometrioid histotype. Additionally, HOXA9 hypermethylation was more common in tumours from patients older than 60 years of age (15/21 than among those of younger age (11/30; P = 0.023. Finally, there was a significant difference in HOXA9 methylation frequency among the histological types (P = 0.007. Conclusion DNA hypermethylation of tumour suppressor genes seems to play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis and HOXA9, HOXB5, SCGB3A1, and CRABP1 are identified as novel hypermethylated target genes in this tumour type.

  6. Modulation of DNA Methylation by a Sesquiterpene Lactone Parthenolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongfa; Liu, Shujun; Xie, Zhiliang; Pavlovicz, Ryan E.; Wu, Jiejun; Chen, Ping; Aimiuwu, Josephine; Pang, Jiuxia; Bhasin, Deepak; Neviani, Paolo; Fuchs, James R.; Plass, Christoph; Li, Pui-Kai; Li, Chenglong; Huang, Tim H.-M.; Wu, Lai-Chu; Rush, Laura; Wang, Hongyan; Perrotti, Danilo; Marcucci, Guido; Chan, Kenneth K.

    2009-01-01

    Hypermethylation of 5′-cytosine-guanosine islands of tumor suppressor genes resulting in their silencing has been proposed to be a hallmark of various tumors. Modulation of DNA methylation with DNA methylation inhibitors has been shown to result in cancer cell differentiation or apoptosis and represents a novel strategy for chemotherapy. Currently, effective DNA methylation inhibitors are mainly limited to decitabine and 5-azacytidine, which still show unfavorable toxicity profiles in the clinical setting. Thus, discovery and development of novel hypomethylating agents, with a more favorable toxicity profile, is essential to broaden the spectrum of epigenetic therapy. Parthenolide, the principal bioactive sesquiterpene lactone of feverfew, has been shown to alkylate Cys38 of p65 to inhibit nuclear factor-κB activation and exhibit anti-tumor activity in human malignancies. In this article, we report that parthenolide 1) inhibits DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) with an IC50 of 3.5 μM, possibly through alkylation of the proximal thiolate of Cys1226 of the catalytic domain by its γ-methylene lactone, and 2) down-regulates DNMT1 expression possibly associated with its SubG1 cell-cycle arrest or the interruption of transcriptional factor Sp1 binding to the promoter of DNMT1. These dual functions of parthenolide result in the observed in vitro and in vivo global DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, parthenolide has been shown to reactivate tumor suppressor HIN-1 gene in vitro possibly associated with its promoter hypomethylation. Hence, our study established parthenolide as an effective DNA methylation inhibitor, representing a novel prototype for DNMT1 inhibitor discovery and development from natural structural-diversified sesquiterpene lactones. PMID:19201992

  7. DNA methylation studies in Spina Bifida:DNA methylatie studies in Spina Bifida

    OpenAIRE

    Rochtus, Anne

    2016-01-01

    GENERAL INTRODUCTION Chapter 1: Introduction to neural tube defects. Chapter 2: Folate, DNA methylation and neural tube defects. THESIS OBJECTIVES & OVERVIEW RESEARCH Chapter 3: DNA methylation of Homeobox genes in Spina Bifida. Chapter 4: Genome-wide DNA methylation in Spina Bifida. Chapter 5: Genome-wide DNA methylation in Pseudohypoparathyroidism. DISCUSSION REFERENCES SCIENTIFIC SUMMARY DANKWOORD CURRICULUM VITAE

  8. Genome-wide methylation profiling identifies novel methylated genes in neuroblastoma tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Maja; Beck, Stephan; Kogner, Per; Martinsson, Tommy; Carén, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a very heterogeneous tumor of childhood. The clinical spectra range from very aggressive metastatic disease to spontaneous regression, even without therapy. Aberrant DNA methylation pattern is a common feature of most cancers. For neuroblastoma, it has been demonstrated both for single genes as well as genome-wide, where a so-called methylator phenotype has been described. Here, we present a study using Illumina 450K methylation arrays on 60 neuroblastoma tumors. We show that aggressive tumors, characterized by International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) as stage M, are hypermethylated compared to low-grade tumors. On the contrary, INRG stage L tumors display more non-CpG methylation. The genes with the highest number of hypermethylated CpG sites in INRG M tumors are TERT, PCDHGA4, DLX5, and DLX6-AS1. Gene ontology analysis showed a representation of neuronal tumor relevant gene functions among the differentially methylated genes. For validation, we used a set of independent tumors previously analyzed with the Illumina 27K methylation arrays, which confirmed the differentially methylated sites. Top candidate genes with aberrant methylation were analyzed for altered gene expression through the R2 platform ( http://r2.amc.nl), and for correlations between methylation and gene expression in a public dataset. Altered expression in nonsurvivors was found for the genes B3GALT4 and KIAA1949, CLIC5, DLX6-AS, TERT, and PIRT, and strongest correlations were found for TRIM36, KIAA0513, and PIRT. Our data indicate that methylation profiling can be used for patient stratification and informs on epigenetically deregulated genes with the potential of increasing our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of tumor development.

  9. DNA methylation patterns in cord blood DNA and body size in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Relton

    Full Text Available Epigenetic markings acquired in early life may have phenotypic consequences later in development through their role in transcriptional regulation with relevance to the developmental origins of diseases including obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation levels at birth are associated with body size later in childhood.A study design involving two birth cohorts was used to conduct transcription profiling followed by DNA methylation analysis in peripheral blood. Gene expression analysis was undertaken in 24 individuals whose biological samples and clinical data were collected at a mean ± standard deviation (SD age of 12.35 (0.95 years, the upper and lower tertiles of body mass index (BMI were compared with a mean (SD BMI difference of 9.86 (2.37 kg/m(2. This generated a panel of differentially expressed genes for DNA methylation analysis which was then undertaken in cord blood DNA in 178 individuals with body composition data prospectively collected at a mean (SD age of 9.83 (0.23 years. Twenty-nine differentially expressed genes (>1.2-fold and p<10(-4 were analysed to determine DNA methylation levels at 1-3 sites per gene. Five genes were unmethylated and DNA methylation in the remaining 24 genes was analysed using linear regression with bootstrapping. Methylation in 9 of the 24 (37.5% genes studied was associated with at least one index of body composition (BMI, fat mass, lean mass, height at age 9 years, although only one of these associations remained after correction for multiple testing (ALPL with height, p(Corrected = 0.017.DNA methylation patterns in cord blood show some association with altered gene expression, body size and composition in childhood. The observed relationship is correlative and despite suggestion of a mechanistic epigenetic link between in utero life and later phenotype, further investigation is required to establish causality.

  10. DNA methylation-based subtype prediction for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordlund, Jessica; Bäcklin, Christofer L; Zachariadis, Vasilios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present a method that utilizes DNA methylation profiling for prediction of the cytogenetic subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells from pediatric ALL patients. The primary aim of our study was to improve risk stratification of ALL patients into treatment groups using DNA...... methylation as a complement to current diagnostic methods. A secondary aim was to gain insight into the functional role of DNA methylation in ALL. RESULTS: We used the methylation status of ~450,000 CpG sites in 546 well-characterized patients with T-ALL or seven recurrent B-cell precursor ALL subtypes...... methylation classification to screen for subtype membership of 210 patients with undefined karyotype (normal or no result) or non-recurrent cytogenetic aberrations ('other' subtype). Nearly half (n = 106) of the patients lacking cytogenetic subgrouping displayed highly similar methylation profiles...

  11. Aberrant DNA Methylation: Implications in Racial Health Disparity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Wang

    Full Text Available Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal carcinoma (CRC are higher in African Americans (AAs than in Caucasian Americans (CAs. Deficient micronutrient intake due to dietary restrictions in racial/ethnic populations can alter genetic and molecular profiles leading to dysregulated methylation patterns and the inheritance of somatic to germline mutations.Total DNA and RNA samples of paired tumor and adjacent normal colon tissues were prepared from AA and CA CRC specimens. Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS and RNA sequencing were employed to evaluate total genome methylation of 5'-regulatory regions and dysregulation of gene expression, respectively. Robust analysis was conducted using a trimming-and-retrieving scheme for RRBS library mapping in conjunction with the BStool toolkit.DNA from the tumor of AA CRC patients, compared to adjacent normal tissues, contained 1,588 hypermethylated and 100 hypomethylated differentially methylated regions (DMRs. Whereas, 109 hypermethylated and 4 hypomethylated DMRs were observed in DNA from the tumor of CA CRC patients; representing a 14.6-fold and 25-fold change, respectively. Specifically; CHL1, 4 anti-inflammatory genes (i.e., NELL1, GDF1, ARHGEF4, and ITGA4, and 7 miRNAs (of which miR-9-3p and miR-124-3p have been implicated in CRC were hypermethylated in DNA samples from AA patients with CRC. From the same sample set, RNAseq analysis revealed 108 downregulated genes (including 14 ribosomal proteins and 34 upregulated genes (including POLR2B and CYP1B1 [targets of miR-124-3p] in AA patients with CRC versus CA patients.DNA methylation profile and/or products of its downstream targets could serve as biomarker(s addressing racial health disparity.

  12. Relationship of tobacco smoking and smoking-related DNA methylation with epigenetic age acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xu; Zhang, Yan; Breitling, Lutz Philipp; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-07-26

    Recent studies have identified biomarkers of chronological age based on DNA methylation levels. Since active smoking contributes to a wide spectrum of aging-related diseases in adults, this study intended to examine whether active smoking exposure could accelerate the DNA methylation age in forms of age acceleration (AA, residuals of the DNA methylation age estimate regressed on chronological age). We obtained the DNA methylation profiles in whole blood samples by Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 Beadchip array in two independent subsamples of the ESTHER study and calculated their DNA methylation ages by two recently proposed algorithms. None of the self-reported smoking indicators (smoking status, cumulative exposure and smoking cessation time) or serum cotinine levels was significantly associated with AA. On the contrary, we successfully confirmed that 66 out of 150 smoking-related CpG sites were associated with AA, even after correction for multiple testing (FDR smoking index (SI) based on these loci and demonstrated a monotonic dose-response relationship of this index with AA. In conclusion, DNA methylation-based biological indicators for current and past smoking exposure, but not self-reported smoking information or serum cotinine levels, were found to be related to DNA methylation defined AA. Further research should address potential mechanisms underlying the observed patterns, such as potential reflections of susceptibility to environmental hazards in both smoking related methylation changes and methylation defined AA.

  13. Genome-Wide Prediction of DNA Methylation Using DNA Composition and Sequence Complexity in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengchao Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a significant role in transcriptional regulation by repressing activity. Change of the DNA methylation level is an important factor affecting the expression of target genes and downstream phenotypes. Because current experimental technologies can only assay a small proportion of CpG sites in the human genome, it is urgent to develop reliable computational models for predicting genome-wide DNA methylation. Here, we proposed a novel algorithm that accurately extracted sequence complexity features (seven features and developed a support-vector-machine-based prediction model with integration of the reported DNA composition features (trinucleotide frequency and GC content, 65 features by utilizing the methylation profiles of embryonic stem cells in human. The prediction results from 22 human chromosomes with size-varied windows showed that the 600-bp window achieved the best average accuracy of 94.7%. Moreover, comparisons with two existing methods further showed the superiority of our model, and cross-species predictions on mouse data also demonstrated that our model has certain generalization ability. Finally, a statistical test of the experimental data and the predicted data on functional regions annotated by ChromHMM found that six out of 10 regions were consistent, which implies reliable prediction of unassayed CpG sites. Accordingly, we believe that our novel model will be useful and reliable in predicting DNA methylation.

  14. Multiplexed DNA Methylation Analysis of Target Regions Using Microfluidics (Fluidigm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Martyna; Maratou, Klio; Aitman, Timothy J

    2018-01-01

    Whole genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing is a method used to generate genome-wide methylation profiles. There are many available protocols to validate the results of this genome-wide method, but they mostly share the limitation of measuring methylation at a small number of CpG positions in small numbers of samples. We developed a multiplexed DNA methylation analysis protocol, which allows for the simultaneous quantitative measurement of cytosine methylation at single nucleotide resolution in 48 PCR amplicons and 48 samples utilizing the microfluidic system established by Fluidigm. Following bisulfite conversion of 500 ng of the target DNA, a PCR reaction is performed using a 48.48 Access Array, which allows parallel amplification of 48 samples by 48 primer pairs. The products of each reaction are labeled with individual, sample specific tags, pooled in a single library and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq sequencer. The advantages of this system are: speed, small amount of input material, single nucleotide resolution, high coverage of each locus, low cost of simultaneously assaying multiple CpG loci in multiple DNA samples and high reproducibility.

  15. DNA methylation as a biomarker for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cindy M; Ralph, Jody L; Wright, Michelle L; Linggi, Bryan; Ohm, Joyce E

    2014-10-01

    Preeclampsia contributes significantly to pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality as well as future risk of cardiovascular disease in mother and offspring, and preeclampsia in offspring. The lack of reliable methods for early detection limits the opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and timely treatment. The purpose of this study was to explore distinct DNA methylation patterns associated with preeclampsia in both maternal cells and fetal-derived tissue that represent potential biomarkers to predict future preeclampsia and inheritance in children. A convenience sample of nulliparous women (N = 55) in the first trimester of pregnancy was recruited for this prospective study. Genome-wide DNA methylation was quantified in first-trimester maternal peripheral white blood cells and placental chorionic tissue from normotensive women and those with preeclampsia (n = 6/group). Late-onset preeclampsia developed in 12.7% of women. Significant differences in DNA methylation were identified in 207 individual linked cytosine and guanine (CpG) sites in maternal white blood cells collected in the first trimester (132 sites with gain and 75 sites with loss of methylation), which were common to approximately 75% of the differentially methylated CpG sites identified in chorionic tissue of fetal origin. This study is the first to identify maternal epigenetic targets and common targets in fetal-derived tissue that represent putative biomarkers for early detection and heritable risk of preeclampsia. Findings may pave the way for diagnosis of preeclampsia prior to its clinical presentation and acute damaging effects, and the potential for prevention of the detrimental long-term sequelae. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. DNA Methylation as a Biomarker for Preeclampsia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Cindy M.; Ralph, Jody L.; Wright, Michelle L.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Ohm, Joyce E.

    2014-10-01

    Background: Preeclampsia contributes significantly to pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality as well as future risk of cardiovascular disease in mother and offspring, and preeclampsia in offspring. The lack of reliable methods for early detection limits the opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and timely treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore distinct DNA methylation patterns associated with preeclampsia in both maternal cells and fetal-derived tissue that represent potential biomarkers to predict future preeclampsia and inheritance in children. Method: A convenience sample of nulliparous women (N = 55) in the first trimester of pregnancy was recruited for this prospective study. Genome-wide DNA methylation was quantified in first-trimester maternal peripheral white blood cells and placental chorionic tissue from normotensive women and those with preeclampsia (n = 6/group). Results: Late-onset preeclampsia developed in 12.7% of women. Significant differences in DNA methylation were identified in 207 individual linked cytosine and guanine (CpG) sites in maternal white blood cells collected in the first trimester (132 sites with gain and 75 sites with loss of methylation), which were common to approximately 75% of the differentially methylated CpG sites identified in chorionic tissue of fetal origin. Conclusion: This study is the first to identify maternal epigenetic targets and common targets in fetal-derived tissue that represent putative biomarkers for early detection and heritable risk of preeclampsia. Findings may pave the way for diagnosis of preeclampsia prior to its clinical presentation and acute damaging effects, and the potential for prevention of the detrimental long-term sequelae.

  17. DNA Methylation Assessed by SMRT Sequencing Is Linked to Mutations in Neisseria meningitidis Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, Mohamad R Abdul; Lamelas, Araceli; Wang, Guilin; Clark, Tyson A; Röltgen, Katharina; Mane, Shrikant; Korlach, Jonas; Pluschke, Gerd; Schmid, Christoph D

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis features extensive genetic variability. To present, proposed virulence genotypes are also detected in isolates from asymptomatic carriers, indicating more complex mechanisms underlying variable colonization modes of N. meningitidis. We applied the Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing method from Pacific Biosciences to assess the genome-wide DNA modification profiles of two genetically related N. meningitidis strains, both of serogroup A. The resulting DNA methylomes revealed clear divergences, represented by the detection of shared and of strain-specific DNA methylation target motifs. The positional distribution of these methylated target sites within the genomic sequences displayed clear biases, which suggest a functional role of DNA methylation related to the regulation of genes. DNA methylation in N. meningitidis has a likely underestimated potential for variability, as evidenced by a careful analysis of the ORF status of a panel of confirmed and predicted DNA methyltransferase genes in an extended collection of N. meningitidis strains of serogroup A. Based on high coverage short sequence reads, we find phase variability as a major contributor to the variability in DNA methylation. Taking into account the phase variable loci, the inferred functional status of DNA methyltransferase genes matched the observed methylation profiles. Towards an elucidation of presently incompletely characterized functional consequences of DNA methylation in N. meningitidis, we reveal a prominent colocalization of methylated bases with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) detected within our genomic sequence collection. As a novel observation we report increased mutability also at 6mA methylated nucleotides, complementing mutational hotspots previously described at 5mC methylated nucleotides. These findings suggest a more diverse role of DNA methylation and Restriction-Modification (RM) systems in the evolution of

  18. DNA Methylation Assessed by SMRT Sequencing Is Linked to Mutations in Neisseria meningitidis Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad R Abdul Sater

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis features extensive genetic variability. To present, proposed virulence genotypes are also detected in isolates from asymptomatic carriers, indicating more complex mechanisms underlying variable colonization modes of N. meningitidis. We applied the Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT sequencing method from Pacific Biosciences to assess the genome-wide DNA modification profiles of two genetically related N. meningitidis strains, both of serogroup A. The resulting DNA methylomes revealed clear divergences, represented by the detection of shared and of strain-specific DNA methylation target motifs. The positional distribution of these methylated target sites within the genomic sequences displayed clear biases, which suggest a functional role of DNA methylation related to the regulation of genes. DNA methylation in N. meningitidis has a likely underestimated potential for variability, as evidenced by a careful analysis of the ORF status of a panel of confirmed and predicted DNA methyltransferase genes in an extended collection of N. meningitidis strains of serogroup A. Based on high coverage short sequence reads, we find phase variability as a major contributor to the variability in DNA methylation. Taking into account the phase variable loci, the inferred functional status of DNA methyltransferase genes matched the observed methylation profiles. Towards an elucidation of presently incompletely characterized functional consequences of DNA methylation in N. meningitidis, we reveal a prominent colocalization of methylated bases with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs detected within our genomic sequence collection. As a novel observation we report increased mutability also at 6mA methylated nucleotides, complementing mutational hotspots previously described at 5mC methylated nucleotides. These findings suggest a more diverse role of DNA methylation and Restriction-Modification (RM systems in the

  19. Mechanisms for the induction of gastric cancer by Helicobacter pylori infection: aberrant DNA methylation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Masahiro; Moro, Hiroshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2017-03-01

    Multiple pathogenic mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori infection induces gastric cancer have been established in the last two decades. In particular, aberrant DNA methylation is induced in multiple driver genes, which inactivates them. Methylation profiles in gastric cancer are associated with specific subtypes, such as microsatellite instability. Recent comprehensive and integrated analyses showed that many cancer-related pathways are more frequently altered by aberrant DNA methylation than by mutations. Aberrant DNA methylation can even be present in noncancerous gastric mucosae, producing an "epigenetic field for cancerization." Mechanistically, H. pylori-induced chronic inflammation, but not H. pylori itself, plays a direct role in the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. The expression of three inflammation-related genes, Il1b, Nos2, and Tnf, is highly associated with the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. Importantly, the degree of accumulated aberrant DNA methylation is strongly correlated with gastric cancer risk. A recent multicenter prospective cohort study demonstrated the utility of epigenetic cancer risk diagnosis for metachronous gastric cancer. Suppression of aberrant DNA methylation by a demethylating agent was shown to inhibit gastric cancer development in an animal model. Induction of aberrant DNA methylation is the major pathway by which H. pylori infection induces gastric cancer, and this can be utilized for translational opportunities.

  20. Transcription factors as readers and effectors of DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heng; Wang, Guohua; Qian, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made it possible to decode DNA methylomes at single-base-pair resolution under various physiological conditions. Many aberrant or differentially methylated sites have been discovered, but the mechanisms by which changes in DNA methylation lead to observed phenotypes, such as cancer, remain elusive. The classical view of methylation-mediated protein-DNA interactions is that only proteins with a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) can interact with methylated DNA. However, evidence is emerging to suggest that transcription factors lacking a MBD can also interact with methylated DNA. The identification of these proteins and the elucidation of their characteristics and the biological consequences of methylation-dependent transcription factor-DNA interactions are important stepping stones towards a mechanistic understanding of methylation-mediated biological processes, which have crucial implications for human development and disease. PMID:27479905

  1. Role of DNA Methylation in Cabazitaxel Resistance in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Kavitha; Speer, Carl; Nathanson, Lubov; Claros, Martha; Singal, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Cabazitaxel is an approved second-line treatment for docetaxel-refractory metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, the median time to progression on cabazitaxel is 2.8 months. We aimed to determine whether DNA methylation plays a role in cabazitaxel resistance. DU145 cells, resistant to docetaxel and cabaxitaxel (DU145 10DRCR), were generated from cells resistant to 10 nM docetaxel (DU145 10DR). The effect of pre-treatment with 5-azacytidine was determined with regards to cabazitaxel sensitivity. Gene expression profiling was carried-out on DU145 10DR, DU145 10DRCR and DU145 10DRCR treated with 5-azacytidine. Pre-treatment of cells with 5-azacytidine resulted in enhanced sensitivity to cabazitaxel. Gene expression profiling identified a subset of genes that may be regulated by DNA methylation. Our results indicate that DNA methylation of pro-apoptotic and cell-cycle regulatory genes may contribute to cabazitaxel resistance and pre-treatment with 5-azacytidine may restore sensitivity to cabazitaxel in prostate cancer cells. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. HPA axis gene expression and DNA methylation profiles in rats exposed to early life stress, adult voluntary ethanol drinking and single housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha eTodkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurobiological basis of early life stress (ELS impact on vulnerability to alcohol use disorder is not fully understood. The effect of ELS, adult ethanol consumption and single housing, on expression of stress and DNA methylation regulatory genes as well as blood corticosterone levels was investigated in the hypothalamus and pituitary of adult out-bred Wistar rats subjected to different rearing conditions. A prolonged maternal separation of 360 min (MS360 was used to study the effect of ELS, and a short maternal separation of 15 min (MS15 was used as a control. Voluntary ethanol drinking was assessed using a two-bottle free choice paradigm to simulate human episodic drinking. The effects of single housing and ethanol were assessed in conventional animal facility rearing (AFR conditions.Single housing in adulthood was associated with lower Crhr1 and higher Pomc expression in the pituitary, whereas ethanol drinking was associated with higher expression of Crh in the hypothalamus and Crhr1 in the pituitary, accompanied by lower corticosterone levels. As compared to controls with similar early life handling, rats exposed to ELS displayed lower expression of Pomc in the hypothalamus, and higher Dnmt1 expression in the pituitary. Voluntary ethanol drinking resulted in lower Fkbp5 expression in the pituitary and higher Crh expression in the hypothalamus, independently of rearing conditions. In rats exposed to ELS, water and ethanol drinking was associated with higher and lower corticosterone levels, respectively,. The use of conventionally reared rats as control group yielded more significant results than the use of rats exposed to short maternal separation.Positive correlations, restricted to the hypothalamus and ELS group, were observed between the expression of the HPA receptor and the methylation-related genes. Promoter DNA methylation and expression of respective genes did not correlate suggesting that other loci are involved in

  3. Aberrant DNA methylation in breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Campoy, Emanuel Martin; Laurito, Sergio Roberto; Urrutia, Guillermo; Branham, Maria Teresita; Roque Moreno, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The epigenome is regulated by a large number of macromolecular machines that are dynamically involved in various processes, including DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNA signals, all of them working together to regulate the proper expression of the genome. Thus, in contrast with the genome, whose sequence is carefully conserved during cell life, the epigenome is highly dynamic. The epigenomic modifications are acquired during normal cell differentiation, replicated d...

  4. The function of DNA methylation marks in social insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei eLi-Byarlay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The social arthropods are characterized by a caste-based division of labor that may be influenced by epigenetic effects. One of the most important and widely studied epigenetic mechanisms is DNA methylation. Advances in understanding of social insect genomes, including epigenetic marks, make it possible to assess the role of DNA methylation in social caste development and social behavior. In this mini review, I summarize and interpret recent findings regarding DNA methylation and discuss how DNA methylation might influence evolution of sociality. In particular, I focus on enzymes associated with DNA methylation, the functions of DNA methylation in caste determination, behavioral gene regulation, and the effects of DNA methylation on learning and memory. Finally, I highlight current challenges and predict future breakthroughs in the field of socioepigenomics.

  5. Repeated Assessment by High-Throughput Assay Demonstrates that Sperm DNA Methylation Levels Are Highly Reproducible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortessis, Victoria K.; Siegmund, Kimberly; Houshdaran, Sahar; Laird, Peter W.; Sokol, Rebecca Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess reliability of high-throughput assay of sperm DNA methylation. Design Observational study comparing DNA methylation of sperm isolated from three divided and twelve longitudinally collected semen samples. Setting Academic Medical Center Patients One man undergoing screening semen analysis during evaluation of the infertile couple and two healthy fertile male volunteers. Interventions Spermatozoa were separated from seminal plasma and somatic cells using gradient separation. DNA was extracted from spermatozoa, and DNA methylation was assessed at 1,505 DNA-sequence specific sites. Main Outcome Measures Repeatability of sperm DNA methylation measures, estimated by correlation coefficients. Results DNA methylation levels were highly correlated within matched sets of divided samples (all r≥0.97) and longitudinal samples (average r=0.97). Conclusions The described methodology reliably assesses methylation of sperm DNA at large numbers of sites. Methylation profiles were consistent over time. High-throughput assessment of sperm DNA methylation is a promising tool for studying the role of epigenetic state in male fertility. PMID:22035967

  6. Effect of Clozapine on DNA Methylation in Peripheral Leukocytes from Patients with Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Makoto; Numata, Shusuke; Tajima, Atsushi; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Watanabe, Shinya; Umehara, Hidehiro; Shimodera, Shinji; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Kikuchi, Masataka; Nakaya, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Imoto, Issei; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2017-03-14

    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic, that is established as the treatment of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (SCZ). To date, no study investigating comprehensive DNA methylation changes in SCZ patients treated with chronic clozapine has been reported. The purpose of the present study is to reveal the effects of clozapine on DNA methylation in treatment-resistant SCZ. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in peripheral leukocytes (485,764 CpG dinucleotides) from treatment-resistant SCZ patients treated with clozapine (n = 21) in a longitudinal study. Significant changes in DNA methylation were observed at 29,134 sites after one year of treatment with clozapine, and these genes were enriched for "cell substrate adhesion" and "cell matrix adhesion" gene ontology (GO) terms. Furthermore, DNA methylation changes in the CREBBP (CREB binding protein) gene were significantly correlated with the clinical improvements. Our findings provide insights into the action of clozapine in treatment-resistant SCZ.

  7. Regulated DNA Methylation and the Circadian Clock: Implications in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy M. Joska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the cloning and discovery of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT, there has been a growing interest in DNA methylation, its role as an epigenetic modification, how it is established and removed, along with the implications in development and disease. In recent years, it has become evident that dynamic DNA methylation accompanies the circadian clock and is found at clock genes in Neurospora, mice and cancer cells. The relationship among the circadian clock, cancer and DNA methylation at clock genes suggests a correlative indication that improper DNA methylation may influence clock gene expression, contributing to the etiology of cancer. The molecular mechanism underlying DNA methylation at clock loci is best studied in the filamentous fungi, Neurospora crassa, and recent data indicate a mechanism analogous to the RNA-dependent DNA methylation (RdDM or RNAi-mediated facultative heterochromatin. Although it is still unclear, DNA methylation at clock genes may function as a terminal modification that serves to prevent the regulated removal of histone modifications. In this capacity, aberrant DNA methylation may serve as a readout of misregulated clock genes and not as the causative agent. This review explores the implications of DNA methylation at clock loci and describes what is currently known regarding the molecular mechanism underlying DNA methylation at circadian clock genes.

  8. Basic Mechanics of DNA Methylation and the Unique Landscape of the DNA Methylome in Metal-Induced Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Brocato, Jason; Costa, Max

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an intricate role in the regulation of gene expression and events that compromise the integrity of the methylome may potentially contribute to disease development. DNA methylation is a reversible and regulatory modification that elicits a cascade of events leading to chromatin condensation and gene silencing. In general, normal cells are characterized by gene-specific hypomethylation and global hypermethylation, while cancer cells portray a reverse profile to this norm. ...

  9. DNA Methylation Signature Analysis: How Easy Is It to Perform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperi, Christina; Farmaki, Elena; Vlastos, Fotis; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G.; Martinet, Nadine

    2008-01-01

    Epigenetic changes, or heritable alterations in gene function that do not affect DNA sequence, are rapidly gaining acceptance as co-conspirators in carcinogenesis. Although DNA methylation signature analysis by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction has been a breakthrough method in speed and sensitivity for gene methylation studies, several factors still limit its application as a routine diagnostic and prognostic test. PMID:19183791

  10. Collaborations between CpG sites in DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, You; Ren, Honglei; Lei, Jinzhi

    2017-08-01

    DNA methylation patterns have profound impacts on genome stability, gene expression and development. The molecular base of DNA methylation patterns has long been focused at single CpG sites level. Here, we construct a kinetic model of DNA methylation with collaborations between CpG sites, from which a correlation function was established based on experimental data. The function consists of three parts that suggest three possible sources of the correlation: movement of enzymes along DNA, collaboration between DNA methylation and nucleosome modification, and global enzyme concentrations within a cell. Moreover, the collaboration strength between DNA methylation and nucleosome modification is universal for mouse early embryo cells. The obtained correlation function provides insightful understanding for the mechanisms of inheritance of DNA methylation patterns.

  11. Identification of DNA methylation changes associated with human gastric cancer

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    Park Jung-Hoon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic alteration of gene expression is a common event in human cancer. DNA methylation is a well-known epigenetic process, but verifying the exact nature of epigenetic changes associated with cancer remains difficult. Methods We profiled the methylome of human gastric cancer tissue at 50-bp resolution using a methylated DNA enrichment technique (methylated CpG island recovery assay in combination with a genome analyzer and a new normalization algorithm. Results We were able to gain a comprehensive view of promoters with various CpG densities, including CpG Islands (CGIs, transcript bodies, and various repeat classes. We found that gastric cancer was associated with hypermethylation of 5' CGIs and the 5'-end of coding exons as well as hypomethylation of repeat elements, such as short interspersed nuclear elements and the composite element SVA. Hypermethylation of 5' CGIs was significantly correlated with downregulation of associated genes, such as those in the HOX and histone gene families. We also discovered long-range epigenetic silencing (LRES regions in gastric cancer tissue and identified several hypermethylated genes (MDM2, DYRK2, and LYZ within these regions. The methylation status of CGIs and gene annotation elements in metastatic lymph nodes was intermediate between normal and cancerous tissue, indicating that methylation of specific genes is gradually increased in cancerous tissue. Conclusions Our findings will provide valuable data for future analysis of CpG methylation patterns, useful markers for the diagnosis of stomach cancer, as well as a new analysis method for clinical epigenomics investigations.

  12. Effect of varicocelectomy on sperm functional characteristics and DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavalaee, M; Bahreinian, M; Barekat, F; Abbasi, H; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2015-10-01

    In individuals with varicocele, DNA is damaged due to high level of oxidative stress, and varicocelectomy can overcome this effect. Damaged DNA is less liable to DNA methylation, and antioxidant therapy appears to have the potential to reduce sperm oxidative stress and DNA damage and thereby maintain DNA methylation, while effect of varicocelectomy on DNA methylation patterns has remained unclear. In the light of these considerations, we aimed to examine the effect of varicocelectomy on sperm DNA methylation and functional characteristics. Fifty-two men with left-sided varicocele (grade II &III) were included. Sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation, protamine deficiency, oxidative stress and global DNA methylation were evaluated before and 3 months after surgery. Our data show that sperm concentration, percentages of spermatozoon with abnormal morphology, DNA fragmentation, protamine deficiency and oxidative stress significantly improved after surgery. Percentage of sperm motility, global DNA methylation and intensity of DNA methylation also improved after surgery, although the differences were not significant when compared with before surgery. Categorisation of individuals to subgroups revealed that improvement of DNA methylation appears to take place in oligozoospermic individuals, which are more severely affected by state of varicocele. However, this is a preliminary study, and further studies are required to solidify this conclusion. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Intragenic DNA methylation: implications of this epigenetic mechanism for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, N; Flanagan, J M

    2012-01-17

    Epigenetics is the study of all mechanisms that regulate gene transcription and genome stability that are maintained throughout the cell division, but do not include the DNA sequence itself. The best-studied epigenetic mechanism to date is DNA methylation, where methyl groups are added to the cytosine base within cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpG sites). CpGs are frequently clustered in high density (CpG islands (CGIs)) at the promoter of over half of all genes. Current knowledge of transcriptional regulation by DNA methylation centres on its role at the promoter where unmethylated CGIs are present at most actively transcribed genes, whereas hypermethylation of the promoter results in gene repression. Over the last 5 years, research has gradually incorporated a broader understanding that methylation patterns across the gene (so-called intragenic or gene body methylation) may have a role in transcriptional regulation and efficiency. Numerous genome-wide DNA methylation profiling studies now support this notion, although whether DNA methylation patterns are a cause or consequence of other regulatory mechanisms is not yet clear. This review will examine the evidence for the function of intragenic methylation in gene transcription, and discuss the significance of this in carcinogenesis and for the future use of therapies targeted against DNA methylation.

  14. Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins: A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Buccal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny van Dongen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment. We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8–19 using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs, compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins.

  15. DNA methylation plays a crucial role during early Nasonia development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, M. V.; Verhulst, E. C.; Zwahlen, R. D.; Beukeboom, L. W.; van de Zande, L.

    Although the role of DNA methylation in insect development is still poorly understood, the number and role of DNA methyltransferases in insects vary strongly between species. DNA methylation appears to be widely present among the social hymenoptera and functional studies in Apis have suggested a

  16. Effects of soluble and particulate Cr(VI) on genome-wide DNA methylation in human B lymphoblastoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jianlin; Wang, Yu; Chen, Junqiang; Ju, Li; Yu, Min; Jiang, Zhaoqiang; Feng, Lingfang; Jin, Lingzhi; Zhang, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Several previous studies highlighted the potential epigenetic effects of Cr(VI), especially DNA methylation. However, few studies have compared the effects of Cr(VI) on DNA methylation profiles between soluble and particulate chromate in vitro. Accordingly, Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip array was used to analyze DNA methylation profiles of human B lymphoblastoid cells exposed to potassium dichromate or lead chromate, and the cell viability was also studied. Array based DNA methylation analysis showed that the impacts of Cr(VI) on DNA methylation were limited, only about 40 differentially methylated CpG sites, with an overlap of 15CpG sites, were induced by both potassium dichromate and lead chromate. The results of mRNA expression showed that after Cr(VI) treatment, mRNA expression changes of four genes (TBL1Y, FZD5, IKZF2, and KIAA1949) were consistent with their DNA methylation alteration, but DNA methylation changes of other six genes did not correlate with mRNA expression. In conclusion, both of soluble and particulate Cr(VI) could induce a small amount of differentially methylated sites in human B lymphoblastoid cells, and the correlations between DNA methylation changes and mRNA expression varied between different genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide DNA methylation is predictive of outcome in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Stieglitz, Elliot; Mazor, Tali; Olshen, Adam B.; Geng, Huimin; Gelston, Laura C.; Akutagawa, Jon; Lipka, Daniel B.; Plass, Christoph; Flotho, Christian; Chehab, Farid F.; Braun, Benjamin S.; Costello, Joseph F.; Loh, Mignon L.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a myeloproliferative disorder of childhood caused by mutations in the Ras pathway. Outcomes in JMML vary markedly from spontaneous resolution to rapid relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here, we hypothesized that DNA methylation patterns would help predict disease outcome and therefore performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in a cohort of 39 patients. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering identifies three clusters of patie...

  18. A Novel Computational Method for Detecting DNA Methylation Sites with DNA Sequence Information and Physicochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Gaofeng; Jiang, Limin; Tang, Jijun; Guo, Fei

    2018-02-08

    DNA methylation is an important biochemical process, and it has a close connection with many types of cancer. Research about DNA methylation can help us to understand the regulation mechanism and epigenetic reprogramming. Therefore, it becomes very important to recognize the methylation sites in the DNA sequence. In the past several decades, many computational methods-especially machine learning methods-have been developed since the high-throughout sequencing technology became widely used in research and industry. In order to accurately identify whether or not a nucleotide residue is methylated under the specific DNA sequence context, we propose a novel method that overcomes the shortcomings of previous methods for predicting methylation sites. We use k -gram, multivariate mutual information, discrete wavelet transform, and pseudo amino acid composition to extract features, and train a sparse Bayesian learning model to do DNA methylation prediction. Five criteria-area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC), accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SN), and specificity-are used to evaluate the prediction results of our method. On the benchmark dataset, we could reach 0.8632 on AUC, 0.8017 on ACC, 0.5558 on MCC, and 0.7268 on SN. Additionally, the best results on two scBS-seq profiled mouse embryonic stem cells datasets were 0.8896 and 0.9511 by AUC, respectively. When compared with other outstanding methods, our method surpassed them on the accuracy of prediction. The improvement of AUC by our method compared to other methods was at least 0.0399 . For the convenience of other researchers, our code has been uploaded to a file hosting service, and can be downloaded from: https://figshare.com/s/0697b692d802861282d3.

  19. [DNA methylation and development abnormalities in cloned animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong-Rong; Li, Xiang-Yun

    2007-09-01

    Most cloned animals by nuclear transfer were dead before their births, and only a few can develop to their late gestation or adulthood. Although some cloned offsprings can survive, they often have some development disfigurements and abnormal phenotypes in various degrees. DNA methylation is an important modifiable manner of epigenetic dominating the correct expression of gene. It is a main instrument of regulating genome function and plays a prominent part in the embryonic normal development. Through researching the pattern of DNA methylation, we found that there were many abnormal DNA methylation patterns in cloned animals, which might be the primary reasons for inducing premature death of cloned embryos and development abnormalities of cloned animals. This article discusses the function of DNA methylation, the aberrant DNA methylation patterns in cloned animals, and the reasons of inducing abnormal DNA methylation in cloned animals.

  20. Detection of DNA Methylation by Whole-Genome Bisulfite Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Hermanson, Peter J; Springer, Nathan M

    2018-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of the expression of transposons and genes. Various methods have been developed to assay DNA methylation levels. Bisulfite sequencing is considered to be the "gold standard" for single-base resolution measurement of DNA methylation levels. Coupled with next-generation sequencing, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) allows DNA methylation to be evaluated at a genome-wide scale. Here, we described a protocol for WGBS in plant species with large genomes. This protocol has been successfully applied to assay genome-wide DNA methylation levels in maize and barley. This protocol has also been successfully coupled with sequence capture technology to assay DNA methylation levels in a targeted set of genomic regions.

  1. Basic mechanics of DNA methylation and the unique landscape of the DNA methylome in metal-induced carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, Jason; Costa, Max

    2013-07-01

    DNA methylation plays an intricate role in the regulation of gene expression and events that compromise the integrity of the methylome may potentially contribute to disease development. DNA methylation is a reversible and regulatory modification that elicits a cascade of events leading to chromatin condensation and gene silencing. In general, normal cells are characterized by gene-specific hypomethylation and global hypermethylation, while cancer cells portray a reverse profile to this norm. The unique methylome displayed in cancer cells is induced after exposure to carcinogenic metals such as nickel, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium (VI). These metals alter the DNA methylation profile by provoking both hyper- and hypo-methylation events. The metal-stimulated deviations to the methylome are possible mechanisms for metal-induced carcinogenesis and may provide potential biomarkers for cancer detection. Development of therapies based on the cancer methylome requires further research including human studies that supply results with larger impact and higher human relevance.

  2. The Function of DNA Methylation Marks in Social Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The social arthropods are characterized by a caste-based division of labor that may be influenced by epigenetic effects. One of the most important and widely studied epigenetic mechanisms is DNA methylation. Advances in understanding of social insect genomes, including epigenetic marks, make it possible to assess the role of DNA methylation in social caste development and social behavior. In this mini review, I summarize and interpret recent findings regarding DNA methylation and discuss how ...

  3. Diamondoids as DNA methylation and mutation probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Ganesh; Fyta, Maria

    2014-10-01

    In a recent study we proposed derivatives of lower diamondoids as novel biosensors, as well as possible functionalisation candidates of solid-state nanopores for DNA sequencing. A qualitative analysis has shown the abilities of these molecules to distinguish among different DNA nucleobases. In this letter, we extend the analysis and consider also methylated and mutated nucleobases, often being an indication of genetic diseases. Based on the bonding characteristics of these modified nucleobases to a diamondoid derivative, as well as their electronic properties we could reveal the ability of the diamondoid to clearly distinguish the regular from the modified nucleobases. The results show a clear indication that transport properties along these molecules would give distinct current signals.

  4. DNA methylation in an engineered heart tissue model of cardiac hypertrophy: common signatures and effects of DNA methylation inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzig, Justus; Hirt, Marc N; Löser, Alexandra; Bartholdt, Lena M; Hensel, Jan-Tobias; Werner, Tessa R; Riemenschneider, Mona; Indenbirken, Daniela; Guenther, Thomas; Müller, Christian; Hübner, Norbert; Stoll, Monika; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation affects transcriptional regulation and constitutes a drug target in cancer biology. In cardiac hypertrophy, DNA methylation may control the fetal gene program. We therefore investigated DNA methylation signatures and their dynamics in an in vitro model of cardiac hypertrophy based on engineered heart tissue (EHT). We exposed EHTs from neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to a 12-fold increased afterload (AE) or to phenylephrine (PE 20 µM) and compared DNA methylation signatures to control EHT by pull-down assay and DNA methylation microarray. A 7-day intervention sufficed to induce contractile dysfunction and significantly decrease promoter methylation of hypertrophy-associated upregulated genes such as Nppa (encoding ANP) and Acta1 (α-skeletal actin) in both intervention groups. To evaluate whether pathological consequences of AE are affected by inhibiting de novo DNA methylation we applied AE in the absence and presence of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors: 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (aza, 100 µM, nucleosidic inhibitor), RG108 (60 µM, non-nucleosidic) or methylene disalicylic acid (MDSA, 25 µM, non-nucleosidic). Aza had no effect on EHT function, but RG108 and MDSA partially prevented the detrimental consequences of AE on force, contraction and relaxation velocity. RG108 reduced AE-induced Atp2a2 (SERCA2a) promoter methylation. The results provide evidence for dynamic DNA methylation in cardiac hypertrophy and warrant further investigation of the potential of DNA methylation in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy.

  5. Establishment of a DNA methylation marker to evaluate cancer cell fraction in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Liang; Hattori, Naoko; Yoda, Yukie; Yamashita, Satoshi; Takeshima, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Takamasa; Maeda, Masahiro; Katai, Hitoshi; Nanjo, Sohachi; Ando, Takayuki; Seto, Yasuyuki; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2016-04-01

    Tumor samples are unavoidably contaminated with coexisting normal cells. Here, we aimed to establish a DNA methylation marker to estimate the fraction of gastric cancer (GC) cells in any DNA sample by isolating genomic regions specifically methylated in GC cells. Genome-wide and gene-specific methylation analyses were conducted with an Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array and by quantitative methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Purified cancer and noncancer cells were prepared by laser-capture microdissection. TP53 mutation data were obtained from our previous study using next-generation target sequencing. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of 12 GC cell lines, 30 GCs, six normal gastric mucosae, one sample of peripheral leukocytes, and four noncancerous gastric mucosae identified OSR2, PPFIA3, and VAV3 as barely methylated in normal cells and highly methylated in cancer cells. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR using 26 independent GCs validated that one or more of them was highly methylated in all of the GCs. Using four pairs of purified cells, we confirmed the three genes were highly methylated (85 % or more) in cancer cells and barely methylated (5 % or less) in noncancer cells. The cancer cell fraction assessed by the panel of the three genes showed good correlation with that assessed by the TP53 mutant allele frequency in 13 GCs (r = 0.77). After correction of the GC cell fraction, unsupervised clustering analysis of the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles yielded clearer clustering. A DNA methylation marker-namely, the panel of the three genes-is useful to estimate the cancer cell fraction in GCs.

  6. Bio-CAP: a versatile and highly sensitive technique to purify and characterise regions of non-methylated DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackledge, Neil P.; Long, Hannah K.; Zhou, Jin C.; Kriaucionis, Skirmantas; Patient, Roger; Klose, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Across vertebrate genomes methylation of cytosine residues within the context of CpG dinucleotides is a pervasive epigenetic mark that can impact gene expression and has been implicated in various developmental and disease-associated processes. Several biochemical approaches exist to profile DNA methylation, but recently an alternative approach based on profiling non-methylated CpGs was developed. This technique, called CxxC affinity purification (CAP), uses a ZF-CxxC (CxxC) domain to specifically capture DNA containing clusters of non-methylated CpGs. Here we describe a new CAP approach, called biotinylated CAP (Bio-CAP), which eliminates the requirement for specialized equipment while dramatically improving and simplifying the CxxC-based DNA affinity purification. Importantly, this approach isolates non-methylated DNA in a manner that is directly proportional to the density of non-methylated CpGs, and discriminates non-methylated CpGs from both methylated and hydroxymethylated CpGs. Unlike conventional CAP, Bio-CAP can be applied to nanogram quantities of genomic DNA and in a magnetic format is amenable to efficient parallel processing of samples. Furthermore, Bio-CAP can be applied to genome-wide profiling of non-methylated DNA with relatively small amounts of input material. Therefore, Bio-CAP is a simple and streamlined approach for characterizing regions of the non-methylated DNA, whether at specific target regions or genome wide. PMID:22156374

  7. Recognition of methylated DNA through methyl-CpG binding domain proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Xueqing; Ma, Wen; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2012-01-01

    the function of MBD proteins has attracted considerable attention and is well characterized, the mechanism underlying mDNA recognition by MBD proteins is still poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrate that the methyl-CpG dinucleotides are recognized at the MBD-mDNA interface by two MBD arginines...... and by strengthening the interaction between mDNA and MBD proteins. Free-energy perturbation calculations also show that methylation yields favorable contribution to the binding free energy for MBD-mDNA complex.......DNA methylation is a key regulatory control route in epigenetics, involving gene silencing and chromosome inactivation. It has been recognized that methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins play an important role in interpreting the genetic information encoded by methylated DNA (mDNA). Although...

  8. Patterns of DNA methylation in animals: an ecotoxicological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Jessica A

    2014-07-01

    DNA methylation refers to the addition of a methyl group to nucleotides within DNA. As with other epigenetic endpoints, patterns of DNA methylation are susceptible to alterations due to exposure to environmental stressors, including contaminants. These alterations can persist in the absence of the initial stressor as cells divide, and can even be inherited between generations if they occur in the germ line. Although our knowledge concerning patterns of DNA methylation in animals is increasing, there remains a gap in the literature when it comes to species outside of those typically used for biomedical research. Here, I review the literature relating to DNA methylation in an array of taxa (mammals, fish, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates) and discuss these data from an ecotoxicological perspective. The pattern and extent of DNA methylation is well conserved across species of vertebrates; methylation appears mainly on cytosine residues within a CpG context, and much of the genome is methylated, with the notable exception of cytosines within CpG islands in the promoters of genes. Highly methylated genes in vertebrates tend to be transcriptionally repressed. However, large differences occur between classes of vertebrates in terms of the timing and nature of reprogramming and genomic imprinting: epigenetic processes that establish patterns of DNA methylation in the early embryo and which are sensitive to environmental stress. In invertebrates, patterns of DNA methylation are extremely variable and differ significantly from the condition observed in vertebrates. Some invertebrate genomes exhibit no DNA methylation while others are methylated to a level that is comparable to vertebrates. Additionally, DNA methylation may have different functions in invertebrates, e.g., alternative splicing. This variability in basic patterns of DNA methylation among species during sensitive periods of development suggests that responses to epigenetically active environmental

  9. The Implications of DNA Methylation for Toxicology: Toward Toxicomethylomics, the Toxicology of DNA Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyf, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Identifying agents that have long-term deleterious impact on health but exhibit no immediate toxicity is of prime importance. It is well established that long-term toxicity of chemicals could be caused by their ability to generate changes in the DNA sequence through the process of mutagenesis. Several assays including the Ames test and its different modifications were developed to assess the mutagenic potential of chemicals (Ames, B. N., Durston, W. E., Yamasaki, E., and Lee, F. D. (1973a). Carcinogens are mutagens: a simple test system combining liver homogenates for activation and bacteria for detection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70, 2281–2285; Ames, B. N., Lee, F. D., and Durston, W. E. (1973b). An improved bacterial test system for the detection and classification of mutagens and carcinogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70, 782–786). These tests have also been employed for assessing the carcinogenic potential of compounds. However, the DNA molecule contains within its chemical structure two layers of information. The DNA sequence that bears the ancestral genetic information and the pattern of distribution of covalently bound methyl groups on cytosines in DNA. DNA methylation patterns are generated by an innate program during gestation but are attuned to the environment in utero and throughout life including physical and social exposures. DNA function and health could be stably altered by exposure to environmental agents without changing the sequence, just by changing the state of DNA methylation. Our current screening tests do not detect agents that have long-range impact on the phenotype without altering the genotype. The realization that long-range damage could be caused without changing the DNA sequence has important implications on the way we assess the safety of chemicals, drugs, and food and broadens the scope of definition of toxic agents. PMID:21297083

  10. Comprehensive analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation across human polycystic ovary syndrome ovary granulosa cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiawei; Bao, Xiao; Peng, Zhaofeng; Wang, Linlin; Du, Linqing; Niu, Wenbin; Sun, Yingpu

    2016-05-10

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 7% of the reproductive-age women. A growing body of evidence indicated that epigenetic mechanisms contributed to the development of PCOS. The role of DNA modification in human PCOS ovary granulosa cell is still unknown in PCOS progression. Global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation were detected between PCOS' and controls' granulosa cell. Genome-wide DNA methylation was profiled to investigate the putative function of DNA methylaiton. Selected genes expressions were analyzed between PCOS' and controls' granulosa cell. Our results showed that the granulosa cell global DNA methylation of PCOS patients was significant higher than the controls'. The global DNA hydroxymethylation showed low level and no statistical difference between PCOS and control. 6936 differentially methylated CpG sites were identified between control and PCOS-obesity. 12245 differential methylated CpG sites were detected between control and PCOS-nonobesity group. 5202 methylated CpG sites were significantly differential between PCOS-obesity and PCOS-nonobesity group. Our results showed that DNA methylation not hydroxymethylation altered genome-wide in PCOS granulosa cell. The different methylation genes were enriched in development protein, transcription factor activity, alternative splicing, sequence-specific DNA binding and embryonic morphogenesis. YWHAQ, NCF2, DHRS9 and SCNA were up-regulation in PCOS-obesity patients with no significance different between control and PCOS-nonobesity patients, which may be activated by lower DNA methylaiton. Global and genome-wide DNA methylation alteration may contribute to different genes expression and PCOS clinical pathology.

  11. Nucleosomes protect DNA from DNA methylation in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felle, Max; Hoffmeister, Helen; Rothammer, Julia; Fuchs, Andreas; Exler, Josef H.; Längst, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Positioned nucleosomes limit the access of proteins to DNA. However, the impact of nucleosomes on DNA methylation in vitro and in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of nucleosome binding and nucleosomal DNA methylation by the de novo methyltransferases. We show that compared to linker DNA, nucleosomal DNA is largely devoid of CpG methylation. ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling frees nucleosomal CpG dinucleotides and renders the remodelled nucleosome a 2-fold better substrate for Dnmt3a methyltransferase compared to free DNA. These results reflect the situation in vivo, as quantification of nucleosomal DNA methylation levels in HeLa cells shows a 2-fold decrease of nucleosomal DNA methylation levels compared to linker DNA. Our findings suggest that nucleosomal positions are stably maintained in vivo and nucleosomal occupancy is a major determinant of global DNA methylation patterns in vivo. PMID:21622955

  12. [Methylation of adenine residues in DNA of eukaryotes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniushin, B F

    2005-01-01

    Like in bacteria, DNA in these organisms is subjected to enzymatic modification (methylation) both at adenine and cytosine residues. There is an indirect evidence that adenine DNA methylation takes place also in animals. In plants m6A was detected in total, mitochondrial and nuclear DNAs; in plants one and the same gene (DRM2) can be methylated both at adenine and cytosine residues. ORF homologous to bacterial adenine DNA-methyltransferases are present in nuclear DNA of protozoa, yeasts, insects, nematodes, higher plants, vertebrates and other eukaryotes. Thus, adenine DNA-methyltransferases can be found in the various evolutionary distant eukaryotes. First N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (wadmtase) of higher eukaryotes was isolated from vacuolar fraction of vesicles obtained from aging wheat coleoptiles; in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine this Mg2+ -, Ca2+ -dependent enzyme de novo methylates first adenine residue in TGATCA sequence in single- and double-stranded DNA but it prefers single-stranded DNA structures. Adenine DNA methylation in eukaryotes seems to be involved in regulation of both gene expression and DNA replication including replication of mitochondrial DNA. It can control persistence of foreign DNA in a cell and seems to be an element of R-M system in plants. Thus, in eukaryotic cell there are, at least, two different systems of the enzymatic DNA methylations (adenine and cytosine ones) and a special type of regulation of gene functioning based on the combinatory hierarchy of these interdependent genome modifications.

  13. Genome-wide methylation profiling identifies hypermethylated biomarkers in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvai, Ágnes; Johannes, Frank; Grimm, Christina; Eijsink, Jasper J H; Wardenaar, René; Volders, Haukeline H; Klip, Harry G; Hollema, Harry; Jansen, Ritsert C; Schuuring, Ed; Wisman, G Bea A; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2012-11-01

    Epigenetic modifications, such as aberrant DNA promoter methylation, are frequently observed in cervical cancer. Identification of hypermethylated regions allowing discrimination between normal cervical epithelium and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3), or worse, may improve current cervical cancer population-based screening programs. In this study, the DNA methylome of high-grade CIN lesions was studied using genome-wide DNA methylation screening to identify potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) combined with DNA microarray was used to compare DNA methylation profiles of epithelial cells derived from high-grade CIN lesions with normal cervical epithelium. Hypermethylated differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified. Validation of nine selected DMRs using BSP and MSP in cervical tissue revealed methylation in 63.2-94.7% high-grade CIN and in 59.3-100% cervical carcinomas. QMSP for the two most significant high-grade CIN-specific methylation markers was conducted exploring test performance in a large series of cervical scrapings. Frequency and relative level of methylation were significantly different between normal and cancer samples. Clinical validation of both markers in cervical scrapings from patients with an abnormal cervical smear confirmed that frequency and relative level of methylation were related with increasing severity of the underlying CIN lesion and that ROC analysis was discriminative. These markers represent the COL25A1 and KATNAL2 and their observed increased methylation upon progression could intimate the regulatory role in carcinogenesis. In conclusion, our newly identified hypermethylated DMRs represent specific DNA methylation patterns in high-grade CIN lesions and are candidate biomarkers for early detection.

  14. Implications of DNA Methylation in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Morales, Ernesto; Meier, Karin; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; Salas-Pacheco, José; Vázquez-Cárdenas, Paola; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    It has been 200 years since Parkinson’s disease (PD) was first described, yet many aspects of its etiopathogenesis remain unclear. PD is a progressive and complex neurodegenerative disorder caused by genetic and environmental factors including aging, nutrition, pesticides and exposure to heavy metals. DNA methylation may be altered in response to some of these factors; therefore, it is proposed that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly DNA methylation, can have a fundamental role in gene–environment interactions that are related with PD. Epigenetic changes in PD-associated genes are now widely studied in different populations, to discover the mechanisms that contribute to disease development and identify novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and future pharmacological treatment. While initial studies sought to find associations between promoter DNA methylation and the regulation of associated genes in PD brain tissue, more recent studies have described concordant DNA methylation patterns between blood and brain tissue DNA. These data justify the use of peripheral blood samples instead of brain tissue for epigenetic studies. Here, we summarize the current data about DNA methylation changes in PD and discuss the potential of DNA methylation as a potential biomarker for PD. Additionally, we discuss environmental and nutritional factors that have been implicated in DNA methylation. Although the search for significant DNA methylation changes and gene expression analyses of PD-associated genes have yielded inconsistent and contradictory results, epigenetic modifications remain under investigation for their potential to reveal the link between environmental risk factors and the development of PD. PMID:28769760

  15. Implications of DNA Methylation in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Miranda-Morales

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been 200 years since Parkinson’s disease (PD was first described, yet many aspects of its etiopathogenesis remain unclear. PD is a progressive and complex neurodegenerative disorder caused by genetic and environmental factors including aging, nutrition, pesticides and exposure to heavy metals. DNA methylation may be altered in response to some of these factors; therefore, it is proposed that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly DNA methylation, can have a fundamental role in gene–environment interactions that are related with PD. Epigenetic changes in PD-associated genes are now widely studied in different populations, to discover the mechanisms that contribute to disease development and identify novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and future pharmacological treatment. While initial studies sought to find associations between promoter DNA methylation and the regulation of associated genes in PD brain tissue, more recent studies have described concordant DNA methylation patterns between blood and brain tissue DNA. These data justify the use of peripheral blood samples instead of brain tissue for epigenetic studies. Here, we summarize the current data about DNA methylation changes in PD and discuss the potential of DNA methylation as a potential biomarker for PD. Additionally, we discuss environmental and nutritional factors that have been implicated in DNA methylation. Although the search for significant DNA methylation changes and gene expression analyses of PD-associated genes have yielded inconsistent and contradictory results, epigenetic modifications remain under investigation for their potential to reveal the link between environmental risk factors and the development of PD.

  16. Effects of DNA methylation inhibitors and conventional antidepressants on mice behaviour and brain DNA methylation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Amanda Juliana; Joca, Sâmia Regiane Lourenço

    2016-02-01

    Stress increases DNA methylation and decreases the expression of genes involved in neural plasticity, while treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) increases gene expression and induces antidepressant-like effects in preclinical models. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to further investigate the potential antidepressant-like effect induced by DNMTi by evaluating the behavioural effects induced by associating DNMTi treatment with conventional antidepressant drugs in mice submitted to the forced swimming test (FST). In addition, brain levels of DNA methylation were also investigated. Mice received systemic injections of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AzaD, 0.1, 0.2 mg/kg), RG108 (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg), desipramine (DES, 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (FLX, 5, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg) and were submitted to the FST or to the open field test (OFT). Additional groups received a combination of subeffective doses of 5-AzaD or RG108 (DNMTi) with subeffective doses of DES or FLX (antidepressants). Subeffective doses of RG108 (0.1 mg/kg) or 5-AzaD (0.1 mg/kg) in association with subeffective doses of DES (2.5 mg/kg) or FLX (10 mg/kg) induced significant antidepressant-like effects. Effective doses of RG108 (0.2 mg/kg), 5-AzaD (0.2 mg/kg), DES (10 mg/kg) and FLX (20 mg/kg) atenuated stress-induced changes in DNA methylation levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. None of the treatments induced locomotor effects in the OFT. These results suggest that DNMTi potentiate the behavioural effects of antidepressant drugs in the FST and that antidepressants, as well as DNMTi, are able to modulate stress-induced changes in DNA methylation in brain regions closely associated with the neurobiology of depression.

  17. High-Throughput Analysis of Global DNA Methylation Using Methyl-Sensitive Digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Shiratori

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a major regulatory process of gene transcription, and aberrant DNA methylation is associated with various diseases including cancer. Many compounds have been reported to modify DNA methylation states. Despite increasing interest in the clinical application of drugs with epigenetic effects, and the use of diagnostic markers for genome-wide hypomethylation in cancer, large-scale screening systems to measure the effects of drugs on DNA methylation are limited. In this study, we improved the previously established fluorescence polarization-based global DNA methylation assay so that it is more suitable for application to human genomic DNA. Our methyl-sensitive fluorescence polarization (MSFP assay was highly repeatable (inter-assay coefficient of variation = 1.5% and accurate (r2 = 0.99. According to signal linearity, only 50-80 ng human genomic DNA per reaction was necessary for the 384-well format. MSFP is a simple, rapid approach as all biochemical reactions and final detection can be performed in one well in a 384-well plate without purification steps in less than 3.5 hours. Furthermore, we demonstrated a significant correlation between MSFP and the LINE-1 pyrosequencing assay, a widely used global DNA methylation assay. MSFP can be applied for the pre-screening of compounds that influence global DNA methylation states and also for the diagnosis of certain types of cancer.

  18. High-Throughput Analysis of Global DNA Methylation Using Methyl-Sensitive Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Hiromi; Feinweber, Carmen; Knothe, Claudia; Lötsch, Jörn; Thomas, Dominique; Geisslinger, Gerd; Parnham, Michael J; Resch, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major regulatory process of gene transcription, and aberrant DNA methylation is associated with various diseases including cancer. Many compounds have been reported to modify DNA methylation states. Despite increasing interest in the clinical application of drugs with epigenetic effects, and the use of diagnostic markers for genome-wide hypomethylation in cancer, large-scale screening systems to measure the effects of drugs on DNA methylation are limited. In this study, we improved the previously established fluorescence polarization-based global DNA methylation assay so that it is more suitable for application to human genomic DNA. Our methyl-sensitive fluorescence polarization (MSFP) assay was highly repeatable (inter-assay coefficient of variation = 1.5%) and accurate (r2 = 0.99). According to signal linearity, only 50-80 ng human genomic DNA per reaction was necessary for the 384-well format. MSFP is a simple, rapid approach as all biochemical reactions and final detection can be performed in one well in a 384-well plate without purification steps in less than 3.5 hours. Furthermore, we demonstrated a significant correlation between MSFP and the LINE-1 pyrosequencing assay, a widely used global DNA methylation assay. MSFP can be applied for the pre-screening of compounds that influence global DNA methylation states and also for the diagnosis of certain types of cancer.

  19. Novel Insights into DNA Methylation Features in Spermatozoa: Stability and Peculiarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayols, Sergi; Chianese, Chiara; Giachini, Claudia; Heyn, Holger; Esteller, Manel

    2012-01-01

    Data about the entire sperm DNA methylome are limited to two sperm donors whereas studies dealing with a greater number of subjects focused only on a few genes or were based on low resolution arrays. This implies that information about what we can consider as a normal sperm DNA methylome and whether it is stable among different normozoospermic individuals is still missing. The definition of the DNA methylation profile of normozoospermic men, the entity of inter-individual variability and the epigenetic characterization of quality-fractioned sperm subpopulations in the same subject (intra-individual variability) are relevant for a better understanding of pathological conditions. We addressed these questions by using the high resolution Infinium 450K methylation array and compared normal sperm DNA methylomes against somatic and cancer cells. Our study, based on the largest number of subjects (n = 8) ever considered for such a large number of CpGs (n = 487,517), provided clear evidence for i) a highly conserved DNA methylation profile among normozoospermic subjects; ii) a stable sperm DNA methylation pattern in different quality-fractioned sperm populations of the same individual. The latter finding is particularly relevant if we consider that different quality fractioned sperm subpopulations show differences in their structural features, metabolic and genomic profiles. We demonstrate, for the first time, that DNA methylation in normozoospermic men remains highly uniform regardless the quality of sperm subpopulations. In addition, our analysis provided both confirmatory and novel data concerning the sperm DNA methylome, including its peculiar features in respect to somatic and cancer cells. Our description about a highly polarized sperm DNA methylation profile, the clearly distinct genomic and functional organization of hypo- versus hypermethylated loci as well as the association of histone-enriched hypomethylated loci with embryonic development, which we now

  20. Novel insights into DNA methylation features in spermatozoa: stability and peculiarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Krausz

    Full Text Available Data about the entire sperm DNA methylome are limited to two sperm donors whereas studies dealing with a greater number of subjects focused only on a few genes or were based on low resolution arrays. This implies that information about what we can consider as a normal sperm DNA methylome and whether it is stable among different normozoospermic individuals is still missing. The definition of the DNA methylation profile of normozoospermic men, the entity of inter-individual variability and the epigenetic characterization of quality-fractioned sperm subpopulations in the same subject (intra-individual variability are relevant for a better understanding of pathological conditions. We addressed these questions by using the high resolution Infinium 450K methylation array and compared normal sperm DNA methylomes against somatic and cancer cells. Our study, based on the largest number of subjects (n = 8 ever considered for such a large number of CpGs (n = 487,517, provided clear evidence for i a highly conserved DNA methylation profile among normozoospermic subjects; ii a stable sperm DNA methylation pattern in different quality-fractioned sperm populations of the same individual. The latter finding is particularly relevant if we consider that different quality fractioned sperm subpopulations show differences in their structural features, metabolic and genomic profiles. We demonstrate, for the first time, that DNA methylation in normozoospermic men remains highly uniform regardless the quality of sperm subpopulations. In addition, our analysis provided both confirmatory and novel data concerning the sperm DNA methylome, including its peculiar features in respect to somatic and cancer cells. Our description about a highly polarized sperm DNA methylation profile, the clearly distinct genomic and functional organization of hypo- versus hypermethylated loci as well as the association of histone-enriched hypomethylated loci with embryonic development

  1. Whole genome methylation profiles as independent markers of survival in stage IIIC melanoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigalotti Luca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical course of cutaneous melanoma (CM can differ significantly for patients with identical stages of disease, defined clinico-pathologically, and no molecular markers differentiate patients with such a diverse prognosis. This study aimed to define the prognostic value of whole genome DNA methylation profiles in stage III CM. Methods Genome-wide methylation profiles were evaluated by the Illumina Human Methylation 27 BeadChip assay in short-term neoplastic cell cultures from 45 stage IIIC CM patients. Unsupervised K-means partitioning clustering was exploited to sort patients into 2 groups based on their methylation profiles. Methylation patterns related to the discovered groups were determined using the nearest shrunken centroid classification algorithm. The impact of genome-wide methylation patterns on overall survival (OS was assessed using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results Unsupervised K-means partitioning by whole genome methylation profiles identified classes with significantly different OS in stage IIIC CM patients. Patients with a “favorable” methylation profile had increased OS (P = 0.001, log-rank = 10.2 by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Median OS of stage IIIC patients with a “favorable” vs. “unfavorable” methylation profile were 31.5 and 10.4 months, respectively. The 5 year OS for stage IIIC patients with a “favorable” methylation profile was 41.2% as compared to 0% for patients with an “unfavorable” methylation profile. Among the variables examined by multivariate Cox regression analysis, classification defined by methylation profile was the only predictor of OS (Hazard Ratio = 2.41, for “unfavorable” methylation profile; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.02-5.70; P = 0.045. A 17 gene methylation signature able to correctly assign prognosis (overall error rate = 0 in stage IIIC patients on the basis of distinct methylation-defined groups was also identified

  2. Blood-based DNA methylation as biomarker for breast cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiuqiong; Cheng, Jie; Cao, Xue; Surowy, Harald; Burwinkel, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have investigated global DNA methylation profiles and gene-specific DNA methylation in blood-based DNA to develop powerful screening markers for cancer. This systematic review summarizes the current evidence on methylation studies that investigated methylation level of blood-derived DNA of breast cancer (BC) patients in comparison to healthy controls by conducting a systematic literature review in PubMed and Web of Science. Essential results, such as methylation levels of BC cases and healthy controls, p values, and odds ratios, were extracted from these studies by two investigators independently. Overall, 45 publications met the inclusion criteria for this review. DNA from whole blood, as well as cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from serum or plasma, was used in these studies. The most common method used for measuring global DNA methylation was the investigation of repetitive elements as surrogates and the application of array-based genome-wide methylation analysis. For measuring gene-specific methylation level, methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing were the most frequently used methods. Epigenome-wide blood DNA hypomethylation in BC patients were reported in several studies; however, the evidence is still not conclusive. The most frequently investigated gene in whole blood was BRCA1, which was found more frequently methylated in patients compared to controls. RASSF1A was the most widely investigated gene in cfDNA of serum or plasma, which was also found more frequently methylated in patients compared to controls. Several of the eligible studies reported the associations of global hypomethylation and increased BC risk. Studies investigated associations between gene-specific methylation and BC risk, while got heterogeneous results. But two studies reported that hypermethylation of ATM gene was associated with increased BC risk, which suggest the potential use of this gene for BC risk stratification. Overall, our review suggests the possibility of using

  3. An integrative analysis of DNA methylation and RNA-Seq data for human heart, kidney and liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Linglin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many groups, including our own, have proposed the use of DNA methylation profiles as biomarkers for various disease states. While much research has been done identifying DNA methylation signatures in cancer vs. normal etc., we still lack sufficient knowledge of the role that differential methylation plays during normal cellular differentiation and tissue specification. We also need thorough, genome level studies to determine the meaning of methylation of individual CpG dinucleotides in terms of gene expression. Results In this study, we have used (insert statistical method here to compile unique DNA methylation signatures from normal human heart, lung, and kidney using the Illumina Infinium 27 K methylation arraysand compared those to gene expression by RNA sequencing. We have identified unique signatures of global DNA methylation for human heart, kidney and liver, and showed that DNA methylation data can be used to correctly classify various tissues. It indicates that DNA methylation reflects tissue specificity and may play an important role in tissue differentiation. The integrative analysis of methylation and RNA-Seq data showed that gene methylation and its transcriptional levels were comprehensively correlated. The location of methylation markers in terms of distance to transcription start site and CpG island showed no effects on the regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation in normal tissues. Conclusions This study showed that an integrative analysis of methylation array and RNA-Seq data can be utilized to discover the global regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation and suggests that DNA methylation plays an important role in normal tissue differentiation via modulation of gene expression.

  4. Detection of regional DNA methylation using DNA-graphene affinity interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Hakimul; Gopalan, Vinod; Yadav, Sharda; Islam, Md Nazmul; Eftekhari, Ehsan; Li, Qin; Carrascosa, Laura G; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Lam, Alfred K; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A

    2017-01-15

    We report a new method for the detection of regional DNA methylation using base-dependent affinity interaction (i.e., adsorption) of DNA with graphene. Due to the strongest adsorption affinity of guanine bases towards graphene, bisulfite-treated guanine-enriched methylated DNA leads to a larger amount of the adsorbed DNA on the graphene-modified electrodes in comparison to the adenine-enriched unmethylated DNA. The level of the methylation is quantified by monitoring the differential pulse voltammetric current as a function of the adsorbed DNA. The assay is sensitive to distinguish methylated and unmethylated DNA sequences at single CpG resolution by differentiating changes in DNA methylation as low as 5%. Furthermore, this method has been used to detect methylation levels in a collection of DNA samples taken from oesophageal cancer tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The stability of transgene expression and effect of DNA methylation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... The data of restriction enzyme digestion (HpaII and MspI) indicated that DNA methylation resulted in post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in transgenic birch. Key words: Transgenic birch, DNA methylation, gene silencing. INTRODUCTION. Genetic transformation of woody plants is a promising.

  6. Changes of host DNA methylation in domestic chickens infected with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cytosine methylation is an effectiveway to modulate gene transcription.However, very little is knownabout the epigenetic changes in the host that is infected with Salmonella enterica. In this study, we usedmethylatedDNA immunoprecipitation sequencing to analyse the genomewide DNA methylation changes in domestic ...

  7. Parental epigenetic difference in DNA methylation-level may play ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... DNA methylation-level difference plays some significant roles in the manifestation of heterosis of specific traits in maize, but the effects can be in opposite directions, and hence, offsetting each other and cumulating to cryptic effects on yield, itself. Key words: DNA methylation, epigenetics, heterosis, agronomic traits, maize.

  8. Identification of body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers for use in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Kim, Jong Hwan; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Han-Chul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation, which occurs at the 5'-position of the cytosine in CpG dinucleotides, has great potential for forensic identification of body fluids, because tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation have been demonstrated, and DNA is less prone to degradation than proteins or RNA. Previous studies have reported several body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers, but DNA methylation differences are sometimes low in saliva and vaginal secretions. Moreover, specific DNA methylation markers in four types of body fluids (blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions) have not been investigated with genome-wide profiling. Here, we investigated novel DNA methylation markers for identification of body fluids for use in forensic science using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K bead array, which contains over 450,000 CpG sites. Using methylome data from 16 samples of blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions, we first selected 2986 hypermethylated or hypomethylated regions that were specific for each type of body fluid. We then selected eight CpG sites as novel, forensically relevant DNA methylation markers: cg06379435 and cg08792630 for blood, cg26107890 and cg20691722 for saliva, cg23521140 and cg17610929 for semen, and cg01774894 and cg14991487 for vaginal secretions. These eight selected markers were evaluated in 80 body fluid samples using pyrosequencing, and all showed high sensitivity and specificity for identification of the target body fluid. We suggest that these eight DNA methylation markers may be good candidates for developing an effective molecular assay for identification of body fluids in forensic science. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  10. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  11. Persistent variations in neuronal DNA methylation following cocaine self-administration and protracted abstinence in mice

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    Danay Baker-Andresen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Continued vulnerability to relapse during abstinence is a characteristic of cocaine addiction and suggests that drug-induced neuroadaptations persist during abstinence. However, the precise cellular and molecular attributes of these adaptations remain equivocal. One possibility is that cocaine self-administration leads to enduring changes in DNA methylation. To address this possibility, we isolated neurons from medial prefrontal cortex and performed high throughput DNA sequencing to examine changes in DNA methylation following cocaine self-administration. Twenty-nine genomic regions became persistently differentially methylated during cocaine self-administration, and an additional 28 regions became selectively differentially methylated during abstinence. Altered DNA methylation was associated with isoform-specific changes in the expression of co-localizing genes. These results provide the first neuron-specific, genome-wide profile of changes in DNA methylation induced by cocaine self-administration and protracted abstinence. Moreover, our findings suggest that altered DNA methylation facilitates long-term behavioral adaptation in a manner that extends beyond the perpetuation of altered transcriptional states.

  12. Identification of a panel of sensitive and specific DNA methylation markers for squamous cell lung cancer

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    Laird Peter W

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States and Western Europe. Over 160,000 Americans die of this disease every year. The five-year survival rate is 15% – significantly lower than that of other major cancers. Early detection is a key factor in increasing lung cancer patient survival. DNA hypermethylation is recognized as an important mechanism for tumor suppressor gene inactivation in cancer and could yield powerful biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer. Here we focused on developing DNA methylation markers for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Using the sensitive, high-throughput DNA methylation analysis technique MethyLight, we examined the methylation profile of 42 loci in a collection of 45 squamous cell lung cancer samples and adjacent non-tumor lung tissues from the same patients. Results We identified 22 loci showing significantly higher DNA methylation levels in tumor tissue than adjacent non-tumor lung. Of these, eight showed highly significant hypermethylation in tumor tissue (p Conclusion We have identified 22 DNA methylation markers for squamous cell lung cancer, several of which have not previously been reported to be methylated in any type of human cancer. The top eight markers show great promise as a sensitive and specific DNA methylation marker panel for squamous cell lung cancer.

  13. DNA methylation dynamics in muscle development and disease

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    Elvira eCarrio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification for mammalian development and is crucial for the establishment and maintenance of cellular identity. Traditionally, DNA methylation has been considered as a permanent repressive epigenetic mark. However, the application of genome-wide approaches has allowed the analysis of DNA methylation in different genomic contexts revealing a more dynamic regulation than originally thought, since active DNA methylation and demethylation occur during cellular differentiation and tissue specification. Satellite cells are the primary stem cells in adult skeletal muscle and are responsible for postnatal muscle growth, hypertrophy, and muscle regeneration. This review outlines the published data regarding DNA methylation changes along the skeletal muscle program, in both physiological and pathological conditions, to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms that control myogenesis

  14. Biomarkers of lead exposure and DNA methylation within retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert O; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Rosalind J; Bollati, Valentina; Tarantini, Letizia; Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2010-06-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression. Changes in DNA methylation within white blood cells may result from cumulative exposure to environmental metals such as lead. Bone lead, a marker of cumulative exposure, may therefore better predict DNA methylation than does blood lead. In this study we compared associations between lead biomarkers and DNA methylation. We measured global methylation in participants of the Normative Aging Study (all men) who had archived DNA samples. We measured patella and tibia lead levels by K-X-Ray fluorescence and blood lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA samples from blood were used to determine global methylation averages within CpG islands of long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1) and Alu retrotransposons. A mixed-effects model using repeated measures of Alu or LINE-1 as the dependent variable and blood/bone lead (tibia or patella in separate models) as the primary exposure marker was fit to the data. Overall mean global methylation (+/- SD) was 26.3 +/- 1.0 as measured by Alu and 76.8 +/- 1.9 as measured by LINE-1. In the mixed-effects model, patella lead levels were inversely associated with LINE-1 (beta = -0.25; p lead and blood lead did not predict global methylation for either Alu or LINE-1. Patella lead levels predicted reduced global DNA methylation within LINE-1 elements. The association between lead exposure and LINE-1 DNA methylation may have implications for the mechanisms of action of lead on health outcomes, and also suggests that changes in DNA methylation may represent a biomarker of past lead exposure.

  15. Phosphate-methylated DNA aimed at HIV-1 RNA loops and integrated DNA inhibits viral infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, H. M.; Koole, L. H.; van Genderen, M. H.; Smit, L.; Geelen, J. L.; Jurriaans, S.; Goudsmit, J.

    1990-01-01

    Phosphate-methylated DNA hybridizes strongly and specifically to natural DNA and RNA. Hybridization to single-stranded and double-stranded DNA leads to site-selective blocking of replication and transcription. Phosphate-methylated DNA was used to interrupt the life cycle of the human

  16. Aging and nutrition induce tissue-specific changes on global DNA methylation status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarasci, Francesco; D'Aquila, Patrizia; Mandalà, Maurizio; Garasto, Sabrina; Lattanzio, F; Corsonello, Andrea; Passarino, Giuseppe; Bellizzi, Dina

    2018-02-07

    A number of epigenetic studies have demonstrated that DNA methylation patterns exhibit a tissue specificity, but not much has been done to highlight the extent of this phenomenon. Moreover, it is unknown how external factors modulate the plasticity of the tissue specific epigenetic profile. We examined global DNA methylation profiles in tissues from rats of different age, fed with standard or low-calorie diet, and evaluated their association with aging and nutrition. Tissue-specific variations occur during aging with hyper-methylation taking place in all tissues except for liver. The expression of enzymes involved in methylation reactions (DNMTs and TETs) was consistent with the methylation patterns. Nutrition affects global DNA methylation status throughout lifespan. Interestingly, what differences among different tissues are magnified in 96 weeks old rats fed with low calorie diet. Moreover, the low-calorie diet appears to affect the offspring's epigenetic status more strongly if administered during the maternal pre-gestational period then the gestational and lactation time. Therefore, we propose that changes in the global DNA methylation status may represent an epigenetic mechanism by which age and nutrition intersect each other and, in turn, influence the aging plasticity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of TET enzymes in DNA methylation, development, and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kasper Dindler; Helin, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of DNA methylation at cytosine bases in the genome is tightly linked to gene expression, and DNA methylation abnormalities are often observed in diseases. The ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes oxidize 5-methylcytosines (5mCs) and promote locus-specific reversal of DNA methylation.......TETgenes, and especiallyTET2, are frequently mutated in various cancers, but how the TET proteins contribute to prevent the onset and maintenance of these malignancies is largely unknown. Here, we highlight recent advances in understanding the physiological function of the TET proteins and their role in regulating DNA...

  18. Association of childhood chronic physical aggression with a DNA methylation signature in adult human T cells.

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    Nadine Provençal

    Full Text Available Chronic physical aggression (CPA is characterized by frequent use of physical aggression from early childhood to adolescence. Observed in approximately 5% of males, CPA is associated with early childhood adverse environments and long-term negative consequences. Alterations in DNA methylation, a covalent modification of DNA that regulates genome function, have been associated with early childhood adversity.To test the hypothesis that a trajectory of chronic physical aggression during childhood is associated with a distinct DNA methylation profile during adulthood.We analyzed genome-wide promoter DNA methylation profiles of T cells from two groups of adult males assessed annually for frequency of physical aggression between 6 and 15 years of age: a group with CPA and a control group. Methylation profiles covering the promoter regions of 20 000 genes and 400 microRNAs were generated using MeDIP followed by hybridization to microarrays.In total, 448 distinct gene promoters were differentially methylated in CPA. Functionally, many of these genes have previously been shown to play a role in aggression and were enriched in biological pathways affected by behavior. Their locations in the genome tended to form clusters spanning millions of bases in the genome.This study provides evidence of clustered and genome-wide variation in promoter DNA methylation in young adults that associates with a history of chronic physical aggression from 6 to 15 years of age. However, longitudinal studies of methylation during early childhood will be necessary to determine if and how this methylation variation in T cells DNA plays a role in early development of chronic physical aggression.

  19. Association of Childhood Chronic Physical Aggression with a DNA Methylation Signature in Adult Human T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Claire; Vitaro, Frank; Côté, Sylvana M.; Hallett, Michael; Tremblay, Richard E.; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic physical aggression (CPA) is characterized by frequent use of physical aggression from early childhood to adolescence. Observed in approximately 5% of males, CPA is associated with early childhood adverse environments and long-term negative consequences. Alterations in DNA methylation, a covalent modification of DNA that regulates genome function, have been associated with early childhood adversity. Aims To test the hypothesis that a trajectory of chronic physical aggression during childhood is associated with a distinct DNA methylation profile during adulthood. Methods We analyzed genome-wide promoter DNA methylation profiles of T cells from two groups of adult males assessed annually for frequency of physical aggression between 6 and 15 years of age: a group with CPA and a control group. Methylation profiles covering the promoter regions of 20 000 genes and 400 microRNAs were generated using MeDIP followed by hybridization to microarrays. Results In total, 448 distinct gene promoters were differentially methylated in CPA. Functionally, many of these genes have previously been shown to play a role in aggression and were enriched in biological pathways affected by behavior. Their locations in the genome tended to form clusters spanning millions of bases in the genome. Conclusions This study provides evidence of clustered and genome-wide variation in promoter DNA methylation in young adults that associates with a history of chronic physical aggression from 6 to 15 years of age. However, longitudinal studies of methylation during early childhood will be necessary to determine if and how this methylation variation in T cells DNA plays a role in early development of chronic physical aggression. PMID:24691403

  20. DNA methylation and transcription in HERV (K, W, E) and LINE sequences remain unchanged upon foreign DNA insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stefanie; Jung, Susan; Doerfler, Walter

    2016-02-01

    DNA methylation and transcriptional profiles were determined in the regulatory sequences of the human endogenous retroviral (HERV-K, -W, -E) and LINE-1.2 elements and were compared between non-transgenomic and plasmid-transgenomic cells. DNA methylation profiles in the HERV (K, W, E) and LINE sequences were determined by bisulfite genomic sequencing. The transcription of these genome segments was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. In HERV-K, HERV-W and LINE-1.2 the levels of DNA methylation ranged between 75 and 98%, while in HERV-E they were around 60%. Nevertheless, the HERV and LINE-1.2 sequences were actively transcribed. No differences were found in comparisons of HERV and LINE-1.2 CpG methylation and transcription patterns between non-transgenomic and plasmid-transgenomic HCT116 cells. The insertion of a 5.6 kbp plasmid into the HCT116 genome had no effect on the HERV and LINE-1.2 methylation and transcription profiles, although other parts of the HCT116 genome had shown marked changes. These repetitive sequences are transcribed, probably because the large number of HERV and LINE-1.2 elements harbor copies with non- or hypo-methylated long terminal repeat sequences.

  1. Plasticity of DNA methylation in mouse T cell activation and differentiation

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    Li Yan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating CD4+ T helper cells are activated through interactions with antigen presenting cells and undergo differentiation into specific T helper cell subsets depending on the type of antigen encountered. In addition, the relative composition of the circulating CD4+ T cell population changes as animals mature with an increased percentage of the population being memory/effector type cells. Results Here, we report on the highly plastic nature of DNA methylation at the genome-wide level as T cells undergo activation, differentiation and aging. Of particular note were the findings that DNA demethylation occurred rapidly following T cell activation and that all differentiated T cell populations displayed lower levels of global methylation than the non-differentiated population. In addition, T cells from older mice had a reduced level of DNA methylation, most likely explained by the increase in the memory/effector cell fraction. Although significant genome-wide changes were observed, changes in DNA methylation at individual genes were restricted to specific cell types. Changes in the expression of enzymes involved in DNA methylation and demethylation reflect in most cases the changes observed in the genome-wide DNA methylation status. Conclusion We have demonstrated that DNA methylation is dynamic and flexible in CD4+ T cells and changes rapidly both in a genome-wide and in a targeted manner during T cell activation, differentiation. These changes are accompanied by parallel changes in the enzymatic complexes that have been implicated in DNA methylation and demethylation implying that the balance between these opposing activities may play a role in the maintaining the methylation profile of a given cell type but also allow flexibility in a cell population that needs to respond rapidly to environmental signals.

  2. Heterogeneity in white blood cells has potential to confound DNA methylation measurements.

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    Bjorn T Adalsteinsson

    Full Text Available Epigenetic studies are commonly conducted on DNA from tissue samples. However, tissues are ensembles of cells that may each have their own epigenetic profile, and therefore inter-individual cellular heterogeneity may compromise these studies. Here, we explore the potential for such confounding on DNA methylation measurement outcomes when using DNA from whole blood. DNA methylation was measured using pyrosequencing-based methodology in whole blood (n = 50-179 and in two white blood cell fractions (n = 20, isolated using density gradient centrifugation, in four CGIs (CpG Islands located in genes HHEX (10 CpG sites assayed, KCNJ11 (8 CpGs, KCNQ1 (4 CpGs and PM20D1 (7 CpGs. Cellular heterogeneity (variation in proportional white blood cell counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, counted by an automated cell counter explained up to 40% (p<0.0001 of the inter-individual variation in whole blood DNA methylation levels in the HHEX CGI, but not a significant proportion of the variation in the other three CGIs tested. DNA methylation levels in the two cell fractions, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, differed significantly in the HHEX CGI; specifically the average absolute difference ranged between 3.4-15.7 percentage points per CpG site. In the other three CGIs tested, methylation levels in the two fractions did not differ significantly, and/or the difference was more moderate. In the examined CGIs, methylation levels were highly correlated between cell fractions. In summary, our analysis detects region-specific differential DNA methylation between white blood cell subtypes, which can confound the outcome of whole blood DNA methylation measurements. Finally, by demonstrating the high correlation between methylation levels in cell fractions, our results suggest a possibility to use a proportional number of a single white blood cell type to correct for this confounding effect in analyses.

  3. Maintenance and regulation of DNA methylation patterns in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao-xia; Riggs, Arthur D

    2005-08-01

    Proper establishment and faithful maintenance of epigenetic information is crucial for the correct development of complex organisms. For mammals, it is now accepted that DNA methylation is an important mechanism for establishing stable heritable epigenetic marks. The distribution of methylation in the genome is not random, and patterns of methylated and unmethylated DNA are well regulated during normal development. The molecular mechanisms by which methylation patterns are established and maintained are complex and just beginning to be understood. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding the regulation of mammalian DNA methylation patterns, with an emphasis on the emerging roles of several protein and possible RNA factors. We also revisit the stochastic model of maintenance methylation and discuss its implications for epigenetic fidelity and gene regulation.

  4. Identifying DNA Methylation Features that Underlie Prostate Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Profiles Primary Aim #1: Determine if methylation profiles differ by race/ancestry Primary Aim #2: Identify ethnicity-specific markers of prostate...cancer Primary Aim #3: Identify methylation Quantitative Trait Loci In the U.S., there are pronounced racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence...vary by ethnicity and to identify ethnicity-specific methylation features of prostate cancer that could contribute the racial disparities that exist in

  5. DNA methylation of methylation complex genes in relation to stress and genome-wide methylation in mother-newborn dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clukay, Christopher J; Hughes, David A; Rodney, Nicole C; Kertes, Darlene A; Mulligan, Connie J

    2017-10-13

    Early life stress is known to have enduring biological effects, particularly with respect to health. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are a possible mechanism to mediate the biological effect of stress. We previously found correlations between maternal stress, newborn birthweight, and genome-wide measures of DNA methylation. Here we investigate ten genes related to the methylation/demethylation complex in order to better understand the impact of stress on health. DNA methylation and genetic variants at methylation/demethylation genes were assayed. Mean methylation measures were constructed for each gene and tested, in addition to genetic variants, for association with maternal stress measures based on interview and survey data (chronic stress and war trauma), maternal venous, and newborn cord genome-wide mean methylation (GMM), and birthweight. After cell type correction, we found multiple pairwise associations between war trauma, maternal GMM, maternal methylation at DNMT1, DNMT3A, TET3, and MBD2, and birthweight. The association of maternal GMM and maternal methylation at DNMT1, DNMT3A, TET3, and MBD2 is consistent with the role of these genes in establishing, maintaining and altering genome-wide methylation patterns, in some cases in response to stress. DNMT1 produces one of the primary enzymes that reproduces methylation patterns during DNA replication. DNMT3A and TET3 have been implicated in genome-wide hypomethylation in response to glucocorticoid hormones. Although we cannot determine the directionality of the genic and genome-wide changes in methylation, our results suggest that altered methylation of specific methylation genes may be part of the molecular mechanism underlying the human biological response to stress. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Recognition of methylated DNA through methyl-CpG binding domain proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xueqing; Ma, Wen; Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Chipot, Christophe; Schulten, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key regulatory control route in epigenetics, involving gene silencing and chromosome inactivation. It has been recognized that methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins play an important role in interpreting the genetic information encoded by methylated DNA (mDNA). Although the function of MBD proteins has attracted considerable attention and is well characterized, the mechanism underlying mDNA recognition by MBD proteins is still poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrate that the methyl-CpG dinucleotides are recognized at the MBD–mDNA interface by two MBD arginines through an interplay of hydrogen bonding and cation-π interaction. Through molecular dynamics and quantum-chemistry calculations we investigate the methyl-cytosine recognition process and demonstrate that methylation enhances MBD–mDNA binding by increasing the hydrophobic interfacial area and by strengthening the interaction between mDNA and MBD proteins. Free-energy perturbation calculations also show that methylation yields favorable contribution to the binding free energy for MBD–mDNA complex. PMID:22110028

  7. [Participation of methylcobalamin in the methylation of Propionibacterium shermanii DNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoshkina, N V; Vorob'eva, L I; Iordan, E P

    1979-01-01

    Propionibacterium shermanii is characterized by a high content of 5-methylcytosine (5 MC). The level of 5-MC in B12-deficient cells of the culture is twice as low as in the control. The in vitro treatment of DNA isolated from the B12-deficient cells with methyl-cobalamin in the presence of the extract of control cells possessing the activity of DNA-methylase increases the content of 5-MC to the control level. No additional methylation of DNA in vitro takes place in the absence of the methylase system and in the presence of other forms of corrynoids. The methylating activity is displayed either in the presence of methionine or without it. The inhibitor of methylcobalamin, i.e. diftorchlormethyl-cobalamin, blocks methylation of DNA. Small quantities of S-adenosylmethionine are necessary for the reaction of methylation.

  8. Reelin (RELN) DNA methylation in the peripheral blood of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil Fikri, Rahim Mohd; Norlelawati, A Talib; Nour El-Huda, Abdul Rahim; Hanisah, Mohd Noor; Kartini, Abdullah; Norsidah, Kuzaifah; Nor Zamzila, Abdullah

    2017-05-01

    The epigenetic changes of RELN that are involved in the development of dopaminergic neurons may fit the developmental theory of schizophrenia. However, evidence regarding the association of RELN DNA methylation with schizophrenia is far from sufficient, as studies have only been conducted on a few limited brain samples. As DNA methylation in the peripheral blood may mirror the changes taking place in the brain, the use of peripheral blood for a DNA methylation study in schizophrenia is feasible due to the scarcity of brain samples. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the relationship of DNA methylation levels of RELN promoters with schizophrenia using genomic DNA derived from the peripheral blood of patients with the disorder. The case control studies consisted of 110 schizophrenia participants and 122 healthy controls who had been recruited from the same district. After bisufhite conversion, the methylation levels of the DNA samples were calculated based on their differences of the Cq values assayed using the highly sensitive real-time MethyLight TaqMan ® procedure. A significantly higher level of methylation of the RELN promoter was found in patients with schizophrenia compared to controls (p = 0.005) and also in males compared with females (p = 0.004). Subsequently, the RELN expression of the methylated group was 25 fold less than that of the non-methylated group. Based upon the assumption of parallel methylation changes in the brain and peripheral blood, we concluded that RELN DNA methylation might contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, the definite effects of methylation on RELN function during development and also in adult life still require further elaboration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heterochromatin Dynamics during the Differentiation Process Revealed by the DNA Methylation Reporter Mouse, MethylRO

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    Jun Ueda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, DNA is methylated at CpG sites, which play pivotal roles in gene silencing and chromatin organization. Furthermore, DNA methylation undergoes dynamic changes during development, differentiation, and in pathological processes. The conventional methods represent snapshots; therefore, the dynamics of this marker within living organisms remains unclear. To track this dynamics, we made a knockin mouse that expresses a red fluorescent protein (RFP-fused methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD protein from the ROSA26 locus ubiquitously; we named it MethylRO (methylation probe in ROSA26 locus. Using this mouse, we performed RFP-mediated methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq, whole-body section analysis, and live-cell imaging. We discovered that mobility and pattern of heterochromatin as well as DNA methylation signal intensity inside the nuclei can be markers for cellular differentiation status. Thus, the MethylRO mouse represents a powerful bioresource and technique for DNA methylation dynamics studies in developmental biology, stem cell biology, as well as in disease states.

  10. Effects of nickel on DNA methyltransferase activity and genomic DNA methylation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y W; Broday, L; Costa, M

    1998-07-31

    Methylation of DNA plays an important role in organizing the genome into transcriptionally active and inactive zones. Nickel compounds cause chromatin condensation and DNA methylation in the transgenic gpt+ Chinese hamster cell line (G12). Here we show that nickel is an inhibitor of cytosine 5-methyltransferase activity in vivo and in vitro. In living cells, this inhibition is transient and following a recovery period after nickel treatment, Mtase activity slightly rebounds. Genomic DNA methylation levels are also somewhat decreased following nickel treatment, but with time, there is an elevation of total DNA methylation above basal levels and before any rebound of methyltransferase activity. These results suggest that nickel exposure can elevate total genomic DNA methylation levels even when DNA methyltransferase activity is depressed. These findings may explain the hypermethylation of senescence and tumor suppressor genes found during nickel carcinogenesis and support the model of a direct effect of Ni2+ on chromatin leading to de novo DNA methylation.

  11. DNA methylation at modifier genes of lung disease severity is altered in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Milena; Rivals, Isabelle; Claustres, Mireille; Varilh, Jessica; Thomasset, Mélodie; Bergougnoux, Anne; Mely, Laurent; Leroy, Sylvie; Corvol, Harriet; Guillot, Loïc; Murris, Marlène; Beyne, Emmanuelle; Caimmi, Davide; Vachier, Isabelle; Chiron, Raphaël; De Sario, Albertina

    2017-01-01

    Lung disease progression is variable among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and depends on DNA mutations in the CFTR gene, polymorphic variations in disease modifier genes, and environmental exposure. The contribution of genetic factors has been extensively investigated, whereas the mechanism whereby environmental factors modulate the lung disease is unknown. In this project, we hypothesized that (i) reiterative stress alters the epigenome in CF-affected tissues and (ii) DNA methylation variations at disease modifier genes modulate the lung function in CF patients. We profiled DNA methylation at CFTR, the disease-causing gene, and at 13 lung modifier genes in nasal epithelial cells and whole blood samples from 48 CF patients and 24 healthy controls. CF patients homozygous for the p.Phe508del mutation and ≥18-year-old were stratified according to the lung disease severity. DNA methylation was measured by bisulfite and next-generation sequencing. The DNA methylation profile allowed us to correctly classify 75% of the subjects, thus providing a CF-specific molecular signature. Moreover, in CF patients, DNA methylation at specific genes was highly correlated in the same tissue sample. We suggest that gene methylation in CF cells may be co-regulated by disease-specific trans-factors. Three genes were differentially methylated in CF patients compared with controls and/or in groups of pulmonary severity: HMOX1 and GSTM3 in nasal epithelial samples; HMOX1 and EDNRA in blood samples. The association between pulmonary severity and DNA methylation at EDNRA was confirmed in blood samples from an independent set of CF patients. Also, lower DNA methylation levels at GSTM3 were associated with the GSTM3*B allele, a polymorphic 3-bp deletion that has a protective effect in cystic fibrosis. DNA methylation levels are altered in nasal epithelial and blood cell samples from CF patients. Analysis of CFTR and 13 lung disease modifier genes shows DNA methylation changes of small

  12. Regulation of DNA methylation on EEF1D and RPL8 expression in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Qin; Jiang, Li

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic changes to the epigenome play a critical role in a variety of biology processes and complex traits. Many important candidate genes have been identified through our previous genome wide association study (GWAS) on milk production traits in dairy cattle. However, the underlying mechanism of candidate genes have not yet been clearly understood. In this study, we analyzed the methylation variation of the candidate genes, EEF1D and RPL8, which were identified to be strongly associated with milk production traits in dairy cattle in our previous studies, and its effect on protein and mRNA expression. We compared DNA methylation profiles and gene expression levels of EEF1D and RPL8 in five different tissues (heart, liver, mammary gland, ovary and muscle) of three cows. Both genes showed the highest expression level in mammary gland. For RPL8, there was no difference in the DNA methylation pattern in the five tissues, suggesting no effect of DNA methylation on gene expression. For EEF1D, the DNA methylation levels of its first CpG island differed in the five tissues and were negatively correlated with the gene expression levels. To further investigate the function of DNA methylation on the expression of EEF1D, we collected blood samples of three cows at early stage of lactation and in dry period and analyzed its expression and the methylation status of the first CpG island in blood. As a result, the mRNA expression of EEF1D in the dry period was higher than that at the early stage of lactation, while the DNA methylation level in the dry period was lower than that at the early stage of lactation. Our result suggests that the DNA methylation of EEF1D plays an important role in the spatial and temporal regulation of its expression and possibly have an effect on the milk production traits.

  13. DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Van Dongen, Jenny; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) can have an impact on health outcomes in later life, especially in relation to pre-disposition to metabolic disease. Several studies suggest that LBW resulting from restricted intrauterine growth leaves a footprint on DNA methylation in utero, and this influence likely...... persists into adulthood. To investigate this further, we performed epigenome-wide association analyses of blood DNA methylation using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip profiles in 71 adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who were extremely discordant for birth weight. A signal mapping to the IGF1R gene (cg...... were not significant. However, a meta-analysis across the four independent samples, in total 216 birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs, showed a significant positive association between birth weight and DNA methylation differences at IGF1R (random-effects meta-analysis p = .04), and the effect...

  14. De novo DNMTs and DNA methylation: novel insights into disease pathogenesis and therapy from epigenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Sylwia; Matarazzo, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in epigenetics signaling, having an impact on gene regulation, chromatin structure and development. Within the family of de novo DNA methyltransferases two active enzymes, DNMT3A and DNMT3B, are responsible for the establishment of the proper cytosine methylation profile during development. Defects in DNMT3s function correlate with pathogenesis and progression of monogenic diseases and cancers. Among monogenic diseases, Immunodeficiency, Centromeric instability and Facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome is the only Mendelian disorder associated with DNMT3B mutations and DNA methylation defects of satellite and non-satellite regions. Similar CpG hypomethylation of the repetitive elements and gene-specific hypermethylation are observed in many types of cancer. DNA hyper-methylation sites provide targets for the epigenetic therapy. Generally, we can distinguish two groups of epi-drugs affecting DNMTs activity, i) nucleoside inhibitors, covalently trapping the enzymes, and bringing higher cytotoxic effect and (ii) nonnucleoside inhibitors, which block their active sites, showing less side-effects. Moreover, combining drugs targeting chromatin and those targeting DNA methylation enhances the efficacy of the therapy and gives more chances of patient recovery. However, development of more specific and effective epigenetic therapies requires more complete understanding of epigenomic landscapes. Here, we give an overview of the recent findings in the epigenomics field, focusing on those related to DNA methylation defects in disease pathogenesis and therapy.

  15. Variation in DNA methylation of the oxytocin receptor gene predicts children's resilience to prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaniak, Izabela; Cecil, Charlotte A M; Barker, Edward D; Relton, Caroline L; Gaunt, Tom R; McArdle, Wendy; Jaffee, Sara R

    2017-12-01

    Emerging research in epigenetics has shown that there is variability in how environmental exposures "get under the skin" through mechanisms like DNA methylation to influence gene expression that may lead to differential adaptations to stress. This is the first study to examine prospectively the relationship between DNA methylation at birth and resilience to prenatal environmental stressors in several domains (conduct, hyperactivity, emotional problems, and global symptomatology) in middle childhood. We focused on DNA methylation in the vicinity of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene as it has been previously associated with impairments in social-cognitive processes that may underlie a wide range of childhood psychopathology. Participants were 91 youth exposed to pre- and postnatal adversity with established conduct problem trajectories drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Consistent with our hypothesis, OXTR DNA methylation was predictive of resilience in the conduct problems domain in middle childhood. DNA methylation profiles did not predict resilience in domains of emotional, hyperactivity, and global symptomatology, suggesting a potential role for OXTR in the development of conduct problems in particular. However, individuals who were resilient to conduct problems were also broadly resilient across multiple domains. Therefore, future research should elucidate the biological pathways between OXTR DNA methylation and gene expression and its relation to impairments in social behavior.

  16. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Mayumi; Shimada, Midori; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu; Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural and Functional Coordination of DNA and Histone Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    One of the most fundamental questions in the control of gene expression in mammals is how epigenetic methylation patterns of DNA and histones are established, erased, and recognized. This central process in controlling gene expression includes coordinated covalent modifications of DNA and its associated histones. This article focuses on structural aspects of enzymatic activities of histone (arginine and lysine) methylation and demethylation and functional links between the methylation status of the DNA and histones. An interconnected network of methyltransferases, demethylases, and accessory proteins is responsible for changing or maintaining the modification status of specific regions of chromatin. PMID:25085914

  18. DNA methylation characteristics of primary melanomas with distinct biological behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Ecsedi

    Full Text Available In melanoma, the presence of promoter related hypermethylation has previously been reported, however, no methylation-based distinction has been drawn among the diverse melanoma subtypes. Here, we investigated DNA methylation changes associated with melanoma progression and links between methylation patterns and other types of somatic alterations, including the most frequent mutations and DNA copy number changes. Our results revealed that the methylome, presenting in early stage samples and associated with the BRAF(V600E mutation, gradually decreased in the medium and late stages of the disease. An inverse relationship among the other predefined groups and promoter methylation was also revealed except for histologic subtype, whereas the more aggressive, nodular subtype melanomas exhibited hypermethylation as well. The Breslow thickness, which is a continuous variable, allowed for the most precise insight into how promoter methylation decreases from stage to stage. Integrating our methylation results with a high-throughput copy number alteration dataset, local correlations were detected in the MYB and EYA4 genes. With regard to the effects of DNA hypermethylation on melanoma patients' survival, correcting for clinical cofounders, only the KIT gene was associated with a lower overall survival rate. In this study, we demonstrate the strong influence of promoter localized DNA methylation changes on melanoma initiation and show how hypermethylation decreases in melanomas associated with less favourable clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we establish the methylation pattern as part of an integrated apparatus of somatic DNA alterations.

  19. Epigenetic DNA Methylation Mediating Octopus vulgaris Early Development: Effect of Essential Fatty Acids Enriched Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García-Fernández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, is a good candidate for aquaculture but a sustainable production is still unviable due to an almost total mortality during the paralarvae stage. DNA methylation regulates gene expression in the eukaryotic genome, and has been shown to exhibit plasticity throughout O. vulgaris life cycle, changing profiles from paralarvae to adult stages. This pattern of methylation could be sensitive to small alterations in nutritional and environmental conditions during the species early development, thus impacting on its health, growth and survival. In this sense, a full understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms operating during O. vulgaris development would contribute to optimizing the culture conditions for this species. Paralarvae of O. vulgaris were cultured over 28 days post-hatching (dph using two different Artemia sp. based diets: control and a long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA enriched diet. The effect of the diets on the paralarvae DNA global methylation was analyzed by Methyl-Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP and global 5-methylcytosine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA approaches. The analysis of different methylation states over the time revealed a global demethylation phenomena occurring along O. vulgaris early development being directly driven by the age of the paralarvae. A gradual decline in methylated loci (hemimethylated, internal cytosine methylated, and hypermethylated parallel to a progressive gain in non-methylated (NMT loci toward the later sampling points was verified regardless of the diet provided and demonstrate a pre-established and well-defined demethylation program during its early development, involving a 20% of the MSAP loci. In addition, a differential behavior between diets was also observed at 20 dph, with a LC-PUFA supplementation effect over the methylation profiles. The present results show significant differences on the paralarvae methylation profiles

  20. Epigenetic DNA Methylation Mediating Octopus vulgaris Early Development: Effect of Essential Fatty Acids Enriched Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Pablo; García-Souto, Danie; Almansa, Eduardo; Morán, Paloma; Gestal, Camino

    2017-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, is a good candidate for aquaculture but a sustainable production is still unviable due to an almost total mortality during the paralarvae stage. DNA methylation regulates gene expression in the eukaryotic genome, and has been shown to exhibit plasticity throughout O. vulgaris life cycle, changing profiles from paralarvae to adult stages. This pattern of methylation could be sensitive to small alterations in nutritional and environmental conditions during the species early development, thus impacting on its health, growth and survival. In this sense, a full understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms operating during O. vulgaris development would contribute to optimizing the culture conditions for this species. Paralarvae of O. vulgaris were cultured over 28 days post-hatching (dph) using two different Artemia sp. based diets: control and a long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) enriched diet. The effect of the diets on the paralarvae DNA global methylation was analyzed by Methyl-Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP) and global 5-methylcytosine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) approaches. The analysis of different methylation states over the time revealed a global demethylation phenomena occurring along O. vulgaris early development being directly driven by the age of the paralarvae. A gradual decline in methylated loci (hemimethylated, internal cytosine methylated, and hypermethylated) parallel to a progressive gain in non-methylated (NMT) loci toward the later sampling points was verified regardless of the diet provided and demonstrate a pre-established and well-defined demethylation program during its early development, involving a 20% of the MSAP loci. In addition, a differential behavior between diets was also observed at 20 dph, with a LC-PUFA supplementation effect over the methylation profiles. The present results show significant differences on the paralarvae methylation profiles during its

  1. Whole-genome DNA methylation characteristics in pediatric precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Chaber

    Full Text Available In addition to genetic alterations, epigenetic abnormalities have been shown to underlie the pathogenesis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL-the most common pediatric cancer. The purpose of this study was to characterize the whole genome DNA methylation profile in children with precursor B-cell ALL (BCP ALL and to compare this profile with methylation observed in normal bone marrow samples. Additional efforts were made to correlate the observed methylation patterns with selected clinical features. We assessed DNA methylation from bone marrow samples obtained from 38 children with BCP ALL at the time of diagnosis along with 4 samples of normal bone marrow cells as controls using Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip Array. Patients were diagnosed and stratified into prognosis groups according to the BFM ALL IC 2009 protocol. The analysis of differentially methylated sites across the genome as well as promoter methylation profiles allowed clear separation of the leukemic and control samples into two clusters. 86.6% of the promoter-associated differentially methylated sites were hypermethylated in BCP ALL. Seven sites were found to correlate with the BFM ALL IC 2009 high risk group. Amongst these, one was located within the gene body of the MBP gene and another was within the promoter region- PSMF1 gene. Differentially methylated sites that were significantly related with subsets of patients with ETV6-RUNX1 fusion and hyperdiploidy. The analyzed translocations and change of genes' sequence context does not affect methylation and methylation seems not to be a mechanism for the regulation of expression of the resulting fusion genes.

  2. Hemi-methylated DNA regulates DNA methylation inheritance through allosteric activation of H3 ubiquitylation by UHRF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joseph S; Cornett, Evan M; Goldfarb, Dennis; DaRosa, Paul A; Li, Zimeng M; Yan, Feng; Dickson, Bradley M; Guo, Angela H; Cantu, Daniel V; Kaustov, Lilia; Brown, Peter J; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Erie, Dorothy A; Major, Michael B; Klevit, Rachel E; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Kuhlman, Brian; Strahl, Brian D; Rothbart, Scott B

    2016-09-06

    The epigenetic inheritance of DNA methylation requires UHRF1, a histone- and DNA-binding RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that recruits DNMT1 to sites of newly replicated DNA through ubiquitylation of histone H3. UHRF1 binds DNA with selectivity towards hemi-methylated CpGs (HeDNA); however, the contribution of HeDNA sensing to UHRF1 function remains elusive. Here, we reveal that the interaction of UHRF1 with HeDNA is required for DNA methylation but is dispensable for chromatin interaction, which is governed by reciprocal positive cooperativity between the UHRF1 histone- and DNA-binding domains. HeDNA recognition activates UHRF1 ubiquitylation towards multiple lysines on the H3 tail adjacent to the UHRF1 histone-binding site. Collectively, our studies are the first demonstrations of a DNA-protein interaction and an epigenetic modification directly regulating E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. They also define an orchestrated epigenetic control mechanism involving modifications both to histones and DNA that facilitate UHRF1 chromatin targeting, H3 ubiquitylation, and DNA methylation inheritance.

  3. Experimental mitochondria-targeted DNA methylation identifies GpC methylation, not CpG methylation, as potential regulator of mitochondrial gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    van der Wijst, Monique G. P.; van Tilburg, Amanda Y.; Marcel H J Ruiters; Rots, Marianne G

    2017-01-01

    Like the nucleus, mitochondria contain their own DNA and recent reports provide accumulating evidence that also the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is subjective to DNA methylation. This evidence includes the demonstration of mitochondria-localised DNA methyltransferases and demethylases, and the detection of mtDNA methylation as well as hydroxymethylation. Importantly, differential mtDNA methylation has been linked to aging and diseases, including cancer and diabetes. However, functionality of mtD...

  4. Genome-wide methylation analysis of DNMT3B gene isoforms revealed specific methylation profiles in breast cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Karine V; Labrie, Yvan; Ouellette, Geneviève; Pouliot, Marie-Christine; Durocher, Francine

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize the specific methylation profile triggered by DNMT3B protein isoforms expressed at different levels in breast cell lines. Microarray DNA methylation data were analyzed and associated with functional genome annotation data. A large spectrum of DNMT3B3/DNMT3B2 expression ratio values was observed in parental breast cell lines. According to their methylation profiles, hierarchical clustering of untransfected cell lines revealed clustering based on their ER/PR status. Overexpression of DNMT3B3 triggered methylation changes of thousands of CpG sites in breast cells. Based on the trend of methylation changes, the results suggest an antiproliferative action of the DNMT3B3 isoform through a dominant negative effect on its wild-type counterpart DNMT3B2. This study revealed specific pathways modulated by DNMT3B isoforms, which could regulate cell proliferation and other biological mechanisms. This illustrates the importance of multiple interactions between isoforms in the complexity of methylation processes.

  5. Allele-Specific DNA Methylation Detection by Pyrosequencing®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer Kristensen, Lasse; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays important roles in healthy as well as diseased cells, by influencing the transcription of genes. In spite the fact that human somatic cells are diploid, most of the currently available methods for the study of DNA methylation do not provide......-effective protocol for allele-specific DNA methylation detection based on Pyrosequencing(®) of methylation-specific PCR (MSP) products including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the amplicon....... information on the methylation status of individual alleles of genes. This information may be of importance in many situations. In particular, in cancer both alleles of tumour suppressor genes generally need to be inactivated for a phenotypic effect to be observed. Here, we present a simple and cost...

  6. Correspondence of DNA Methylation Between Blood and Brain Tissue and Its Application to Schizophrenia Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Esther; Hass, Johanna; Liu, Jingyu; Roffman, Joshua L; Bernardoni, Fabio; Roessner, Veit; Kirsch, Matthias; Schackert, Gabriele; Calhoun, Vince; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Given the difficulty of procuring human brain tissue, a key question in molecular psychiatry concerns the extent to which epigenetic signatures measured in more accessible tissues such as blood can serve as a surrogate marker for the brain. Here, we aimed (1) to investigate the blood-brain correspondence of DNA methylation using a within-subject design and (2) to identify changes in DNA methylation of brain-related biological pathways in schizophrenia.We obtained paired blood and temporal lobe biopsy samples simultaneously from 12 epilepsy patients during neurosurgical treatment. Using the Infinium 450K methylation array we calculated similarity of blood and brain DNA methylation for each individual separately. We applied our findings by performing gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) of peripheral blood DNA methylation data (Infinium 27K) of 111 schizophrenia patients and 122 healthy controls and included only Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites that were significantly correlated across tissues.Only 7.9% of CpG sites showed a statistically significant, large correlation between blood and brain tissue, a proportion that although small was significantly greater than predicted by chance. GSEA analysis of schizophrenia data revealed altered methylation profiles in pathways related to precursor metabolites and signaling peptides.Our findings indicate that most DNA methylation markers in peripheral blood do not reliably predict brain DNA methylation status. However, a subset of peripheral data may proxy methylation status of brain tissue. Restricting the analysis to these markers can identify meaningful epigenetic differences in schizophrenia and potentially other brain disorders. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A variational Bayes beta mixture model for feature selection in DNA methylation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhanyu; Teschendorff, Andrew E

    2013-08-01

    An increasing number of studies are using beadarrays to measure DNA methylation on a genome-wide basis. The purpose is to identify novel biomarkers in a wide range of complex genetic diseases including cancer. A common difficulty encountered in these studies is distinguishing true biomarkers from false positives. While statistical methods aimed at improving the feature selection step have been developed for gene expression, relatively few methods have been adapted to DNA methylation data, which is naturally beta-distributed. Here we explore and propose an innovative application of a recently developed variational Bayesian beta-mixture model (VBBMM) to the feature selection problem in the context of DNA methylation data generated from a highly popular beadarray technology. We demonstrate that VBBMM offers significant improvements in inference and feature selection in this type of data compared to an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm, at a significantly reduced computational cost. We further demonstrate the added value of VBBMM as a feature selection and prioritization step in the context of identifying prognostic markers in breast cancer. A variational Bayesian approach to feature selection of DNA methylation profiles should thus be of value to any study undergoing large-scale DNA methylation profiling in search of novel biomarkers.

  8. DNA sequence explains seemingly disordered methylation levels in partially methylated domains of Mammalian genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimos Gaidatzis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For the most part metazoan genomes are highly methylated and harbor only small regions with low or absent methylation. In contrast, partially methylated domains (PMDs, recently discovered in a variety of cell lines and tissues, do not fit this paradigm as they show partial methylation for large portions (20%-40% of the genome. While in PMDs methylation levels are reduced on average, we found that at single CpG resolution, they show extensive variability along the genome outside of CpG islands and DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS. Methylation levels range from 0% to 100% in a roughly uniform fashion with only little similarity between neighboring CpGs. A comparison of various PMD-containing methylomes showed that these seemingly disordered states of methylation are strongly conserved across cell types for virtually every PMD. Comparative sequence analysis suggests that DNA sequence is a major determinant of these methylation states. This is further substantiated by a purely sequence based model which can predict 31% (R(2 of the variation in methylation. The model revealed CpG density as the main driving feature promoting methylation, opposite to what has been shown for CpG islands, followed by various dinucleotides immediately flanking the CpG and a minor contribution from sequence preferences reflecting nucleosome positioning. Taken together we provide a reinterpretation for the nucleotide-specific methylation levels observed in PMDs, demonstrate their conservation across tissues and suggest that they are mainly determined by specific DNA sequence features.

  9. Salt stress alters DNA methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Lawati, A; Al-Bahry, S; Victor, R; Al-Lawati, A H; Yaish, M W

    2016-01-01

    Modification of DNA methylation status is one of the mechanisms used by plants to adjust gene expression at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels when plants are exposed to suboptimal conditions...

  10. Decoding the regulatory landscape of medulloblastoma using DNA methylation sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovestadt, Volker; Jones, David T. W.; Picelli, Simone; Wang, Wei; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A.; Sultan, Marc; Stachurski, Katharina; Ryzhova, Marina; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Ralser, Meryem; Brun, Sonja; Bunt, Jens; Jäger, Natalie; Kleinheinz, Kortine; Erkek, Serap; Weber, Ursula D.; Bartholomae, Cynthia C.; von Kalle, Christof; Lawerenz, Chris; Eils, Jürgen; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; Schmidt, Sabine; Wolf, Stephan; Pietsch, Torsten; Rutkowski, Stefan; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Taylor, Michael D.; Brors, Benedikt; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Borkhardt, Arndt; Lehrach, Hans; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Eils, Roland; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Landgraf, Pablo; Korshunov, Andrey; Zapatka, Marc; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Pfister, Stefan M.; Lichter, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations, that is, disruption of DNA methylation and chromatin architecture, are now acknowledged as a universal feature of tumorigenesis. Medulloblastoma, a clinically challenging, malignant childhood brain tumour, is no exception. Despite much progress from recent genomics studies,

  11. DNA methylation variation of human-specific Alu repeats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Arundhati; Herke, Scott W.; Batzer, Mark A.; Kim, Joomyeong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA methylation is the major repression mechanism for human retrotransposons, such as the Alu family. Here, we have determined the methylation levels associated with 5238 loci belonging to 2 Alu subfamilies, AluYa5 and AluYb8, using high-throughput targeted repeat element bisulfite sequencing (HT-TREBS). The results indicate that ∼90% of loci are repressed by high methylation levels. Of the remaining loci, many of the hypomethylated elements are found near gene promoters and show high levels of DNA methylation variation. We have characterized this variation in the context of tumorigenesis and interindividual differences. Comparison of a primary breast tumor and its matched normal tissue revealed early DNA methylation changes in ∼1% of AluYb8 elements in response to tumorigenesis. Simultaneously, AluYa5/Yb8 elements proximal to promoters also showed differences in methylation of up to one order of magnitude, even between normal individuals. Overall, the current study demonstrates that early loss of methylation occurs during tumorigenesis in a subset of young Alu elements, suggesting their potential clinical relevance. However, approaches such as deep-bisulfite-sequencing of individual loci using HT-TREBS are required to distinguish clinically relevant loci from the background observed for AluYa5/Yb8 elements in general with regard to high levels of interindividual variation in DNA methylation. PMID:26890526

  12. DNA methylation and genetic diversity analysis of genus Cycas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10 Cycas species as well as one subspecies localized in Thailand were studied using the methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) technique. 11 MSAP primer combinations were used and 720 MSAP bands were generated. The percentages of DNA methylation estimated from MSAP fingerprints were in ...

  13. DNA methylation supports intrinsic epigenetic memory in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the role of DNA methylation in the initiation and maintenance of silenced chromatin in somatic mammalian cells. We found that a mutated transgene, in which all the CpG dinucleotides have been eliminated, underwent transcriptional silencing to the same extent as the unmodified transgene. These observations demonstrate that DNA methylation is not required for silencing. The silenced CpG-free transgene exhibited all the features of heterochromatin, including silencing of transcriptional activity, delayed DNA replication, lack of histone H3 and H4 acetylation, lack of H3-K4 methylation, and enrichment in tri-methyl-H3-K9. In contrast, when we tested for transgene reactivation using a Cre recombinase-mediated inversion assay, we observed a marked difference between a CpG-free and an unmodified transgene: the CpG-free transgene resumed transcription and did not exhibit markers of heterochromatin whereas the unmodified transgene remained silenced. These data indicate that methylation of CpG residues conferred epigenetic memory in this system. These results also suggest that replication delay, lack of histone H3 and H4 acetylation, H3-K4 methylation, and enrichment in tri-methyl-H3-K9 are not sufficient to confer epigenetic memory. We propose that DNA methylation within transgenes serves as an intrinsic epigenetic memory to permanently silence transgenes and prevent their reactivation.

  14. DNA methylation supports intrinsic epigenetic memory in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong-Qing; Desprat, Romain; Fu, Haiqing; Olivier, Emmanuel; Lin, Chii Mei; Lobell, Amanda; Gowda, Shilpa N; Aladjem, Mirit I; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2006-04-01

    We have investigated the role of DNA methylation in the initiation and maintenance of silenced chromatin in somatic mammalian cells. We found that a mutated transgene, in which all the CpG dinucleotides have been eliminated, underwent transcriptional silencing to the same extent as the unmodified transgene. These observations demonstrate that DNA methylation is not required for silencing. The silenced CpG-free transgene exhibited all the features of heterochromatin, including silencing of transcriptional activity, delayed DNA replication, lack of histone H3 and H4 acetylation, lack of H3-K4 methylation, and enrichment in tri-methyl-H3-K9. In contrast, when we tested for transgene reactivation using a Cre recombinase-mediated inversion assay, we observed a marked difference between a CpG-free and an unmodified transgene: the CpG-free transgene resumed transcription and did not exhibit markers of heterochromatin whereas the unmodified transgene remained silenced. These data indicate that methylation of CpG residues conferred epigenetic memory in this system. These results also suggest that replication delay, lack of histone H3 and H4 acetylation, H3-K4 methylation, and enrichment in tri-methyl-H3-K9 are not sufficient to confer epigenetic memory. We propose that DNA methylation within transgenes serves as an intrinsic epigenetic memory to permanently silence transgenes and prevent their reactivation.

  15. DNA methylation and sensitivity to antimetabolites in cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shin; Kobunai, Takashi; Kitayama, Joji; Nagawa, Hirokazu

    2008-02-01

    The prediction of the cellular direction of metabolic pathways toward either DNA synthesis or DNA methylation is crucial for determining the susceptibility of cancers to anti-metabolites such as fluorouracil (5-FU). We genotyped the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in NCI-60 cancer cell lines, and identified the methylation status of 24 tumor suppressor genes using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. The susceptibility of the cancer cell lines to seven antimetabolites was then determined. Cells homozygous for CC at MTHFR-A1298C were significantly more sensitive to cyclocytidine, cytarabine (AraC) and floxuridine than those with AA or AC (p=0.0215, p=0.0166, and p=0.0323, respectively), and carried more methylated tumor suppressor genes (p=0.0313). Among the 12 tumor suppressor genes which were methylated in >25% of cancer cell lines, the methylation status of TIMP3, APC and IGSF4 significantly correlated with sensitivity to pyrimidine synthesis inhibitors. In particular, cells with methylated TIMP3 had reduced mRNA levels and were significantly more sensitive to aphidicolin-glycinate, AraC and 5-FU than cells with unmethylated TIMP3. We speculate that MTHFR-A1298C homozygous CC might direct the methylation rather than the synthesis of DNA, and result in the methylation of several tumor suppressor genes such as TIMP3. These genes could be useful biological markers for predicting the efficacy of antimetabolites.

  16. The application of methylation specific electrophoresis (MSE to DNA methylation analysis of the 5' CpG island of mucin in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Seiya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylation of CpG sites in genomic DNA plays an important role in gene regulation and especially in gene silencing. We have reported mechanisms of epigenetic regulation for expression of mucins, which are markers of malignancy potential and early detection of human neoplasms. Epigenetic changes in promoter regions appear to be the first step in expression of mucins. Thus, detection of promoter methylation status is important for early diagnosis of cancer, monitoring of tumor behavior, and evaluating the response of tumors to targeted therapy. However, conventional analytical methods for DNA methylation require a large amount of DNA and have low sensitivity. Methods Here, we report a modified version of the bisulfite-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using a nested PCR approach. We designated this method as methylation specific electrophoresis (MSE. The MSE method is comprised of the following steps: (a bisulfite treatment of genomic DNA, (b amplification of the target DNA by a nested PCR approach and (c applying to DGGE. To examine whether the MSE method is able to analyze DNA methylation of mucin genes in various samples, we apply it to DNA obtained from state cell lines, ethanol-fixed colonic crypts and human pancreatic juices. Result The MSE method greatly decreases the amount of input DNA. The lower detection limit for distinguishing different methylation status is Conclusions The MSE method can provide a qualitative information of methylated sequence profile. The MSE method allows sensitive and specific analysis of the DNA methylation pattern of almost any block of multiple CpG sites. The MSE method can be applied to analysis of DNA methylation status in many different clinical samples, and this may facilitate identification of new risk markers.

  17. High-resolution analysis of cytosine methylation in ancient DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Llamas

    Full Text Available Epigenetic changes to gene expression can result in heritable phenotypic characteristics that are not encoded in the DNA itself, but rather by biochemical modifications to the DNA or associated chromatin proteins. Interposed between genes and environment, these epigenetic modifications can be influenced by environmental factors to affect phenotype for multiple generations. This raises the possibility that epigenetic states provide a substrate for natural selection, with the potential to participate in the rapid adaptation of species to changes in environment. Any direct test of this hypothesis would require the ability to measure epigenetic states over evolutionary timescales. Here we describe the first single-base resolution of cytosine methylation patterns in an ancient mammalian genome, by bisulphite allelic sequencing of loci from late Pleistocene Bison priscus remains. Retrotransposons and the differentially methylated regions of imprinted loci displayed methylation patterns identical to those derived from fresh bovine tissue, indicating that methylation patterns are preserved in the ancient DNA. Our findings establish the biochemical stability of methylated cytosines over extensive time frames, and provide the first direct evidence that cytosine methylation patterns are retained in DNA from ancient specimens. The ability to resolve cytosine methylation in ancient DNA provides a powerful means to study the role of epigenetics in evolution.

  18. Methylation interactions in Arabidopsis hybrids require RNA-directed DNA methylation and are influenced by genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Dong; Lang, Zhaobo; He, Li; Yang, Lan; Zeng, Liang; Li, Yanqiang; Zhao, Cheng; Huang, Huan; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Huiming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-07-19

    DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic mark in plants and many animals. How parental alleles interact in progeny to influence the epigenome is poorly understood. We analyzed the DNA methylomes of Arabidopsis Col and C24 ecotypes, and their hybrid progeny. Hybrids displayed nonadditive DNA methylation levels, termed methylation interactions, throughout the genome. Approximately 2,500 methylation interactions occurred at regions where parental DNA methylation levels are similar, whereas almost 1,000 were at differentially methylated regions in parents. Methylation interactions were characterized by an abundance of 24-nt small interfering RNAs. Furthermore, dysfunction of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway abolished methylation interactions but did not affect the increased biomass observed in hybrid progeny. Methylation interactions correlated with altered genetic variation within the genome, suggesting that they may play a role in genome evolution.

  19. Inheritance of DNA methylation in Coprinus cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolan, M E; Pukkila, P J

    1986-01-01

    We examined the inheritance of 5-methylcytosine residues at a centromere-linked locus in the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus. Although methylated and unmethylated tracts were inherited both mitotically and meiotically the lengths of these tracts were variable. This variation was not confined to any one phase of the life cycle of the organism, and it usually involved the simultaneous de novo methylation of at least four HpaII-MspI sites. We also found that the higher levels of methylation at this locus were transmitted through meiosis, regardless of the level of methylation of the homologous chromosome. Images PMID:3785146

  20. Meta-analysis of DNA methylation biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Jinyun; Huang, Tao; Duan, Shiwei; Dai, Dongjun; Jiang, Danjie; Sui, Xinbing; Li, Da; Chen, Yidan; Ding, Fei; Huang, Changxin; Chen, Gongying; Wang, Kaifeng

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to evaluate the contribution of DNA methylation to the risk of HCC. A total of 2109 publications were initially retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang literature database. After a four-step filtration, we harvested 144 case-control articles in the meta-analysis. Our results revealed that 24 genes (carcinoma t...

  1. DNA methylation in states of cell physiology and pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is one of epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression. The methylation pattern is determined during embryogenesis and passed over to differentiating cells and tissues. In a normal cell, a significant degree of methylation is characteristic for extragenic DNA (cytosine within the CG dinucleotide while CpG islands located in gene promoters are unmethylated, except for inactive genes of the X chromosome and the genes subjected to genomic imprinting. The changes in the methylation pattern, which may appear as the organism age and in early stages of cancerogenesis, may lead to the silencing of over ninety endogenic genes. It has been found, that these disorders consist not only of the methylation of CpG islands, which are normally unmethylated, but also of the methylation of other dinucleotides, e.g. CpA. Such methylation has been observed in non-small cell lung cancer, in three regions of the exon 5 of the p53 gene (so-called "non-CpG" methylation. The knowledge of a normal methylation process and its aberrations appeared to be useful while searching for new markers enabling an early detection of cancer. With the application of the Real-Time PCR technique (using primers for methylated and unmethylated sequences five new genes which are potential biomarkers of lung cancer have been presented.

  2. Integrative analyses of gene expression and DNA methylation profiles in breast cancer cell line models of tamoxifen-resistance indicate a potential role of cells with stem-like properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Xue; Li, Jian; Yin, Guangliang

    2013-01-01

    Development of resistance to tamoxifen is an important clinical issue in the treatment of breast cancer. Tamoxifen resistance may be the result of acquisition of epigenetic regulation within breast cancer cells, such as DNA methylation, resulting in changed mRNA expression of genes pivotal...

  3. Dicer-independent RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong-Lei; Zhang, Guiping; Tang, Kai; Li, Jingwen; Yang, Lan; Huang, Huan; Zhang, Heng; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an important de novo DNA methylation pathway in plants. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) generated by Dicers from RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) transcripts are thought to guide sequence-specific DNA methylation. To gain insight into the mechanism of RdDM, we performed whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of a collection of Arabidopsis mutants, including plants deficient in Pol IV (nrpd1) or Dicer (dcl1/2/3/4) activity. Unexpectedly, of the RdDM target loci that required Pol IV and/or Pol V, only 16% were fully dependent on Dicer activity. DNA methylation was partly or completely independent of Dicer activity at the remaining Pol IV- and/or Pol V-dependent loci, despite the loss of 24-nt siRNAs. Instead, DNA methylation levels correlated with the accumulation of Pol IV-dependent 25-50 nt RNAs at most loci in Dicer mutant plants. Our results suggest that RdDM in plants is largely guided by a previously unappreciated class of Dicer-independent non-coding RNAs, and that siRNAs are required to maintain DNA methylation at only a subset of loci.

  4. DNA methylation changes at infertility genes in newborn twins conceived by in vitro fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Fernandez, Juan E; Loke, Yuk Jing; Bass-Stringer, Sebastian; Gao, Fei; Xia, Yudong; Wu, Honglong; Lu, Hanlin; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Spector, Tim D; Saffery, Richard; Craig, Jeffrey M; Bell, Jordana T

    2017-03-24

    The association of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and DNA methylation has been studied predominantly at regulatory regions of imprinted genes and at just thousands of the ~28 million CpG sites in the human genome. We investigated the links between IVF and DNA methylation patterns in whole cord blood cells (n = 98) and cord blood mononuclear cells (n = 82) from newborn twins using genome-wide methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing. At a false discovery rate (FDR) of 5%, we identified one significant whole blood DNA methylation change linked to conception via IVF, which was located ~3 kb upstream of TNP1, a gene previously linked to male infertility. The 46 most strongly associated signals (FDR of 25%) included a second region in a gene also previously linked to infertility, C9orf3, suggesting that our findings may in part capture the effect of parental subfertility. Using twin modelling, we observed that individual-specific environmental factors appear to be the main overall contributors of methylation variability at the FDR 25% IVF-associated differentially methylated regions, although evidence for methylation heritability was also obtained at several of these regions. We replicated previous findings of differential methylation associated with IVF at the H19/IGF2 region in cord blood mononuclear cells, and we validated the signal at C9orf3 in monozygotic twins. We also explored the impact of intracytoplasmic sperm injection on the FDR 25% signals for potential effects specific to male or female infertility factors. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive study of DNA methylation profiles at birth and IVF conception to date, and our results show evidence for epigenetic modifications that may in part reflect parental subfertility.

  5. The impact of methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) on active smoking-related DNA methylation changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xu; Thomsen, Hauke; Zhang, Yan; Breitling, Lutz Philipp; Brenner, Hermann

    2017-01-01

    Methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) are the genetic variants that may affect the DNA methylation patterns of CpG sites. However, their roles in influencing the disturbances of smoking-related epigenetic changes have not been well established. This study was conducted to address whether mQTLs exist in the vicinity of smoking-related CpG sites (± 50 kb) and to examine their associations with smoking exposure and all-cause mortality in older adults. We obtained DNA methylation profiles in whole blood samples by Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 BeadChip array of two independent subsamples of the ESTHER study (discovery set, n = 581; validation set, n = 368) and their corresponding genotyping data using the Illumina Infinium OncoArray BeadChip. After correction for multiple testing (FDR), we successfully identified that 70 out of 151 previously reported smoking-related CpG sites were significantly associated with 192 SNPs within the 50 kb search window of each locus. The 192 mQTLs significantly influenced the active smoking-related DNA methylation changes, with percentage changes ranging from 0.01 to 18.96%, especially for the weakly/moderately smoking-related CpG sites. However, these identified mQTLs were not directly associated with active smoking exposure or all-cause mortality. Our findings clearly demonstrated that if not dealt with properly, the mQTLs might impair the power of epigenetic-based models of smoking exposure to a certain extent. In addition, such genetic variants could be the key factor to distinguish between the heritable and smoking-induced impact on epigenome disparities. These mQTLs are of special importance when DNA methylation markers measured by Illumina Infinium assay are used for any comparative population studies related to smoking-related cancers and chronic diseases.

  6. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruta, Mayumi [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Shimada, Midori, E-mail: midorism@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle [Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, 26 rue d’Ulm, CNRS UMR 3244, 75248 ParisCedex 05 (France); Nakanishi, Makoto, E-mail: mkt-naka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • DNMT1 depletion results in an abnormal DNA replication program. • Aberrant DNA replication is independent of the DNA damage checkpoint in DNMT1cKO. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for proper DNA replication. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for cell proliferation.

  7. Inferring chronological age from DNA methylation patterns of human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Cristina; Cilli, Elisabetta; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Pirazzini, Chiara; Sazzini, Marco; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Franceschi, Claudio; Garagnani, Paolo; Luiselli, Donata

    2016-04-01

    Current methods to determine chronological age from modern and ancient remains rely on both morphological and molecular approaches. However, low accuracy and the lack of standardized protocols make the development of alternative methods for the estimation of individual's age even more urgent for several research fields, such as biological anthropology, biodemography, forensics, evolutionary genetics, and ancient DNA studies. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify genomic regions whose DNA methylation level correlates with age in modern teeth. We used MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to analyze DNA methylation levels of specific CpGs located in the ELOVL2, FHL2, and PENK genes. We considered methylation data from cementum, dentin and pulp of 21 modern teeth (from 17 to 77 years old) to construct a mathematical model able to exploit DNA methylation values to predict age of the individuals. The median difference between the real age and that estimated using DNA methylation values is 1.20 years (SD = 1.9) if DNA is recovered from both cementum and pulp of the same modern teeth, 2.25 years (SD = 2.5) if DNA is recovered from dental pulp, 2.45 years (SD = 3.3) if DNA is extracted from cementum and 7.07 years (SD = 7.0) when DNA is recovered from dentin only. We propose for the first time the evaluation of DNA methylation at ELOVL2, FHL2, and PENK genes as a powerful tool to predict age in modern teeth for anthropological applications. Future studies are needed to apply this method also to historical and relatively ancient human teeth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Recent patents of DNA methylation biomarkers in gastrointestinal oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan, Alejandro H; Maturana, Maria J

    2010-11-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancies are among the most common malignancies worldwide. Advances in technology and treatment have improved diagnosis and monitoring of these tumors. As a consequence, identification of new biomarkers that can be applied at different levels of disease is urgently needed. DNA methylation is a process in which cytosines acquire a methyl group in 5' position only if they are followed by a guanine. An emerging catalog of specific genes inactivated by DNA methylation in gastrointestinal tumors has been established. In this review we will give a brief overview of the main sources of DNA used to investigate methylation biomarkers and several related patents. One of these is related to multiple genes that predict the risk of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Another evaluated methylation status of 24 genes to find one frequently methylated in primary tumors as well as plasma samples from gastric cancer patients. Others patented the epigenetic silencing of miR-342 as a promissory biomarker for colorectal carcinoma. Thus the new field of DNA methylation biomarkers holds the promise of better methods for screening, early detection, disease progression and outcome predictor of therapy response in gastrointestinal oncology.

  9. DNA methylation detection based on difference of base content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shinobu; Ohtsuka, Keiichi; Honda, Satoshi; Sato, Yusuke; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2016-04-01

    Methylation frequently occurs in cytosines of CpG sites to regulate gene expression. The identification of aberrant methylation of certain genes is important for cancer marker analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the methylation frequency in DNA samples of unknown length and/or concentration. Unmethylated cytosine is known to be converted to thymine following bisulfite treatment and subsequent PCR. For this reason, the AT content in DNA increases with an increasing number of methylation sites. In this study, the fluorescein-carrying bis-acridinyl peptide (FKA) molecule was used for the detection of methylation frequency. FKA contains fluorescein and two acridine moieties, which together allow for the determination of the AT content of double-stranded DNA fragments. Methylated and unmethylated human genomes were subjected to bisulfide treatment and subsequent PCR using primers specific for the CFTR, CDH4, DBC1, and NPY genes. The AT content in the resulting PCR products was estimated by FKA, and AT content estimations were found to be in good agreement with those determined by DNA sequencing. This newly developed method may be useful for determining methylation frequencies of many PCR products by measuring the fluorescence in samples excited at two different wavelengths.

  10. CpG methylation increases the DNA binding of 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kava, Hieronimus W; Murray, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of CpG methylation on the DNA binding of cisplatin analogues with an attached aminoacridine intercalator. DNA-targeted 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt complexes are known to bind at 5'-CpG sequences. Their binding to methylated and non-methylated 5'-CpG sequences was determined and compared with cisplatin. The damage profiles of each platinum compound were quantified via a polymerase stop assay with fluorescently labelled primers and capillary electrophoresis. Methylation at 5'-CpG was shown to significantly increase the binding intensity for the 9-aminoacridine carboxamide compounds, whereas no significant increase was found for cisplatin. 5'-CpG methylation had the largest effect on the 9-ethanolamine-acridine carboxamide Pt complex, followed by the 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt complex and the 7-fluoro complex. The methylation state of a cell's genome is important in maintaining normal gene expression, and is often aberrantly altered in cancer cells. An analogue of cisplatin which differentially targets methylated DNA may be able to improve its therapeutic activity, or alter its range of targets and evade the chemoresistance which hampers cisplatin efficacy in clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mobile small RNAs regulate genome-wide DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewsey, Mathew G; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Melnyk, Charles W; Molnar, Attila; Valli, Adrián; Urich, Mark A; Nery, Joseph R; Baulcombe, David C; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-02-09

    RNA silencing at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels regulates endogenous gene expression, controls invading transposable elements (TEs), and protects the cell against viruses. Key components of the mechanism are small RNAs (sRNAs) of 21-24 nt that guide the silencing machinery to their nucleic acid targets in a nucleotide sequence-specific manner. Transcriptional gene silencing is associated with 24-nt sRNAs and RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) at cytosine residues in three DNA sequence contexts (CG, CHG, and CHH). We previously demonstrated that 24-nt sRNAs are mobile from shoot to root in Arabidopsis thaliana and confirmed that they mediate DNA methylation at three sites in recipient cells. In this study, we extend this finding by demonstrating that RdDM of thousands of loci in root tissues is dependent upon mobile sRNAs from the shoot and that mobile sRNA-dependent DNA methylation occurs predominantly in non-CG contexts. Mobile sRNA-dependent non-CG methylation is largely dependent on the DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASES 1/2 (DRM1/DRM2) RdDM pathway but is independent of the CHROMOMETHYLASE (CMT)2/3 DNA methyltransferases. Specific superfamilies of TEs, including those typically found in gene-rich euchromatic regions, lose DNA methylation in a mutant lacking 22- to 24-nt sRNAs (dicer-like 2, 3, 4 triple mutant). Transcriptome analyses identified a small number of genes whose expression in roots is associated with mobile sRNAs and connected to DNA methylation directly or indirectly. Finally, we demonstrate that sRNAs from shoots of one accession move across a graft union and target DNA methylation de novo at normally unmethylated sites in the genomes of root cells from a different accession.

  12. Leukocyte DNA as surrogate for the evaluation of imprinted Loci methylation in mammary tissue DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Barault

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in identifying surrogate tissues to identify epimutations in cancer patients since primary target tissues are often difficult to obtain. Methylation patterns at imprinted loci are established during gametogenesis and post fertilization and their alterations have been associated with elevated risk of cancer. Methylation at several imprinted differentially methylated regions (GRB10 ICR, H19 ICR, KvDMR, SNRPN/SNURF ICR, IGF2 DMR0, and IGF2 DMR2 were analyzed in DNA from leukocytes and mammary tissue (normal, benign diseases, or malignant tumors from 87 women with and without breast cancer (average age of cancer patients: 53; range: 31-77. Correlations between genomic variants and DNA methylation at the studied loci could not be assessed, making it impossible to exclude such effects. Methylation levels observed in leukocyte and mammary tissue DNA were close to the 50% expected for monoallellic methylation. While no correlation was observed between leukocyte and mammary tissue DNA methylation for most of the analyzed imprinted genes, Spearman's correlations were statistically significant for IGF2 DMR0 and IGF2 DMR2, although absolute methylation levels differed. Leukocyte DNA methylation levels of selected imprinted genes may therefore serve as surrogate markers of DNA methylation in cancer tissue.

  13. Graphene Nanopores for Electronic Recognition of DNA Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathy, Aditya; Qiu, Hu; Leburton, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-20

    We investigate theoretically the ability of graphene nanopore membranes to detect methylated sites along a DNA molecule by electronic sheet current along the two-dimensional (2D) materials. Special emphasis is placed on the detection sensitivity changes due to pore size, shape, position, and the presence of defects around the nanopore in a membrane with constricted geometry. Enhanced sensitivity for detecting methylated CpG sites, labeled by methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins along a DNA molecule, is obtained for electronic transport through graphene midgap states caused by the constriction. A large square deviation from the graphene conductance with respect to the open nanopore is observed during the translocation of MBD proteins. This approach exhibits superior resolution in the detection of multiple methylated sites along the DNA compared to conventional ionic current blockade techniques.

  14. DNA methylation levels associated with race and childhood asthma severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Marcia A; Ciaccio, Christina E; Gigliotti, Nicole M; Rezaiekhaligh, Mo; Siedlik, Jacob A; Kennedy, Kevin; Barnes, Charles S

    2017-10-01

    Asthma is a common chronic childhood disease worldwide. Socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to its incidence and severity. A disproportionate number of children with asthma are economically disadvantaged and live in substandard housing with potential indoor environmental exposures such as cockroaches, dust mites, rodents and molds. These exposures may manifest through epigenetic mechanisms that can lead to changes in relevant gene expression. We examined the association of global DNA methylation levels with socioeconomic status, asthma severity and race/ethnicity. We measured global DNA methylation in peripheral blood of children with asthma enrolled in the Kansas City Safe and Healthy Homes Program. Inclusion criteria included residing in the same home for a minimum of 4 days per week and total family income of less than 80% of the Kansas City median family income. DNA methylation levels were quantified by an immunoassay that assessed the percentage of 5-methylcytosine. Our results indicate that overall, African American children had higher levels of global DNA methylation than children of other races/ethnicities (p = 0.029). This difference was more pronounced when socioeconomic status and asthma severity were coupled with race/ethnicity (p = 0.042) where low-income, African American children with persistent asthma had significantly elevated methylation levels relative to other races/ethnicities in the same context (p = 0.006, Hedges g = 1.14). Our study demonstrates a significant interaction effect among global DNA methylation levels, asthma severity, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

  15. Multiplexed and Sensitive DNA Methylation Testing Using Methylation-Sensitive Restriction Enzymes "MSRE-qPCR".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beikircher, Gabriel; Pulverer, Walter; Hofner, Manuela; Noehammer, Christa; Weinhaeusel, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    DNA methylation is a chemically stable key-player in epigenetics. In the vertebrate genome the 5-methyl cytosine (5mC) has been found almost exclusively in the CpG dinucleotide context. CpG dinucleotides are enriched in CpG islands very frequently located within or close to gene promoters. Analyses of DNA methylation changes in human diagnostics have been conducted classically using methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes (MSRE). Since the discovery of bisulfite conversion-based sequencing and PCR assays, MSRE-based PCR assays have been less frequently used, although especially in the field of cancer epigenetics MSRE-based genome-wide discovery and targeted screening applications have been and are still performed successfully. Even though epigenome-wide discovery of altered DNA methylation patterns has found its way into various fields of human disease and molecular genetics research, the validation of findings upon discovery is still a bottleneck. Usually several multiples of 10 up to 100 candidate biomarkers from discovery have to be confirmed or are of interest for further work. In particular, bisulfite PCR assays are often limited in the number of candidates which can be analyzed, due to their low multiplexing capability, especially, if only small amounts of DNA are available from for example clinical specimens. In clinical research and diagnostics a similar situation arises for the analyses of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in body fluids or circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Although tissue- or disease- (e.g., cancer) specific DNA methylation patterns can be deduced very efficiently in a genome-wide manner if around 100 ng of DNA are available, confirming these candidates and selecting target-sequences for studying methylation changes in liquid biopsies using cfDNA or CTCs remains a big challenge. Along these lines we have developed MSRE-qPCR and introduce here method details, which have been found very suitable for the efficient confirmation and testing of DNA

  16. Circulating tumour DNA methylation markers for diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui-Hua; Wei, Wei; Krawczyk, Michal; Wang, Wenqiu; Luo, Huiyan; Flagg, Ken; Yi, Shaohua; Shi, William; Quan, Qingli; Li, Kang; Zheng, Lianghong; Zhang, Heng; Caughey, Bennett A.; Zhao, Qi; Hou, Jiayi; Zhang, Runze; Xu, Yanxin; Cai, Huimin; Li, Gen; Hou, Rui; Zhong, Zheng; Lin, Danni; Fu, Xin; Zhu, Jie; Duan, Yaou; Yu, Meixing; Ying, Binwu; Zhang, Wengeng; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Edward; Zhang, Charlotte; Li, Oulan; Guo, Rongping; Carter, Hannah; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Hao, Xiaoke; Zhang, Kang

    2017-11-01

    An effective blood-based method for the diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been developed. Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) carrying cancer-specific genetic and epigenetic aberrations may enable a noninvasive `liquid biopsy' for diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. Here, we identified an HCC-specific methylation marker panel by comparing HCC tissue and normal blood leukocytes and showed that methylation profiles of HCC tumour DNA and matched plasma ctDNA are highly correlated. Using cfDNA samples from a large cohort of 1,098 HCC patients and 835 normal controls, we constructed a diagnostic prediction model that showed high diagnostic specificity and sensitivity (P markers in the diagnosis, surveillance, and prognosis of HCC.

  17. The prima donna of epigenetics: the regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F. Santos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the mechanisms of DNA methylation, DNA methylation pattern formation and their involvement in gene regulation. Association of DNA methylation with imprinting, embryonic development and human diseases is discussed. Furthermore, besides considering changes in DNA methylation as mechanisms of disease, the role of epigenetics in general and DNA methylation in particular in transgenerational carcinogenesis, in memory formation and behavior establishment are brought about as mechanisms based on the cellular memory of gene expression patterns.

  18. Dynamics of nucleosome assembly and effects of DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Yeon; Lee, Jaehyoun; Yue, Hongjun; Lee, Tae-Hee

    2015-02-13

    The nucleosome is the fundamental packing unit of the eukaryotic genome, and CpG methylation is an epigenetic modification associated with gene repression and silencing. We investigated nucleosome assembly mediated by histone chaperone Nap1 and the effects of CpG methylation based on three-color single molecule FRET measurements, which enabled direct monitoring of histone binding in the context of DNA wrapping. According to our observation, (H3-H4)2 tetramer incorporation must precede H2A-H2B dimer binding, which is independent of DNA termini wrapping. Upon CpG methylation, (H3-H4)2 tetramer incorporation and DNA termini wrapping are facilitated, whereas proper incorporation of H2A-H2B dimers is inhibited. We suggest that these changes are due to rigidified DNA and increased random binding of histones to DNA. According to the results, CpG methylation expedites nucleosome assembly in the presence of abundant DNA and histones, which may help facilitate gene packaging in chromatin. The results also indicate that the slowest steps in nucleosome assembly are DNA termini wrapping and tetramer positioning, both of which are affected heavily by changes in the physical properties of DNA. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Effect of nickel chloride on Arabidopsis genomic DNA and methylation of 18S rDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongai Li

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: NiCl2 application caused variation of DNA methylation of the Arabidopsis genomic and offspring's. NiCl2 also resulted in nucleolar injury and deformity of root tip cells. The methylation rate of 18S rDNA also changed by adding NiCl2.

  20. Role of DNA profiling in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakari, S Leena; Jimson, Sudha; Masthan, K M K; Jacobina, Jenita

    2015-04-01

    The recent advances in DNA profiling have made DNA evidence to be more widely accepted in courts. This has revolutionized the aspect of forensic odontology. DNA profiling/DNA fingerprinting has come a long way from the conventional fingerprints. DNA that is responsible for all the cell's activities, yields valuable information both in the healthy and diseased individuals. When other means of traditional identification become impossible following mass calamities or fire explosions, teeth provide a rich source of DNA as they have a high chemical as well as physical resistance. The recent evolution in the isolation of DNA and the ways of running a DNA fingerprint are highlighted in this literature review.

  1. New insights into mechanisms that regulate DNA methylation patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficz, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    From a fertilised egg to a mature organism, cells divide and accumulate epigenetic information, which is faithfully passed on to daughter cells. DNA methylation consolidates the memory of the developmental history and, albeit very stable, it is not immutable and DNA methylation patterns can be deconstructed – a process that is essential to regain totipotency. Research into DNA methylation erasure gained momentum a few years ago with the discovery of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, an oxidation product of 5-methylcytosine. The role of this new epigenetic modification in DNA demethylation and other potential epigenetic roles are discussed here. But what are the mechanisms that regulate deposition of epigenetic modifications? Until recently, limited direct evidence indicated that signalling molecules are able to modulate the function of epigenetic modifiers, which shape the epigenome in the nucleus of the cell. New reports in embryonic stem cell model systems disclosed a tight relationship between major signalling pathways and the DNA methylation machinery, which opens up exciting avenues in the relationship between external signals and epigenetic memory. Here, I discuss mechanisms and concepts in DNA methylation patterning, the implications in normal development and disease, and future directions. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. DNA Methylation, Epigenetics, and Evolution in Vertebrates: Facts and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Varriale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in the vertebrate genomes known to be involved in biological processes such as regulation of gene expression, DNA structure and control of transposable elements. Despite increasing knowledge about DNA methylation, we still lack a complete understanding of its specific functions and correlation with environment and gene expression in diverse organisms. To understand how global DNA methylation levels changed under environmental influence during vertebrate evolution, we analyzed its distribution pattern along the whole genome in mammals, reptiles and fishes showing that it is correlated with temperature, independently on phylogenetic inheritance. Other studies in mammals and plants have evidenced that environmental stimuli can promote epigenetic changes that, in turn, might generate localized changes in DNA sequence resulting in phenotypic effects. All these observations suggest that environment can affect the epigenome of vertebrates by generating hugely different methylation patterns that could, possibly, reflect in phenotypic differences. We are at the first steps towards the understanding of mechanisms that underlie the role of environment in molding the entire genome over evolutionary times. The next challenge will be to map similarities and differences of DNA methylation in vertebrates and to associate them with environmental adaptation and evolution.

  3. Role of DNA profiling in forensic odontology

    OpenAIRE

    S Leena Sakari; Sudha Jimson; Masthan, K. M. K.; Jenita Jacobina

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances in DNA profiling have made DNA evidence to be more widely accepted in courts. This has revolutionized the aspect of forensic odontology. DNA profiling/DNA fingerprinting has come a long way from the conventional fingerprints. DNA that is responsible for all the cell′s activities, yields valuable information both in the healthy and diseased individuals. When other means of traditional identification become impossible following mass calamities or fire explosions, teeth provi...

  4. Effect of Clozapine on DNA Methylation in Peripheral Leukocytes from Patients with Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

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    Makoto Kinoshita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic, that is established as the treatment of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (SCZ. To date, no study investigating comprehensive DNA methylation changes in SCZ patients treated with chronic clozapine has been reported. The purpose of the present study is to reveal the effects of clozapine on DNA methylation in treatment-resistant SCZ. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in peripheral leukocytes (485,764 CpG dinucleotides from treatment-resistant SCZ patients treated with clozapine (n = 21 in a longitudinal study. Significant changes in DNA methylation were observed at 29,134 sites after one year of treatment with clozapine, and these genes were enriched for “cell substrate adhesion” and “cell matrix adhesion” gene ontology (GO terms. Furthermore, DNA methylation changes in the CREBBP (CREB binding protein gene were significantly correlated with the clinical improvements. Our findings provide insights into the action of clozapine in treatment-resistant SCZ.

  5. FOXP3 DNA methylation levels as a potential biomarker in the development of periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Kelma; Franscisconi, Carolina F; Okehie, Valerie; de Souza, Letícia C; Trombone, Ana Paula F; Letra, Ariadne; Garlet, Gustavo P; Gomez, Ricardo S; Silva, Renato M

    2015-02-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, can modify gene expression patterns without changing the DNA sequence, comprising a tool that cells use to lock genes in the "off" position. Variations in the methylation profile have been correlated to a variety of human diseases. Here, we hypothesize that DNA methylation in immune response-related genes may contribute to the development of periapical lesions. The DNA methylation patterns of 22 immune response-related gene promoters were evaluated in 137 human periapical granulomas, 8 apical cysts, and 31 healthy gingival tissues from 2 independent cohorts using a pathway-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction array (EpiTect Methyl II; Qiagen Inc, Valencia, CA). Messenger RNA expression analysis by qualitative polymerase chain reaction was also performed. SABiosciences's hierarchical clustering and methylation (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) and Prism6 software (GraphPad Software, Inc, La Jolla, CA) were used for data analysis. FOXP3 gene promoter showed the highest level of methylation in both periapical granulomas and apical cysts (P < .001), and methylation levels were inversely correlated with FOXP3 messenger RNA expression in the lesions. Furthermore, FOXP3 expression was prevalent in inactive lesions and was positively correlated with interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor beta levels. Our results suggest that FOXP3 acts as a master switch governing the development and function of T-regulatory cells, whose functions include the inhibition of immune responses and temper inflammation. The observed differential methylation patterns of FOXP3 in periapical lesions may be crucial in determining its suppressive activity and may be involved in periapical lesion development. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. DNA methylation in inflammatory bowel disease and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Daren; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a consequence of the complex, dysregulated interplay between genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and microbial composition in the intestine. Despite a great advancement in identifying host-susceptibility genes using genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the majority of IBD cases are still underrepresented. The immediate challenge in post-GWAS era is to identify other causative genetic factors of IBD. DNA methylation has received increasing attention for its mechanistical role in IBD pathogenesis. This stable, yet dynamic DNA modification, can directly affect gene expression that have important implications in IBD development. The alterations in DNA methylation associated with IBD are likely to outset as early as embryogenesis all the way until old-age. In this review, we will discuss the recent advancement in understanding how DNA methylation alterations can contribute to the development of IBD. PMID:23983426

  7. DNA methylation modifies the association between obesity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Lauren E; Chen, Jia; Cho, Yoon Hee; Khankari, Nikhil K; Bradshaw, Patrick T; White, Alexandra J; Garbowski, Gail; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Terry, Mary Beth; Neugut, Alfred I; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Santella, Regina M; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying the poor breast cancer prognosis among obese women are unresolved. DNA methylation levels are linked to obesity and to breast cancer survival. We hypothesized that obesity may work in conjunction with the epigenome to alter prognosis. Using a population-based sample of women diagnosed with first primary breast cancer, we examined modification of the obesity-mortality association by DNA methylation. In-person interviews were conducted approximately 3 months after diagnosis. Weight and height were assessed [to estimate body mass index (BMI)], and blood samples collected. Promoter methylation of 13 breast cancer-related genes was assessed in archived tumor by methylation-specific PCR and Methyl Light. Global methylation in white blood cell DNA was assessed by analysis of long interspersed elements-1 (LINE-1) and with the luminometric methylation assay (LUMA). Vital status among 1308 patients (with any methylation biomarker and complete BMI assessment) was determined after approximately 15 years of follow-up (N = 194/441 deaths due to breast cancer-specific/all-cause mortality). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) using two-sided p values of 0.05. Breast cancer-specific mortality was higher among obese (BMI ≥ 30) patients with promoter methylation in APC (HR = 2.47; 95 % CI = 1.43-4.27) and TWIST1 (HR = 4.25; 95 % CI = 1.43-12.70) in breast cancer tissue. Estimates were similar, but less pronounced, for all-cause mortality. Increased all-cause (HR = 1.81; 95 % CI = 1.19-2.74) and breast cancer-specific (HR = 2.61; 95 % CI = 1.45-4.69) mortality was observed among obese patients with the lowest LUMA levels. The poor breast cancer prognosis associated with obesity may depend on methylation profiles, which warrants further investigation.

  8. Association of DNA Methylation with Acute Mania and Inflammatory Markers.

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    Sarven Sabunciyan

    Full Text Available In order to determine whether epigenetic changes specific to the manic mood state can be detected in peripheral blood samples we assayed DNA methylation levels genome-wide in serum samples obtained from 20 patients hospitalized for mania and 20 unaffected controls using the Illumina 450K methylation arrays. We identified a methylation locus in the CYP11A1 gene, which is regulated by corticotropin, that is hypo-methylated in individuals hospitalized for mania compared with unaffected controls. DNA methylation levels at this locus appear to be state related as levels in follow-up samples collected from mania patients six months after hospitalization were similar to those observed in controls. In addition, we found that methylation levels at the CYP11A1 locus were significantly correlated with three inflammatory markers in serum in acute mania cases but not in unaffected controls. We conclude that mania is associated with alterations in levels of DNA methylation and inflammatory markers. Since epigenetic markers are potentially malleable, a better understanding of the role of epigenetics may lead to new methods for the prevention and treatment of mood disorders.

  9. DNA methylation changes separate allergic patients from healthy controls and may reflect altered CD4+ T-cell population structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm E Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered DNA methylation patterns in CD4(+ T-cells indicate the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in inflammatory diseases. However, the identification of these alterations is complicated by the heterogeneity of most inflammatory diseases. Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR is an optimal disease model for the study of DNA methylation because of its well-defined phenotype and etiology. We generated genome-wide DNA methylation (N(patients = 8, N(controls = 8 and gene expression (N(patients = 9, Ncontrols = 10 profiles of CD4(+ T-cells from SAR patients and healthy controls using Illumina's HumanMethylation450 and HT-12 microarrays, respectively. DNA methylation profiles clearly and robustly distinguished SAR patients from controls, during and outside the pollen season. In agreement with previously published studies, gene expression profiles of the same samples failed to separate patients and controls. Separation by methylation (N(patients = 12, N(controls = 12, but not by gene expression (N(patients = 21, N(controls = 21 was also observed in an in vitro model system in which purified PBMCs from patients and healthy controls were challenged with allergen. We observed changes in the proportions of memory T-cell populations between patients (N(patients = 35 and controls (N(controls = 12, which could explain the observed difference in DNA methylation. Our data highlight the potential of epigenomics in the stratification of immune disease and represents the first successful molecular classification of SAR using CD4(+ T cells.

  10. Colorectal cancer DNA methylation patterns from patients in Manaus, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Fabiana Greyce Oliveira; de Aquino, Priscila Ferreira; de Souza, Afonso Duarte Leão; de Souza, Antonia Queiroz Lima; do Carmo Vinhote, Sonia; Mac-Cormick, Thaís Messias; da Mota Silva, Marcelo Soares; Chalub, Sidney Raimundo Silva; de Saldanha da Gama Fischer, Juliana; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; da Gloria da Costa Carvalho, Maria

    2015-09-12

    DNA methylation is commonly linked with the silencing of the gene expression for many tumor suppressor genes. As such, determining DNA methylation patterns should aid, in times to come, in the diagnosis and personal treatment for various types of cancers. Here, we analyzed the methylation pattern from five colorectal cancer patients from the Amazon state in Brazil for four tumor suppressor genes, viz.: DAPK, CDH1, CDKN2A, and TIMP2 by employing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific to methylation. Efforts in the study of colorectal cancer are fundamental as it is the third most of highest incidence in the world. Tumor biopsies were methylated in 1/5 (20%), 2/5 (40%), 4/5 (80%), and 4/5 (80%) for CDH1, CDKN2A, DAPK, and TIMP2 genes, respectively. The margin biopsies were methylated in 3/7 (43%), 2/7 (28%), 7/7 (100%), and 6/7 (86%) for CDH1, CDKN2A, DAPK, and TIMP2, respectively. Our findings showed DAPK and TIMP2 to be methylated in most samples from both tumor tissues and adjacent non-neoplastic margins; thus presenting distinct methylation patterns. This emphasizes the importance of better understanding of the relation of these patterns with cancer in the context of different populations.

  11. Genome-wide DNA methylation maps in follicular lymphoma cells determined by methylation-enriched bisulfite sequencing.

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    Jeong-Hyeon Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Follicular lymphoma (FL is a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL that arises from germinal center (GC B-cells. Despite the significant advances in immunotherapy, FL is still not curable. Beyond transcriptional profiling and genomics datasets, there currently is no epigenome-scale dataset or integrative biology approach that can adequately model this disease and therefore identify novel mechanisms and targets for successful prevention and treatment of FL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed methylation-enriched genome-wide bisulfite sequencing of FL cells and normal CD19(+ B-cells using 454 sequencing technology. The methylated DNA fragments were enriched with methyl-binding proteins, treated with bisulfite, and sequenced using the Roche-454 GS FLX sequencer. The total number of bases covered in the human genome was 18.2 and 49.3 million including 726,003 and 1.3 million CpGs in FL and CD19(+ B-cells, respectively. 11,971 and 7,882 methylated regions of interest (MRIs were identified respectively. The genome-wide distribution of these MRIs displayed significant differences between FL and normal B-cells. A reverse trend in the distribution of MRIs between the promoter and the gene body was observed in FL and CD19(+ B-cells. The MRIs identified in FL cells also correlated well with transcriptomic data and ChIP-on-Chip analyses of genome-wide histone modifications such as tri-methyl-H3K27, and tri-methyl-H3K4, indicating a concerted epigenetic alteration in FL cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to provide a large scale and comprehensive analysis of the DNA methylation sequence composition and distribution in the FL epigenome. These integrated approaches have led to the discovery of novel and frequent targets of aberrant epigenetic alterations. The genome-wide bisulfite sequencing approach developed here can be a useful tool for profiling DNA methylation in clinical samples.

  12. DNA methylation and epigenetic inheritance during plant gametogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shin; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2006-02-01

    In plants, newly acquired epigenetic states of transcriptional gene activity are readily transmitted to the progeny. This is in contrast to mammals, where only rare cases of transgenerational inheritance of new epigenetic traits have been reported (FASEB J 12:949-957, 1998; Nat Genet 23:314-318, 1999; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:2538-2543, 2003). Epigenetic inheritance in plants seems to rely on cytosine methylation maintained through meiosis and postmeiotic mitoses, giving rise to gametophytes. In particular, maintenance of CpG methylation ((m)CpG) appears to play a central role, guiding the distribution of other epigenetic signals such as histone H3 methylation and non-CpG DNA methylation. The evolutionarily conserved DNA methyltransferase MET1 is responsible for copying (m)CpG patterns through DNA replication in the gametophytic phase. The importance of gametophytic MET1 activity is illustrated by the phenotypes of met1 mutants that are severely compromised in the accuracy of epigenetic inheritance during gametogenesis. This includes elimination of imprinting at paternally silent loci such as FWA or MEDEA (MEA). The importance of DNA methylation in gametophytic imprinting has been reinforced by the discovery of DEMETER (DME), encoding putative DNA glycosylase involved in the removal of (m)C. DME opposes transcriptional silencing associated with imprinting activities of the MEA/FIE polycomb group complex.

  13. Protection of CpG islands from DNA methylation is DNA-encoded and evolutionarily conserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hannah K; King, Hamish W; Patient, Roger K; Odom, Duncan T; Klose, Robert J

    2016-08-19

    DNA methylation is a repressive epigenetic modification that covers vertebrate genomes. Regions known as CpG islands (CGIs), which are refractory to DNA methylation, are often associated with gene promoters and play central roles in gene regulation. Yet how CGIs in their normal genomic context evade the DNA methylation machinery and whether these mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved remains enigmatic. To address these fundamental questions we exploited a transchromosomic animal model and genomic approaches to understand how the hypomethylated state is formed in vivo and to discover whether mechanisms governing CGI formation are evolutionarily conserved. Strikingly, insertion of a human chromosome into mouse revealed that promoter-associated CGIs are refractory to DNA methylation regardless of host species, demonstrating that DNA sequence plays a central role in specifying the hypomethylated state through evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. In contrast, elements distal to gene promoters exhibited more variable methylation between host species, uncovering a widespread dependence on nucleotide frequency and occupancy of DNA-binding transcription factors in shaping the DNA methylation landscape away from gene promoters. This was exemplified by young CpG rich lineage-restricted repeat sequences that evaded DNA methylation in the absence of co-evolved mechanisms targeting methylation to these sequences, and species specific DNA binding events that protected against DNA methylation in CpG poor regions. Finally, transplantation of mouse chromosomal fragments into the evolutionarily distant zebrafish uncovered the existence of a mechanistically conserved and DNA-encoded logic which shapes CGI formation across vertebrate species. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Exploratory analysis of ERCC2 DNA methylation in survival among pediatric medulloblastoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Emilyn; Brown, Austin L; Peckham, Erin C; Rednam, Surya P; Murray, Jeffrey; Okcu, M Fatih; Mitchell, Laura E; Chintagumpala, Murali M; Lau, Ching C; Scheurer, Michael E; Lupo, Philip J

    2016-10-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor. While survival rates have improved due to multimodal treatment including cisplatin-based chemotherapy, there are few prognostic factors for adverse treatment outcomes. Notably, genes involved in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, including ERCC2, have been implicated in cisplatin sensitivity in other cancers. Therefore, this study evaluated the role of ERCC2 DNA methylation profiles on pediatric medulloblastoma survival. The study population included 71 medulloblastoma patients (age DNA methylation profiles were generated from peripheral blood samples using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 Beadchip. Sixteen ERCC2-associated CpG sites were evaluated in this analysis. Multivariable regression models were used to determine the adjusted association between DNA methylation and survival. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare 5-year overall survival between hyper- and hypo-methylation at each CpG site. In total, 12.7% (n=9) of the patient population died within five years of diagnosis. In our population, methylation of the cg02257300 probe (Hazard Ratio=9.33; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.17-74.64) was associated with death (log-rank p=0.01). This association remained suggestive after correcting for multiple comparisons (FDR pDNA methylation within the promoter region of the ERCC2 gene may be associated with survival in pediatric medulloblastoma. If confirmed in future studies, this information may lead to improved risk stratification or promote the development of novel, targeted therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. TET1 and hydroxymethylcytosine in transcription and DNA methylation fidelity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Pedersen, Marianne Terndrup

    2011-01-01

    a role in transcriptional repression. TET1 binds a significant proportion of Polycomb group target genes. Furthermore, TET1 associates and colocalizes with the SIN3A co-repressor complex. We propose that TET1 fine-tunes transcription, opposes aberrant DNA methylation at CpG-rich sequences and thereby...... contributes to the regulation of DNA methylation fidelity.......Enzymes catalysing the methylation of the 5-position of cytosine (mC) have essential roles in regulating gene expression and maintaining cellular identity. Recently, TET1 was found to hydroxylate the methyl group of mC, converting it to 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine (hmC). Here we show that TET1 binds...

  16. DNA methylation dynamics, metabolic fluxes, gene splicing, and alternative phenotypes in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret, Sylvain; Kucharski, Robert; Pellegrini, Matteo; Feng, Suhua; Jacobsen, Steven E; Robinson, Gene E; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2012-03-27

    In honey bees (Apis mellifera), the development of a larva into either a queen or worker depends on differential feeding with royal jelly and involves epigenomic modifications by DNA methyltransferases. To understand the role of DNA methylation in this process we sequenced the larval methylomes in both queens and workers. We show that the number of differentially methylated genes (DMGs) in larval head is significantly increased relative to adult brain (2,399 vs. 560) with more than 80% of DMGs up-methylated in worker larvae. Several highly conserved metabolic and signaling pathways are enriched in methylated genes, underscoring the connection between dietary intake and metabolic flux. This includes genes related to juvenile hormone and insulin, two hormones shown previously to regulate caste determination. We also tie methylation data to expressional profiling and describe a distinct role for one of the DMGs encoding anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), an important regulator of metabolism. We show that alk is not only differentially methylated and alternatively spliced in Apis, but also seems to be regulated by a cis-acting, anti-sense non-protein-coding transcript. The unusually complex regulation of ALK in Apis suggests that this protein could represent a previously unknown node in a process that activates downstream signaling according to a nutritional context. The correlation between methylation and alternative splicing of alk is consistent with the recently described mechanism involving RNA polymerase II pausing. Our study offers insights into diet-controlled development in Apis.

  17. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gasparrini, Antonio; Peters, Annette; Coull, Brent; Baccarelli, Andrea; Tarantini, Letizia; Koutrakis, Petros; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have found relationships between DNA methylation and various environmental contaminant exposures. Associations with weather have not been examined. Because temperature and humidity are related to mortality even on non-extreme days, we hypothesized that temperature and relative humidity may affect methylation. We repeatedly measured methylation on long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1), Alu, and 9 candidate genes in blood samples from 777 elderly men participating in the Normative Aging Study (1999-2009). We assessed whether ambient temperature and relative humidity are related to methylation on LINE-1 and Alu, as well as on genes controlling coagulation, inflammation, cortisol, DNA repair, and metabolic pathway. We examined intermediate-term associations of temperature, relative humidity, and their interaction with methylation, using distributed lag models. Temperature or relative humidity levels were associated with methylation on tissue factor (F3), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), toll-like receptor 2 (TRL-2), carnitine O-acetyltransferase (CRAT), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and glucocorticoid receptor, LINE-1, and Alu. For instance, a 5°C increase in 3-week average temperature in ICAM-1 methylation was associated with a 9% increase (95% confidence interval: 3% to 15%), whereas a 10% increase in 3-week average relative humidity was associated with a 5% decrease (-8% to -1%). The relative humidity association with ICAM-1 methylation was stronger on hot days than mild days. DNA methylation in blood cells may reflect biological effects of temperature and relative humidity. Temperature and relative humidity may also interact to produce stronger effects.

  18. DNA Methylation and Temperature Stress in an Antarctic Polychaete, Spiophanes tcherniai

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    Adam G. Marsh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones are a primary mechanism by which gene expression activities may be modified in response to environmental stimuli. Here we characterize patterns of methyl-cytosine composition in the marine polychaete emph{Spiophanes tcherniai} from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. We cultured adult worms at two temperatures, -1.5 C (ambient control and +4 C (warm treatment, for four weeks. We observed a rapid capacity for emph{S. tcherniai} organismal respiration rates and underlying catalytic rates of citrate synthase to acclimate at +4 C and return to control levels. We profiled changes in the methylation states of CpG sites in these treatments using an NGS strategy to computationally reconstruct and quantify methylation status across the genome. In our analysis we recovered 120,000 CpG sites in assembled contigs from both treatments. Of those, we were able to align 28,000 CpG sites in common between the two sample groups. In comparing these aligned sites between treatments, only 3,000 (11% evidenced a change in methylation state, but over 85% of changes involved a gain of a 5-methyl group on a CpG site (net increase in methyation. The ability to score CpG sites as partially methylated among gDNA copies in a sample opens up a new avenue for assessing DNA methylation responses to changing environments. By quantitatively distinguishing a ``mixed'' population of copies of one CpG site, we can begin to identify dynamic, non-binary, continuous-response reactions in DNA methylation intensity or density that previously may have been overlooked as noise.

  19. Intraindividual variation and short-term temporal trend in DNA methylation of human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, Yurii B; Song, Min-Ae; Cai, Qiuyin; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Yu, Herbert

    2015-03-01

    Between- and within-person variation in DNA methylation levels are important parameters to be considered in epigenome-wide association studies. Temporal change is one source of within-person variation in DNA methylation that has been linked to aging and disease. We analyzed CpG-site-specific intraindividual variation and short-term temporal trend in leukocyte DNA methylation among 24 healthy Chinese women, with blood samples drawn at study entry and after 9 months. Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to measure methylation. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and trend estimates were summarized by genomic location and probe type. The median ICC was 0.36 across nonsex chromosomes and 0.80 on the X chromosome. There was little difference in ICC profiles by genomic region and probe type. Among CpG loci with high variability between participants, more than 99% had ICC > 0.8. Statistically significant trend was observed in 10.9% CpG loci before adjustment for cell-type composition and in 3.4% loci after adjustment. For CpG loci differentially methylated across subjects, methylation levels can be reliably assessed with one blood sample. More samples per subject are needed for low-variability and unmethylated loci. Temporal changes are largely driven by changes in cell-type composition of blood samples, but temporal trend unrelated to cell types is detected in a small percentage of CpG sites. This study shows that one measurement can reliably assess methylation of differentially methylated CpG loci. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(3); 490-7. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Global DNA methylation changes in Cucurbitaceae inter-species grafting

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    Evangelia Avramidou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grafting has been used to improve yield, fruit quality and disease resistance in a range of tree and vegetable species. The molecular mechanisms underpinning grafting responses have only recently started to be delineated. One of those mechanisms involves long distance transfer of genetic material from rootstock to scion alluding to an epigenetic component to the grafting process. In the research presented herein we extended published work on heritable changes in the DNA methylation pattern of Solanaceae scion genomes, in Cucurbitaceae inter-species grafting. Specifically, we examined global DNA methylation changes in scions of cucumber, melon and watermelon heterografted onto pumpkin rootstocks using MSAP analysis. We observed a significant increase of global DNA methylation in cucumber and melon scions pointing to an epigenetic effect in Cucurbitaceae heterografting. Exploitation of differential epigenetic marking in different rootstock-scion combinations could lead to development of epi-molecular markers for generation and selection of superior quality grafted vegetables.

  1. Cord Blood DNA Methylation Biomarkers for Predicting Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

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    Nicolette A. Hodyl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental exposures in pregnancy can significantly alter the development of the fetus resulting in impaired child neurodevelopment. Such exposures can lead to epigenetic alterations like DNA methylation, which may be a marker of poor cognitive, motor and behavioral outcomes in the infant. Here we review studies that have assessed DNA methylation in cord blood following maternal exposures that may impact neurodevelopment of the child. We also highlight some key studies to illustrate the potential for DNA methylation to successfully identify infants at risk for poor outcomes. While the current evidence is limited, in that observations to date are largely correlational, in time and with larger cohorts analyzed and longer term follow-up completed, we may be able to develop epigenetic biomarkers that not only indicate adverse early life exposures but can also be used to identify individuals likely to be at an increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment even in the absence of detailed information regarding prenatal environment.

  2. The emerging landscape of dynamic DNA methylation in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng-Jian; Bonder, Marc Jan; Söderhäll, Cilla; Bustamante, Mariona; Baïz, Nour; Gehring, Ulrike; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; van der Vlies, Pieter; van Diemen, Cleo C; van Rijkom, Bianca; Just, Jocelyne; Kull, Inger; Kere, Juha; Antó, Josep Maria; Bousquet, Jean; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Wijmenga, Cisca; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sunyer, Jordi; Melén, Erik; Li, Yang; Postma, Dirkje S; Koppelman, Gerard H

    2017-01-05

    DNA methylation has been found to associate with disease, aging and environmental exposure, but it is unknown how genome, environment and disease influence DNA methylation dynamics in childhood. By analysing 538 paired DNA blood samples from children at birth and at 4-5 years old and 726 paired samples from children at 4 and 8 years old from four European birth cohorts using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 k chip, we have identified 14,150 consistent age-differential methylation sites (a-DMSs) at epigenome-wide significance of p smoking tended to decrease methylation levels at the identified da-DMSs. We also found 101 a-DMSs (0.71%) that were regulated by genetic variants using cis-differential Methylation Quantitative Trait Locus (cis-dMeQTL) mapping. Moreover, a-DMS-associated genes during early development were significantly more likely to be linked with disease. Our study provides new insights into the dynamic epigenetic landscape of the first 8 years of life.

  3. Health profiles of methyl bromide applicators in greenhouses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Ergonen Toprak; Serpil, Salacin; Sezer, Uysal; Ozlem, Eminoglu; Ayşe, Gelal; Canan, Coker; Hakan, Baydur; Ozgur, Karcioglu; Banu, Onvural; Hulya, Guven

    2009-08-01

    Methyl bromide is a toxic substance that has hazardous effects on human health with acute and chronic exposure. Our previous study showed that methyl bromide applicators frequently use large amounts of methyl bromide haphazardly in greenhouses in the prefectures of Narlidere and Balcova in the Aegean city of Izmir. This study aims to evaluate the health conditions of these workers. Our previous study showed that there are 38 methyl bromide applicators in our study area. After the informed consent of methyl bromide applicators was obtained, a questionnaire was used for a survey of demography and symptoms. Each subject was examined before and after application of the compound. Blood and urine samples were collected and stored. Blood samples were analysed for methyl bromide and bromide ion, kidney and liver function tests and lipid profile. The age range of subjects was 19 to 53 years (mean age: 41 +/- 8.57). This study showed that methyl bromide applicators use large amounts of methyl bromide disregarding legal regulations and that some of them had nonspecific complaints. Subjects had been working as methyl bromide applicators for approximately 9.7 +/- 4.15 years. A total of 69.7% of methyl bromide applicators reported that they did not use protective equipment while 33.3% of them had a history of acute methyl bromide intoxication. A statistically significant relationship was found between the usage of protective equipment and the level of blood bromide ion in the blood (P <0.05). Usage of methyl bromide, training, screening and follow-up of applicators must be rigorously controlled in accordance with national legal arrangements and international protocols. Greater efforts are required in the implementation of controls to achieve the targets set by the legal regulations and to ensure continual improvement in the limitation of the risks of this environmental hazard.

  4. DNA Methylation as a Biomarker for Body Fluid Identification

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    Rania Gomaa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, available identification techniques for forensic samples are either enzyme or protein based, which can be subjected to degradation, thus limiting its storage potentials. Epigenetic changes arising due to DNA methylation and histone acetylation can be used for body fluid identification. Markers DACT1, USP49, ZC3H12D, FGF7, cg23521140, cg17610929, chromosome 4 (25287119–25287254, chromosome 11 (72085678–72085798, 57171095–57171236, 1493401–1493538, and chromosome 19 (47395505–47395651 are currently being used for semen identification. Markers cg26107890, cg20691722, cg01774894 and cg14991487 are used to differentiate saliva and vaginal secretions from other body fluids. However, such markers show overlapping methylation pattern. This review article aimed to highlight the feasibility of using DNA methylation of certain genetic markers in body fluid identification and its implications for forensic investigations. The reviewed articles have employed molecular genetics techniques such as Bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP, methylation specific PCR (MSP, Pyrosequencing, Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA, Methylation-sensitive Single Nucleotide Primer Extension (SNuPE, and Multiplex SNaPshot Microarray. Bioinformatics software such as MATLAB and BiQ Analyzer has been used. Biological fluids have different methylation patterns and thus, this difference can be used to identify the nature of the biological fluid found at the crime scene. Using DNA methylation to identify the body fluids gives accurate results without consumption of the trace evidence and requires a minute amount of DNA for analysis. Recent studies have incorporated next-generation sequencing aiming to find out more reliable markers that can differentiate between different body fluids. Nonetheless, new DNA methylation markers are yet to be discovered to accurately differentiate between saliva and vaginal secretions with high confidence. Epigenetic changes are

  5. Utilizing Gold Nanoparticle Probes to Visually Detect DNA Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kui; Zhang, Mingyi; Chang, Ya-Nan; Xia, Lin; Gu, Weihong; Qin, Yanxia; Li, Juan; Cui, Suxia; Xing, Gengmei

    2016-06-01

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect endows gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with the ability to visualize biomolecules. In the present study, we designed and constructed a GNP probe to allow the semi-quantitative analysis of methylated tumor suppressor genes in cultured cells. To construct the probe, the GNP surfaces were coated with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by forming Au-S bonds. The ssDNA contains a thiolated 5'-end, a regulatory domain of 12 adenine nucleotides, and a functional domain with absolute pairing with methylated p16 sequence (Met- p16). The probe, paired with Met- p16, clearly changed the color of aggregating GNPs probe in 5 mol/L NaCl solution. Utilizing the probe, p16 gene methylation in HCT116 cells was semi-quantified. Further, the methylation of E-cadherin, p15, and p16 gene in Caco2, HepG2, and HCT116 cell lines were detected by the corresponding probes, constructed with three domains. This simple and cost-effective method was useful for the diagnosis of DNA methylation-related diseases.

  6. Differential DNA Methylation Analysis without a Reference Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klughammer, Johanna; Datlinger, Paul; Printz, Dieter; Sheffield, Nathan C; Farlik, Matthias; Hadler, Johanna; Fritsch, Gerhard; Bock, Christoph

    2015-12-22

    Genome-wide DNA methylation mapping uncovers epigenetic changes associated with animal development, environmental adaptation, and species evolution. To address the lack of high-throughput methods for DNA methylation analysis in non-model organisms, we developed an integrated approach for studying DNA methylation differences independent of a reference genome. Experimentally, our method relies on an optimized 96-well protocol for reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), which we have validated in nine species (human, mouse, rat, cow, dog, chicken, carp, sea bass, and zebrafish). Bioinformatically, we developed the RefFreeDMA software to deduce ad hoc genomes directly from RRBS reads and to pinpoint differentially methylated regions between samples or groups of individuals (http://RefFreeDMA.computational-epigenetics.org). The identified regions are interpreted using motif enrichment analysis and/or cross-mapping to annotated genomes. We validated our method by reference-free analysis of cell-type-specific DNA methylation in the blood of human, cow, and carp. In summary, we present a cost-effective method for epigenome analysis in ecology and evolution, which enables epigenome-wide association studies in natural populations and species without a reference genome. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential DNA Methylation Analysis without a Reference Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Klughammer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide DNA methylation mapping uncovers epigenetic changes associated with animal development, environmental adaptation, and species evolution. To address the lack of high-throughput methods for DNA methylation analysis in non-model organisms, we developed an integrated approach for studying DNA methylation differences independent of a reference genome. Experimentally, our method relies on an optimized 96-well protocol for reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS, which we have validated in nine species (human, mouse, rat, cow, dog, chicken, carp, sea bass, and zebrafish. Bioinformatically, we developed the RefFreeDMA software to deduce ad hoc genomes directly from RRBS reads and to pinpoint differentially methylated regions between samples or groups of individuals (http://RefFreeDMA.computational-epigenetics.org. The identified regions are interpreted using motif enrichment analysis and/or cross-mapping to annotated genomes. We validated our method by reference-free analysis of cell-type-specific DNA methylation in the blood of human, cow, and carp. In summary, we present a cost-effective method for epigenome analysis in ecology and evolution, which enables epigenome-wide association studies in natural populations and species without a reference genome.

  8. A Minimal DNA Methylation Signature in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Links Altered Methylation with Tumor Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Neeraja M; Dhas, Kunal; Nair, Jayalakshmi; Palve, Vinayak; Bagwan, Jamir; Siddappa, Gangotri; Suresh, Amritha; Kekatpure, Vikram D; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Panda, Binay

    2016-09-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC) are a homogenous group of aggressive tumors in the head and neck region that spread early to lymph nodes and have a higher incidence of regional failure. In addition, there is a rising incidence of oral tongue cancer in younger populations. Studies on functional DNA methylation changes linked with altered gene expression are critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying tumor development and metastasis. Such studies also provide important insight into biomarkers linked with viral infection, tumor metastasis, and patient survival in OTSCC. Therefore, we performed genome-wide methylation analysis of tumors (N = 52) and correlated altered methylation with differential gene expression. The minimal tumor-specific DNA 5-methylcytosine signature identified genes near 16 different differentially methylated regions, which were validated using genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort. In our cohort, hypermethylation of MIR10B was significantly associated with the differential expression of its target genes NR4A3 and BCL2L11 (P = 0.0125 and P = 0.014, respectively), which was inversely correlated with disease-free survival (P = 9E-15 and P = 2E-15, respectively) in patients. Finally, differential methylation in FUT3, TRIM5, TSPAN7, MAP3K8, RPS6KA2, SLC9A9, and NPAS3 genes was found to be predictive of certain clinical and epidemiologic parameters. This study reveals a functional minimal methylation profile in oral tongue tumors with associated risk habits, clinical, and epidemiologic outcomes. In addition, NR4A3 downregulation and correlation with patient survival suggests a potential target for therapeutic intervention in oral tongue tumors. Data from the current study are deposited in the NCBI Geo database (accession number GSE75540). Mol Cancer Res; 14(9); 805-19. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. DNA methylation and imprinting in plants: machinery and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyaki, P R V; Gehring, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon in which genes are expressed selectively from either the maternal or paternal alleles. In plants, imprinted gene expression is found in a tissue called the endosperm. Imprinting is often set by a unique epigenomic configuration in which the maternal chromosomes are less DNA methylated than their paternal counterparts. In this review, we synthesize studies that paint a detailed molecular portrait of the distinctive endosperm methylome. We will also discuss the molecular machinery that shapes and modifies this methylome, and the role of DNA methylation in imprinting.

  10. MethBank: a database integrating next-generation sequencing single-base-resolution DNA methylation programming data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dong; Sun, Shixiang; Li, Rujiao; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation plays crucial roles during embryonic development. Here we present MethBank (http://dnamethylome.org), a DNA methylome programming database that integrates the genome-wide single-base nucleotide methylomes of gametes and early embryos in different model organisms. Unlike extant relevant databases, MethBank incorporates the whole-genome single-base-resolution methylomes of gametes and early embryos at multiple different developmental stages in zebrafish and mouse. MethBank allows users to retrieve methylation levels, differentially methylated regions, CpG islands, gene expression profiles and genetic polymorphisms for a specific gene or genomic region. Moreover, it offers a methylome browser that is capable of visualizing high-resolution DNA methylation profiles as well as other related data in an interactive manner and thus is of great helpfulness for users to investigate methylation patterns and changes of gametes and early embryos at different developmental stages. Ongoing efforts are focused on incorporation of methylomes and related data from other organisms. Together, MethBank features integration and visualization of high-resolution DNA methylation data as well as other related data, enabling identification of potential DNA methylation signatures in different developmental stages and accordingly providing an important resource for the epigenetic and developmental studies. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. DNA methylation dynamics in human induced pluripotent stem cells over time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Nishino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic reprogramming is a critical event in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. Here, we determined the DNA methylation profiles of 22 human iPSC lines derived from five different cell types (human endometrium, placental artery endothelium, amnion, fetal lung fibroblast, and menstrual blood cell and five human embryonic stem cell (ESC lines, and we followed the aberrant methylation sites in iPSCs for up to 42 weeks. The iPSCs exhibited distinct epigenetic differences from ESCs, which were caused by aberrant methylation at early passages. Multiple appearances and then disappearances of random aberrant methylation were detected throughout iPSC reprogramming. Continuous passaging of the iPSCs diminished the differences between iPSCs and ESCs, implying that iPSCs lose the characteristics inherited from the parent cells and adapt to very closely resemble ESCs over time. Human iPSCs were gradually reprogrammed through the "convergence" of aberrant hyper-methylation events that continuously appeared in a de novo manner. This iPS reprogramming consisted of stochastic de novo methylation and selection/fixation of methylation in an environment suitable for ESCs. Taken together, random methylation and convergence are driving forces for long-term reprogramming of iPSCs to ESCs.

  12. DNA Methylation Signature of Childhood Chronic Physical Aggression in T Cells of Both Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Claire; Provençal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew; Côté, Sylvana M.; Vitaro, Frank; Hallett, Michael; Tremblay, Richard E.; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Background High frequency of physical aggression is the central feature of severe conduct disorder and is associated with a wide range of social, mental and physical health problems. We have previously tested the hypothesis that differential DNA methylation signatures in peripheral T cells are associated with a chronic aggression trajectory in males. Despite the fact that sex differences appear to play a pivotal role in determining the development, magnitude and frequency of aggression, most of previous studies focused on males, so little is known about female chronic physical aggression. We therefore tested here whether or not there is a signature of physical aggression in female DNA methylation and, if there is, how it relates to the signature observed in males. Methodology/Principal Findings Methylation profiles were created using the method of methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) followed by microarray hybridization and statistical and bioinformatic analyses on T cell DNA obtained from adult women who were found to be on a chronic physical aggression trajectory (CPA) between 6 and 12 years of age compared to women who followed a normal physical aggression trajectory. We confirmed the existence of a well-defined, genome-wide signature of DNA methylation associated with chronic physical aggression in the peripheral T cells of adult females that includes many of the genes similarly associated with physical aggression in the same cell types of adult males. Conclusions This study in a small number of women presents preliminary evidence for a genome-wide variation in promoter DNA methylation that associates with CPA in women that warrant larger studies for further verification. A significant proportion of these associations were previously observed in men with CPA supporting the hypothesis that the epigenetic signature of early life aggression in females is composed of a component specific to females and another common to both males and females. PMID:24475181

  13. DNA methylation signature of childhood chronic physical aggression in T cells of both men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Guillemin

    Full Text Available High frequency of physical aggression is the central feature of severe conduct disorder and is associated with a wide range of social, mental and physical health problems. We have previously tested the hypothesis that differential DNA methylation signatures in peripheral T cells are associated with a chronic aggression trajectory in males. Despite the fact that sex differences appear to play a pivotal role in determining the development, magnitude and frequency of aggression, most of previous studies focused on males, so little is known about female chronic physical aggression. We therefore tested here whether or not there is a signature of physical aggression in female DNA methylation and, if there is, how it relates to the signature observed in males.Methylation profiles were created using the method of methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP followed by microarray hybridization and statistical and bioinformatic analyses on T cell DNA obtained from adult women who were found to be on a chronic physical aggression trajectory (CPA between 6 and 12 years of age compared to women who followed a normal physical aggression trajectory. We confirmed the existence of a well-defined, genome-wide signature of DNA methylation associated with chronic physical aggression in the peripheral T cells of adult females that includes many of the genes similarly associated with physical aggression in the same cell types of adult males.This study in a small number of women presents preliminary evidence for a genome-wide variation in promoter DNA methylation that associates with CPA in women that warrant larger studies for further verification. A significant proportion of these associations were previously observed in men with CPA supporting the hypothesis that the epigenetic signature of early life aggression in females is composed of a component specific to females and another common to both males and females.

  14. A ranking index for quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles forensic DNA profiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hedman, Johannes; Ansell, Ricky; Nordgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    ... (allelic peak heights) of the capillary electrophoresis electropherograms. We recently developed a ranking index for unbiased and quantitative quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles, the forensic DNA profile index (FI) (Hedman et al...

  15. PTPRG inhibition by DNA methylation and cooperation with RAS gene activation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianqiao; Lee, Seung-Tae; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Ma, Xiaomei; Houseman, E Andres; Hsu, Ling-I; Roy, Ritu; Wrensch, Margaret; de Smith, Adam J; Chokkalingam, Anand; Buffler, Patricia; Wiencke, John K; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2014-09-01

    While the cytogenetic and genetic characteristics of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL) are well studied, less clearly understood are the contributing epigenetic mechanisms that influence the leukemia phenotype. Our previous studies and others identified gene mutation (RAS) and DNA methylation (FHIT) to be associated with the most common cytogenetic subgroup of childhood ALL, high hyperdiploidy (having five more chromosomes). We screened DNA methylation profiles, using a genome-wide high-dimension platform of 166 childhood ALLs and 6 normal pre-B cell samples and observed a strong association of DNA methylation status at the PTPRG locus in human samples with levels of PTPRG gene expression as well as with RAS gene mutation status. In the 293 cell line, we found that PTPRG expression induces dephosphorylation of ERK, a downstream RAS target that may be critical for mutant RAS-induced cell growth. In addition, PTPRG expression is upregulated by RAS activation under DNA hypomethylating conditions. An element within the PTPRG promoter is bound by the RAS-responsive transcription factor RREB1, also under hypomethylating conditions. In conclusion, we provide evidence that DNA methylation of the PTPRG gene is a complementary event in oncogenesis induced by RAS mutations. Evidence for additional roles for PTPR family member genes is also suggested. This provides a potential therapeutic target for RAS-related leukemias as well as insight into childhood ALL etiology and pathophysiology. © 2014 UICC.

  16. Methylation-dependent DNA restriction in Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan; Leppla, Stephen H

    2012-02-15

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is poorly transformed with DNA that is methylated on adenine or cytosine. Here we characterize three genetic loci encoding type IV methylation-dependent restriction enzymes that target DNA containing C5-methylcytosine (m5C). Strains in which these genes were inactivated, either singly or collectively, showed increased transformation by methylated DNA. Additionally, a triple mutant with an ~30-kb genomic deletion could be transformed by DNA obtained from Dam(+)Dcm(+)E. coli, although at a low frequency of ~10(-3) transformants/10(6)cfu. This strain of B. anthracis can potentially serve as a preferred host for shuttle vectors that express recombinant proteins, including proteins to be used in vaccines. The gene(s) responsible for the restriction of m6A-containing DNA in B. anthracis remain unidentified, and we suggest that poor transformation by such DNA could in part be a consequence of the inefficient replication of hemimethylated DNA in B. anthracis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Methylation of DNA Ligase 1 by G9a/GLP Recruits UHRF1 to Replicating DNA and Regulates DNA Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Laure; Fournier, Alexandra; Tsusaka, Takeshi; Adelmant, Guillaume; Shimazu, Tadahiro; Matano, Shohei; Kirsh, Olivier; Amouroux, Rachel; Dohmae, Naoshi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Filion, Guillaume J; Deng, Wen; de Dieuleveult, Maud; Fritsch, Lauriane; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Jeltsch, Albert; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Hajkova, Petra; Marto, Jarrod A; Arita, Kyohei; Shinkai, Yoichi; Defossez, Pierre-Antoine

    2017-08-17

    DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic mark in mammals that has to be re-established after each round of DNA replication. The protein UHRF1 is essential for this process; it has been proposed that the protein targets newly replicated DNA by cooperatively binding hemi-methylated DNA and H3K9me2/3, but this model leaves a number of questions unanswered. Here, we present evidence for a direct recruitment of UHRF1 by the replication machinery via DNA ligase 1 (LIG1). A histone H3K9-like mimic within LIG1 is methylated by G9a and GLP and, compared with H3K9me2/3, more avidly binds UHRF1. Interaction with methylated LIG1 promotes the recruitment of UHRF1 to DNA replication sites and is required for DNA methylation maintenance. These results further elucidate the function of UHRF1, identify a non-histone target of G9a and GLP, and provide an example of a histone mimic that coordinates DNA replication and DNA methylation maintenance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multilocus loss of DNA methylation in individuals with mutations in the histone H3 Lysine 4 Demethylase KDM5C

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    Grafodatskaya Daria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of neurodevelopmental syndromes are caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins that normally function in epigenetic regulation. Identification of epigenetic alterations occurring in these disorders could shed light on molecular pathways relevant to neurodevelopment. Results Using a genome-wide approach, we identified genes with significant loss of DNA methylation in blood of males with intellectual disability and mutations in the X-linked KDM5C gene, encoding a histone H3 lysine 4 demethylase, in comparison to age/sex matched controls. Loss of DNA methylation in such individuals is consistent with known interactions between DNA methylation and H3 lysine 4 methylation. Further, loss of DNA methylation at the promoters of the three top candidate genes FBXL5, SCMH1, CACYBP was not observed in more than 900 population controls. We also found that DNA methylation at these three genes in blood correlated with dosage of KDM5C and its Y-linked homologue KDM5D. In addition, parallel sex-specific DNA methylation profiles in brain samples from control males and females were observed at FBXL5 and CACYBP. Conclusions We have, for the first time, identified epigenetic alterations in patient samples carrying a mutation in a gene involved in the regulation of histone modifications. These data support the concept that DNA methylation and H3 lysine 4 methylation are functionally interdependent. The data provide new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of intellectual disability. Further, our data suggest that some DNA methylation marks identified in blood can serve as biomarkers of epigenetic status in the brain.

  19. A novel reannotation strategy for dissecting DNA methylation patterns of human long intergenic non-coding RNAs in cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Hui; Ning, Shangwei; Li, Xiang; Li, Yuyun; Wu, Wei; Li, Xia

    2014-07-01

    Despite growing consensus that long intergenic non-coding ribonucleic acids (lincRNAs) are modulators of cancer, the knowledge about the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation patterns of lincRNAs in cancers remains limited. In this study, we constructed DNA methylation profiles for 4629 tumors and 705 normal tissue samples from 20 different types of human cancer by reannotating data of DNA methylation arrays. We found that lincRNAs had different promoter methylation patterns in cancers. We classified 2461 lincRNAs into two categories and three subcategories, according to their promoter methylation patterns in tumors. LincRNAs with resistant methylation patterns in tumors had conserved transcriptional regulation regions and were ubiquitously expressed across normal tissues. By integrating cancer subtype data and patient clinical information, we identified lincRNAs with promoter methylation patterns that were associated with cancer status, subtype or prognosis for several cancers. Network analysis of aberrantly methylated lincRNAs in cancers showed that lincRNAs with aberrant methylation patterns might be involved in cancer development and progression. The methylated and demethylated lincRNAs identified in this study provide novel insights for developing cancer biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. [Correlation between histone H3-K9 methylation, DNA methylation and expression of gene MGMT in Hep-2 cell line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; He, Liria; Ji, Wenyue; Jin, Mingzhu; Zhao, Xudong

    2012-11-01

    To explore the correlation between histone H3-K9 methylation, DNA methylation and expression of carcinoma suppressor gene MGMT in laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cell line. 5-Aza-dC was used to deal with Hep-2 cell cultured in vitro. ChIP, MSP and Realtime-PCR were used to detect H3-K9 methylation, DNA methylation, of MGMT gene promoter region and MGMT gene expression before and after treatment with drugs. (1) In Hep-2 cell line, gene MGMT was characterized by DNA methylation and histone H3-K9 hypermethylation. (2) 5-Aza-dC was able to reduce H3-K9 methylation of MGMT gene histone in Hep-2 cell line, 5-Aza-dC was able to reverse DNA methylation of MGMT gene histone in Hep-2 cell line, 5-Aza-dC was able to upregulate the down-regulated gene expression of tumor suppressor genes MGMT. Promoter methylation of cancer suppressor gene MGMT may induce the gene inactivity. DNA methylation may increase H3-K9 methylation. 5-Aza-dC can reduce H3-K9 methylation of tumor suppressor gene MGMT histone by reversing DNA methylation of tumor suppressor gene MGMT, and then the expression of tumor suppressor genes is increased and tumor development is inhibited.

  1. Genome-wide Differences in DNA Methylation Changes in Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes in Response to Drought Conditions

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    Wensheng Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Differences in drought stress tolerance within diverse rice genotypes have been attributed to genetic diversity and epigenetic alterations. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that influences diverse biological processes, but its effects on rice drought stress tolerance are poorly understood. In this study, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing and an Affymetrix GeneChip rice genome array were used to profile the DNA methylation patterns and transcriptomes of the drought-tolerant introgression line DK151 and its drought-sensitive recurrent parent IR64 under drought and control conditions. The introgression of donor genomic DNA induced genome-wide DNA methylation changes in DK151 plants. A total of 1190 differentially methylated regions (DMRs were detected between the two genotypes under normal growth conditions, and the DMR-associated genes in DK151 plants were mainly related to stress response, programmed cell death, and nutrient reservoir activity, which are implicated to constitutive drought stress tolerance. A comparison of the DNA methylation changes in the two genotypes under drought conditions indicated that DK151 plants have a more stable methylome, with only 92 drought-induced DMRs, than IR64 plants with 506 DMRs. Gene ontology analyses of the DMR-associated genes in drought-stressed plants revealed that changes to the DNA methylation status of genotype-specific genes are associated with the epigenetic regulation of drought stress responses. Transcriptome analysis further helped to identify a set of 12 and 23 DMR-associated genes that were differentially expressed in DK151 and IR64, respectively, under drought stress compared with respective controls. Correlation analysis indicated that DNA methylation has various effects on gene expression, implying that it affects gene expression directly or indirectly through diverse regulatory pathways. Our results indicate that drought-induced alterations to DNA

  2. A Novel Approach to Assay DNA Methylation in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    facilitates FOXA1 recruitment to target enhancers via DNA demethylation. 3 INTRODUCTION Forkhead box A1 (FOXA1; also known as hepatocyte nuclear ...al. (2012). Sequence features and chromatin structure around the genomic regions bound by 119 human transcription factors. Genome research 22, 1798...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0319 TITLE: A Novel Approach to Assay DNA Methylation in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jindan YU

  3. DNA Methylation: a New Player in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Xiao, Bing; Chen, Xing-Shu

    2017-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological and chronic inflammatory disease that is mediated by demyelination and axonal degeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). Studies have shown that immune system components such as CD4+, CD8+, CD44+ T cells, B lymphatic cells, and inflammatory cytokines play a critical role in inflammatory processes and myelin damage associated with MS. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis of MS remains poorly defined. DNA methylation, a significant epigenetic modification, is reported to be extensively involved in MS pathogenesis through the regulation of gene expression. This review focuses on DNA methylation involved in MS pathogenesis. Evidence showed the hypermethylation of human leukocyte antigen-DRB1 (HLA-DRB1) in CD4+ T cells, the genome-wide DNA methylation in CD8+ T cells, the hypermethylation of interleukin-4 (IL-4)/forkhead winged helix transcription factor 3 (Foxp3), and the demethylation of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)/IL-17a in CD44+ encephalitogenic T cells. Studies also showed the hypermethylation of SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and methylated changes of genes regulating oligodendrocyte and neuronal function in normal-appearing white matter. Clarifying the mechanism of aberrant methylation on MS may explain part of the pathology and will lead to the development of a new therapeutic target for the treatment of MS in the future.

  4. DNA methylation modifications associated with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred C de Vega

    Full Text Available Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS, also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis, is a complex multifactorial disease that is characterized by the persistent presence of fatigue and other particular symptoms for a minimum of 6 months. Symptoms fail to dissipate after sufficient rest and have major effects on the daily functioning of CFS sufferers. CFS is a multi-system disease with a heterogeneous patient population showing a wide variety of functional disabilities and its biological basis remains poorly understood. Stable alterations in gene function in the immune system have been reported in several studies of CFS. Epigenetic modifications have been implicated in long-term effects on gene function, however, to our knowledge, genome-wide epigenetic modifications associated with CFS have not been explored. We examined the DNA methylome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from CFS patients and healthy controls using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, controlling for invariant probes and probes overlapping polymorphic sequences. Gene ontology (GO and network analysis of differentially methylated genes was performed to determine potential biological pathways showing changes in DNA methylation in CFS. We found an increased abundance of differentially methylated genes related to the immune response, cellular metabolism, and kinase activity. Genes associated with immune cell regulation, the largest coordinated enrichment of differentially methylated pathways, showed hypomethylation within promoters and other gene regulatory elements in CFS. These data are consistent with evidence of multisystem dysregulation in CFS and implicate the involvement of DNA modifications in CFS pathology.

  5. DNA methylation modifications associated with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega, Wilfred C; Vernon, Suzanne D; McGowan, Patrick O

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis, is a complex multifactorial disease that is characterized by the persistent presence of fatigue and other particular symptoms for a minimum of 6 months. Symptoms fail to dissipate after sufficient rest and have major effects on the daily functioning of CFS sufferers. CFS is a multi-system disease with a heterogeneous patient population showing a wide variety of functional disabilities and its biological basis remains poorly understood. Stable alterations in gene function in the immune system have been reported in several studies of CFS. Epigenetic modifications have been implicated in long-term effects on gene function, however, to our knowledge, genome-wide epigenetic modifications associated with CFS have not been explored. We examined the DNA methylome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from CFS patients and healthy controls using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, controlling for invariant probes and probes overlapping polymorphic sequences. Gene ontology (GO) and network analysis of differentially methylated genes was performed to determine potential biological pathways showing changes in DNA methylation in CFS. We found an increased abundance of differentially methylated genes related to the immune response, cellular metabolism, and kinase activity. Genes associated with immune cell regulation, the largest coordinated enrichment of differentially methylated pathways, showed hypomethylation within promoters and other gene regulatory elements in CFS. These data are consistent with evidence of multisystem dysregulation in CFS and implicate the involvement of DNA modifications in CFS pathology.

  6. Fetal DNA hypermethylation in tight junction pathway is associated with neural tube defects: A genome-wide DNA methylation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Lin, Shanshan; Zhang, Ji; Tian, Tian; Jin, Lei; Ren, Aiguo

    2017-02-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a spectrum of severe congenital malformations of fusion failure of the neural tube during early embryogenesis. Evidence on aberrant DNA methylation in NTD development remains scarce, especially when exposure to environmental pollutant is taken into consideration. DNA methylation profiling was quantified using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array in neural tissues from 10 NTD cases and 8 non-malformed controls (stage 1). Subsequent validation was performed using a Sequenom MassARRAY system in neural tissues from 20 NTD cases and 20 non-malformed controls (stage 2). Correlation analysis of differentially methylated CpG sites in fetal neural tissues and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in fetal neural tissues and maternal serum was conducted. Differentially methylated CpG sites of neural tissues were further validated in fetal mice with NTDs induced by benzo(a)pyrene given to pregnant mice. Differentially hypermethylated CpG sites in neural tissues from 17 genes and 6 pathways were identified in stage 1. Subsequently, differentially hypermethylated CpG sites in neural tissues from 6 genes (BDKRB2, CTNNA1, CYFIP2, MMP7, MYH2, and TIAM2) were confirmed in stage 2. Correlation analysis showed that methylated CpG sites in CTNNA1 and MYH2 from NTD cases were positively correlated to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon level in fetal neural tissues and maternal serum. The correlation was confirmed in NTD-affected fetal mice that were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene in utero. In conclusion, hypermethylation of the CTNNA1 and MYH2 genes in tight junction pathway is associated with the risk for NTDs, and the DNA methylation aberration may be caused by exposure to benzo(a)pyrene.

  7. Micronutrient status and global DNA methylation in school-age children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perng, Wei; Rozek, Laura S; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Duchin, Ofra; Marin, Constanza; Forero, Yibby; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    .... Micronutrients including methyl-donors and retinoids are involved in DNA methylation pathways. We investigated associations of micronutrient status and LINE-1 methylation in a cross-sectional study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia...

  8. Asymmetric DNA methylation by dimeric EcoP15I DNA methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urulangodi, Madhusoodanan; Dhanaraju, Rajkumar; Gupta, Kanchan; Roy, Rajendra P; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Rao, Desirazu N

    2016-01-01

    EcoP15I DNA methyltransferase (M.EcoP15I) recognizes short asymmetric sequence, 5'-CAGCAG-3', and methylates the second adenine only on one strand of the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). In vivo, this methylation is sufficient to protect the host DNA from cleavage by the cognate restriction endonuclease, R.EcoP15I, because of the stringent cleavage specificity requirements. Biochemical and structural characterization support the notion that purified M.EcoP15I exists and functions as dimer. However, the exact role of dimerization in M.EcoP15I reaction mechanism remains elusive. Here we engineered M.EcoP15I to a stable monomeric form and studied the role of dimerization in enzyme catalyzed methylation reaction. While the monomeric form binds single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) containing the recognition sequence it is unable to methylate it. Further we show that, while the monomeric form has AdoMet binding and Mg(2+) binding motifs intact, optimal dsDNA binding required for methylation is dependent on dimerization. Together, our biochemical data supports a unique subunit organization for M.EcoP15I to catalyze the methylation reaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  9. 5-azacytidine induces transcriptome changes in Escherichia coli via DNA methylation-dependent and DNA methylation-independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Kevin T; Simon, Robert D; Mandarano, Alexandra H; DiNatale, Anthony; Hennick, Stacy M; Lazatin, Justine C; Cantatore, Sarah

    2016-06-27

    Escherichia coli K-12 strains contain DNA cytosine methyltransferase (Dcm), which generates 5-methylcytosine at 5'CCWGG3' sites. Although the role of 5-methylcytosine in eukaryotic gene expression is relatively well described, the role of 5-methylcytosine in bacterial gene expression is largely unknown. To identify genes that are controlled by 5-methylcytosine in E. coli, we compared the transcriptomes of cells grown in the absence and presence of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine. We observed expression changes for 63 genes. The majority of the gene expression changes occurred at early stationary phase and were up-regulations. To identify gene expression changes due to a loss of DNA methylation, we compared the expression of selected genes in a wild-type and dcm knockout strain via reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Our data indicate that 5-azacytidine can influence gene expression by at least two distinct mechanisms: DNA methylation loss and a mechanism that is independent of DNA methylation loss. In addition, we have identified new targets of 5-methylcytosine-mediated regulation of gene expression. In summary, our data indicate that 5-azacytidine impacts the composition of the bacterial transcriptome, and the primary effect is increased gene expression at early stationary phase.

  10. Genome-wide screen of ovary-specific DNA methylation in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying-Ying; Sun, Cui-Xiang; Liu, Yin-Kun; Li, Yan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    To compare genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in ovary tissue from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy controls. Case-control study matched for age and body mass index. University-affiliated hospital. Ten women with PCOS who underwent ovarian drilling to induce ovulation and 10 healthy women who were undergoing laparoscopic sterilization, hysterectomy for benign conditions, diagnostic laparoscopy for pelvic pain, or oophorectomy for nonovarian indications. None. Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns determined by immunoprecipitation and microarray (MeDIP-chip) analysis. The methylation levels were statistically significantly higher in CpG island shores (CGI shores), which lie outside of core promoter regions, and lower within gene bodies in women with PCOS relative to the controls. In addition, high CpG content promoters were the most frequently hypermethylated promoters in PCOS ovaries but were more often hypomethylated in controls. Second, 872 CGIs, specifically methylated in PCOS, represented 342 genes that could be associated with various molecular functions, including protein binding, hormone activity, and transcription regulator activity. Finally, methylation differences were validated in seven genes by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. These genes correlated to several functional families related to the pathogenesis of PCOS and may be potential biomarkers for this disease. Our results demonstrated that epigenetic modification differs between PCOS and normal ovaries, which may help to further understand the pathophysiology of this disease. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA methylation signature of long noncoding RNA genes during human pre-implantation embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Han, Shubiao; Ye, Hong; Huang, Guoning

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation have crucial roles in regulating the expression of developmental genes during mammalian pre-implantation embryonic development (PED). However, the DNA methylation dynamic pattern of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) genes, one type of epigenetic regulators, in human PED have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of lncRNA genes in human PED based on public reduced representation bisulphite sequencing (RRBS) data. We observed that both lncRNA and protein-coding genes complete the major demethylation wave at the 2-cell stage, whereas the promoters of lncRNA genes show higher methylation level than protein-coding genes during PED. Similar methylation distribution was observed across the transcription start sites (TSS) of lncRNA and protein-coding genes, contrary to previous observations in tissues. Besides, not only the gamete-specific differentially methylated regions (G-DMRs) but also the embryonic developmental-specific DMRs (D-DMRs) showed more paternal bias, especially in promoter regions in lncRNA genes. Moreover, coding-non-coding gene co-expression network analysis of genes containing D-DMRs suggested that lncRNA genes involved in PED are associated with gene expression regulation through several means, such as mRNA splicing, translational regulation and mRNA catabolic. This firstly provides study provides the methylation profiles of lncRNA genes in human PED and improves the understanding of lncRNA genes involvement in human PED. PMID:28915634

  12. The defining DNA methylation signature of Floating-Harbor Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Rebecca L; Schenkel, Laila C; Nikkel, Sarah M; Ainsworth, Peter J; Pare, Guillaume; Boycott, Kym M; Bulman, Dennis E; Sadikovic, Bekim

    2016-12-09

    Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition characterized by short stature, delayed osseous maturation, expressive language impairment, and unique facial dysmorphology. We previously identified mutations in the chromatin remodeling protein SRCAP (SNF2-related CBP Activator Protein) as the cause of FHS. SRCAP has multiple roles in chromatin and transcriptional regulation; however, specific epigenetic consequences of SRCAP mutations remain to be described. Using high resolution genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, we identified a unique and highly specific DNA methylation "epi-signature" in the peripheral blood of individuals with FHS. Both hyper and hypomethylated loci are distributed across the genome, preferentially occurring in CpG islands. Clonal bisulfite sequencing of two hypermethylated (FIGN and STPG2) and two hypomethylated (MYO1F and RASIP1) genes confirmed these findings. The identification of a unique methylation signature in FHS provides further insight into the biological function of SRCAP and provides a unique biomarker for this disorder.

  13. DNA methylation-based biomarkers in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandimalla, Raju; van Tilborg, Angela A; Zwarthoff, Ellen C

    2013-06-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the Western world. Increasing evidence has shown that DNA methylation in bladder cancer is expansive and is implicated in pathogenesis. Furthermore, distinct methylation patterns have been identified between non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), as well as between FGFR3-mutant and wild-type tumours. Given these distinctions in expression, methylated genes have been proposed as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for patients with bladder cancer. Indeed, several studies have revealed that methylated genes--including CDH1, FHIT, LAMC2, RASSF1A, TIMP3, SFRP1, SOX9, PMF1 and RUNX3--are associated with poor survival in patients with MIBC. Further validation of these markers for prognostication as well as surveillance (of patients with NMIBC) is required. Validated markers for progression, diagnosis, survival and BCG response will contribute to clinical decision-making and individualized treatment.

  14. Dynamics and Context-Dependent Roles of DNA Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Christina; Manzo, Massimiliano; Baubec, Tuncay

    2017-05-19

    DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks. It is involved in transcriptional gene silencing and plays important roles during mammalian development. Its perturbation is often associated with human diseases. In mammalian genomes, DNA methylation is a prevalent modification that decorates the majority of cytosines. It is found at the promoters and enhancers of inactive genes, at repetitive elements, and within transcribed gene bodies. Its presence at promoters is dynamically linked to gene activity, suggesting that it could directly influence gene expression patterns and cellular identity. The genome-wide distribution and dynamic behaviour of this mark have been studied in great detail in a variety of tissues and cell lines, including early embryonic development and in embryonic stem cells. In combination with functional studies, these genome-wide maps of DNA methylation revealed interesting features of this mark and provided important insights into its dynamic nature and potential functional role in genome regulation. In this review, we discuss how these recent observations, in combination with insights obtained from biochemical and functional genetics studies, have expanded our current knowledge about the regulation and context-dependent roles of DNA methylation in mammalian genomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in DNA methylation levels during seed development in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 95; Online resources. Changes in DNA methylation levels during seed development in Jatropha curcas. PRATIMA PANDEY ANOOP ANAND MALIK KAMLESH KUMAR MADAN SINGH NEGI SHASHI BHUSHAN TRIPATHI. Online Resources Volume 95 Online resources 2016 ...

  16. Establishment and functions of DNA methylation in the germline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart-Morgan, Kathleen; Veselovska, Lenka; Kelsey, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications established during gametogenesis regulate transcription and other nuclear processes in gametes, but also have influences in the zygote, embryo and postnatal life. This is best understood for DNA methylation which, established at discrete regions of the oocyte and sperm ge...

  17. DNA methylation and genetic diversity analysis of genus Cycas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mallory

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... deciduous forests (central Thailand). Where, Pi is the frequency of the present or absent allele (Ott,. 1991). Principal component analysis (PCA) was also performed for cluster analysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. MSAP band patterns and DNA methylation percentages in Cycas. From 11 pairs of EcoRI+ ...

  18. Effect of short day photoperiod on DNA methylation and expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique was adapted to screen a photoperiodresponsive gene of rice KDML105. Six out of thirty-two primer combinations gave twelve EcoRI/HpaIIgenerated. MSAP markers from the genomic DNA of KDML105 after exposure to short-day (SD) photoperiod.

  19. DNA methylation pattern in pig in vivo produced embryos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulka, Josef; Fulková, H.; Slavík, Tomáš; Okada, K.; Fulka Jr., J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 2 (2006), s. 213-217 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA ČR GESTE/05/E004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : methylation * DNA * embryos Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.220, year: 2006

  20. Investigation of correlations between DNA methylation, suicidal behavior and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremian, Richie; Chen, Yi-An; De Luca, Vincenzo; Vincent, John B; Kennedy, James L; Zai, Clement C; Strauss, John

    2017-02-01

    Suicidal behavior (SB) is a major cause of mortality for patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD). In this study, we investigated epigenetic differences in BD participants with and without a history of SB. We used suicidality scores constructed from Schedule for Clinical Assessments in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) interview questions about suicidal thought and behavior to identify individuals from a BD cohort of n=452; participants with the most extreme high (H-SB, n=18) and most extreme low (L-SB, n=22) scores were used as cases and controls, respectively. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns were compared between the two groups using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 BeadChip microarray. DNA methylation age was compared to chronological tissue age. We observed highly significant differences in methylation between cases and controls in three genomic regions enriched for epigenetic modifications corresponding to gene regulatory regions. BD participants with a history of SB showed less overall methylation in the 5' untranslated region of Membrane palmitoylated protein 4 (MPP4) (P=7.42×10(-7) ) and in intron 3 of TRE2/BUB2/CDC16 domain family member 16 (TBC1D16) (P=6.47×10(-7) ), while exon 1 of Nucleoporin 133 (NUP133) was less methylated in controls (P=1.17x10(-6) ). Moreover, we observed a greater correlation between DNA methylation age and tissue age in controls (r=.91, Psuicide attempters. Despite the small sample size, our proof-of-concept study highlights the potential for epigenetic factors to be useful in understanding the molecular underpinnings of suicide with the ultimate aim of its prevention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Ancestry dependent DNA methylation and influence of maternal nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyobeni Mozhui

    Full Text Available There is extensive variation in DNA methylation between individuals and ethnic groups. These differences arise from a combination of genetic and non-genetic influences and potential modifiers include nutritional cues, early life experience, and social and physical environments. Here we compare genome-wide DNA methylation in neonatal cord blood from African American (AA; N = 112 and European American (EA; N = 91 participants of the CANDLE Study (Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood. Our goal is to determine if there are replicable ancestry-specific methylation patterns that may implicate risk factors for diseases that have differential prevalence between populations. To identify the most robust ancestry-specific CpG sites, we replicate our results in lymphoblastoid cell lines from Yoruba African and CEPH European panels of HapMap. We also evaluate the influence of maternal nutrition--specifically, plasma levels of vitamin D and folate during pregnancy--on methylation in newborns. We define stable ancestry-dependent methylation of genes that include tumor suppressors and cell cycle regulators (e.g., APC, BRCA1, MCC. Overall, there is lower global methylation in African ancestral groups. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D are also considerably lower among AA mothers and about 60% of AA and 40% of EA mothers have concentrations below 20 ng/ml. Using a weighted correlation analysis, we define a network of CpG sites that is jointly modulated by ancestry and maternal vitamin D. Our results show that differences in DNA methylation patterns are remarkably stable and maternal micronutrients can exert an influence on the child epigenome.

  2. DNA methyltransferase 1 mutations and mitochondrial pathology: is mtDNA methylated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eMaresca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN and Hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss (HSN1E are two rare, overlapping neurodegenerative syndromes that have been recently linked to allelic dominant pathogenic mutations in the DNMT1 gene, coding for DNA (cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1. DNMT1 is the enzyme responsible for maintaining the nuclear genome methylation patterns during the DNA replication and repair, thus regulating gene expression. The mutations responsible for ADCA-DN and HSN1E affect the replication foci targeting sequence domain, which regulates DNMT1 binding to chromatin. DNMT1 dysfunction is anticipated to lead to a global alteration of the DNA methylation pattern with predictable downstream consequences on gene expression. Interestingly, ADCA-DN and HSN1E phenotypes share some clinical features typical of mitochondrial diseases, such as optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy and deafness, and some biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. The recent discovery of a mitochondrial isoform of DNMT1 and its proposed role in methylating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA suggests that DNMT1 mutations may directly affect mtDNA and mitochondrial physiology. On the basis of this latter finding the link between DNMT1 abnormal activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in ADCA-DN and HSN1E appears intuitive, however mtDNA methylation remains highly debated. In the last years several groups demonstrated the presence of 5-methylcytosine in mtDNA by different approaches, but, on the other end, the opposite evidence that mtDNA is not methylated has also been published. Since over 1500 mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome, the altered methylation of these genes may well have a critical role in leading to the mitochondrial impairment observed in ADCA-DN and HSN1E. Thus, many open questions still remain unanswered, such as why mtDNA should be methylated, and how this process is

  3. A ranking index for quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles forensic DNA profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Johannes; Ansell, Ricky; Nordgaard, Anders

    2010-11-09

    Assessment of DNA profile quality is vital in forensic DNA analysis, both in order to determine the evidentiary value of DNA results and to compare the performance of different DNA analysis protocols. Generally the quality assessment is performed through manual examination of the DNA profiles based on empirical knowledge, or by comparing the intensities (allelic peak heights) of the capillary electrophoresis electropherograms. We recently developed a ranking index for unbiased and quantitative quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles, the forensic DNA profile index (FI) (Hedman et al. Improved forensic DNA analysis through the use of alternative DNA polymerases and statistical modeling of DNA profiles, Biotechniques 47 (2009) 951-958). FI uses electropherogram data to combine the intensities of the allelic peaks with the balances within and between loci, using Principal Components Analysis. Here we present the construction of FI. We explain the mathematical and statistical methodologies used and present details about the applied data reduction method. Thereby we show how to adapt the ranking index for any Short Tandem Repeat-based forensic DNA typing system through validation against a manual grading scale and calibration against a specific set of DNA profiles. The developed tool provides unbiased quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles. It can be applied for any DNA profiling system based on Short Tandem Repeat markers. Apart from crime related DNA analysis, FI can therefore be used as a quality tool in paternal or familial testing as well as in disaster victim identification.

  4. A ranking index for quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles forensic DNA profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansell Ricky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of DNA profile quality is vital in forensic DNA analysis, both in order to determine the evidentiary value of DNA results and to compare the performance of different DNA analysis protocols. Generally the quality assessment is performed through manual examination of the DNA profiles based on empirical knowledge, or by comparing the intensities (allelic peak heights of the capillary electrophoresis electropherograms. Results We recently developed a ranking index for unbiased and quantitative quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles, the forensic DNA profile index (FI (Hedman et al. Improved forensic DNA analysis through the use of alternative DNA polymerases and statistical modeling of DNA profiles, Biotechniques 47 (2009 951-958. FI uses electropherogram data to combine the intensities of the allelic peaks with the balances within and between loci, using Principal Components Analysis. Here we present the construction of FI. We explain the mathematical and statistical methodologies used and present details about the applied data reduction method. Thereby we show how to adapt the ranking index for any Short Tandem Repeat-based forensic DNA typing system through validation against a manual grading scale and calibration against a specific set of DNA profiles. Conclusions The developed tool provides unbiased quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles. It can be applied for any DNA profiling system based on Short Tandem Repeat markers. Apart from crime related DNA analysis, FI can therefore be used as a quality tool in paternal or familial testing as well as in disaster victim identification.

  5. A ranking index for quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles forensic DNA profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Assessment of DNA profile quality is vital in forensic DNA analysis, both in order to determine the evidentiary value of DNA results and to compare the performance of different DNA analysis protocols. Generally the quality assessment is performed through manual examination of the DNA profiles based on empirical knowledge, or by comparing the intensities (allelic peak heights) of the capillary electrophoresis electropherograms. Results We recently developed a ranking index for unbiased and quantitative quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles, the forensic DNA profile index (FI) (Hedman et al. Improved forensic DNA analysis through the use of alternative DNA polymerases and statistical modeling of DNA profiles, Biotechniques 47 (2009) 951-958). FI uses electropherogram data to combine the intensities of the allelic peaks with the balances within and between loci, using Principal Components Analysis. Here we present the construction of FI. We explain the mathematical and statistical methodologies used and present details about the applied data reduction method. Thereby we show how to adapt the ranking index for any Short Tandem Repeat-based forensic DNA typing system through validation against a manual grading scale and calibration against a specific set of DNA profiles. Conclusions The developed tool provides unbiased quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles. It can be applied for any DNA profiling system based on Short Tandem Repeat markers. Apart from crime related DNA analysis, FI can therefore be used as a quality tool in paternal or familial testing as well as in disaster victim identification. PMID:21062433

  6. Advances in DNA methylation: 5-hydroxymethylcytosine revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christina; Grønbæk, Kirsten; Guldberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian DNA contains two modified cytosine bases; 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Both of these have been known for decades but have received very different levels of attention in the scientific literature. 5mC has been studied extensively, and its role as an epigenet...

  7. Methylation profile and amplification of proto-oncogenes in rat pancreas induced with phytoestrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyn-Cook, B.D.; Blann, E.; Bo, J. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Specific gene hypermethylation has been shown in DNA from neonatal rats exposed to the phytoestrogens, coumestrol, and equol. The pancreas is an organ in which estrogen receptors have been shown to be present. Studies have correlated the development of acute pancreatitis with rising levels of human estrogen binding proteins. Neonatal rats were dosed with 10 or 100 {mu}g of coumestrol or equol on postnatal day (PND) 1-10. The animals were sacrificed at Day 15. The pancreas was excised and pancreatic acinar cells isolated for molecular analysis. DNA was isolated from the cells by lysis in TEN-9 buffer supplemented with proteinase K and 0.1% SDS. High molecular weight (HMW) DNA was digested with the methylated DNA specific restriction enzymes, Hpa II and Msp I, for determination of methylation profiles. Both coumestrol and equol at high doses caused hypermethylation of the c-H-ras proto-oncogene. No hypermethylation or hypomethylation was observed in the proto-oncogenes, c-myc or c-fos. Methylation is thought to be an epigenetic mechanism involved in the activation (hypomethylation) or inactivation (hypermethylation) of cellular genes which are known to play a role in carcinogenesis. Epidemiology studies have shown that equol may have anti-carcinogenic effects on some hormone-dependent cancers. Additional studies are needed to further understand the role of phytoestrogens and methylation in relation to pancreatic disorders. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  8. DNA methylation patterns of behavior-related gene promoter regions dissect the gray wolf from domestic dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banlaki, Zsofia; Cimarelli, Giulia; Viranyi, Zsofia; Kubinyi, Eniko; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Ronai, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the relationship between epigenetics, especially DNA methylation, and population divergence as well as speciation. However, little is known about how general the phenomenon of epigenetics-wise separation of different populations is, or whether population assignment is, possible based on solely epigenetic marks. In the present study, we compared DNA methylation profiles between four different canine populations: three domestic dog breeds and their ancestor the gray wolf. Altogether, 79 CpG sites constituting the 65 so-called CpG units located in the promoter regions of genes affecting behavioral and temperamental traits (COMT, HTR1A, MAOA, OXTR, SLC6A4, TPH1, WFS1)-regions putatively targeted during domestication and breed selection. Methylation status of buccal cells was assessed using EpiTYPER technology. Significant inter-population methylation differences were found in 52.3% of all CpG units investigated. DNA methylation profile-based hierarchical cluster analysis indicated an unambiguous segregation of wolf from domestic dog. In addition, one of the three dog breeds (Golden Retriever) investigated also formed a separate, autonomous group. The findings support that population segregation is interrelated with shifts in DNA methylation patterns, at least in putative selection target regions, and also imply that epigenetic profiles could provide a sufficient basis for population assignment of individuals.

  9. Epigenetic regulation of motor neuron cell death through DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Barry A; Chang, Qing; Price, Ann; Lesuisse, Catherine; Wong, Margaret; Martin, Lee J

    2011-11-16

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for gene silencing engaged by DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt)-catalyzed methyl group transfer to cytosine residues in gene-regulatory regions. It is unknown whether aberrant DNA methylation can cause neurodegeneration. We tested the hypothesis that Dnmts can mediate neuronal cell death. Enforced expression of Dnmt3a induced degeneration of cultured NSC34 cells. During apoptosis of NSC34 cells induced by camptothecin, levels of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a increased fivefold and twofold, respectively, and 5-methylcytosine accumulated in nuclei. Truncation mutation of the Dnmt3a catalytic domain and Dnmt3a RNAi blocked apoptosis of cultured neurons. Inhibition of Dnmt catalytic activity with RG108 and procainamide protected cultured neurons from excessive DNA methylation and apoptosis. In vivo, Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a are expressed differentially during mouse brain and spinal cord maturation and in adulthood when Dnmt3a is abundant in synapses and mitochondria. Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a are expressed in motor neurons of adult mouse spinal cord, and, during their apoptosis induced by sciatic nerve avulsion, nuclear and cytoplasmic 5-methylcytosine immunoreactivity, Dnmt3a protein levels and Dnmt enzyme activity increased preapoptotically. Inhibition of Dnmts with RG108 blocked completely the increase in 5-methycytosine and the apoptosis of motor neurons in mice. In human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), motor neurons showed changes in Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and 5-methylcytosine similar to experimental models. Thus, motor neurons can engage epigenetic mechanisms to drive apoptosis, involving Dnmt upregulation and increased DNA methylation. These cellular mechanisms could be relevant to human ALS pathobiology and disease treatment.

  10. The potential use of DNA methylation biomarkers to identify risk and progression of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn eGillberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is a slowly progressive disease that can be postponed or even avoided through lifestyle changes. Recent data demonstrate highly significant correlations between DNA methylation and the most important risk factors of T2D, including age and BMI, in blood and human tissues relevant to insulin resistance and T2D. Also, T2D patients and individuals with increased risk of the disease display differential DNA methylation profiles and plasticity compared to controls. Accordingly, the novel clues to DNA methylation fingerprints in blood and tissues with deteriorated metabolic capacity indicate that blood-borne epigenetic biomarkers of T2D progression might become a reality. This Mini Review will address the most recent associations between DNA methylation and diabetes-related traits in human tissues and blood. The overall focus is on the potential of future epigenome-wide studies, carried out across tissues and populations with correlations to pre-diabetes and T2D risk factors, to build up a library of epigenetic markers of risk and early progression of T2D. These markers may, tentatively in combination with other predictors of T2D development, increase the possibility of individual-based lifestyle prevention of T2D and associated metabolic diseases.

  11. DNA methylation signatures triggered by prenatal maternal stress exposure to a natural disaster: Project Ice Storm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Cao-Lei

    Full Text Available Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS predicts a wide variety of behavioral and physical outcomes in the offspring. Although epigenetic processes may be responsible for PNMS effects, human research is hampered by the lack of experimental methods that parallel controlled animal studies. Disasters, however, provide natural experiments that can provide models of prenatal stress.Five months after the 1998 Quebec ice storm we recruited women who had been pregnant during the disaster and assessed their degrees of objective hardship and subjective distress. Thirteen years later, we investigated DNA methylation profiling in T cells obtained from 36 of the children, and compared selected results with those from saliva samples obtained from the same children at age 8.Prenatal maternal objective hardship was correlated with DNA methylation levels in 1675 CGs affiliated with 957 genes predominantly related to immune function; maternal subjective distress was uncorrelated. DNA methylation changes in SCG5 and LTA, both highly correlated with maternal objective stress, were comparable in T cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and saliva cells.These data provide first evidence in humans supporting the conclusion that PNMS results in a lasting, broad, and functionally organized DNA methylation signature in several tissues in offspring. By using a natural disaster model, we can infer that the epigenetic effects found in Project Ice Storm are due to objective levels of hardship experienced by the pregnant woman rather than to her level of sustained distress.

  12. Folic Acid Alters Methylation Profile of JAK-STAT and Long-Term Depression Signaling Pathways in Alzheimer's Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Liu, Huan; Yu, Min; Zhang, Xumei; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Hongbo; Wilson, John X; Huang, Guowei

    2016-11-01

    Dementia has emerged as a major societal issue because of the worldwide aging population and the absence of any effective treatment. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that evidently plays a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Folate acts through one-carbon metabolism to support the methylation of multiple substrates including DNA. We aimed to test the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation alters DNA methylation profiles in AD models. Mouse Neuro-2a cells expressing human APP695 (N2a-APP cells) were incubated with folic acid (2.8-20 μmol/L). AD transgenic mice were fed either folate-deficient or control diets and gavaged daily with water or folic acid (600 μg/kg). Gene methylation profiles were determined by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-DNA microarray (MeDIP-chip). Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were determined by Quantitative Differentially Methylated Regions analysis, and differentially methylated genes (DMGs) carrying at least three DMRs were selected for pathway analysis. Folic acid up-regulated DNA methylation levels in N2a-APP cells and AD transgenic mouse brains. Functional network analysis of folic acid-induced DMGs in these AD models revealed subnetworks composed of 24 focus genes in the janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway and 12 focus genes in the long-term depression (LTD) signaling pathway. In conclusion, these results revealed a role for folic acid in the JAK-STAT and LTD signaling pathways which may be relevant to AD pathogenesis. This novel finding may stimulate reinvestigation of folic acid supplementation as a prophylactic or therapeutic treatment for AD.

  13. RNA-directed DNA methylation: Mechanisms and functions

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2010-07-01

    Epigenetic RNA based gene silencing mechanisms play a major role in genome stability and control of gene expression. Transcriptional gene silencing via RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) guides the epigenetic regulation of the genome in response to disease states, growth, developmental and stress signals. RdDM machinery is composed of proteins that produce and modify 24-nt- long siRNAs, recruit the RdDM complex to genomic targets, methylate DNA and remodel chromatin. The final DNA methylation pattern is determined by either DNA methyltransferase alone or by the combined action of DNA methyltransferases and demethylases. The dynamic interaction between RdDM and demethylases may render the plant epigenome plastic to growth, developmental, and environmental cues. The epigenome plasticity may allow the plant genome to assume many epigenomes and to have the right epigenome at the right time in response to intracellular or extracellular stimuli. This review discusses recent advances in RdDM research and considers future perspectives.

  14. Pros and cons of methylation-based enrichment methods for ancient DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Gamba, Cristina; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Louvel, Guillaume; Boulygina, Eugenia; Sokolov, Alexey; Nedoluzhko, Artem; Lorenzen, Eline; Lopez, Patricio; McDonald, H. Gregory; Scott, Eric; Tikhonov, Alexei; Stafford jr., Thomas; Alfarhan, Ahmed H.

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery that DNA methylation survives in fossil material provides an opportunity for novel molecular approaches in palaeogenomics. Here, we apply to ancient DNA extracts the probe-independent Methylated Binding Domains (MBD)-based enrichment method, which targets DNA molecules containing methylated CpGs. Using remains of a Palaeo-Eskimo Saqqaq individual, woolly mammoths, polar bears and two equine species, we confirm that DNA methylation survives in a variety of tissues, environ...

  15. Aberrantly methylated DNA as a biomarker in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Guldberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant DNA hypermethylation at gene promoters is a frequent event in human breast cancer. Recent genome-wide studies have identified hundreds of genes that exhibit differential methylation between breast cancer cells and normal breast tissue. Due to the tumor-specific nature of DNA...... hypermethylation events, their use as tumor biomarkers is usually not hampered by analytical signals from normal cells, which is a general problem for existing protein tumor markers used for clinical assessment of breast cancer. There is accumulating evidence that DNA-methylation changes in breast cancer patients...... occur early during tumorigenesis. This may open up for effective screening, and analysis of blood or nipple aspirate may later help in diagnosing breast cancer. As a more detailed molecular characterization of different types of breast cancer becomes available, the ability to divide patients...

  16. Effects of As2O3 on DNA methylation, genomic instability, and LTR retrotransposon polymorphism in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Aydin, Murat; Sigmaz, Burcu; Taspinar, M Sinan; Arslan, Esra; Agar, Guleray; Yagci, Semra

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a well-known toxic substance on the living organisms. However, limited efforts have been made to study its DNA methylation, genomic instability, and long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon polymorphism causing properties in different crops. In the present study, effects of As2O3 (arsenic trioxide) on LTR retrotransposon polymorphism and DNA methylation as well as DNA damage in Zea mays seedlings were investigated. The results showed that all of arsenic doses caused a decreasing genomic template stability (GTS) and an increasing Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) profile changes (DNA damage). In addition, increasing DNA methylation and LTR retrotransposon polymorphism characterized a model to explain the epigenetically changes in the gene expression were also found. The results of this experiment have clearly shown that arsenic has epigenetic effect as well as its genotoxic effect. Especially, the increasing of polymorphism of some LTR retrotransposon under arsenic stress may be a part of the defense system against the stress.

  17. Role of DNA profiling in forensic odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Leena Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in DNA profiling have made DNA evidence to be more widely accepted in courts. This has revolutionized the aspect of forensic odontology. DNA profiling/DNA fingerprinting has come a long way from the conventional fingerprints. DNA that is responsible for all the cell′s activities, yields valuable information both in the healthy and diseased individuals. When other means of traditional identification become impossible following mass calamities or fire explosions, teeth provide a rich source of DNA as they have a high chemical as well as physical resistance. The recent evolution in the isolation of DNA and the ways of running a DNA fingerprint are highlighted in this literature review.

  18. DNA methylation in glioblastoma: impact on gene expression and clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikali Stephan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in promoter DNA methylation pattern of genes involved in key biological pathways have been reported in glioblastoma. Genome-wide assessments of DNA methylation levels are now required to decipher the epigenetic events involved in the aggressive phenotype of glioblastoma, and to guide new treatment strategies. Results We performed a whole-genome integrative analysis of methylation and gene expression profiles in 40 newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. We also screened for associations between the level of methylation of CpG sites and overall survival in a cohort of 50 patients uniformly treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (STUPP protocol. The methylation analysis identified 616 CpG sites differentially methylated between glioblastoma and control brain, a quarter of which was differentially expressed in a concordant way. Thirteen of the genes with concordant CpG sites displayed an inverse correlation between promoter methylation and expression level in glioblastomas: B3GNT5, FABP7, ZNF217, BST2, OAS1, SLC13A5, GSTM5, ME1, UBXD3, TSPYL5, FAAH, C7orf13, and C3orf14. Survival analysis identified six CpG sites associated with overall survival. SOX10 promoter methylation status (two CpG sites stratified patients similarly to MGMT status, but with a higher Area Under the Curve (0.78 vs. 0.71, p-value FNDC3B, TBX3, DGKI, and FSD1 promoters identified patients with MGMT-methylated tumors that did not respond to STUPP treatment (p-value Conclusions This study provides the first genome-wide integrative analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression profiles obtained from the same GBM cohort. We also present a methylome-based survival analysis for one of the largest uniformly treated GBM cohort ever studied, for more than 27,000 CpG sites. We have identified genes whose expression may be tightly regulated by epigenetic mechanisms and markers that may guide treatment

  19. Gene Methylation Profiling in Sinonasal Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costales, Maria; López-Hernández, Alejandro; García-Inclán, Cristina; Vivanco, Blanca; López, Fernando; Llorente, José Luis; Hermsen, Mario A

    2016-11-01

    To identify epigenetic events in intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma (ITAC) and sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) and to evaluate their relation to clinicopathologic features and follow-up data. Retrospective study. Academic research hospital. The methylation status of 23 genes in 50 ITACs and 32 SNSCCs was analyzed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and its relation to clinicopathologic features and follow-up data. Gene methylation was observed in 50% of all tumors. Recurrent methylated genes in SNSCC were RASSF1 and CDH13 (for both, 6 of 32 cases), CHFR (4 of 32 cases), and TIMP3 (2 of 32 cases). None of these genes showed significant correlation to clinicopathologic features or overall survival. In ITAC, recurrent methylated genes were CDH13 (18 of 50 cases), ESR1 (13 of 50 cases), APC (7 of 50 cases), TIMP3 (5 of 50 cases), CASP8 (3 of 50 cases), and HIC1 and RASSF1 (for both, 2 of 50 cases). Papillary and colonic ITAC subtypes carried a mean of 1.26 gene methylations per tumor versus 0.63 in solid and mucinous subtypes. Methylation of TIMP3 was associated with a significantly worse survival in ITAC patients. ITAC carries a higher number and a different profile of gene methylations as compared with SNSCC. Gene methylation plays a greater role in papillary and colonic ITAC subtypes, which may indicate a different tumorigenic pathway for these ITAC subtypes. These findings could be used as prognosticators and may have implications for future individualized therapies based on epigenetic changes. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  20. Distinct high-profile methylated genes in colorectal cancer.

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    Pooneh Mokarram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations and promoters' methylation of a set of candidate cancer genes (CAN genes are associated with progression of colorectal cancer (CRC. We hypothesized that these genes' promoters are inactivated through epigenetic silencing and may show a different profile in high-risk populations. We investigated the status of CAN gene methylation and CHD5 protein expression in African American CRC tissue microarrays (TMA using immunohistochemical staining. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The promoter methylation status of the CAN genes was studied by methylation-specific PCR (MSP in 51 Iranians (a white population and 51 African Americans (AA. Microsatellite instability (MSI was analyzed as well. The differential frequency of methylation for each gene was tested by chi-square analysis between the two groups based on matched age and sex. CHD5 protein expression was evaluated in moderate to well differentiated and poorly differentiated carcinomas compared to matched normal tissue using TMA. In addition, the correlation between these epigenetic biomarkers and various clinicopathological factors, including, age, location, and stage of the disease were analyzed. Seventy-seven and 34% of tumors were distal in Iranian and African American patients, respectively. In both populations, the percentage of methylation was >65% for SYNE1, MMP2, APC2, GPNMB, EVL, PTPRD, and STARD8, whereas methylation was <50% for LGR6, RET, CD109, and RNF. The difference in methylation between the two populations was statistically significant for CHD5, ICAM5 and GPNMB. Thirty-one percent AA tumors showed MSI-H, compared to 28% in Iranians. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A significantly higher methylation rate was found for GPNMB, ICAM5, and CHD5 genes in AA patients compared to Iranians. These genes might play a role in the high incidence and aggressiveness of CRC in the AA population. The hypermethylation of the CAN genes can be considered as a marker of colon carcinogenesis.

  1. Improved reproducibility in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis for PAXgene-fixed samples compared with restored formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gitte Brinch; Hager, Henrik; Hansen, Lise Lotte; Tost, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Formalin fixation has been the standard method for conservation of clinical specimens for decades. However, a major drawback is the high degradation of nucleic acids, which complicates its use in genome-wide analyses. Unbiased identification of biomarkers, however, requires genome-wide studies, precluding the use of the valuable archives of specimens with long-term follow-up data. Therefore, restoration protocols for DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples have been developed, although they are cost-intensive and time-consuming. An alternative to FFPE and snap-freezing is the PAXgene Tissue System, developed for simultaneous preservation of morphology, proteins, and nucleic acids. In the current study, we compared the performance of DNA from either PAXgene or formalin-fixed tissues to snap-frozen material for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using the Illumina 450K BeadChip. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis demonstrated that the methylation profile in PAXgene-fixed tissues showed, in comparison with restored FFPE samples, a higher concordance with the profile detected in frozen samples. We demonstrate, for the first time, that DNA from PAXgene conserved tissue performs better compared with restored FFPE DNA in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. In addition, DNA from PAXgene tissue can be directly used on the array without prior restoration, rendering the analytical process significantly more time- and cost-effective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. DNA methylation regulates hypothalamic gene expression linking parental diet during pregnancy to the offspring's risk of obesity in Psammomys obesus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, I; Kaspi, A; Ziemann, M; Block, T; Connor, T; Spolding, B; Cooper, A; Zimmet, P; El-Osta, A; Walder, K

    2016-07-01

    The rising incidence of obesity is a major public health issue worldwide. Recent human and animal studies suggest that parental diet can influence fetal development and is implicated with risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in offspring. The hypothalamus is central to body energy homoeostasis and appetite by controlling endocrine signals. We hypothesise that offspring susceptibility to obesity is programmed in the hypothalamus in utero and mediated by changes to DNA methylation, which persist to adulthood. We investigated hypothalamic genome-wide DNA methylation in Psammomys obesus diet during pregnancy to the offspring's risk of obesity. Using methyl-CpG binding domain capture and deep sequencing (MBD-seq), we examined the hypothalamus of offspring exposed to a low-fat diet and standard chow diet during the gestation and lactation period. Offspring exposed to a low-fat parental diet were more obese and had increased circulating insulin and glucose levels. Methylome profiling identified 1447 genomic regions of differential methylation between offspring of parents fed a low-fat diet compared with parents on standard chow diet. Pathway analysis shows novel DNA methylation changes of hypothalamic genes associated with neurological function, nutrient sensing, appetite and energy balance. Differential DNA methylation corresponded to changes in hypothalamic gene expression of Tas1r1 and Abcc8 in the offspring exposed to low-fat parental diet. Subject to parental low-fat diet, we observe DNA methylation changes of genes associated with obesity in offspring.

  3. Meta-analysis of DNA methylation biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Jinyun; Huang, Tao; Duan, Shiwei; Dai, Dongjun; Jiang, Danjie; Sui, Xinbing; Li, Da; Chen, Yidan; Ding, Fei; Huang, Changxin; Chen, Gongying; Wang, Kaifeng

    2016-12-06

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to evaluate the contribution of DNA methylation to the risk of HCC. A total of 2109 publications were initially retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang literature database. After a four-step filtration, we harvested 144 case-control articles in the meta-analysis. Our results revealed that 24 genes (carcinoma tissues vs adjacent tissues), 17 genes (carcinoma tissues vs normal tissues) and six genes (carcinoma serums vs normal serums) were significantly hypermethylated in HCC. Subgroup meta-analysis by geographical populations showed that six genes (carcinoma tissues vs adjacent tissues) and four genes (carcinoma tissues vs normal tissues) were significantly hypermethylated in HCC. Our meta-analysis identified the correlations between a number of aberrant methylated genes (p16, RASSF1A, GSTP1, p14, CDH1, APC, RUNX3, SOCS1, p15, MGMT, SFRP1, WIF1, PRDM2, DAPK1, RARβ, hMLH1, p73, DLC1, p53, SPINT2, OPCML and WT1) and HCC. Aberrant DNA methylation might become useful biomarkers for the prediction and diagnosis of HCC.

  4. The effects of reciprocal cross on inheritance of DNA methylation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA methylation plays an important role for regulation of gene expression. To study the inheritance of DNA methylation, we selected two F1 plant population by reciprocal cross with two cotton lines Zongcaixuan No.1 and HY428, and analyzed the variations of DNA methylation levels and patterns in F1 generations by ...

  5. ANRIL Promoter DNA Methylation: A Perinatal Marker for Later Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lillycrop

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies show a substantial contribution of early life environment to obesity risk through epigenetic processes. We examined inter-individual DNA methylation differences in human birth tissues associated with child's adiposity. We identified a novel association between the level of CpG methylation at birth within the promoter of the long non-coding RNA ANRIL (encoded at CDKN2A and childhood adiposity at age 6-years. An association between ANRIL methylation and adiposity was also observed in three additional populations; in birth tissues from ethnically diverse neonates, in peripheral blood from adolescents, and in adipose tissue from adults. Additionally, CpG methylation was associated with ANRIL expression in vivo, and CpG mutagenesis in vitro inhibited ANRIL promoter activity. Furthermore, CpG methylation enhanced binding to an Estrogen Response Element within the ANRIL promoter. Our findings demonstrate that perinatal methylation at loci relevant to gene function may be a robust marker of later adiposity, providing substantial support for epigenetic processes in mediating long-term consequences of early life environment on human health.

  6. Experimental mitochondria-targeted DNA methylation identifies GpC methylation, not CpG methylation, as potential regulator of mitochondrial gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijst, Monique G. P.; van Tilburg, Amanda Y.; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Rots, Marianne G.

    2017-01-01

    Like the nucleus, mitochondria contain their own DNA and recent reports provide accumulating evidence that also the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is subjective to DNA methylation. This evidence includes the demonstration of mitochondria-localised DNA methyltransferases and demethylases, and the

  7. A simple modification to the luminometric methylation assay to contro