WorldWideScience

Sample records for profile biological fluids

  1. Correlative analysis of metabolite profiling of Danggui Buxue Tang in rat biological fluids by rapid resolution LC-TOF/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Yin; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2011-04-28

    In this work, the metabolite profiles of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) in rat bile and plasma were qualitatively described, and the possible metabolic pathways of DBT were subsequently proposed. Emphasis was put on correlative analysis of metabolite profiling in different biological fluids. After oral administration of DBT, bile and plasma samples were collected and pretreated by solid phase extraction. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-TOFMS) was used for characterization of DBT-related compounds (parent compounds and metabolites) in biological matrices. A total of 142 metabolites were detected and tentatively identified from the drug-containing bile and plasma samples. Metabolite profiling shows that rat bile contained relatively more glutathione-derived conjugates, more saponins compounds and more diverse forms of metabolites than urine. The metabolite profile in plasma revealed that glucuronide conjugates of isoflavonoids, dimmers, acetylcysteine conjugates and parent form of phthalides, as well as saponin aglycones were the major circulating forms of DBT. Collectively, the metabolite profile analysis of DBT in different biological matrices provided a comprehensive understanding of the in vivo metabolic fates of constituents in DBT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Profile of Brazilian workers victims of occupational accidents with biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Fernanda Moura D'Almeida; Cruz, Elaine Drehmer de Almeida; Félix, Jorge Cestari Vinícius; Kalinke, Luciana Puchalski; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano

    2017-01-01

    To characterize the Brazilian workers victims of occupational accidents with biological fluids. Epidemiological and descriptive research, in which 284,877 notifications of the Notifiable Diseases Information System were analyzed between 2007 and 2014. We used Stata 13 for data analysis. The highest incidence density occurred in females with 0.8 cases per 1,000 workers/year (n = 222,042, 77.9%); in the age group of 20 to 24 years old, with 0.6 cases per 1,000 workers/year (n = 64,221, 23.3%); with some high school and some college, with 0.6 cases per 1,000 workers/year (n = 141,275, 49.6%). We found that these accidents occurred among 23 occupational subgroups. For the most part, the workers had an employment relationship and had issued the Occupational Accident Notification. It is necessary to rethink the measures of orientation to workers regarding the risks and relative prophylaxis for these accidents, with the aim of reducing them. Caracterizar os trabalhadores brasileiros vítimas de acidente de trabalho com fluidos biológicos. Pesquisa epidemiológica, descritiva, na qual foram analisadas 284.877 notificações do Sistema Nacional de Notificação de Agravos, entre 2007 e 2014. Utilizou-se Stata 13 para a análise dos dados. A maior densidade de incidência ocorreu no sexo feminino com 0,8 caso a cada 1.000 trabalhadores/ano (n = 222.042; 77,9%); na faixa etária de 20 a 24 anos com 0,6 caso a cada 1.000 trabalhadores/ano (n = 64.221; 23,3%); com Ensino Médio e Superior incompleto com 0,6 caso a cada 1.000 trabalhadores/ano (n = 141.275; 49,6%). Verificou-se que esses acidentes ocorreram entre 23 subgrupos ocupacionais. Em sua maioria, os trabalhadores possuíam vínculo empregatício e tiveram emitida a Comunicação de Acidente de Trabalho. Faz-se necessário repensar as medidas de orientação aos trabalhadores quanto aos riscos e profilaxia relativa para estes acidentes, visando reduzi-los ou diminui-los.

  3. Targeted and untargeted profiling of biological fluids to screen for anabolic practices in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinel, G.; Weigel, S.; Antigac, P.; Mooney, M.H.; Elliott, C.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Bizec, le B.

    2010-01-01

    This review deals with the potential of profiling approaches as valuable tools for combating the illegal use of growth promoters in cattle breeding. Detection of illegal practices classically relies on residue monitoring in a targeted approach and methods based on gas or liquid chromatography

  4. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  5. Mixing and Processing of Complex Biological Fluids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liepmann, Dorian

    2003-01-01

    ... of microfluidic control on the makeup and molecular structure of biological fluids. For this project, we focused on two critical fluids that are biologically significant and that are of critical importance to DoD...

  6. Magnetic movement of biological fluid droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Antonio A.; Egatz-Gomez, Ana; Lindsay, Solitaire A.; Dominguez-Garcia, P.; Melle, Sonia; Marquez, Manuel; Rubio, Miguel A.; Picraux, S.T.; Yang, Dongqing; Aella, P.; Hayes, Mark A.; Gust, Devens; Loyprasert, Suchera; Vazquez-Alvarez, Terannie; Wang, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields can be used to control the movement of aqueous drops on non-patterned, silicon nanowire superhydrophobic surfaces. Drops of aqueous and biological fluids are controlled by introducing magnetizable carbonyl iron microparticles into the liquid. Key elements of operations such as movement, coalescence, and splitting of water and biological fluid drops, as well as electrochemical measurement of an analyte are demonstrated. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared using vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth systems followed by coating with a perfluorinated hydrocarbon molecule. Drops were made from aqueous and biological fluid suspensions with magnetizable microparticle concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 wt%

  7. Protein profiling of cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anja H

    2012-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) perfuses the brain and spinal cord. CSF contains proteins and peptides important for brain physiology and potentially also relevant for brain pathology. Hence, CSF is the perfect source to search for new biomarkers to improve diagnosis of neurological diseases as well...

  8. Ultrasonic Doppler Velocity Profiler for Fluid Flow

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) method, first developed in medical engineering, is now widely used in clinical settings. The fluid mechanical basis of UVP was established in investigations by the author and his colleagues with work demonstrating that UVP is a powerful new tool in experimental fluid mechanics. There are diverse examples, ranging from problems in fundamental fluid dynamics to applied problems in mechanical, chemical, nuclear, and environmental engineering. In all these problems, the methodological principle in fluid mechanics was converted from point measurements to spatio-temporal measurements along a line. This book is the first monograph on UVP that offers comprehensive information about the method, its principles, its practice, and applied examples, and which serves both current and new users. Current users can confirm that their application configurations are correct, which will help them to improve the configurations so as to make them more efficient and effective. New users will be...

  9. The 1H NMR profile of healthy dog cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Musteata

    Full Text Available The availability of data for reference values in cerebrospinal fluid for healthy humans is limited due to obvious practical and ethical issues. The variability of reported values for metabolites in human cerebrospinal fluid is quite large. Dogs present great similarities with humans, including in cases of central nervous system pathologies. The paper presents the first study on healthy dog cerebrospinal fluid metabolomic profile using (1H NMR spectroscopy. A number of 13 metabolites have been identified and quantified from cerebrospinal fluid collected from a group of 10 mix breed healthy dogs. The biological variability as resulting from the relative standard deviation of the physiological concentrations of the identified metabolites had a mean of 18.20% (range between 9.3% and 44.8%. The reported concentrations for metabolites may be used as normal reference values. The homogeneity of the obtained results and the low biologic variability show that the (1H NMR analysis of the dog's cerebrospinal fluid is reliable in designing and interpreting clinical and therapeutic trials in dogs with central nervous system pathologies.

  10. Radioimmunoassay of penicilloyl groups in biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wal, J-M.; Bories, G.

    1975-01-01

    Penicilloyl-protein conjugates may be formed in man or animals after therapeutic treatment but cannot be detected by the classical microbiological assay methods used for penicillin. Allergies have been noted in consumers of products coming from animals treated with penicillin (milk particularly). Although these compounds present a risk to public health, they passed unnoticed through hygienic food inspection. Therefore a specific and sensitive method was devised for the assay of these derivatives in biological fluids where they can be present in trace amounts. An iodine-125 labelled conjugate has been prepared. Already usable for the detection of antipenicilloyl antibodies in sera of penicillin allergic patients, it has been used for the development of a radioimmunoassay of penicilloyl groups. Assay is done directly on milk, urine and serum without previous extraction and with a detection limit of a few ppb. It permits a rapid, specific and easy to handle determination in the sera of hospital patients as well as in the inspection of animal products at the slaughter house and at the dairy

  11. Molecular profiles to biology and pathways: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laere, Steven; Dirix, Luc; Vermeulen, Peter

    2016-06-16

    Interpreting molecular profiles in a biological context requires specialized analysis strategies. Initially, lists of relevant genes were screened to identify enriched concepts associated with pathways or specific molecular processes. However, the shortcoming of interpreting gene lists by using predefined sets of genes has resulted in the development of novel methods that heavily rely on network-based concepts. These algorithms have the advantage that they allow a more holistic view of the signaling properties of the condition under study as well as that they are suitable for integrating different data types like gene expression, gene mutation, and even histological parameters.

  12. Studies on the biological oxidation - The oxidation of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in biological fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Barrón, E. S.; Guzmán Barrón, Alberto; Klemperer, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Biological fluids can be divided according to their behavior toward ascorbic acid into two groups: those having an inhibitory mechanism that protects the ascorbic acid oxidation, and those lacking this mechanism. Animal fluids and some of vegetable origin (those containing dosables amounts of ascorbic acid) corresponding to the first group. Ascorbic acid is protected from oxidation in the fluids by the action of copper catalyst. Fluids from plants (those that contain very little ascorbic acid...

  13. Metabolite profiling of Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Czech

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of cognitive functions. Today the diagnosis of AD relies on clinical evaluations and is only late in the disease. Biomarkers for early detection of the underlying neuropathological changes are still lacking and the biochemical pathways leading to the disease are still not completely understood. The aim of this study was to identify the metabolic changes resulting from the disease phenotype by a thorough and systematic metabolite profiling approach. For this purpose CSF samples from 79 AD patients and 51 healthy controls were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS and LC-MS/MS in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. In total 343 different analytes have been identified. Significant changes in the metabolite profile of AD patients compared to healthy controls have been identified. Increased cortisol levels seemed to be related to the progression of AD and have been detected in more severe forms of AD. Increased cysteine associated with decreased uridine was the best paired combination to identify light AD (MMSE>22 with specificity and sensitivity above 75%. In this group of patients, sensitivity and specificity above 80% were obtained for several combinations of three to five metabolites, including cortisol and various amino acids, in addition to cysteine and uridine.

  14. Complex fluids in biological systems experiment, theory, and computation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as an introduction to the continuum mechanics and mathematical modeling of complex fluids in living systems. The form and function of living systems are intimately tied to the nature of surrounding fluid environments, which commonly exhibit nonlinear and history dependent responses to forces and displacements. With ever-increasing capabilities in the visualization and manipulation of biological systems, research on the fundamental phenomena, models, measurements, and analysis of complex fluids has taken a number of exciting directions. In this book, many of the world’s foremost experts explore key topics such as: Macro- and micro-rheological techniques for measuring the material properties of complex biofluids and the subtleties of data interpretation Experimental observations and rheology of complex biological materials, including mucus, cell membranes, the cytoskeleton, and blood The motility of microorganisms in complex fluids and the dynamics of active suspensions Challenges and solut...

  15. Seminal Fluid Analysis And Biophysical Profile: Findings And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seminal Fluid Analysis And Biophysical Profile: Findings And Relevance In Infertile Males In Ilorin, Nigeria. EK Oghagbon, AAG Jimoh, SA Adebisi. Abstract. To determine if there was a bearing of body mass index (BMI) on male infertility, a cross-sectional study of males of infertile couples, attending our infertility clinic was ...

  16. Amino acid analysis in biological fluids by GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspar, Hannelore

    2009-01-01

    Amino acids are intermediates in cellular metabolism and their quantitative analysis plays an important role in disease diagnostics. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based method was developed for the quantitative analysis of free amino acids as their propyl chloroformate derivatives in biological fluids. Derivatization with propyl chloroformate could be carried out directly in the biological samples without prior protein precipitation or solid-phase extraction of the amino acid...

  17. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimeters), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured, and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  18. Determination of 18O concentrations in microsamples of biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.; Bradshaw, S.D.; Bradshaw, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The 18 O(p, α) 15 N reaction has been developed for the analysis of microsamples of biological fluids containing 18 O-enriched water. Samples as small as 50 μl have been used. Well characterized Ta 2 O 5 targets were prepared from these fluids and irradiated with several hundred nA of protons from the 3 MV Van de Graaff at Lucas Heights. The broad (47 keV) 846 kV resonance in this reaction was used to measure 18 O concentrations down to natural backgrounds (0.2 at.%) in a few minutes of accelerator running time. Concentrations of 18 O from 0 to 5 at.% were measured in body fluids in small Australian lizards directly after doping with 18 O-enriched water and then again after several days of roaming around in their natural desert environments. The changes in these levels were related to the metabolic rates of these animals. (orig.)

  19. Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pittau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

  20. Nano- and microparticles at fluid and biological interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, S.; Auth, T.; Gompper, G.

    2017-09-01

    Systems with interfaces are abundant in both technological applications and biology. While a fluid interface separates two fluids, membranes separate the inside of vesicles from the outside, the interior of biological cells from the environment, and compartmentalize cells into organelles. The physical properties of interfaces are characterized by interface tension, those of membranes are characterized by bending and stretching elasticity. Amphiphilic molecules like surfactants that are added to a system with two immiscible fluids decrease the interface tension and induce a bending rigidity. Lipid bilayer membranes of vesicles can be stretched or compressed by osmotic pressure; in biological cells, also the presence of a cytoskeleton can induce membrane tension. If the thickness of the interface or the membrane is small compared with its lateral extension, both can be described using two-dimensional mathematical surfaces embedded in three-dimensional space. We review recent work on the interaction of particles with interfaces and membranes. This can be micrometer-sized particles at interfaces that stabilise emulsions or form colloidosomes, as well as typically nanometer-sized particles at membranes, such as viruses, parasites, and engineered drug delivery systems. In both cases, we first discuss the interaction of single particles with interfaces and membranes, e.g. particles in external fields, non-spherical particles, and particles at curved interfaces, followed by interface-mediated interaction between two particles, many-particle interactions, interface and membrane curvature-induced phenomena, and applications.

  1. Methods to Enrich Exosomes from Conditioned Media and Biological Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shayna; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Rice, Gregory E; Salomon, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Exosomes are nano-vesicles which can transport a range of molecules including but not limited to proteins and miRNA. This ability of exosomes renders them useful in cellular communication often resulting in biological changes. They have several functions in facilitating normal biological processes such as immune responses and an involvement in pregnancy. However, they have also been linked to pathological conditions including cancer and pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. An understanding for the role of exosomes in preeclampsia is based on the ability to purify and characterize exosomes. There have been several techniques proposed for the enrichment of exosomes such as ultracentrifugation, density gradient separation, and ultrafiltration although there is no widely accepted optimized technique. Here we describe a workflow for isolating exosomes from cell-conditioned media and biological fluids using a combination of centrifugation, buoyant density, and ultrafiltration approaches.

  2. Study of biological fluids by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriat, M.; Vion-Dury, J.; Confort-Gouny, S.; Sciaky, M.; Cozzone, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the study of biofluids is rapidly developing and might soon constitute a new major medical application of this technique which benefits from technological and methodological progress such as higher magnetic fields, new probe design, solvent suppression sequences and advanced data processing routines. In this overview, the clinical and pharmacological impact of this new approach is examined, with emphasis on the NMR spectroscopy of plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and urine. Applications to pharmacokinetics and toxicology are illustrated. Interestingly, a number of biochemical components of fluids which are not usually assayed by conventional biochemical methods are readily detected by NMR spectroscopy which is clearly a new competitive entrant among the techniques used in clinical biology. Its ease-of-use, cost effectiveness and high informational content might turn it into a major diagnostic tool in the years to come [fr

  3. Analysis of volatile metabolites in biological fluids as indicators of prodromal disease condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatkis, A.

    1982-01-01

    The volatile profile cannot be defined as a single class of substances, rather it is a broad spectrum of materials of different polarities characterized by having a boiling-point in the low to medium range (up to approximately 300 C) and the fact that the compounds are suitable for gas chromatography without derivatization. The organic volatile profiles are very complex mixtures of metabolic byproducts, intermediates, and terminal products of enzymatic degradations composed mainly of alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, pyrazines, sulfides, isothiocyanates, pyrroles, and furans. The concentration of organic volatiles in biological fluids covers a wide range with many important components present at trace levels. The complexity of the organic volatile fraction requires the use of capillary columns for their separation.

  4. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for 5-Fluorouracil Release in Biological Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Alhaique

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of employing Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs as a controlled release device for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU in biological fluids, especially gastrointestinal ones, compared to Non Imprinted Polymers (NIPs. MIPs were synthesized using methacrylic acid (MAA as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as crosslinking agent. The capacity of the polymer to recognize and to bind the template selectively in both organic and aqueous media was evaluated. An in vitro release study was performed both in gastrointestinal and in plasma simulating fluids. The imprinted polymers bound much more 5-Fu than the corresponding non-imprinted ones and showed a controlled/sustained drug release, with MIPs release rate being indeed much more sustained than that obtained from NIPs. These polymers represent a potential valid system for drug delivery and this study indicates that the selective binding characteristic of molecularly imprinted polymers is promising for the preparation of novel controlled release drug dosage form.

  5. Analysis of antiepileptic drugs in biological fluids by means of electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Vincenzo; Raggi, Maria Augusta

    2005-02-01

    An overview of the electrokinetic chromatographic methods for the analysis of antiepileptic drug levels in biological samples is presented. In particular, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography is a very suitable method for the determination of these drugs, because it allows a rapid, selective, and accurate analysis. In addition to the electrokinetic chromatographic studies on the determination of antiepileptic drugs, some information regarding sample pretreatment will also be reported: this is a critical step when the analysis of biological fluids is concerned. The electrokinetic chromatographic methods for the determination of recent antiepileptic drugs (e.g., lamotrigine, levetiracetam) and classical anticonvulsants (e.g., carbamazepine, phenytoin, ethosuximide, valproic acid) will be discussed in depth, and their pharmacological profiles will be briefly described as well.

  6. Electron probe analysis of biological fluids: Possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roinel, N.

    1984-01-01

    Physical methods of investigation have become essential to investigations at the cellular or subcellular level. Nuclear magnetic resonance is the most recent and striking example, since it is not only a tool for fundamental physicists and organic chemists, but also an extraordinary powerful imaging tool for physicians. The absorption properties of X rays were used immediately after their discovery to image the bones of skeletons. Later, X rays were also found to be extremely efficient in the measurement of the elemental content of microvolumes irradiated by electron probes. The electron probe analyzer (EPA) was immediately adopted by numerous laboratories of metallurgy, geology, and mineral sciences. In the last fifteen years, since the use of this instrument was suggested for liquid analysis, and a preparative technique was developed, the EPA has been used by an increasing number of biological laboratories for measuring the concentrations of the elements contained in subnanoliter volumes of biological fluids. The so-called microdroplet technique has become a routine laboratory method, the only one able to measure the concentrations of an unlimited number of elements in a single 0.1-nl sample. This explains its use in fields as various as renal, reproductive, digestive, and plant physiology, zoology, etc. Several review papers discuss these applications. The possibilities and limitations of the technique are discussed below

  7. Fluid models and simulations of biological cell phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of coated droplets are examined within the context of biofluids. Of specific interest is the manner in which the shape of a droplet, the motion within it as well as that of aggregates of droplets can be controlled by the modulation of surface properties and the extent to which such fluid phenomena are an intrinsic part of cellular processes. From the standpoint of biology, an objective is to elucidate some of the general dynamical features that affect the disposition of an entire cell, cell colonies and tissues. Conventionally averaged field variables of continuum mechanics are used to describe the overall global effects which result from the myriad of small scale molecular interactions. An attempt is made to establish cause and effect relationships from correct dynamical laws of motion rather than by what may have been unnecessary invocation of metabolic or life processes. Several topics are discussed where there are strong analogies droplets and cells including: encapsulated droplets/cell membranes; droplet shape/cell shape; adhesion and spread of a droplet/cell motility and adhesion; and oams and multiphase flows/cell aggregates and tissues. Evidence is presented to show that certain concepts of continuum theory such as suface tension, surface free energy, contact angle, bending moments, etc. are relevant and applicable to the study of cell biology.

  8. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Positive identification of the nature of biological material present on evidentiary items can be crucial for understanding the circumstances surrounding a crime. However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues need to be developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is an example of such a molecular-based approach. Current mRNA body fluid identification assays involve capillary electrophoresis (CE) or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) platforms, each with its own limitations. Both platforms require the use of expensive fluorescently labeled primers or probes. CE-based assays require separate amplification and detection steps thus increasing the analysis time. For qRT-PCR assays, only 3-4 markers can be included in a single reaction since each requires a different fluorescent dye. To simplify mRNA profiling assays, and reduce the time and cost of analysis, we have developed single- and multiplex body fluid High Resolution Melt (HRM) assays for the identification of common forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues. The incorporated biomarkers include IL19 (vaginal secretions), IL1F7 (skin), ALAS2 (blood), MMP10 (menstrual blood), HTN3 (saliva) and TGM4 (semen).  The HRM assays require only unlabeled PCR primers and a single saturating intercalating fluorescent dye (Eva Green). Each body-fluid-specific marker can easily be identified by the presence of a distinct melt peak. Usually, HRM assays are used to detect variants or isoforms for a single gene target. However, we have uniquely developed duplex and triplex HRM assays to permit the simultaneous detection of multiple targets per reaction. Here we describe the development and initial performance evaluation of the developed HRM assays. The results demonstrate the potential use of HRM assays for rapid, and relatively inexpensive

  9. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, Muhammad; Atsuta, Yoichi; Fujie, Koichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ) in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysi...

  10. Economic impact profiling of CBRN events: focusing on biological incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Simona; Bisogni, Fabio; Mastroianni, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incidents, both caused accidentally by human error or natural/technological events and determined intentionally as criminal/malicious/terroristic acts, have consequences that could be differently characterized. In the last years many efforts to analyze the economic impact of terrorist threat have been carried out, while researches specifically concerning CBRN events have not been extensively undertaken. This paper in particular aims at proposing a methodological approach for studying macro-level economic impact profiles of biological incidents caused by weaponized and non-weaponized materials. The suggested approach investigates the economic consequences of biological incidents according to two main dimensions: type of large-scale effect and persistence of effect. Biological incident economic impacts are analyzed taking into account the persistence of effect during time as short-term impact (i.e. immediately after the incident), medium-term impact (i.e. by a month) and long-term impact (i.e. by years). The costs due to preventive countermeasure against biological threats (e.g. prevention, protection and preparedness expenses) are not taken into account. To this purpose, information on the key features of past biological incidents can be used as case studies to try to build impact profiles taking into account the proposed two main dimensions. Consequence management and effect mitigation of CBRN emergencies and disasters may benefit from an ex ante definition of the impact profiling related to this kind of incidents. The final goal of this paper is to define an approach to organize information on possible biological events according to their impact profile for supporting more effective and efficient first responders' prompt actions and policy makers' strategic decisions after the event occurrence.

  11. Biological and haematological safety profile of oral amodiaquine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological and haematological safety profile of oral amodiaquine and chloroquine in healthy volunteers with or without Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeast Tanzania. JJ Massaga, JP Lusingu, R Makunde, HM Malebo, MM Chile, JA Akida, MM Lemnge, AM Rønn, TG Theander, IC Bygbjerg, AY Kitua ...

  12. Profiling the biological activity of oxide nanomaterials with mechanistic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burello, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we present three mechanistic models for profiling the potential biological and toxicological effects of oxide nanomaterials. The models attempt to describe the reactivity, protein adsorption and membrane adhesion processes of a large range of oxide materials and are based on properties

  13. Heat transfer and fluid flow in biological processes advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sid

    2015-01-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to biosystems and medical technology. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach to provide a comprehensive prospective on biofluid mechanics and heat transfer advances and includes reviews of the most recent methods in modeling of flows in biological media, such as CFD. Written by internationally recognized researchers in the field, each chapter provides a strong introductory section that is useful to both readers currently in the field and readers interested in learning more about these areas. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes is an indispensable reference for professors, graduate students, professionals, and clinical researchers in the fields of biology, biomedical engineering, chemistry and medicine working on applications of fluid flow, heat transfer, and transport phenomena in biomedical technology. Provides a wide range of biological and clinical applications of fluid...

  14. Fluorinated tripodal receptors for potentiometric chloride detection in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratova, Nadezda; Cuartero, Maria; Jowett, Laura A; Howe, Ethan N W; Gale, Philip A; Bakker, Eric; Crespo, Gastón A

    2018-01-15

    Fluorinated tripodal compounds were recently reported to be efficient transmembrane transporters for a series of inorganic anions. In particular, this class of receptors has been shown to be suitable for the effective complexation of chloride, nitrate, bicarbonate and sulfate anions via hydrogen bonding. The potentiometric properties of urea and thiourea-based fluorinated tripodal receptors are explored here for the first time, in light of the need for reliable sensors for chloride monitoring in undiluted biological fluids. The ion selective electrode (ISE) membranes with tren-based tris-urea bis(CF 3 ) tripodal compound (ionophore I) were found to exhibit the best selectivity for chloride over major lipophilic anions such as salicylate ( [Formula: see text] ) and thiocyanate ( [Formula: see text] ). Ionophore I-based ISEs were successfully applied for chloride determination in undiluted human serum as well as artificial serum sample, the slope of the linear calibration at the relevant background of interfering ions being close to Nernstian (49.8±1.7mV). The results of potentiometric measurements were confirmed by argentometric titration. Moreover, the ionophore I-based ISE membrane was shown to exhibit a very good long-term stability of potentiometric performance over the period of 10 weeks. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titrations, potentiometric sandwich membrane experiments and density functional theory (DFT) computational studies were performed to determine the binding constants and suggest 1:1 complexation stoichiometry for the ionophore I with chloride as well as salicylate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Disadvantage, Severe Child Abuse, and Biological Profiles in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chioun; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D

    2017-09-01

    Guided by the stress process model and the life course perspective, we hypothesize: (1) that childhood abuse is concentrated, in terms of type and intensity, among socially disadvantaged individuals, and (2) that experiencing serious abuse contributes to poor biological profiles in multiple body systems in adulthood. Data came from the Biomarker subsample of Midlife in the United States (2004-2006). We used latent class analysis to identify distinct profiles of childhood abuse, each reflecting a combination of type and severity. Results indicate that disadvantaged groups, women, and those from disadvantaged families are at greater risk of experiencing more severe and multiple types of abuse. Those with more severe and multifaceted childhood abuse show greater physiological dysregulation. Childhood abuse experiences partially accounted for the social status differences in physiological profiles. Our findings underscore that differential exposure to serious childhood stressors plays a significant role in gender and class inequalities in adult health.

  16. Wavelet analysis of polarization maps of polycrystalline biological fluids networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, Y. A.

    2011-12-01

    The optical model of human joints synovial fluid is proposed. The statistic (statistic moments), correlation (autocorrelation function) and self-similar (Log-Log dependencies of power spectrum) structure of polarization two-dimensional distributions (polarization maps) of synovial fluid has been analyzed. It has been shown that differentiation of polarization maps of joint synovial fluid with different physiological state samples is expected of scale-discriminative analysis. To mark out of small-scale domain structure of synovial fluid polarization maps, the wavelet analysis has been used. The set of parameters, which characterize statistic, correlation and self-similar structure of wavelet coefficients' distributions of different scales of polarization domains for diagnostics and differentiation of polycrystalline network transformation connected with the pathological processes, has been determined.

  17. Disregarded Effect of Biological Fluids in siRNA Delivery: Human Ascites Fluid Severely Restricts Cellular Uptake of Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakwar, George R; Braeckmans, Kevin; Demeester, Joseph; Ceelen, Wim; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Remaut, Katrien

    2015-11-04

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) offers a great potential for the treatment of various diseases and disorders. Nevertheless, inefficient in vivo siRNA delivery hampers its translation into the clinic. While numerous successful in vitro siRNA delivery stories exist in reduced-protein conditions, most studies so far overlook the influence of the biological fluids present in the in vivo environment. In this study, we compared the transfection efficiency of liposomal formulations in Opti-MEM (low protein content, routinely used for in vitro screening) and human undiluted ascites fluid obtained from a peritoneal carcinomatosis patient (high protein content, representing the in vivo situation). In Opti-MEM, all formulations are biologically active. In ascites fluid, however, the biological activity of all lipoplexes is lost except for lipofectamine RNAiMAX. The drop in transfection efficiency was not correlated to the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles, such as premature siRNA release and aggregation of the nanoparticles in the human ascites fluid. Remarkably, however, all of the formulations except for lipofectamine RNAiMAX lost their ability to be taken up by cells following incubation in ascites fluid. To take into account the possible effects of a protein corona formed around the nanoparticles, we recommend always using undiluted biological fluids for the in vitro optimization of nanosized siRNA formulations next to conventional screening in low-protein content media. This should tighten the gap between in vitro and in vivo performance of nanoparticles and ensure the optimal selection of nanoparticles for further in vivo studies.

  18. Influence of evidence, time, source and interferents in the observation of biological fluids with forensic lights

    OpenAIRE

    Laverde-Angarita, Lilia Judith; Clavijo-Bolívar, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The laboratory receives different evidence for analysis, which maycontain fluids such as blood, semen, saliva or urine. A support tool in identifying nonvisible biological stains is observation with forensic lights. At present, there have been research advances in reference to wavelength and combination of different filters for the observation of biological fluids. Methodology: For this research, the alternate lights equipment Polilight® Flare with blue light was used, along wit...

  19. Volume and density changes of biological fluids with temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal expansion of human blood, plasma, ultrafiltrate, and erythrocycte concentration at temperatures in the range of 4-48 C is studied. The mechanical oscillator technique which has an accuracy of 1 x 10 to the -5 th g/ml is utilized to measure fluid density. The relationship between thermal expansion, density, and temperature is analyzed. The study reveals that: (1) thermal expansion increases with increasing temperature; (2) the magnitude of the increase declines with increasing temperature; (3) thermal expansion increases with density at temperatures below 40 C; and (4) the thermal expansion of intracellular fluid is greater than that of extracellular fluid in the temperature range of 4-10 C, but it is equal at temperatures greater than or equal to 40 C.

  20. Protein profiling reveals inter-individual protein homogeneity of arachnoid cyst fluid and high qualitative similarity to cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berle Magnus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms behind formation and filling of intracranial arachnoid cysts (AC are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate AC fluid by proteomics to gain further knowledge about ACs. Two goals were set: 1 Comparison of AC fluid from individual patients to determine whether or not temporal AC is a homogenous condition; and 2 Evaluate the protein content of a pool of AC fluid from several patients and qualitatively compare this with published protein lists of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma. Methods AC fluid from 15 patients with temporal AC was included in this study. In the AC protein comparison experiment, AC fluid from 14 patients was digested, analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a semi-quantitative label-free approach and the data were compared by principal component analysis (PCA to gain knowledge of protein homogeneity of AC. In the AC proteome evaluation experiment, AC fluid from 11 patients was pooled, digested, and fractionated by SCX chromatography prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. Proteins identified were compared to published databases of proteins identified from CSF and plasma. AC fluid proteins not found in these two databases were experimentally searched for in lumbar CSF taken from neurologically-normal patients, by a targeted protein identification approach called MIDAS (Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM initiated detection and sequence analysis. Results We did not identify systematic trends or grouping of data in the AC protein comparison experiment, implying low variability between individual proteomic profiles of AC. In the AC proteome evaluation experiment, we identified 199 proteins. When compared to previously published lists of proteins identified from CSF and plasma, 15 of the AC proteins had not been reported in either of these datasets. By a targeted protein identification approach, we identified 11 of these 15 proteins in pooled CSF from neurologically-normal patients, demonstrating that

  1. Profile of student critical thinking ability on static fluid concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulasih; Suparmi, A.; Sarwanto

    2017-11-01

    Critical thinking ability is an important part of educational goals. It has higher complex processes, such as analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating, drawing conclusion and reflection. This study is aimed to know the critical thinking ability of students in learning static fluids of senior high school students. This research uses the descriptive method which its instruments based on the indicator of critical thinking ability developed according to Ennis. The population of this research is XIth grade science class Public Senior High School, SMA N 1, Sambungmacan, Sragen, Central Java. The static fluid teaching material is delivered using Problem Based Learning Model through class experiment. The results of this study shows that the average student of XIth science class have high critical thinking skills, particularly in the ability of providing simple explanation, build basic skill, and provide advanced explanation, but they do not have high enough in ability of drawing conclusion and strategic and tactical components of critical thinking ability in the study of static fluid teaching material. The average of students critical thinking ability is 72.94, with 27,94% of students are in a low category and 72,22% of students in the high category of critical thinking ability.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of the myelin basic protein in biological fluids, conditions improving sensitivity and specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delassalle, A.; Jacque, C.; Raoul, M.; Legrand, J.C.; Cesselin, F.; Drouet, J.

    1980-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for myelin basic protein (MBP) in biological fluids was reassessed in order to improve its sensitivity and eliminate some interferences. By using the pre-incubation technique and the charcoal-dextram-horse serum mixture for the separation step, the detection limit could be lowered to 200 pg/ml for cerebrospinal fluids (CSF), amniotic fluids (AF) and nervous tissue extracts and 600 pg/ml for sera. The RIA could be used directly on CSF, AF and nervous tissue extracts. Sera, however, had to be heated in citrate buffer at 100 0 C in order to discard interfering material. The present method is 10 to 20 times more sensitive than others previously published. Moreover, it can be applied to amniotic fluid. The biological fluids had to be promptly frozen to avoid degradation of MBP

  3. Crystallography of biological fluid as a method for evaluating its physicochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martusevich, A K; Kamakin, N F

    2007-03-01

    Using an integral qualitative and quantitative approach to the studies of initiation of the biological material crystallogenesis, we showed in experiments with normal human saliva that the external characteristics of biological fluid (pH, osmolality, and environmental temperature) determine the results of crystallization (tesigraphic facies). The main external (macroenvironment) and inner (microenvironment) factors of biological fluid crystal formation, determining specific features of the tesigraphic facies, were distinguished and classified. The informative value of differential analysis of biomaterial properties by means of modulating the environmental conditions is established.

  4. Molecular depth profiling of organic and biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, John S. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: John.Fletcher@manchester.ac.uk; Conlan, Xavier A. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Lockyer, Nicholas P. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Vickerman, John C. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-30

    Atomic depth profiling using secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, is common in the field micro-electronics; however, the generation of molecular information as a function of sample depth is difficult due to the accumulation of damage both on and beneath the sample surface. The introduction of polyatomic ion beams such as SF{sub 5} and C{sub 60} have raised the possibility of overcoming this problem as they deposit the majority of their energy in the upper surface of the sample resulting in increased sputter yields but with a complimentary reduction in sub-surface damage accumulation. In this paper we report the depth profile analysis of the bio-polymer polycaprolactone, PCL, using the polyatomic ions Au{sub 3}{sup +} and C{sub 60}{sup +} and the monoatomic Au{sup +}. Results are compared to recent analysis of a similar sample using SF{sub 5}{sup +}. C{sub 60}{sup +} depth profiling of cellulose is also demonstrated, an experiment that has been reported as unsuccessful when attempted with SF{sub 5}{sup +} implications for biological analysis are discussed.

  5. Detection and differentiation of coxiella burnetii in biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, Marvin E. (Richland, WA); Mallavia, Louis P. (Moscow, ID); Samuel, James E. (Derwood, MD); Baca, Oswald G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Methods for detecting the presence of Coxiella burnetii in biological samples, as well as a method for differentiating strains of C. burnetii that are capable of causing acute disease from those strains capable of causing chronic disease are disclosed. The methods generally comprise treating cells contained within the biological sample to expose cellular DNA, and hybridizing the cellular DNA with a DNA probe containing DNA sequences that specifically hybridize with C. burnetii DNA of strains associated with the capacity to cause acute or chronic disease.

  6. Detection and differentiation of coxiella burnetii in biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, Marvin E. (Richland, WA); Mallavia, Louis P. (Moscow, ID); Samuel, James E. (Pullman, WA); Baca, Oswald G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Methods for detecting the presence of Coxiella burenetii in biological samples, as well as a method for differentiating strains of C. burnetii that are capable of causing acute disease from those strains capable of causing chronic disease are disclosed. The methods generally comprise treating cells contained within the biological sample to expose cellular DNA, and hybridizing the cellular DNA (specifically rickettsial DNA) with a C. burnetii-specific labeled DNA probe. Radioisotope and biotin labels are preferred, allowing detection through autoradiography and colorimetric assays, respectively.

  7. Detection and differentiation of coxiella burnetii in biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, Marvin E. (Richland, WA); Mallavia, Louis P. (Moscow, ID); Baca, Oswald G. (Albuquerque, NM); Samuel, James E. (Pullman, WA)

    1989-01-01

    Methods for detecting the presence of Coxiella burnetii in biological samples, as well as a method for differentiating strains of C. burnetii that are capable of causing acute disease from those strains capable of causing chronic disease are disclosed. The methods generally comprise treating cells contained within the biological sample to expose cellular DNA, and hybridizing the cellular DNA (specifically rickettsial DNA) with a C. burnetii-specific labeled DNA probe. Radioisotope and biotin labels are preferred, allowing detection through autoradiography and colorimetric assays, respectively.

  8. Functionalized diamond nanopowder for phosphopeptides enrichment from complex biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Dilshad [Division of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad, E-mail: najamulhaq@bzu.edu.pk [Division of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Jabeen, Fahmida; Ashiq, Muhammad N.; Athar, Muhammad [Division of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W.; Bonn, Guenther K. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-05-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Derivatization of diamond nanopowder as IMAC and RP. •Characterization with SEM, EDX and FT-IR. •Phosphopeptide enrichment from standard as well as real samples. •Desalting and human serum profiling with reproducible results. •MALDI-MS analysis with database identification. -- Abstract: Diamond is known for its high affinity and biocompatibility towards biomolecules and is used exclusively in separation sciences and life science research. In present study, diamond nanopowder is derivatized as Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatographic (IMAC) material for the phosphopeptides enrichment and as Reversed Phase (C-18) media for the desalting of complex mixtures and human serum profiling through MALDI-TOF-MS. Functionalized diamond nanopowder is characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Diamond-IMAC is applied to the standard protein (β-casein), spiked human serum, egg yolk and non-fat milk for the phosphopeptides enrichment. Results show the selectivity of synthesized IMAC-diamond immobilized with Fe{sup 3+} and La{sup 3+} ions. To comprehend the elaborated use, diamond-IMAC is also applied to the serum samples from gall bladder carcinoma for the potential biomarkers. Database search is carried out by the Mascot program ( (www.matrixscience.com)) for the assignment of phosphorylation sites. Diamond nanopowder is thus a separation media with multifunctional use and can be applied to cancer protein profiling for the diagnosis and biomarker identification.

  9. Cystatin C and lactoferrin concentrations in biological fluids as possible prognostic factors in eye tumor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya A. Dikovskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the possible role of cystatin C in eye biological fluids locally and in serum and lactoferrin revealing anti-tumor activity in eye tumor development. Background. The increased number of eye tumors was registered recently not only in the countries with high insolation, but also in the northern countries including Russia (11 cases per million of population. Search for new biological markers is important for diagnosis and prognosis in eye tumors. Cystatin C, an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteases, plays an important protective role in several tumors. Lactoferrin was shown to express anti-tumor and antiviral activities. It was hypothesized that cystatin C and lactoferrin could serve as possible biomarkers in the diagnosis of malignant and benign eye tumors. Study design. A total of 54 patients with choroidal melanoma and benign eye tumors were examined (part of them undergoing surgical treatment. Serum, tear fluid and intraocular fluid samples obtained from the anterior chamber of eyes in patients with choroidal melanoma were studied. Methods. Cystatin C concentration in serum and eye biological fluids was measured by commercial ELISA kits for human (BioVendor, Czechia; lactoferrin concentration – by Lactoferrin-strip D 4106 ELISA test systems (Vector-BEST, Novosibirsk Region, Russia. Results. Cystatin C concentration in serum of healthy persons was significantly higher as compared to tear and intraocular fluids. In patients with choroidal melanoma, increased cystatin C concentration was similar in tear fluid of both the eyes. Lactoferrin level in tear fluid of healthy persons was significantly higher than its serum level. Significantly increased lactoferrin concentration in tear fluid was noted in patients with benign and malignant eye tumors. Conclusion. Increased level of cystatin C in tear fluid seems to be a possible diagnostic factor in the eye tumors studied. However, it does not allow us to differentiate

  10. Metabolite Profiling of Human Amniotic Fluid by Hyphenated Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Graça, Gonçalo; Duarte, Iola F.; Goodfellow, Brian J.; Carreira, Isabel M.; Couceiro, Ana Bela; Domingues, Maria do Rosário; Spraul, Manfred; Tseng, Li-Hong; Gil, Ana M.

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic profiling of human amniotic fluid (HAF) is of potential interest for the diagnosis of disorders in the mother or the fetus. In order to build a comprehensive metabolite database for HAF, hyphenated NMR has been used, for the first time, for systematic HAF profiling. Experiments were carried out using reverse-phase (RP) and ion-exchange liquid chromatography (LC), in order to detect less and more polar compounds, respectively. RP-LC conditions achieved good separation of amino ac...

  11. The characterization of exosomes from biological fluids of patients with different types of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, N. V.; Tamkovich, S. N.; Stakheeva, M. N.; Grigor'eva, A. A.; Somov, A. K.; Tugutova, E. A.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Molchanov, S. V.; Afanas'ev, S. G.; Kakurina, G. V.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The purpose of the study was to isolate, identify and analyze the total content of exosomes in biological fluids. The exosomes from the plasma and ascites samples of the patients with ovarian cancer, from the blood plasma of the patients with colorectal and head and neck squamous cell cancer as well as from the blood plasma of healthy donors were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The subpopulations of the exosomes in the biological fluids of the patients with different types of cancer were similar, but the protein concentrations of exosomes were different. In this paper we present the methodological approaches allowing us to obtain high quality exosome preparations from biological fluids.

  12. Brain Gene Expression Signatures From Cerebrospinal Fluid Exosome RNA Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, S. B.; Stevens, B.; Calvillo, E.; Tang, R.; Gutierrez Flores, B.; Hu, L.; Skog, J.; Bershad, E.

    2016-01-01

    While the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome observations have focused on ocular symptoms, spaceflight has been also associated with a number of other performance and neurologic signs, such as headaches, cognitive changes, vertigo, nausea, sleep/circadian disruption and mood alterations, which, albeit likely multifactorial, can also result from elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). We therefore hypothesize that these various symptoms are caused by disturbances in the neurophysiology of the brain structures and are correlated with molecular markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as indicators of neurophysiological changes. Exosomes are 30-200 nm microvesicles shed into all biofluids, including blood, urine, and CSF, carrying a highly rich source of intact protein and RNA cargo. Exosomes have been identified in human CSF, and their proteome and RNA pool is a potential new reservoir for biomarker discovery in neurological disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in brain gene expression via exosome analysis in patients suffering from ICP elevation of varied severity (idiopathic intracranial hypertension -IIH), a condition which shares some of the neuroophthalmological features of VIIP, as a first step toward obtaining evidence suggesting that cognitive function and ICP levels can be correlated with biomarkers in the CSF. Our preliminary work, reported last year, validated the exosomal technology applicable to CSF analysis and demonstrated that it was possible to obtain gene expression evidence of inflammation processes in traumatic brain injury patients. We are now recruiting patients with suspected IIH requiring lumbar puncture at Baylor College of Medicine. Both CSF (5 ml) and human plasma (10 ml) are being collected in order to compare the pattern of differentially expressed genes observed in CSF and in blood. Since blood is much more accessible than CSF, we would like to determine whether plasma biomarkers for

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers profile of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirinzi, Tommaso; Sancesario, Giulia Maria; Di Lazzaro, Giulia; D'Elia, Alessio; Imbriani, Paola; Scalise, Simona; Pisani, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a disabling neurological disorder whose potential treatability is significantly limited by diagnostic uncertainty. In fact, typical clinical presentation occurs at late phases of disease, when CSF shunting could be ineffective. In recent years, measurement of different CSF proteins, whose concentration directly reflects neuropathological changes of CNS, has significantly improved both diagnostic timing and accuracy of neurodegenerative disease. Unfortunately iNPH lacks neuropathological hallmarks allowing the identification of specific disease biomarkers. However, neuropathology of iNPH is so rich and heterogeneous that many processes can be tracked in CSF, including Alzheimer's disease core pathology, subcortical degeneration, neuroinflammation and vascular dysfunction. Indeed, a huge number of CSF biomarkers have been analyzed in iNPH patients, but a unifying profile has not been provided yet. In this brief survey, we thus attempted to summarize the main findings in the field of iNPH CSF biomarkers, aimed at outlining a synthetic model. Although defined cut-off values for biomarkers are not available, a better knowledge of CSF characteristics may definitely assist in diagnosing the disease.

  14. Grinding Fluid Jet Characteristics and Their Effect on a Gear Profile Grinding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Geilert

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Profile gear grinding is characterized by a high level of achievable process performance and workpiece quality. However, the wide contact length between the workpiece and the grinding wheel is disadvantageous for the fluid supply to the contact zone and leads to the risk of locally burning the workpiece surface. For the reduction of both the thermal load and the risk of thermo-mechanical damage, the usage of a grinding fluid needs to be investigated and optimized. For this purpose, different kinds of grinding fluid nozzles were tested, which provide different grinding fluid jet characteristics. Through a specific design of the nozzles, it is possible to control the fluid flow inside the nozzle. It was found that this internal fluid flow directly influences the breakup of the coolant fluid jet. There are three groups of jet breakup (“droplet”, “wave & droplet”, and “atomization”. The first experimental results show that the influence of the jet breakup on the process performance is significant. The “wave & droplet” jet breakup can achieve a high process performance, in contrast to the “atomization” jet breakup. It can therefore be assumed that the wetting of the grinding wheel by the grinding fluid jet is significantly influenced by the jet breakup.

  15. Method for detection of a suspect viral deoxyribonucleic acid in an acellular biological fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berninger, M S

    1982-10-06

    A method for evaluating an acellular biological fluid for the presence of a suspect viral DNA, such as DNA of the Hepatitis-B virus, is described. The acellular biological fluid is treated to immobilize in denatured form the DNAs including the suspect viral DNA on a solid substrate. This substrate is contacted with a solution including radioisotopically-labelled suspect viral denatured DNA to renature the immobilized suspect viral native DNA. The solid substrate is then evaluated for radioisotopically-labelled suspect viral renatured DNA.

  16. Method for detection of a suspect viral deoxyribonucleic acid in an acellular biological fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for evaluating an acellular biological fluid for the presence of a suspect viral DNA, such as DNA of the Hepatitis-B virus, is described. The acellular biological fluid is treated to immobilize in denatured form the DNAs including the suspect viral DNA on a solid substrate. This substrate is contacted with a solution including radioisotopically-labelled suspect viral denatured DNA to renature the immobilized suspect viral native DNA. The solid substrate is then evaluated for radioisotopically-labelled suspect viral renatured DNA. (author)

  17. Clues to pathogenesis of spondyloarthropathy derived from synovial fluid mononuclear cell gene expression profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Jieruo; Rihl, Markus; Märker-Hermann, Elisabeth; Baeten, Dominique; Kuipers, Jens G.; Song, Yeong Wook; Maksymowych, Walter P.; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Veys, Eric M.; de Keyser, Filip; Deister, Helmuth; Xiong, Momiao; Huang, Feng; Tsai, Wen Chan; Yu, David Tak Yan

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use gene expression profiles of spondyloarthropathy (SpA) synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC) to determine if there are transcripts that support the unfolded protein response (UPR) hypothesis, and to identify which cytokines/chemokines are being expressed and which cell fractions

  18. Obstructive renal injury: from fluid mechanics to molecular cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucero, Alvaro C; Gonçalves, Sara; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Santamaría, Beatriz; Ramos, Adrian M; Berzal, Sergio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2010-04-22

    Urinary tract obstruction is a frequent cause of renal impairment. The physiopathology of obstructive nephropathy has long been viewed as a mere mechanical problem. However, recent advances in cell and systems biology have disclosed a complex physiopathology involving a high number of molecular mediators of injury that lead to cellular processes of apoptotic cell death, cell injury leading to inflammation and resultant fibrosis. Functional studies in animal models of ureteral obstruction using a variety of techniques that include genetically modified animals have disclosed an important role for the renin-angiotensin system, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and other mediators of inflammation in this process. In addition, high throughput techniques such as proteomics and transcriptomics have identified potential biomarkers that may guide clinical decision-making.

  19. Separation methods for captopril in pharmaceuticals and biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Fotouh R; Danielson, Neil D

    2012-06-01

    Captopril (CAP) is an orally active angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and has been widely used for management of hypertension and congestive heart failure. CAP lacks an aromatic chromophore required for facile direct UV detection and also has two chiral centers. These factors can render the determination of CAP in complex matrices challenging. This review covers more than 20 years of analytical research on this drug, focusing mainly on pharmaceutical and biological applications. The primary separation techniques discussed are gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. The structures of the CAP derivatizing agents as well as a table summarizing various HPLC methods are provided. A discussion of key recent chromatographic and electrophoretic methods for other ACE inhibitors is also present. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The profile of high school students’ scientific literacy on fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parno; Yuliati, L.; Munfaridah, N.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to describe the profile of scientific literacy of high school students on Fluid Dynamics materials. Scientific literacy is one of the ability to solve daily problems in accordance with the context of materials related to science and technology. The study was conducted on 90 high school students in Sumbawa using survey design. Data were collected using an instrument of scientific literacy for high school students on dynamic fluid materials. Data analysis was conducted descriptively to determine the students’ profile of scientific literacy. The results showed that high school students’ scientific literacy on Fluid Dynamics materials was in the low category. The highest average is obtained on indicators of scientific literacy i.e. the ability to interpret data and scientific evidence. The ability of scientific literacy is related to the mastery of concepts and learning experienced by students, therefore it is necessary to use learning that can trace this ability such as Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM).

  1. Determination of drugs in biological fluids by direct injection of samples for liquid-chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullett, Wayne M

    2007-03-10

    The analysis of drugs in various biological fluids is an important criterion for the determination of the physiological performance of a drug. After sampling of the biological fluid, the next step in the analytical process is sample preparation. The complexity of biological fluids adds to the challenge of direct determination of the drug by chromatographic analysis, therefore demanding a sample preparation step that is often time-consuming, tedious, and frequently overlooked. However, direct on-line injection methods offer the advantage of reducing sample preparation steps and enabling effective pre-concentration and clean-up of biological fluids. These procedures can be automated and therefore reduce the requirements for handling potentially infectious biomaterial, improve reproducibility, and minimize sample manipulations and potential contamination. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the existing literature with emphasis on advances in automated sample preparation methods for liquid-chromatographic methods. More specifically, this review concentrates on the use of direct injection techniques, such as restricted-access materials, turbulent-flow chromatography and other automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedures. It also includes short overviews of emerging automated extraction-phase technologies, such as molecularly imprinted polymers, in-tube solid-phase micro-extraction, and micro-extraction in a packed syringe for a more selective extraction of analytes from complex samples, providing further improvements in the analysis of biological materials. Lastly, the outlook for these methods and potential new applications for these technologies are briefly discussed.

  2. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1-based human RNA quantification to enhance mRNA profiling in forensic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA analysis offers many potential applications in forensic science, and molecular identification of body fluids by analysis of cell-specific RNA markers represents a new technique for use in forensic cases. However, due to the nature of forensic materials that often admixed with nonhuman cellular components, human-specific RNA quantification is required for the forensic RNA assays. Quantification assay for human RNA has been developed in the present study with respect to body fluid samples in forensic biology. The quantitative assay is based on real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of mitochondrial RNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and capable of RNA quantification with high reproducibility and a wide dynamic range. The human RNA quantification improves the quality of mRNA profiling in the identification of body fluids of saliva and semen because the quantification assay can exclude the influence of nonhuman components and reduce the adverse affection from degraded RNA fragments.

  3. Integrating fluid dynamic and biologic effects on staphylococci bacteria biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Erica; Endres, Jennifer; Bayles, Kenneth; Wei, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are able to form biofilms and distinctive tower structures that facilitate their ability to tolerate treatment and to spread within the human body. The formation of towers, which break off, get carried downstream and serve to initiate biofilms in other parts of the body are of particular interest here. In previous work on biofilm growth and evolution in steady, laminar microchannel flows, it has been established that tower formation occurs around a very limited range of applied shear stresses centered on 0.6 dynes/cm2. Quantifying cell density characteristics as a function of time during biofilm formation reveals indicators of tower development hours before towers actually form and become visible. The next step in this research is to explore biological factors that might explain why this specific shear is so important. Additional studies with mutants, e.g. ica-A, that have been tied to tower formation have been conducted. The shear dependence of these mutants and their correlation to the behavior of wild type S. aureus is examined.

  4. Drug screening in biological fluids - The need for a systematic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, R.A

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the key steps towards drug screening in biological fluids are considered: (i) sample work up-isolation-concentration: (ii) differentiation-detection; (iii) identification. For (i) solid-phase extraction has very good potential; for (ii) thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography and

  5. Profile of accidents with biological material at a dental school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aragão de Almeida Sasamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascihealthsci.v36i1.14976 Current research characterizes the epidemiological profile of accidents with biological material (BM that occurred in a government-run dental school and identifies the post-exposure behavior taken by the injured subjects. The cross-sectional retrospective study comprises professors, students and technical-administration personnel who worked in the laboratory from 2001 to 2008 (n = 566. An electronic questionnaire, prepared by software developed for this purpose, was sent to subjects between May and August 2008 for data collection. Ninety-one (34.2% out of 266 participants reported some type of exposure to BM. There was no difference between the occurrence of accidents according to the subjects’ category (p = 0.496 and sex (p = 0.261. Most of the subjects reported cutaneous exposure (76.9% comprising saliva (68.1% and blood (48.3%. The fingers were the body members most affected. Accidents occurred mostly during clinical (34.1% and surgical (30.8% procedures. Although the use of protection equipments was high (82.9%, only 26.4% of subjects reported the accident and only 28.6% sought immediate help. Most of the injured subjects failed to report the accidents and did not comply with the guidelines. Others trivialized basic behavior such as the interruption of the procedure to seek medical assistance.

  6. Radioreceptor assay for benzodiazepines in biological fluids using a new dry and stable receptor preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J.

    1981-01-01

    A method for determination of benzodiazepines in human blood, plasma, saliva and urine has been developed. The method is based upon the competition between 3 H-flunitrazepam and biologically active benzodiazepines in biological fluids for brain specific receptors, prepared in a stable, dry form and easy to handle. The pharmacological specificity for benzodiazepines of the dry stable receptor preparation is closely similar to that of fresh membrane-bound rat brain receptors. The method is specific for biologically active benzodiazepines; it is relatively rapid, sensitive and reproducible, and can be performed at room temperature. (author)

  7. Fluid and gyrokinetic modelling of particle transport in plasmas with hollow density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegnered, D; Oberparleiter, M; Nordman, H; Strand, P

    2016-01-01

    Hollow density profiles occur in connection with pellet fuelling and L to H transitions. A positive density gradient could potentially stabilize the turbulence or change the relation between convective and diffusive fluxes, thereby reducing the turbulent transport of particles towards the center, making the fuelling scheme inefficient. In the present work, the particle transport driven by ITG/TE mode turbulence in regions of hollow density profiles is studied by fluid as well as gyrokinetic simulations. The fluid model used, an extended version of the Weiland transport model, Extended Drift Wave Model (EDWM), incorporates an arbitrary number of ion species in a multi-fluid description, and an extended wavelength spectrum. The fluid model, which is fast and hence suitable for use in predictive simulations, is compared to gyrokinetic simulations using the code GENE. Typical tokamak parameters are used based on the Cyclone Base Case. Parameter scans in key plasma parameters like plasma β, R/L T , and magnetic shear are investigated. It is found that β in particular has a stabilizing effect in the negative R/L n region, both nonlinear GENE and EDWM show a decrease in inward flux for negative R/L n and a change of direction from inward to outward for positive R/L n . This might have serious consequences for pellet fuelling of high β plasmas. (paper)

  8. Proteomic profiles reveal age-related changes in coelomic fluid of sea urchin species with different life spans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Sea urchins have a different life history from humans and traditional model organisms used to study the process of aging. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, reproduce throughout their life span and some species have been shown to exhibit negligible senescence with no increase in mortality rate at advanced ages. Despite these properties, different species of sea urchins are reported to have very different natural life spans providing a unique model to investigate cellular mechanisms underlying life span determination and negligible senescence. To gain insight into the biological changes that accompany aging in these animals, proteomic profiles were examined in coelomic fluid from young and old sea urchins of three species with different life spans: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate life span. The proteomic profiles of cell-free coelomic fluid were complex with many proteins exhibiting different forms and extensive post-translational modifications. Approximately 20% of the protein spots on 2-D gels showed more than two-fold change with age in each of the species. Changes that are consistent with age in all three species may prove to be useful biomarkers for age-determination for these commercially fished marine invertebrates and also may provide clues to mechanisms of negligible senescence. Among the proteins that change with age, the ectodomain of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) was significantly increased in the coelomic fluid of all three sea urchin species suggesting that the Wnt signaling pathway should be further investigated for its role in negligible senescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography of respiratory quinones for microbial community analysis in environmental and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Atsuta, Yoichi; Fujie, Koichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2012-03-05

    Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ) in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA) detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ) and menaquinones (MK) without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost) and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces).

  10. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Fujie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ and menaquinones (MK without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces.

  11. Amniotic fluid RNA gene expression profiling provides insights into the phenotype of Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massingham, Lauren J; Johnson, Kirby L; Scholl, Thomas M; Slonim, Donna K; Wick, Heather C; Bianchi, Diana W

    2014-09-01

    Turner syndrome is a sex chromosome aneuploidy with characteristic malformations. Amniotic fluid, a complex biological material, could contribute to the understanding of Turner syndrome pathogenesis. In this pilot study, global gene expression analysis of cell-free RNA in amniotic fluid supernatant was utilized to identify specific genes/organ systems that may play a role in Turner syndrome pathophysiology. Cell-free RNA from amniotic fluid of five mid-trimester Turner syndrome fetuses and five euploid female fetuses matched for gestational age was extracted, amplified, and hybridized onto Affymetrix(®) U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Significantly differentially regulated genes were identified using paired t tests. Biological interpretation was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and BioGPS gene expression atlas. There were 470 statistically significantly differentially expressed genes identified. They were widely distributed across the genome. XIST was significantly down-regulated (p Turner syndrome transcriptome from other aneuploidies we previously studied. Manual curation of the differentially expressed gene list identified genes of possible pathologic significance, including NFATC3, IGFBP5, and LDLR. Transcriptomic differences in the amniotic fluid of Turner syndrome fetuses are due to genome-wide dysregulation. The hematologic/immune system differences may play a role in early-onset autoimmune dysfunction. Other genes identified with possible pathologic significance are associated with cardiac and skeletal systems, which are known to be affected in females with Turner syndrome. The discovery-driven approach described here may be useful in elucidating novel mechanisms of disease in Turner syndrome.

  12. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Ina; Meierhofer, David

    2016-04-27

    Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology.

  13. Advantages and Pitfalls of Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolome Profiling in Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Aretz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling became the method of choice in systems biology approaches and aims to enhance biological understanding of complex biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are well established technologies and are commonly used by many scientists. In comparison, metabolomics is an emerging field and has not reached such high-throughput, routine and coverage than other omics technologies. Nevertheless, substantial improvements were achieved during the last years. Integrated data derived from multi-omics approaches will provide a deeper understanding of entire biological systems. Metabolome profiling is mainly hampered by its diversity, variation of metabolite concentration by several orders of magnitude and biological data interpretation. Thus, multiple approaches are required to cover most of the metabolites. No software tool is capable of comprehensively translating all the data into a biologically meaningful context yet. In this review, we discuss the advantages of metabolome profiling and main obstacles limiting progress in systems biology.

  14. A universal fluid cell for the imaging of biological specimens in the atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasas, Sandor; Radotic, Ksenja; Longo, Giovanni; Saha, Bashkar; Alonso-Sarduy, Livan; Dietler, Giovanni; Roduit, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Recently, atomic force microscope (AFM) manufacturers have begun producing instruments specifically designed to image biological specimens. In most instances, they are integrated with an inverted optical microscope, which permits concurrent optical and AFM imaging. An important component of the set-up is the imaging chamber, whose design determines the nature of the experiments that can be conducted. Many different imaging chamber designs are available, usually designed to optimize a single parameter, such as the dimensions of the substrate or the volume of fluid that can be used throughout the experiment. In this report, we present a universal fluid cell, which simultaneously optimizes all of the parameters that are important for the imaging of biological specimens in the AFM. This novel imaging chamber has been successfully tested using mammalian, plant, and microbial cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Radioenzymatic microassay for picogram quantities of serotonin or acetylserotonin in biological fluids and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.N.; Benedict, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes several modifications of the original radioenzymatic assay for serotonin which increase the sensitivity of the assay 20-fold as well as enhance its reliability. Using this method serotonin concentrations can be directly measured in biological examples without precleaning the sample. When compared to currently available methods this assay is specific and sensitive to approximately 1 pg of serotonin and can be used to measure serotonin levels in individual brain nuclei or microliter quantities of biological fluids. This assay can be easily adapted for the direct measurement of N-acetylserotonin. A large number of samples can be assayed in a single working day

  16. Application of LC–MS/MS for quantitative analysis of glucocorticoids and stimulants in biological fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Haneef, Jamshed; Shaharyar, Mohammad; Husain, Asif; Rashid, Mohd; Mishra, Ravinesh; Parveen, Shama; Ahmed, Niyaz; Pal, Manoj; Kumar, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Liquid chromatography tandem mass chromatography (LCâMS/MS) is an important hyphenated technique for quantitative analysis of drugs in biological fluids. Because of high sensitivity and selectivity, LCâMS/MS has been used for pharmacokinetic studies, metabolites identification in the plasma and urine. This manuscript gives comprehensive analytical review, focusing on chromatographic separation approaches (column packing materials, column length and mobile phase) as well as different acquisiti...

  17. Application of LC–MS/MS for quantitative analysis of glucocorticoids and stimulants in biological fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Haneef, Jamshed; Shaharyar, Mohammad; Husain, Asif; Rashid, Mohd; Mishra, Ravinesh; Parveen, Shama; Ahmed, Niyaz; Pal, Manoj; Kumar, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Liquid chromatography tandem mass chromatography (LC–MS/MS) is an important hyphenated technique for quantitative analysis of drugs in biological fluids. Because of high sensitivity and selectivity, LC–MS/MS has been used for pharmacokinetic studies, metabolites identification in the plasma and urine. This manuscript gives comprehensive analytical review, focusing on chromatographic separation approaches (column packing materials, column length and mobile phase) as well as different acquisiti...

  18. Determination of azide in biological fluids by use of electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, Kayoko; Suzuki, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of azide ion (N 3 - ) in biological fluids and beverages. The procedure was based on the formation of a ternary complex Cu(N 3 ) 2 (4-methylpyridine) x in benzene, followed by its detection by electron paramagnetic resonance. The complex in benzene showed a characteristic four-peak hyperfine structure with a g-value of 2.115 at room temperature. Cu 2+ reacted with N 3 - most strongly among common metals found in biological fluids. Several anions and metal ions in biological fluids did not interfere with the determination of N 3 - in the presence of large amounts of Cu 2+ and oxidants. In the present method, N 3 - at the concentration from 5 μM to 2 mM in 100 μl solution could be determined with the detection limit of 20 ng. The recoveries were more than 95% for N 3 - added to 100 μl of blood, urine, milk and beverages at 200 μM. Our method is recommendable because it takes less than 10 min to determine N 3 - and the produced complex is quite stable

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Source Wavelet and Velocity Profile Using Impulsive Point-Source Reflections from a Layered Fluid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bube, K; Lailly, P; Sacks, P; Santosa, F; Symes, W. W

    1987-01-01

    .... We show that a quasi-impulsive, isotropic point source may be recovered simultaneously with the velocity profile from reflection data over a layered fluid, in linear (perturbation) approximation...

  20. Amniotic fluid protein profiles of intraamniotic inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Kacerovsky

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the amniotic fluid protein profiles and the intensity of intraamniotic inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria, using the multiplex xMAP technology. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. A total of 145 pregnant women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes between gestational age 24+0 and 36+6 weeks were included in the study. Amniocenteses were performed. The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The levels of specific proteins were determined using multiplex xMAP technology. RESULTS: The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria in the amniotic fluid was associated with increased levels of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, brain-derived neurotropic factor, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1, and matrix metalloproteinasis-9. Ureaplasma spp. were also associated with increased levels of neurotropin-3 and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Ureaplasma spp. in the amniotic fluid is associated with a slightly different protein profile of inflammatory response, but the intensity of inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. is comparable with the inflammatory response to other bacteria.

  1. Amniotic fluid protein profiles of intraamniotic inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Celec, Peter; Vlkova, Barbora; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M; Cobo, Teresa; Jacobsson, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the amniotic fluid protein profiles and the intensity of intraamniotic inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria, using the multiplex xMAP technology. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. A total of 145 pregnant women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes between gestational age 24+0 and 36+6 weeks were included in the study. Amniocenteses were performed. The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The levels of specific proteins were determined using multiplex xMAP technology. The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria in the amniotic fluid was associated with increased levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, brain-derived neurotropic factor, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1, and matrix metalloproteinasis-9. Ureaplasma spp. were also associated with increased levels of neurotropin-3 and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1. The presence of Ureaplasma spp. in the amniotic fluid is associated with a slightly different protein profile of inflammatory response, but the intensity of inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. is comparable with the inflammatory response to other bacteria.

  2. Diagnosis at a glance of biological non-Newtonian fluids with Film Interference Flow Imaging (FIFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidema, R.; Yamada, N.; Furukawa, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the human body, full of biological non-Newtonian fluids exist. For example, synovial fluids exist in our joints, which contain full of biopolymers, such as hyaluronan and mucin. It is thought that these polymers play critical roles on the smooth motion of the joint. Indeed, luck of biopolymers in synovial fluid cause joint pain. Here we study the effects of polymer in thin liquid layer by using an original experimental method called Film Interference Flow Imaging (FIFI). A vertically flowing soap film containing polymers is made as two-dimensional flow to observe turbulence. The thickness of water layer is about 4 μm sandwiched between surfactant mono-layers. The interference pattern of the soap film is linearly related to the flow velocity in the water layer through the change in the thickness of the film. Thus the flow velocity is possibly analyzed by the single image analysis of the interference pattern, that is, FIFI. The grid turbulence was made in the flowing soap films containing the long flexible polymer polyethyleneoxide (PEO, Mw=3.5x106), and rigid polymer hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, Mw > 1.0 x106). The decaying process of the turbulence is affected by PEO and HPC at several concentrations. The effects of PEO are sharply seen even at low concentrations, while the effects of HPC are gradually occurred at much higher concentration compared to the PEO. It is assumed that such a difference between PEO and HPC is due to the polymer stretching or polymer orientation under turbulence, which is observed and analyzed by FIFI. We believe the FIFI will be applied in the future to examine biological fluids such as synovial fluids quickly and quantitatively.

  3. Bions: a family of biomimetic mineralo-organic complexes derived from biological fluids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yeu Wu

    Full Text Available Mineralo-organic nanoparticles form spontaneously in human body fluids when the concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions exceed saturation. We have shown previously that these mineralo-organic nanoparticles possess biomimetic properties and can reproduce the whole phenomenology of the so-called nanobacteria-mineralized entities initially described as the smallest microorganisms on earth. Here, we examine the possibility that various charged elements and ions may form mineral nanoparticles with similar properties in biological fluids. Remarkably, all the elements tested, including sodium, magnesium, aluminum, calcium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, strontium, and barium form mineralo-organic particles with bacteria-like morphologies and other complex shapes following precipitation with phosphate in body fluids. Upon formation, these mineralo-organic particles, which we term bions, invariably accumulate carbonate apatite during incubation in biological fluids; yet, the particles also incorporate additional elements and thus reflect the ionic milieu in which they form. Bions initially harbor an amorphous mineral phase that gradually converts to crystals in culture. Our results show that serum produces a dual inhibition-seeding effect on bion formation. Using a comprehensive proteomic analysis, we identify a wide range of proteins that bind to these mineral particles during incubation in medium containing serum. The two main binding proteins identified, albumin and fetuin-A, act as both inhibitors and seeders of bions in culture. Notably, bions possess several biomimetic properties, including the possibility to increase in size and number and to be sub-cultured in fresh culture medium. Based on these results, we propose that bions represent biological, mineralo-organic particles that may form in the body under both physiological and pathological homeostasis conditions. These mineralo-organic particles may be part of a

  4. Enzyme Biosensors for Biomedical Applications: Strategies for Safeguarding Analytical Performances in Biological Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchitta, Gaia; Spanu, Angela; Babudieri, Sergio; Latte, Gavinella; Madeddu, Giordano; Galleri, Grazia; Nuvoli, Susanna; Bagella, Paola; Demartis, Maria Ilaria; Fiore, Vito; Manetti, Roberto; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme-based chemical biosensors are based on biological recognition. In order to operate, the enzymes must be available to catalyze a specific biochemical reaction and be stable under the normal operating conditions of the biosensor. Design of biosensors is based on knowledge about the target analyte, as well as the complexity of the matrix in which the analyte has to be quantified. This article reviews the problems resulting from the interaction of enzyme-based amperometric biosensors with complex biological matrices containing the target analyte(s). One of the most challenging disadvantages of amperometric enzyme-based biosensor detection is signal reduction from fouling agents and interference from chemicals present in the sample matrix. This article, therefore, investigates the principles of functioning of enzymatic biosensors, their analytical performance over time and the strategies used to optimize their performance. Moreover, the composition of biological fluids as a function of their interaction with biosensing will be presented. PMID:27249001

  5. [The incidence and distribution of accidents with biological fluids among health personnel and the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz Iglesia, I; Gómez López, L I; Fernández Martínez, J A; Mareca Doñate, R; Sangrador Arenas, L A

    1996-01-01

    To assess the informative usefulness of the Registry, to calculate the incidence rates of accident with biological fluids among health care workers and in the community, to know about the postaccident rate of seroconversion to HIV and to identify risk groups. A descriptive study of the HIV records file of the Registry of Accidental Contacts to Biological Fluids in the Clinic Hospital of Zaragoza was conducted, between January 1987 and September 1993. The registry includes the reports of health care workers and the general population of Health Area III in Aragón (Spain), except for the Calatayud's Hospital. Incidence rates, rate ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total number of 595 accidents were reported, in none of them and HIV infection occurred subsequently. The incidence rate in health care workers was of 1.7 reports per 100 workers per year, while in the community it was of 8.1 per 100,000 people. The housekeeping staff was the group with a higher incidence (rate = 6.7; 95% IC: 3-14.8) and the type of accident more frequently described was needlestick injury. The incidence of reported accidents has increased in the community and in health care workers, which may be due to the increase in the reporting. In health care workers, the incidence in 1993 was within the range reported from other countries. The perception of risk is universal after accidents with unknown biological fluids. The correct disposal of material with biological contamination should be the more important preventive action.

  6. Proteomic profiling of the amniotic fluid to detect inflammation, infection, and neonatal sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin S Buhimschi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid shows the presence of biomarkers characteristic of intrauterine inflammation. We sought to validate prospectively the clinical utility of one such proteomic profile, the Mass Restricted (MR score.We enrolled 169 consecutive women with singleton pregnancies admitted with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. All women had a clinically indicated amniocentesis to rule out intra-amniotic infection. A proteomic fingerprint (MR score was generated from fresh samples of amniotic fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization (SELDI mass spectrometry. Presence or absence of the biomarkers of the MR score was interpreted in relationship to the amniocentesis-to-delivery interval, placental inflammation, and early-onset neonatal sepsis for all neonates admitted to the Newborn Special Care Unit (n = 104. Women with "severe" amniotic fluid inflammation (MR score of 3 or 4 had shorter amniocentesis-to-delivery intervals than women with "no" (MR score of 0 inflammation or even "minimal" (MR score of 1 or 2 inflammation (median [range] MR 3-4: 0.4 d [0.0-49.6 d] versus MR 1-2: 3.8 d [0.0-151.2 d] versus MR 0: 17.0 d [0.1-94.3 d], p 100 cells/mm3, whereas the combination of Gram stain and MR score was best for rapid prediction of intra-amniotic infection (positive amniotic fluid culture.High MR scores are associated with preterm delivery, histological chorioamnionitis, and early-onset neonatal sepsis. In this study, proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid was shown to be the most accurate test for diagnosis of intra-amniotic inflammation, whereas addition of the MR score to the Gram stain provides the best combination of tests to rapidly predict infection.

  7. VHBORE: A code to compute borehole fluid conductivity profiles with pressure changes in the borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, F.V.; Tsang, C.F.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the code VHBORE which can be used to model fluid electric conductivity profiles in a borehole intersecting fractured rock under conditions of changing pressure in the well bore. Pressure changes may be due to water level variations caused by pumping or fluid density effects as formation fluid is drawn into the borehole. Previous reports describe the method of estimating the hydrologic behavior of fractured rock using a time series of electric conductivity logs and an earlier code, BORE, to generate electric conductivity logs under constant pressure and flow rate conditions. The earlier model, BORE, assumed a constant flow rate, q i , for each inflow into the well bore. In the present code the user supplies the location, constant pressure, h i , transmissivity, T i , and storativity, S i , for each fracture, as well as the initial water level in the well, h w (0), In addition, the input data contains changes in the water level at later times, Δh w (t), typically caused by turning a pump on or off. The variable density calculation also requires input of the density of each of the inflow fluids, ρ i , and the initial uniform density of the well bore fluid, ρ w (0). These parameters are used to compute the flow rate for each inflow point at each time step. The numerical method of Jacob and Lohman (1952) is used to compute the flow rate into or out of the fractures based on the changes in pressure in the wellbore. A dimensionless function relates flow rate as a function of time in response to an imposed pressure change. The principle of superposition is used to determine the net flow rate from a time series of pressure changes. Additional reading on the relationship between drawdown and flow rate can be found in Earlougher (1977), particularly his Section 4.6, open-quotes Constant-Pressure Flow Testingclose quotes

  8. Automated GC-MS analysis of free amino acids in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Hannelore; Dettmer, Katja; Gronwald, Wolfram; Oefner, Peter J

    2008-07-15

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the quantitative analysis of free amino acids as their propyl chloroformate derivatives in biological fluids. Derivatization with propyl chloroformate is carried out directly in the biological samples without prior protein precipitation or solid-phase extraction of the amino acids, thereby allowing automation of the entire procedure, including addition of reagents, extraction and injection into the GC-MS. The total analysis time was 30 min and 30 amino acids could be reliably quantified using 19 stable isotope-labeled amino acids as internal standards. Limits of detection (LOD) and lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were in the range of 0.03-12 microM and 0.3-30 microM, respectively. The method was validated using a certified amino acid standard and reference plasma, and its applicability to different biological fluids was shown. Intra-day precision for the analysis of human urine, blood plasma, and cell culture medium was 2.0-8.8%, 0.9-8.3%, and 2.0-14.3%, respectively, while the inter-day precision for human urine was 1.5-14.1%.

  9. A New Generation Fiber Optic Probe: Characterization of Biological Fluids, Protein Crystals and Ophthalmic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.

    1996-01-01

    A new fiber optic probe developed for determining transport properties of sub-micron particles in fluids experiments in a microgravity environment has been applied to characterize particulate dispersions/suspensions in various challenging environments which have been hitherto impossible. The probe positioned in front of a sample delivers a low power light (few nW - 3mW) from a laser and guides the light which is back scattered by the suspended particles through a receiving optical fiber to a photo detector and to a digital correlator. The probe provides rapid determination of macromolecular diffusivities and their respective size distributions. It has been applied to characterize various biological fluids, protein crystals, and ophthalmic diseases.

  10. Quantitative analysis of biological fluids by electron probe and X ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Chantal

    1986-01-01

    In order to know the kidney normal operation and to have an insight on cellular transport mechanisms and hormonal regulations at the nephron level, a technique based on the use of an electron probe has been developed for the elemental analysis of micro-volumes of biological fluids. This academic document reports applications of this technique on animals on which such fluids have been sampled at different levels of the nephron. As these samples are available in too small volumes to be dosed by conventional methods, they have been quantitatively analysed by using an electronic probe based analyser in order to determine concentrations of all elements with an atomic number greater than that of carbon. After a presentation of the implemented method and hardware, the author thus describes how an analysis is performed, and reports and discusses an example (analysis conditions, data acquisition, data processing, minimum detectable concentration, reasons for measurement scattering)

  11. miRNA Expression Profiles in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sofie Sølvsten; Nygaard, Ann-Britt; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    in the cell-free fractions of CSF and blood were analyzed by a microarray technique (miRCURY LNA™ microRNA Array, Exiqon A/S, Denmark) using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) platform containing 378 miRNA primers. In total, 183 different miRNAs were detected in the CSF, of which two miRNAs (let-7c and miR-221-3p......The aims of the study were (1) to determine whether miRNAs (microRNAs) can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of patients with ischemic stroke and (2) to compare these miRNA profiles with corresponding profiles from other neurological patients to address whether the mi......RNA profiles of CSF or blood have potential usefulness as diagnostic biomarkers of ischemic stroke. CSF from patients with acute ischemic stroke (n = 10) and patients with other neurological diseases (n = 10) was collected by lumbar puncture. Blood samples were taken immediately after. Expression profiles...

  12. The distinctive gastric fluid proteome in gastric cancer reveals a multi-biomarker diagnostic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng Alvin KH

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall gastric cancer survival remains poor mainly because there are no reliable methods for identifying highly curable early stage disease. Multi-protein profiling of gastric fluids, obtained from the anatomic site of pathology, could reveal diagnostic proteomic fingerprints. Methods Protein profiles were generated from gastric fluid samples of 19 gastric cancer and 36 benign gastritides patients undergoing elective, clinically-indicated gastroscopy using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on multiple ProteinChip arrays. Proteomic features were compared by significance analysis of microarray algorithm and two-way hierarchical clustering. A second blinded sample set (24 gastric cancers and 29 clinically benign gastritides was used for validation. Results By significance analysyis of microarray, 60 proteomic features were up-regulated and 46 were down-regulated in gastric cancer samples (p Conclusion This simple and reproducible multimarker proteomic assay could supplement clinical gastroscopic evaluation of symptomatic patients to enhance diagnostic accuracy for gastric cancer and pre-malignant lesions.

  13. A radioimmunoassay for the detection of diethylstilboestrol and related stilbenes in biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallahan, Cornelius; McGarry, Yvonne; Collins, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of the synthetic anabolic agent diethylstilboestrol (DES) is described. It is based on a commercially available antiserum and a tritiated derivative of DES. The method can detect low concentrations of residues (less than 0.5 ng/ml) in small samples (0.05 to 0.2 ml) of biological fluids. DES was measured in plasma, bile and urine obtained from a calf slaughtered 22 days after subcutaneous implantation of 24 mg DES. The assay described is suitable as a rapid screening procedure for identifying animals treated with stilbene substances. (author)

  14. DeepPIV: Measuring in situ Biological-Fluid Interactions from the Surface to Benthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katija, K.; Sherman, A.; Graves, D.; Kecy, C. D.; Klimov, D.; Robison, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    The midwater region of the ocean (below the euphotic zone and above the benthos) is one of the largest ecosystems on our planet, yet it remains one of the least explored. Little known marine organisms that inhabit midwater have developed strategies for swimming and feeding that ultimately contributes to their evolutionary success, and may inspire engineering solutions for societally relevant challenges. Fluid mechanics governs the interactions that midwater organisms have with their physical environment, but limited access to midwater depths and lack of non-invasive methods to measure in situ small-scale fluid motions prevent these interactions from being better understood. Significant advances in underwater vehicle technologies have only recently improved access to midwater. Unfortunately, in situ small-scale fluid mechanics measurement methods are still lacking in the oceanographic community. Here we present DeepPIV, an instrumentation package that can be affixed to remotely operated underwater vehicles that quantifies small-scale fluid motions from the surface of the ocean down to 4000 m depths. Utilizing ambient, suspended particulate in the coastal regions of Monterey Bay, fluid-structure interactions are evaluated on a range of marine organisms in midwater. Initial science targets include larvaceans, biological equivalents of flapping flexible foils, that create mucus houses to filter food. Little is known about the structure of these mucus houses and the function they play in selectively filtering particles, and these dynamics can serve as particle-mucus models for human health. Using DeepPIV, we reveal the complex structures and flows generated within larvacean mucus houses, and elucidate how these structures function.

  15. Headspace solid-phase microextraction procedures for gas chromatographic analysis of biological fluids and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, G A; Walker, V

    2000-12-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a new solventless sample preparation technique that is finding wide usage. This review provides updated information on headspace SPME with gas chromatographic separation for the extraction and measurement of volatile and semivolatile analytes in biological fluids and materials. Firstly the background to the technique is given in terms of apparatus, fibres used, extraction conditions and derivatisation procedures. Then the different matrices, urine, blood, faeces, breast milk, hair, breath and saliva are considered separately. For each, methods appropriate for the analysis of drugs and metabolites, solvents and chemicals, anaesthetics, pesticides, organometallics and endogenous compounds are reviewed and the main experimental conditions outlined with specific examples. Then finally, the future potential of SPME for the analysis of biological samples in terms of the development of new devices and fibre chemistries and its coupling with high-performance liquid chromatography is discussed.

  16. The Balance of Fluid and Osmotic Pressures across Active Biological Membranes with Application to the Corneal Endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Cheng

    Full Text Available The movement of fluid and solutes across biological membranes facilitates the transport of nutrients for living organisms and maintains the fluid and osmotic pressures in biological systems. Understanding the pressure balances across membranes is crucial for studying fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in living systems, and is an area of active research. In this study, a set of enhanced Kedem-Katchalsky (KK equations is proposed to describe fluxes of water and solutes across biological membranes, and is applied to analyze the relationship between fluid and osmotic pressures, accounting for active transport mechanisms that propel substances against their concentration gradients and for fixed charges that alter ionic distributions in separated environments. The equilibrium analysis demonstrates that the proposed theory recovers the Donnan osmotic pressure and can predict the correct fluid pressure difference across membranes, a result which cannot be achieved by existing KK theories due to the neglect of fixed charges. The steady-state analysis on active membranes suggests a new pressure mechanism which balances the fluid pressure together with the osmotic pressure. The source of this pressure arises from active ionic fluxes and from interactions between solvent and solutes in membrane transport. We apply the proposed theory to study the transendothelial fluid pressure in the in vivo cornea, which is a crucial factor maintaining the hydration and transparency of the tissue. The results show the importance of the proposed pressure mechanism in mediating stromal fluid pressure and provide a new interpretation of the pressure modulation mechanism in the in vivo cornea.

  17. Chiral separation of amino acids in biological fluids by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsén, G; Bergquist, J

    2000-08-18

    A method is presented for the chiral analysis of amino acids in biological fluids using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The amino acids are derivatized with the chiral reagent (+/-)-1-(9-anthryl)-2-propyl chloroformate (APOC) and separated using a mixed micellar separation system. No tedious pre-purification of samples is required. The excellent separation efficiency and good detection capabilities of the MEKC-LIF system are exemplified in the analysis of urine and cerebrospinal fluid. This is the first time MEKC has been reported for chiral analysis of amino acids in biological fluids. The amino acids D-alanine, D-glutamine, and D-aspartic acid have been observed in cerebrospinal fluid, and D-alanine and D-glutamic acid in urine. To the best of our knowledge no measurements of either D-alanine in cerebrospinal fluid or D-glutamic acid in urine have been presented in the literature before.

  18. Determination of sup 18 O concentrations in microsamples of biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D D [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Menai (Australia); Bradshaw, S D; Bradshaw, F J [University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia). Dept. of Zoology; Katsaros, A [Australian Inst. of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), Menai (Australia)

    1990-04-01

    The {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N reaction has been developed for the analysis of microsamples of biological fluids containing {sup 18}O-enriched water. Samples as small as 50 {mu}l have been used. Well characterized Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} targets were prepared from these fluids and irradiated with several hundred nA of protons from the 3 MV Van de Graaff at Lucas Heights. The broad (47 keV) 846 kV resonance in this reaction was used to measure {sup 18}O concentrations down to natural backgrounds (0.2 at.%) in a few minutes of accelerator running time. Concentrations of {sup 18}O from 0 to 5 at.% were measured in body fluids in small Australian lizards directly after doping with {sup 18}O-enriched water and then again after several days of roaming around in their natural desert environments. The changes in these levels were related to the metabolic rates of these animals. (orig.).

  19. Causal dissipation and shock profiles in the relativistic fluid dynamics of pure radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freistühler, Heinrich; Temple, Blake

    2014-06-08

    CURRENT THEORIES OF DISSIPATION IN THE RELATIVISTIC REGIME SUFFER FROM ONE OF TWO DEFICITS: either their dissipation is not causal or no profiles for strong shock waves exist. This paper proposes a relativistic Navier-Stokes-Fourier-type viscosity and heat conduction tensor such that the resulting second-order system of partial differential equations for the fluid dynamics of pure radiation is symmetric hyperbolic. This system has causal dissipation as well as the property that all shock waves of arbitrary strength have smooth profiles. Entropy production is positive both on gradients near those of solutions to the dissipation-free equations and on gradients of shock profiles. This shows that the new dissipation stress tensor complies to leading order with the principles of thermodynamics. Whether higher order modifications of the ansatz are required to obtain full compatibility with the second law far from the zero-dissipation equilibrium is left to further investigations. The system has exactly three a priori free parameters χ , η , ζ , corresponding physically to heat conductivity, shear viscosity and bulk viscosity. If the bulk viscosity is zero (as is stated in the literature) and the total stress-energy tensor is trace free, the entire viscosity and heat conduction tensor is determined to within a constant factor.

  20. Systematic reconstruction of autism biology from massive genetic mutation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weijun; Zhang, Chaolin; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Brouwer, Cory R

    2018-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1% of world population and has become a pressing medical and social problem worldwide. As a paradigmatic complex genetic disease, ASD has been intensively studied and thousands of gene mutations have been reported. Because these mutations rarely recur, it is difficult to (i) pinpoint the fewer disease-causing versus majority random events and (ii) replicate or verify independent studies. A coherent and systematic understanding of autism biology has not been achieved. We analyzed 3392 and 4792 autism-related mutations from two large-scale whole-exome studies across multiple resolution levels, that is, variants (single-nucleotide), genes (protein-coding unit), and pathways (molecular module). These mutations do not recur or replicate at the variant level, but significantly and increasingly do so at gene and pathway levels. Genetic association reveals a novel gene + pathway dual-hit model, where the mutation burden becomes less relevant. In multiple independent analyses, hundreds of variants or genes repeatedly converge to several canonical pathways, either novel or literature-supported. These pathways define recurrent and systematic ASD biology, distinct from previously reported gene groups or networks. They also present a catalog of novel ASD risk factors including 118 variants and 72 genes. At a subpathway level, most variants disrupt the pathway-related gene functions, and in the same gene, they tend to hit residues extremely close to each other and in the same domain. Multiple interacting variants spotlight key modules, including the cAMP (adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate) second-messenger system and mGluR (metabotropic glutamate receptor) signaling regulation by GRKs (G protein-coupled receptor kinases). At a superpathway level, distinct pathways further interconnect and converge to three biology themes: synaptic function, morphology, and plasticity.

  1. Sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric determination of captopril and ethamsylate in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shabrawy, Y; El-Enany, N; Salem, K

    2004-10-01

    A highly sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of captopril (CPL) and ethamsylate (ESL) in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. The method is based on a catalytic acceleration of the reaction between sodium azide and iodine in an aqueous solution. Concentration range of 0.1-1.5 microg ml(-1) for CPL and 0.3-3 microg ml(-1) for ESL was determined by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of iodine at 348 nm by a fixed time method. The decrease in absorbance after 5 min was markedly correlated to the concentration. The relative standard deviations obtained were 1.30 and 1.87 for CPL and ESL, respectively, in pure forms. Correlation coefficients were 0.9997 and 0.9999 for CPL and ESL, respectively. The detection limits were determined as (S/N = 3) were 20 ng ml(-1) for CPL and 50 ng ml(-1) for ESL. The proposed procedure was successively applied for the determination of both drugs in pharmaceutical preparations and in biological fluids.

  2. Biological profiling and dose-response modeling tools ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through its ToxCast project, the U.S. EPA has developed a battery of in vitro high throughput screening (HTS) assays designed to assess the potential toxicity of environmental chemicals. At present, over 1800 chemicals have been tested in up to 600 assays, yielding a large number of concentration-response data sets. Standard processing of these data sets involves finding a best fitting mathematical model and set of model parameters that specify this model. The model parameters include quantities such as the half-maximal activity concentration (or “AC50”) that have biological significance and can be used to inform the efficacy or potency of a given chemical with respect to a given assay. All of this data is processed and stored in an online-accessible database and website: http://actor.epa.gov/dashboard2. Results from these in vitro assays are used in a multitude of ways. New pathways and targets can be identified and incorporated into new or existing adverse outcome pathways (AOPs). Pharmacokinetic models such as those implemented EPA’s HTTK R package can be used to translate an in vitro concentration into an in vivo dose; i.e., one can predict the oral equivalent dose that might be expected to activate a specific biological pathway. Such predicted values can then be compared with estimated actual human exposures prioritize chemicals for further testing.Any quantitative examination should be accompanied by estimation of uncertainty. We are developing met

  3. Single-step preparation of selected biological fluids for the high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarino, Giacomo; Longo, Salvatore; Amorini, Angela Maria; Di Pietro, Valentina; D'Urso, Serafina; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Belli, Antonio; Tavazzi, Barbara

    2017-12-08

    Fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants are of relevance in health and disease. Current methods to extract these compounds from biological fluids mainly need use of multi-steps and multi organic solvents. They are time-consuming and difficult to apply to treat simultaneously large sample number. We here describe a single-step, one solvent extraction of fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants from biological fluids, and the chromatographic separation of all-trans-retinoic acid, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, all-trans-retinol, astaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, trans-β-apo-8'-carotenal, γ-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, α-tocopherol, phylloquinone, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene and coenzyme Q 10 . Extraction is obtained by adding one volume of biological fluid to two acetonitrile volumes, vortexing for 60s and incubating for 60min at 37°C under agitation. HPLC separation occurs in 30min using Hypersil C18, 100×4.6mm, 5μm particle size column, gradient from 70% methanol+30% H 2 O to 100% acetonitrile, flow rate of 1.0ml/min and 37°C column temperature. Compounds are revealed using highly sensitive UV-VIS diode array detector. The HPLC method suitability was assessed in terms of sensitivity, reproducibility and recovery. Using the present extraction and chromatographic conditions we obtained values of the fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants in serum from 50 healthy controls similar to those found in literature. Additionally, the profile of these compounds was also measured in seminal plasma from 20 healthy fertile donors. Results indicate that this simple, rapid and low cost sample processing is suitable to extract fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants from biological fluids and can be applied in clinical and nutritional studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Profile of biology prospective teachers’ representation on plant anatomy learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermayanti; Susanti, R.; Anwar, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to obtaining students’ representation ability in understanding the structure and function of plant tissues in plant anatomy course. Thirty students of The Biology Education Department of Sriwijaya University were involved in this study. Data on representation ability were collected using test and observation. The instruments had been validated by expert judgment. Test scores were used to represent students’ ability in 4 categories: 2D-image, 3D-image, spatial, and verbal representations. The results show that students’ representation ability is still low: 2D-image (40.0), 3D-image (25.0), spatial (20.0), and verbal representation (45.0). Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that instructional strategies be developed for plant anatomy course.

  5. Scientific reasoning profile of junior secondary school students on the concept of static fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, N.; Siahaan, P.; Utari, S.

    2018-05-01

    Scientific reasoning is one of the most important ability. This study aims to determine the profile of scientific reasoning of junior high school students about the concept of static fluid. This research uses a descriptive method with a quantitative approach to get an idea about the scientific reasoning of One Roof Junior Secondary School Student Kotabaru Reteh in Riau. The technique of collecting data is done by test of scientific reasoning. Scientific reasoning capability refers to Furtak’s EBR (Evidence Based Reasoning) scientific reasoning indicator that contains the components of claims, data, evidence, and rules. The result obtained on each element of scientific reasoning is 35% claim, 23% data, 21% evidence and 17% rule. The conclusions of this research that scientific reasoning of Satu Atap Junior Secondary School student Kotabaru Reteh, Riau Province still in the low category.

  6. Biochemical profile of amniotic fluid for the assessment of fetal and renal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Oliveira

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Creatinine plays a key role in the function and maturation of fetal kidneys throughout pregnancy. It is important to identify other markers that may help in the diagnosis of renal dysfunction. Our aim was to determine the profile of and the correlation between biochemical markers to be used to assess renal function and maturation of the fetus in the amniotic fluid during pregnancy and to determine the distribution of normal values for creatinine, N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, ß2-microglobulin, glucose, urea, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, uric acid, albumin, and osmolality in three gestational age groups. This was a cross-section study that assessed 115 samples of amniotic fluid during three different periods of pregnancy, i.e., 13 to 20, 27 to 34, and 36 to 42 weeks. Concentrations of creatinine, NAG, urea, potassium and uric acid increased during pregnancy (P0.6, P0.5, P<0.05. NAG, sodium, albumin and osmolality did not show significant correlations (r<0.5, P<0.05. These tests confirmed the important role of creatinine in terms of correlation with gestational age. ß2-Microglobulin, glucose and uric acid were significant as markers of function and maturation of fetal kidneys, whereas NAG did not demonstrate a useful role for the assessment of renal maturation.

  7. Profil Kompetensi Profesional Guru Mapel Biologi Pasca Sertifikasi di Karesidenan Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Anif

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As stated in UU No. 14, 2005 and PP No. 74, 2008 that teachers as proffessional educator have to possess four competences, namely: pedagogic, proffessional, character, and social. However the condition in Indonesia is not like that. In general, they are in low category, specifically in pedagogic and proffessional. Those conditions happen in biology teachers and other teacher subjects. Then the aim of this study is to observe the profile of biology teachers especially their proffessional competence pasca sertification in Surakarta residance. The population of this study is all biology teachers (332 persons that have rechieved sertification through direct, portofolio, and PLPG program. Purposive random sampling is used to get 116 teachers. Data are collected by depth interview, documentation, and test, then the collected data are analysed by descriptive qualitative. The result shows that the profile of proffessional competence of biology teachers can be grouped into three: low, middle, and high. The teachers are low in: concept implementation, using tool of measurements, biology experiment planning, using the result of reflection, self reflection, understanding the principles and theories of savety work, doing action research, and understanding the steps of biology experiement correctly. The teachers are middle in: understanding the objective of the study, creative and innovative in implementing and developing science of biology nad correlated sciences, undesrtanding thinking process of biology, using symbolic language, undesrtanding standard competence, and understanding the scoupe of biology. They are high in: understanding the structure biology science and its correlation, selecting the material, cooking the material creatively, understanding the concepts, laws, and biology theories, undesrtanding the history of the natural science, specifically biology, understanding the basic competence of the subject or topic, updating their knowledge from

  8. Berries grown in Brazil: anthocyanin profiles and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Vitor C; Boff, Laurita; Vizzotto, Márcia; Calvete, Eunice; Reginatto, Flávio H; Simões, Cláudia Mo

    2018-02-11

    Phytochemical profiles of two Brazilian native fruits - pitanga (red and purple) and araçá (yellow and red) - as well as strawberry cultivars Albion, Aromas and Camarosa, blackberry cultivar Tupy and blueberry cultivar Bluegen cultivated in Brazil were characterized for total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content by liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array and a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Radical scavenging, antiherpes and cytotoxic activities of these berry extracts were also evaluated. Blueberry presented the highest total anthocyanin content (1202 mg cyanidin-O-glucoside equivalents kg -1 fresh fruit), while strawberry cultivar Aromas presented the highest total phenolic content (13 550 mg gallic acid equivalents kg -1 fresh fruit). Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis resulted in the identification of 21 anthocyanins. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of cyanidin-O-glucoside in yellow and red Araçá fruit and the first time eight anthocyanins have been reported in pitanga fruits. DPPH and ABTS assays showed that blueberry cultivar Bluegen, blackberry cultivar Tupy and pitanga (red and purple) showed the most promising antiradical activities, respectively. No relevant cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines or antiherpes activity was detected under the experimental conditions tested. Total anthocyanin content of all fruits had a strong positive correlation with their free radical scavenging activity, suggesting anthocyanins contribute to the antioxidant potential of these fruits. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Simulation of biological flow and transport in complex geometries using embedded boundary/volume-of-fluid methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebotich, David

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a simulation capability to model multiscale flow and transport in complex biological systems based on algorithms and software infrastructure developed under the SciDAC APDEC CET. The foundation of this work is a new hybrid fluid-particle method for modeling polymer fluids in irregular microscale geometries that enables long-time simulation of validation experiments. Both continuum viscoelastic and discrete particle representations have been used to model the constitutive behavior of polymer fluids. Complex flow environment geometries are represented on Cartesian grids using an implicit function. Direct simulation of flow in the irregular geometry is then possible using embedded boundary/volume-of-fluid methods without loss of geometric detail. This capability has been used to simulate biological flows in a variety of application geometries including biomedical microdevices, anatomical structures and porous media

  10. Analytical Methods for the Determination of Rosuvastatin in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Fluids: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ângelo, Marilene Lopes; Moreira, Fernanda de Lima; Morais Ruela, André Luís; Santos, Ana Laura Araújo; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes; de Araújo, Magali Benjamim

    2018-07-04

    Rosuvastatin calcium (ROS), ( Figure 1 ) belongs to the "statins" group, which is the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor. This drug is indicated for dyslipidemias treatment and can help to decrease the level of "bad cholesterol" and can consequently reduce the development of atherosclerosis and the risk of heart diseases. ROS was developed by Astra-Zeneca and it was approved in 2003 by the FDA in the United States. In 2015, under the trade name Crestor®, it was the fourth largest selling drug in the United States with sales above $5 billion. This study presents a literature review of analytical methods for the quantification of ROS in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. The major analytical methods described in this study for ROS were spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ultraviolet (UV) detection, and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

  11. Profile of science process skills of Preservice Biology Teacher in General Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, R.; Anwar, Y.; Ermayanti

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to obtain portrayal images of science process skills among preservice biology teacher. This research took place in Sriwijaya University and involved 41 participants. To collect the data, this study used multiple choice test comprising 40 items to measure the mastery of science process skills. The data were then analyzed in descriptive manner. The results showed that communication aspect outperfomed the other skills with that 81%; while the lowest one was identifying variables and predicting (59%). In addition, basic science process skills was 72%; whereas for integrated skills was a bit lower, 67%. In general, the capability of doing science process skills varies among preservice biology teachers.

  12. Determination of drugs in biological fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line sample processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, R; Richter, K; Gramatté, T; Kirch, W

    1998-02-27

    An automated two column HPLC system with the new packing material LiChrospher RP-18 ADS (alkyl-diol-silica) was tested for the determination of several drugs and metabolites (talinolol, celiprolol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, triamterene, trimethoprim, tiracizine, articaine, detajmium, ajmaline, lamotrigine) in various biological fluids (serum, urine, intestinal aspirates, supernatants of cell cultures and supernatants after protein denaturation). The method allows the direct injection of biological fluids into a reversed-phase HPLC system and on-line clean-up and sample enrichment by a column-switching technique. Precision, accuracy and sensitivity were similar to conventional assays as described in the literature. With this new method it was possible to measure drug concentrations in various biological fluids without changing the sample preparation procedure. In some cases an additional sample preparation like protein denaturation or solid-phase extraction was advantageous to enhance the sensitivity of the method and the life-time of the ADS column.

  13. The influence of buffer system and biological fluids on the degradation of magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törne, Karin; Örnberg, Andreas; Weissenrieder, Jonas

    2017-08-01

    The influence of frequently used buffer system 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) compared to CO 2 /HCO3- on the corrosion of magnesium is investigated. Samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (m-SBF) while monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for up to 30 days. In CO 2 /HCO3- the initial corrosion rate was 0.11 mm yr -1 . An inner protective layer of magnesium oxide was formed within the first 30 min exposure and subsequently covered by an outer layer of apatite within 24 h . The corrosion mechanism thereafter is best described as passive pitting with a porosity of ∼10%. Using HEPES as buffer agent increased the corrosion rate to 3.37 mm yr -1 . Cross sectional microscopy show a porous outer corrosion layer allowing rapid diffusion of aggressive ions through the film. Here the EIS results are best described by an active pitting model with an inner layer 5 to 10 times less protective compared to the inner layer formed without HEPES. Further the suitability of human whole blood and plasma as in vitro models for Mg degradation was evaluated. Mg corrosion caused coagulation after 24 h in both biological fluids. The corrosion during the first 24 h is similar to the corrosion in m-SBF with HEPES. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1490-1502, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evaluation of Intraosseous Fluid as an Alternative Biological Specimen in Postmortem Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Volk, Justin A; Moffat, Ellen; Williams, Chinyere M; Lynch, Kara L; Wu, Alan H B

    2018-04-01

    The postmortem redistribution phenomenon is an important factor in the interpretation of blood drug concentrations as a cause or factor in death. Intraosseous fluid (IOF) may serve as an alternative matrix for drug testing. Intraosseous fluid was collected from the left and right tibias and humerus of 29 decedents using the Arrow EZ-IO Intraosseous Vascular Access System. Standard autopsy specimens including blood were also collected at the same time during autopsy. Blood and IOF specimens were screened by immunoassay for opioids, fentanyl analogs, oxycodone, methadone, cocaine, methamphetamine, amphetamines, phencyclidine, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cannabinoids, using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Correlation between cardiac/central blood ELISA and IOF ELISA results was mostly 100% for drug targets. Further blood confirmation analysis was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry also showed comparable correlation to IOF screen results. There was no significant difference between the IOF sites or sides of the body. This novel study supports the use of IOF as an alternative postmortem specimen for toxicological investigations as a potentially less-compromised tissue in decomposed or traumatized bodies. Preliminary data is provided for the screening of common drugs of abuse in IOF that may show to be subject to alternative rates of postmortem redistribution than to that of other biological specimens in future studies that quantitate IOF drug concentrations.

  15. Biological activity and chemical profile of Lavatera thuringiaca L. extracts obtained by different extraction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašković, Pavle Z; Veličković, Vesna; Đurović, Saša; Zeković, Zoran; Radojković, Marija; Cvetanović, Aleksandra; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Mitić, Milan; Vujić, Jelena

    2018-01-01

    Lavatera thuringiaca L. is herbaceous perennial plant from Malvaceae family, which is known for its biological activity and richness in polyphenolic compounds. Despite this, the information regarding the biological activity and chemical profile is still insufficient. Aim of this study was to investigate biological potential and chemical profile of Lavatera thuringiaca L., as well as influence of applied extraction technique on them. Two conventional and four non-conventional extraction techniques were applied in order to obtain extracts rich in bioactive compound. Extracts were further tested for total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins, gallotannins and anthocyanins contents using spectrophotometric assays. Polyphenolic profile was established using HPLC-DAD analysis. Biological activity was investigated regarding antioxidant, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Four antioxidant assays were applied as well as three different cell lines for cytotoxic and fifteen bacterial strain for antibacterial activity. Results showed that subcritical water extraction (SCW) dominated over the other extraction techniques, where SCW extract exhibited the highest biological activity. Study indicates that plant Lavatera thuringiaca L. may be used as a potential source of biologically compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Physics of non-Newtonian fluids and interdisciplinary relations (biology and criminology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubova, R.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the paper is the presentation of an interdisciplinary topic that allows applying content knowledge in physics, mathematics and biology in real life environment. Students use to play games and view crime scenes but in common they have little knowledge about the science used during crime scene investigation. In this paper the science background of blood spatter analysis is presented—the physics of non-Newtonian fluids, the biology of blood and mathematics—the measurement and calculation of the angle of inpact, the relationship between height and spatter diameter. This topic was choosen according to the analysis of interviews with secondary and high school learners realized at four schools in Moravia, Czech Republic. The topic can be taught at secondary schools so as at a higher level at high schools. Hands-on activities are included. The teaching strategy supports group work. The appropriateness and reasonableness of the topic was checked in the real teaching process and the activities have had a positive feedback.

  17. Sample preparation for liquid chromatographic analysis of phytochemicals in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Young-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have been used traditionally for the treatment and prevention of diseases for thousands of years and are nowadays consumed as dietary supplements and herbal medicine. To ensure the safe and effective use of these herbal products, information about bioavailability of active compounds in plasma or target tissues should be provided via validated analytical methods combined with appropriate sampling methods. To provide comprehensive and abridged information about sample preparation methods for the quantification of phytochemicals in biological samples using liquid chromatography analysis. Sample pre-treatment procedures used in analytical methods for in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of natural compounds or herbal medicines were reviewed. These were categorised according to the biological matrices (plasma, bile, urine, faeces and tissues) and sample clean-up processes (protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction). Although various kinds of sample pre-treatment methods have been developed, liquid-liquid extraction is still widely used and solid-phase extraction is becoming increasingly popular because of its efficiency for extensive clean up of complex matrix samples. However, protein precipitation is still favoured due to its simplicity. Sample treatment for phytochemical analysis in biological fluids is an indispensable and critical step to obtain high quality results. This step could dominate the overall analytical process because both the duration of the process as well as the reliability of the data depend in large part on its efficiency. Thus, special attention should be given to the choice of a proper sample treatment method that targets analytes and their biomatrix. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Mass spectrometry-based cDNA profiling as a potential tool for human body fluid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfack, Joseph; Wiley, Anissa

    2015-05-01

    Several mRNA markers have been exhaustively evaluated for the identification of human venous blood, saliva, and semen in forensic genetics. As new candidate human body fluid specific markers are discovered, evaluated, and reported in the scientific literature, there is an increasing trend toward determining the ideal markers for cDNA profiling of body fluids of forensic interest. However, it has not been determined which molecular genetics-based technique(s) should be utilized to assess the performance of these markers. In recent years, only a few confirmatory, mRNA/cDNA-based methods have been evaluated for applications in body fluid identification. The most frequently described methods tested to date include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). However these methods, in particular qPCR, often favor narrow multiplex PCR due to the availability of a limited number of fluorescent dyes/tags. In an attempt to address this technological constraint, this study explored matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for human body fluid identification via cDNA profiling of venous blood, saliva, and semen. Using cDNA samples at 20pg input phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) amounts, body fluid specific markers for the candidate genes were amplified in their corresponding body fluid (i.e., venous blood, saliva, or semen) and absent in the remaining two (100% specificity). The results of this study provide an initial indication that MALDI-TOF MS is a potential fluorescent dye-free alternative method for body fluid identification in forensic casework. However, the inherent issues of low amounts of mRNA, and the damage caused to mRNA by environmental exposures, extraction processes, and storage conditions are important factors that significantly hinder the implementation of cDNA profiling into forensic casework. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Fluid flow profile in a packed bead column using residence time curves and radiotracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ana Paula F. de; Gonçalves, Eduardo Ramos; Brandão, Luis Eduardo B.; Salgado, Cesar M., E-mail: anacamiqui@gmail.com, E-mail: egoncalves@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Filling columns are extremely important in the chemical industry and are used for purification, separation and treatment processes of gas or liquid mixtures. The objective of this work is to study the hydrodynamics of the fluid for a characterization of aqueous phase flow patterns in the filling column, associating with the methodology of the Curves of Residence Time Distribution (RTD) to analyze and associate theoretical models that put as conditions column operating. RTD can be obtained by using the pulse-stimulus response technique which is characterized by the instantaneous injection of a radiotracer into the system input. In this work, 68Ga was used as radiotracer. Five shielded and collimated NaI (Tl) 1 x 1″ scintillator detectors were suitably positioned to record the movement of the radiotracer's path in the conveying line and filling column. Making possible the analysis of the RTD curve in the regions of interest. With the data generated by the NaI (Tl) detectors with the passage of the radiotracer in the transport line and inside the column, it was possible to evaluate the flow profile of the aqueous phase and to identify operational failures, such as internal conduit and the existence of a retention zone in the inside the column. Theoretical models were used for different flow flows: the piston flow and perfect mixing. (author)

  20. Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokine Expression Profile in Multiple Sclerosis and Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Serena; Zanotta, Nunzia; Sartori, Arianna; Bratina, Alessio; Manganotti, Paolo; Trevisan, Giusto; Comar, Manola

    2018-02-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in patients with particular neurologic disorders is a powerful tool to evaluate specific central nervous system inflammatory markers for diagnostic needs, because CSF represents the specific immune micro-environment to the central nervous system. CSF samples from 49 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and non-inflammatory neurologic disorders (NIND) as controls were submitted to protein expression profiles of 47 inflammatory biomarkers by multiplex Luminex bead assay to investigate possible differences in the inflammatory process for MS and CIDP. Our results showed differences in CSF cytokine levels in MS and CIDP; in particular, IL12 (p40) was significantly highly expressed in MS in comparison with CIDP and NIND, while SDF-1α and SCGF-β were significantly highly expressed in CIDP cohort when compared to MS and NIND. IL-9, IL-13, and IL-17 had higher expression levels in NIND if compared with the other groups. Our study showed that, despite some common pathogenic mechanisms, central and peripheral nervous system demyelinating diseases, such as MS and CIDP, differ in some specific inflammatory soluble proteins in CSF, underlining differences in the immune response involved in those autoimmune diseases.

  1. Fluid flow profile in a packed bead column using residence time curves and radiotracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ana Paula F. de; Gonçalves, Eduardo Ramos; Brandão, Luis Eduardo B.; Salgado, Cesar M.

    2017-01-01

    Filling columns are extremely important in the chemical industry and are used for purification, separation and treatment processes of gas or liquid mixtures. The objective of this work is to study the hydrodynamics of the fluid for a characterization of aqueous phase flow patterns in the filling column, associating with the methodology of the Curves of Residence Time Distribution (RTD) to analyze and associate theoretical models that put as conditions column operating. RTD can be obtained by using the pulse-stimulus response technique which is characterized by the instantaneous injection of a radiotracer into the system input. In this work, 68Ga was used as radiotracer. Five shielded and collimated NaI (Tl) 1 x 1″ scintillator detectors were suitably positioned to record the movement of the radiotracer's path in the conveying line and filling column. Making possible the analysis of the RTD curve in the regions of interest. With the data generated by the NaI (Tl) detectors with the passage of the radiotracer in the transport line and inside the column, it was possible to evaluate the flow profile of the aqueous phase and to identify operational failures, such as internal conduit and the existence of a retention zone in the inside the column. Theoretical models were used for different flow flows: the piston flow and perfect mixing. (author)

  2. Progress in Computational Physics (PiCP) Vol 2 Coupled Fluid Flow in Energy, Biology and Environmental Research

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrhardt, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This second volume contains both, the mathematical analysis of the coupling between fluid flow and porous media flow and state-of-the art numerical techniques, like tailor-made finite element and finite volume methods. Readers will come across articles devoted to concrete applications of these models in the field of energy, biology and environmental research.

  3. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2hj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Hanson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive identification of the nature of biological material present on evidentiary items can be crucial for understanding the circumstances surrounding a crime. However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues need to be developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA profiling is an example of such a molecular-based approach. Current mRNA body fluid identification assays involve capillary electrophoresis (CE or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR platforms, each with its own limitations. Both platforms require the use of expensive fluorescently labeled primers or probes. CE-based assays require separate amplification and detection steps thus increasing the analysis time. For qRT-PCR assays, only 3-4 markers can be included in a single reaction since each requires a different fluorescent dye. To simplify mRNA profiling assays, and reduce the time and cost of analysis, we have developed single- and multiplex body fluid High Resolution Melt (HRM assays for the identification of common forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues. The incorporated biomarkers include IL19 (vaginal secretions, IL1F7 (skin, ALAS2 (blood, MMP10 (menstrual blood, HTN3 (saliva and TGM4 (semen.  The HRM assays require only unlabeled PCR primers and a single saturating intercalating fluorescent dye (Eva Green. Each body-fluid-specific marker can easily be identified by the presence of a distinct melt peak. Usually, HRM assays are used to detect variants or isoforms for a single gene target. However, we have uniquely developed duplex and triplex HRM assays to permit the simultaneous detection of multiple targets per reaction. Here we describe the development and initial performance evaluation of the developed HRM assays. The results demonstrate the potential use of HRM assays for rapid, and relatively

  4. Spectrofluorimetric analysis of famotidine in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids by derivatization with benzoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Malik; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar; Memon, Saima Q; Hayat, Amir; Zounr, Rizwan Ali

    2015-01-05

    A sensitive and simple spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the analysis of famotidine, from pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids after derivatization with benzoin. The reaction was carried out in alkaline medium with measurement of fluorescence intensity at 446 nm with excitation wavelength at 286 nm. Linear calibration was obtained with 0.5-15 μg/ml with coefficient of determination (r(2)) 0.997. The factors affecting the fluorescence intensity were optimized. The pharmaceutical additives and amino acid did not interfere in the determination. The mean percentage recovery (n=4) calculated by standard addition from pharmaceutical preparation was 94.8-98.2% with relative standard deviation (RSD) 1.56-3.34% and recovery from deproteinized spiked serum and urine of healthy volunteers was 98.6-98.9% and 98.0-98.4% with RSD 0.34-0.84% and 0.29-0.87% respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrochemically deposited and etched membranes with precisely sized micropores for biological fluids microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, A A; Zainal Abidin, H E; Yeop Majlis, B; Mohd Nor, M; Ismardi, A; Sugandi, G; Tiong, T Y; Dee, C F; Yunas, J

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents simple and economical, yet reliable techniques to fabricate a micro-fluidic filter for MEMS lab-on-chip (LoC) applications. The microporous filter is a crucial component in a MEMS LoC system. Microsized components and contaminants in biological fluids are selectively filtered using copper and silicon membranes with precisely controlled microsized pores. Two techniques were explored in microporous membrane fabrication, namely copper electroplating and electrochemical etching (ECE) of silicon. In the first technique, a copper membrane with evenly distributed micropores was fabricated by electroplating the copper layer on the silicon nitride membrane, which was later removed to leave the freestanding microporous membrane structure. The second approach involves the thinning of bulk silicon down to a few micrometers thick using KOH and etching the resulting silicon membrane in 5% HF by ECE to create micropores. Upon testing with nanoparticles of various sizes, it was observed that electroplated copper membrane passes nanoparticles up to 200 nm wide, while porous silicon membrane passes nanoparticles up to 380 nm in size. Due to process compatibility, simplicity, and low-cost fabrication, electroplated copper and porous silicon membranes enable synchronized microfilter fabrication and integration into the MEMS LoC system. (paper)

  6. Phytochemical Characterization and Biological Evaluation of the Aqueous and Supercritical Fluid Extracts from Salvia sclareoides Brot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants belonging to the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae are known to have a wide range of biological properties. In this work, extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Salvia sclareoides Brot. were evaluated to investigate their chemical composition, toxicity, bioactivity, and stability under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. The composition of the supercritical fluid extract was determined by GC and GC-MS, while the identification of the infusion constituents was performed by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. The in vitro cytotoxicity of both extracts (0-2 mg/mL was evaluated in Caco-2 cell lines by the MTT assay. The anti-inflammatory and anticholinesterase activities were determined through the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, while β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching test and the DPPH assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The infusion inhibited cyclooxygenase-1 (IC50 = 271.0 μg/mL, and acetylcholinesterase (IC50 = 487.7 μg/ mL enzymes, also demonstrated significant antioxidant properties, as evaluated by the DPPH (IC50 = 10.4 μg/mL and β-carotene/linoleic acid (IC50 = 30.0 μg/mL assays. No remarkable alterations in the composition or in the bioactivities of the infusion were observed after in vitro digestion, which supports the potential of S. sclareoides as a source of bioactive ingredients with neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

  7. A nanofluidic bioarray chip for fast and high-throughput detection of antibodies in biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan; Gulzar, Naveed; Scott, Jamie K.; Li, Paul C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Immunoassays have become a standard in secretome analysis in clinical and research analysis. In this field there is a need for a high throughput method that uses low sample volumes. Microfluidics and nanofluidics have been developed for this purpose. Our lab has developed a nanofluidic bioarray (NBA) chip with the goal being a high throughput system that assays low sample volumes against multiple probes. A combination of horizontal and vertical channels are produced to create an array antigens on the surface of the NBA chip in one dimension that is probed by flowing in the other dimension antibodies from biological fluids. We have tested the NBA chip by immobilizing streptavidin and then biotinylated peptide to detect the presence of a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) that is specific for the peptide. Bound antibody is detected by an AlexaFluor 647 labeled goat (anti-mouse IgG) polyclonal antibody. Using the NBA chip, we have successfully detected peptide binding by small-volume (0.5 μl) samples containing 50 attomoles (100 pM) MAb.

  8. Quantitative X-ray analysis of biological fluids: the microdroplet technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roinel, N.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray microanalysis can be used to quantitatively determine the elemental composition of microvolumes of biological fluids. This article describes the various steps in preparation of microdroplets for analysis: The manufacturing of micropipettes, the preparation of the specimen support, the deposition of droplets on the support, shock-freezing, and lyophilization. Examples of common artifacts (incomplete rehydration prior to freezing or partial rehydration after lyophilization) are demonstrated. Analysis can be carried out either by wavelength-dispersive analysis, which is the most sensitive method, or by energy-dispersive analysis, which is more commonly available. The minimum detectable concentration is 0.05 mmol.liter-1 for 0.1-nl samples analyzed by wavelength-dispersive spectrometry and 0.5-1 mmol.liter-1 for samples analyzed by energy-dispersive spectrometry. A major problem, especially in wavelength-dispersive analysis, where high beam currents are used, is radiation damage to the specimen; in particular chloride (but also other elements) can be lost. Quantitative analysis requires the use of standard solutions with elemental concentration in the same range as those present in the specimen

  9. Evaluation of the solubility of the HPMC: PVA blends in biological fluids in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Elis Bianchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are often used to coat tablets for controlled drug release. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the solubility of the HPMC and PVA blend compared to isolated polymers in solutions with a pH of biological fluids (6 and 1.2 and the dissolution of capsules obtained using theophylline granules produced with the HPMC/PVA 25/75 blend as a matrix and as coating. HPMC is completely solubilized in the medium that simulates the pH of the stomach and intestine, and PVA is the polymer that allows controlling the solubility of the blend in the medium, with a differents pH. The dissolution time was monitored by UV absorbance with maximum theophylline at 269 nm. The theophylline was released immediately in the granules, and in the capsules 78.4% after 30 minutes and 97.4%, after 120 minutes. Thus, PVA can potentially control the drug solubilization, contributing to obtaining modified release systems.

  10. Stability and effectiveness against bacterial adhesion of poly(ethylene oxide) coatings in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosjen, Astrid; de Vries, Joop; van der Mei, Henny C; Norde, Willem; Busscher, Henk J

    2005-05-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) coatings have been shown to reduce the adhesion of different microbial strains and species and thus are promising as coatings to prevent biomaterial-centered infection of medical implants. Clinically, however, PEO coatings are not yet applied, as little is known about their stability and effectiveness in biological fluids. In this study, PEO coatings coupled to a glass substratum through silyl ether bonds were exposed for different time intervals to saliva, urine, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as a reference at 37 degrees C. After exposure, the effectiveness of the coatings against bacterial adhesion was assessed in a parallel plate flow chamber. The coatings appeared effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion for 24, 48, and 0.5 h in PBS, urine, and saliva, respectively. Using XPS and contact-angle measurements, the variations in effectiveness could be attributed to conditioning film formation. The overall short stability results from hydrolysis of the coupling of the PEO chains to the substratum. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Improved solid-phase extraction method for systematic toxicological analysis in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, T; Jurado, C; Menéndez, M; Repetto, M

    2001-03-01

    A method for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of drugs of abuse (opiates, cocaine, or amphetamines) and prescribed drugs (tricyclic antidepressants, phenotiazines, benzodiazepines, etc.) in biological fluids--blood, urine, bile, and gastric contents--was developed. This procedure involves solid-phase extraction with Bond-Elut Certify columns followed by analysis by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-NPD) and confirmation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), after derivatization, when necessary. Pretreatment was performed on all samples: sonication for 15 min plus enzymatic hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase in urine. With respect to the internal standards, nalorphine and trihexylamine were used for basic substances, allobarbital for acidic drugs, and prazepam for benzodiazepines. Acidic and basic compounds were extracted from different aliquots of samples at different pH levels: 6-6.5 for the acidic and neutral and 8-8.5 for the basic and the benzodiazepines. Several areas of experimental design were considered in the process of method optimization. These included internal standards, pH, sonication, flow rate and washing solvents. It was found that systematic analysis could be reliably performed using optimized extraction conditions. The recovery rates for the compounds tested were always higher than 61.02%.

  12. Metabolism and toxicological analysis of synthetic cannabinoids in biological fluids and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, B C; Gurney, S M R; Scott, K S; Kacinko, S L; Logan, B K

    2016-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids, which began proliferating in the United States in 2009, have gone through numerous iterations of modification to their chemical structures. More recent generations of compounds have been associated with significant adverse outcomes following use, including cognitive and psychomotor impairment, seizures, psychosis, tissue injury and death. These effects increase the urgency for forensic and public health laboratories to develop methods for the detection and identification of novel substances, and apply these to the determination of their metabolism and disposition in biological samples. This comprehensive review describes the history of the appearance of the drugs in the United States, discusses the naming conventions emerging to designate new structures, and describes the most prominent new compounds linked to the adverse effects now associated with their use. We review in depth the metabolic pathways that have been elucidated for the major members of each of the prevalent synthetic cannabinoid drug subclasses, the enzyme systems responsible for their metabolism, and the use of in silico approaches to assist in predicting and identifying the metabolites of novel compounds and drug subclasses that will continue to appear. Finally, we review and critique analytical methods applied to the detection of the drugs and their metabolites, including immunoassay screening, and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry confirmatory techniques applied to urine, serum, whole blood, oral fluid, hair, and tissues. Copyright © 2016 Central Police University.

  13. Effect of Solid Biological Waste Compost on the Metabolite Profile of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Neugart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of biological waste are generated at various steps within the food production chain and a great utilization potential for this solid biological waste exists apart from the current main usage for the feedstuff sector. It remains unclear how the usage of biological waste as compost modulates plant metabolites. We investigated the effect of biological waste of the processing of coffee, aronia, and hop added to soil on the plant metabolite profile by means of liquid chromatography in pak choi sprouts. Here we demonstrate that the solid biological waste composts induced specific changes in the metabolite profiles and the changes are depending on the type of the organic residues and its concentration in soil. The targeted analysis of selected plant metabolites, associated with health beneficial properties of the Brassicaceae family, revealed increased concentrations of carotenoids (up to 3.2-fold and decreased amounts of glucosinolates (up to 4.7-fold as well as phenolic compounds (up to 1.5-fold.

  14. Direct detection of illicit drugs from biological fluids by desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with nanoporous silicon microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, T M; Kirkbride, P; Della Vedova, C B; Kershaw, S G; Kobus, H; Voelcker, N H

    2015-12-07

    Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) is a high throughput analytical technique capable of detecting low molecular weight analytes, including illicit drugs, and with potential applications in forensic toxicology as well as athlete and workplace testing, particularly for biological fluids (oral fluids, urine and blood). However, successful detection of illicit drugs using SALDI-MS often requires extraction steps to reduce the inherent complexity of biological fluids. Here, we demonstrate an all-in-one extraction and analytical system consisting of hydrophobically functionalized porous silicon microparticles (pSi-MPs) for affinity SALDI-MS of prescription and illicit drugs. This novel approach allows for the analysis of drugs from multiple biological fluids without sample preparation protocols. The effect of pSi-MP size, pore diameter, pore depth and functionalization on analytical performance is investigated. pSi-MPs were optimized for the rapid and high sensitivity detection of methadone, cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). This optimized system allowed extraction and detection of methadone from spiked saliva and clinical urine samples. Furthermore, by detecting oxycodone in additional clinical saliva and plasma samples, we were able to demonstrate the versatility of the pSi-MP SALDI-MS technique.

  15. Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saúl García-Pérez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P, temperature (T, and co-solvent (CoS, four treatments (T were prepared. A maximum 7.13% yield was recovered from T2 (T = 60 °C, P = 10 MPa, CoS = 8 g/min, followed by 6.69% from T4 (T = 60 °C, P = 30 MPa, CoS = 4 g/min. Some bioactive sesquiterpenoids such as 7-hydroxycadalene, caryophyllene and δ-cadinene were identified in the extracts by GC/MS. The fatty acid profile revealed that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0, followed by linoleic acid (C18:2ω6c, α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3 and stearic acid (C18:0 differing in percent yield per treatment. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar diffusion method, indicating that all the treatments exerted strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, C. albicans, and E. coli strains. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was also measured by three in vitro assays, DPPH, TEAC and FRAP, using Trolox as a standard. Results showed high antioxidant capacity enabling pharmaceutical applications of Mexican arnica.

  16. Ensemble attribute profile clustering: discovering and characterizing groups of genes with similar patterns of biological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bissell MJ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensemble attribute profile clustering is a novel, text-based strategy for analyzing a user-defined list of genes and/or proteins. The strategy exploits annotation data present in gene-centered corpora and utilizes ideas from statistical information retrieval to discover and characterize properties shared by subsets of the list. The practical utility of this method is demonstrated by employing it in a retrospective study of two non-overlapping sets of genes defined by a published investigation as markers for normal human breast luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells. Results Each genetic locus was characterized using a finite set of biological properties and represented as a vector of features indicating attributes associated with the locus (a gene attribute profile. In this study, the vector space models for a pre-defined list of genes were constructed from the Gene Ontology (GO terms and the Conserved Domain Database (CDD protein domain terms assigned to the loci by the gene-centered corpus LocusLink. This data set of GO- and CDD-based gene attribute profiles, vectors of binary random variables, was used to estimate multiple finite mixture models and each ensuing model utilized to partition the profiles into clusters. The resultant partitionings were combined using a unanimous voting scheme to produce consensus clusters, sets of profiles that co-occured consistently in the same cluster. Attributes that were important in defining the genes assigned to a consensus cluster were identified. The clusters and their attributes were inspected to ascertain the GO and CDD terms most associated with subsets of genes and in conjunction with external knowledge such as chromosomal location, used to gain functional insights into human breast biology. The 52 luminal epithelial cell markers and 89 myoepithelial cell markers are disjoint sets of genes. Ensemble attribute profile clustering-based analysis indicated that both lists

  17. Phytate (IP6) is a powerful agent for preventing calcifications in biological fluids: usefulness in renal lithiasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, F; Costa-Bauzá, A

    1999-01-01

    The extraordinary capacity of phytate (myo-inositol hexaphosphate), a substance present in blood, urine, interstitial and intracellular fluids, to inhibit crystallization of calcium salts (oxalate and phosphate) is discussed. Its role in preventing calcium renal stone formation is specifically presented and discussed. "In vitro" and "in vivo" experiments, as well as clinical studies clearly demonstrated that phytate plays an important role as a crystallization inhibitor of calcium salts in biological fluids and becomes a clear alternative in the treatment of calcium oxalate renal lithiasis.

  18. Liquid separation techniques coupled with mass spectrometry for chiral analysis of pharmaceuticals compounds and their metabolites in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, G L; Cifuentes, A

    2006-02-24

    Determination of the chiral composition of drugs is nowadays a key step in order to determine purity, activity, bioavailability, biodegradation, etc., of pharmaceuticals. In this article, works published for the last 5 years on the analysis of chiral drugs by liquid separation techniques coupled with mass spectrometry are reviewed. Namely, chiral analysis of pharmaceuticals including, e.g., antiinflammatories, antihypertensives, relaxants, etc., by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry are included. The importance and interest of the analysis of the enantiomers of the active compound and its metabolites in different biological fluids (plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.) are also discussed.

  19. The biological pump: Profiles of plankton production and consumption in the upper ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Alan R.; Glen Harrison, W.

    The ‘biological pump’ mediates flux of carbon to the interior of the ocean by interctions between the components of the vertically-structured pelagic ecosystem of the photic zone. Chlorophyll profiles are not a simple indicator of autotrophic biomass or production, because of non-linearities in the physiology of cells and preferential vertical distribution of taxa. Profiles of numbers or biomass of heterotrophs do not correspond with profiles of consumption, because of depth-selection (taxa, seasons) for reasons unconnected with feeding. Depths of highest plant biomass, chlorophyll and growth rate coincide when these depths are shallow, but become progressively separated in profiles where they are deeper - so that highest growth rate lies progressively shallower than the chloropyll maximum. It is still uncertain how plant biomass is distributed in deep profiles. Depths of greatest heterotroph biomass (mesozooplankton) are usually close to depths of fastest plant growth rate, and thus lie shallower than the chlorophyll maximum in profiles where this itself is deep. This correlation is functional, and relates to the role of heterotrophs in excreting metabolic wastes (especially ammonia), which may fuel a significant component of integrated algal production, especially in the oligotrophic ocean. Some, but not all faecal material from mesozooplankton of the photic zone appears in vertical flux below the pycnocine, depending on the size of the source organisms, and the degree of vertical mixing above the pycnocline. Diel, but probably not seasonal, vertical migration is significant in the vertical flux of dissolved nitrogen. Regional generalisations of the vertical relations of the main components of the ‘biological pump’ now appear within reach, and an approach is suggested.

  20. Lesson plan profile of senior high school biology teachers in Subang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohayati, E.; Diana, S. W.; Priyandoko, D.

    2018-05-01

    Lesson plan have important role for biology teachers in teaching and learning process. The aim of this study was intended to gain an overview of lesson plan of biology teachers’ at Senior High Schools in Subang which were the members of biology teachers association in Subang. The research method was descriptive method. Data was collected from 30 biology teachers. The result of study showed that lesson plan profile in terms of subject’s identity had good category with 83.33 % of average score. Analysis on basic competence in fair category with 74.45 % of average score. The compatibility of method/strategy was in fair category with average score 72.22 %. The compatibility of instrument, media, and learning resources in fair category with 71.11 % of average score. Learning scenario was in good category with 77.00 % of average score. The compatibility of evaluation was in low category with 56.39 % of average score. It can be concluded that biology teachers in Subang were good enough in making lesson plan, however in terms of the compatibility of evaluation needed to be fixed. Furthermore, teachers’ training for biology teachers’ association was recommended to increasing teachers’ skill to be professional teachers.

  1. An improved mass spectrometry-based measurement of NO metabolites in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingbin; Bondonno, Catherine P; Indrawan, Adeline; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of NO metabolism in vivo relies on the accurate measurement of its metabolites nitrite (NO(2)(-)), nitrate (NO(3)(-)), and nitrosothiols (RSNOs) in biological fluids. We report a sensitive method to simultaneously determine NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) in biological matrixes. Tetraoctylammonium was used to catalyze the complete conversion of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) to stable pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) derivatives directly from aqueous acetone medium before gas chromatography and negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NICI/MS). This catalyst dramatically improved the yield of PFB derivatives for NO(2)(-) (4.5 times) and NO(3)(-) (55 times) compared to noncatalyzed derivatization methods. Analysis was performed using (15)N-labeled internal standards by selected-ion monitoring at m/z 46 for fragment NO(2)(-) and m/z 47 for its isotope analogue, (15)NO(2)(-), and m/z 62 for NO(3)(-) and m/z 63 for (15)NO(3)(-). This method allowed specific detection of both PFB derivatives over a wide dynamic range with a limit of detection below 4.5 pg for NO(2)(-) and 2.5 pg for NO(3)(-). After the specific conversion of RSNOs by HgCl(2) to NO(2)(-), this GC/NICI/MS analysis was used to measure RSNOs in plasma. A further comparison with the widely used tri-iodide chemiluminescence (I(3)(-)-CL) assay indicated that the GC/MS assay validated the lower physiological RSNO and nitrite levels reported using I(3)(-)-CL detection compared with values obtained using UV-photolysis methods. Plasma levels of RSNOs determined by GC/MS and I(3)(-)-CL were well correlated (r = 0.8). The improved GC/MS method was successfully used to determine the changes in plasma, urinary, and salivary NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) as well as plasma RSNOs in humans after either a low-NO(3)(-) or a high-NO(3)(-) meal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Perspective: Differential dynamic microscopy extracts multi-scale activity in complex fluids and biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbino, Roberto; Cicuta, Pietro

    2017-09-01

    Differential dynamic microscopy (DDM) is a technique that exploits optical microscopy to obtain local, multi-scale quantitative information about dynamic samples, in most cases without user intervention. It is proving extremely useful in understanding dynamics in liquid suspensions, soft materials, cells, and tissues. In DDM, image sequences are analyzed via a combination of image differences and spatial Fourier transforms to obtain information equivalent to that obtained by means of light scattering techniques. Compared to light scattering, DDM offers obvious advantages, principally (a) simplicity of the setup; (b) possibility of removing static contributions along the optical path; (c) power of simultaneous different microscopy contrast mechanisms; and (d) flexibility of choosing an analysis region, analogous to a scattering volume. For many questions, DDM has also advantages compared to segmentation/tracking approaches and to correlation techniques like particle image velocimetry. The very straightforward DDM approach, originally demonstrated with bright field microscopy of aqueous colloids, has lately been used to probe a variety of other complex fluids and biological systems with many different imaging methods, including dark-field, differential interference contrast, wide-field, light-sheet, and confocal microscopy. The number of adopting groups is rapidly increasing and so are the applications. Here, we briefly recall the working principles of DDM, we highlight its advantages and limitations, we outline recent experimental breakthroughs, and we provide a perspective on future challenges and directions. DDM can become a standard primary tool in every laboratory equipped with a microscope, at the very least as a first bias-free automated evaluation of the dynamics in a system.

  3. Thermostabilisation of human serum butyrylcholinesterase for detection of its inhibitors in water and biological fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmanan Jaganathan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of gelatine-trehalose to convert the normally fragile, dry human serum BChE into a thermostable enzyme and its use in the detection of cholinesterase inhibitors in water and biological fluids is described. Gelatine or trehalose alone is unable to protect the dry enzyme against exposure to high temperature, while a combination of gelatine and trehalose were able to protect the enzyme activity against prolonged exposure to temperature as high as +50°C. A method for rapid, simple and inexpensive means of screening for cholinesterase inhibitors such as carbamates and organophosphates in water, vegetables and human blood has been developed.A capacidade da gelatina-trehalose em converter a frágil BChE do soro humano em uma enzima termoestável e seu uso na descoberta de inibidores de colinesterase em água e fluidos biológicos é apresentado. A Gelatina ou trehalose são incapazes de proteger a enzima seca BchE do soro humano contra exposição a elevadas temperaturas, enquanto que uma combinação de gelatina e trehalose são capazes de proteger a atividade de enzima contra exposição prolongada a temperaturas elevadas e da ordem de 50° C. Um método barato, simples e rápido de screening para inibidores de colinesterase tal como carbamatos e organofosfatos em água, verduras e sangue humano foi desenvolvido.

  4. Empirical resistive-force theory for slender biological filaments in shear-thinning fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Emily E.; Lauga, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Many cells exploit the bending or rotation of flagellar filaments in order to self-propel in viscous fluids. While appropriate theoretical modeling is available to capture flagella locomotion in simple, Newtonian fluids, formidable computations are required to address theoretically their locomotion in complex, nonlinear fluids, e.g., mucus. Based on experimental measurements for the motion of rigid rods in non-Newtonian fluids and on the classical Carreau fluid model, we propose empirical extensions of the classical Newtonian resistive-force theory to model the waving of slender filaments in non-Newtonian fluids. By assuming the flow near the flagellum to be locally Newtonian, we propose a self-consistent way to estimate the typical shear rate in the fluid, which we then use to construct correction factors to the Newtonian local drag coefficients. The resulting non-Newtonian resistive-force theory, while empirical, is consistent with the Newtonian limit, and with the experiments. We then use our models to address waving locomotion in non-Newtonian fluids and show that the resulting swimming speeds are systematically lowered, a result which we are able to capture asymptotically and to interpret physically. An application of the models to recent experimental results on the locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans in polymeric solutions shows reasonable agreement and thus captures the main physics of swimming in shear-thinning fluids.

  5. Neonatal Cytokine Profile in the Airway Mucosal Lining Fluid Is Skewed by Maternal Atopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folsgaard, Nilofar V.; Chawes, Bo L.; Rasmussen, Morten A.

    2012-01-01

    on the cytokines and chemokines in the upper airway mucosal lining fluid of healthy neonates. Objectives: To study parental atopic imprinting on the cytokines and chemokines in the upper airway mucosal lining fluid of healthy neonates. Methods: Eighteen cytokines and chemokines were quantified in nasal mucosal...

  6. Application of LC–MS/MS for quantitative analysis of glucocorticoids and stimulants in biological fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshed Haneef

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography tandem mass chromatography (LC–MS/MS is an important hyphenated technique for quantitative analysis of drugs in biological fluids. Because of high sensitivity and selectivity, LC–MS/MS has been used for pharmacokinetic studies, metabolites identification in the plasma and urine. This manuscript gives comprehensive analytical review, focusing on chromatographic separation approaches (column packing materials, column length and mobile phase as well as different acquisition modes (SIM, MRM for quantitative analysis of glucocorticoids and stimulants. This review is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to provide a general overview for detection and confirmation of target drugs using LC–MS/MS and thus useful in the doping analysis, toxicological studies as well as in pharmaceutical analysis. Keywords: LC–MS/MS, Ionization techniques, Glucocorticoids, Stimulants, Hyphenated techniques, Biological fluid

  7. Mini Review - Analysis of Artemether and Dihydroartemisinin by high performance high liquid chromatography in biological fluids-issues and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shabana; Jafery, Nusrat; Farhat, Kulsoom; Waheed, Akbar

    2017-07-01

    Artemether-Lumefantrine is the most widely recommended antimalarial combination used to treat millions of patients suffering from malaria. Artemether undergoes rapid metabolism and gets converted to its active metabolite dihydroartemisisn. Drug analysis is a vital aspect to evaluate drugs in research. There are a number of methods available for the determination of artemether in biological fluids. These methods include HPLC based UV detection, GS-MS, HPLC-ECD and HPLC-MS/MS. This article reviews different methods for the determination of artemether in the biological fluids. Among the available methods HPLC-MS/MS proves to be the most accurate and reliable one for analysis. This has the advantage of improved sensitivity and selectivity with smaller sample volume.

  8. The radioimmunoassay of biologically active compounds in parotid fluid and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.F.; Read, G.F.; Riad-Fahmy, D.

    1978-01-01

    Parotid fluid collection is a simple stress-free procedure. The potential value of parotid fluid estimations of clomipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, d-norgestrel, a synthetic contraceptive steroid and cortisol have been evaluated for assessment of clinical status and patient compliance. These compounds circulate bound largely to plasma proteins. Their concentration in parotid fluid, which reflects the non-protein bound fraction, is low but assay sensitivity (10, 1 and 30 pg/tube respectively) is adequate. Excellent agreement (r>0.9) was observed when parotid fluid samples were assayed with and without chromatographic purification. Clomipramine levels following oral dosage (150 mg) rose steadily to a maximum in plasma but showed wide fluctuations in parotid fluid. Clomipramine therapy can only be assessed by plasma assays, but patient compliance may be checked by parotid fluid concentrations. Following an oral dose of d-norgestrel (0.3 mg), parotid fluid levels rose steadily to a maximum but plasma response was biphasic making correlation impossible. The sensitivity and high throughput of the d-norgestrel methodology suggests its use in evaluating patient compliance in large-scale fertility control programmes. Changes in circulating cortisol concentrations were rapidly and accurately reflected in parotid fluid in normal volunteers. Parotid fluid cortisol showed a marked diurnal rhythm, suppression to low levels after dexamethasone, and elevation following Synacthen. Low levels after Synacthen stimulation in a patient with secondary adrenal atrophy and constant high levels in Cushingoid patients indicate that parotid fluid cortisol levels could be used for accurate adrenocortical evaluation. The value in rapid screening procedures is stressed since the assay can be performed directly on only 10 μl of parotid fluid. (author)

  9. The radioimmunoassay of biologically active compounds in parotid fluid and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.F.; Read, G.F.; Riad-Fahmy, D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential value of parotid fluid estimations of clomipramine, d-norgestrel, and cortisol have been evaluated for assessment of clinical status and patient compliance. Excellent agreement (r > 0.9) was observed when parotid fluid samples were assayed with and without chromatographic purification. Clomipramine levels following oral dosage (150mg) rose steadily to a maximum in plasma but showed wide fluctuations in parotid fluid. Following an oral dose of d-norgestrel(0.3mg), parotid fluid levels rose steadily to a maximum but plasma response was biphasic making correlation impossible. The sensitivity and high throughput of the d-norgestrel methodology suggests its use in evaluating patient compliance in large scale fertility control programmes. Changes in circulating cortisol concentrations were rapidly and accurately reflected in parotid fluid in normal volunteers. Parotid fluid cortisol showed a market diurnal rythm, suppression to low levels after dexamethasone, and elevation following Synacthen. Low levels after Synacthen stimulation in a patient with secondary adrenal atrophy and constant high levels in Cushingoid patients indicate that parotid fluid cortisol levels could be used for accurate adrenocortical evaluation. The value in rapid screening procedures is stressed since the assay can be performed directly on only 10μl of parotid fluid. (orig./AJ) [de

  10. A soluble, high-affinity, interleukin-4-binding protein is present in the biological fluids of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Botran, R.; Vitetta, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    Cytokines such as interleukin 4 (IL-4) play a key role in the regulation of immune responses, but little is known about how their multiple activities are regulated in vivo. In this report, we demonstrate that an IL-4-binding protein (IL-4BP) is constitutively present in the biological fluids of mice (serum, ascites fluid, and urine). Binding of 125 I-labeled IL-4 to the IL-4BP is specific and saturable and can be inhibited by an excess of unlabeled IL-4 but not IL-2. The IL-4BP binds IL-4 with an affinity similar to that reported for the cellular IL-4 with an affinity similar to that reported for the cellular IL-4 receptor (K d ∼7 x 10 -11 M) and has a molecular mass of 30-40 kDa and pI values of 3.6-4.8. IL-4BP-containing biological fluids or purified IL-4BP competitively inhibit the binding of 125 I-labeled IL-4 to mouse T or B cells and inhibit the biological activity of IL-4 but not IL-2. The serum levels of IL-4BP in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice are lower than those of normal mice. The above findings suggest that IL-4BP plays an important immunoregulatory role in vivo

  11. A diagnostic scale for Alzheimer's disease based on cerebrospinal fluid biomarker profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Sylvain; Dumurgier, Julien; Schraen, Susanna; Wallon, David; Blanc, Frédéric; Magnin, Eloi; Bombois, Stéphanie; Bousiges, Olivier; Campion, Dominique; Cretin, Benjamin; Delaby, Constance; Hannequin, Didier; Jung, Barbara; Hugon, Jacques; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Miguet-Alfonsi, Carole; Peoc'h, Katell; Philippi, Nathalie; Quillard-Muraine, Muriel; Sablonnière, Bernard; Touchon, Jacques; Vercruysse, Olivier; Paquet, Claire; Pasquier, Florence; Gabelle, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders is clearly established. However, the question remains on how to use these data, which are often heterogeneous (not all biomarkers being pathologic). The objective of this study is to propose to physicians in memory clinics a biologic scale of probabilities that the patient with cognitive impairments has an Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathologic process. For that purpose, we took advantage of the multicenter data of our Paris-North, Lille, and Montpellier (PLM) study, which has emerged through the initial sharing of information from these memory centers. Different models combining the CSF levels of amyloid-β 42, tau, and p-tau(181) were tested to generate categories of patients with very low (75%), and very high predictive values (>90%) for positive AD. In total, 1,273 patients (646 AD and 627 non-AD) from six independent memory-clinic cohorts were included. A prediction model based on logistic regressions achieved a very good stratification of the population but had the disadvantages of needing mathematical optimization and being difficult to use in daily clinical practice. Remarkably, a simple and intuitive model based on the number (from zero to three) of three pathologic CSF biomarkers resulted in a very efficient predictive scale for AD in patients seen in memory clinics. The scale's overall predictive value for AD for the different categories were as follows: class 0, 9.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 6.0% to 13.2%); class 1, 24.7% (95% CI, 18.0% to 31.3%); class 2, 77.2% (95% CI, 67.8% to 86.5%); and class 3, 94.2% (95% CI, 90.7% to 97.7%). In addition, with this scale, significantly more patients were correctly classified than with the logistic regression. Its superiority in model performance was validated by the computation of the net reclassification index (NRI). The model was also validated in an independent multicenter dataset of

  12. Efficacy of betamethasone on the fetal motion and biophysical profile and amniotic fluid index in preterm fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasalizadeh, Shamsi; Pharabar, Zahra Neghadan; Abbasalizadeh, Fatmeh; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Goldust, Mohamad

    2013-11-15

    The term ofpreterm birth is used to define the premature neonates considering pregnancy age. In less than 34 week pregnancies, corticosteroids are prescribed to promote embryos' lung maturity. The presents study aimed at evaluating effects of betamethasone injection on feeling embryo motion by mother and index and biophysical profile in preterm pregnancies. In a descriptive-analytical study, 40 pregnant women with the pregnancy age of 30-34 weeks were evaluated. Embryo motion and index and biophysical profile of the amniotic fluid were checked before prescription of double dosage of muscular betamethasone (12 mg) at a 24 h time interval. The injection was repeated for 24 and 48 h after the first injection. The resulted outcomes were compared with those results related to before betamethasone injection. In this study, there was statistically meaningful relationship between embryo motions before injection of betamethasone and 12 h after its injection (p = 0.03). Also, there was a significant relationship between embryo motions 24 and 48 h after injection of betamethasone (p = 0.001). In other words, the embryo motions decreased 12 h after injection of betamethasone. They were improved 48 h after betamethasone injection. But, index and biophysical profile results of amniotic fluid were left unchanged. Application of betamethasone leads to evident but transient decrease in embryo motions. Although motion element of index and biophysical profile of amniotic fluid which is one of the tests used in evaluating the embryo health is fixed and normal, it can be concluded that injection of betamethasone may not affect embryo health.

  13. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for genistein in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supko, J G; Phillips, L R

    1995-04-07

    A specific, sensitive and technically convenient HPLC method for assaying genistein in biological fluids has been developed. The compound and 4-hydroxybenzophenone, added as an internal standard, were efficiently isolated from both plasma and urine by extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether. Following evaporation of the organic solvent, the extract was reconstituted with methanol-0.05 M ammonium acetate buffer, pH 4.7 (30:70, v/v), and loaded onto a 4 microns Nova-Pak C8 column (15 cm x 3.9 mm I.D.). Chromatography was performed at ambient temperature using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.05 M ammonium formate buffer, pH 4.0 (27:73, v/v), at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min, with UV detection at 260 nm. Mean values of the tR for the drug and internal standard, determined from chromatograms of the 1 microgram/ml plasma standard during a 6 month period, were 8.27 +/- 0.55 and 11.92 +/- 0.71 min, respectively (S.D., n = 29). With a sample volume of 50 microliters, the lowest concentration of genistein included in the plasma standard curve, 0.020 microgram/ml, was quantified with a 10.7% R.S.D. over a 5 month period. Plasma standards having concentrations of 0.050 to 1.02 micrograms/ml exhibited R.S.D. values ranging from 2.3 to 6.1%. The drug was quantified in urine with similar reproducibility. The sensitivity of the assay was adequate for characterizing the plasma pharmacokinetics of genistein in the mouse and dog. However, a 10-fold improvement in sensitivity was afforded by increasing the sample size to 250 microliters, without otherwise modifying the method. Thus, this procedure may prove suitable for determining plasma and urine levels of genistein in humans consuming dietary isoflavonoids in a much more convenient manner than permitted by existing methodology.

  14. MEASUREMENT OF TRACE LEVELS OF DEUTERIUM OXIDE IN BIOLOGIC FLUIDS USING INFRARED SPECTROPHOTOMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental data relevant to the assay of D2O in human serum, urine, and parotid fluid are presented. For serum, with triplicate scans, values of precision...and of accuracy of plus or minus 3% at the 250 p.p.m. D2O level are obtained. By use of parotid fluid the values are narrowed to plus or minus 2% at...aqueous compartments using values for serum water content. Parotid fluid appears to be particularly suitable for biomedical applications due to its ease

  15. A review of chromatographic methods for the determination of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaźniewicz-Łada, Marta; Główka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Vitamins are an essential element of nutrition and thus contribute to human health. Vitamins catalyze many biochemical reactions and their lack or excess can cause health problems. Therefore, monitoring vitamin concentrations in plasma or other biological fluids may be useful in the diagnosis of various disorders as well as in the treatment process. Several chromatographic methods have been developed for the determination of these compounds in biological samples, including high-performance liquid chromatography with UV and fluorescence detection. Recently, high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry methods have been widely used for the determination of vitamins in complex matrices because of their high sensitivity and selectivity. This method requires preconditioning of samples for analysis, including protein precipitation and/or various extraction techniques. The choice of method may depend on the desired cost, convenience, turnaround time, specificity, and accuracy of the information to be obtained. This article reviews the recently reported chromatographic methods used for determination of vitamins in biological fluids. Relevant papers published mostly during the last 5 years were identified by an extensive PubMed search using appropriate keywords. Particular attention was given to the preparation steps and extraction techniques. This report may be helpful in the selection of procedures that are appropriate for certain types of biological materials and analytes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Immunological profile in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis after treatment switch to rituximab and compared with healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre de Flon

    Full Text Available To investigate changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF immunological profile after treatment switch from first-line injectables to rituximab in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, and to compare the profile in MS patients with healthy controls (HC.Cerebrospinal fluid from 70 patients with clinically stable RRMS and 55 HC was analysed by a multiplex electrochemiluminescence method for a broad panel of cytokines and immunoactive substances before, and over a two-year period after, treatment switch to rituximab. After quality assessment of data, using a predefined algorithm, 14 analytes were included in the final analysis.Ten of the 14 analytes differed significantly in MS patients compared with HC at baseline. Levels of IP-10 (CXCL10, IL-12/23p40, IL-6, sVCAM1, IL-15, sICAM1 and IL-8 (CXCL8 decreased significantly after treatment switch to rituximab. The cytokines IP-10 and IL-12/IL-23p40 displayed the largest difference versus HC at baseline and also the largest relative reduction after therapy switch to rituximab.We found significant changes in the immunological profile after therapy switch to rituximab in RRMS in the direction towards the values of HC. IP-10 and IL12/IL-23p40 deserve further studies as part of the immunopathogenesis of MS as well as for the mode of action of rituximab in MS.

  17. Bodies of science and law: forensic DNA profiling, biological bodies, and biopower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toom, Victor

    2012-01-01

    How is jurisdiction transferred from an individual's biological body to agents of power such as the police, public prosecutors, and the judiciary, and what happens to these biological bodies when transformed from private into public objects? These questions are examined by analysing bodies situated at the intersection of science and law. More specifically, the transformation of ‘private bodies’ into ‘public bodies’ is analysed by going into the details of forensic DNA profiling in the Dutch jurisdiction. It will be argued that various ‘forensic genetic practices’ enact different forensic genetic bodies'. These enacted forensic genetic bodies are connected with various infringements of civil rights, which become articulated in exploring these forensic genetic bodies’‘normative registers’.

  18. Key Issues Concerning Biolog Use for Aerobic and Anaerobic Freshwater Bacterial Community-Level Physiological Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Bradley W.; Lind, Owen T.

    2006-06-01

    Bacterial heterotrophy in aquatic ecosystems is important in the overall carbon cycle. Biolog MicroPlates provide information into the metabolic potential of bacteria involved in carbon cycling. Specifically, Biolog EcoPlatesTM were developed with ecologically relevant carbon substrates to allow investigators to measure carbon substrate utilization patterns and develop community-level physiological profiles from natural bacterial assemblages. However, understanding of the functionality of these plates in freshwater research is limited. We explored several issues of EcoPlate use for freshwater bacterial assemblages including inoculum density, incubation temperature, non-bacterial color development, and substrate selectivity. Each of these has various effects on plate interpretation. We offer suggestions and techniques to resolve these interpretation issues. Lastly we propose a technique to allow EcoPlate use in anaerobic freshwater bacterial studies.

  19. Cytokine profiling of tumor interstitial fluid of the breast and its relationship with lymphocyte infiltration and clinicopathological characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinoza, Jaime A.; Jabeen, Shakila; Batra, Richa

    2016-01-01

    uncharacterized. Moreover, the data obtained regarding the origin of cytokine secretions, the levels of secretion associated with tumor development, and the possible clinical relevance of cytokines remain controversial. Therefore, we profiled 27 cytokines in 78 breast tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) samples, 43...... normal interstitial fluid (NIF) samples, and 25 matched serum samples obtained from BC patients with Luminex xMAP multiplex technology. Eleven cytokines exhibited significantly higher levels in the TIF samples compared with the NIF samples: interleukin (IL)-7, IL-10, fibroblast growth factor-2, IL-13......, IL-7, IL-10, and PDGFβ also exhibited a correlation between the TIF samples and matched sera. In a survival analysis, high levels of IL-5, a hallmark TH2 cytokine, in the TIF samples were associated with a worse prognosis. These findings have important implications for BC immunotherapy research....

  20. Changes in amino acid profile of alfalfa silage preserved by chemical and biological additives during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Michálková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in amino acid profile of alfalfa silage preserved with chemical or biological additives were studied in fresh and wilted silage. The chemical additive was formic acid and the biological additive consisted of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. buchneri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Second cut alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. was harvested at the bloom stage, ensiled in mini silos (15 dm3 and fermented at 20–23 °C for 12 weeks. The dry matter of the fresh silage was 228 g . kg−1 and 281.6 g . kg−1 for the wilted before ensiling. The amino acid content was estimated by using an automatic amino acid analyzer AAA (INGOS Prague. The results of the experiments indicated that amino acid breakdown was inhibited by increased dry matter and the use of chemical and biological additive. Additionally, the content of amino acids was found to change in relation to the degree of wilting and formic acid treatment yielded the lowest amino acid breakdown. The amino acid breakdown was also reduced by biological preservative especially in the silage with a higher level of dry matter content.

  1. Single-sided magnetic resonance profiling in biological and materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Ernesto; Blümich, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    Single-sided NMR was inspired by the oil industry that strived to improve the performance of well-logging tools to measure the properties of fluids confined downhole. This unconventional way of implementing NMR, in which stray magnetic and radio frequency fields are used to recover information of arbitrarily large objects placed outside the magnet, motivated the development of handheld NMR sensors. These devices have moved the technique to different scientific disciplines. The current work gives a review of the most relevant magnets and methodologies developed to generate NMR information from spatially localized regions of samples placed in close proximity to the sensors. When carried out systematically, such measurements lead to 'single-sided depth profiles' or one-dimensional images. This paper presents recent and most relevant applications as well as future perspectives of this growing branch of MRI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Combining RNA-seq and proteomic profiling to identify seminal fluid proteins in the migratory grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes (F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Martha L; Todd, Christopher; Erlandson, Martin; Andres, Jose

    2015-12-22

    Seminal fluid proteins control many aspects of fertilization and in turn, they play a key role in post-mating sexual selection and possibly reproductive isolation. Because effective proteome profiling relies on the availability of high-quality DNA reference databases, our knowledge of these proteins is still largely limited to model organisms with ample genetic resources. New advances in sequencing technology allow for the rapid characterization of transcriptomes at low cost. By combining high throughput RNA-seq and shotgun proteomic profiling, we have characterized the seminal fluid proteins secreted by the primary male accessory gland of the migratory grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes), one of the main agricultural pests in central North America. Using RNA sequencing, we characterized the transcripts of ~ 8,100 genes expressed in the long hyaline tubules (LHT) of the accessory glands. Proteomic profiling identified 353 proteins expressed in the long hyaline tubules (LHT). Of special interest are seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), such as EJAC-SP, ACE and prostaglandin synthetases, which are known to regulate female oviposition in insects. Our study provides new insights into the proteomic components of male ejaculate in Orthopterans, and highlights several important patterns. First, the presence of proteins that lack predicted classical secretory tags in accessory gland proteomes is common in male accessory glands. Second, the products of a few highly expressed genes dominate the accessory gland secretions. Third, accessory gland transcriptomes are enriched for novel transcripts. Fourth, there is conservation of SFPs' functional classes across distantly related taxonomic groups with very different life histories, mating systems and sperm transferring mechanisms. The identified SFPs may serve as targets of future efforts to develop species- specific genetic control strategies.

  3. Profiling of modified nucleosides from ribonucleic acid digestion by supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboureur, Laurent; Guérineau, Vincent; Auxilien, Sylvie; Yoshizawa, Satoko; Touboul, David

    2018-02-16

    A method based on supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry for the profiling of canonical and modified nucleosides was optimized, and compared to classical reverse-phase liquid chromatography in terms of separation, number of detected modified nucleosides and sensitivity. Limits of detection and quantification were measured using statistical method and quantifications of twelve nucleosides of a tRNA digest from E. coli are in good agreement with previously reported data. Results highlight the complementarity of both separation techniques to cover the largest view of nucleoside modifications for forthcoming epigenetic studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological half-life and transfer of maternal corticosteroid-binding globulin to amniotic fluid in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seralini, G.E.; Underhill, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Nguyen, V.T.; Hammond, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Rabbit corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) from the serum of pregnant and nonpregnant females differs in terms of charge microheterogeneity, and both forms were, therefore, radiolabeled and injected iv into 23- to 27-day pregnant rabbits (n = 6) to assess their biological half-lives and possible transfer to the fetal compartment. After an initially rapid distribution phase, the serum half-lives of both forms of [ 125 I]CBG were essentially identical (approximately 13 h) and did not vary at different gestational ages. There was also no difference in the transfer of either form of [ 125 I]CBG from maternal to fetal compartments in any of the animals studied. Moreover, [ 125 I]CBG showed no sign of degradation and retained its steroid-binding activity in fetal urine and amniotic fluid. Twenty-two hours after administration of [ 125 I]CBG to rabbits (n = 2) at 23 days gestation, its mean level in fetal urine (7 cpm/microliter) and amniotic fluid (2.5 cpm/microliter) was much higher than that in fetal blood (0.6 cpm/microliter). More importantly, the specific activities of [ 125 I]CBG in fetal urine and amniotic fluid were comparable to that in maternal serum, and approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that in fetal serum. Taken together, these results suggest that CBG in fetal urine and amniotic fluid is largely of maternal origin, and that maternal CBG crosses the fetal kidney preferentially

  5. Analysis of Investigational Drugs in Biological Fluids - Method Development and Analysis of Pre-Clinical Samples

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Emil

    2001-01-01

    ... (and metabolites and artesunate). Work on routine analyses of biological specimens during this period was performed for studies that required determination of concentrations of artelinic acid, choroquine...

  6. Estimating the biological value of soft-bottom sediments with sediment profile imaging and grab sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoey, Gert; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Hostens, Kris

    2014-02-01

    Biological value estimation is based on a set of assessment questions and several thresholds to delineate areas of ecological importance (e.g. biodiversity). An existing framework, that was specifically designed to assess the ecosystem biodiversity, was expanded by adding new questions on the productivity, functionality and biogeochemical status of benthic habitats. The additional ecological and sedimentological information was collected by using sediment profile imagery (SPI) and grab sampling. Additionally, information on the performance and comparability of both techniques is provided in this study. The research idea was tested at a site near the harbor of Zeebrugge, an area under consideration as a new disposal site for dredged material from the harbor entrance. The sedimentology of the area can be adequately described based on the information from both SPI and Van Veen grab samples, but only the SPI revealed structural information on the physical habitat (layering, a-RPD). The latter information represented the current status of the benthic habitat, which was confirmed by the Van Veen grab samples. All information was summarized through the biological valuation framework, and provided clear evidence of the differences in biological value for the different sediment types within the area. We concluded that the installation of a new dredged material disposal site in this area was not in conflict with the benthic ecology. This area has a low biological value and the benthic system is adapted to changing conditions, which was signaled by the dominance of mobile, short living and opportunistic species. This study showed that suitable sedimentological and ecological information can be gathered by these traditional and complementary techniques, to estimate the biological value of an area in the light of marine spatial planning and environmental impact assessments.

  7. Rigorous modelling of light's intensity angular-profile in Abbe refractometers with absorbing homogeneous fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Valenzuela, A; Contreras-Tello, H; Márquez-Islas, R; Sánchez-Pérez, C

    2013-01-01

    We derive an optical model for the light intensity distribution around the critical angle in a standard Abbe refractometer when used on absorbing homogenous fluids. The model is developed using rigorous electromagnetic optics. The obtained formula is very simple and can be used suitably in the analysis and design of optical sensors relying on Abbe type refractometry.

  8. miRNA profiles in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with central hypersomnias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anja; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner; Knudsen, Stine

    2014-01-01

    addressed whether miRNA levels are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with central hypersomnias. We conducted high-throughput analyses of miRNAs in CSF from patients using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction panels. We identified 13, 9, and 11 miRNAs with a more than two...

  9. Plasma Exosome Profiling of Cancer Patients by a Next Generation Systems Biology Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenyuk, Valeriy; Zhong, Zhenyu; Stark, Adam; Xiao, Nianqing; O'Neill, Heather A; Wei, Xixi; Wang, Jie; Tinder, Teresa T; Tonapi, Sonal; Duncan, Janet; Hornung, Tassilo; Hunter, Andrew; Miglarese, Mark R; Schorr, Joachim; Halbert, David D; Quackenbush, John; Poste, George; Berry, Donald A; Mayer, Günter; Famulok, Michael; Spetzler, David

    2017-02-20

    Technologies capable of characterizing the full breadth of cellular systems need to be able to measure millions of proteins, isoforms, and complexes simultaneously. We describe an approach that fulfils this criterion: Adaptive Dynamic Artificial Poly-ligand Targeting (ADAPT). ADAPT employs an enriched library of single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs) to profile complex biological samples, thus achieving an unprecedented coverage of system-wide, native biomolecules. We used ADAPT as a highly specific profiling tool that distinguishes women with or without breast cancer based on circulating exosomes in their blood. To develop ADAPT, we enriched a library of ~10 11 ssODNs for those associating with exosomes from breast cancer patients or controls. The resulting 10 6 enriched ssODNs were then profiled against plasma from independent groups of healthy and breast cancer-positive women. ssODN-mediated affinity purification and mass spectrometry identified low-abundance exosome-associated proteins and protein complexes, some with known significance in both normal homeostasis and disease. Sequencing of the recovered ssODNs provided quantitative measures that were used to build highly accurate multi-analyte signatures for patient classification. Probing plasma from 500 subjects with a smaller subset of 2000 resynthesized ssODNs stratified healthy, breast biopsy-negative, and -positive women. An AUC of 0.73 was obtained when comparing healthy donors with biopsy-positive patients.

  10. An overview of the analytical methods for the determination of organic ultraviolet filters in biological fluids and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisvert, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.chisvert@uv.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universitat de Valencia, Doctor Moliner St. 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Leon-Gonzalez, Zacarias [Unidad Analitica, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria Fundacion Hospital La Fe, 46009 Valencia (Spain); Tarazona, Isuha; Salvador, Amparo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universitat de Valencia, Doctor Moliner St. 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Giokas, Dimosthenis [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Papers describing the determination of UV filters in fluids and tissues are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matrix complexity and low amounts of analytes require effective sample treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The published papers do not cover the study of all the substances allowed as UV filters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New analytical methods for UV filters determination in these matrices are encouraged. - Abstract: Organic UV filters are chemical compounds added to cosmetic sunscreen products in order to protect users from UV solar radiation. The need of broad-spectrum protection to avoid the deleterious effects of solar radiation has triggered a trend in the cosmetic market of including these compounds not only in those exclusively designed for sun protection but also in all types of cosmetic products. Different studies have shown that organic UV filters can be absorbed through the skin after topical application, further metabolized in the body and eventually excreted or bioaccumulated. These percutaneous absorption processes may result in various adverse health effects, such as genotoxicity caused by the generation of free radicals, which can even lead to mutagenic or carcinogenic effects, and estrogenicity, which is associated with the endocrine disruption activity caused by some of these compounds. Due to the absence of official monitoring protocols, there is a demand for analytical methods that enable the determination of UV filters in biological fluids and tissues in order to retrieve more information regarding their behavior in the human body and thus encourage the development of safer cosmetic formulations. In view of this demand, there has recently been a noticeable increase in the development of sensitive and selective analytical methods for the determination of UV filters and their metabolites in biological fluids (i.e., urine, plasma, breast milk and semen) and tissues. The complexity of

  11. An overview of the analytical methods for the determination of organic ultraviolet filters in biological fluids and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisvert, Alberto; León-González, Zacarías; Tarazona, Isuha; Salvador, Amparo; Giokas, Dimosthenis

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Papers describing the determination of UV filters in fluids and tissues are reviewed. ► Matrix complexity and low amounts of analytes require effective sample treatments. ► The published papers do not cover the study of all the substances allowed as UV filters. ► New analytical methods for UV filters determination in these matrices are encouraged. - Abstract: Organic UV filters are chemical compounds added to cosmetic sunscreen products in order to protect users from UV solar radiation. The need of broad-spectrum protection to avoid the deleterious effects of solar radiation has triggered a trend in the cosmetic market of including these compounds not only in those exclusively designed for sun protection but also in all types of cosmetic products. Different studies have shown that organic UV filters can be absorbed through the skin after topical application, further metabolized in the body and eventually excreted or bioaccumulated. These percutaneous absorption processes may result in various adverse health effects, such as genotoxicity caused by the generation of free radicals, which can even lead to mutagenic or carcinogenic effects, and estrogenicity, which is associated with the endocrine disruption activity caused by some of these compounds. Due to the absence of official monitoring protocols, there is a demand for analytical methods that enable the determination of UV filters in biological fluids and tissues in order to retrieve more information regarding their behavior in the human body and thus encourage the development of safer cosmetic formulations. In view of this demand, there has recently been a noticeable increase in the development of sensitive and selective analytical methods for the determination of UV filters and their metabolites in biological fluids (i.e., urine, plasma, breast milk and semen) and tissues. The complexity of the biological matrix and the low concentration levels of these compounds inevitably impose sample

  12. Molecular biology of the blood-brain and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redzic Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Efficient processing of information by the central nervous system (CNS represents an important evolutionary advantage. Thus, homeostatic mechanisms have developed that provide appropriate circumstances for neuronal signaling, including a highly controlled and stable microenvironment. To provide such a milieu for neurons, extracellular fluids of the CNS are separated from the changeable environment of blood at three major interfaces: at the brain capillaries by the blood-brain barrier (BBB, which is localized at the level of the endothelial cells and separates brain interstitial fluid (ISF from blood; at the epithelial layer of four choroid plexuses, the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF barrier (BCSFB, which separates CSF from the CP ISF, and at the arachnoid barrier. The two barriers that represent the largest interface between blood and brain extracellular fluids, the BBB and the BCSFB, prevent the free paracellular diffusion of polar molecules by complex morphological features, including tight junctions (TJs that interconnect the endothelial and epithelial cells, respectively. The first part of this review focuses on the molecular biology of TJs and adherens junctions in the brain capillary endothelial cells and in the CP epithelial cells. However, normal function of the CNS depends on a constant supply of essential molecules, like glucose and amino acids from the blood, exchange of electrolytes between brain extracellular fluids and blood, as well as on efficient removal of metabolic waste products and excess neurotransmitters from the brain ISF. Therefore, a number of specific transport proteins are expressed in brain capillary endothelial cells and CP epithelial cells that provide transport of nutrients and ions into the CNS and removal of waste products and ions from the CSF. The second part of this review concentrates on the molecular biology of various solute carrier (SLC transport proteins at those two barriers and underlines

  13. A code to compute borehole fluid conductivity profiles with multiple feed points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, F.V.; Tsang, C.F.

    1988-03-01

    It is of much current interest to determine the flow characteristics of fractures intersecting a wellbore in order to understand the hydrologic behavior of fractured rocks. Often inflow from these fractures into the wellbore is at very low rates. A new procedure has been proposed and a corresponding method of analysis developed to obtain fracture inflow parameters from a time sequence of electric conductivity logs of the borehole fluid. The present report is a companion document to NTB--88-13 giving the details of equations and computer code used to compute borehole fluid conductivity distributions. Verification of the code used and a listing of the code are also given. (author) 9 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  14. The flow of an incompressible electroconductive fluid past a thin airfoil. The parabolic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian CARABINEANU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the two-dimensional steady flow of an ideal incompressible perfectly conducting fluid past an insulating thin parabolic airfoil. We consider the linearized Euler and Maxwell equations and Ohm's law. We use the integral representations for the velocity, magnetic induction and pressure and the boundary conditions to obtain an integral equation for the jump of the pressure across the airfoil. We give some graphic representations for the lift coefficient, velocity and magnetic induction.

  15. Derivatization reactions in the gas—liquid chromatographic analysis of drugs in biological fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff, A.; Lingeman, H.

    1984-01-01

    Alkylation, acylation, silylation and other derivatization reactions applied to the gas chromatographic analysis of drugs in biological matrices are reviewed. Reaction conditions are discussed in relation to reaction mechanisms. Detector-oriented labelling of drugs, and derivatization with chiral

  16. Purification of drugs from biological fluids by counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochlowski, Jill E; Pan, Jeffrey Y; Searle, Philip A; Buck, Wayne R; Spanton, Stephen G

    2009-08-21

    Experiments were performed to demonstrate the potential of counter-current chromatography (CCC) for the isolation of drugs and their metabolites from biological matrices relevant to the metabolism studies of pharmaceutical research. Examples of typical drugs are spiked into biological media ex vivo to provide test samples for analysis. A mass spectrometer hyphenated to a CCC allows for the detection of small molecule drugs within the matrix through selected ion monitoring, and fraction collection can provide material for further structural elucidation by NMR.

  17. Fluid dynamics of air in a packed bed: velocity profiles and the continuum model assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEGRINI A. L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Air flow through packed beds was analyzed experimentally under conditions ranging from those that reinforce the effect of the wall on the void fraction to those that minimize it. The packing was spherical particles, with a tube-to-particle diameter ratio (D/dp between 3 and 60. Air flow rates were maintained between 1.3 and 4.44 m3/min, and gas velocity was measured with a Pitot tube positioned above the bed exit. Measurements were made at various radial and angular coordinate values, allowing the distribution of air flow across the bed to be described in detail. Comparison of the experimentally observed radial profiles with those derived from published equations revealed that at high D/dp ratios the measured and calculated velocity profiles behaved similarly. At low ratios, oscillations in the velocity profiles agreed with those in the voidage profiles, signifying that treating the porous medium as a continuum medium is questionable in these cases.

  18. Preformulation and stability in biological fluids of the retrocyclin RC-101, a potential anti-HIV topical microbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrads Thomas P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RC-101, a cationic peptide retrocyclin analog, has in vitro activity against HIV-1. Peptide drugs are commonly prone to conformational changes, oxidation and hydrolysis when exposed to excipients in a formulation or biological fluids in the body, this can affect product efficacy. We aimed to investigate RC-101 stability under several conditions including the presence of human vaginal fluids (HVF, enabling the efficient design of a safe and effective microbicide product. Stability studies (temperature, pH, and oxidation were performed by HPLC, Circular Dichroism, and Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Additionally, the effect of HVF on formulated RC-101 was evaluated with fluids collected from healthy volunteers, or from subjects with bacterial vaginosis (BV. RC-101 was monitored by LC-MS/MS for up to 72 h. Results RC-101 was stable at pH 3, 4, and 7, at 25 and 37°C. High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide resulted in less than 10% RC-101 reduction over 24 h. RC-101 was detected 48 h after incubation with normal HVF; however, not following incubation with HVF from BV subjects. Conclusions Our results emphasize the importance of preformulation evaluations and highlight the impact of HVF on microbicide product stability and efficacy. RC-101 was stable in normal HVF for at least 48 h, indicating that it is a promising candidate for microbicide product development. However, RC-101 stability appears compromised in individuals with BV, requiring more advanced formulation strategies for stabilization in this environment.

  19. A radioenzymatic technique for the measurement of free and conjugated 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyleneglycol in brain tissue and biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, T.; Scatton, B.

    1982-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific radioenzymatic assay for the measurement of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (DOPEG) was developed. The assay is based on the conversion of the compound to its O-methylated derivative in the presence of catechol-O-methyltransferase and [ 3 H]S-adenosyl-methionine. The tritiated 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol formed is selectively extracted in organic solvents and isolated by thin layer chromatography. After oxidation to vanillin the O-methylated compound is extracted and measured by liquid scintillation spectrophotometry. This assay has been applied to the measurement of free and conjugated DOPEG is a variety of biological tissues and fluids. Both free and conjugated DOPEG were readily detected in discrete rat brain areas. Substantial amounts of free and conjugated DOPEG were also measured in ventricular perfusates from freely moving rats. Finally, the presence of DOPEG was also demonstrated in human cerebrospinal fluid, plasma and urine. Only the free form of DOPEG was found in cerebrospinal fluid, whereas both unconjugated and conjugated forms were present in plasma and urine. (Auth.)

  20. Parafac and PLS Applied to Determination of Captopril in Pharmaceutical Preparation and Biological Fluids by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, A.; Ghasemi, N.

    2007-01-01

    A new ultraviolet spectrophotometric method has been developed for the direct qualitative determination of captopril in pharmaceutical preparation and biological fluids such as human plasma and urine samples. The method was accomplished based on parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and partial least squares (PLS). The study was carried out in the pH range from 2.0 to 12.8 and with a concentration from 0.70 to 61.50 μg ml -1 of captopril. Multivariate calibration models PLS at various pH and PARAFAC were elaborated from ultraviolet spectra deconvolution and captopril determination. The best models for this system were obtained with PARAFAC and PLS at pH = 2.04 (PLS-PH2). The applications of the method for the determination of real samples were evaluated by analysis of captopril in pharmaceutical preparations and biological (human plasma and urine) fluids with satisfactory results. The accuracy of the method, evaluated through the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), was 0.58 for captopril with PARAFAC and 0.67 for captopril with PLS-PH2 model. Acidity constant of captopril at 25 0 C and ionic strength of 0.1 M have also been determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained pK a values of captopril are 3.90 ± 0.05 and 10.03 ± 0.08 for pK a1 and pK a2 , respectively

  1. Bauhinia forficata Link authenticity using flavonoids profile: relation with their biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Vinholes, Juliana; Silva, Sara T; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-09-15

    HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) was used to ascertain the authenticity of two certified and two commercial Bauhinia forficata Link samples. Different flavonoids profiles were obtained, involving 39 compounds. Just kaempferol-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl)rutinoside was found in all analysed samples. Five compounds were common to the certified samples of B. forficata Link and B. forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (Vogel) Fortunato & Wunderlin, being kaempferol derivatives the most representative ones. The phenolic composition of B. forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (Vogel) Fortunato & Wunderlin is described herein for the first time, accounting for eight compounds, while 10 new compounds were identified in B. forficata Link. Commercial B. forficata Link showed higher contents of quercetin derivatives, in addition to the presence of myricetin derivatives and flavonoids-(galloyl)glycosides, for which the MS fragmentation pattern is reported for the first time. B. forficata Link and the two commercial samples were able to inhibit α-glucosidase, with EC(50) values lower than that found for acarbose. Mild effects on cholinesterases were observed with the certified samples, while commercial ones were more effective. The same behaviour was observed concerning the scavenging of DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. The presence of high contents of quercetin derivatives in commercial samples seems to directly influence their biological properties. The differences between phenolic profiles and their relation with the authenticity of commercial samples are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological profile and bioavailability of imidazoline compounds on morphine tolerance modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Mammoli, Valerio; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Sagratini, Gianni; Ubaldi, Massimo; Domi, Esi; Mennuni, Laura; Sabatini, Chiara; Galimberti, Chiara; Ferrari, Flora; Milia, Chiara; Comi, Eleonora; Lanza, Marco; Giannella, Mario; Pigini, Maria; Del Bello, Fabio

    2015-12-15

    Tolerance to opioid administration represents a serious medical alert in different chronic conditions. This study compares the effects of the imidazoline compounds 1, 2, and 3 on morphine tolerance in an animal model of inflammatory pain in the rat. 1, 2, and 3 have been selected in that, although bearing a common scaffold, preferentially bind to α2-adrenoceptors, imidazoline I2 receptors, or both systems, respectively. Such compounds have been tested in vivo by measuring the paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical pressure after complete Freund's adjuvant injection. To determine the ligand levels in rat plasma, an HPLC-mass spectrometry method has been developed. All the compounds significantly reduced the induction of morphine tolerance, showing different potency and duration of action. Indeed, the selective imidazoline I2 receptor interaction (2) restored the analgesic response by maintaining the same time-dependent profile observed after a single morphine administration. Differently, the selective α2C-adrenoceptor activation (1) or the combination between α2C-adrenoceptor activation and imidazoline I2 receptor engagement (3) promoted a change in the temporal profile of morphine analgesia by maintaining a mild but long lasting analgesic effect. Interestingly, the kinetics of compounds in rat plasma supported the pharmacodynamic data. Therefore, this study highlights that both peculiar biological profile and bioavailability of such ligands complement each other to modulate the reduction of morphine tolerance. Based on these observations, 1-3 can be considered useful leads in the design of new drugs able to turn off the undesired tolerance induced by opioids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Abundance profiling of specific gene groups using precomputed gut metagenomes yields novel biological hypotheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Yarygin

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is essentially a multifunctional bioreactor within a human being. The exploration of its enormous metabolic potential provides insights into the mechanisms underlying microbial ecology and interactions with the host. The data obtained using "shotgun" metagenomics capture information about the whole spectrum of microbial functions. However, each new study presenting new sequencing data tends to extract only a little of the information concerning the metabolic potential and often omits specific functions. A meta-analysis of the available data with an emphasis on biomedically relevant gene groups can unveil new global trends in the gut microbiota. As a step toward the reuse of metagenomic data, we developed a method for the quantitative profiling of user-defined groups of genes in human gut metagenomes. This method is based on the quick analysis of a gene coverage matrix obtained by pre-mapping the metagenomic reads to a global gut microbial catalogue. The method was applied to profile the abundance of several gene groups related to antibiotic resistance, phages, biosynthesis clusters and carbohydrate degradation in 784 metagenomes from healthy populations worldwide and patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and obesity. We discovered country-wise functional specifics in gut resistome and virome compositions. The most distinct features of the disease microbiota were found for Crohn's disease, followed by ulcerative colitis and obesity. Profiling of the genes belonging to crAssphage showed that its abundance varied across the world populations and was not associated with clinical status. We demonstrated temporal resilience of crAssphage and the influence of the sample preparation protocol on its detected abundance. Our approach offers a convenient method to add value to accumulated "shotgun" metagenomic data by helping researchers state and assess novel biological hypotheses.

  4. Biological Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Extracts from Different Parts of Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Tanaka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  5. Expedient data mining for nontargeted high-resolution LC-MS profiles of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatyshyn, Serhiy; Shipkova, Petia; Sanders, Mark

    2013-05-01

    The application of high-resolution LC-MS metabolomics for drug candidate toxicity screening reflects phenotypic changes of an organism caused by induced chemical interferences. Its success depends not only on the ability to translate the acquired analytical information into biological knowledge, but also on the timely delivery of the results to aid the decision making process in drug discovery and development. Recent improvements in analytical instrumentation have resulted in the ability to acquire extremely information-rich datasets. These new data collection abilities have shifted the bottleneck in the timeline of metabolomic studies to the data analysis step. This paper describes our approach to expedient data analysis of nontargeted high-resolution LC-MS profiles of biological samples. The workflow is illustrated with the example of metabolomics study of time-dependent fasting in male rats. The results from measurement of 220 endogenous metabolites in urine samples illustrate significant biochemical changes induced by fasting. The developed software enables the reporting of relative quantities of annotated components while maintaining practical turnaround times. Each component annotation in the report is validated using both calculated isotopic peaks patterns and experimentally determined retention time data on standards.

  6. Modeling of temperature profiles in an environmental transmission electron microscope using computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mølgaard Mortensen, Peter; Willum Hansen, Thomas; Birkedal Wagner, Jakob; Degn Jensen, Anker

    2015-01-01

    The temperature and velocity field, pressure distribution, and the temperature variation across the sample region inside an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) have been modeled by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Heating the sample area by a furnace type TEM holder gives rise to temperature gradients over the sample area. Three major mechanisms have been identified with respect to heat transfer in the sample area: radiation from the grid, conduction in the grid, and conduction in the gas. A parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the sample temperature was affected by the conductivity of the gas, the emissivity of the sample grid, and the conductivity of the grid. Ideally the grid should be polished and made from a material with good conductivity, e.g. copper. With hydrogen gas, which has the highest conductivity of the gases studied, the temperature difference over the TEM grid is less than 5 °C, at what must be considered typical conditions, and it is concluded that the conditions on the sample grid in the ETEM can be considered as isothermal during general use. - Highlights: • Computational fluid dynamics used for mapping flow and temperature in ETEM setup. • Temperature gradient across TEM grid in furnace based heating holder very small in ETEM. • Conduction from TEM grid and gas in addition to radiation from TEM grid most important. • Pressure drop in ETEM limited to the pressure limiting apertures

  7. Surfaces resistant to fouling from biological fluids: towards bioactive surfaces for real applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Houska, Milan; Bologna Alles, A.; Brynda, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2012), s. 1413-1422 ISSN 1616-5187 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/1702; GA ČR GAP106/12/1451; GA ČR GAP503/10/0664; GA ČR GBP205/12/G118 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : affinity biosensors * blood plasma * cerebrospinal fluid Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.742, year: 2012

  8. Physics of Non-Newtonian Fluids and Interdisciplinary Relations (Biology and Criminology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubova, R.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the paper is the presentation of an interdisciplinary topic that allows applying content knowledge in physics, mathematics and biology in real life environment. Students use to play games and view crime scenes but in common they have little knowledge about the science used during crime scene investigation. In this paper the science…

  9. Banking of biological fluids for studies of disease-associated protein biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg; Kohn, Elise

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing demand of providing personalized medicine the need for biobanking of biological material from individual patients has increased. Such samples are essential for molecular research aimed at characterizing diseases at several levels ranging from epidemiology and diagnostic and pr...

  10. Statistically Derived Subtypes and Associations with Cerebrospinal Fluid and Genetic Biomarkers in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Joel S; Edmonds, Emily C; Campbell, Laura; Sanderson-Cimino, Mark; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bondi, Mark W

    2017-08-01

    Research demonstrates heterogeneous neuropsychological profiles among individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, few studies have included visuoconstructional ability or used latent mixture modeling to statistically identify MCI subtypes. Therefore, we examined whether unique neuropsychological MCI profiles could be ascertained using latent profile analysis (LPA), and subsequently investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, genotype, and longitudinal clinical outcomes between the empirically derived classes. A total of 806 participants diagnosed by means of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) MCI criteria received a comprehensive neuropsychological battery assessing visuoconstructional ability, language, attention/executive function, and episodic memory. Test scores were adjusted for demographic characteristics using standardized regression coefficients based on "robust" normal control performance (n=260). Calculated Z-scores were subsequently used in the LPA, and CSF-derived biomarkers, genotype, and longitudinal clinical outcome were evaluated between the LPA-derived MCI classes. Statistical fit indices suggested a 3-class model was the optimal LPA solution. The three-class LPA consisted of a mixed impairment MCI class (n=106), an amnestic MCI class (n=455), and an LPA-derived normal class (n=245). Additionally, the amnestic and mixed classes were more likely to be apolipoprotein e4+ and have worse Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers than LPA-derived normal subjects. Our study supports significant heterogeneity in MCI neuropsychological profiles using LPA and extends prior work (Edmonds et al., 2015) by demonstrating a lower rate of progression in the approximately one-third of ADNI MCI individuals who may represent "false-positive" diagnoses. Our results underscore the importance of using sensitive, actuarial methods for diagnosing MCI, as current diagnostic methods may be over-inclusive. (JINS, 2017, 23, 564-576).

  11. Modulating protein release profiles by incorporating hyaluronic acid into PLGA microparticles Via a spray dryer equipped with a 3-fluid nozzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Andersen, Sune Klint

    2014-01-01

    with or without HA were prepared using a spray dryer equipped with a 3-fluid nozzle. The effects of HA on the surface tension and the rheological behavior of the inner feed solution were investigated. The physicochemical properties of the resulting microparticles were characterized using scanning electron......: The present work demonstrates the potential of HA to modulate protein release profile from PLGA microparticle formulations produced via spray drying using 3-fluid nozzle....

  12. Modeling of temperature profiles in an environmental transmission electron microscope using computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Jensen, Anker Degn; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2015-01-01

    The temperature and velocity field, pressure distribution, and the temperature variation across the sample region inside an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) have been modeled by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Heating the sample area by a furnace type TEM holder...... gives rise to temperature gradients over the sample area. Three major mechanisms have been identified with respect to heat transfer in the sample area: radiation from the grid, conduction in the grid, and conduction in the gas. A parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the sample temperature...... was affected by the conductivity of the gas, the emissivity of the sample grid, and the conductivity of the grid. Ideally the grid should be polished and made from a material with good conductivity, e.g. copper. With hydrogen gas, which has the highest conductivity of the gases studied, the temperature...

  13. Applications of Amniotic Membrane and Fluid in Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Rennie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amniotic membrane (AM and amniotic fluid (AF have a long history of use in surgical and prenatal diagnostic applications, respectively. In addition, the discovery of cell populations in AM and AF which are widely accessible, nontumorigenic and capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types has stimulated a flurry of research aimed at characterizing the cells and evaluating their potential utility in regenerative medicine. While a major focus of research has been the use of amniotic membrane and fluid in tissue engineering and cell replacement, AM- and AF-derived cells may also have capabilities in protecting and stimulating the repair of injured tissues via paracrine actions, and acting as vectors for biodelivery of exogenous factors to treat injury and diseases. Much progress has been made since the discovery of AM and AF cells with stem cell characteristics nearly a decade ago, but there remain a number of problematic issues stemming from the inherent heterogeneity of these cells as well as inconsistencies in isolation and culturing methods which must be addressed to advance the field towards the development of cell-based therapies. Here, we provide an overview of the recent progress and future perspectives in the use of AM- and AF-derived cells for therapeutic applications.

  14. Photoemission study of metallic iron nanoparticles surface aging in biological fluids. Influence on biomolecules adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canivet, L.; Denayer, F.O.; Champion, Y.; Cenedese, P.; Dubot, P.

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles (nFe) prepared by vaporization and cryogenic condensation process (10–100 nm) has been exposed to Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and the B-Ali cell growth fluids. These media can be used for cellular growth to study nFe penetration through cell membrane and its induced cytotoxicity. Surface chemistry of nFe exposed to such complex fluids has been characterized as the nanoparticles surface can be strongly changed by adsorption or corrosion processes before reaching intracellular medium. Particle size and surface chemistry have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS). Exposition of nFe particles to growth and differentiation media leads to the formation of an oxy-hydroxide layer containing chlorinated species. We found that the passivated Fe 2 O 3 layer of the bare nFe particles is rapidly transformed into a thicker oxy-hydroxide layer that has a greater ability to adsorb molecular ions or ionic biomolecules like proteins or DNA.

  15. Photoemission study of metallic iron nanoparticles surface aging in biological fluids. Influence on biomolecules adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canivet, L.; Denayer, F.O. [Université de Lille 2, Droit et Santé, 42 rue P. Duez, 59000 Lille (France); Champion, Y.; Cenedese, P. [CNRS-ICMPE, 2 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Dubot, P., E-mail: pdubot@icmpe.cnrs.fr [CNRS-ICMPE, 2 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2014-07-01

    Iron nanoparticles (nFe) prepared by vaporization and cryogenic condensation process (10–100 nm) has been exposed to Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and the B-Ali cell growth fluids. These media can be used for cellular growth to study nFe penetration through cell membrane and its induced cytotoxicity. Surface chemistry of nFe exposed to such complex fluids has been characterized as the nanoparticles surface can be strongly changed by adsorption or corrosion processes before reaching intracellular medium. Particle size and surface chemistry have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS). Exposition of nFe particles to growth and differentiation media leads to the formation of an oxy-hydroxide layer containing chlorinated species. We found that the passivated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer of the bare nFe particles is rapidly transformed into a thicker oxy-hydroxide layer that has a greater ability to adsorb molecular ions or ionic biomolecules like proteins or DNA.

  16. Temporal changes in fluid chemistry and energy profiles in the vulcano island hydrothermal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyn L; Amend, Jan P; Gurrieri, Sergio

    2007-12-01

    In June 2003, the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids was determined at 9 sites in the Vulcano hydrothermal system, including sediment seeps, geothermal wells, and submarine vents. Compositional data were combined with standard state reaction properties to determine the overall Gibbs free energy (DeltaG(r) ) for 120 potential lithotrophic and heterotrophic reactions. Lithotrophic reactions in the H-O-N-S-C-Fe system were considered, and exergonic reactions yielded up to 120 kJ per mole of electrons transferred. The potential for heterotrophy was characterized by energy yields from the complete oxidation of 6 carboxylic acids- formic, acetic, propanoic, lactic, pyruvic, and succinic-with the following redox pairs: O(2)/H(2)O, SO(4) (2)/H(2)S, NO(3) ()/NH(4) (+), S(0)/H(2)S, and Fe(3)O(4)/Fe(2+). Heterotrophic reactions yielded 6-111 kJ/mol e(). Energy yields from both lithotrophic and heterotrophic reactions were highly dependent on the terminal electron acceptor (TEA); reactions with O(2) yielded the most energy, followed by those with NO(3) (), Fe(III), SO(4) (2), and S(0). When only reactions with complete TEA reduction were included, the exergonic lithotrophic reactions followed a similar electron tower. Spatial variability in DeltaG(r) was significant for iron redox reactions, owing largely to the wide range in Fe(2+) and H(+) concentrations. Energy yields were compared to those obtained for samples collected in June 2001. The temporal variations in geochemical composition and energy yields observed in the Vulcano hydrothermal system between 2001 and 2003 were moderate. The largest differences in DeltaG(r) over the 2 years were from iron redox reactions, due to temporal changes in the Fe(2+) and H(+) concentrations. The observed variations in fluid composition across the Vulcano hydrothermal system have the potential to influence not only microbial diversity but also the metabolic strategies of the resident microbial communities.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and metabolites of 10B-containing compounds in biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauri, P.L.; Basilico, F.; Wittig, A.; Sauerwein, W.; Heimans, J.; Huiskamp, R.

    2006-01-01

    Mass spectrometry method has been applied for determining the pharmacokinetics profile of 10 B-containing compounds in urine and plasma of patients treated in the trials EORTC 11001 and 11011 with BSH or BPA. For these analyses a very small volume (1μl) of diluted samples (urine and plasma, diluted 10000 and 1000-fold, respectively) were used. These data were compared with those obtained using other analytical methods. (author)

  18. Electromembrane extraction as a rapid and selective miniaturized sample preparation technique for biological fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Seip, Knut Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    This special report discusses the sample preparation method electromembrane extraction, which was introduced in 2006 as a rapid and selective miniaturized extraction method. The extraction principle is based on isolation of charged analytes extracted from an aqueous sample, across a thin film....... Technical aspects of electromembrane extraction, important extraction parameters as well as a handful of examples of applications from different biological samples and bioanalytical areas are discussed in the paper....

  19. A New Enzyme-linked Sorbent Assay (ELSA) to Quantify Syncytiotrophoblast Extracellular Vesicles in Biological Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhner, Claudia; Weber, Maja; Tannetta, Dionne S; Groten, Tanja; Plösch, Torsten; Faas, Marijke M; Scherjon, Sicco A; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R; Fitzgerald, Justine S

    2015-06-01

    The pregnancy-associated disease preeclampsia is related to the release of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV) by the placenta. To improve functional research on STBEV, reliable and specific methods are needed to quantify them. However, only a few quantification methods are available and accepted, though imperfect. For this purpose, we aimed to provide an enzyme-linked sorbent assay (ELSA) to quantify STBEV in fluid samples based on their microvesicle characteristics and placental origin. Ex vivo placenta perfusion provided standards and samples for the STBEV quantification. STBEV were captured by binding of extracellular phosphatidylserine to immobilized annexin V. The membranous human placental alkaline phosphatase on the STBEV surface catalyzed a colorimetric detection reaction. The described ELSA is a rapid and simple method to quantify STBEV in diverse liquid samples, such as blood or perfusion suspension. The reliability of the ELSA was proven by comparison with nanoparticle tracking analysis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Thermal inactivation profiles of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in lamb skeletal muscle homogenate fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Richard J; Waldron, Anna; Warne, Darian

    2010-01-31

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease in livestock and there is a debate about its role in humans in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders such as Crohn's disease, but the relationship remains unproven. Nevertheless livestock health authorities in many countries aim to lower the prevalence of this infection to reduce potential contamination of the human food supply. MAP may occur in bovine milk and data on thermal inactivation suggest pasteurisation is an effective process. Recently MAP has been identified in skeletal muscle of cattle and sheep but there are no data on its thermal inactivation in these substrates. In this study the inactivation of MAP was studied in a fluid homogenate of lamb skeletal muscle at temperatures previously identified as being relevant to cooking processes applied by domestic consumers. A PCR thermocycler was used to ensure accurate temperatures and rapid heat exchange, while radiometric culture was used to ensure sensitive detection of viable MAP for determination of D and z values. Among the two predominant strains of MAP, S and C, D(55) ranged from 56 to 89 min, D(60) was 8 to 11 min, D(65) was 26 to 35s while D(70) was 1.5 to 1.8s. Values for z were 4.21C degrees for the S strain and 4.51C degrees for the C strain. At temperatures of 65-70 degrees C, MAP appeared to be less heat tolerant in skeletal muscle fluid than in previous reports using milk as the medium. The total thermal exposure of MAP during baking of a sample of 16 leg-of-lamb roasts in domestic ovens was determined to result in more than 20 log reductions in most cases, that is the product was microbiologically safe. Based on the models used in this study, there is a low probability of survival of MAP provided that red meat is cooked to recommended standards. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. CYTOKINE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF PERITONEAL FLUID IN THE PATIENTS WITH UTERINE LEIOMYOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Syssoev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Uterine leiomyoma (UL is a hormone-dependent benign tumor of uterus. Social significance of UL is stipulated by its high rate among fertile females. Scarce data exist about the impact of cytokines in UL progression. Th1/Th2 paradigm is one of crucial points in modern immunology. Evaluation of cytokines involved into either type of immune response is of special significance for studying the diseases accompanied by the changes of extracellular matrix, e.g., leiomyomas. In present study, we analyzed peritoneal fluids from UL patients, with multiplex detection of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, GM-CSF, IFN-γ and TNF-α (Th1/Th2 panel, by means of a Bio-Plex® instrument (Bio-Rad, USA. Twenty-seven patients were observed in our study (20 patients with UL, and 7 myoma-free women (a group of comparison. The mean age of the patients was 43.5±0.6 years. The duration of UL ranged from 0 to 18 years. As a result, the levels of IL-10, GM-CSF, IFN-γ and TNF-α in patients with long-existing UL (over 5 years were significantly higher (p<0,05 than in group with a disease story of <5 years. IFN-γ values in peritoneal fluid patients with UL did inversely correlate with uterine size. Moreover, the levels of IFN-γ in patients with smaller uterine volume (<8 weeks of pregnancy were increased in relation to the group with larger tumor size. IL-10 contents were increased in the patients with adenomyosis, rapid and slow growth of UL, and in both types of tumor (simple and proliferative. Increased IL-5 levels were observed in the patients with single tumor nodules (as related to the patients bearing multiple nodes, and comparison group. Furthermore, intramural and subserosal location of nodes was characterized by increased levels of IL-5. In the patients free of adenomyosis, IL-5 value was increased against the comparison group. The changes in IL-2, IL-4, IL-12 and IL-13 levels in patients with UL were not statistically significant.

  2. Effect of sodium tripolyphosphate concentration and simulated gastrointestinal fluids on release profile of paracetamol from chitosan microsphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Kamarza; Andrie; Krisanti, Elsa A.

    2018-03-01

    The problem to overcome in oral drug administration is the significant pH changes present in the human digestive system. In this study, ionotropic gelation method employing 2-8% (w/v) tripolyphosphate solutions were used to crosslink chitosan microspheres for a controlled release of paracetamol as a model drug. The release profiles of paracetamol from chitosan microspheres were determined using simulated gastrointestinal fluids having pH values of 1.2, 6.8, and 7.4. The results showed that the paracetamol loading and the encapsulation efficiency values increased with increasing concentration of tripolyphosphate solutions used in the preparation step. Paracetamol released at pH 1.2 and 6.8 buffer solutions was significantly higher than that at pH 7.4; also, more paracetamol was released in the presence of α-amylase and β-glucosidase enzymes. The release profiles showed zero-order release behaviour up to 8 hours where the highest drug release was 39% of the paracetamol loaded in the chitosan microspheres, indicating a strong crosslinking between chitosan and TPP anions. The relatively low accumulated drug release could be compensated by employing suitable enzymes, lower TPP solution concentration, and addition of other biodegradable polymer to reduce the TPP crosslink.

  3. Linking Suspension Nasal Spray Drug Deposition Patterns to Pharmacokinetic Profiles: A Proof of Concept Study using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Alex; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to link regional nasal spray deposition patterns of suspension formulations, predicted with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to in vivo human pharmacokinetic (PK) plasma concentration profiles. This is accomplished through the use of CFD simulations coupled with compartmental PK modeling. Results showed a rapid initial rise in plasma concentration that is due to the absorption of drug particles deposited in the nasal middle passages, followed by a slower increase in plasma concentration that is governed by the transport of drug particles from the nasal vestibule to the middle passages. Although drug deposition locations in the nasal cavity had a significant effect on the shape of the concentration profile, the absolute bioavailability remained constant provided that all of the drug remained in the nose over the course of the simulation. Loss of drug through the nostrils even after long time periods resulted in a significant decrease in bioavailability and increased variability. The results of this study quantify how differences in nasal drug deposition affect transient plasma concentrations and overall bioavailability. These findings are potentially useful for establishing bioequivalence for nasal spray devices and reducing the burden of in vitro testing, pharmacodynamics and clinical studies. PMID:27238495

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid metabolic profiles in multiple sclerosis and degenerative dementias obtained by high resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vion-Dury, J.; Confort-Gouny, S.; Maillet, S.; Cozzone, P.J.; Nicoli, F.; Gastaut, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 19 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), 12 patients with degenerative dementia and 17 control patients using in vitro high resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 400 MHz. The CSF metabolic profile is slightly modified in MS patients (increased lactate and fructose concentrations, decreased creatinine and phenylalanine concentrations) and is not correlated with the intensity of the intrathecal inflammation. Proton MRS of CSF does not differentiate relapsing-remitting MS and primary progressive MS. We have not detected any specific abnormal resonance in native or lyophilized CSF. The CSF metabolic profile of demented patients is much more altered (increased concentration of lactate, pyruvate, alanine, lysine, valine, leucine-isoleucine, tyrosine, glutamine) and is in agreement with a brain oxidative metabolism impairment as already described in Alzheimer's disease. Unassigned abnormal but non specific or constant resonances have been detected on MR spectra of demented patients. CSF inositol concentration is also increased in the CSF of patients with Alzheimer's disease. In vitro high resolution proton MRS of the CSF constitutes a new and original way to explore CSF for the differential and/or early diagnosis of dementias, as a complement to in vivo proton cerebral MRS. (authors). 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid metabolic profiles in multiple sclerosis and degenerative dementias obtained by high resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vion-Dury, J.; Confort-Gouny, S.; Maillet, S.; Cozzone, P.J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France); Nicoli, F. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France)]|[Hopital Sainte-Marguerite, 13 - Marseille (France); Gastaut, J.L. [Hopital Sainte-Marguerite, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1996-07-01

    We have analyzed the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 19 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), 12 patients with degenerative dementia and 17 control patients using in vitro high resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 400 MHz. The CSF metabolic profile is slightly modified in MS patients (increased lactate and fructose concentrations, decreased creatinine and phenylalanine concentrations) and is not correlated with the intensity of the intrathecal inflammation. Proton MRS of CSF does not differentiate relapsing-remitting MS and primary progressive MS. We have not detected any specific abnormal resonance in native or lyophilized CSF. The CSF metabolic profile of demented patients is much more altered (increased concentration of lactate, pyruvate, alanine, lysine, valine, leucine-isoleucine, tyrosine, glutamine) and is in agreement with a brain oxidative metabolism impairment as already described in Alzheimer`s disease. Unassigned abnormal but non specific or constant resonances have been detected on MR spectra of demented patients. CSF inositol concentration is also increased in the CSF of patients with Alzheimer`s disease. In vitro high resolution proton MRS of the CSF constitutes a new and original way to explore CSF for the differential and/or early diagnosis of dementias, as a complement to in vivo proton cerebral MRS. (authors). 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Is the fluid mosaic (and the accompanying raft hypothesis a suitable model to describe fundamental features of biological membranes? What may be missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Bagatolli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure, dynamics, and stability of lipid bilayers are controlled by thermodynamic forces, leading to overall tensionless membranes with a distinct lateral organization and a conspicuous lateral pressure profile. Bilayers are also subject to built-in curvature-stress instabilities that may be released locally or globally in terms of morphological changes leading to the formation of non-lamellar and curved structures. A key controller of the bilayer’s propensity to form curved structures is the average molecular shape of the different lipid molecules. Via the curvature stress, molecular shape mediates a coupling to membrane-protein function and provides a set of physical mechanisms for formation of lipid domains and laterally differentiated regions in the plane of the membrane. Unfortunately, these relevant physical features of membranes are often ignored in the most popular models for biological membranes. Results from a number of experimental and theoretical studies emphasize the significance of these fundamental physical properties and call for a refinement of the fluid mosaic model (and the accompanying raft hypothesis.

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in children with enterovirus 71-associated meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajun; Li, Shuxian; Zheng, Jianfeng; Cai, Chunyan; Ye, Bin; Yang, Jun; Chen, Zhimin

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe neurological complications including meningoencephalitis (ME) in some patients with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, to date no studies have reported changes in cytokine concentrations and their correlations with clinical variables in patients with ME following EV71 infection. In this study, responses of Th1/Th2 cytokine, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with EV71-related HFMD with ME and patients with febrile convulsions (FC) were analyzed using cytometric bead array technology. It was found that CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were significantly higher in patients with EV71-related ME than in those with FC. Additionally, both CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were correlated with CSF cytology, fever duration and duration of hospital stay. More interestingly, a positive correlation between CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations was observed. Finally, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that when a cutoff value of 9.40 pg/mL was set for IL-6, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.5% and 85.5%, respectively, for discriminating EV71-related ME from FC. In conclusion, IL-6 and IFN-γ may be associated with EV71-induced neuropathology. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Interaction of uranium(VI) with bioligands present in human biological fluids. The case study of urea and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.A.A.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.

    2013-01-01

    The complexation of uranium(VI) with bioligands found in human biological fluids, viz, urea and uric acid in aqueous solutions, has been investigated using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) at room temperature, I = 0.1 M (NaClO4) and pH (3 for uric acid; 4 for urea). In both complex systems a static quench effect with increasing ligand concentration and no peaks shift upon complexation were observed. With uranium(VI) both ligands formed a fairly weak 1:1 complex with average stability constants of log β 110 = 4.67 ± 0.29 for uric acid and log β 110 = 3.79 ± 0.15 and 2.12 ± 0.18 for relatively low and relatively high urea concentrations, respectively. Application of the newly generated data on the U(VI) speciation modelling in biofluids, e.g., human urine was also discussed.

  9. Interaction of uranium(VI) with bioligands present in human biological fluids. The case study of urea and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, A.A.A.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2013-05-01

    The complexation of uranium(VI) with bioligands found in human biological fluids, viz, urea and uric acid in aqueous solutions, has been investigated using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) at room temperature, I = 0.1 M (NaClO4) and pH (3 for uric acid; 4 for urea). In both complex systems a static quench effect with increasing ligand concentration and no peaks shift upon complexation were observed. With uranium(VI) both ligands formed a fairly weak 1:1 complex with average stability constants of log {beta}{sub 110} = 4.67 {+-} 0.29 for uric acid and log {beta}{sub 110} = 3.79 {+-} 0.15 and 2.12 {+-} 0.18 for relatively low and relatively high urea concentrations, respectively. Application of the newly generated data on the U(VI) speciation modelling in biofluids, e.g., human urine was also discussed.

  10. Net Analyte Signal Standard Additions Method for Simultaneous Determination of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Givianrad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of a novel net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was verified by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The results confirmed that the net analyte signal standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. Moreover, applying the net analyte signal standard additions method revealed that the two drugs could be determined simultaneously with the concentration ratios of sulfamethoxazole to trimethoprim varying from 1:35 to 60:1 in the mixed samples. In addition, the limits of detections were 0.26 and 0.23 μmol L-1 for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. The proposed method has been effectively applied to the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in some synthetic, pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluid samples.

  11. Development and evaluation of a radioimmunoassay for the detection of amphetamine and related compounds in biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, P.A.; Bal, T.S.; Law, B.; Moffat, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay has been developed for the detection of amphetamine and its analogues in blood and urine without any pretreatment of the samples. It is based on a commercially available antiserum and a [ 125 I] iodinated derivative of amphetamine. The assay can detect low levels of amphetamine (less than 10 ng ml - 1 ) in very small samples (50 μl) of blood and urine. It is cheap (3 pence per test), rapid, simple to perform and is specific for compounds closely related to amphetamine. A high, positive correlation was obtained (r = 0.93) when results of the analyses of urine samples from volunteers who had ingested amphetamine were compared with those produced by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The assay has proved very useful for the detection of amphetamine and closely related compounds in biological fluids. (author)

  12. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for acetaminophen and phenacetin in the presence of their metabolites in biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, K.S.; Taburet, A.M.; Hinson, J.A.; Gillette, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The authors propose a method in which tracer amounts of a radiolabeled compound are used as the internal standard for the same unlabeled compound in high-performance liquid chromatography. The approach is valuable when a response from the internal standard becomes undesirable due to the presence of interference by the metabolites. The authors tested their approach with phenacetin and its metabolites, 2-hydroxyphenacetin, N-hydroxyphenacetin, phenetidine, acetaminophen sulfate conjugate and acetaminophen glucuronide conjugate in biological fluids with the use of [ 14 C] phenacetin and [ 3 H] acetaminophen as the internal standards, and were able to quantitate both phenacetin and acetaminophen simultaneously. They also tested the alternative approach in which the unlabeled drug was used as internal standard for tracer amounts of the same radiolabeled compound, with phenacetin and acetaminophen as the internal standards for tracer amounts of [ 14 C] phenacetin and [ 3 H] acetaminophen. Again, they were able to quantiate the two tracer radiolabeled compounds simultaneously. (Auth.)

  13. Protein profile of Beta vulgaris leaf apoplastic fluid and changes induced by Fe deficiency and Fe resupply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eCeballos-Laita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The fluid collected by direct leaf centrifugation has been used to study the proteome of the sugar beet apoplastic fluid as well as the changes induced by Fe deficiency and Fe resupply to Fe-deficient plants in the protein profile. Plants were grown in Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions, and Fe resupply was carried out with 45 μM Fe(III-EDTA for 24 h. Protein extracts of leaf apoplastic fluid were analyzed by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Gel image analysis revealed 203 consistent spots, and proteins in 81% of them (164 were identified by nLC-MS/MS using a custom made reference repository of beet protein sequences. When redundant UniProt entries were deleted, a non-redundant leaf apoplastic proteome consisting of 109 proteins was obtained. TargetP and SecretomeP algorithms predicted that 63% of them were secretory proteins. Functional classification of the non-redundant proteins indicated that stress and defense, protein metabolism, cell wall and C metabolism accounted for approximately 75% of the identified proteome. The effects of Fe-deficiency on the leaf apoplast proteome were limited, with only five spots (2.5% changing in relative abundance, thus suggesting that protein homeostasis in the leaf apoplast fluid is well maintained upon Fe shortage. The identification of three chitinase isoforms among proteins increasing in relative abundance with Fe-deficiency suggests that one of the few effects of Fe deficiency in the leaf apoplast proteome includes cell wall modifications. Iron resupply to Fe deficient plants changed the relative abundance of 16 spots when compared to either Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient samples. Proteins identified in these spots can be broadly classified as those responding to Fe-resupply, which included defense and cell wall related proteins, and non-responsive, which are mainly protein metabolism related proteins and whose changes in relative abundance followed the same trend as

  14. Bioprocess scale-up/down as integrative enabling technology: from fluid mechanics to systems biology and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvigne, Frank; Takors, Ralf; Mudde, Rob; van Gulik, Walter; Noorman, Henk

    2017-09-01

    Efficient optimization of microbial processes is a critical issue for achieving a number of sustainable development goals, considering the impact of microbial biotechnology in agrofood, environment, biopharmaceutical and chemical industries. Many of these applications require scale-up after proof of concept. However, the behaviour of microbial systems remains unpredictable (at least partially) when shifting from laboratory-scale to industrial conditions. The need for robust microbial systems is thus highly needed in this context, as well as a better understanding of the interactions between fluid mechanics and cell physiology. For that purpose, a full scale-up/down computational framework is already available. This framework links computational fluid dynamics (CFD), metabolic flux analysis and agent-based modelling (ABM) for a better understanding of the cell lifelines in a heterogeneous environment. Ultimately, this framework can be used for the design of scale-down simulators and/or metabolically engineered cells able to cope with environmental fluctuations typically found in large-scale bioreactors. However, this framework still needs some refinements, such as a better integration of gas-liquid flows in CFD, and taking into account intrinsic biological noise in ABM. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Single lipid vesicle assay for characterizing single-enzyme kinetics of phospholipid hydrolysis in a complex biological fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaei, Seyed R; Rabe, Michael; Zetterberg, Henrik; Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Höök, Fredrik

    2013-09-25

    Imaging of individual lipid vesicles is used to track single-enzyme kinetics of phospholipid hydrolysis. The method is employed to quantify the catalytic activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in both pure and complex biological fluids. The measurements are demonstrated to offer a subpicomolar limit of detection (LOD) of human secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) in up to 1000-fold-diluted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). An additional new feature provided by the single-enzyme sensitivity is that information about both relative concentration variations of active sPLA2 in CSF and the specific enzymatic activity can be simultaneously obtained. When CSF samples from healthy controls and individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are analyzed, the specific enzymatic activity is found to be preserved within 7% in the different CSF samples whereas the enzyme concentration differs by up to 56%. This suggests that the previously reported difference in PLA2 activity in CSF samples from healthy and AD individuals originates from differences in the PLA2 expression level rather than from the enzyme activity. Conventional ensemble averaging methods used to probe sPLA2 activity do not allow one to obtain such information. Together with an improvement in the LOD of at least 1 order of magnitude compared to that of conventional assays, this suggests that the method will become useful in furthering our understanding of the role of PLA2 in health and disease and in detecting the pharmacodynamic effects of PLA2-targeting drug candidates.

  16. Direct deposition of gas phase generated aerosol gold nanoparticles into biological fluids--corona formation and particle size shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R Svensson

    Full Text Available An ongoing discussion whether traditional toxicological methods are sufficient to evaluate the risks associated with nanoparticle inhalation has led to the emergence of Air-Liquid interface toxicology. As a step in this process, this study explores the evolution of particle characteristics as they move from the airborne state into physiological solution. Airborne gold nanoparticles (AuNP are generated using an evaporation-condensation technique. Spherical and agglomerate AuNPs are deposited into physiological solutions of increasing biological complexity. The AuNP size is characterized in air as mobility diameter and in liquid as hydrodynamic diameter. AuNP:Protein aggregation in physiological solutions is determined using dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and UV absorption spectroscopy. AuNPs deposited into homocysteine buffer form large gold-aggregates. Spherical AuNPs deposited in solutions of albumin were trapped at the Air-Liquid interface but was readily suspended in the solutions with a size close to that of the airborne particles, indicating that AuNP:Protein complex formation is promoted. Deposition into serum and lung fluid resulted in larger complexes, reflecting the formation of a more complex protein corona. UV absorption spectroscopy indicated no further aggregation of the AuNPs after deposition in solution. The corona of the deposited AuNPs shows differences compared to AuNPs generated in suspension. Deposition of AuNPs from the aerosol phase into biological fluids offers a method to study the protein corona formed, upon inhalation and deposition in the lungs in a more realistic way compared to particle liquid suspensions. This is important since the protein corona together with key particle properties (e.g. size, shape and surface reactivity to a large extent may determine the nanoparticle effects and possible translocation to other organs.

  17. Direct Deposition of Gas Phase Generated Aerosol Gold Nanoparticles into Biological Fluids - Corona Formation and Particle Size Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Christian R.; Messing, Maria E.; Lundqvist, Martin; Schollin, Alexander; Deppert, Knut; Pagels, Joakim H.; Rissler, Jenny; Cedervall, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    An ongoing discussion whether traditional toxicological methods are sufficient to evaluate the risks associated with nanoparticle inhalation has led to the emergence of Air-Liquid interface toxicology. As a step in this process, this study explores the evolution of particle characteristics as they move from the airborne state into physiological solution. Airborne gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are generated using an evaporation-condensation technique. Spherical and agglomerate AuNPs are deposited into physiological solutions of increasing biological complexity. The AuNP size is characterized in air as mobility diameter and in liquid as hydrodynamic diameter. AuNP:Protein aggregation in physiological solutions is determined using dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and UV absorption spectroscopy. AuNPs deposited into homocysteine buffer form large gold-aggregates. Spherical AuNPs deposited in solutions of albumin were trapped at the Air-Liquid interface but was readily suspended in the solutions with a size close to that of the airborne particles, indicating that AuNP:Protein complex formation is promoted. Deposition into serum and lung fluid resulted in larger complexes, reflecting the formation of a more complex protein corona. UV absorption spectroscopy indicated no further aggregation of the AuNPs after deposition in solution. The corona of the deposited AuNPs shows differences compared to AuNPs generated in suspension. Deposition of AuNPs from the aerosol phase into biological fluids offers a method to study the protein corona formed, upon inhalation and deposition in the lungs in a more realistic way compared to particle liquid suspensions. This is important since the protein corona together with key particle properties (e.g. size, shape and surface reactivity) to a large extent may determine the nanoparticle effects and possible translocation to other organs. PMID:24086363

  18. The Profile of Tooth and Gingival Crevicular Fluid Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in Different Dental Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlak Shaimaa S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulpitis, apical periodontitis, and chronic periodontitis are the most common dental diseases and being the leading cause of tooth loss in adults. Aims: To unravel the changes and the interrelation of the biochemical and immunohistochemical levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and teeth specimens of patients with different dental diseases. To test the influence of these changes on disease severity. Materials and methods: The GCF and tooth specimens were collected from 20 patients with chronic irreversible pulpitis (CIP, and similar number of patients with chronic periapical lesion (CPL, and chronic periodontitis (CP in addition to 20 healthy controls. Results: Statistically significant increase were found in the mean concentration of GCF-MMP1 of the patients within the CP and CIP groups over those of CIP and CPL groups (P<0.001. Highly significant elevation (P<0.001 in the means of cell with positive expression of the MMP-1 in all patient groups compared with the mean of the control group. The highest percentages of the MMP-1 expression (P=0.000 above the median values were seen in CPL (13.3% vs 86.7% followed by both CIP and CP groups (9.1% vs 90.9%. Using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis, the GCF MMP-1 was found to be an effective test in CP group at reading ≥ 0.83 pg/ml and in CPL at cut off value of ≥ 2.24 ng/ml. Conclusion: The MMP1 plays a crucial role in the demolition of periodontal tissue and the GCF analyses can be used as noninvasive method to unravel these changes.

  19. Giant larvaceans: biologically equivalent flapping flexible foils exhibit bending modes that enhance fluid transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katija, Kakani; Sherman, Alana; Robison, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    The midwater region of the ocean (below the euphotic zone and above the benthos) is one of the largest ecosystems on our planet, yet remains one of the least explored. Little-known marine organisms that inhabit midwater have developed life strategies that contribute to their evolutionary success, and may inspire engineering solutions for societally relevant challenges. A group of midwater organisms, known as giant larvaceans (genus Bathochordaeus), beat their tails to drive food and particle-laden water through complex, mucus filtering structures to feed. Giant larvaceans, whose motion and kinematics resemble flapping flexible foils, range in size from 1 to 10 cm in length, and can be found between the surface and 400 m. Using remotely-operated vehicles and DeepPIV, an instrument that enables in situ particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, the filtration rates and kinematics of giant larvaceans were investigated. These measurements yielded filtration rates for giant larvaceans as high as 80 L/hr, which exceeds expected filtration rates by a factor of 2 when compared with other larvacean groups. Comparing tail kinematics between Bathochordeaus and smaller larvaceans reveals differences in tail bending modes, where a hinge is present throughout the tail beat in giant larvaceans. Using laboratory PIV measurements with swimming animals and soft-bodied mechanical mimics, we reveal how these differences in tail kinematics can lead to enhanced fluid transport. This work has been supported by the Packard Foundation.

  20. Biological changes of APA-BCC analgesic microcapsule in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with carcinomatous pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yun; Li Yanling; Xue Yilong; Guo Shulong; Gao Yuhong; Cui Xin

    2005-01-01

    To explore the changes of alginate-polylysine-alginate microcapsulated bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (APA-BCC microcapsules) in morphology, survival rate and leucine- enkephalin secretion after they were transplanted into CSF of cancerpain patients, the APA- BCC microcapsules were Implanted into cavitas subarachnoidealis of cancer-pain patients by conventional lumbar puncture. After 7 or 8 days, cerebrospinal fluid was collected and the morphology of the APA-BCC microcapsule, the survival rate of cells were observed and secretory volume of leucine-enkephalin was assayed by radioimmunity method. Seven days after trans- plantation, the mean VAS decreased from 8.8 to 2.4, the survival rate of cells averagely reduced from 91.2% to 89.1%, morphology of APA-BCC microcapsules did not change obviously and secretory volume of leucine-enkephalin went up 1.65 times compared with that at pretrans- plantation. In conclusion, APA-BCC can survive, secret leucine-enkephalin and produce analgesic effect after transplanted into CSF of cancer-patients. (authors)

  1. Spring Blooms Observed with Biochemical Profiling Floats from a Chemical and Biological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, J. N.; Johnson, K. S.; Sakamoto, C.; Jannasch, H. W.; Coletti, L. J.; Elrod, V.

    2015-12-01

    Recently there has been renewed interest in the mechanisms which control the seasonal increases in plankton biomass (spring blooms). Changes in physical and chemical forcing (light, wind, heat and nutrients) may increase the specific growth rate of phytoplankton. These changes may also shift the predator - prey relationships within the food web structure, which can alter the balance between plankton growth and loss rates. Biogeochemical profiling floats provide a means to observe the seasonal evolution of spring blooms from a physical, chemical and biological perspective in near real time. Floats equipped with optical sensors to measure nitrate, oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence, and optical backscatter now have a presence in many ocean regions including the North Pacific, Subarctic Pacific, North Atlantic, South Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. Data from these regions are used to compare and contrast the evolution of spring blooms. The evolution of the bloom is examined using both chemical (oxygen, nitrate) and biooptical (phytoplankton from chlorophyll fluorescence and particulate organic carbon from optical backscatter) sensors under vastly different environmental conditions.

  2. Biologic and clinical significance of molecular profiling in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tom; Gribben, J G

    2010-05-01

    CLL is extremely heterogeneous in its clinical course, with some patients living decades with no need for treatment whilst others have a rapidly aggressive clinical course. A major focus of research has been to try to identify those biological factors that influence this heterogeneity. The goal of therapy has been to maintain the best quality of life and treat only when patients become symptomatic from their disease. For the majority of patients this means following a "watch and wait" approach to determine the rate of progression of the disease and assess for development of symptoms. Any alteration to this approach will require identification of criteria that define patients sufficiently "high-risk" that they gain benefit by introduction of early therapy. The use of molecular profiling to suggest particular therapies is currently appropriate only in defining the treatment of the minority of patients with 17p deletions or p53 mutations and in all other circumstances remains a clinical trial question. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of concavo-convex walls of a nanopore on the density profile, adsorption, solvation force, and capillary condensation of confined fluids: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmi, Abbas; Keshavarzi, Ezat

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of concavo-convex walls of nanopores on the density profile was studied. • For HS fluids the contact density at concave wall is greater than for convex wall. • For Yukawa fluid the contact density at concave wall can be less than convex wall. • Capillary condensation was observed for Yukawa fluids in the homocentric pores. - Abstract: We investigate the effects of concavo-convex walls of a nanopore on the structure and certain thermodynamic properties of confined fluids. Adsorption, solvation force, and capillary condensation in a nanopore formed between two homocentric spheres will be determined using the MFMT. For hard sphere fluids, contact density is greater at the concave wall than it is at the convex wall. In Yukawa fluids, for the thermodynamic state in which the energy effect is the dominant factor, contact density at a concave wall is less than that at a convex wall; this will be reversed for the thermodynamic state in which the entropy effect is the dominant factor. It is possible to find thermodynamic states in which contact densities at concave and convex walls become identical. The adsorption and solvation force of hard sphere fluid show an oscillatory behavior versus H. Capillary condensation is in certain cases observed for Yukawa fluids

  4. Analytical Strategies for the Determination of Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Cafer

    2016-01-01

    Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that act as reuptake inhibitors for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine. The present review provides an account of analytical methods published in recent years for the determination of NRI drugs. NRIs are atomoxetine, reboxetine, viloxazine and maprotiline. NRIs with less activity at other sites are mazindol, bupropion, tapentadol, and teniloxazine. This review focuses on the analytical methods including chromatographic, spectrophotometric, electroanalytical, and electrophoresis techniques for NRI analysis from pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples. Among all of the published methods, liquid chromatography with UV-vis or MS-MS detection is the most popular technique. The most the common sample preparation techniques in the analytical methods for NRIs include liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction. Besides the analytical methods for single components, some of the simultaneous determinations are also included in this review.

  5. Genetic and infectious profiles influence cerebrospinal fluid IgG abnormality in Japanese multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yoshimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abnormal intrathecal synthesis of IgG, reflected by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF oligoclonal IgG bands (OBs and increased IgG index, is much less frequently observed in Japanese multiple sclerosis (MS cohorts compared with Western cohorts. We aimed to clarify whether genetic and common infectious backgrounds influence CSF IgG abnormality in Japanese MS patients. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed HLA-DRB1 alleles, and IgG antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA, and varicella zoster virus (VZV in 94 patients with MS and 367 unrelated healthy controls (HCs. We defined CSF IgG abnormality as the presence of CSF OBs and/or increased IgG index (>0.658. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CSF IgG abnormality was found in 59 of 94 (62.8% MS patients. CSF IgG abnormality-positive patients had a significantly higher frequency of brain MRI lesions meeting the Barkhof criteria compared with abnormality-negative patients. Compared with HCs, CSF IgG abnormality-positive MS patients showed a significantly higher frequency of DRB1 1501, whereas CSF IgG abnormality-negative patients had a significantly higher frequency of DRB1 0405. CSF IgG abnormality-positive MS patients had a significantly higher frequency of anti-C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies compared with CSF IgG abnormality-negative MS patients, although there was no difference in the frequency of anti-C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies between HCs and total MS patients. Compared with HCs, anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies were detected significantly less frequently in the total MS patients, especially in CSF IgG abnormality-negative MS patients. The frequencies of antibodies against EBNA and VZV did not differ significantly among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: CSF IgG abnormality is associated with Western MS-like brain MRI features. DRB1 1501 and C. pneumoniae infection confer CSF IgG abnormality, while DRB1 0405 and H. pylori infection are positively and negatively

  6. ACTIVITY OF NATURAL KILLER CELLS IN BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS FROM PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL AND OVARIAN CANCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Yunusova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the functional activity of natural killer cells in peripheral blood and ascites from patients with different stages of colorectal and ovarian cancers and benign ovarian tumors. Material and methods. The study included 10 patients with stage IIIC ovarian cancer (FIGO, 2009, 5 patients with benign ovarian tumors (BOTs, and 15 patients with colorectal cancer (T2–4N0–2M0 . The control group consisted of 5 healthy donors. To evaluate the number and functional activity of NK-cells in peripheral blood and ascites, the FACS Canto II Flow Cytometer was used. Results. In peripheral blood of patients with ovarian and colorectal cancers, the relative number of activated NK-cells capable of secreting granzyme B (GB (CD56 + CD107a + GB + PF- was significantly lower and the proportion of degranulated NK-cells (CD56 + CD107a + GB- PF- was higher than those of healthy donors. Low total NK-cell counts in peripheral blood were a distinctive feature of ovarian cancer patients (p<0.05. The proportion of activated peripheral blood NK-cells, containing granules of cytolytic enzymes GB and perforin (PF increased with tumor growth. However, lymph node metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer did not affect the level and activation of NK-cells. The comparative analysis of NK-populations in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors revealed that the level of CD56 + cells was significantly higher in tumor ascites compared to peripheral blood. In patients with BTs, the levels of CD56 + CD107a + and activated CD56 + CD107a + GB-PF-degranulated cells was higher in ascites than in blood. In patients with ovarian cancer, the level of degranulated cells was higher in peripheral blood than in malignant ascites. Conclusion. The tumor cells and tumor microenvironment were found to affect the number and the functional activity of NK-cells. The accumulation of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity in patients with both benign and malignant

  7. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of histamine in biological samples: the cerebrospinal fluid challenge--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaopin; Wu, Juanli; Wu, Shihua; Bao, Aimin

    2013-04-24

    Histamine, a neurotransmitter crucially involved in a number of basic physiological functions, undergoes changes in neuropsychiatric disorders. Detection of histamine in biological samples such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thus of clinical importance. The most commonly used method for measuring histamine levels is high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, factors such as very low levels of histamine, the even lower CSF-histamine and CSF-histamine metabolite levels, especially in certain neuropsychiatric diseases, rapid formation of histamine metabolites, and other confounding elements during sample collection, make analysis of CSF-histamine and CSF-histamine metabolites a challenging task. Nonetheless, this challenge can be met, not only with respect to HPLC separation column, derivative reagent, and detector, but also in terms of optimizing the CSF sample collection. This review aims to provide a general insight into the quantitative analyses of histamine in biological samples, with an emphasis on HPLC instruments, methods, and hyphenated techniques, with the aim of promoting the development of an optimal and practical protocol for the determination of CSF-histamine and/or CSF-histamine metabolites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MicroRNA Expression Profile in the Prenatal Amniotic Fluid Samples of Pregnant Women with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Emin; Aykut, Ayça; Ertürk, Biray; Durmaz, Burak; Güler, Ahmet; Büke, Barış; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Ergenoğlu, Ahmet Mete; Özkınay, Ferda; Özeren, Mehmet; Kazandı, Mert; Akercan, Fuat; Sağol, Sermet; Gündüz, Cumhur; Çoğulu, Özgür

    2018-03-15

    Down syndrome, which is the most common human chromosomal anomaly that can affect people of any race and age, can be diagnosed prenatally in most cases. Prenatal diagnosis via culture method is time-consuming; thus, genetic analysis has thus been introduced and is continually being developed for rapid prenatal diagnosis. For this reason, the effective use of microRNA profiling for the rapid analysis of prenatal amniotic fluid samples for the diagnosis of Down syndrome was investigated. To evaluate the expression levels of 14 microRNAs encoded by chromosome 21 in amniotic fluid samples and their utility for prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. Case-control study. We performed invasive prenatal testing for 56 pregnant women; 23 carried fetuses with Down syndrome, and 33 carried fetuses with a normal karyotype. Advanced maternal age and increased risk for Down syndrome in the screening tests were indications for invasive prenatal testing. The age of gestation in the study and control groups ranged between 17 and 18 weeks. The expression levels of microRNA were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of microRNA-125b-2, microRNA-155 , and microRNA-3156 were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. The presence of significantly dysregulated microRNAs may be associated with either the phenotype or the result of abnormal development. Further large-scale comparative studies conducted in a variety of conditions may bring novel insights in the field of abnormal prenatal conditions.

  9. Lipidomic analysis of biological samples: Comparison of liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography and direct infusion mass spectrometry methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lísa, Miroslav; Cífková, Eva; Khalikova, Maria; Ovčačíková, Magdaléna; Holčapek, Michal

    2017-11-24

    Lipidomic analysis of biological samples in a clinical research represents challenging task for analytical methods given by the large number of samples and their extreme complexity. In this work, we compare direct infusion (DI) and chromatography - mass spectrometry (MS) lipidomic approaches represented by three analytical methods in terms of comprehensiveness, sample throughput, and validation results for the lipidomic analysis of biological samples represented by tumor tissue, surrounding normal tissue, plasma, and erythrocytes of kidney cancer patients. Methods are compared in one laboratory using the identical analytical protocol to ensure comparable conditions. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/MS (UHPLC/MS) method in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode and DI-MS method are used for this comparison as the most widely used methods for the lipidomic analysis together with ultrahigh-performance supercritical fluid chromatography/MS (UHPSFC/MS) method showing promising results in metabolomics analyses. The nontargeted analysis of pooled samples is performed using all tested methods and 610 lipid species within 23 lipid classes are identified. DI method provides the most comprehensive results due to identification of some polar lipid classes, which are not identified by UHPLC and UHPSFC methods. On the other hand, UHPSFC method provides an excellent sensitivity for less polar lipid classes and the highest sample throughput within 10min method time. The sample consumption of DI method is 125 times higher than for other methods, while only 40μL of organic solvent is used for one sample analysis compared to 3.5mL and 4.9mL in case of UHPLC and UHPSFC methods, respectively. Methods are validated for the quantitative lipidomic analysis of plasma samples with one internal standard for each lipid class. Results show applicability of all tested methods for the lipidomic analysis of biological samples depending on the analysis requirements

  10. Methods of biological fluids sample preparation - biogenic amines, methylxanthines, water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płonka, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In recent years demands on the amount of information that can be obtained from the analysis of a single sample have increased. For time and economic reasons it is necessary to examine at the same time larger number of compounds, and compounds from different groups. This can best be seen in such areas as clinical analysis. In many diseases, the best results for patients are obtained when treatment fits the individual characteristics of the patient. Dosage monitoring is important at the beginning of therapy and in the full process of treatment. In the treatment of many diseases biogenic amines (dopamine, serotonin) and methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine, caffeine) play an important role. They are used as drugs separately or in combination with others to support and strengthen the action of other drugs - for example, the combination of caffeine and paracetamol. Vitamin supplementation may be also an integral part of the treatment process. Specification of complete sample preparation parameters for extraction of the above compounds from biological matrices has been reviewed. Particular attention was given to the preparation stage and extraction methods. This review provides universal guidance on establishing a common procedures across laboratories to facilitate the preparation and analysis of all discussed compounds. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Analysis of S-35 labeled WR-2721 and its metabolites in biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, K.W.; Krohn, K.A.; Grunbaum, Z.; Phillips, R.B.; Mahler, P.A.; Menard, T.W.; Spence, A.M.; Rasey, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Studies with WR-2721 and related compounds have been hindered by the lack of a suitable assay for the drug and its major metabolites. A chromatographic method which requires no derivation for the separation and detection of WR-2721, the free thiol, its symmetrical disulfide and other mixed disulfides has been developed. The procedure involves ion-pairing for separation of ionizable compounds by causing polar molecules to become more lipophilic and hence separable using reverse phase HPLC. Detection is based upon liquid scintillation counting of S-35 incorporated during the synthesis of the parent compound. This method requires no pre-column preparation of samples and, by detecting the S-35 label, eliminates the chance that a coeluting species could interfere with detection, as might occur with post-column derivatization. This analytical technique employing radiotracers can be used to study radioprotective mechanisms by time dependent measurements of the tissue distribution and chemical form of labeled drug. Such chemical information can then be correlated with biological measures of radiation protection

  12. Functional profiles reveal unique ecological roles of various biological soil crust organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Mau, R.L.; Maestre, F.T.; Escolar, C.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    1. At the heart of the body of research on biodiversity effects on ecosystem function is the debate over whether different species tend to be functionally singular or redundant. When we consider ecosystem multi-function, the provision of multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously, we may find that seemingly redundant species may in fact play unique roles in ecosystems. 2. Over the last few decades, the significance of biological soil crusts (BSCs) as ecological boundaries and ecosystem engineers, and their multi-functional nature, has become increasingly well documented. We compiled 'functional profiles' of the organisms in this understudied community, to determine whether functional singularity emerges when multiple ecosystem functions are considered. 3. In two data sets, one representing multiple sites around the semi-arid regions of Spain (regional scale), and another from a single site in central Spain (local scale), we examined correlations between the abundance or frequency of BSC species in a community, and multiple surrogates of ecosystem functioning. There was a wide array of apparent effects of species on specific functions. 4. Notably, in gypsiferous soils and at regional scale, we found that indicators of carbon (C) and phosphorus cycling were apparently suppressed and promoted by the lichens Diploschistes diacapsis and Squamarina lentigera, respectively. The moss Pleurochaete squarrosa appears to promote C cycling in calcareous soils at this spatial scale. At the local scale in gypsiferous soils, D. diacapsis positively correlated with carbon cycling, but negatively with nitrogen cycling, whereas numerous lichens exhibited the opposite profile. 5. We found a high degree of functional singularity, i.e. that species were highly individualistic in their effects on multiple functions. Many functional attributes were not easily predictable from existing functional grouping systems based primarily on morphology. 6. Our results suggest that maintaining

  13. Determination of parathion in biological fluids by means of direct solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, E; Barroso, M; Margalho, C; Cruz, A; Vieira, D N; López-Rivadulla, M

    2006-11-01

    A new and simple procedure for the determination of parathion in human whole blood and urine using direct immersion (DI) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is presented. This technique was developed using only 100 microL of sample, and ethion was used as internal standard (IS). A 65-microm Carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB) SPME fibre was selected for sampling, and the main parameters affecting the SPME process such as extraction temperature, adsorption and desorption time, salt addition, agitation and pH effect were optimized to enhance the sensitivity of the method. This optimization was also performed to allow the qualitative determination of parathion's main metabolite, paraoxon, in blood. The limits of detection and quantitation for parathion were 3 and 10 ng/mL for urine and 25 and 50 ng/mL for blood, respectively. For paraoxon, the limit of detection was 50 ng/mL in blood. The method showed linearity between the LOQ and 50 microg/mL for both matrices, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9954 to 0.9999. Precision and accuracy were in conformity with the criteria normally accepted in bioanalytical method validation. The mean absolute recoveries were 35.1% for urine and 6.7% for blood. Other parameters such as dilution of sample and stability were also validated. Its simplicity and the fact that only 100 microL of sample is required to accomplish the analysis make this method useful in forensic toxicology laboratories to determine this compound in intoxications, and it can be considered an alternative to other methods normally used for the determination of this compound in biological media.

  14. Biological activities and phytochemical profile of Passiflora mucronata from the Brazilian restinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon H. de Araujo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In general, Passiflora species have been reported for their folk medicinal use as sedative and anti-inflammatory. However, P. caerulea has already been reported to treat pulmonary diseases. Severe pulmonary tuberculosis, generally caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to multiple drugs, can lead to deleterious inflammation and high mortality, encouraging new approaches in drug discovery. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the Passiflora mucronata Lam., Passifloraceae, potential for tuberculosis treatment. Specifically, related to antimycobacterial activity and anti-inflammatory related effects (based on inhibition of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and antioxidant potential, as well as the chemical profile of P. mucronata. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array ultraviolet and mass spectrometer analyses of crude hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed the presence of flavonoids. Ethyl acetate fraction showed to be as antioxidant as Ginkgo biloba standard extract with EC50 of 14.61 ± 1.25 µg/ml. One major flavonoid isolated from ethyl acetate fraction was characterized as isoorientin. The hexane fraction and its main isolated compound, the triterpene β-amyrin, exhibited significant growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium bovis BCG (MIC50 1.61 ± 1.43 and 3.93 ± 1.05 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, Passiflora mucronata samples, specially hexane and dichloromethane fractions, as well as pure β-amyrin, showed a dose-related inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide production. In conclusion, Passiflora mucronata presented relevant biological potential and should be considered for further studies using in vivo pulmonary tuberculosis model.

  15. Critical adsorption profiles around a sphere and a cylinder in a fluid at criticality: Local functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabunaka, Shunsuke; Onuki, Akira

    2017-09-01

    We study universal critical adsorption on a solid sphere and a solid cylinder in a fluid at bulk criticality, where preferential adsorption occurs. We use a local functional theory proposed by Fisher et al. [M. E. Fisher and P. G. de Gennes, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. B 287, 207 (1978); M. E. Fisher and H. Au-Yang, Physica A 101, 255 (1980), 10.1016/0378-4371(80)90112-0]. We calculate the mean order parameter profile ψ (r ) , where r is the distance from the sphere center and the cylinder axis, respectively. The resultant differential equation for ψ (r ) is solved exactly around a sphere and numerically around a cylinder. A strong adsorption regime is realized except for very small surface field h1, where the surface order parameter ψ (a ) is determined by h1 and is independent of the radius a . If r considerably exceeds a , ψ (r ) decays as r-(1 +η ) for a sphere and r-(1 +η )/2 for a cylinder in three dimensions, where η is the critical exponent in the order parameter correlation at bulk criticality.

  16. 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeto, Samuel S. W.; Reinke, Stacey N.; Lemire, Bernard D.

    2011-01-01

    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in 1 H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  17. {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Samuel S. W.; Reinke, Stacey N.; Lemire, Bernard D., E-mail: bernard.lemire@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Biochemistry, School of Molecular and Systems Medicine (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N Jarvis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the host immune response during cryptococcal meningitis (CM is of critical importance for the development of immunomodulatory therapies. We profiled the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF immune-response in ninety patients with HIV-associated CM, and examined associations between immune phenotype and clinical outcome. CSF cytokine, chemokine, and macrophage activation marker concentrations were assayed at disease presentation, and associations between these parameters and microbiological and clinical outcomes were examined using principal component analysis (PCA. PCA demonstrated a co-correlated CSF cytokine and chemokine response consisting primarily of Th1, Th2, and Th17-type cytokines. The presence of this CSF cytokine response was associated with evidence of increased macrophage activation, more rapid clearance of Cryptococci from CSF, and survival at 2 weeks. The key components of this protective immune-response were interleukin (IL-6 and interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 levels also made a modest positive contribution to the PC1 score. A second component of co-correlated chemokines was identified by PCA, consisting primarily of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α. High CSF chemokine concentrations were associated with low peripheral CD4 cell counts and CSF lymphocyte counts and were predictive of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS. In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM. We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS, more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and

  19. Generation of monoclonal antibodies and development of an immunofluorometric assay for the detection of CUZD1 in tissues and biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkona, Sofia; Soosaipillai, Antoninus; Filippou, Panagiota; Korbakis, Dimitrios; Serra, Stefano; Rückert, Felix; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Blasutig, Ivan M

    2017-12-01

    CUB and zona pellucida-like domain-containing protein 1 (CUZD1) was identified as a pancreas-specific protein and was proposed as a candidate biomarker for pancreatic related disorders. CUZD1 protein levels in tissues and biological fluids have not been extensively examined. The purpose of the present study was to generate specific antibodies targeting CUZD1 to assess CUZD1 expression within tissues and biological fluids. Mouse monoclonal antibodies against CUZD1 were generated and used to perform immunohistochemical analyses and to develop a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CUZD1 protein expression was assessed in various human tissue extracts and biological fluids and in gel filtration chromatography-derived fractions of pancreatic tissue extract, pancreatic juice and recombinant protein. Immunohistochemical staining of CUZD1 in pancreatic tissue showed that the protein is localized to the acinar cells and the lumen of the acini. Western blot analysis detected the protein in pancreatic tissue extract and pancreatic juice. The newly developed ELISA measured CUZD1 in high levels in pancreas and in much lower but detectable levels in several other tissues. In the biological fluids tested, CUZD1 expression was detected exclusively in pancreatic juice. The analysis of gel filtration chromatography-derived fractions of pancreatic tissue extract, pancreatic juice and recombinant CUZD1 suggested that the protein exists in high molecular weight protein complexes. This study describes the development of tools targeting CUZD1 protein, its tissue expression pattern and levels in several biological fluids. These new tools will facilitate future investigations aiming to delineate the role of CUZD1 in physiology and pathobiology. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral cancer cells with different potential of lymphatic metastasis displayed distinct biologic behaviors and gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhang; Jian, Pan; Longjiang, Li; Bo, Han; Wenlin, Xiao

    2010-02-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) often spreads from the primary tumor to regional lymph nodes in the early stage. Better understanding of the biology of lymphatic spread of oral cancer cells is important for improving the survival rate of cancer patients. We established the cell line LNMTca8113 by repeated injections in foot pads of nude mice, which had a much higher lymphatic metastasis rate than its parental cell line Tca8113. Then, we compared the biologic behaviors of cancer cells between them. Moreover, microarray-based expression profiles between them were also compared, and a panel of differential genes was validated using real-time-PCR. In contrast to Tca8113 cells, LNMTca8113 cells were more proliferative and resistant to apoptosis in the absence of serum, and had enhanced ability of inducing capillary-like structures. Moreover, microarray-based expression profiles between them identified 1341 genes involved in cell cycle, cell adhesion, lymphangiogenesis, regulation of apoptosis, and so on. Some genes dedicating to the metastatic potential, including JAM2, TNC, CTSC, LAMB1, VEGFC, HAPLN1, ACPP, GDF9 and FGF11, were upregulated in LNMTca8113 cells. These results suggested that LNMTca8113 and Tca8113 cells were proper models for lymphatic metastasis study because there were differences in biologic behaviors and metastasis-related genes between them. Additionally, the differentially expressed gene profiles in cancer progression may be helpful in exploring therapeutic targets and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OSCC.

  1. Site-specific distribution of claudin-based paracellular channels with roles in biological fluid flow and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroo; Tamura, Atsushi; Suzuki, Koya; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2017-10-01

    The claudins are a family of membrane proteins with at least 27 members in humans and mice. The extracellular regions of claudin proteins play essential roles in cell-cell adhesion and the paracellular barrier functions of tight junctions (TJs) in epithelial cell sheets. Furthermore, the extracellular regions of some claudins function as paracellular channels in the paracellular barrier that allow the selective passage of water, ions, and/or small organic solutes across the TJ in the extracellular space. Structural analyses have revealed a common framework of transmembrane, cytoplasmic, and extracellular regions among the claudin-based paracellular barriers and paracellular channels; however, differences in the claudins' extracellular regions, such as their charges and conformations, determine their properties. Among the biological systems that involve fluid flow and metabolism, it is noted that hepatic bile flow, renal Na + reabsorption, and intestinal nutrient absorption are dynamically regulated via site-specific distributions of paracellular channel-forming claudins in tissue. Here, we focus on how site-specific distributions of claudin-2- and claudin-15-based paracellular channels drive their organ-specific functions in the liver, kidney, and intestine. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. A REVIEW ON THE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS AND BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Noreen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol (PM is an active metabolite of phenacetin and belongs to p-aminophenol derivatives. It is also termed as acetaminophen. PM is one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs which is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. It is an OTC drug and is used as a common household analgesic. It is not used as a substitute of aspirin or any other NSAIDs. It is a weak cyclooxygenase (COX 1 and 2 inhibitor but may inhibit COX-3 in the central nervous system. Many analytical techniques have been used for the assay of PM in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. These techniques include spectrometry, chromatography, spectrofluorimetry, chemiluminescence, electrochemical techniques, flow injection spectrometry and chronoamperometry. In many pharmaceutical preparations PM is also used in combination with other drugs and these techniques have also been used for their simultaneous determination. A detailed review of various analytical techniques used for the assay of PM has been carried out which would be of great help to the chemists and pharmacists involved in the analysis and quality control of drugs.

  3. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  4. Autoantibody profiling on human proteome microarray for biomarker discovery in cerebrospinal fluid and sera of neuropsychiatric lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojun Hu

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE may be potential biomarkers for prediction, diagnosis, or prognosis of NPSLE. We used a human proteome microarray with~17,000 unique full-length human proteins to investigate autoantibodies associated with NPSLE. Twenty-nine CSF specimens from 12 NPSLE, 7 non-NPSLE, and 10 control (non-systemic lupus erythematosuspatients were screened for NPSLE-associated autoantibodies with proteome microarrays. A focused autoantigen microarray of candidate NPSLE autoantigens was applied to profile a larger cohort of CSF with patient-matched sera. We identified 137 autoantigens associated with NPSLE. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that these autoantigens were enriched for functions involved in neurological diseases (score = 43.Anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA was found in the CSF of NPSLE and non-NPSLE patients. The positive rates of 4 autoantibodies in CSF specimens were significantly different between the SLE (i.e., NPSLE and non-NPSLE and control groups: anti-ribosomal protein RPLP0, anti-RPLP1, anti-RPLP2, and anti-TROVE2 (also known as anti-Ro/SS-A. The positive rate for anti-SS-A associated with NPSLE was higher than that for non-NPSLE (31.11% cf. 10.71%; P = 0.045.Further analysis showed that anti-SS-A in CSF specimens was related to neuropsychiatric syndromes of the central nervous system in SLE (P = 0.009. Analysis with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient indicated that the titers of anti-RPLP2 and anti-SS-A in paired CSF and serum specimens significantly correlated. Human proteome microarrays offer a powerful platform to discover novel autoantibodies in CSF samples. Anti-SS-A autoantibodies may be potential CSF markers for NPSLE.

  5. Profiling conserved biological pathways in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disorder (ADPKD) to elucidate key transcriptomic alterations regulating cystogenesis: A cross-species meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shatakshee; Verma, Srikant Prasad; Pandey, Priyanka

    2017-09-05

    Initiation and progression of fluid filled cysts mark Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). Thus, improved therapeutics targeting cystogenesis remains a constant challenge. Microarray studies in single ADPKD animal models species with limited sample sizes tend to provide scattered views on underlying ADPKD pathogenesis. Thus we aim to perform a cross species meta-analysis to profile conserved biological pathways that might be key targets for therapy. Nine ADPKD microarray datasets on rat, mice and human fulfilled our study criteria and were chosen. Intra-species combined analysis was performed after considering removal of batch effect. Significantly enriched GO biological processes and KEGG pathways were computed and their overlap was observed. For the conserved pathways, biological modules and gene regulatory networks were observed. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) using Molecular Signature Database (MSigDB) was performed for genes found in conserved pathways. We obtained 28 modules of significantly enriched GO processes and 5 major functional categories from significantly enriched KEGG pathways conserved in human, mice and rats that in turn suggest a global transcriptomic perturbation affecting cyst - formation, growth and progression. Significantly enriched pathways obtained from up-regulated genes such as Genomic instability, Protein localization in ER and Insulin Resistance were found to regulate cyst formation and growth whereas cyst progression due to increased cell adhesion and inflammation was suggested by perturbations in Angiogenesis, TGF-beta, CAMs, and Infection related pathways. Additionally, networks revealed shared genes among pathways e.g. SMAD2 and SMAD7 in Endocytosis and TGF-beta. Our study suggests cyst formation and progression to be an outcome of interplay between a set of several key deregulated pathways. Thus, further translational research is warranted focusing on developing a combinatorial therapeutic

  6. Micellar HPLC and derivative spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of fluconazole and tinidazole in pharmaceuticals and biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, F; Sharaf El-Din, M K; Eid, M I; El-Gamal, R M

    2014-04-01

    Micellar high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and first-derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometry were used to simultaneously determine fluconazole (FLZ) and tinidazole (TNZ) in combined pharmaceutical dosage forms. The derivative procedure is based on the linear relationship between the drug concentration and the first derivative amplitudes at 220 and 288 nm for FLZ and TNZ, respectively. The calibration graphs were linear in the range of 1.5-9.0 µg/mL for FLZ and 10.0-60.0 µg/mL for TNZ. Furthermore, an HPLC procedure with ultraviolet detection at 210 nm was developed. For the HPLC procedure, good chromatographic separation was achieved using an ODS C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d.). The mobile phase containing 0.15M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 0.3% triethylamine and 12% n-propanol in 0.02M orthophosphoric acid at pH 5.5 was pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Indapamide was used as an internal standard. The method showed good linearity over the concentration ranges of 1.5-30.0 and 10.0-200.0 µg/mL, with limits of detection of 0.36 and 2.70 µg/mL and limits of quantification of 1.1 and 8.2 µg/mL for FLZ and TNZ, respectively. The suggested methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of the drugs in their laboratory prepared mixture, co-formulated tablet and single dosage forms. Moreover the second method was also extended to the determination of the drugs in biological fluids.

  7. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  8. Investigation of autoantibody profiles for cerebrospinal fluid biomarker discovery in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Natascha Helena; Lueking, Angelika; Kowald, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Using the UNIarray® marker technology platform, cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin G reactivities of 15 controls and 17 RRMS patients against human recombinant proteins were investigated. Patient cerebrospinal fluids were oligoclonal band positive and reactivities were compared to that of sex...

  9. Tracking problems and possible solutions in the quantitative determination of small molecule drugs and metabolites in biological fluids using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray; Majumdar, Tapan K

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, quantification of low molecular weight molecules using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in biological fluids has become a common procedure in many preclinical and clinical laboratories. This overview highlights a number of issues involving "small molecule drugs", bioanalytical liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which are frequently encountered during assay development. In addition, possible solutions to these issues are proposed with examples in some of the case studies. Topics such as chromatographic peak shape, carry-over, cross-talk, standard curve non-linearity, internal standard selection, matrix effect, and metabolite interference are presented. Since plasma is one of the most widely adopted biological fluid in drug discovery and development, the focus of this discussion will be limited to plasma analysis. This article is not intended to be a comprehensive overview and readers are encouraged to refer to the citations herein.

  10. Biological profile and meteorological data collected by bottle and net in the Western Pacific Ocean from 6/5/1973 - 11/7/1973 (NODC Accession 0000151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological profile and meteorological data were collected using bottle and net casts from the RYOFU MARU in the Northwest / Southwest Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  11. Micro-RNA profile and proteins in peritoneal fluid from women with endometriosis: their relationship with sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Alexandre, Josep; Barceló-Molina, Moisés; Belmonte-López, Elisa; García-Oms, Javier; Estellés, Amparo; Braza-Boïls, Aitana; Gilabert-Estellés, Juan

    2018-04-01

    To define the microRNA (miRNA) profile and its relationship with cytokines content in peritoneal fluid (PF) from endometriosis patients. Case-control study. University hospital, research institute. One hundred twenty-six women with endometriosis (EPF) and 45 control women (CPF). MiRNA arrays were prepared from six EPF and six CPF. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction validation of nine selected miRNAs (miR-29c-3p, -106b-3p, -130a-3p, -150-5p, -185-5p, -195-5p, -451a, -486-5p, and -1343-5p) was performed. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type 1 (TIMP-1), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-17A, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP1beta), platelet-derived growth factor α-polypeptide A, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) were quantified by ELISA and MILLIPLEX. MiRNA arrays showed 126 miRNAs differentially expressed (fold change ±1.2) (78 down-regulated, 48 up-regulated) in EPF. Validation showed higher levels of miR-106b-3p, -451a, -486-5p, IL-6, IL-8, uPA, and TIMP-1 in EPF. In menstrual phase, EPF presented up-regulation of miR-106b-3p, -130a-3p, -150-5p, -185-5p, -451a, -486-5p, VEGF-A, IL-8, MIF 1β, uPA, and PAI-1 compared with other phases; however, CPF did not. MiRNA-486-5p was up-regulated in sterile EPF compared with sterile controls, and VEGF-A, IL-8, and TIMP-1 were increased in sterile and fertile EPF compared with fertile CPF. MiRNAs seem to be involved in the peritoneal alterations in endometriosis, suggesting new mechanisms by which ectopic lesions could implant in endometriosis patients; and to serve as biomarkers for fertility outcome prediction. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiwall carbon nanotubes chemically modified carbon paste electrodes for determination of gentamicin sulfate in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M M; Abed El-Aziz, G M

    2016-02-01

    This article focused on the construction and characteristics of novel and sensitive gentamicin carbon paste electrodes which are based on the incorporation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) which improve the characteristics of the electrodes. The electrodes were constructed based on gentamicin-phosphotungstate (GNS-PTA) called CPE1, gentamicin-phosphomolybdate (GNS-PMA) called CPE2, GNS-PTA+ MWMCNTs called MWCPE1, and GNS-PMA+ MWMCNTs called MWCPE2. The constructed electrodes, at optimum paste composition, exhibited good Nernstian response for determination of gentamicin sulfate (GNS) over a linear concentration range from 2.5×10(-6) to 1×10(-2), 3.0×10(-6) to 1×10(-2), 4.9×10(-7) to 1×10(-2) and 5.0×10(-7) to 1×10(-2)molL(-1), with lower detection limit 1×10(-6), 1×10(-6), 1.9×10(-7) and 2.2×10(-7)molL(-1), and with slope values of 29.0±0.4, 29.2±0.7, 31.2±0.5 and 31.0±0.6mV/decade for CPE1, CPE2, MWCPE1 and MWCPE2, respectively. The response of electrodes is not affected by pH in the range 3-8 for CPE1 and CPE2 and in the range 2.5-8.5 for MWCPE1 and MWCPE2. The results showed fast dynamic response time (about 8-5s) and long lifetime (more than 2months) for all electrodes. The sensors showed high selectivity for gentamicin sulfate (GNS) with respect to a large number of interfering species. The constructed electrodes were successfully applied for determination of GNS in pure form, its pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids using standard addition and potentiometric titration methods with high accuracy and precision. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Restricted access magnetic materials prepared by dual surface modification for selective extraction of therapeutic drugs from biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yu; Wang Yuxia; Chen Lei [School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wan Qianhong, E-mail: qhwan@tju.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Magnetic porous particles with dual functionality have been prepared by a two-step procedure and evaluated as novel restricted access materials for extraction of therapeutic agents from biological fluids. The magnetic silica particles served as scaffolds were first modified with diol groups, which were then converted to octadecyl esters through reaction with stearoyl chloride. In the second step, the octadecyl esters on the exterior surface were hydrolyzed by the action of lipase to yield magnetic particles with hydrophobic reversed-phase ligands on the inner surface and biocompatible diol groups on the outer surface. The restricted access behavior of the resulting materials was confirmed by differential binding of small molecules such as methotrexate (MTX), leucovorin (LV) and folic acid (FA) relative to bovine serum albumin. While MTX, LV and FA were all bound to the magnetic particles with high affinity, the adsorption of the protein was markedly reduced due to size exclusion effect. The utility of the magnetic particles for sample preparation was tested in solid-phase extraction of MTX, LV and FA from spiked human serum and the effects of the SPE conditions on the recovery of the analytes were systematically studied. Moreover, the magnetic particle-based sample preparation procedure coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis was validated in terms of specificity, linearity and reproducibility. The method was shown to be free from interference of endogenous compounds and linear over the concentration range of 0.5-10 {mu}g/mL for the three drugs studied. The limits of detection for the three drugs in serum were in the range of 0.160-0.302 {mu}g/mL. Reproducibility expressed as the RSD of the recovery for ten replicated extractions at three different concentrations was found to be less than 8.93%. With a unique combination of surface functionality with magnetic cores, the restricted access magnetic particles may be adapted in automated and high

  14. Restricted access magnetic materials prepared by dual surface modification for selective extraction of therapeutic drugs from biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yuxia; Chen, Lei; Wan, Qian-Hong

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic porous particles with dual functionality have been prepared by a two-step procedure and evaluated as novel restricted access materials for extraction of therapeutic agents from biological fluids. The magnetic silica particles served as scaffolds were first modified with diol groups, which were then converted to octadecyl esters through reaction with stearoyl chloride. In the second step, the octadecyl esters on the exterior surface were hydrolyzed by the action of lipase to yield magnetic particles with hydrophobic reversed-phase ligands on the inner surface and biocompatible diol groups on the outer surface. The restricted access behavior of the resulting materials was confirmed by differential binding of small molecules such as methotrexate (MTX), leucovorin (LV) and folic acid (FA) relative to bovine serum albumin. While MTX, LV and FA were all bound to the magnetic particles with high affinity, the adsorption of the protein was markedly reduced due to size exclusion effect. The utility of the magnetic particles for sample preparation was tested in solid-phase extraction of MTX, LV and FA from spiked human serum and the effects of the SPE conditions on the recovery of the analytes were systematically studied. Moreover, the magnetic particle-based sample preparation procedure coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis was validated in terms of specificity, linearity and reproducibility. The method was shown to be free from interference of endogenous compounds and linear over the concentration range of 0.5-10 μg/mL for the three drugs studied. The limits of detection for the three drugs in serum were in the range of 0.160-0.302 μg/mL. Reproducibility expressed as the RSD of the recovery for ten replicated extractions at three different concentrations was found to be less than 8.93%. With a unique combination of surface functionality with magnetic cores, the restricted access magnetic particles may be adapted in automated and high

  15. Restricted access magnetic materials prepared by dual surface modification for selective extraction of therapeutic drugs from biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Wang Yuxia; Chen Lei; Wan Qianhong

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic porous particles with dual functionality have been prepared by a two-step procedure and evaluated as novel restricted access materials for extraction of therapeutic agents from biological fluids. The magnetic silica particles served as scaffolds were first modified with diol groups, which were then converted to octadecyl esters through reaction with stearoyl chloride. In the second step, the octadecyl esters on the exterior surface were hydrolyzed by the action of lipase to yield magnetic particles with hydrophobic reversed-phase ligands on the inner surface and biocompatible diol groups on the outer surface. The restricted access behavior of the resulting materials was confirmed by differential binding of small molecules such as methotrexate (MTX), leucovorin (LV) and folic acid (FA) relative to bovine serum albumin. While MTX, LV and FA were all bound to the magnetic particles with high affinity, the adsorption of the protein was markedly reduced due to size exclusion effect. The utility of the magnetic particles for sample preparation was tested in solid-phase extraction of MTX, LV and FA from spiked human serum and the effects of the SPE conditions on the recovery of the analytes were systematically studied. Moreover, the magnetic particle-based sample preparation procedure coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis was validated in terms of specificity, linearity and reproducibility. The method was shown to be free from interference of endogenous compounds and linear over the concentration range of 0.5-10 μg/mL for the three drugs studied. The limits of detection for the three drugs in serum were in the range of 0.160-0.302 μg/mL. Reproducibility expressed as the RSD of the recovery for ten replicated extractions at three different concentrations was found to be less than 8.93%. With a unique combination of surface functionality with magnetic cores, the restricted access magnetic particles may be adapted in automated and high

  16. Is 'class effect' relevant when assessing the benefit/risk profile of a biologic agent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterry, W.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, genetically predisposed skin disorder, characterised by thickened scaly plaques. Although no therapy is recognised as curative, therapies aimed at symptom control include biologic agents that are generally designed to block molecular activation of cellular pathways of a

  17. Accessing biological actions of Ganoderma secondary metabolites by in silico profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienke, Ulrike; Kaserer, Teresa; Pfluger, Florian; Mair, Christina E.; Langer, Thierry; Schuster, Daniela; Rollinger, Judith M.

    2016-01-01

    The species complex around the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum Karst. (Ganodermataceae) is widely known in traditional medicines as well as in modern applications such as functional food or nutraceuticals. A considerable number of publications reflects its abundance and variety in biological actions either provoked by primary metabolites such as polysaccharides or secondary metabolites such as lanostane-type triterpenes. However, due to this remarkable amount of information, a rationalization of the individual Ganoderma constituents to biological actions on a molecular level is quite challenging. To overcome this issue, a database was generated containing meta-information, i.e. chemical structures and biological actions of hitherto identified Ganoderma constituents (279). This was followed by a computational approach subjecting this 3D multi-conformational molecular dataset to in silico parallel screening against an in-house collection of validated structure- and ligand-based 3D pharmacophore models. The predictive power of the evaluated in silico tools and hints from traditional application fields served as criteria for the model selection. Thus, we focused on representative druggable targets in the field of viral infections (5) and diseases related to the metabolic syndrome (22). The results obtained from this in silico approach were compared to bioactivity data available from the literature to distinguish between true and false positives or negatives. 89 and 197 Ganoderma compounds were predicted as ligands of at least one of the selected pharmacological targets in the antiviral and the metabolic syndrome screening, respectively. Among them only a minority of individual compounds (around 10%) has ever been investigated on these targets or for the associated biological activity. Accordingly, this study discloses putative ligand target interactions for a plethora of Ganoderma constituents in the empirically manifested field of viral diseases and metabolic

  18. Analysis of Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton Beams and Isoeffective Dose Profiles Using Geant4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini M. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of RBE quantity in the treatment of cancer tumors with proton beams in treatment planning systems (TPS is of high significance. Given the significance of the issue and the studies conducted in the literature, this quantity is fixed and is taken as equal to 1.1. Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess RBE quantity of proton beams and their variations in different depths of the tumor. This dependency makes RBE values used in TPS no longer be fixed as they depend on the depth of the tumor and therefore this dependency causes some changes in the physical dose profile. Materials and Methods: The energy spectrum of protons was measured at various depths of the tumor using proton beam simulations and well as the complete simulation of a cell to a pair of DNA bases through Monte Carlo GEANT4. The resulting energy spectrum was used to estimate the number of double-strand breaks generated in cells. Finally, RBE values were calculated in terms of the penetration depth in the tumor. Results and Conclusion: The simulation results show that the RBE value not fixed terms of the depth of the tumor and it differs from the clinical value of 1.1 at the end of the dose profile and this will lead to a non-uniform absorbed dose profile. Therefore, to create a uniform impact dose area, deep-finishing systems need to be designed by taking into account deep RBE values.

  19. Profiling of microRNAs in tumor interstitial fluid of breast tumors – a novel resource to identify biomarkers for prognostic classification and detection of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Ann Rita; Helland, Åslaug; Gromov, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    and to elucidate the cross-talk that exists among cells in a tumor microenvironment. Matched tumor interstitial fluid samples (TIF, n = 60), normal interstitial fluid samples (NIF, n = 51), corresponding tumor tissue specimens (n = 54), and serum samples (n = 27) were collected from patients with breast cancer......, and detectable microRNAs were analyzed and compared. In addition, serum data from 32 patients with breast cancer and 22 healthy controls were obtained for a validation study. To identify potential serum biomarkers of breast cancer, first the microRNA profiles of TIF and NIF samples were compared. A total of 266...... microRNAs were present at higher level in the TIF samples as compared to normal counterparts. Sixty-one of these microRNAs were present in > 75% of the serum samples and were subsequently tested in a validation set. Seven of the 61 microRNAs were associated with poor survival, while 23 were associated...

  20. PROFIL KETERAMPILAN PSIKOMOTOR MAHASISWA CALON GURU BIOLOGI MELALUI PRAKTIKUM KULTIVASI MIKROORGANISME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rida Oktorida Khastini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGeneral microbiology course provide comprehensive introduction to fundamental aspects of microbial world so that student gain an insight into theory, practices and able to demonstrate in the term of knowledge skills and values to overcome problem in the environment. Therefore student should have psychomotor skill as well as cognitive. The present study aimed to identify and describe the psychomotor skills of Pre Service Biology Teacher through microorganism cultivation experiment in the laboratoratory. Data were collected from 94 Pre Service Biology Teacher who enrolled General microbiology course in the even semester of academic year 2016-2017 using psychomotor skill observation sheet. Six dimensions observed: perception, set, guided response, mechanism, adaptation and originalation. Findings indicated that student psychomotor skills was categorized as good with the value of 81,2%.

  1. A sensitive method to extract DNA from biological traces present on ammunition for the purpose of genetic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieltjes, Patrick; Mieremet, René; Zuniga, Sofia; Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; Pijpe, Jeroen; de Knijff, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Exploring technological limits is a common practice in forensic DNA research. Reliable genetic profiling based on only a few cells isolated from trace material retrieved from a crime scene is nowadays more and more the rule rather than the exception. On many crime scenes, cartridges, bullets, and casings (jointly abbreviated as CBCs) are regularly found, and even after firing, these potentially carry trace amounts of biological material. Since 2003, the Forensic Laboratory for DNA Research is routinely involved in the forensic investigation of CBCs in the Netherlands. Reliable DNA profiles were frequently obtained from CBCs and used to match suspects, victims, or other crime scene-related DNA traces. In this paper, we describe the sensitive method developed by us to extract DNA from CBCs. Using PCR-based genotyping of autosomal short tandem repeats, we were able to obtain reliable and reproducible DNA profiles in 163 out of 616 criminal cases (26.5%) and in 283 out of 4,085 individual CBC items (6.9%) during the period January 2003-December 2009. We discuss practical aspects of the method and the sometimes unexpected effects of using cell lysis buffer on the subsequent investigation of striation patterns on CBCs.

  2. Experimental investigation of different fluid flow profiles in a rotary multi-bed active magnetic regenerator device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortkamp, F. P.; Eriksen, D.; Engelbrecht, K.

    2018-01-01

    A rotary multi-bed active magnetic regenerator (AMR) device was modified to allow testing different fluid flow waveforms, with different blow fractions (i.e. the fraction of the AMR cycle when there is fluid flow in the regenerators). The different values of blow fraction were generated using dif.......1% was obtained for the largest blow fraction tested (80%). Designs for magnetic refrigerators where the fluid flow waveform can change during operation are also discussed in this paper.......A rotary multi-bed active magnetic regenerator (AMR) device was modified to allow testing different fluid flow waveforms, with different blow fractions (i.e. the fraction of the AMR cycle when there is fluid flow in the regenerators). The different values of blow fraction were generated using...... different cam rings that actuate the poppet valves at the inlet and outlet of the regenerators, controlling how long the valves stay open and the number of valves open at the same time. Results showed that smaller blow fractions yield higher values of temperature span for fixed flow rate and cooling...

  3. NAP: The Network Analysis Profiler, a web tool for easier topological analysis and comparison of medium-scale biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosiou, Theodosios; Efstathiou, Georgios; Papanikolaou, Nikolas; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Bagos, Pantelis G; Iliopoulos, Ioannis; Pavlopoulos, Georgios A

    2017-07-14

    Nowadays, due to the technological advances of high-throughput techniques, Systems Biology has seen a tremendous growth of data generation. With network analysis, looking at biological systems at a higher level in order to better understand a system, its topology and the relationships between its components is of a great importance. Gene expression, signal transduction, protein/chemical interactions, biomedical literature co-occurrences, are few of the examples captured in biological network representations where nodes represent certain bioentities and edges represent the connections between them. Today, many tools for network visualization and analysis are available. Nevertheless, most of them are standalone applications that often (i) burden users with computing and calculation time depending on the network's size and (ii) focus on handling, editing and exploring a network interactively. While such functionality is of great importance, limited efforts have been made towards the comparison of the topological analysis of multiple networks. Network Analysis Provider (NAP) is a comprehensive web tool to automate network profiling and intra/inter-network topology comparison. It is designed to bridge the gap between network analysis, statistics, graph theory and partially visualization in a user-friendly way. It is freely available and aims to become a very appealing tool for the broader community. It hosts a great plethora of topological analysis methods such as node and edge rankings. Few of its powerful characteristics are: its ability to enable easy profile comparisons across multiple networks, find their intersection and provide users with simplified, high quality plots of any of the offered topological characteristics against any other within the same network. It is written in R and Shiny, it is based on the igraph library and it is able to handle medium-scale weighted/unweighted, directed/undirected and bipartite graphs. NAP is available at http://bioinformatics.med.uoc.gr/NAP .

  4. Expression Profiling of Genes Related to Endothelial Cells Biology in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Patients with Prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Moradipoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction appears to be an early sign indicating vascular damage and predicts the progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders. Extensive clinical and experimental evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction occurs in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM and prediabetes patients. This study was carried out with an aim to appraise the expression levels in the peripheral blood of 84 genes related to endothelial cells biology in patients with diagnosed T2DM or prediabetes, trying to identify new genes whose expression might be changed under these pathological conditions. The study covered a total of 45 participants. The participants were divided into three groups: group 1, patients with T2DM; group 2, patients with prediabetes; group 3, control group. The gene expression analysis was performed using the Endothelial Cell Biology RT2 Profiler PCR Array. In the case of T2DM, 59 genes were found to be upregulated, and four genes were observed to be downregulated. In prediabetes patients, increased expression was observed for 49 genes, with two downregulated genes observed. Our results indicate that diabetic and prediabetic conditions change the expression levels of genes related to endothelial cells biology and, consequently, may increase the risk for occurrence of endothelial dysfunction.

  5. Structural profiling and biological performance of phospholipid-hyaluronan functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvash, Ram; Khatchatouriants, Artium; Solmesky, Leonardo J

    2013-01-01

    In spite of significant insolubility and toxicity, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) erupt into the biomedical research, and create an increasing interest in the field of nanomedicine. Single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) are highly hydrophobic and have been shown to be toxic while systemically administrated. Thus...... an inflammatory response in macrophages as evidenced by the cytokine profiling and the use of image-based high-content analysis approach in contrast to non-modified CNTs. In addition, systemic administration of CNT-PL-HA into healthy C57BL/6 mice did not alter the total number of leukocytes nor increased liver...

  6. A Comparative Assessment of Biological Effects and Chemical Profile of Italian Asphodeline lutea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Melucci

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to highlight the therapeutic potential of Asphodeline lutea (AL, a wild edible plant of the Mediterranean diet. Roots, aerial parts, and flowers of AL at two different phenological stages were collected from three locations in Italy. The inhibitory activities of extracts on strategic enzymes linked to human diseases were assessed. The antioxidant properties were evaluated in vitro, using six standard bioassays. The phenolic and anthraquinone profiles were also established using HPLC-PDA. Zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper contents were also determined. All the samples inhibited acetylcholinesterase (from 1.51 to 2.20 mg GALAEs/g extract, tyrosinase (from 7.50 to 25.3 mg KAEs/g extract, and α-amylase (from 0.37 to 0.51 mmol ACAEs/g extract. Aloe-emodin and physcion were present in all parts, while rhein was not detected. The phenolic profile and the heavy metals composition of specimens gathered from three different regions of Italy were different. It can be argued that samples collected near the street can contain higher concentrations of heavy metals. The experimental data confirm that the A. lutea species could be considered as a potential source of bioactive metabolites, and its consumption could play a positive and safe role in human health maintenance.

  7. Molecular profiling reveals biologically discrete subsets and pathways of progression in diffuse glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Michele; Barthel, Floris P.; Malta, Tathiane M.; Sabedot, Thais S.; Salama, Sofie R.; Murray, Bradley A.; Morozova, Olena; Newton, Yulia; Radenbaugh, Amie; Pagnotta, Stefano M.; Anjum, Samreen; Wang, Jiguang; Manyam, Ganiraju; Zoppoli, Pietro; Ling, Shiyung; Rao, Arjun A.; Grifford, Mia; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Zhang, Hailei; Poisson, Laila; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Pretti da Cunha Tirapelli, Daniela; Rao, Arvind; Mikkelsen, Tom; Lau, Ching C.; Yung, W.K. Alfred; Rabadan, Raul; Huse, Jason; Brat, Daniel J.; Lehman, Norman L.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Zheng, Siyuan; Hess, Kenneth; Rao, Ganesh; Meyerson, Matthew; Beroukhim, Rameen; Cooper, Lee; Akbani, Rehan; Wrensch, Margaret; Haussler, David; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Laird, Peter W.; Gutmann, David H.; Noushmehr, Houtan; Iavarone, Antonio; Verhaak, Roel G.W.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Therapy development for adult diffuse glioma is hindered by incomplete knowledge of somatic glioma driving alterations and suboptimal disease classification. We defined the complete set of genes associated with 1,122 diffuse grade II-III-IV gliomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas and used molecular profiles to improve disease classification, identify molecular correlations, and provide insights into the progression from low- to high-grade disease. Whole genome sequencing data analysis determined that ATRX but not TERT promoter mutations are associated with increased telomere length. Recent advances in glioma classification based on IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion status were recapitulated through analysis of DNA methylation profiles, which identified clinically relevant molecular subsets. A subtype of IDH-mutant glioma was associated with DNA demethylation and poor outcome; a group of IDH-wildtype diffuse glioma showed molecular similarity to pilocytic astrocytoma and relatively favorable survival. Understanding of cohesive disease groups may aid improved clinical outcomes. PMID:26824661

  8. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-06-01

    Phenolic and organic acid profiles of aqueous extracts from Pieris brassicae material and the host kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves were determined by HPLC/UV-DAD/MS(n)-ESI and HPLC-UV, respectively. The identified phenolics included acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides, and sulphate phenolics. Kale exhibited the highest content (11g/kg lyophilized extract), while no phenolics were identified in the butterflies or exuviae. Nine different organic acids were characterized in the materials, with kale showing the highest amount (112g/kg lyophilized extract). With the exception of the exuviae extract, the rest were screened for bioactivity. Using spectrophotometric microassays, all exhibited antiradical capacity against DPPH and NO in a concentration-dependent way, whereas only kale and excrement extracts were active against superoxide. All displayed activity on intestinal smooth muscle, albeit with distinct relaxation-contraction profiles. Larvae and butterfly extracts were more efficacious for intestinal relaxation than was kale extract, whereas excrement extract evoked only contractions, thus evidencing their different compositions. Collectively, these results show that P. brassicae sequesters and metabolizes kale's phenolic compounds. Moreover, the extract's bioactivities suggest that they may constitute an interesting source of bioactive compounds whose complex chemical structures preclude either synthesis or isolation.

  9. Lipid profile and biological activity of different extracts of Stapelia hirsuta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Shabana

    2016-12-01

    Results and conclusion: β-amyrin (1, lupeol (2, α-amyrin (3 and β-sitosterol (4 were isolated from the n-hexane extract. GLC analysis of (USM and (FAME revealed that, squalene, α-amyrin and β-sitosterol are the major hydrocarbon, triterpene and sterol respectively. The percentages of the unsaturated and saturated fatty acids are 40.8% and 48% respectively. Caproic acid (26.6% was the major fatty acid and stearic (1.2% being the minor one. Biological screening of the different extracts and fractions were carried out and significant results were obtained.

  10. Multiwall carbon nanotubes chemically modified carbon paste electrodes for determination of gentamicin sulfate in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M.M., E-mail: magdy_mmagdy@yahoo.com; Abed El-aziz, G.M., E-mail: Gamal_abedelaziz@yahoo.com

    2016-02-01

    This article focused on the construction and characteristics of novel and sensitive gentamicin carbon paste electrodes which are based on the incorporation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) which improve the characteristics of the electrodes. The electrodes were constructed based on gentamicin-phosphotungstate (GNS-PTA) called CPE{sub 1}, gentamicin-phosphomolybdate (GNS-PMA) called CPE{sub 2}, GNS-PTA + MWMCNTs called MWCPE{sub 1}, and GNS-PMA + MWMCNTs called MWCPE{sub 2}. The constructed electrodes, at optimum paste composition, exhibited good Nernstian response for determination of gentamicin sulfate (GNS) over a linear concentration range from 2.5 × 10{sup −6} to 1 × 10{sup −2}, 3.0 × 10{sup −6} to 1 × 10{sup −2}, 4.9 × 10{sup −7} to 1 × 10{sup −2} and 5.0 × 10{sup −7} to 1 × 10{sup −2} mol L{sup −1}, with lower detection limit 1 × 10{sup −6}, 1 × 10{sup −6}, 1.9 × 10{sup −7} and 2.2 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1}, and with slope values of 29.0 ± 0.4, 29.2 ± 0.7, 31.2 ± 0.5 and 31.0 ± 0.6 mV/decade for CPE{sub 1}, CPE{sub 2}, MWCPE{sub 1} and MWCPE{sub 2}, respectively. The response of electrodes is not affected by pH in the range 3–8 for CPE{sub 1} and CPE{sub 2} and in the range 2.5–8.5 for MWCPE{sub 1} and MWCPE{sub 2}. The results showed fast dynamic response time (about 8–5 s) and long lifetime (more than 2 months) for all electrodes. The sensors showed high selectivity for gentamicin sulfate (GNS) with respect to a large number of interfering species. The constructed electrodes were successfully applied for determination of GNS in pure form, its pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids using standard addition and potentiometric titration methods with high accuracy and precision. - Graphical abstract: The incorporation of MWCNTs in paste composition improves the characteristics of the MWCPE electrodes which show better responses in terms of sensitivity, Nernstian slope, linear range, faster

  11. Distinct transthyretin oxidation isoform profile in spinal fluid from patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Keld; Bahl, Justyna Mc; Simonsen, Anja H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transthyretin (TTR), an abundant protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), contains a free, oxidation-prone cysteine residue that gives rise to TTR isoforms. These isoforms may reflect conditions in vivo. Since increased oxidative stress has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders such...

  12. Analysis of Cell Biomechanics Response to Gravity:A Fluids for Biology Study Utilizing NASA Glenns Zero Gravity Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomani, Bilal M. M.; Kassemi, Mohammad; Neumann, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear how biological cells sense and respond to gravitational forces. Leading scientists state that a large gap exists in the understanding of physiological and molecular adaptation that occurs as biology enters the spaceflight realm. We are seeking a method to fully understand how cells sense microgravity/gravity and what triggers their response.

  13. PROFIL KESADARAN DAN STRATEGI METAKOGNISI MAHASISWA BARU PENDIDIKAN BIOLOGI FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN UNIVERSITAS ISLAM RIAU PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Amnah S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian survai terhadap mahasiswa baru Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UIR tahun ajaran 2013/2014 untuk mengetahui profil kesadaran dan strategi  metakognitifnya. Populasi penelitian adalah mahasiswa baru Pend. Biologi tahun ajaran 2013/2014 sebanyak 6 kelas paralel. Sampel yang digunakan sebanyak 77% dari total populasi mahasiswa.  Dengan analisis deskriptif menunjukkan bahwa mahasiswa yang masuk dalam kategori Masih belum berkembang (MBB telah tidak ada (0 %. Sebanyak 3,24% mahasiswa masuk dalam kategori belum begitu berkembang (BBB; 25,41% mahasiswa masuk ke dalam kategori mulai berkembang (MB; 62,70%  masuk ke dalam kategori sudah berkembang baik (SBB atau OK; dan 8,65% mahasiswa masuk pada kategori super atau berkembang sangat baik. Sebanyak 39,45% telah dilatihkan menggunakan strategi metakognitif dalam belajar seperti membuat ringkasan (26,5%, menggaris bawahi bacaan (8,65%,membuat peta konsep (6,48%, dan membuat jembatan keledai/ titian ingatan (1,08%. A research survey among new students of Biology Faculty of Teacher Education UIR academic year 2013/2014 to determine the profile and awareness of metacognitive strategies. The study population was a new student Pend. Biology of the school year 2013/2014 as much as 6 parallel classes. The sample used by 77% of the total student population. With descriptive analysis showed that students who fall into the category of still undeveloped (MBB has no (0%. A total of 3.24% of students in the category of less developed (BBB; 25.41% of students fall into the category began to grow (MB; 62.70% belong to the category are well developed (SBB or OK; and 8.65% of students entered in the category of super or growing very well. A total of 39.45% has been trained in the use of metacognitive learning strategies such as preparing a summary (26.5%, underlining the reading (8.65%, create a concept map (6.48%, and create mnemonics / memory bridge (1.08%.

  14. Polyphenolic Profile and Biological Activity of Chinese Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Jurikova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. fruits are rich in polyphenols (e.g., epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B5, procyanidin C1, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and chlorogenic acid—active compounds that exert beneficial effects. This review summarizes all information available on polyphenolic content and methods for their quantification in Chinese hawthorn berries and the relationships between individual polyphenolic compounds as well. The influence of species or cultivars, the locality of cultivation, the stage of maturity, and extract preparation conditions on the polyphenolic content were discussed as well. Currently, only fruits of C. pinnatifida and C. pinnatifida var. major are included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Recent trials have demonstrated the efficacy of Chinese hawthorn fruit in lowering blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The fruit has also demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities. This review deals mainly with the biological activity of the fruit related to its antioxidant properties.

  15. Phytochemical Profile and Qualification of Biological Activity of an Isolated Fraction of Bellis perennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago H Costa Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the isolation and identification of apigenin-7-O-ghicopyranoside, a flavonoid isolated from the flowers of Bellis perennis L., Asteraceae, an species with a broad spectrum of biological activities. The in vitro antioxidant activity and the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase were evaluated. The flavonoid showed strong in vitro antioxidant potential, because of the capacity of removal of hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide, and also prevented the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. These parameters were inhibited at the highest concentration of ApG at rates of 77.7%, 72% and 73.4%, respectively, in addition to inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, suggesting potential use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Affinity purification of native glycodelin from amniotic fluid for biological investigations and development of a glycodelin ELISA for clinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; Myrhøj, Vibeke; Nguyen, Thanh Ha

    2017-01-01

    for functional studies because the carbohydrate part can be lacking or be insufficient in recombinant glycodelin from prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell systems. METHODS AND RESULTS: Native glycodelin was purified from amniotic fluid by a series of affinity chromatography steps and had many glycosylated forms...

  17. Linking Suspension Nasal Spray Drug Deposition Patterns to Pharmacokinetic Profiles: A Proof-of-Concept Study Using Computational Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Alex; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to link regional nasal spray deposition patterns of suspension formulations, predicted with computational fluid dynamics, to in vivo human pharmacokinetic plasma concentration profiles. This is accomplished through the use of computational fluid dynamics simulations coupled with compartmental pharmacokinetic modeling. Results showed a rapid initial rise in plasma concentration that is due to the absorption of drug particles deposited in the nasal middle passages, followed by a slower increase in plasma concentration that is governed by the transport of drug particles from the nasal vestibule to the middle passages. Although drug deposition locations in the nasal cavity had a significant effect on the shape of the concentration profile, the absolute bioavailability remained constant provided that all the drug remained in the nose over the course of the simulation. Loss of drug through the nostrils even after long periods resulted in a significant decrease in bioavailability and increased variability. The results of this study quantify how differences in nasal drug deposition affect transient plasma concentrations and overall bioavailability. These findings are potentially useful for establishing bioequivalence for nasal spray devices and reducing the burden of in vitro testing, pharmacodynamics, and clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacokinetic Profile of Oral Cannabis in Humans: Blood and Oral Fluid Disposition and Relation to Pharmacodynamic Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrey, Ryan; Herrmann, Evan S; Mitchell, John M; Bigelow, George E; Flegel, Ronald; LoDico, Charles; Cone, Edward J

    2017-03-01

    Most research on cannabis pharmacokinetics has evaluated inhaled cannabis, but oral ("edible") preparations comprise an increasing segment of the cannabis market. To assess oral cannabis pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, healthy adults (N = 6 per dose) were administered cannabis brownies containing 10, 25 or 50 mg 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Whole blood and oral fluid specimens were obtained at baseline and then for 9 days post-exposure; 6 days in a residential research setting and 3 days as outpatients. Measures of subjective, cardiovascular and performance effects were obtained at baseline and for 8 h post-ingestion. The mean Cmax for THC in whole blood was 1, 3.5 and 3.3 ng/mL for the 10, 25 and 50 mg THC doses, respectively. The mean maximum concentration (Cmax) and mean time to maximum concentration (Tmax) of 11-OH-THC in whole blood were similar to THC. Cmax blood concentrations of THCCOOH were generally higher than THC and had longer Tmax values. The mean Tmax for THC in oral fluid occurred immediately following oral dose administration, and appear to reflect local topical residue rather than systemic bioavailbility. Mean Cmax oral fluid concentrations of THCCOOH were lower than THC, erratic over time and mean Tmax occurred at longer times than THC. The window of THC detection ranged from 0 to 22 h for whole blood (limit of quantitation (LOQ) = 0.5 ng/mL) and 1.9 to 22 h for oral fluid (LOQ = 1.0 ng/mL). Subjective drug and cognitive performance effects were generally dose dependent, peaked at 1.5-3 h post-administration, and lasted 6-8 h. Whole blood cannabinoid concentrations were significantly correlated with subjective drug effects. Correlations between blood cannabinoids and cognitive performance measures, and between oral fluid and all pharmacodynamic outcomes were either non-significant or not orderly by dose. Quantitative levels of cannabinoids in whole blood and oral fluid were low compared with levels observed following inhalation of

  19. Targeted Therapy Database (TTD): a model to match patient's molecular profile with current knowledge on cancer biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Shrager, Jeff; Scolyer, Richard; Pasquali, Sandro; Verdi, Daunia; Marincola, Francesco M; Briarava, Marta; Gobbel, Randy; Rossi, Carlo; Nitti, Donato

    2010-08-10

    The efficacy of current anticancer treatments is far from satisfactory and many patients still die of their disease. A general agreement exists on the urgency of developing molecularly targeted therapies, although their implementation in the clinical setting is in its infancy. In fact, despite the wealth of preclinical studies addressing these issues, the difficulty of testing each targeted therapy hypothesis in the clinical arena represents an intrinsic obstacle. As a consequence, we are witnessing a paradoxical situation where most hypotheses about the molecular and cellular biology of cancer remain clinically untested and therefore do not translate into a therapeutic benefit for patients. To present a computational method aimed to comprehensively exploit the scientific knowledge in order to foster the development of personalized cancer treatment by matching the patient's molecular profile with the available evidence on targeted therapy. To this aim we focused on melanoma, an increasingly diagnosed malignancy for which the need for novel therapeutic approaches is paradigmatic since no effective treatment is available in the advanced setting. Relevant data were manually extracted from peer-reviewed full-text original articles describing any type of anti-melanoma targeted therapy tested in any type of experimental or clinical model. To this purpose, Medline, Embase, Cancerlit and the Cochrane databases were searched. We created a manually annotated database (Targeted Therapy Database, TTD) where the relevant data are gathered in a formal representation that can be computationally analyzed. Dedicated algorithms were set up for the identification of the prevalent therapeutic hypotheses based on the available evidence and for ranking treatments based on the molecular profile of individual patients. In this essay we describe the principles and computational algorithms of an original method developed to fully exploit the available knowledge on cancer biology with the

  20. Implementation of physiological fluids to provide insight into the characterization, fate, and biological interactions of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitner, Emily K.; Burns, Katherine E.; Hussain, Saber M.; Comfort, Kristen K.

    2018-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are being increasingly utilized in consumer and medical applications. However, there remains conflicting reports on their safety, which are evaluated through a combination of in vitro and in vivo exposure models. These discrepancies may arise, in part, due to the inherent differences between cell-based and animal systems. It is well established that nanotoxicological effects are highly dependent on the unique physicochemical properties and behavior of the particle set, including size, surface chemistry, agglomeration, and ionic dissolution. However, recent studies have identified that these properties vary as a function of exposure environment; providing a rationale for the contradictory results between in vitro and in vivo assessments. Artificial physiological fluids are emerging as a powerful tool as they allow for the characterization of NPs in an environment which they would likely encounter in vivo, in addition to having the experimental advantages of flexibility and consistency. Here, we demonstrated that the utilization of artificial fluids provided a mechanism to assess AgNP behavior and induced bioresponses in environments that they would likely encounter in vivo. AgNPs were introduced within an alveolar-based exposure model, which included alveolar epithelial (A549) cells incubated within artificial alveolar fluid (AF). Additionally, the particles underwent extensive characterization within both AF and lysosomal fluid, which the AgNPs would encounter following cellular internalization. Following incubation in physiological environments AgNP properties were significantly modified versus a traditional media environment, including alterations to both extent of agglomeration and rate of ionic dissolution. Moreover, when A549s were exposed to AgNPs in AF, the cells displayed lower cytotoxicity and stress rates, corresponding to a fluid-dependent drop in silver ion production. This work highlights the need for enhanced in vitro

  1. Synthesis, characterization and biological profile of metal and azo-metal complexes of embelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aravindhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study emphasizes synthesis and bioprofiling of embelin, embelin-metal (EM and embelin-azo-metal (EAM complexes in detail. EM complexes were prepared using pure embelin and d-block transition elements, namely Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. Similarly, EAM complexes were synthesized using phenyl azo-embelin with the said transition metals. Embelin, EM, and EAM complexes were subjected to ultra violet visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, carbon hydrogen nitrogen sulfur analysis. With regard to bioprofiling, the test complexes were studied for the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Results revealed that the prepared EM and EAM complexes form octahedral complexes with embelin with the yield in the range of 45–75%. All the instrumental analyses authenticate the interaction of metals with bidentate embelin through its enolic and quinonic oxygen atoms as [M(Emb2(H2O2]H2O and [M(Emb-Azo2(H2O2]. The antioxidant profile studies suggested that upon complexation with metals, the free radical scavenging activity of embelin reduced significantly. But, with regard to antimicrobial activity, cobalt and nickel embelin complexes displayed>80% growth inhibition in comparison with embelin alone. The hemolytic activity studies suggested that both embelin and the metal complexes are non-hemolytic. The reason for the reduction in antioxidant and an increase in antimicrobial activities were discussed in detail.

  2. Volatile Profiling of Aromatic Traditional Medicinal Plant, Polygonum minus in Different Tissues and Its Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafidah Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify the volatile metabolites produced in different organs (leaves, stem and roots of Polygonum minus, an important essential oil producing crop in Malaysia. Two methods of extraction have been applied: Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME and hydrodistillation coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Approximately, 77 metabolites have been identified and aliphatic compounds contribute significantly towards the aroma and flavour of this plant. Two main aliphatic compounds: decanal and dodecanal were found to be the major contributor. Terpenoid metabolites were identified abundantly in leaves but not in the stem and root of this plant. Further studies on antioxidant, total phenolic content, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were determined in the essential oil and five different extracts. The plant showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity in polar (ethanol extract for all the tissues tested. For anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, leaf in aqueous extract and methanol extract showed the best acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. However, in microbial activity, the non-polar extracts (n-hexane showed high antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA compared to polar extracts. This study could provide the first step in the phytochemical profiles of volatile compounds and explore the additional value of pharmacology properties of this essential oil producing crop Polygonum minus.

  3. Insights on the Phytochemical Profile (Cyclopeptides and Biological Activities of Calotropis procera Latex Organic Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Lustosa Jucá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant whose pharmacological properties are associated with its latex. Here, the Calotropis procera latex fractions were investigated in an attempt to trace its phytochemical profile and measure its anti-inflammatory and toxicity activity. The crude latex was partitioned, yielding five fractions (49.4% hexane, 5.2% dichloromethane, 2.0% ethyl acetate, 2.1% n-butanol, and 41.1% aqueous. Phytochemical screening and spectroscopy analysis revealed that dichloromethane is the most chemically diverse fraction. Triterpenes were detected in both the hexane and dichloromethane fractions, while flavonoids were detected in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines (LD50 0.05 to 3.9 μg/mL and lethal to brine shrimp (LD50 10.9 to 65.7 μg/mL. Reduced neutrophil migration in rats was observed in carrageenan-induced peritonitis for the dichloromethane (67%, ethyl acetate (56%, and aqueous (72% fractions. A positive reaction with tolidine and ninhydrin suggested that cyclopeptides are in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is therefore concluded that Calotropis procera latex dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibit both in vitro and in vivo activities as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Cyclopeptide detection is especially interesting because previous attempts to investigate these low-molecular cyclic amino acid sequences in C. procera have failed.

  4. Analyses in zebrafish embryos reveal that nanotoxicity profiles are dependent on surface-functionalization controlled penetrance of biological membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paatero, Ilkka; Casals, Eudald; Niemi, Rasmus; Özliseli, Ezgi; Rosenholm, Jessica M; Sahlgren, Cecilia

    2017-08-21

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are extensively explored as drug delivery systems, but in depth understanding of design-toxicity relationships is still scarce. We used zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to study toxicity profiles of differently surface functionalized MSNs. Embryos with the chorion membrane intact, or dechoroniated embryos, were incubated or microinjected with amino (NH 2 -MSNs), polyethyleneimine (PEI-MSNs), succinic acid (SUCC-MSNs) or polyethyleneglycol (PEG-MSNs) functionalized MSNs. Toxicity was assessed by viability and cardiovascular function. NH 2 -MSNs, SUCC-MSNs and PEG-MSNs were well tolerated, 50 µg/ml PEI-MSNs induced 100% lethality 48 hours post fertilization (hpf). Dechoroniated embryos were more sensitive and 10 µg/ml PEI-MSNs reduced viability to 5% at 96hpf. Sensitivity to PEG- and SUCC-, but not NH 2 -MSNs, was also enhanced. Typically cardiovascular toxicity was evident prior to lethality. Confocal microscopy revealed that PEI-MSNs penetrated into the embryos whereas PEG-, NH2- and SUCC-MSNs remained aggregated on the skin surface. Direct exposure of inner organs by microinjecting NH 2 -MSNs and PEI-MSNs demonstrated that the particles displayed similar toxicity indicating that functionalization affects the toxicity profile by influencing penetrance through biological barriers. The data emphasize the need for careful analyses of toxicity mechanisms in relevant models and constitute an important knowledge step towards the development of safer and sustainable nanotherapies.

  5. High blood pressure in Panama: prevalence, sociodemographic and biologic profile, treatment, and control (STROBE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Donald Posso, Anselmo J; Motta Borrel, Jorge A; Fontes, Flavia; Cruz Gonzalez, Clara E; Pachón Burgos, Alvaro A; Cumbrera Ortega, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence, treatment, and control of high blood pressure, hypertension (HBP) in Panama and assess its associations with sociodemographic and biologic factors.A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in Panama by administering a survey on cardiovascular risk factors to 3590 adults and measuring their blood pressure 3 times. A single-stage, probabilistic, and randomized sampling strategy with a multivariate stratification was used. The average blood pressure, confidence intervals (CIs), odds ratio (OR), and a value of P ≤ 0.05 were used for the analysis.The estimated prevalence of HBP was 29.6% (95% CI, 28.0-31.1); it was more prevalent in men than in women, OR = 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17-1.61); it increased with age and was more frequent among Afro-Panamanians (33.8%). HBP was associated with a family history of HBP with being physically inactive and a body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m or a waist circumference >90 cm in men and >88 cm in women (P control (<140/90 mm Hg).HBP is the most common cardiovascular risk factor among Panamanians and consequently an important public health problem in Panama. The health care system needs to give a high priority to HBP prevention programs and integrated care programs aimed at treating HBP, taking into consideration the changes in behavior that have been brought about by alterations in nutrition and sedentary lifestyles.

  6. Impact of microencapsulated peptidase (Aspergillus oryzae) on cheddar cheese proteolysis and its biologically active peptide profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneweera, Saman; Kailasapathy, Kaila

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the delivery of calcium-alginate encapsulated peptidase (Flavourzyme(®), Aspergillus oryzae) on proteolysis of Cheddar cheese. Physical and chemical characteristics such as moisture, pH and fat content were measured, and no differences were found between control and experimental cheese at day 0. SDS-PAGE analysis clearly showed that proteolysis of α and k casein was significantly accelerated after three months of maturity in the experimental cheese. A large number of low molecular weight peptides were found in the water soluble fraction of the experimental cheeses and some of these peptides were new. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis identified these as P(1), Leu-Thu-Glu; P(3), Asp-Val-Pro-Ser-Glu) and relatively abundant stable peptides P(2), P(4), Arg-Pro-Lys-His-Pro-Ile; P(5), Arg-Pro-Lys-His-Pro-Ile-Lys and P(6). These peptides were mainly originated from αs1-CN and β-CN. Three of the identified peptides (P(1), P(2), P(3) and P(4)) are known to biologically active and P(1) and P(3) were only present in experimental cheese suggesting that experimental cheese has improved health benefits.

  7. Critical thinking skills profile of senior high school students in Biology learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputri, A. C.; Sajidan; Rinanto, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Critical thinking is an important and necessary skill to confront the challenges of the 21st century. Critical thinking skills accommodate activities that can improve high-order thinking skills. This study aims to determine senior high school students' critical thinking skills in Biology learning. This research is descriptive research using instruments developed based on the core aspects of critical thinking skills according to Facione which include interpretation, analysis, evaluation, explanation, conclusion, and self-regulation. The subjects in this study were 297 students in grade 12 of a senior high school in Surakarta selected through purposive sampling technique. The results of this study showed that the students' critical thinking skills on evaluation and self-regulation are in good criterion with 78% and 66% acquisition while 52% interpretation, 56% analysis, 52% conclusion and 42% explanation indicate sufficient criteria. The conclusion from this research is that critical thinking skill of the students still was in enough category, so that needed a way to enhance it on some indicators.

  8. Polyphenolic profile and biological activities of black carrot crude extract (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, A; Denaro, M; Barreca, D; D'Angelo, V; Germanò, M P; Trombetta, D

    2018-01-01

    Black carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) is a valuable source of carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins and contains also high amounts of anthocyanins giving the characteristic deep-purple color. These latter compounds are known as natural dyes used in the food and pharmaceutical industry that have recently attracted much attention for their healthful properties. The aim of this work was to investigate for the first time the polyphenolic profile and biological properties of a black carrot crude extract (BCCE) through an in-depth analysis of the main polyphenolic classes evaluating its antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties. Twenty five polyphenols were quantified by LC-DAD-FLD-MS/MS analysis (anthocyanins 78.06%, phenolic acids 17.89% and other flavonoids 4.06%) with polyglycosylated cyanidins as major components. In addition, BCCE showed a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity particularly in the hydrogen transfer-based assays (ORAC and β-carotene bleaching) and a significant increase in the cell viability. Furthermore, BCCE exhibited a strong anti-angiogenic activity at the highest concentration assayed on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (50μg/egg). In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated the antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties of BCCE, which highlight that the higher biological activity of BCCE is probably due to the synergic effects exerted by various polyphenolic classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comprehensive examination of conventional and innovative body fluid identification approaches and DNA profiling of laundered blood- and saliva-stained pieces of cloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulstein, G; Wiegand, P

    2018-01-01

    Body fluids like blood and saliva are commonly encountered during investigations of high volume crimes like homicides. The identification of the cellular origin and the composition of the trace can link suspects or victims to a certain crime scene and provide a probative value for criminal investigations. To erase all traces from the crime scene, perpetrators often wash away their traces. Characteristically, items that show exposed stains like blood are commonly cleaned or laundered to free them from potential visible leftovers. Mostly, investigators do not delegate the DNA analysis of laundered items. However, some studies have already revealed that items can still be used for DNA analysis even after they have been laundered. Nonetheless, a systematical evaluation of laundered blood and saliva traces that provides a comparison of different established and newly developed methods for body fluid identification (BFI) is still missing. Herein, we present the results of a comprehensive study of laundered blood- and saliva-stained pieces of cloths that were applied to a broad range of methods for BFI including conventional approaches as well as molecular mRNA profiling. The study included the evaluation of cellular origin as well as DNA profiling of blood- and saliva-stained (synthetic fiber and cotton) pieces of cloths, which have been washed at various washing temperatures for one or multiple times. Our experiments demonstrate that, while STR profiling seems to be sufficiently sensitive for the individualization of laundered items, there is a lack of approaches for BFI with the same sensitivity and specificity allowing to characterize the cellular origin of challenging, particularly laundered, blood and saliva samples.

  10. The detection and quantitative analysis of the psychoactive component of Salvia divinorum, salvinorin A, in human biological fluids using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Pamela C; Holler, Justin M; Vorce, Shawn P; Bosy, Thomas Z; Magluilo, Joseph; Past, Marilyn R

    2008-01-01

    Salvia divinorum, a member of the mint plant family, has hallucinogenic properties that have become increasingly sought after by recreational drug users. The main psychoactive component, salvinorin A, has potency comparable to lysergic acid diethylamide. Though still legal to possess in most of the United States and much of Europe, little is known regarding the compound's long-term health effects, addiction liability, and pharmacokinetics. Limited data are available in the scientific literature, and few analytical methods are published for the detection in human biological fluids. These factors contribute to the unfamiliarity of the compound and complicate the method development process necessary to accommodate special requested testing for salvinorin A. A sensitive analytical method for the detection and quantitation of salvinorin A in human biological fluids was developed and validated to resolve analytical shortcomings. The method utilizes a solid-phase extraction technique coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring mode. The assay has a linear range of 5.0-100 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.997. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were experimentally determined as 2.5 and 5.0 ng/mL, respectively. The method has been applied to blood and urine samples successfully and can be used to detect the presence of salvinorin A in forensic testing.

  11. Detection of oral streptococci in dental unit water lines after therapy with air turbine handpiece: biological fluid retraction more frequent than expected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano; Moroni, Catia; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; Polimeni, Antonella

    2013-03-01

    Oral streptococci detected in water from dental unit water lines (DUWLs) are a surrogate marker of patients' biological fluid retraction during therapy. We investigated oral streptococci detection rate in DUWLs in a representative sample of private offices in real-life conditions. Samples of nondisinfected water (100 ml) were collected from the DUWL designated for the air turbine handpiece in 81 dental units, immediately after dental treatment of patients with extensive air turbine handpiece use. Water was filtered and plated on a selective medium for oral streptococci and, morphologically, typical colonies of oral streptococci were counted. The lowest detection limit was 0.01 CFU/ml. The oral streptococci detection rate was 72% (95% CI: 62-81%), with a mean level of 0.7 CFU/ml. Oral streptococci detection was not affected by handpiece age or dental treatment type, but was associated with dental unit age. Biological fluid retraction into DUWLs during patient treatment and, possibly, the risk for patient-to-patient blood- or air-borne pathogen transmission are more frequent than expected.

  12. Efficacy from Different Extractions for Chemical Profile and Biological Activities of Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Ngoc Minh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk is a by-product produced abundantly in rice production but it has low commercial value and causes environmental pollution. This study was conducted to examine different extracting solvents and conditions to optimize the efficacy of antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials, and chemical components in rice husk. By the use of distilled water at 100 °C, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract was potent in both total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and DPPH scavenging activity. The treatment of either ethyl acetate (100 °C, 1 h, combined with MeOH 100%, showed the highest percent of lipid peroxidation inhibition (LPI (86%, meaning that the strongest antioxidant activity was by the β-carotene bleaching method. The treatment of distilled water at room temperature possessed the strongest antioxidant activity in the assay of the reducing power. The use of dried samples at 100 °C for 2 h, combined with methanol (MeOH 10%, provided the most potent antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, and Proteus mirabilis. The results suggested that the EtOAc extract from rice husk could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. In general, the use of temperature 100 °C for 2 h, combined with either EtOAc or 10% MeOH, can optimize chemical components and antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities in rice husk. Principal constituents putatively identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS revealed the presence of momilactones A and B (MA and MB, respectively, phenols, phenolic acids, and long-chain fatty acids, although yields of these compounds varied among extracts. The bioactive MA and MB were found in most of the extracts, except distilled water and MeOH ≤ 50%, at any temperature. Findings of this study provided optimal conditions for future production at an industrial scale for rice husk to exploit its potent biological properties. It

  13. Adaptation of the Biolog Phenotype MicroArrayTM Technology to Profile the Obligate Anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyner, Dominique; Fortney, Julian; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry

    2010-05-17

    The Biolog OmniLog? Phenotype MicroArray (PM) plate technology was successfully adapted to generate a select phenotypic profile of the strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens (G.m.). The profile generated for G.m. provides insight into the chemical sensitivity of the organism as well as some of its metabolic capabilities when grown with a basal medium containing acetate and Fe(III). The PM technology was developed for aerobic organisms. The reduction of a tetrazolium dye by the test organism represents metabolic activity on the array which is detected and measured by the OmniLog(R) system. We have previously adapted the technology for the anaerobic sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. In this work, we have taken the technology a step further by adapting it for the iron reducing obligate anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens. In an osmotic stress microarray it was determined that the organism has higher sensitivity to impermeable solutes 3-6percent KCl and 2-5percent NaNO3 that result in osmotic stress by osmosis to the cell than to permeable non-ionic solutes represented by 5-20percent ethylene glycol and 2-3percent urea. The osmotic stress microarray also includes an array of osmoprotectants and precursor molecules that were screened to identify substrates that would provide osmotic protection to NaCl stress. None of the substrates tested conferred resistance to elevated concentrations of salt. Verification studies in which G.m. was grown in defined medium amended with 100mM NaCl (MIC) and the common osmoprotectants betaine, glycine and proline supported the PM findings. Further verification was done by analysis of transcriptomic profiles of G.m. grown under 100mM NaCl stress that revealed up-regulation of genes related to degradation rather than accumulation of the above-mentioned osmoprotectants. The phenotypic profile, supported by additional analysis indicates that the accumulation of these osmoprotectants as a response to salt stress does not

  14. Concentration profiles in the wake of a sphere buried in a granular bed through which fluid flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes de Carvalho, J.R.F.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Alves, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The concentration distribution in the wake of a soluble sphere immersed in a granular bed of inerts has been obtained numerically, for transport by both advection and diffusion/dispersion. Fluid flow in the granular bed around the sphere was assumed to follow Darcy's law and, at each point, dispersion of solute was considered in both the cross-stream and stream-wise directions. The elliptic PDE equation, resulting from a differential material balance on the solute, has been solved numerically over a wide range of values of the relevant parameters. (authors)

  15. Concentration profiles in the wake of a sphere buried in a granular bed through which fluid flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes de Carvalho, J.R.F.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Alves, M.A. [Porto Univ., Dpet. de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia (Portugal)

    2005-07-01

    The concentration distribution in the wake of a soluble sphere immersed in a granular bed of inerts has been obtained numerically, for transport by both advection and diffusion/dispersion. Fluid flow in the granular bed around the sphere was assumed to follow Darcy's law and, at each point, dispersion of solute was considered in both the cross-stream and stream-wise directions. The elliptic PDE equation, resulting from a differential material balance on the solute, has been solved numerically over a wide range of values of the relevant parameters. (authors)

  16. Profiling of Candida albicans Gene Expression During Intra-abdominal Candidiasis Identifies Biologic Processes Involved in Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaoji; Clancy, Cornelius J.; Xu, Wenjie; Schneider, Frank; Hao, Binghua; Mitchell, Aaron P.; Nguyen, M. Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background. The pathogenesis of intra-abdominal candidiasis is poorly understood. Methods. Mice were intraperitoneally infected with Candida albicans (1 × 106 colony-forming units) and sterile stool. nanoString assays were used to quantitate messenger RNA for 145 C. albicans genes within the peritoneal cavity at 48 hours. Results. Within 6 hours after infection, mice developed peritonitis, characterized by high yeast burdens, neutrophil influx, and a pH of 7.9 within peritoneal fluid. Organ invasion by hyphae and early abscess formation were evident 6 and 24 hours after infection, respectively; abscesses resolved by day 14. nanoString assays revealed adhesion and responses to alkaline pH, osmolarity, and stress as biologic processes activated in the peritoneal cavity. Disruption of the highly-expressed gene RIM101, which encodes an alkaline-regulated transcription factor, did not impact cellular morphology but reduced both C. albicans burden during early peritonitis and C. albicans persistence within abscesses. RIM101 influenced expression of 49 genes during intra-abdominal candidiasis, including previously unidentified Rim101 targets. Overexpression of the RIM101-dependent gene SAP5, which encodes a secreted protease, restored the ability of a rim101 mutant to persist within abscesses. Conclusions. A mouse model of intra-abdominal candidiasis is valuable for studying pathogenesis and C. albicans gene expression. RIM101 contributes to persistence within intra-abdominal abscesses, at least in part through activation of SAP5. PMID:24006479

  17. Methods in endogenous steroid profiling - A comparison of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with supercritical fluid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubel, Juliane; Wüst, Bernhard; Schipke, Carola G; Peters, Oliver; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2018-06-15

    In various fields of endocrinology, the determination of steroid hormones synthesised by the human body plays an important role. Research on central neurosteroids has been intensified within the last years, as they are discussed as biomarkers for various cognitive disorders. Their concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are considered to be regulated independently from peripheral fluids. For that reason, the challenging matrix CSF becomes a very interesting specimen for analysis. Concentrations are expected to be very low and available amount of CSF is limited. Thus, a comprehensive method for very sensitive quantification of a set of analytes as large as possible in one analytical aliquot is desired. However, high structural similarities of the selected panel of 51 steroids and steroid sulfates, including numerous isomers, challenges achievement of chromatographic selectivity. Since decades the analysis of endogenous steroids in various body fluids is mainly performed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry (MS(/MS)). Due to the structure of the steroids of interest, derivatisation is performed to meet the analytical requirements for GC-MS(/MS). Most of the laboratories use a two-step derivatisation in multi-analyte assays that was already published in the 1980s. However, for some steroids this elaborate procedure yields multiple isomeric derivatives. Thus, some laboratories utilize (ultra) high performance liquid chromatography ((U)HPLC)-MS/MS as alternative but, even UHPLC is not able to separate some of the isomeric pairs. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) as an orthogonal separation technique to GC and (U)HPLC may help to overcome these issues. Within this project the two most promising methods for endogenous steroid profiling were investigated and compared: the "gold standard" GC-MS and the orthogonal separation technique SFC-MS/MS. Different derivatisation procedures for gas chromatographic detection were explored and the

  18. Bronchiole alveolar carcinoma: biological profile, clinicopathologic presentation, evaluation and treatment. Literature review and national series of 26 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez, A.; Terzieff, V.

    2004-01-01

    B. Objective: To study the biological profile, clinic pathologic presentation of BAC, characterized by a peculiar evolutionary behavior, study and treatment. P Methodology: Literature review national and international communication based on 26 cases clinical studied and treated in our midst. Results: The BAC behaves as a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of origin peripheral, typically linked to the Airborne spread to bilateral intrapulmonary cell its three forms: a clear cells and mucous secreting alveolar type II. Present day not considered characteristic of BAC nodal dissemination or hematologic level in the absence of type IV collagenase secretion by tumor cells. It is of no destroying, in one or more cell layers, the bronchiole alveolar septa. Its origin is discussed single or multicenter, while some authors establish etiological factors from benign diseases that can evolve into this neoplasm. It may or may not be linked smoking, presenting clinically in three forms: uni nodular, multi nodular and sclerosing, is studied by CT, FBC generally negative cytological aspiration, puncture or biopsy. It is treated by curative treatment with surgery alone, Rt, Qt and this study the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with apparent antitumor activity in BAC Conclusions Some authors present it as a different adenocarcinoma to other CBPNPC, especially in its advanced form multi nodular. Biological tests set for it that his understanding is confirmed. In its evolution can indiferenciarse to infiltrantres forms characteristic of other adenocarcinomas, particularly in the form sclerosing. this fact biological can explain the emergence of mixed tumors with extensive BAC component together another adenocarcinoma. We believe that there is insufficient evidence at present to say that this is a different from the rest of the CBPNCP adenocarcinoma, although studies biological-genetic of this point to gather evidence for this difference. characteristically FBC is usually negative

  19. Earth mechanisms (fluid and solid), life mechanisms and stable isotope tracers. Isotopes and biology, a great project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.

    1997-01-01

    Historical and recent review of the development and use of radioactive isotopes for biological studies in France: study of the intermediate metabolism with 14 C tracers in organic molecules; study and biosynthesis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and polynucleotides) through the use of marked nucleotides; tracer proteins for use in NMR and protein engineering, use of tritium for the study of hormonal regulation

  20. Targeted Therapy Database (TTD: a model to match patient's molecular profile with current knowledge on cancer biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mocellin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The efficacy of current anticancer treatments is far from satisfactory and many patients still die of their disease. A general agreement exists on the urgency of developing molecularly targeted therapies, although their implementation in the clinical setting is in its infancy. In fact, despite the wealth of preclinical studies addressing these issues, the difficulty of testing each targeted therapy hypothesis in the clinical arena represents an intrinsic obstacle. As a consequence, we are witnessing a paradoxical situation where most hypotheses about the molecular and cellular biology of cancer remain clinically untested and therefore do not translate into a therapeutic benefit for patients. OBJECTIVE: To present a computational method aimed to comprehensively exploit the scientific knowledge in order to foster the development of personalized cancer treatment by matching the patient's molecular profile with the available evidence on targeted therapy. METHODS: To this aim we focused on melanoma, an increasingly diagnosed malignancy for which the need for novel therapeutic approaches is paradigmatic since no effective treatment is available in the advanced setting. Relevant data were manually extracted from peer-reviewed full-text original articles describing any type of anti-melanoma targeted therapy tested in any type of experimental or clinical model. To this purpose, Medline, Embase, Cancerlit and the Cochrane databases were searched. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We created a manually annotated database (Targeted Therapy Database, TTD where the relevant data are gathered in a formal representation that can be computationally analyzed. Dedicated algorithms were set up for the identification of the prevalent therapeutic hypotheses based on the available evidence and for ranking treatments based on the molecular profile of individual patients. In this essay we describe the principles and computational algorithms of an original method

  1. Detection of cancerous biological tissue areas by means of infrared absorption and SERS spectroscopy of intercellular fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicka, M.; Urboniene, V.; Ceponkus, J.; Pucetaite, M.; Jankevicius, F.; Sablinskas, V.

    2015-08-01

    We present a novel approach to the detection of cancerous kidney tissue areas by measuring vibrational spectra (IR absorption or SERS) of intercellular fluid taken from the tissue. The method is based on spectral analysis of cancerous and normal tissue areas in order to find specific spectral markers. The samples were prepared by sliding the kidney tissue over a substrate - surface of diamond ATR crystal in case of IR absorption or calcium fluoride optical window in case of SERS. For producing the SERS signal the dried fluid film was covered by silver nanoparticle colloidal solution. In order to suppress fluorescence background the measurements were performed in the NIR spectral region with the excitation wavelength of 1064 nm. The most significant spectral differences - spectral markers - were found in the region between 400 and 1800 cm-1, where spectral bands related to various vibrations of fatty acids, glycolipids and carbohydrates are located. Spectral markers in the IR and SERS spectra are different and the methods can complement each other. Both of them have potential to be used directly during surgery. Additionally, IR absorption spectroscopy in ATR mode can be combined with waveguide probe what makes this method usable in vivo.

  2. Transcriptomic Profiling of Extracellular RNAs Present in Cerebrospinal Fluid Identifies Differentially Expressed Transcripts in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Fatemi, Roya Pedram; Ahmad, Rili; Peskind, Elaine R.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Hu, Shu-Ching; Shi, Min; Wahlestedt, Claes; Zhang, Jing; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a debilitating neurological disorder for which prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers are lacking. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an accessible body fluid that comes into direct contact with the central nervous system (CNS) and acts as a nuclease-free repository where RNA transcripts shed by brain tissues can reside for extended periods of time. Objective: We studied the RNA species present in the CSF of PD patients to identify novel diagnostic biomarkers. Methods: Small volumes of CSF from 27 PD patients and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were used for RNA extraction followed by next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) using the Illumina platform. CSF contains a number of fragmented RNA species that were individually sequenced and analyzed. Comparing PD to control subjects, we observed a pool of dysregulated sequencing tags that were further analyzed and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results: A total of 201 differentially expressed sequencing tags (DETs), including 92 up-regulated and 109 down-regulated DETs were identified. We validated the following DETs by real time PCR in the patient samples: Dnmt1, Ezh2, CCR3, SSTR5,PTPRC, UBC, NDUFV2, BMP7, SCN9, SCN9 antisense (AC010127.3), and long noncoding RNAs AC079630 and UC001lva.4 (close to the LRRK2 gene locus), as potential PD biomarkers. Conclusions: The CSF is a unique environment that contains many species of RNA. Our work demonstrates that CSF can potentially be used to identify biomarkers for the detection and tracking of disease progression and evaluation of therapeutic outcomes. PMID:26889637

  3. Characterization of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal fluid: identification, antifungal susceptibility, and virulence profile - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.13557

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 101 (20.0% yeast samples were isolated from vaginal fluids of 504 non-hospitalized patients in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil and Candida albicans was more frequent specie (93.1% identified by seminested PCR method. All the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and nystatin, and 93.1% of them were susceptible to fluconazole. The acid proteinase, hemolytic and phospholipase activities were observed in 99.0, 90.0, and 88.0% of Candida spp., respectively. Around 67.0% of the strains had adherence indexes of 0.5 to 1.5 yeasts by Vero cell, and most of them showed a hydrophilic profile. Correlation studies indicated hydrophilic yeasts presented higher adherence index, proteinase, and phospholipase activities; and a positive correlation between all enzymes was also observed. In addition, the isolates with high hemolytic activity were less susceptible to fluconazole and amphotericin B. These results of Candida prevalence and antifungal susceptibility corroborate with literature’s datas and correlation between virulence factors and MIC values suggest Candida isolates from vaginal fluid less susceptible to antifungal and with higher extracellular enzymes production can be more virulent to cause tissue damage.  

  4. Metabolic profile and biological activities of Lavandula pedunculata subsp. lusitanica (Chaytor) Franco: studies on the essential oil and polar extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Sandra; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Almeida, Carlos; Nogueira, José M F; Romano, Anabela

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the metabolic profile and biological activities of the essential oil and polar extracts of Lavandula pedunculata subsp. lusitanica (Chaytor) Franco collected in south Portugal. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that oxygen-containing monoterpenes was the principal group of compounds identified in the essential oil. Camphor (40.6%) and fenchone (38.0%) were found as the major constituents. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis allowed the identification of hydroxycinnamic acids (3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and rosmarinic acids) and flavones (luteolin and apigenin) in the polar extracts, with rosmarinic acid being the main compound in most of them. The bioactive compounds from L. pedunculata polar extracts were the most efficient free-radical scavengers, Fe(2+) chelators and inhibitors of malondialdehyde production, while the essential oil was the most active against acetylcholinesterase. Our results reveal that the subspecies of L. pedunculata studied is a potential source of active metabolites with a positive effect on human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristic cerebrospinal fluid cytokine/chemokine profiles in neuromyelitis optica, relapsing remitting or primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Matsushita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in cytokine/chemokine profiles among patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO, relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS, and primary progressive MS (PPMS, and the relationships of these profiles with clinical and neuroimaging features are unclear. A greater understanding of these profiles may help in differential diagnosis. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured 27 cytokines/chemokines and growth factors in CSF collected from 20 patients with NMO, 26 with RRMS, nine with PPMS, and 18 with other non-inflammatory neurological diseases (OND by multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay. Interleukin (IL-17A, IL-6, CXCL8 and CXCL10 levels were significantly higher in NMO patients than in OND and RRMS patients at relapse, while granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF and CCL4 levels were significantly higher in NMO patients than in OND patients. In NMO patients, IL-6 and CXCL8 levels were positively correlated with disability and CSF protein concentration while IL-6, CXCL8, G-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF and IFN-γ were positively correlated with CSF neutrophil counts at the time of sample collection. In RRMS patients, IL-6 levels were significantly higher than in OND patients at the relapse phase while CSF cell counts were negatively correlated with the levels of CCL2. Correlation coefficients of cytokines/chemokines in the relapse phase were significantly different in three combinations, IL-6 and GM-CSF, G-CSF and GM-CSF, and GM-CSF and IFN-γ, between RRMS and NMO/NMOSD patients. In PPMS patients, CCL4 and CXCL10 levels were significantly higher than in OND patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest distinct cytokine/chemokine alterations in CSF exist among NMO, RRMS and PPMS. In NMO, over-expression of a cluster of Th17- and Th1-related proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines is characteristic, while in PPMS, increased CCL4 and CXCL10 levels may reflect on-going low grade T cell

  6. An experimental validation of the influence of flow profiles and stratified two-phase flow to Lorentz force velocimetry for weakly conducting fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Andreas; Ebert, Reschad; Resagk, Christian; Research Training Group: "Lorentz Force Velocimetry; Lorentz Force Eddy Current Testing" Team

    2016-11-01

    We report about the feasibility of Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) for various flow profiles. LFV is a contactless non-invasive technique to measure flow velocity and has been developed in the last years in our institute. This method is advantageous if the fluid is hot, aggressive or opaque like glass melts or liquid metal flows. The conducted experiments shall prove an increased versatility for industrial applications of this method. For the force measurement we use an electromagnetic force compensation balance. As electrolyte salty water is used with an electrical conductivity in the range of 0.035 which corresponds to tap water up to 20 Sm-1. Because the conductivity is six orders less than that of liquid metals, here the challenging bottleneck is the resolution of the measurement system. The results show only a slight influence in the force signal at symmetric and strongly asymmetric flow profiles. Furthermore we report about the application of LFV to stratified two-phase flows. We show that it is possible to detect interface instabilities, which is important for the dimensioning of liquid metal batteries. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG.

  7. Comprehensive Quantitative Profiling of Tau and Phosphorylated Tau Peptides in Cerebrospinal Fluid by Mass Spectrometry Provides New Biomarker Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Claire L; Mitra, Vikram; Hansson, Karl; Blennow, Kaj; Gobom, Johan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Hiltunen, Mikko; Ward, Malcolm; Pike, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant tau phosphorylation is a hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD), believed to promote formation of paired helical filaments, the main constituent of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. While cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total tau and tau phosphorylated at threonine residue 181 (pThr181) are established core biomarkers for AD, the value of alternative phosphorylation sites, which may have more direct relevance to pathology, for early diagnosis is not yet known, largely due to their low levels in CSF and lack of standardized detection methods. To overcome sensitivity limitations for analysis of phosphorylated tau in CSF, we have applied an innovative mass spectrometry (MS) workflow, TMTcalibratortrademark, to enrich and enhance the detection of phosphoproteome components of AD brain tissue in CSF, and enable the quantitation of these analytes. We aimed to identify which tau species present in the AD brain are also detectable in CSF and which, if any, are differentially regulated with disease. Over 75% coverage of full-length (2N4R) tau was detected in the CSF with 47 phosphopeptides covering 31 different phosphorylation sites. Of these, 11 phosphopeptides were upregulated by at least 40%, along with an overall increase in tau levels in the CSF of AD patients relative to controls. Use of the TMTcalibratortrademark workflow dramatically improved our ability to detect tau-derived peptides that are directly related to human AD pathology. Further validation of regulated tau peptides as early biomarkers of AD is warranted and is currently being undertaken.

  8. Critical Review on the Analytical Techniques for the Determination of the Oldest Statin-Atorvastatin-in Bulk, Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokilambigai, K S; Seetharaman, R; Lakshmi, K S

    2017-11-02

    Statins are a group of medicines that can help to lower the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol "bad cholesterol" in the blood. Having a high level of LDL cholesterol is potentially dangerous, as it can lead to a hardening and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), atorvastatin is one of the oldest member of the statin family and is used in the treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of CVD. Atorvastatin was first made in August 1985 and from 1996 to 2012 under the trade name Lipitor, atorvastatin became the world's best-selling drug. Numerous analytical methodologies are available for the quantification of atorvastatin and its content in pharmaceutical preparations and in biological fluids.

  9. A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in human and laboratory animal biological fluids and tissues by PLE and HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoqin; Wu, Shuangchan; Yue, Yuan; Wang, Shi; Wang, Yuting; Tao, Li; Tian, Hui; Xie, Jianmei; Ding, Hong

    2013-12-30

    A high-throughput method for the determination of 28 mycotoxins involving pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been optimised and validated for determination in various biological fluids and tissues of human and laboratory animals. High-throughput analysis was achieved using PLE pre-treatment and without the need for any cleanup. The extraction solvent was acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80/19/1, v/v/v). The static extraction time was 5min. The extraction pressure and temperature were 1500psi and 140°C, respectively. The flush volume was 60%. The limits of detection, which were defined as CCα, varied from 0.01μg/kg (μg/L) to 0.69μg/kg (μg/L). The recoveries of spiked samples from 0.20μg/kg (μg/L) to 2μg/kg (μg/L) ranged from 71% to 100.5% with relative standard deviations of less than 17.5%, except FB1 and FB2 recoveries, which were lower than 60%. The method was successfully applied in real samples, and the data indicate that this technique is a useful analytical method for the determination of mycotoxins from humans and animals. To the best of our knowledge, this method is the first for the large-scale testing of multi-class mycotoxins in all types of biological fluids and tissues that uses PLE and HPLC-MS/MS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring of chromium and nickel in biological fluids of stainless steel welders using the flux-cored-wire (FCW) welding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stridsklev, Inger Cecilie; Schaller, Karl-Heinz; Langård, Sverre

    2004-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the exposure to chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in flux-cored wire (FCW) welders welding on stainless steel (SS). Seven FCW welders were monitored for 3 days to 1 workweek, measuring Cr and Ni in air, blood, and urine. The welders were questioned about exposure to Cr and Ni during their whole working careers, with emphasis on the week of monitoring, about the use of personal protective equipment and their smoking habits. The air concentrations were mean 200 microg/m(3) (range 2.4-2,744) for total Cr, 11.3 microg/m(3) (416.7) for Ni during the workdays for the five welders who were monitored with air measurements. The levels of Cr and Ni in biological fluids varied between different workplaces. For Cr in whole blood, plasma, and erythrocytes, the mean levels after work were 1.25 (<0.4-8.3) and 1.68 (<0.2-8.0) and 0.9 (<0.4-7.2) microg/l, respectively. For Ni most of the measurements in whole blood and plasma were below the detection limits, the mean levels after work being 0.84 (<0.8-3.3) and 0.57 microg/l (<0.4-1.7), respectively. Mean levels for Cr and Ni in the urine after work were 3.96 (0.34-40.7) and 2.50 (0.56-5.0) microg/g creatinine, respectively. Correlations between the Cr(VI) levels measured in air and the levels of total Cr in the measured biological fluids were found. The results seem to support the view that monitoring of Cr in the urine may be versatile for indirect monitoring of the Cr(VI) air level in FCW welders. The results seem to suggest that external and internal exposure to Cr and Ni in FCW welders welding SS is low in general.

  11. Determination of 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid in biological fluids from humans and rats by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, F; Krapf, R; Brenneisen, R; Bourquin, D; Krähenbühl, S

    1993-10-22

    Methods have been developed and characterized allowing rapid isolation and quantification of 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA) in biological fluids from both humans and rats. Sample preparation includes extraction with urea-methanol for plasma samples, and solid-phase extraction (SPE) for urine and bile samples. Hydrolysis of GRA glucuronides in urine and bile was performed by treatment with beta-glucuronidase. MGRA, the 3-O-methyl derivative of GRA was synthesized as an internal standard resistant to hydrolysis. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed with an isocratic system using methanol-water-acetic acid (83:16.8:0.2, v/v/v) as solvent on a Lichrocart RP-18 column at 30 degrees C with ultraviolet detection. The methods allowed base line separation of GRA and MGRA from all biological fluids tested, with a detection limit of 0.15 mg/l. Validation of the methods included determination of recovery, accuracy and precision in plasma, bile and urine from humans and rats. The methods were further evaluated by investigating the pharmacokinetics of GRA in normal rats and in rats with a bile fistula. Following an intravenous dose of 10 mg/kg, the plasma concentration-time curve of GRA could be fitted to a one compartment model both in control and bile fistula rats. The elimination half life averaged 15.0 +/- 2.2 versus 16.8 +/- 2.4 min in control and bile fistula rats (difference not significant). Within 90 min following administration of GRA, urinary elimination of GRA and GRA glucuronides was less than 1% in both groups whereas biliary elimination averaged 51.3 +/- 3.1%. The results show that the methods developed allow pharmacokinetic studies of GRA in humans and rats.

  12. N-glycan signatures identified in tumor interstitial fluid and serum of breast cancer patients - association with tumor biology and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkelsen, Thilde; Haakensen, Vilde D; Saldova, Radka; Gromov, Pavel; Hansen, Merete Kjaer; Stöckmann, Henning; Lingjaerde, Ole Christian; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Papaleo, Elena; Helland, Åslaug; Rudd, Pauline M; Gromova, Irina

    2018-04-26

    Particular N-glycan structures are known to be associated with breast malignancies by coordinating various regulatory events within the tumor and corresponding microenvironment, thus implying that N-glycan patterns may be used for cancer stratification and as predictive or prognostic biomarkers. However, the association between N-glycans secreted by breast tumor and corresponding clinical relevance remain to be elucidated. We profiled N-glycans by HILIC UPLC across a discovery dataset composed of tumor interstitial fluids (TIF, n=85), paired normal interstitial fluids (NIF, n=54) and serum samples (n=28) followed by independent evaluation, with the ultimate goal of identifying tumor-related N-glycan patterns in blood of breast cancer patients. The segregation of N-linked oligosaccharides revealed 33 compositions, which exhibited differential abundances between TIF and NIF. TIFs were depleted of bisecting N-glycans, which are known to play essential roles in tumor suppression. An increased level of simple high mannose N-glycans in TIF strongly correlated with the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes within tumor. At the same time, a low level of highly complex N-glycans in TIF inversely correlated with the presence of infiltrating lymphocytes within tumor. Survival analysis showed that patients exhibiting increased TIF abundance of GP24 had better outcomes, whereas low levels of GP10, GP23, GP38, and coreF were associated with poor prognosis. Levels of GP1, GP8, GP9, GP14, GP23, GP28, GP37, GP38, and coreF were significantly correlated between TIF and paired serum samples. Cross-validation analysis using an independent serum dataset supported the observed correlation between TIF and serum, for five out of nine N-glycan groups: GP8, GP9, GP14, GP23, and coreF. Collectively, our results imply that profiling of N-glycans from proximal breast tumor fluids is a promising strategy for determining tumor-derived glyco-signature(s) in the blood. N-glycans structures

  13. Flavanol-Enriched Cocoa Powder Alters the Intestinal Microbiota, Tissue and Fluid Metabolite Profiles, and Intestinal Gene Expression in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Saebyeol; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Lakshman, Sukla; Molokin, Aleksey; Harnly, James M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Urban, Joseph F; Davis, Cindy D; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of cocoa-derived polyphenols has been associated with several health benefits; however, their effects on the intestinal microbiome and related features of host intestinal health are not adequately understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of eating flavanol-enriched cocoa powder on the composition of the gut microbiota, tissue metabolite profiles, and intestinal immune status. Male pigs (5 mo old, 28 kg mean body weight) were supplemented with 0, 2.5, 10, or 20 g flavanol-enriched cocoa powder/d for 27 d. Metabolites in serum, urine, the proximal colon contents, liver, and adipose tissue; bacterial abundance in the intestinal contents and feces; and intestinal tissue gene expression of inflammatory markers and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were then determined. O-methyl-epicatechin-glucuronide conjugates dose-dependently increased (Pcocoa powder. The concentration of 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid isomers in urine decreased as the dose of cocoa powder fed to pigs increased (75-85%,Pcocoa powder/d, respectively. Moreover, consumption of cocoa powder reducedTLR9gene expression in ileal Peyer's patches (67-80%,Pcocoa powder/d compared with pigs not supplemented with cocoa powder. This study demonstrates that consumption of cocoa powder by pigs can contribute to gut health by enhancing the abundance ofLactobacillusandBifidobacteriumspecies and modulating markers of localized intestinal immunity. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Recent advances in the determination of tocopherols in biological fluids: from sample pretreatment and liquid chromatography to clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervinkova, Barbora; Krcmova, Lenka Kujovska; Solichova, Dagmar; Melichar, Bohuslav; Solich, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin E comprises eight related compounds: α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherols and α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocotrienols. In the past, α-tocopherol has been the isomer that was studied most, and its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects have been described. Therefore, many prevention trials have investigated the effect of α-tocopherol on human health. Current research studies have also defined the important roles of other tocopherols, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and cancer preventative effects. Knowledge of the individual tocopherols could help to understand their roles in various metabolic pathways. This review summarizes the recent trends in sample pretreatment, liquid chromatography and selected applications of the determination of tocopherols in various biological materials. The relationship between tocopherol isomers and serious diseases is also described. Graphical Abstract Article structure.

  15. Magnetic micro-solid-phase extraction based on magnetite-MCM-41 with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of antidepressant drugs in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzaman, Sazlinda; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Yahaya, Noorfatimah; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Endud, Salasiah; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Nazihah

    2017-11-01

    A new facile magnetic micro-solid-phase extraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry detection was developed for the extraction and determination of selected antidepressant drugs in biological fluids using magnetite-MCM-41 as adsorbent. The synthesized sorbent was characterized by several spectroscopic techniques. The maximum extraction efficiency for extraction of 500 μg/L antidepressant drugs from aqueous solution was obtained with 15 mg of magnetite-MCM-41 at pH 12. The analyte was desorbed using 100 μL of acetonitrile prior to gas chromatography determination. This method was rapid in which the adsorption procedure was completed in 60 s. Under the optimized conditions using 15 mL of antidepressant drugs sample, the calibration curve showed good linearity in the range of 0.05-500 μg/L (r 2  = 0.996-0.999). Good limits of detection (0.008-0.010 μg/L) were obtained for the analytes with good relative standard deviations of solid-phase extraction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is a convenient, fast, and economical method for the extraction and determination of amitriptyline and chlorpromazine in biological samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Biological false-positive venereal disease research laboratory test in cerebrospinal fluid in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S; Lin, R J; Chan, Y H; Ngan, C C L

    2018-03-01

    There is no clear consensus on the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has traditionally been considered the gold standard for diagnosing neurosyphilis but is widely known to be insensitive. In this study, we compared the clinical and laboratory characteristics of true-positive VDRL-CSF cases with biological false-positive VDRL-CSF cases. We retrospectively identified cases of true and false-positive VDRL-CSF across a 3-year period received by the Immunology and Serology Laboratory, Singapore General Hospital. A biological false-positive VDRL-CSF is defined as a reactive VDRL-CSF with a non-reactive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA)-CSF and/or negative Line Immuno Assay (LIA)-CSF IgG. A true-positive VDRL-CSF is a reactive VDRL-CSF with a concordant reactive TPPA-CSF and/or positive LIA-CSF IgG. During the study period, a total of 1254 specimens underwent VDRL-CSF examination. Amongst these, 60 specimens from 53 patients tested positive for VDRL-CSF. Of the 53 patients, 42 (79.2%) were true-positive cases and 11 (20.8%) were false-positive cases. In our setting, a positive non-treponemal serology has 97.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 91.7% negative predictive value for a true-positive VDRL-CSF based on our laboratory definition. HIV seropositivity was an independent predictor of a true-positive VDRL-CSF. Biological false-positive VDRL-CSF is common in a setting where patients are tested without first establishing a serological diagnosis of syphilis. Serological testing should be performed prior to CSF evaluation for neurosyphilis. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. Fast vaporization solid phase microextraction and ion mobility spectrometry: A new approach for determination of creatinine in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mostafa; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Banitaba, Mohamma Hossein

    2015-11-01

    In this work a rapid and simple method for creatinine determination in urine and plasma samples based on aqueous derivatization of creatinine and complete vaporization of sample (as low as 10 µL), followed by ion mobility spectrometry analysis has been proposed. The effect of four important parameters (extraction temperature, total volume of solution, desorption temperature and extraction time) on ion mobility signal has been studied. Under the optimized conditions, the quantitative response of ion mobility spectrometry for creatinine was linear in the range of 0-500 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.6 mg L(-1) in urine and 0-250 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.6 mg L(-1) in plasma sample. The limit of quantitation of creatinine was 2.1 mg L(-1) and 8.7 mg L(-1) in urine and plasma samples, respectively. The relative standard deviation of the method was found to be 13%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of creatinine in biological samples, showing recoveries from 92% to 104% in urine and 101-110% in plasma samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamics Analysis of Fluid-Structure Interaction for a Biologically-Inspired Biped Robot Running on Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsen Xu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A kinematics analysis of a biologically-inspired biped robot is carried out, and the trajectory of the robot foot is understood. For calculating the pressure distribution across a robot foot before touching the surface of water, the compression flow of air and the depression motion of the water surface are considered. The pressure model after touching the water surface has been built according to the theory of rigid body planar motion. The multi-material ALE algorithm is applied to emulate the course of the foot slapping water. The simulation results indicate that the model of the bionic robot can satisfy the water-running function. The real prototype of the robot is manufactured to test its function of running on water. When the biped robot is running on water, the average force generated by the propulsion mechanism is about 1.3N. The experimental results show that the propulsion system can satisfy the requirement of biped robot running on water.

  19. Sensitive radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the simultaneous determination of chloroquine and its metabolites in biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escande, C.; Chevalier, P.; Verdier, F.; Bourdon, R.

    1990-01-01

    Two new methods for the simultaneous determination of chloroquine and its two main metabolites (monodesethylchloroquine and bisdesethylchloroquine) in biological samples, radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are described. Antiserum is produced in rabbits immunized with N-(2-carboxyethyl)desethylchloroquine:protein conjugate. Besides chloroquine, this antiserum recognizes with good affinity the two main metabolites, monodesethylchloroquine and bisdesethylchloroquine (70 and 40% of crossreaction, respectively). Amodiaquine cross reacts by 4.5%; cross reactions with monodesethylamodiaquine, bisdesethylamodiaquine, and other antimalarial drugs are less than 1%. No extraction step or sample preparation is required for either system. Sensitivity limits are, respectively, 0.70 nM (3 pg of chloroquine sulfate measured in 10 microL of plasma sample) for RIA, and 10 nM (22 pg of chloroquine sulfate measured in 5 microL of plasma sample) for ELISA. The interassay coefficients of variation are, respectively, less than 10 and less than 16% for RIA and ELISA in the range 14-410 nM (6-180 ng/mL). The results of both methods are well correlated (r = 0.97) and correlate with spectrophotometry (r = 0.98) and HPLC results (r = 0.93). Because of their high sensitivity, both methods can be used in the case of chloroquine poisoning and in the control of malaria prophylaxis and treatment

  20. Stable isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitative profiling of tryptophan-related neuroactive substances in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hényková, Eva; Vránová, Hana Přikrylová; Amakorová, Petra; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Žukauskaitė, Asta; Vlčková, Magdaléna; Urbánek, Lubor; Novák, Ondřej; Mareš, Jan; Kaňovský, Petr; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-03-11

    Many compounds related to L-tryptophan (L-TRP) have interesting biological or pharmacological activity, and their abnormal neurotransmission seems to be linked to a wide range of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. A high-throughput method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography connected to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed for the quantitative analysis of L-TRP and 16 of its metabolites in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), representing both major and minor routes of L-TRP catabolism. The combination of a fast LC gradient with selective tandem mass spectrometry enabled accurate analysis of almost 100 samples in 24h. The standard isotope dilution method was used for quantitative determination. The method's lower limits of quantification for serum and cerebrospinal fluid ranged from 0.05 to 15nmol/L and 0.3 to 45nmol/L, respectively. Analytical recoveries ranged from 10.4 to 218.1% for serum and 22.1 to 370.0% for CSF. The method's accuracy ranged from 82.4 to 128.5% for serum matrix and 90.7 to 127.7% for CSF matrix. All intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were below 15%. These results demonstrate that the new method is capable of quantifying endogenous serum and CSF levels of a heterogeneous group of compounds spanning a wide range of concentrations. The method was used to determine the physiological levels of target analytes in serum and CSF samples from 18 individuals, demonstrating its reliability and potential usefulness in large-scale epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fludarabine plus alemtuzumab (FA) front-line treatment in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and an adverse biologic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Francesca R; Molica, Stefano; Laurenti, Luca; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Carella, Angelo M; Zaja, Francesco; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Angrilli, Francesco; Nobile, Francesco; Marasca, Roberto; Musolino, Caterina; Brugiatelli, Maura; Piciocchi, Alfonso; Vignetti, Marco; Fazi, Paola; Gentile, Giuseppe; De Propris, Maria S; Della Starza, Irene; Marinelli, Marilisa; Chiaretti, Sabina; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Nanni, Mauro; Albano, Francesco; Cuneo, Antonio; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin

    2014-02-01

    In 45, ≤ 60 years old patients with CLL and an adverse biologic profile, a front-line treatment with Fludarabine and Campath (Alemtuzumab(®)) was given. The overall response rate was 75.5%, the complete response rate (CR) 24.4% with the lowest CR rates, 16.7% and 8.3%, in 11q and 17p deleted cases. The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 42.5% and 79.9%, respectively. PFS was significantly influenced by CLL duration, beta2-microglobulin, and improved by post-remissional stem cell transplantation. Front-line fludarabine and alemtuzumab showed a manageable safety profile and evidence of a benefit in a small series of CLL patients with adverse biologic features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination and profiling of prohibited steroids in human biological matrices. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosetti, Fabio; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Marengo, Emilio

    2013-05-15

    so that, notwithstanding the generally high instrumental costs, the cost of the individual assay is affordable. In addition, the improved specificity and resolution offered by time-of-flight or quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry allow their application in doping control analysis or in steroid profiling for accurate and sensitive full mass range acquisition. Aim of the present review is to consider, compare and discuss the applications of the UHPLC/MS methods present in literature for the identification and determination of forbidden steroids and their metabolites in human biological matrices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Observing Physical and Biological Drivers of pH and O2 in a Seasonal Ice Zone in the Ross Sea Using Profiling Float Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, E.; Martz, T. R.; Talley, L. D.; Mazloff, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Ice cover has strong influence over gas exchange, vertical stability, and biological production which are critical to understanding the Southern Ocean's central role in oceanic biogeochemical cycling and heat and carbon uptake under a changing climate. However the relative influence of physical versus biological processes in this hard-to-study region is poorly understood due to limited observations. Here we present new findings from a profiling float equipped with biogeochemical sensors in the seasonal ice zone of the Ross Sea capturing, for the first time, under-ice pH profile data over a two year timespan from 2014 to the present. The relative influence of physical (e.g. vertical mixing and air-sea gas exchange) and biological (e.g. production and respiration) drivers of pH and O2 within the mixed layer are explored during the phases of ice formation, ice cover, and ice melt over the two seasonal cycles. During the austral fall just prior to and during ice formation, O2 increases as expected due to surface-layer undersaturation and enhanced gas exchange. A small increase in pH is also observed during this phase, but without a biological signal in accompanying profiling float chlorophyll data, which goes against common reasoning from both a biological and physical standpoint. During the phase of ice cover, gas exchange is inhibited and a clear respiration signal is observed in pH and O2 data from which respiration rates are calculated. In the austral spring, ice melt gives rise to substantial ice edge phytoplankton blooms indicated by O2 supersaturation and corresponding increase in pH and large chlorophyll signal. The influence of the duration of ice cover and mixed layer depth on the magnitude of the ice edge blooms is explored between the two seasonal cycles.

  4. Optimization and evaluation of surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for protein profiling of cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez-Mancilla Baltazar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF potentially carries an archive of peptides and small proteins relevant to pathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS and surrounding brain tissue. Proteomics is especially well suited for the discovery of biomarkers of diagnostic potential in CSF for early diagnosis and discrimination of several neurodegenerative diseases. ProteinChip surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS is one such approach which offers a unique platform for high throughput profiling of peptides and small proteins in CSF. In this study, we evaluated methodologies for the retention of CSF proteins m/z we found a high degree of overlap between the tested array surfaces. The combination of CM10 and IMAC30 arrays was sufficient to represent between 80–90% of all assigned peaks when using either sinapinic acid or α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid as the energy absorbing matrices. Moreover, arrays processed with SPA consistently showed better peak resolution and higher peak number across all surfaces within the measured mass range. We intend to use CM10 and IMAC30 arrays prepared in sinapinic acid as a fast and cost-effective approach to drive decisions on sample selection prior to more in-depth discovery of diagnostic biomarkers in CSF using alternative but complementary proteomic strategies.

  5. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  6. H-point standard additions method for simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids with simultaneous addition of two analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givianrad, M. H.; Saber-Tehrani, M.; Aberoomand-Azar, P.; Mohagheghian, M.

    2011-03-01

    The applicability of H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is verified by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The results show that the H-point standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. The results of applying the H-point standard additions method showed that the two drugs could be determined simultaneously with the concentration ratios of sulfamethoxazole to trimethoprim varying from 1:18 to 16:1 in the mixed samples. Also, the limits of detections were 0.58 and 0.37 μmol L -1 for sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. In addition the means of the calculated RSD (%) were 1.63 and 2.01 for SMX and TMP, respectively in synthetic mixtures. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in some synthetic, pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluid samples.

  7. Rapid determination of methadone and its major metabolite in biological fluids by gas-liquid chromatography with thermionic detection for maintenance treatment of opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhi-Chorfi, N; Pham-Huy, C; Galons, H; Manuel, N; Lowenstein, W; Warnet, J M; Claude, J R

    1998-11-06

    A rapid gas-liquid chromatographic assay is developed for the quantification of methadone (Mtd) and its major metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), in biological fluids of opiate addicts. After alkaline extraction from samples with lidocaine hydrochloride as internal standard, Mtd and EDDP are separated on SP-2250 column at 220 degrees C and detected with a thermionic detector. The chromatographic time is about 6 min. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) of Mtd and EDDP standards are between 1.5 and 5.5%. Most drugs of abuse (morphine, codeine, narcotine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, dextropropoxyphene etc) are shown not to interfere with this technique. The method has been applied to study the levels of Mtd and EDDP metabolite in serum, saliva and urine of patients under maintenance treatment for opiate dependence. EDDP levels were found higher than those of Mtd in urine samples from four treated patients, but lower in serum and undetectable in saliva. However, Mtd concentrations were higher in saliva than in serum.

  8. Hyperdynamic CSF motion profiles found in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer's disease assessed by fluid mechanics derived from magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Ken; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Hayashi, Naokazu; Hirayama, Akihiro; Yatsushiro, Satoshi; Kuroda, Kagayaki

    2017-10-18

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) does not only ascertain morphological features, but also measures physiological properties such as fluid velocity or pressure gradient. The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in patients with morphological abnormalities such as enlarged brain ventricles and subarachnoid spaces. We used a time-resolved three dimensional phase contrast (3D-PC) MRI technique to quantitatively evaluate CSF dynamics in the Sylvian aqueduct of healthy elderly individuals and patients with either idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) presenting with ventricular enlargement. Nineteen healthy elderly individuals, ten iNPH patients, and seven AD patients (all subjects ≥ 60 years old) were retrospectively evaluated 3D-PC MRI. The CSF velocity, pressure gradient, and rotation in the Sylvian aqueduct were quantified and compared between the three groups using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Mann-Whitney U tests. There was no statistically significant difference in velocity among the three groups. The pressure gradient was not significantly different between the iNPH and AD groups, but was significantly different between the iNPH group and the healthy controls (p < 0.001), and similarly, between the AD group and the healthy controls (p < 0.001). Rotation was not significantly different between the iNPH and AD groups, but was significantly different between the iNPH group and healthy controls (p < 0.001), and similarly, between the AD group and the healthy controls (p < 0.001). Quantitative analysis of CSF dynamics with time resolved 3D-PC MRI revealed differences and similarities in the Sylvian aqueduct between healthy elderly individuals, iNPH patients, and AD patients. The results showed that CSF motion is in a hyperdynamic state in both iNPH and AD patient groups compared to healthy elderly individuals, and that iNPH patients and AD patients display similar CSF motion profiles.

  9. Glycoblotting method allows for rapid and efficient glycome profiling of human Alzheimer's disease brain, serum and cerebrospinal fluid towards potential biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, Solomon T; Ohashi, Tetsu; Tanaka, Masakazu; Hinou, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    Understanding of the significance of posttranslational glycosylation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of growing importance for the investigation of the pathogenesis of AD as well as discovery research of the disease-specific serum biomarkers. We designed a standard protocol for the glycoblotting combined with MALDI-TOFMS to perform rapid and quantitative profiling of the glycan parts of glycoproteins (N-glycans) and glycosphingolipids (GSLs) using human AD's post-mortem samples such as brain tissues (dissected cerebral cortices such as frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal domains), serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The structural profiles of the major N-glycans released from glycoproteins and the total expression levels of the glycans were found to be mostly similar between the brain tissues of the AD patients and those of the normal control group. In contrast, the expression levels of the serum and CSF protein N-glycans such as bisect-type and multiply branched glycoforms were increased significantly in AD patient group. In addition, the levels of some gangliosides such as GM1, GM2 and GM3 appeared to alter in the AD patient brain and serum samples when compared with the normal control groups. Alteration of the expression levels of major N- and GSL-glycans in human brain tissues, serum and CSF of AD patients can be monitored quantitatively by means of the glycoblotting-based standard protocols. The changes in the expression levels of the glycans derived from the human post-mortem samples uncovered by the standardized glycoblotting method provides potential serum biomarkers in central nervous system disorders and can contribute to the insight into the molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and future drug discovery. Most importantly, the present preliminary trials using human post-mortem samples of AD patients suggest that large-scale serum glycomics cohort by means of various-types of human AD patients as well as the normal

  10. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-05-06 to 2016-06-05 (NCEI Accession 0153543)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0153543 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  11. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-03-13 to 2015-05-07 (NCEI Accession 0128346)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0128346 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  12. Physical, chemical and biological profile data collected aboard the vessel HERMANO GINES in support of the Carbon Retention in A Colored Ocean (CARIACO) project in the Caribbean Sea from October 9, 2001 to July 8, 2003 (NODC Accession 0001345)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical and biological profile data collected using bottle and CTD casts aboard the vessel HERMANO GINES by the Fundacion La Salle (Venezuela) in support...

  13. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-03-31 to 2014-05-23 (NODC Accession 0119096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0119096 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  14. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-09-01 to 2015-11-06 (NCEI Accession 0132052)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0132052 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  15. Physical, biological, and chemical data from radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution as part of the SeaWiFS/SIMBIOS project from 13 September 1981 to 16 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, biological, and chemical data were collected using radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution from 13...

  16. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-09-07 to 2016-09-23 (NCEI Accession 0164080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164080 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  17. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the Bay of Fundy and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-09-07 to 2014-11-13 (NODC Accession 0123520)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0123520 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  18. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2017-03-28 to 2017-04-27 (NCEI Accession 0164797)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164797 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  19. Analytical methods for the determination of mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives in human and environmental exposure sources and biological fluids. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero-Casero, N.; Lunar, L.; Rubio, S.

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in humans and the environment. Its potential adverse effects through genomic and non-genomic pathways have fostered BPA replacement by bisphenol analogs that, unfortunately, exert similar adverse effects. Many of these analogs, as well as their derivatives, have already found in humans and the environment and major concerns have arisen over their low dose- and mixture-related effects. This review aims to discuss the characteristics of the main analytical methods reported so far for the determination of mixtures of bisphenol analogs and/or derivatives in human and environmental exposure sources and biological fluids. Approaches followed for removal of background contamination, sample preparation and separation and detection of mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives are critically discussed. Sample treatment is matrix-dependent and common steps include analyte isolation, removal of interferences, evaporation of the extracts and solvent reconstitution. Separation and quantification has been almost exclusively carried out by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS), in the last case prior derivatization, but LC-fluorescence detection has also found some applications. Main characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of these methods will be comparatively discussed. Although at an early stage, some approaches for the assessment of the risk to mixtures of bisphenols, mainly based on the combination of chemical target analysis and toxicity evaluation, have been already applied and they will be here presented. Current knowledge gaps hindering a reliable assessment of human and environmental risk to mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives will be outlined. - Highlights: • Analytical methods for the (bio)monitoring of mixtures of bisphenols are reviewed. • LC and CG coupled to MS are the preferred techniques. • Method-dependent sample treatments are required to remove matrix

  20. A rapid MCM-41 dispersive micro-solid phase extraction coupled with LC/MS/MS for quantification of ketoconazole and voriconazole in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Noorfatimah; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Abd Aziz, Noorizan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Nur, Hadi; Loh, Saw Hong; Kamaruzaman, Sazlinda

    2017-02-01

    A rapid dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) combined with LC/MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of ketoconazole and voriconazole in human urine and plasma samples. Synthesized mesoporous silica MCM-41 was used as sorbent in d-μ-SPE of the azole compounds from biological fluids. Important D-μ-SPE parameters, namely type desorption solvent, extraction time, sample pH, salt addition, desorption time, amount of sorbent and sample volume were optimized. Liquid chromatographic separations were carried out on a Zorbax SB-C 18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 3.5 μm), using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.05% formic acid in 5 mm ammonium acetate buffer (70:30, v/v). A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with positive ionization mode was used for the determination of target analytes. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.1-10,000 μg/L with satisfactory limit of detection (≤0.06 μg/L) and limit of quantitation (≤0.3 μg/L). The proposed method also showed acceptable intra- and inter-day precisions for ketoconazole and voriconazole from urine and human plasma with RSD ≤16.5% and good relative recoveries in the range 84.3-114.8%. The MCM-41-D-μ-SPE method proved to be rapid and simple and requires a small volume of organic solvent (200 μL); thus it is advantageous for routine drug analysis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Analytical methods for the determination of mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives in human and environmental exposure sources and biological fluids. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Casero, N.; Lunar, L.; Rubio, S., E-mail: qa1rubrs@uco.es

    2016-02-18

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in humans and the environment. Its potential adverse effects through genomic and non-genomic pathways have fostered BPA replacement by bisphenol analogs that, unfortunately, exert similar adverse effects. Many of these analogs, as well as their derivatives, have already found in humans and the environment and major concerns have arisen over their low dose- and mixture-related effects. This review aims to discuss the characteristics of the main analytical methods reported so far for the determination of mixtures of bisphenol analogs and/or derivatives in human and environmental exposure sources and biological fluids. Approaches followed for removal of background contamination, sample preparation and separation and detection of mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives are critically discussed. Sample treatment is matrix-dependent and common steps include analyte isolation, removal of interferences, evaporation of the extracts and solvent reconstitution. Separation and quantification has been almost exclusively carried out by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS), in the last case prior derivatization, but LC-fluorescence detection has also found some applications. Main characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of these methods will be comparatively discussed. Although at an early stage, some approaches for the assessment of the risk to mixtures of bisphenols, mainly based on the combination of chemical target analysis and toxicity evaluation, have been already applied and they will be here presented. Current knowledge gaps hindering a reliable assessment of human and environmental risk to mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives will be outlined. - Highlights: • Analytical methods for the (bio)monitoring of mixtures of bisphenols are reviewed. • LC and CG coupled to MS are the preferred techniques. • Method-dependent sample treatments are required to remove matrix

  2. Evaluating vertical concentration profile of carbon source released from slow-releasing carbon source tablets and in situ biological nitrate denitrification activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeum, Y.; HAN, K.; Yoon, J.; Lee, J. H.; Song, K.; Kang, J. H.; Park, C. W.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Slow-releasing carbon source tablets were manufactured during the design of a small-scale in situ biological denitrification system to reduce high-strength nitrate (> 30 mg N/L) from a point source such as livestock complexes. Two types of slow-releasing tablets, precipitating tablet (PT, apparent density of 2.0 g/mL) and floating tablet (FT), were prepared to achieve a vertically even distribution of carbon source (CS) in a well and an aquifer. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was used to control the release rate, and microcrystalline cellulose pH 101 (MCC 101) was added as a binder. The #8 sand was used as a precipitation agent for the PTs, and the floating agents for the FTs were calcium carbonate and citric acid. FTs floated within 30 min. and remained in water because of the buoyance from carbon dioxide, which formed during the acid-base reaction between citric acid and calcium carbonate. The longevities of PTs with 300 mg of HPMC and FTs with 400 mg of HPMC were 25.4 days and 37.3 days, respectively. We assessed vertical CS profile in a continuous flowing physical aquifer model (release test, RT) and its efficiency on biological nitrate denitrification (denitrification test, DT). During the RT, PTs, FTs and a tracer (as 1 mg rhodamine B/L) were initially injected into a well of physical aquifer model (PAM). Concentrations of CS and the tracer were monitored along the streamline in the PAM to evaluate vertical profile of CS. During the DT, the same experiment was performed as RT, except continuous injection of solution containing 30 mg N/L into the PAM to evaluate biological denitrification activity. As a result of RT, temporal profiles of CS were similar at 3 different depths of monitoring wells. These results suggest that simultaneous addition of PT and FT be suitable for achieving a vertically even distribution of the CS in the injection well and an aquifer. In DT, similar profile of CS was detected in the injection well, and nitrate was biologically

  3. Epidemiological profile of work-related accidents with biological exposure among medical students in a surgical emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Phillipe Geraldo Teixeira de Abreu; Driessen, Anna Luiza; da Costa, Ana Claudia Brenner Affonso; Nasr, Adonis; Collaço, Iwan Augusto; Tomasich, Flávio Daniel Saavedra

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the accidents with biological material among medical students interning in a trauma emergency room and identify key related situations, attributed causes and prevention. we conducted a study with a quantitative approach. Data were collected through a questionnaire applied via internet, with closed, multiple-choice questions regarding accidents with biological material. The sample comprised 100 students. thirty-two had accidents with biological material. Higher-risk activities were local anesthesia (39.47%), suture (18.42%) and needle recapping (15.79%). The main routes of exposure to biological material were the eyes or mucosa, with 34%, and syringe needle puncture, with 45%. After contamination, only 52% reported the accident to the responsible department. The main causes of accidents and routes of exposure found may be attributed to several factors, such as lack of training and failure to use personal protective equipment. Educational and preventive actions are extremely important to reduce the incidence of accidents with biological materials and improve the conduct of post-exposure. It is important to understand the main causes attributed and situations related, so as general and effective measures can be applied.

  4. Gene expression profiling with principal component analysis depicts the biological continuum from essential thrombocythemia over polycythemia vera to myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Thomassen, Mads; Riley, Caroline H

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of the Janus activating kinase 2 V617F mutation in most patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and half of those with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) has favored the hypothesis of a biological continuum from ET over PV to PMF. We performed gene...... with biological relevant overlaps between the different entities. Moreover, the analysis separates Janus activating kinase 2-negative ET patients from Janus activating kinase 2-positive ET patients. Functional annotation analysis demonstrates that clusters of gene ontology terms related to inflammation, immune...... system, apoptosis, RNA metabolism, and secretory system were the most significantly deregulated terms in the three different disease groups. Our results yield further support for the hypothesis of a biological continuum originating from ET over PV to PMF. Functional analysis suggests an important...

  5. Chemical profiling and biological activity analysis of cone, bark and needle of Pinus roxburghii collected from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Thapa

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that among that needle, cone and bark of Pinus roxburghii as a huge source of biological active metabolites. Furthermore, bark extract revealed the presence of diverse chemical constituent. [J Complement Med Res 2018; 7(1.000: 66-75

  6. Dangers resulting from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT with regard to forensic genetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Jacewicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study documents the risk that comes with DNA analysis of materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT in forensic genetics. DNA chimerism was studied in 30 patients after allo-HSCT, based on techniques applied in contemporary forensic genetics, i.e. real-time PCR and multiplex PCR-STR with the use of autosomal DNA as well as Y-DNA markers. The results revealed that the DNA profile of the recipient’s blood was identical with the donor’s in the majority of cases. Therefore, blood analysis can lead to false conclusions in personal identification as well as kinship analysis. An investigation of buccal swabs revealed a mixture of DNA in the majority of recipients. Consequently, personal identification on the basis of stain analysis of the same origin may be impossible. The safest (but not ideal material turned out to be the hair root. Its analysis based on autosomal DNA revealed 100% of the recipient’s profile. However, an analysis based on Y-chromosome markers performed in female allo-HSCT recipients with male donors demonstrated the presence of donor DNA in hair cells – similarly to the blood and buccal swabs. In the light of potential risks arising from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from persons after allotransplantation in judicial aspects, certain procedures were proposed to eliminate such dangers. The basic procedures include abandoning the approach based exclusively on blood collection, both for kinship analysis and personal identification; asking persons who are to be tested about their history of allo-HSCT before sample collection and profile entry in the DNA database, and verification of DNA profiling based on hair follicles in uncertain cases.

  7. Comparative analysis of biological effect of corannulene and graphene on developmental and sleep/wake profile of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xu; Feng, DaoFu; Zhang, ShuHui; Zhao, Xin; Chen, DongYan; Zhang, ZhiXiang; Feng, XiZeng

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the biological effect of non-planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as corannulene on organisms. In this study, we compared the effect of corannulene (non-planar PAH) and graphene (planar PAH) on embryonic development and sleep/wake behaviors of larval zebrafish. First, the toxicity of graded doses of corannulene (1, 10, and 50μg/mL) was tested in developing zebrafish embryos. Corannulene showed minimal developmental toxicity only induced an epiboly delay. Further, a significant decrease in locomotion/increase in sleep was observed in larvae treated with the highest dose (50μg/mL) of corannulene while no significant locomotion alterations were induced by graphene. Finally, the effect of corannulene or graphene on the hypocretin (hcrt) system and sleep/wake regulators such as hcrt, hcrt G-protein coupled receptor (hcrtr), and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase-2 (aanat2) was evaluated. Corannulene increased sleep and reduced locomotor activity and the expression of hcrt and hcrtr mRNA while graphene did not obviously disturb the sleep behavior and gene expression patterns. These results suggest that the corannulene has the potential to cause hypnosis-like behavior in larvae and provides a fundamental comparative understanding of the effects of corannulene and graphene on biology systems. Little is known about the biological effect of non-planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as corannulene on organisms. Here, we compare the effect of corannulene (no-planar PAH) and graphene (planar PAH) on embryonic development and sleep/wake behaviors of larval zebrafish. And we aim to investigate the effect of curvature on biological system. First, toxicity of corannulene over the range of doses (1μg/mL, 10μg/mL and 50μg/mL) was tested in developing zebrafish embryos. Corannulene has minimal developmental toxicity, only incurred epiboly delay. Subsequently, a significant decrease in locomotion/increase in sleep at the highest

  8. The dynamic ocean biological pump: Insights from a global compilation of particulate organic carbon, CaCO3, and opal concentration profiles from the mesopelagic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Doney, Scott C.; Bishop, James K. B.

    2011-09-01

    We have compiled a global data set of 62 open ocean profiles of particulate organic carbon (POC), CaCO3, and opal concentrations collected by large volume in situ filtration in the upper 1000 m over the last 30 years. We define concentration-based metrics for the strength (POC concentration at depth) and efficiency (attenuation of POC with depth in the mesopelagic) of the biological pump. We show that the strength and efficiency of the biological pump are dynamic and are characterized by a regime of constant and high transfer efficiency at low to moderate surface POC and a bloom regime where the height of the bloom is characterized by a weak deep biological pump and low transfer efficiency. The variability in POC attenuation length scale manifests in a clear decoupling between the strength of the shallow biological pump (e.g., POC at the export depth) and the strength of the deep biological pump (POC at 500 m). We suggest that the paradigm of diatom-driven export production is driven by a too restrictive perspective on upper mesopelagic dynamics. Indeed, our full mesopelagic analysis suggests that large, blooming diatoms have low transfer efficiency and thus may not export substantially to depth; rather, our analysis suggests that ecosystems characterized by smaller cells and moderately high %CaCO3 have a high mesopelagic transfer efficiency and can have higher POC concentrations in the deep mesopelagic even with relatively low surface or near-surface POC. This has negative implications for the carbon sequestration prospects of deliberate iron fertilization.

  9. Fluid biopsy for circulating tumor cell identification in patients with early-and late-stage non-small cell lung cancer: a glimpse into lung cancer biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendel, Marco; Kolatkar, Anand; Honnatti, Meghana; Cho, Edward H; Marrinucci, Dena; Kuhn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts are an established prognostic marker in metastatic prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, and recent data suggest a similar role in late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to sensitivity constraints in current enrichment-based CTC detection technologies, there are few published data about CTC prevalence rates and morphologic heterogeneity in early-stage NSCLC, or the correlation of CTCs with disease progression and their usability for clinical staging. We investigated CTC counts, morphology and aggregation in early stage, locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC patients by using a fluid-phase biopsy approach that identifies CTCs without relying on surface-receptor-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. HD-CTCs were analyzed in blood samples from 78 chemotherapy-naïve NSCLC patients. 73% of the total population had a positive HD-CTC count (>0 CTC in 1 mL of blood) with a median of 4.4 HD-CTCs mL −1 (range 0–515.6) and a mean of 44.7 (±95.2) HD-CTCs mL −1 . No significant difference in the medians of HD-CTC counts was detected between stage IV (n = 31, range 0–178.2), stage III (n = 34, range 0–515.6) and stages I/II (n = 13, range 0–442.3). Furthermore, HD-CTCs exhibited a uniformity in terms of molecular and physical characteristics such as fluorescent cytokeratin intensity, nuclear size, frequency of apoptosis and aggregate formation across the spectrum of staging. Our results demonstrate that despite stringent morphologic inclusion criteria for the definition of HD-CTCs, the HD-CTC assay shows high sensitivity in the detection and characterization of both early- and late-stage lung cancer CTCs. Extensive studies are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of CTC profiling in early-stage lung cancer. This finding has implications for the design of extensive studies examining screening, therapy and

  10. Simultaneous quantitative profiling of 20 isoprostanoids from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids by LC-MS/MS in various biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Aude; Le Faouder, Pauline; Vigor, Claire; Oger, Camille; Galano, Jean-Marie; Dray, Cédric; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung; Valet, Philippe; Gladine, Cécile; Durand, Thierry; Bertrand-Michel, Justine

    2016-05-19

    Isoprostanoids are a group of non-enzymatic oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It belongs to oxylipins group, which are important lipid mediators in biological processes, such as tissue repair, blood clotting, blood vessel permeability, inflammation and immunity regulation. Recently, isoprostanoids from eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, adrenic and α-linolenic namely F3-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, F2-dihomo-isoprostanes and F1-phytoprostanes, respectively have attracted attention because of their putative contribution to health. Since isoprostanoids are derived from different substrate of PUFAs and can have similar or opposing biological consequences, a total isoprostanoids profile is essential to understand the overall effect in the testing model. However, the concentration of most isoprostanoids range from picogram to nanogram, therefore a sensitive method to quantify 20 isoprostanoids simultaneously was formulated and measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The lipid portion from various biological samples was extracted prior to LC-MS/MS evaluation. For all the isoprostanoids LOD and LOQ, and the method was validated on plasma samples for matrix effect, yield of extraction and reproducibility were determined. The methodology was further tested for the isoprostanoids profiles in brain and liver of LDLR(-/-) mice with and without docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation. Our analysis showed similar levels of total F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes in the liver and brain of non-supplemented LDLR(-/-) mice. The distribution of different F2-isoprostane isomers varied between tissues but not for F4-neuroprostanes which were predominated by the 4(RS)-4-F4t-neuroprostane isomer. DHA supplementation to LDLR(-/-) mice concomitantly increased total F4-neuroprostanes levels compared to F2-isoprostanes but this effect was more pronounced in the liver than brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. Determination of ibogaine and noribogaine in biological fluids and hair by LC-MS/MS after Tabernanthe iboga abuse Iboga alkaloids distribution in a drowning death case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chèze, Marjorie; Lenoan, Aurélie; Deveaux, Marc; Pépin, Gilbert

    2008-03-21

    Tabernanthe iboga belongs to the Apocynaceae family. In this study, we report the case of a 37-year-old black male working as a security agent in Paris and found dead naked on the beach in Gabon after consumption of iboga. Autopsy revealed a drowning fatality and a myocardial abnormality (myocardial bridging). Samples of blood, urine, bile, gastric content, liver, lungs, vitreous, spleen and hair were taken. Biological fluids were liquid-liquid extracted with saturated NH4Cl pH 9.5 and methylene chloride/isopropanol (95/5, v/v) in presence of clonazepam-d(4), used as internal standard. After decontamination with dichloromethane, hair was cut into small pieces then sonicated for 2h in saturated NH4Cl pH 9.5 before extraction by methylene chloride/isopropanol (95/5, v/v). After evaporation the residues were reconstituted in methanol/ACN/formate buffer pH 3, from which 10 microL were injected into an ODB Uptisphere C(18) column (150 mm x 2.1mm, 5 microm) and eluted with a gradient of acetonitrile and formate buffer delivered at a flow rate of 200 microL/min. A Quantum Ultra triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for analyses. Ionization was achieved using electrospray in the positive ionization mode (ESI). For each compound, detection was related to three daughter ions (ibogaine: m/z 311.4-->122.1, 174.1 and 188.1; noribogaine: m/z 297.4-->122.1, 159.1 and 160.1; clonazepam-d(4): m/z 319.9-->218.1, 245.1 and 274.1). Ibogaine and noribogaine were detected in all autopsy samples. Hair segmentation was not possible as hair was very short and frizzy. Concentrations of 1.2 and 2.5 ng/mg, respectively were detected. Neither other licit or illicit drugs nor alcohol were found. The presence of ibogaine and noribogaine in all autopsy samples was consistent with the recent absorption of Tabernanthe iboga, which was assumed to be responsible of the drowning fatality. The history of exposure, regarding hair analysis, is discussed. LC-MS/MS appears to be the best method for

  12. Integrated DNA methylation and copy-number profiling identify three clinically and biologically relevant groups of anaplastic glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiestler, Benedikt; Capper, David; Sill, Martin; Jones, David T W; Hovestadt, Volker; Sturm, Dominik; Koelsche, Christian; Bertoni, Anna; Schweizer, Leonille; Korshunov, Andrey; Weiß, Elisa K; Schliesser, Maximilian G; Radbruch, Alexander; Herold-Mende, Christel; Roth, Patrick; Unterberg, Andreas; Hartmann, Christian; Pietsch, Torsten; Reifenberger, Guido; Lichter, Peter; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Platten, Michael; Pfister, Stefan M; von Deimling, Andreas; Weller, Michael; Wick, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    The outcome of patients with anaplastic gliomas varies considerably. Whether a molecular classification of anaplastic gliomas based on large-scale genomic or epigenomic analyses is superior to histopathology for reflecting distinct biological groups, predicting outcomes and guiding therapy decisions has yet to be determined. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation analysis, using a platform which also allows the detection of copy-number aberrations, was performed in a cohort of 228 patients with anaplastic gliomas (astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas, and oligodendrogliomas), including 115 patients of the NOA-04 trial. We further compared these tumors with a group of 55 glioblastomas. Unsupervised clustering of DNA methylation patterns revealed two main groups correlated with IDH status: CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) positive (77.5 %) or negative (22.5 %). CIMP(pos) (IDH mutant) tumors showed a further separation based on copy-number status of chromosome arms 1p and 19q. CIMP(neg) (IDH wild type) tumors showed hallmark copy-number alterations of glioblastomas, and clustered together with CIMP(neg) glioblastomas without forming separate groups based on WHO grade. Notably, there was no molecular evidence for a distinct biological entity representing anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. Tumor classification based on CIMP and 1p/19q status was significantly associated with survival, allowing a better prediction of outcome than the current histopathological classification: patients with CIMP(pos) tumors with 1p/19q codeletion (CIMP-codel) had the best prognosis, followed by patients with CIMP(pos) tumors but intact 1p/19q status (CIMP-non-codel). Patients with CIMP(neg) anaplastic gliomas (GBM-like) had the worst prognosis. Collectively, our data suggest that anaplastic gliomas can be grouped by IDH and 1p/19q status into three molecular groups that show clear links to underlying biology and a significant association with clinical outcome in a prospective trial cohort.

  13. Celularidade do líquido de LBA em crianças e adolescentes saudáveis e com doenças pulmonares Cell profile of BAL fluid in children and adolescents with and without lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Furtado de Mendonça Picinin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo rever a literatura existente sobre a celularidade do LBA em crianças e adolescentes saudáveis, bem como sobre sua utilização como método propedêutico e de acompanhamento nas afecções pulmonares neste grupo etário. Para tanto, utilizamos o banco de dados médico Medline com a seleção de artigos publicados entre 1989 e 2009 utilizando os seguintes descritores MeSH com operadores boolianos: bronchoalveolar lavage AND cytology OR cell AND child. Em crianças saudáveis, a celularidade é composta por macrófagos alveolares (> 80%, linfócitos (cerca de 10%, neutrófilos (cerca de 2% e eosinófilos (The objective of this study was to review the literature on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell profiles in healthy children and adolescents, as well as on the use of BAL as a diagnostic and follow-up tool for lung disease patients in this age bracket. To that end, we used the Medline database, compiling studies published between 1989 and 2009 employing the following MeSH descriptors (with Boolean operators as search terms: bronchoalveolar lavage AND cytology OR cell AND child. In healthy children, the cell profile includes alveolar macrophages (> 80%, lymphocytes (approximately 10%, neutrophils (approximately 2% and eosinophils (< 1%. The profile varies depending on the disease under study. The number of neutrophils is greater in wheezing children, especially in non-atopic children, as well as in those with pulmonary infectious and inflammatory profiles, including cystic fibrosis and interstitial lung disease. Eosinophil counts are elevated in children/adolescents with asthma and can reach high levels in those with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or eosinophilic syndromes. In a heterogenous group of diseases, the number of lymphocytes can increase. Evaluation of the BAL fluid cell profile, when used in conjunction with clinical and imaging findings, has proven to be an essential tool in the investigation of

  14. Three-dimensional image technology in forensic anthropology: Assessing the validity of biological profiles derived from CT-3D images of the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Leon Valenzuela, Maria Julia

    This project explores the reliability of building a biological profile for an unknown individual based on three-dimensional (3D) images of the individual's skeleton. 3D imaging technology has been widely researched for medical and engineering applications, and it is increasingly being used as a tool for anthropological inquiry. While the question of whether a biological profile can be derived from 3D images of a skeleton with the same accuracy as achieved when using dry bones has been explored, bigger sample sizes, a standardized scanning protocol and more interobserver error data are needed before 3D methods can become widely and confidently used in forensic anthropology. 3D images of Computed Tomography (CT) scans were obtained from 130 innominate bones from Boston University's skeletal collection (School of Medicine). For each bone, both 3D images and original bones were assessed using the Phenice and Suchey-Brooks methods. Statistical analysis was used to determine the agreement between 3D image assessment versus traditional assessment. A pool of six individuals with varying experience in the field of forensic anthropology scored a subsample (n = 20) to explore interobserver error. While a high agreement was found for age and sex estimation for specimens scored by the author, the interobserver study shows that observers found it difficult to apply standard methods to 3D images. Higher levels of experience did not result in higher agreement between observers, as would be expected. Thus, a need for training in 3D visualization before applying anthropological methods to 3D bones is suggested. Future research should explore interobserver error using a larger sample size in order to test the hypothesis that training in 3D visualization will result in a higher agreement between scores. The need for the development of a standard scanning protocol focusing on the optimization of 3D image resolution is highlighted. Applications for this research include the possibility

  15. Retrospective analysis of Bluetongue farm risk profile definition, based on biology, farm management practices and climatic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappai, Stefano; Loi, Federica; Coccollone, Annamaria; Contu, Marino; Capece, Paolo; Fiori, Michele; Canu, Simona; Foxi, Cipriano; Rolesu, Sandro

    2018-07-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by species of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Many studies have contributed to clarifying various aspects of its aetiology, epidemiology and vector dynamic; however, BT remains a disease of epidemiological and economic importance that affects ruminants worldwide. Since 2000, the Sardinia region has been the most affected area of the Mediterranean basin. The region is characterised by wide pastoral areas for sheep and represents the most likely candidate region for the study of Bluetongue virus (BTV) distribution and prevalence in Italy. Furthermore, specific information on the farm level and epidemiological studies needs to be provided to increase the knowledge on the disease's spread and to provide valid mitigation strategies in Sardinia. This study conducted a punctual investigation into the spatial patterns of BTV transmission to define a risk profile for all Sardinian farmsby using a logistic multilevel mixed model that take into account agro-meteorological aspects, as well as farm characteristics and management. Data about animal density (i.e. sheep, goats and cattle), vaccination, previous outbreaks, altitude, land use, rainfall, evapotranspiration, water surface, and farm management practices (i.e. use of repellents, treatment against insect vectors, storage of animals in shelter overnight, cleaning, presence of mud and manure) were collected for 12,277 farms for the years 2011-2015. The logistic multilevel mixed model showed the fundamental role of climatic factors in disease development and the protective role of good management, vaccination, outbreak in the previous year and altitude. Regional BTV risk maps were developed, based on the predictor values of logistic model results, and updated every 10 days. These maps were used to identify, 20 days in advance, the areas at highest risk. The risk farm profile, as defined by the model, would provide specific information about the role of each

  16. PROFIL TINGKATAN HABITS OF MIND DAN KECEMASAN KOGNITIF DALAM MATA PELAJARAN BIOLOGI PADA SISWA SMA DI KOTA BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Riksa Isfiani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to explore level of habits of minds and cognitive anxiousness profile of senior high school students in Bandung. Descriptive analysis is used as a research method with stratified random sampling techniques. The population of this research were all of the students 11th and 12th grade in Bandung. Collecting data was conducted on 11th and 12th grade of four different school as sample using questionnaire instrument. Habits of mind instrument was adapted from Costa and Kallick’s and anxiousness cognitive test was adapted from Cassady and Johnson’s. The result of this research shows that habits of minds score average and cognitive anxiousness score average of 11th and 12th grade were 111,77 (75% and 53,15 (66% for 11th grade and 114,66 (76% and 56,17 (69% for 12th grade. The results show us that habits of minds and cognitive anxiousness of  11th and 12th grade were moderate categorically.

  17. Semianalytical Solution for the Deformation of an Elastic Layer under an Axisymmetrically Distributed Power-Form Load: Application to Fluid-Jet-Induced Indentation of Biological Soft Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Minhua; Huang, Shuai; Yang, Xianglong; Yang, Lei; Mao, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Fluid-jet-based indentation is used as a noncontact excitation technique by systems measuring the mechanical properties of soft tissues. However, the application of these devices has been hindered by the lack of theoretical solutions. This study developed a mathematical model for testing the indentation induced by a fluid jet and determined a semianalytical solution. The soft tissue was modeled as an elastic layer bonded to a rigid base. The pressure of the fluid jet impinging on the soft tissue was assumed to have a power-form function. The semianalytical solution was verified in detail using finite-element modeling, with excellent agreement being achieved. The effects of several parameters on the solution behaviors are reported, and a method for applying the solution to determine the mechanical properties of soft tissues is suggested.

  18. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R; Skirrow, Rachel C; Rieberger, Kevin J; van Aggelen, Graham; Meays, Cynthia L; Helbing, Caren C

    2013-10-15

    An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in principle, to field-captured Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Estudo comparativo das características fluidodinâmicas de próteses valvulares biológicas de pericárdio bovino de perfil alto e baixo Comparative study of fluid dynamic characteristics in high and low biological prosthetic heart valves from bovine pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron J. P Andrade

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento fluidodinâmico e a vida útil média de uma prótese valvular cardíaca são características muito importantes na escolha do modelo de prótese a ser implantada em um determinado paciente. Por esse motivo, foi realizado um estudo comparativo entre as válvulas biológicas de perfil alto e baixo, para se verificarem possíveis alterações na vida média, gradiente de pressão e refluxo, causadas pela diminuição do perfil dessas próteses. Com o auxílio de um duplicador de pulso, foram analisadas cinco próteses de perfil alto e cinco de perfil baixo, todas tamanho 29, fabricadas no Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia (IDPC. Mantendo-se a freqüência de batimentos em 100 bpm e a diferença de pressão em 1000 mmHg, verificou-se que a vida útil média da válvula de perfil baixo permaneceu equivalente à de perfil alto. Em outro equipamento, denominado simulador cardíaco, as próteses foram submetidas a condições semelhantes às condições fisiológicas de funcionamento para uma freqüência cardíaca de 75 bpm. Os resultados mostraram que o volume de retorno necessário para fechamento (refluxo, nas válvulas de perfil baixo, é menor do que nas de perfil alto. Isso traz um melhor aproveitamento do efeito de bombeamento do coração. As perdas de carga das válvulas foram comparadas através dos gradientes máximos de pressão visibilizados com a sobreposição dos sinais de pressão. Observou-se que as válvulas de perfil baixo oferecem menos resistência ao fluxo; assim, quando são implantadas, possibilitam uma passagem mais livre e desobstruída do sangue.The fluid dynamic performance and lifetime of a prosthetic heart valve are one of the most important characteristics to determine the choice of what prosthesis must be applied to a patient. Because of this, two different biological prosthetic heart valves profiles (one high profile and other low profile were studied, to verify possible alterations of working

  20. Individual Differences in the Temporal Profile of Cardiovascular Responses to Head Down Tilt and Orthostatic Stress with and Without Fluid Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William; Kanis, Dionisios; Gebreyesus, Fiyore

    2013-01-01

    Susceptibility of healthy astronauts to orthostatic hypotension and presyncope is exacerbated upon return from spaceflight. Hypo-volemia is suspected to play an important role in cardiovascular deconditioning following exposure to spaceflight, which may lead to increased peripheral resistance, attenuated arterial baroreflex, and changes in cardiac function. The effect of altered gravity during space flight and planetary transition on human cardiovascular function is of critical importance to maintenance of astronaut health and safety. A promising countermeasure for post-flight orthostatic intolerance is fluid loading used to restore loss fluid volume by giving crew salt tablets and water prior to re-entry. Eight men and eight women will be tested during two, 6-hour exposures to 6o HDT: 1) fluid loading, 2) no fluid loading. Before and immediately after each HDT, subjects will perform a stand test to assess their orthostatic tolerance. Physiological measures (e.g., ECG, blood pressure, peripheral blood volume) will be continuously monitored while echocardiography measures are recorded at 30-minute intervals during HDT and stand tests. Preliminary results (N=4) clearly show individual differences in responses to this countermeasure and the time course of physiological changes induced by HDT.

  1. Biologic Propensities and Phytochemical Profile of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmelin (Rubiaceae: An Underutilized Native Medicinal Food Plant from Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelvana Ramalingum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vangueria madagascariensis (VM, consumed for its sweet-sour fruits, is used as a biomedicine for the management of diabetes and bacterial infections in Africa. The study aims to assess the potential of VM on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, glucose movement, and antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant properties were determined by measuring the FRAP, iron chelating activity, and abilities to scavenge DPPH, HOCl, ∙OH, and NO radicals. Leaf decoction, leaf methanol, and unripe fruit methanol extracts were observed to significantly inhibit α-amylase. Active extracts against α-glucosidase were unripe fruit methanol, unripe fruit decoction, leaf decoction, and ripe fruit methanol, which were significantly lower than acarbose. Kinetic studies revealed a mixed noncompetitive type of inhibition. Leaf methanolic extract was active against S. aureus and E. coli. Total phenolic content showed a strong significant positive correlation (r=0.88 with FRAP. Methanolic leaf extract showed a more efficient NO scavenging potential and was significantly lower than ascorbic acid. Concerning ∙OH-mediated DNA degradation, only the methanol extracts of leaf, unripe fruit, and ripe fruit had IC50 values which were significantly lower than α-tocopherol. Given the dearth of information on the biologic propensities of VM, this study has established valuable primary information which has opened new perspectives for further pharmacological research.

  2. Reproductive biology, steroid and biochemical profiles of Dentex dentex ovaries in the Eastern Mediterranean in relation to histological structure

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    R.F. Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on reproductive biology in female Dentex dentex, which is a summer multiple spawner with the spawning period extending from late April to June. Females with body length over 35 cm were mature. The GSI value had peak values during May and June. The ova diameter ranged over nine groups (50–700 μm. The relative fecundity ranged from 510 to 1276 eggs per g gutted weight and from 20,409 to 22,595 eggs per 1 cm total length. The histological appearance of the ovarian cycle was divided into five periods. The histological structure of the maturing and ripe oocyte wall shows the presence of five different layers. Baseline of testosterone and estradiol levels was found during the immature and spent, whereas the peak value was found in prespawning and ripe-spawning period. While the maximum total lipid content was in the maturing ovary, the minimum was in muscles of prespawning female. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (PUFA for ovary, liver and muscles were docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6 n-3 and eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3 acids, whereas n-6 (PUFA were linoleic (18:2 n-6 and arachidonic (20:4 n-6. All together, the present observations gave basic data of the reproductive cycle of female D. dentex required for its successful spawning.

  3. Chemical profile and biological potential of non-polar fractions from Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Otávio P; De Felício, Rafael; Rodrigues, Ana Helena B; Ambrósio, Daniela L; Cicarelli, Regina Maria B; De Albuquerque, Sérgio; Young, Maria Claudia M; Yokoya, Nair S; Debonsi, Hosana M

    2011-08-19

    The present study reports the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) evaluation of the hexanes and dichloromethane fractions from extracts of the red alga Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne. Twenty three compounds were identified, totaling ca. 42% of both fractions (0.18 g mass extract). The main constituents of the fractions were hexadecanoic acid (17.6%) and pentadecanoic acid (15.9%). Several secondary metabolites with interesting biological activity, such as (-)-loliolide, neophytadiene, phytol were identified. In addition, several classes of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds (e.g., phenylacetic acid), terpene derivatives, fatty acids, halogenated compound (e.g., 2-chlorocyclohexenol), lignoids, steroids, esters, amides (e.g., hexadecanamide), ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols were observed. The occurrence of several of these structural classes is described for the first time in this species. The same fractions analyzed by GC-MS, and a separate set of polar fractions, were evaluated against two life cycle stages (epimastigote and trypomastigote forms) of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and against phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporiodes and C. sphaerospermum. The dichloromethane fraction was active against both T. cruzi forms (epimastigote IC(50) = 19.1 μg.mL-1 and trypomastigote IC(50) = 76.2 μg.mL-1). The hexanes and ethyl acetate fractions also displayed activity against both fungi species (200 μg) by TLC-bioautography.

  4. Chemical Profile and Biological Potential of Non-Polar Fractions from Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh Montagne (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosana M. Debonsi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS evaluation of the hexanes and dichloromethane fractions from extracts of the red alga Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh Montagne. Twenty three compounds were identified, totaling ca. 42% of both fractions (0.18 g mass extract. The main constituents of the fractions were hexadecanoic acid (17.6% and pentadecanoic acid (15.9%. Several secondary metabolites with interesting biological activity, such as (--loliolide, neophytadiene, phytol were identified. In addition, several classes of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds (e.g., phenylacetic acid, terpene derivatives, fatty acids, halogenated compound (e.g., 2-chlorocyclohexenol, lignoids, steroids, esters, amides (e.g., hexadecanamide, ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols were observed. The occurrence of several of these structural classes is described for the first time in this species. The same fractions analyzed by GC-MS, and a separate set of polar fractions, were evaluated against two life cycle stages (epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and against phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporiodes and C. sphaerospermum. The dichloromethane fraction was active against both T. cruzi forms (epimastigote IC50 = 19.1 μg.mL−1 and trypomastigote IC50 = 76.2 μg.mL−1. The hexanes and ethyl acetate fractions also displayed activity against both fungi species (200 μg by TLC-bioautography.

  5. Profile of senior high school students’ creative thinking skills on biology material in low, medium, and high academic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhamidah, D.; Masykuri, M.; Dwiastuti, S.

    2018-04-01

    Creative thinking is one of the most important skills of the 21st Century. Students are demanded not only be able to solve the cognitive problems but also to face the life problems. The aim of this study is to determine students’ creative thinking skills in biology class for XI grade of three Senior High Schools in Ngawi regency. The approach used to categorised the three schools into low, medium and high academic rank was a norm-referenced test. The study involved 92 students who completed a test. Guilford's alternative uses task was used to measure the level of students’ creative thinking skills. The results showed that in the school of high academic rank, 89,74% of students had low creative thinking skills and 10,25% of them are in moderate category. In the medium academic rank school, 85,71% of students had low creative thinking skills and 14,29% of them are moderate. In the school of low academic rank, 8% of students had very low creative thinking skills, 88% are low, and 4% are moderate. Based on the finding of the research, the creative thinking skills of students in the three school was categorised as low level, therefore the learning design should be developed which can improve the students’ creative thinking skills.

  6. A Comparative Study on Phytochemical Profiles and Biological Activities of Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich. Hochst Leaf and Bark Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Russo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich. Hochst (Anacardiaceae is a savannah tree that has long been used in sub-Saharan Africa as a medicinal remedy for numerous ailments. The purpose of this study was to increase the scientific knowledge about this plant by evaluating the total content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the methanol extracts of the leaves and bark (MLE and MBE, respectively, as well as the in vitro antioxidant activity and biological activities of these extracts. Reported results show that MLE is rich in flavonoids (132.7 ± 10.4 mg of quercetin equivalents/g, whereas MBE has the highest content of tannins (949.5 ± 29.7 mg of tannic acid equivalents/g. The antioxidant activity was measured using four different in vitro tests: β-carotene bleaching (BCB, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, O2−•, and nitric oxide (NO• assays. In all cases, MBE was the most active compared to MLE and the standards used (Trolox and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, MBE and MLE were tested to evaluate their activity in HepG2 and fibroblast cell lines. A higher cytotoxic activity of MBE was evidenced and confirmed by more pronounced alterations in cell morphology. MBE induced cell death, triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, which led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with subsequent cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Moreover, MBE showed lower cytotoxicity in normal human dermal fibroblasts, suggesting its potential as a selective anticancer agent.

  7. Selectivity Profiling and Biological Activity of Novel β-Carbolines as Potent and Selective DYRK1 Kinase Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Rüben

    Full Text Available DYRK1A is a pleiotropic protein kinase with diverse functions in cellular regulation, including cell cycle control, neuronal differentiation, and synaptic transmission. Enhanced activity and overexpression of DYRK1A have been linked to altered brain development and function in Down syndrome and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The β-carboline alkaloid harmine is a high affinity inhibitor of DYRK1A but suffers from the drawback of inhibiting monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A with even higher potency. Here we characterized a series of novel harmine analogs with minimal or absent MAO-A inhibitory activity. We identified several inhibitors with submicromolar potencies for DYRK1A and selectivity for DYRK1A and DYRK1B over the related kinases DYRK2 and HIPK2. An optimized inhibitor, AnnH75, inhibited CLK1, CLK4, and haspin/GSG2 as the only off-targets in a panel of 300 protein kinases. In cellular assays, AnnH75 dose-dependently reduced the phosphorylation of three known DYRK1A substrates (SF3B1, SEPT4, and tau without negative effects on cell viability. AnnH75 inhibited the cotranslational tyrosine autophosphorylation of DYRK1A and threonine phosphorylation of an exogenous substrate protein with similar potency. In conclusion, we have characterized an optimized β-carboline inhibitor as a highly selective chemical probe that complies with desirable properties of drug-like molecules and is suitable to interrogate the function of DYRK1A in biological studies.

  8. Development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: interrogation of key proteins and biological processes in human follicular fluid of women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarkovská, Karla; Skalníková, Helena; Halada, Petr; Hrabáková, Rita; Moos, J.; Rezábek, K.; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 11 (2011), s. 679-692 ISSN 1360-9947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biomarkers * computer modelling * human follicular fluid Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth Impact factor: 3.852, year: 2011

  9. Métodos de extração e/ou concentração de compostos encontrados em fluidos biológicos para posterior determinação cromatográfica Methods of extraction and/or concentration of compounds found in biological fluids for subsequent chromatographic determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia C. N. Queiroz

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available When organic compounds present in biological fluids are analysed by chromatographic methods, it is generally necessary to carry out a prior sample preparation due the high complexity of this type of sample, especially when the compounds to be determinated are found in very low concentrations. This article describes some of the principal methods for sample preparation in analyses of substances present in biological fluids. The methods include liquid-liquid extraction, solid phase extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and extraction using solid and liquid membranes. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed.

  10. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  11. Proteome Mining of Human Follicular Fluid Reveals a Crucial Role of Complement Cascade and Key Biological Pathways in Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarkovská, Karla; Martinková, Jiřina; Lišková, Lucie; Halada, Petr; Moos, J.; Rezábek, K.; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2010), s. 1289-1301 ISSN 1535-3893 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS9781; GA AV ČR 1QS500450568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Human follicular fluid * plasma * assisted reproduction Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth Impact factor: 5.460, year: 2010

  12. HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHIC PROFILING OF TRYPTOPHAN AND RELATED INDOLES IN BODY-FLUIDS AND TISSUES OF CARCINOID PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KEMA, IP; SCHELLINGS, AMJ; HOPPENBROUWERS, CJM; RUTGERS, HM; DEVRIES, EGE; MUSKIET, FAJ

    1993-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method with quaternary gradient elution and fluorometric detection was developed for profiling of tryptophan (TRP), 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) in urine, platelet-rich plasma and (tumour) tissue of

  13. Ecotoxicological testing of performance fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallqvist, T.

    1990-05-01

    The report deals with a project comprising the testing of drilling fluids concerning ecotoxicology, biological degradation, and toxicity. Two types of drilling fluids were tested for toxic effects on marine algae and biological degradability. A fluid based on mineral oil was readily degradable (98% DOC removal in 28 days) while an ether based oil degraded more slowly (56% DOC removal in 28 days). The toxicity of both fluids was tested after emulsification of the oils in water and separating the oil and water phase after equilibration. The EC 50 values obtained with this approach were 8.15 g/l for the oil based fluid and 116 g/l for the ether fluid. 9 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Rieberger, Kevin J. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Meays, Cynthia L. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  15. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R.; Skirrow, Rachel C.; Rieberger, Kevin J.; Aggelen, Graham van; Meays, Cynthia L.; Helbing, Caren C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  16. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  17. The Variety of Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Francis; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses three research topics which are concerned with eminently practical problems and deal at the same time with fundamental fluid dynamical problems. These research topics come from the general areas of chemical and biological engineering, geophysics, and pure mathematics. (HM)

  18. Metabolomic Profiling of the Effects of Melittin on Cisplatin Resistant and Cisplatin Sensitive Ovarian Cancer Cells Using Mass Spectrometry and Biolog Microarray Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanad Alonezi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was employed to characterise the metabolic profiles of two human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive and A2780CR (cisplatin-resistant in response to their exposure to melittin, a cytotoxic peptide from bee venom. In addition, the metabolomics data were supported by application of Biolog microarray technology to examine the utilisation of carbon sources by the two cell lines. Data extraction with MZmine 2.14 and database searching were applied to provide metabolite lists. Principal component analysis (PCA gave clear separation between the cisplatin-sensitive and resistant strains and their respective controls. The cisplatin-resistant cells were slightly more sensitive to melittin than the sensitive cells with IC50 values of 4.5 and 6.8 μg/mL respectively, although the latter cell line exhibited the greatest metabolic perturbation upon treatment. The changes induced by melittin in the cisplatin-sensitive cells led mostly to reduced levels of amino acids in the proline/glutamine/arginine pathway, as well as to decreased levels of carnitines, polyamines, adenosine triphosphate (ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+. The effects on energy metabolism were supported by the data from the Biolog assays. The lipid compositions of the two cell lines were quite different with the A2780 cells having higher levels of several ether lipids than the A2780CR cells. Melittin also had some effect on the lipid composition of the cells. Overall, this study suggests that melittin might have some potential as an adjuvant therapy in cancer treatment.

  19. Stable isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitative profiling of tryptophan-related neuroactive substances in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hényková, Eva; Přikrylová Vránová, H.; Amakorová, Petra; Pospíšil, T.; Žukauskaitė, Asta; Vlčková, Magdaléna; Urbánek, Lubor; Novák, Ondřej; Mareš, J.; Kaňovský, P.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1437, MAR 11 (2016), s. 145-157 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Tryptophan metabolism * UHPLC-MS/MS * Neurochemicals Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  20. Fatty acid profile in the ruminal fluid and in the m. longissimus dorsi of lambs fed herbage or concentrate with or without tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Priolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight male lambs were divided into two groups at age 45 d. Fourteen lambs were given fresh herbage (vetch; the remaining lambs were fed a concentrate-based diet. Within each treatment, seven lambs received a supplementation of quebracho tannins. At slaughter (age 105 d the ruminal content and the muscle longissimus dorsi (LD were collected. Ruminal fluid and LD fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Among the concentrates-fed lambs, tannins supplementation reduced (P < 0.05 the concentration of C18:0 (- 49 % and increased vaccenic acid (VA; + 69 % in the ruminal fluid. When tannins were included into the concentrate, the LD contained double levels of rumenic acid (RA as compared to the LD of the lambs fed the tannins-free concentrate (0.96 vs. 0.46 % of total extracted fatty acids, respectively; P < 0.05. The concentration of PUFA was higher (P < 0.05 and SFA (P < 0.01 lower in the LD from lambs fed the tannin diets as compared to the animals receiving the tannin-free diets. In conclusion, tannins reduce the biohydrogenation of the PUFA in the rumen. This implies that tannins supplementation could be a strategy to increase the RA and PUFA content and to reduce the SFA into ruminant meats.

  1. Highly invasive alien plant Reynoutria japonica Houtt. represents a novel source for pharmaceutical industry - evidence from phenolic profile and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božin Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reynoutria japonica is on the IUCN list of the Worlds’100 worst invasive species, but it is also, especially its rhizome, an integral part of traditional chinese medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of selected phenolic compounds in rhizome, stems, leaves and inflorescence methanol extracts of this plant, their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity. The chemical profile of the examined extracts was obtained by a high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro assays on DPPH, OH and NO radicals were used to estimate antioxidant potential and Ellman’s method was applied for the determination of anticholinesterase activity. Leaves and rhizome extracts were found to be rich in rosmarinic and chlorogenic acid, and selected flavonoids. Resveratrol was exclusively present in rhizome and stems extracts. All the investigated extracts expressed certain antioxidant activity, where leaves extract was the most active. However, rhizome extract was the strongest inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. These findings indicate that there is a possibility of R. japonica exploitation for the isolation of biologically active phenolic compounds used in pharmaceutical and food industry.

  2. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Katya; Fiordiponti, Luciano

    2016-07-22

    Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates), bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols), HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h) were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•) assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines.

  3. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Carbone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates, bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols, HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH• and ABTS+• assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines.

  4. Messenger RNA biomarker signatures for forensic body fluid identification revealed by targeted RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E; Ingold, S; Haas, C; Ballantyne, J

    2018-05-01

    The recovery of a DNA profile from the perpetrator or victim in criminal investigations can provide valuable 'source level' information for investigators. However, a DNA profile does not reveal the circumstances by which biological material was transferred. Some contextual information can be obtained by a determination of the tissue or fluid source of origin of the biological material as it is potentially indicative of some behavioral activity on behalf of the individual that resulted in its transfer from the body. Here, we sought to improve upon established RNA based methods for body fluid identification by developing a targeted multiplexed next generation mRNA sequencing assay comprising a panel of approximately equal sized gene amplicons. The multiplexed biomarker panel includes several highly specific gene targets with the necessary specificity to definitively identify most forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues (blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin). In developing the biomarker panel we evaluated 66 gene targets, with a progressive iteration of testing target combinations that exhibited optimal sensitivity and specificity using a training set of forensically relevant body fluid samples. The current assay comprises 33 targets: 6 blood, 6 semen, 6 saliva, 4 vaginal secretions, 5 menstrual blood and 6 skin markers. We demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the assay and the ability to identify body fluids in single source and admixed stains. A 16 sample blind test was carried out by one lab with samples provided by the other participating lab. The blinded lab correctly identified the body fluids present in 15 of the samples with the major component identified in the 16th. Various classification methods are being investigated to permit inference of the body fluid/tissue in dried physiological stains. These include the percentage of reads in a sample that are due to each of the 6 tissues/body fluids tested and

  5. Exploring the HYDRAtion method for loading siRNA on liposomes: the interplay between stability and biological activity in human undiluted ascites fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakwar, George R; Braeckmans, Kevin; Ceelen, Wim; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Remaut, Katrien

    2017-04-01

    Delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is recently gaining tremendous attention for the treatment of ovarian cancer. The present study investigated the potential of different liposomal formulations composed of (2,3-dioleoyloxy-propyl)-trimethylammonium (DOTAP) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) encapsulating siRNA (hydration method) for their ability to knockdown luciferase (Luc) activity in human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells. Fluorescence single particle tracking (fSPT) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in human-undiluted ascites fluid obtained from a peritoneal carcinomatosis patient revealed that cationic hydra-lipoplexes (HYDRA-LPXs) and HYDRA-LPXs decorated with stable DSPE-PEG (DSPE HYDRA-LPXs) showed high stability during at least 24 h. HYDRA-LPXs decorated with sheddable C8 and C16 PEG-Ceramides (Cer HYDRA-LPXs) resulted in rapid and premature release of siRNA already in the first hours. Despite their role in preventing aggregation in vivo, liposomes decorated with stable PEG residues resulted in a poor transfection compared to the ones decorated with sheddable PEG residues in reduced serum conditions. Yet, the transfection efficiency of both Cer HYDRA-LPXs significantly decreased following 1 h of incubation in ascites fluid due to a drastic drop in the cellular uptake, while DSPE HYDRA-LPXs are still taken up by cells, but too stable to induce efficient gene silencing.

  6. Magnetite nanoparticles coated with covalently immobilized ionic liquids as a sorbent for extraction of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs from biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, Maryam; Yadollah, Yamini; Safari, Meysam; Asiabi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (mag-NPs) of type SiO_2-Fe_3O_4 were covalently modified with the ionic liquid dimethyl octadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl propyl)]ammonium chloride. The NPs were characterized via FTIR and scanning electron microscopy and evaluated with respect to the extraction of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) tolmetin, indometacin and naproxen from blood samples. Supercritical fluid extraction was used to eliminate matrix effects before extraction with the mag-NPs. The effects of pH value of sample solution, amount of adsorbent, times of adsorption and desorption, salt effect, type and volume of suitable solvent for desorption were optimized. Under optimum conditions, magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) resulted in limits of detection that range between 0.1 and 0.3 μg L"−"1. In case of supercritical fluid extraction along with magnetic solid phase extraction (SFE- MSPE), the LODs ranged from 0.2 to 0.3 mg kg"−"1. The analytical ranges for all of the NSAIDs varied within 0.2–15 mg kg"-"1 and 0.1–250 μg L"−"1 in the SFE-MSPE and MSPE methods, respectively. The relative standard deviations for the extraction of the NSAIDs from blood samples via SFE-MSPE are <10.2%. (author)

  7. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  8. Effect of the FSH receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms (FSHR 307/680) on the follicular fluid hormone profile and the granulosa cell gene expression in human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, Tanni Kjær; Jeppesen, J V; Lindgren, I

    2014-01-01

    ), by evaluating the hormone and gene expression profiles of human small antral follicles collected under physiological conditions in connection with fertility preservation. In total 69 women at various time during the menstrual cycle were included in this study. The intrafollicular hormone content of 179...... was significantly increased, whereas AMH gene expression was significantly reduced for the G/G genotype. In follicles >6 mm, estradiol and CYP19A1 gene expression levels were significantly higher for the G/G genotype. In conclusion, significant changes were observed between the FSHR 307/680 polymorphisms in human......The most pronounced effects of FSH signalling are potentially displayed in the follicle fluid, which acts as a reservoir for FSH-induced granulosa cell (GC) secreted hormones. This study investigates the effects of two common polymorphisms of FSHR, FSHR 307 (rs6165) and FSHR 680 (rs6166...

  9. The polymorphic insertion of the luteinizing hormone receptor "insLQ" show a negative association to LHR gene expression and to the follicular fluid hormonal profile in human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, T; Chrudimska, J; Macek, M

    2018-01-01

    (AMHR2) and LHCGR, respectively, were observed for insLQ/insLQ compared to -/insLQ and the -/- genotypes. Moreover, LHCGR and CYP19a1 together with oestradiol and inhibin-B were significantly increased in -/insLQ compared to the -/- genotype. The homozygous insLQ genotype showed strong significant......The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) has a little studied polymorphic 6 bp insertion (rs4539842/insLQ). This study has evaluated the insLQ polymorphism in relation to potential associations with hormonal characteristics of human small antral follicles (hSAFs). In total, 310 hSAFs were collected...... from 86 women undergoing fertility preservation. Analysis included hormonal profile of 297 follicular fluid (FF) samples and 148 corresponding granulosa cells samples were evaluated by qPCR for selected genes. Significantly reduced and non-detectable mRNA levels of anti-Müllerian hormone receptor II...

  10. Metabolic profiling of potential lung cancer biomarkers using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the integrated direct infusion/ gas chromatography mass spectrometry platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón-Leblic, Belén; García-Barrera, Tamara; Grávalos-Guzmán, Jesús; Pereira-Vega, Antonio; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2016-08-11

    Lung cancer is one of the ten most common causes of death worldwide, so that the search for early diagnosis biomarkers is a very challenging task. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) provides information on cellular and biochemical epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract constituents and no previous metabolomic studies have been performed with BALF samples from patients with lung cancer. Therefore, this fluid has been explored looking for new contributions in lung cancer metabolism. In this way, two complementary metabolomics techniques based on direct infusion high resolution mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-QTOF-MS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been applied to compare statistically differences between lung cancer (LC) and control (C) BALF samples, using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) in order to find and identify potential biomarkers of the disease. A total of 42 altered metabolites were found in BALF from LC. The metabolic pathway analysis showed that glutamate and glutamine metabolism pathway was mainly altered by this disease. In addition, we assessed the biomarker specificity and sensitivity according to the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, indicating that glycerol and phosphoric acid were potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The search for early diagnosis of lung cancer is a very challenging task because of the high mortality associated to this disease and its critical linkage to the initiation of treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid provides information on cellular and biochemical epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract constituents and no previous metabolomic studies have been performed with BALF samples from patients with lung cancer. Since BALF is in close interaction with lung tissue it is a more representative sample of lung status than other peripheral biofluids as blood or urine studied in previous works

  11. Investigating sub-2 μm particle stationary phase supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for chemical profiling of chamomile extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael D; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Lu, Lu; Zhao, Jianping; Avonto, Cristina; Isaac, Giorgis; Meeker, Larry; Yu, Kate; Legido-Quigley, Cristina; Smith, Norman; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-10-17

    Roman and German chamomile are widely used throughout the world. Chamomiles contain a wide variety of active constituents including sesquiterpene lactones. Various extraction techniques were performed on these two types of chamomile. A packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was designed for the identification of sesquiterpenes and other constituents from chamomile extracts with no derivatization step prior to analysis. Mass spectrometry detection was achieved by using electrospray ionization. All of the compounds of interest were separated within 15 min. The chamomile extracts were analyzed and compared for similarities and distinct differences. Multivariate statistical analysis including principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to differentiate between the chamomile samples. German chamomile samples confirmed the presence of cis- and trans-tonghaosu, chrysosplenols, apigenin diglucoside whereas Roman chamomile samples confirmed the presence of apigenin, nobilin, 1,10-epioxynobilin, and hydroxyisonobilin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  13. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M

    1979-08-30

    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  14. Supercritical fluid analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Supercritical fluids are providing the basis for new and improved methods across a range of analytical technologies. New methods are being developed to allow the detection and measurement of compounds that are incompatible with conventional analytical methodologies. Characterization of process and effluent streams for synfuel plants requires instruments capable of detecting and measuring high-molecular-weight compounds, polar compounds, or other materials that are generally difficult to analyze. The purpose of this program is to develop and apply new supercritical fluid techniques for extraction, separation, and analysis. These new technologies will be applied to previously intractable synfuel process materials and to complex mixtures resulting from their interaction with environmental and biological systems

  15. miRNA expression profiles in cerebrospinal fluid and blood of patients with Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia - an exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sofie Sølvsten; Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Christensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    . The purpose of this exploratory investigation was to analyze the expression of miRNAs in CSF and blood of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders in order to identify potential miRNA biomarker candidates able to separate AD from other types of dementia. METHODS: CSF...... was collected by lumbar puncture performed on 10 patients diagnosed with AD and 10 patients diagnosed with either vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies. Blood samples were taken immediately after. Total RNA was extracted from cell free fractions of CSF and plasma...... significantly up-regulated and miR-194-5p was significantly down-regulated in AD patients compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of miRNA expression profiles in blood and in particular CSF of patients diagnosed with different types of dementia is feasible and it seems that several expressional differences...

  16. Molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of cocaine and its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, from biological fluids before LC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibert, Valérie; Legeay, Patrice; Chapuis-Hugon, Florence; Pichon, Valérie

    2014-02-15

    Considering the important complexity of biological samples, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was applied to the selective extraction of cocaine and its two main metabolites, benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester from biological samples. The MIP was imprinted with cocaine and it was synthesized in acetonitrile with methacrylic acid as a functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a crosslinker. The selectivity of the MIP was first assessed for the three target analytes in acetonitrile with recoveries higher than 80% on the MIP and lower than 30% on the non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The MIP was then evaluated for the selective extraction of these targets from real aqueous media, i.e. serum and urine samples. The pH adjustment of the sample as well as the optimization of the washing step led to a very selective extraction of cocaine from these media. A LOQ of 0.5ng/mL was obtained for cocaine in urine. Concerning cocaine metabolites, benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, they were first extracted from urine by liquid-liquid extraction and the resulting extract was purified on the MIP. The results obtained with the MIP as compared to the LLE alone showed the great potential of the MIP extraction for the clean-up of the biological matrix. This procedure was tested for the extraction of the analytes from urine samples, leading to a very selective protocol with LOQs of 0.09ng/mL, 0.4ng/mL and 1.1ng/mL for cocaine, benzolecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester respectively in urine samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiometal-Dependent Biological Profile of the Radiolabeled Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist SB3 in Cancer Theranostics: Metabolic and Biodistribution Patterns Defined by Neprilysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperis, Emmanouil; Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Sallegger, Werner; Bakker, Ingrid L; Krenning, Eric P; de Jong, Marion; Maina, Theodosia; Nock, Berthold A

    2018-05-16

    Recent advances in oncology involve the use of diagnostic/therapeutic radionuclide-carrier pairs that target cancer cells, offering exciting opportunities for personalized patient treatment. Theranostic gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR)-directed radiopeptides have been proposed for the management of GRPR-expressing prostate and breast cancers. We have recently introduced the PET tracer 68 Ga-SB3 (SB3, DOTA- p-aminomethylaniline-diglycolic acid-DPhe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-NHEt), a receptor-radioantagonist that enables the visualization of GRPR-positive lesions in humans. Aiming to fully assess the theranostic potential of SB3, we herein report on the impact of switching 68 Ga to 111 In/ 177 Lu-label on the biological properties of resulting radiopeptides. Notably, the bioavailability of 111 In/ 177 Lu-SB3 in mice drastically deteriorated compared with metabolically robust 68 Ga-SB3, and as a result led to poorer 111 In/ 177 Lu-SB3 uptake in GRPR-positive PC-3 xenografts. The peptide cleavage sites were identified by chromatographic comparison of blood samples from mice intravenously receiving 111 In/ 177 Lu-SB3 with each of newly synthesized 111 In/ 177 Lu-SB3-fragments. Coinjection of the radioconjugates with the neprilysin (NEP)-inhibitor phosphoramidon led to full stabilization of 111 In/ 177 Lu-SB3 in peripheral mouse blood and resulted in markedly enhanced radiolabel uptake in the PC-3 tumors. In conclusion, in situ NEP-inhibition led to indistinguishable 68 Ga/ 111 In/ 177 Lu-SB3 profiles in mice emphasizing the theranostic prospects of SB3 for clinical use.

  18. Leaving out control groups: an internal contrast analysis of gene expression profiles in atrial fibrillation patients--a systems biology approach to clinical categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Kurt; de Asmundis, Carlo; Francesconi, Anna; Figysl, Jurgen; Steurs, Griet; Boussy, Tim; Roos, Markus; Mueller, Andreas; Massimo, Lucio; Paparella, Gaetano; Van Caelenberg, Kristien; Chierchia, Gian Battista; Sarkozy, Andrea; Terradellas, Pedro Brugada Y; Zizi, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent chronic dysrythmia with an incidence that increases with age (>40). Because of its medical and socio-economic impacts it is expected to become an increasing burden on most health care systems. AF is a multi-factorial disease for which the identification of subtypes is warranted. Novel approaches based on the broad concepts of systems biology may overcome the blurred notion of normal and pathological phenotype, which is inherent to high throughput molecular arrays analysis. Here we apply an internal contrast algorithm on AF patient data with an analytical focus on potential entry pathways into the disease. We used a RMA (Robust Multichip Average) normalized Affymetrix micro-array data set from 10 AF patients (geo_accession #GSE2240). Four series of probes were selected based on physiopathogenic links with AF entryways: apoptosis (remodeling), MAP kinase (cell remodeling), OXPHOS (ability to sustain hemodynamic workload) and glycolysis (ischemia). Annotated probe lists were polled with Bioconductor packages in R (version 2.7.1). Genetic profile contrasts were analysed with hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis. The analysis revealed distinct patient groups for all probe sets. A substantial part (54% till 67%) of the variance is explained in the first 2 principal components. Genes in PC1/2 with high discriminatory value were selected and analyzed in detail. We aim for reliable molecular stratification of AF. We show that stratification is possible based on physiologically relevant gene sets. Genes with high contrast value are likely to give pathophysiological insight into permanent AF subtypes.

  19. Biologic impact on the coastal belt of the province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea): preliminary analysis for the characterization of the bathing water profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoich, Marco; Aimo, Emilia; Fassina, Daniel; Barbaro, Jvan; Vazzoler, Marina; Soccorso, Corrado; Rossi, Chiara

    2011-02-01

    be widely attributed to pressure sources from the Brenta and Adige rivers, rather than to local contributions. Stretches VI and VII, which correspond to the area from Punta Sabbioni (Cavallino shore N-E) to the Pellestrina shore (S-W), present the best conditions for faecal contamination parameters (low pollution levels). These situations can probably be explained given that WWTPs 7 and 8 have two submarine outfalls at a distance of about 4 km from the coastline and therefore a discharge point which is distant from the bathing and marine coastal monitoring stations; there are also no river mouths in these two stretches. Due to lack of data, it was not possible to implement seasonal assessments. This study aimed to develop an integrated areal analysis for biological parameters along the coast over the period 2000-2006 for the identified homogeneous stretches in order to develop a preliminary approach for the characterization of the water profile, as requested by directive 2006/7/EC. From the integrated analysis of the stretches, it is evident that in some cases there are high levels of faecal contamination along the coast which can be caused by river flows which heavily condition the quality of coastal waters as verified with the statistical assessment. From the preliminary analysis, the submarine outfalls seem to be the best solution to guarantee good bathing water quality on the coast. Nevertheless, it must be observed that this solution cannot overlook the possible impact of the discharges on seawaters intended for a specific use, such as mussel farms with reference to coastal hydrodynamics. Therefore, a sound wastewater dispersion analysis on the discharges of the WWTPs for the identification of the interested area and the level of contamination must be performed; a modelling study on pollution dispersion is complementary to this study (Scroccaro et al. 2009). This analysis highlights the critical stretches as being numbers II and, above all, VIII with particular

  20. Schroedinger fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of nuclear internal flow and collective inertia, the difference of this flow from that of a classical fluid, and the approach of this flow to rigid flow in independent-particle model rotation are elucidated by reviewing the theory of Schroedinger fluid and its implications for collective vibration and rotation. (author)

  1. ToF-SIMS images and spectra of biomimetic calcium silicate-based cements after storage in solutions simulating the effects of human biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, A.; Torrisi, V.; Tuccitto, N.; Gandolfi, M. G.; Prati, C.; Licciardello, A.

    2010-01-01

    ToF-SIMS images were obtained from a section of a tooth, obturated by means of a new calcium-silicate based cement (wTCF) after storage for 1 month in a saline solutions (DPBS), in order to simulate the body fluid effects on the obturation. Afterwards, ToF-SIMS spectra were obtained from model samples, prepared by using the same cement paste, after storage for 1 month and 8 months in two different saline solutions (DPBS and HBSS). ToF-SIMS spectra were also obtained from fluorine-free cement (wTC) samples after storage in HBSS for 1 month and 8 months and used for comparison. It was found that the composition of both the saline solution and the cement influenced the composition of the surface of disks and that longer is the storage greater are the differences. Segregation phenomena occur both on the cement obturation of the tooth and on the surface of the disks prepared by using the same cement. Indirect evidences of formation of new crystalline phases are supplied.

  2. Design, Construction, and Initial Test of High Spatial Resolution Thermometry Arrays for Detection of Surface Temperature Profiles on SRF Cavities in Super Fluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Grigory Eremeev

    2011-07-01

    We designed and built two high resolution (0.6-0.55mm special resolution [1.1-1.2mm separation]) thermometry arrays prototypes out of the Allen Bradley 90-120 ohm 1/8 watt resistor to measure surface temperature profiles on SRF cavities. One array was designed to be physically flexible and conform to any location on a SRF cavity; the other was modeled after the common G-10/stycast 2850 thermometer and designed to fit on the equator of an ILC (Tesla 1.3GHz) SRF cavity. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each array and their construction. In addition we will present a case study of the arrays performance on a real SRF cavity TB9NR001. TB9NR001 presented a unique opportunity to test the performance of each array as it contained a dual (4mm separation) cat eye defect which conventional methods such as OST (Oscillating Superleak second-sound Transducers) and full coverage thermometry mapping were unable to distinguish between. We will discuss the new arrays ability to distinguish between the two defects and their preheating performance.

  3. Flavanol-Enriched Cocoa Powder Alters the Intestinal Microbiota, Tissue and Fluid Metabolite Profiles, and Intestinal Gene Expression in Pigs1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Saebyeol; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Lakshman, Sukla; Molokin, Aleksey; Harnly, James M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Urban, Joseph F; Davis, Cindy D; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consumption of cocoa-derived polyphenols has been associated with several health benefits; however, their effects on the intestinal microbiome and related features of host intestinal health are not adequately understood. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of eating flavanol-enriched cocoa powder on the composition of the gut microbiota, tissue metabolite profiles, and intestinal immune status. Methods: Male pigs (5 mo old, 28 kg mean body weight) were supplemented with 0, 2.5, 10, or 20 g flavanol-enriched cocoa powder/d for 27 d. Metabolites in serum, urine, the proximal colon contents, liver, and adipose tissue; bacterial abundance in the intestinal contents and feces; and intestinal tissue gene expression of inflammatory markers and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were then determined. Results: O-methyl-epicatechin-glucuronide conjugates dose-dependently increased (P cocoa powder. The concentration of 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid isomers in urine decreased as the dose of cocoa powder fed to pigs increased (75–85%, P cocoa powder/d, respectively. Moreover, consumption of cocoa powder reduced TLR9 gene expression in ileal Peyer’s patches (67–80%, P cocoa powder/d compared with pigs not supplemented with cocoa powder. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that consumption of cocoa powder by pigs can contribute to gut health by enhancing the abundance of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species and modulating markers of localized intestinal immunity. PMID:26936136

  4. A Novel HPLC Method for the Concurrent Analysis and Quantitation of Seven Water-Soluble Vitamins in Biological Fluids (Plasma and Urine: A Validation Study and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Grotzkyj Giorgi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An HPLC method was developed and validated for the concurrent detection and quantitation of seven water-soluble vitamins (C, B1, B2, B5, B6, B9, B12 in biological matrices (plasma and urine. Separation was achieved at 30°C on a reversed-phase C18-A column using combined isocratic and linear gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of 0.01% TFA aqueous and 100% methanol. Total run time was 35 minutes. Detection was performed with diode array set at 280 nm. Each vitamin was quantitatively determined at its maximum wavelength. Spectral comparison was used for peak identification in real samples (24 plasma and urine samples from abstinent alcohol-dependent males. Interday and intraday precision were <4% and <7%, respectively, for all vitamins. Recovery percentages ranged from 93% to 100%.

  5. A novel HPLC method for the concurrent analysis and quantitation of seven water-soluble vitamins in biological fluids (plasma and urine): a validation study and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Margherita Grotzkyj; Howland, Kevin; Martin, Colin; Bonner, Adrian B

    2012-01-01

    An HPLC method was developed and validated for the concurrent detection and quantitation of seven water-soluble vitamins (C, B(1), B(2), B(5), B(6), B(9), B(12)) in biological matrices (plasma and urine). Separation was achieved at 30°C on a reversed-phase C18-A column using combined isocratic and linear gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of 0.01% TFA aqueous and 100% methanol. Total run time was 35 minutes. Detection was performed with diode array set at 280 nm. Each vitamin was quantitatively determined at its maximum wavelength. Spectral comparison was used for peak identification in real samples (24 plasma and urine samples from abstinent alcohol-dependent males). Interday and intraday precision were vitamins. Recovery percentages ranged from 93% to 100%.

  6. Solid-phase extraction based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with acetone as eluent for eliminating matrix effects in the analysis of biological fluids by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, T; Lachová, M; Lynen, F; Szucs, R; Sandra, P

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of drugs and metabolites in biological matrices such as blood or plasma by LC-MS is routinely challenged by the presence of large quantities of competing molecules for ionization in soft ionization sources, such as proteins and phospholipids. While the former can easily be removed by protein precipitation, pre-analytical extraction of the latter is necessary because they show very high retention in reversed-phase LC resulting in long analysis times or in ion suppression effects when not eluted before the next runs. A novel HILIC-based SPE approach, making use of silica cartridges and of acetone as organic solvent, is introduced as a potent alternative to current commercial methods for phospholipid removal. The methodology was developed and tested for a broad polarity range of pharmaceutical solutes (log P from 0 to 6.6) and broad applicability can therefore be envisaged.

  7. Active chiral fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürthauer, S; Strempel, M; Grill, S W; Jülicher, F

    2012-09-01

    Active processes in biological systems often exhibit chiral asymmetries. Examples are the chirality of cytoskeletal filaments which interact with motor proteins, the chirality of the beat of cilia and flagella as well as the helical trajectories of many biological microswimmers. Here, we derive constitutive material equations for active fluids which account for the effects of active chiral processes. We identify active contributions to the antisymmetric part of the stress as well as active angular momentum fluxes. We discuss four types of elementary chiral motors and their effects on a surrounding fluid. We show that large-scale chiral flows can result from the collective behavior of such motors even in cases where isolated motors do not create a hydrodynamic far field.

  8. An integrated methodological approach to the computer-assisted gas chromatographic screening of basic drugs in biological fluids using nitrogen selective detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal, R; Massé, R; Sanchez, G; Bertrand, M J

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the methodological aspects of a computerized system for the gas-chromatographic screening and primary identification of central nervous system stimulants and narcotic analgesics (including some of their respective metabolites) extracted from urine. The operating conditions of a selective nitrogen detector for optimized analytical functions are discussed, particularly the effect of carrier and fuel gas on the detector's sensitivity to nitrogen-containing molecules and discriminating performance toward biological matrix interferences. Application of simple extraction techniques, combined with rapid derivatization procedures, computer data acquisition, and reduction of chromatographic data are presented. Results show that this system approach allows for the screening of several drugs and their metabolites in a short amount of time. The reliability and stability of the system have been tested by analyzing several thousand samples for doping control at major international sporting events and for monitoring drug intake in addicts participating in a rehabilitation program. Results indicate that these techniques can be used and adapted to many different analytical toxicology situations.

  9. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets for the spectrophotometric determination of Fingolomid in biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Zhila; Pourbasheer, Eslam; Beheshti, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (SPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the separation and determination of Fingolimod (FLM) in water, urine and plasma samples prior to spectrophotometeric determination. Due to the high surface area of these new sorbents and the excellent adsorption capacity after surface modification by SDS, satisfactory extraction recoveries can be produced. The main factors affecting the adsolubilization of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent amounts, ionic strength, extraction time and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. Under the selected conditions, FLM has been quantitatively extracted. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and good recoveries of 96%, 95% and 88% were observed for water, urine and plasma respectively. Proper linear behaviors over the investigated concentration ranges of 2-26, 2-17 and 2-13 mg/L with good coefficients of determination, 0.998, 0.997 and 0.995 were achieved for water, urine and plasma samples, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a mixed hemimicelles SPE method based on magnetic separation and nanoparticles has been used as a simple and sensitive method for monitoring of FLM in water and biological samples.

  10. Determination of Gemfibrozil (Lipitor and Lopid in Water, Biological Fluids and Drug Matrix by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid micro Extraction (DLLME and Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study Dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (DLLME coupled with High performance liquid chromatography was applied for the determination of Gemfibrozil in water, drug`s matrix and biological liquids (human plasma and urine. In this method, the appropriate mixture of extraction solvent (200 μl chlorophorm and disperser solvent (1 ml methanol are injected rapidly into the aqueous sample (10.0 ml by syringe, cloudy solution is formed that consisted of fine particles of extraction solvent which is dispersed entirely into aqueous phase. The mixture was centrifuged and the extraction solvent is sedimented on the bottom of the conical test tube. 50 μl of the sedimented phase is puted in a vial and it`s solvent is evaporated. Then 1ml methanol injected to vial and 20 μL of it injected into the HPLC for separation and determination of Gemfibrozil. Some important parameters, such as kind of extraction and disperser solvent, volume of them, extraction time, pH and ionic strength of the aqueous feed solution were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors and extraction recoveries were 10 and 93.64%. The linear range was (0.1-100.0 mgl-1, limit of detection was 12.3 mgl-1. The relative standard deviations (RSD for 2 mgl-1 of Gemfibrozil in water were 1.3%, (n=10.

  11. A comprehensive review of the published assays for the quantitation of the immunosuppressant drug mycophenolic acid and its glucuronidated metabolites in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Muzeeb; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2016-05-01

    Therapeutic use of mycophenolic acid (MPA) is steadily on the rise in combination with other immunosuppressant drugs in transplantation patients. The biotransformation of MPA resulted in the formation of glucuronide metabolites, MPAG and AcMPAG. There are a plethora of assays validated for the analysis of MPA alone or with MPAG/AcMPAG in various biological specimens including plasma/serum, urine, ultrafiltrate, saliva, PBMC, dried blood spots, tissue extract, tumor biopsies and vitreous humor. Based on the need for experimental work, a proper choice of the assay and internal standard may be made using the choices in the literature. While the chemical methods involving high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or LC coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are popular, enzymatic assays, in spite of their higher bias, have been used for the routine drug monitoring of MPA. The objectives of the present review are: (a) to provide a focused systematic compilation of the HPLC or LC-MS/MS methods for MPA, MPAG and/or AcMPAG published in the last decade (2005 to current) to enable visual comparison of the methods; (b) to compare and contrast a few enzymatic assays with those of the chemical methods; and (c) to discuss relevant issues/limitations and perspectives on select assays under various subheadings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Giant Constrictors: Biological and Management Profiles and an Establishment Risk Assessment for Nine Large Species of Pythons, Anacondas, and the Boa Constrictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert N.; Rodda, Gordon H.

    2009-01-01

    Giant Constrictors: Biological and Management Profiles and an Establishment Risk Assessment for Nine Large Species of Pythons, Anacondas, and the Boa Constrictor, estimates the ecological risks associated with colonization of the United States by nine large constrictors. The nine include the world's four largest snake species (Green Anaconda, Eunectes murinus; Indian or Burmese Python, Python molurus; Northern African Python, Python sebae; and Reticulated Python, Broghammerus reticulatus), the Boa Constrictor (Boa constrictor), and four species that are ecologically or visually similar to one of the above (Southern African Python, Python natalensis; Yellow Anaconda, Eunectes notaeus; DeSchauensee's Anaconda, Eunectes deschauenseei; and Beni Anaconda, Eunectes beniensis). At present, the only probable pathway by which these species would become established in the United States is the pet trade. Although importation for the pet trade involves some risk that these animals could become established as exotic or invasive species, it does not guarantee such establishment. Federal regulators have the task of appraising the importation risks and balancing those risks against economic, social, and ecological benefits associated with the importation. The risk assessment quantifies only the ecological risks, recognizing that ecosystem processes are complex and only poorly understood. The risk assessment enumerates the types of economic impacts that may be experienced, but leaves quantification of economic costs to subsequent studies. Primary factors considered in judging the risk of establishment were: (1) history of establishment in other countries, (2) number of each species in commerce, (3) suitability of U.S. climates for each species, and (4) natural history traits, such as reproductive rate and dispersal ability, that influence the probability of establishment, spread, and impact. In addition, the risk assessment reviews all management tools for control of invasive giant

  13. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  14. Reduced viscosity interpreted for fluid/gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis predicts decrease in fluid viscosity by comparing pressure profile of fluid/gas mixture with that of power-law fluid. Fluid is taken to be viscous, non-Newtonian, and incompressible; the gas to be ideal; the flow to be inertia-free, isothermal, and one dimensional. Analysis assists in design of flow systems for petroleum, coal, polymers, and other materials.

  15. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of tenofovir and efavirenz in biological tissues and fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiros, Luisa; Cunha-Reis, Cassilda; Silva, Eduarda M P; Carvalho, Joana R B; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno; Segundo, Marcela A

    2017-03-20

    Millions of people worldwide live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection thus justifying the continuous search for new prevention and treatment strategies, including topical microbicide products combining antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) such as tenofovir (TFV) and efavirenz (EFV). Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop and validate a high performance liquid chromatography method coupled to triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the quantification of TFV and EFV in biological matrices (mouse vaginal tissue, vaginal lavage and blood plasma). Chromatographic separation was achieved using a reversed phase C18 column (3μm, 100×2.1mm) at 45°C and elution in gradient mode using a combination of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in water and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile at 0.35mLmin -1 . Total run time was 9min, with retention time of 2.8 and 4.1min for TFV and EFV, respectively. The MS was operated in positive ionization mode (ESI+) for TFV and in negative ionization mode (ESI-) for EFV detection. Data were acquired in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode and deuterated ARVs were employed as internal standards. Calibration curves were linear for ARV concentrations ranging from 4 to 500ngmL -1 with LOD and LOQ for both analytes ≤0.4 and ≤0.7ngmL -1 in sample extracts, respectively. The method was found to be specific, accurate (96.0-106.0% of nominal values) and precise (RSDfluids were ≥88.4%. Matrix effects were observed for EFV determination in tissue and plasma extracts but compensated by the use of deuterated internal standards. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study following intravaginal administration of both ARVs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hollow fiber-based liquid phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for extraction and determination of some antidepressant drugs in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrafili, Ali; Yamini, Yadollah; Shariati, Shahab

    2007-12-05

    The applicability of hollow fiber-based liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) was evaluated for the extraction and preconcentration of three antidepressant drugs (amitriptyline, imipramine and sertraline) prior to their determination by HPLC-UV. The target drugs were extracted from 11.0 mL of aqueous solution with pH 12.0 (source phase) into an organic extracting solvent (n-dodecane) impregnated in the pores of a hollow fiber and finally back extracted into 24 microL of aqueous solution located inside the lumen of the hollow fiber and adjusted to pH 2.1 using 0.1M of H3PO4 (receiving phase). The extraction was performed due to pH gradient between the inside and outside of the hollow fiber membrane. In order to obtain high extraction efficiency, the parameters affecting the HF-LPME including pH of the source and receiving phases, the type of organic phase, ionic strength and volume of the source phase, stirring rate and extraction time were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factors up to 300 were achieved and the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.%) of the method was in the range of 2-12%. The calibration curves were obtained in the range of 5-500 microg L(-1) with reasonable linearity (R2>0.998) and the limits of detection (LODs) ranged between 0.5 and 0.7 microg L(-1) (based on S/N=3). Finally, the applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by extraction and determination of the drugs in urine, plasma and tap water samples. The results indicated that hollow fiber microextraction method has excellent clean-up and high-preconcentration factor and can be served as a simple and sensitive method for monitoring of antidepressant drugs in the biological samples.

  17. Systematic profiling and comparison of the lipidomes from Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng by ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry and ion mobility-derived collision cross section measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaojian; Yang, Wenzhi; Qiu, Shi; Hou, Jinjun; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2018-05-04

    Lipidomics currently is still confronted with challenges from chromatographic separation and lipids identification. Here we report a lipidomics platform by integrating ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/QTOF-MS) and collision cross section (CCS) measurement using ion mobility spectroscopy/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IMS/QTOF-MS), aiming to enhance the profiling performance and identification reliability of lipids. The lipidomes extracted from three congeneric Panax species (P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng) by methyl tert-butyl ether are comprehensively profiled and compared by use of this platform. A potent UHPSFC/QTOF-MS approach was developed on a 1.7-μm particles packed Torus 2-PIC column using CH 3 OH (in CO 2 ) as a modifier and CH 3 OH/0.2 mM ammonium acetate as the makeup liquid, enabling well resolution of six lipid subclasses by both positive and negative MS E modes. In contrast to the reversed-phase chromatography, "normal-phase" like elution order and better resolution of polar lipids and some lipid isomers were achieved by UHPSFC separation. Pattern recognition chemometric analysis of 60 batches of Ginseng samples ultimately unveiled 24 lipid markers, of which triacylglycerols were the most important. Aside from the automated MS database searching against HMDB and LIPID MAPS, the application of CCS retrieval or CCS prediction improved lipid identification by reducing the possible hits. In conclusion, this integral platform can significantly improve the chromatographic separation and the reliability of lipids identification in lipidomics studies. It is the first report that systematically compares the lipidomic difference of three reputable Panax species, providing useful information for their quality control in addition to ginsenoside analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Education, income and ethnic differences in cumulative biological risk profiles in a national sample of US adults: NHANES III (1988-1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Teresa; Merkin, Sharon S; Crimmins, Eileen; Koretz, Brandon; Charette, Susan; Karlamangla, Arun

    2008-01-01

    Data from the nationally representative US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III cohort were used to examine the hypothesis that socio-economic status is consistently and negatively associated with levels of biological risk, as measured by nine biological parameters known to predict health risks (diastolic and systolic blood pressure, pulse, HDL and total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, c-reactive protein, albumin and waist-hip ratio), resulting in greater cumulative burdens of biological risk among those of lower education and/or income. As hypothesized, consistent education and income gradients were seen for biological parameters reflecting cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory risk: those with lower education and income exhibiting greater prevalence of high-risk values for each of nine individual biological risk factors. Significant education and income gradients were also seen for summary indices reflecting cumulative burdens of cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory risks as well as overall total biological risks. Multivariable cumulative logistic regression models revealed that the education and income effects were each independently and negatively associated with cumulative biological risks, and that these effects remained significant independent of age, gender, ethnicity and lifestyle factors such as smoking and physical activity. There were no significant ethnic differences in the patterns of association between socio-economic status and biological risks, but older age was associated with significantly weaker education and income gradients.

  19. New-generation bar adsorptive microextraction (BAμE) devices for a better eco-user-friendly analytical approach-Application for the determination of antidepressant pharmaceuticals in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, A H; Nogueira, J M F

    2018-05-10

    The present contribution aims to design new-generation bar adsorptive microextraction (BAμE) devices that promote an innovative and much better user-friendly analytical approach. The novel BAμE devices were lab-made prepared having smaller dimensions by using flexible nylon-based supports (7.5 × 1.0 mm) coated with convenient sorbents (≈ 0.5 mg). This novel advance allows effective microextraction and back-extraction ('only single liquid desorption step') stages as well as interfacing enhancement with the instrumental systems dedicated for routine analysis. To evaluate the achievements of these improvements, four antidepressant agents (bupropion, citalopram, amitriptyline and trazodone) were used as model compounds in aqueous media combined with liquid chromatography (LC) systems. By using an N-vinylpyrrolidone based-polymer phase good selectivity and efficiency were obtained. Assays performed on 25 mL spiked aqueous samples, yielded average recoveries in between 67.8 ± 12.4% (bupropion) and 88.3 ± 12.1% (citalopram), under optimized experimental conditions. The analytical performance also showed convenient precision (RSD  0.9820). The application of the proposed analytical approach on biological fluids showed negligible matrix effects by using the standard addition methodology. From the data obtained, the new-generation BAμE devices presented herein provide an innovative and robust analytical cycle, are simple to prepare, cost-effective, user-friendly and compatible with the current LC autosampler systems. Furthermore, the novel devices were designed to be disposable and used together with negligible amounts of organic solvents (100 μL) during back-extraction, in compliance with the green analytical chemistry principles. In short, the new-generation BAμE devices showed to be an eco-user-friendly approach for trace analysis of priority compounds in biological fluids and a versatile alternative over other well-stablished sorption

  20. Removal of unwanted fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subudhi, Sudhakar; Sreenivas, K. R.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2013-01-01

    This work is concerned with the removal of unwanted fluid through the source-sink pair. The source consists of fluid issuing out of a nozzle in the form of a jet and the sink is a pipe that is kept some distance from the source pipe. Of concern is the percentage of source fluid sucked through the sink. The experiments have been carried in a large glass water tank. The source nozzle diameter is 6 mm and the sink pipe diameter is either 10 or 20 mm. The horizontal and vertical separations and angles between these source and sink pipes are adjustable. The flow was visualized using KMnO4 dye, planer laser induced fluorescence and particle streak photographs. To obtain the effectiveness (that is percentage of source fluid entering the sink pipe), titration method is used. The velocity profiles with and without the sink were obtained using particle image velocimetry. The sink flow rate to obtain a certain effectiveness increase dramatically with lateral separation. The sink diameter and the angle between source and the sink axes don't influence effectiveness as much as the lateral separation.

  1. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  2. Network analysis reveals stage-specific changes in zebrafish embryo development using time course whole transcriptome profiling and prior biological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Molecular networks act as the backbone of molecular activities within cells, offering a unique opportunity to better understand the mechanism of diseases. While network data usually constitute only static network maps, integrating them with time course gene expression information can provide clues to the dynamic features of these networks and unravel the mechanistic driver genes characterizing cellular responses. Time course gene expression data allow us to broadly "watch" the dynamics of the system. However, one challenge in the analysis of such data is to establish and characterize the interplay among genes that are altered at different time points in the context of a biological process or functional category. Integrative analysis of these data sources will lead us a more complete understanding of how biological entities (e.g., genes and proteins) coordinately perform their biological functions in biological systems. In this paper, we introduced a novel network-based approach to extract functional knowledge from time-dependent biological processes at a system level using time course mRNA sequencing data in zebrafish embryo development. The proposed method was applied to investigate 1α, 25(OH)2D3-altered mechanisms in zebrafish embryo development. We applied the proposed method to a public zebrafish time course mRNA-Seq dataset, containing two different treatments along four time points. We constructed networks between gene ontology biological process categories, which were enriched in differential expressed genes between consecutive time points and different conditions. The temporal propagation of 1α, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-altered transcriptional changes started from a few genes that were altered initially at earlier stage, to large groups of biological coherent genes at later stages. The most notable biological processes included neuronal and retinal development and generalized stress response. In addition, we also investigated the relationship among

  3. Accumulation of single-strand breaks doses not result in double-strand DNA breaks: peculiarity of transcribing fragment of human ribosomal operon that allows its detection in biological fluids at the death of various cells in organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejko, N.N.; Spitkovskij, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The evidences of stability of the human ribosomal gene in the transcribing range (TR-rDNA) to fragmentation are presented in two groups of experiments: 1) in the case of availability of the fragments in the cells of sectional corpse material (necrosis and apoptosis) and by pathologies accompanied by the cells death through the apoptosis or necrosis mechanism; 2) in the model experiments, wherein the separated genomes DNA is subjected to the impact of nucleases initiating single-strand breaks (SB), or chemical introduction with a subsequent comparative analysis of stability to fragmentation of various DNA sequences including TR-rDNA. The DNA solutions were subjected to γ-radiation with the dose rate of 4.8 Gy/min. It is shown that in spite of the great number of the SBs the TR-rDNA is characterized by increased stability to fragmentation, which makes it possible to propose this DNA fragment for application as a cell death marker in biological fluids [ru

  4. Physical, chemical, and biological profile data collected aboard the HERMANO GINES as part of the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean (CARIACO) program in the Cariaco Basin of the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, June 14, 2005 - February 7, 2006 (NODC Accession 0002797)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, and biological profile data collected using bottle and CTD casts aboard the vessel HERMANO GINES by the Fundacion La Salle (Venezuela) in support...

  5. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This text offers the most comprehensive approach available to fluid mechanics. The author takes great care to insure a physical understanding of concepts grounded in applied mathematics. The presentation of theory is followed by engineering applications, helping students develop problem-solving skills from the perspective of a professional engineer. Extensive use of detailed examples reinforces the understanding of theoretical concepts

  6. Multidimensional proteomics analysis of amniotic fluid to provide insight into the mechanisms of idiopathic preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A Buhimschi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Though recent advancement in proteomics has provided a novel perspective on several distinct pathogenetic mechanisms leading to preterm birth (inflammation, bleeding, the etiology of most preterm births still remains elusive. We conducted a multidimensional proteomic analysis of the amniotic fluid to identify pathways related to preterm birth in the absence of inflammation or bleeding.A proteomic fingerprint was generated from fresh amniotic fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorbtion ionization time of flight (SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry in a total of 286 consecutive samples retrieved from women who presented with signs or symptoms of preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Inflammation and/or bleeding proteomic patterns were detected in 32% (92/286 of the SELDI tracings. In the remaining tracings, a hierarchical algorithm was applied based on descriptors quantifying similarity/dissimilarity among proteomic fingerprints. This allowed identification of a novel profile (Q-profile based on the presence of 5 SELDI peaks in the 10-12.5 kDa mass area. Women displaying the Q-profile (mean+/-SD, gestational age: 25+/-4 weeks, n = 40 were more likely to deliver preterm despite expectant management in the context of intact membranes and normal amniotic fluid clinical results. Utilizing identification-centered proteomics techniques (fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, robotic tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry coupled with Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER ontological classifications, we determined that in amniotic fluids with Q-profile the differentially expressed proteins are primarily involved in non-inflammatory biological processes such as protein metabolism, signal transduction and transport.Proteomic profiling of amniotic fluid coupled with non-hierarchical bioinformatics algorithms identified a subgroup of patients at risk for preterm birth in the absence of intra

  7. Development of an achiral supercritical fluid chromatography method with ultraviolet absorbance and mass spectrometric detection for impurity profiling of drug candidates. Part II. Selection of an orthogonal set of stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, Elise; Bertin, Sophie; Hennig, Philippe; Boiteux, Hélène; Lesellier, Eric; West, Caroline

    2015-08-21

    Impurity profiling of organic products that are synthesized as possible drug candidates requires complementary analytical methods to ensure that all impurities are identified. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is a very useful tool to achieve this objective, as an adequate selection of stationary phases can provide orthogonal separations so as to maximize the chances to see all impurities. In this series of papers, we have developed a method for achiral SFC-MS profiling of drug candidates, based on a selection of 160 analytes issued from Servier Research Laboratories. In the first part of this study, focusing on mobile phase selection, a gradient elution with carbon dioxide and methanol comprising 2% water and 20mM ammonium acetate proved to be the best in terms of chromatographic performance, while also providing good MS response [1]. The objective of this second part was the selection of an orthogonal set of ultra-high performance stationary phases, that was carried out in two steps. Firstly, a reduced set of analytes (20) was used to screen 23 columns. The columns selected were all 1.7-2.5μm fully porous or 2.6-2.7μm superficially porous particles, with a variety of stationary phase chemistries. Derringer desirability functions were used to rank the columns according to retention window, column efficiency evaluated with peak width of selected analytes, and the proportion of analytes successfully eluted with good peak shapes. The columns providing the worst performances were thus eliminated and a shorter selection of columns (11) was obtained. Secondly, based on 160 tested analytes, the 11 columns were ranked again. The retention data obtained on these columns were then compared to define a reduced set of the best columns providing the greatest orthogonality, to maximize the chances to see all impurities within a limited number of runs. Two high-performance columns were thus selected: ACQUITY UPC(2) HSS C18 SB and Nucleoshell HILIC. Copyright © 2015

  8. Liposomes as potential masking agents in sport doping. Part 1: analysis of phospholipids and sphingomyelins in drugs and biological fluids by aqueous normal-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Simone; Colicchia, Sonia; de la Torre, Xavier; Mazzarino, Monica; Botrè, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, aqueous normal-phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), in different acquisition modes, was employed for the direct analysis and profiling of nine phospholipid classes (phosphatidic acids, phosphatidylserines, phosphatidylethanolamines, lysophosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins) in biological and pharmaceutical matrices. After chromatographic separation by a diol column, detection and elucidation of phospholipid and sphingomyelin classes and molecular species were performed by different scan acquisition modes. For screening analysis, molecular ions [M + H] + were detected in positive precursor ion scan of m/z 184 for the classes of phosphatidylcholines, lyso-phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins; while phosphatidylethanolamines and lyso-phosphatidylethanolamines were detected monitoring neutral loss scan of 141 Da; and phosphatidylserines detected using neutral loss scan of 184 Da. Molecular ions [M-H] - were instead acquired in negative precursor ion scan of m/z 153 for the classes of phosphatidic acids and phosphatidylglycerols; and of m/z 241 for the phosphatidylinositols. For the identification of the single molecular species, product ion scan mass spectra of the [M + HCOO] - ions for phosphatidylcholines and [M + H] + ions for the other phospholipids considered were determined for each class and compared with the fragmentation pattern of model phospholipid reference standard. By this approach, nearly 100 phospholipids and sphingomyelins were detected and identified. The optimized method was then used to characterize the phospholipid and sphingomyelin profiles in human plasma and urine samples and in two phospholipid-based pharmaceutical formulations, proving that it also allows to discriminate compounds of endogenous origin from those resulting from the intake of pharmaceutical products

  9. Unique genetic profiles from cerebrospinal fluid cell-free DNA in leptomeningeal metastases of EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer: a new medium of liquid biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y S; Jiang, B Y; Yang, J J; Zhang, X C; Zhang, Z; Ye, J Y; Zhong, W Z; Tu, H Y; Chen, H J; Wang, Z; Xu, C R; Wang, B C; Du, H J; Chuai, S; Han-Zhang, H; Su, J; Zhou, Q; Yang, X N; Guo, W B; Yan, H H; Liu, Y H; Yan, L X; Huang, B; Zheng, M M; Wu, Y L

    2018-04-01

    Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) are more frequent in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Due to limited access to leptomeningeal lesions, the purpose of this study was to explore the potential role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a source of liquid biopsy in patients with LM. Primary tumor, CSF, and plasma in NSCLC with LM were tested by next-generation sequencing. In total, 45 patients with suspected LM underwent lumbar puncture, and those with EGFR mutations diagnosed with LM were enrolled. A total of 28 patients were enrolled in this cohort; CSF and plasma were available in 26 patients, respectively. Driver genes were detected in 100% (26/26), 84.6% (22/26), and 73.1% (19/26) of samples comprising CSF cell-free DNA (cfDNA), CSF precipitates, and plasma, respectively; 92.3% (24/26) of patients had much higher allele fractions in CSF cfDNA than the other two media. Unique genetic profiles were captured in CSF cfDNA compared with those in plasma and primary tissue. Multiple copy number variations (CNVs) were mainly identified in CSF cfDNA, and MET copy number gain identified in 47.8% (11/23) of patients was the most frequent one, while other CNVs included ERBB2, KRAS, ALK, and MYC. Moreover, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of TP53 was identified in 73.1% (19/26) CSF cfDNA, which was much higher than that in plasma (2/26, 7.7%; P liquid biopsy medium for LM in EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

  10. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...

  11. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  12. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  13. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Biological Profile of Novel Analogues of Nucleosides and of Potential Mimetics of Sugar Phosphates and Nucleotides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Xavier, N.M.; Lucas, S.D.; Jorda, Radek; Schwarz, S.; Loesche, A.; Csuk, R.; Oliveira, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 19 (2015), s. 2663-2672 ISSN 0936-5214 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : nucleosides * nucleotides * carbohydrates Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2015

  14. Optimized LC-MS/MS Method for the High-throughput Analysis of Clinical Samples of Ivacaftor, Its Major Metabolites, and Lumacaftor in Biological Fluids of Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Elena K; Reyes-Ortega, Felisa; Li, Jian; Velkov, Tony

    2017-10-15

    Defects in the cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are the cause of cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease with life-threatening pulmonary manifestations. Ivacaftor (IVA) and ivacaftor-lumacaftor (LUMA) combination are two new breakthrough CF drugs that directly modulate the activity and trafficking of the defective CFTR-protein. However, there is still a dearth of understanding on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters and the pharmacology of ivacaftor and lumacaftor. The HPLC-MS technique for the simultaneous analysis of the concentrations of ivacaftor, hydroxymethyl-ivacaftor, ivacaftor-carboxylate, and lumacaftor in biological fluids in patients receiving standard ivacaftor or ivacaftor-lumacaftor combination therapy has previously been developed by our group and partially validated to FDA standards. However, to allow the high-throughput analysis of a larger number of patient samples, our group has optimized the reported method through the use of a smaller pore size reverse-phase chromatography column (2.6 µm, C8 100 Å; 50 x 2.1 mm) and a gradient solvent system (0-1 min: 40% B; 1-2 min: 40-70% B; 2-2.7 min: held at 70% B; 2.7-2.8 min: 70-90% B; 2.8-4.0 min: 90% B washing; 4.0-4.1 min: 90-40% B; 4.1-6.0 min: held at 40% B) instead of an isocratic elution. The goal of this study was to reduce the HPLC-MS analysis time per sample dramatically from ~15 min to only 6 min per sample, which is essential for the analysis of a large amount of patient samples. This expedient method will be of considerable utility for studies into the exposure-response relationships of these breakthrough CF drugs.

  15. Determination of Relative Biological Efficacy (RBE) and Oxygen Enhancement Ratio (OER) for the entire negative and positive pion beam profile using Vicia faba roots and Drosophila embryos as biological model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarli, J.; Bianchi, M.; Keusch, F.; Mindek, G.; Sullivan, A.H.

    As an introduction to preclinical studies, pilot studies of pion beams are planned with relatively simple biological model systems that can be quickly evaluated and that yield indicative data for further action. Inhibition of growth was studied in Vicia faba roots, a biological system excellently suited for RBE and OER studies. For comparison there are already results from a low-intensity pion irradiation. A second system used Drosophila embryos 1 and 4 hours old, which are especially well suited for LET studies. The unambiguous criterion will be failure to slip out of the oolemma. The smallness of the objects (their beam sensitivity) will make it possible to determine empirically the peak region and to determine Gain factors; furthermore, the known dependency of RBE on the development stage promises highly informative results

  16. Biological transportation networks: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Albi, Giacomo; Artina, Marco; Foransier, Massimo; Markowich, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a model for biological network formation originally introduced by Cai and Hu [Adaptation and optimization of biological transport networks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 (2013) 138701]. The modeling of fluid transportation (e.g., leaf venation

  17. Determinação voltamétrica de metais em águas e fluidos biológicos empregando mineralização de amostras com radiação ultravioleta Voltammetric determination of metals in waters and biological fluids using sample mineralization with ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro M. de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the optimization of pretreatment steps for the destruction of organic matter in samples of waters and biological fluids, by using an UV irradiation system with a high power UV radiation source (400 W. The efficiency of the system constructed for the photo-decomposition of samples of model waters, natural waters and biological fluids was investigated by performing recovery experiments of the metallic species Zn(II, Cd(II, Pb(II, Cu(II, Al(III and Fe(III. The use of UV irradiation allowed the liberation of metals bound to the organic matrix and the determination of the total content of elements in the samples.

  18. Transcriptomes and expression profiling of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea provide insight into the biology of azooxanthellate corals

    OpenAIRE

    Yum, L. K.; Baumgarten, S.; Röthig, T.; Roder, C.; Roik, Anna; Michell, C.; Voolstra, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of deep-sea corals, our current understanding of their ecology and evolution is limited due to difficulties in sampling and studying deep-sea environments. Moreover, a recent re-evaluation of habitat limitations has been suggested after characterization of deep-sea corals in the Red Sea, where they live at temperatures of above 20??C at low oxygen concentrations. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals, we produced reference transcriptomes and studie...

  19. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Prud'homme, M.; Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P.

    2003-01-01

    This book constitutes at the same time theoretical and practical base relating to the phenomena associated with fluid mechanics. The concept of continuum is at the base of the approach developed in this work. The general advance proceeds of simple balances of forces as into hydrostatic to more complex situations or inertias, the internal stresses and the constraints of Reynolds are taken into account. This advance is not only theoretical but contains many applications in the form of solved problems, each chapter ending in a series of suggested problems. The major part of the applications relates to the incompressible flows

  20. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  1. Biomarker discovery in biological specimens (plasma, hair, liver and kidney) of diabetic mice based upon metabolite profiling using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Haruhito; Maeda, Toshio; Min, Jun Zhe; Inagaki, Shinsuke; Higashi, Tatsuya; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2011-05-12

    The number of diabetic patients has recently been increasing worldwide. Diabetes is a multifactorial disorder based on environmental factors and genetic background. In many cases, diabetes is asymptomatic for a long period and the patient is not aware of the disease. Therefore, the potential biomarker(s), leading to the early detection and/or prevention of diabetes mellitus, are strongly required. However, the diagnosis of the prediabetic state in humans is a very difficult issue, because the lifestyle is variable in each person. Although the development of a diagnosis method in humans is the goal of our research, the extraction and structural identification of biomarker candidates in several biological specimens (i.e., plasma, hair, liver and kidney) of ddY strain mice, which undergo naturally occurring diabetes along with aging, were carried out based upon a metabolite profiling study. The low-molecular-mass compounds including metabolites in the biological specimens of diabetic mice (ddY-H) and normal mice (ddY-L) were globally separated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) using different reversed-phase columns (i.e., T3-C18 and HS-F5) and detected by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). The biomarker candidates related to diabetes mellitus were extracted from a multivariate statistical analysis, such as an orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), followed by a database search, such as ChemSpider, KEGG and HMDB. Many metabolites and unknown compounds in each biological specimen were detected as the biomarker candidates related to diabetic mellitus. Among them, the elucidation of the chemical structures of several possible metabolites, including more than two biological specimens, was carried out along with the comparison of the tandem MS/MS analyses using authentic compounds. One metabolite was clearly identified as N-acetyl-L-leucine based upon the MS/MS spectra and the retention time on

  2. Histogram Profiling of Postcontrast T1-Weighted MRI Gives Valuable Insights into Tumor Biology and Enables Prediction of Growth Kinetics and Prognosis in Meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gihr, Georg Alexander; Horvath-Rizea, Diana; Kohlhof-Meinecke, Patricia; Ganslandt, Oliver; Henkes, Hans; Richter, Cindy; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Surov, Alexey; Schob, Stefan

    2018-06-14

    Meningiomas are the most frequently diagnosed intracranial masses, oftentimes requiring surgery. Especially procedure-related morbidity can be substantial, particularly in elderly patients. Hence, reliable imaging modalities enabling pretherapeutic prediction of tumor grade, growth kinetic, realistic prognosis, and-as a consequence-necessity of surgery are of great value. In this context, a promising diagnostic approach is advanced analysis of magnetic resonance imaging data. Therefore, our study investigated whether histogram profiling of routinely acquired postcontrast T1-weighted images is capable of separating low-grade from high-grade lesions and whether histogram parameters reflect Ki-67 expression in meningiomas. Pretreatment T1-weighted postcontrast volumes of 44 meningioma patients were used for signal intensity histogram profiling. WHO grade, tumor volume, and Ki-67 expression were evaluated. Comparative and correlative statistics investigating the association between histogram profile parameters and neuropathology were performed. None of the investigated histogram parameters revealed significant differences between low-grade and high-grade meningiomas. However, significant correlations were identified between Ki-67 and the histogram parameters skewness and entropy as well as between entropy and tumor volume. Contrary to previously reported findings, pretherapeutic postcontrast T1-weighted images can be used to predict growth kinetics in meningiomas if whole tumor histogram analysis is employed. However, no differences between distinct WHO grades were identifiable in out cohort. As a consequence, histogram analysis of postcontrast T1-weighted images is a promising approach to obtain quantitative in vivo biomarkers reflecting the proliferative potential in meningiomas. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Disappearing fluid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graney, K.; Chu, J.; Lin, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 78-year old male in end stage renal failure (ESRF) with a background of NIDDM retinopathy, nephropathy, and undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) presented with anorexia, clinically unwell, decreased mobility and right scrotal swelling. There was no difficulty during CAPD exchange except there was a positive fluid balance Peritoneal dialysates remained clear A CAPD peritoneal study was requested. 100Mbq 99mTc Sulphur Colloid was injected into a standard dialysate bag containing dialysate. Anterior dynamic images were acquired over the abdomen pelvis while the dialysate was infused Static images with anatomical markers were performed 20 mins post infusion, before and after patient ambulation and then after drainage. The study demonstrated communication between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac. Patient underwent right inguinal herniaplasty with a marlex mesh. A repeat CAPD flow study was performed as follow up and no abnormal connection between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac was demonstrated post operatively. This case study shows that CAPD flow studies can be undertaken as a simple, minimally invasive method to evaluate abnormal peritoneal fluid flow dynamics in patients undergoing CAPD, and have an impact on dialysis management. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid ...

  5. Multiplex Immunoassay Profiling of Hormones Involved in Metabolic Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Laurie; Guest, Paul C

    2018-01-01

    Multiplex immunoassays are used for rapid profiling of biomarker proteins and small molecules in biological fluids. The advantages over single immunoassays include lower sample consumption, cost, and labor. This chapter details a protocol to develop a 5-plex assay for glucagon-like peptide 1, growth hormone, insulin, leptin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone on the Luminex ® platform. The results of the analysis of insulin in normal control subjects are given due to the important role of this hormone in nutritional programming diseases.

  6. Venomous snakes of Costa Rica: biological and medical implications of their venom proteomic profiles analyzed through the strategy of snake venomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; Fernández, Julián; Sanz, Libia; Angulo, Yamileth; Sasa, Mahmood; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2014-06-13

    In spite of its small territory of ~50,000km(2), Costa Rica harbors a remarkably rich biodiversity. Its herpetofauna includes 138 species of snakes, of which sixteen pit vipers (family Viperidae, subfamily Crotalinae), five coral snakes (family Elapidae, subfamily Elapinae), and one sea snake (Family Elapidae, subfamily Hydrophiinae) pose potential hazards to human and animal health. In recent years, knowledge on the composition of snake venoms has expanded dramatically thanks to the development of increasingly fast and sensitive analytical techniques in mass spectrometry and separation science applied to protein characterization. Among several analytical strategies to determine the overall protein/peptide composition of snake venoms, the methodology known as 'snake venomics' has proven particularly well suited and informative, by providing not only a catalog of protein types/families present in a venom, but also a semi-quantitative estimation of their relative abundances. Through a collaborative research initiative between Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia (IBV) and Instituto Clodomiro Picado (ICP), this strategy has been applied to the study of venoms of Costa Rican snakes, aiming to obtain a deeper knowledge on their composition, geographic and ontogenic variations, relationships to taxonomy, correlation with toxic activities, and discovery of novel components. The proteomic profiles of venoms from sixteen out of the 22 species within the Viperidae and Elapidae families found in Costa Rica have been reported so far, and an integrative view of these studies is hereby presented. In line with other venomic projects by research groups focusing on a wide variety of snakes around the world, these studies contribute to a deeper understanding of the biochemical basis for the diverse toxic profiles evolved by venomous snakes. In addition, these studies provide opportunities to identify novel molecules of potential pharmacological interest. Furthermore, the

  7. The biomechanics of solids and fluids: the physics of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, David E

    2016-01-01

    Biomechanics borrows and extends engineering techniques to study the mechanical properties of organisms and their environments. Like physicists and engineers, biomechanics researchers tend to specialize on either fluids or solids (but some do both). For solid materials, the stress–strain curve reveals such useful information as various moduli, ultimate strength, extensibility, and work of fracture. Few biological materials are linearly elastic so modified elastic moduli are defined. Although biological materials tend to be less stiff than engineered materials, biomaterials tend to be tougher due to their anisotropy and high extensibility. Biological beams are usually hollow cylinders; particularly in plants, beams and columns tend to have high twist-to-bend ratios. Air and water are the dominant biological fluids. Fluids generate both viscous and pressure drag (normalized as drag coefficients) and the Reynolds number (Re) gives their relative importance. The no-slip conditions leads to velocity gradients (‘boundary layers’) on surfaces and parabolic flow profiles in tubes. Rather than rigidly resisting drag in external flows, many plants and sessile animals reconfigure to reduce drag as speed increases. Living in velocity gradients can be beneficial for attachment but challenging for capturing particulate food. Lift produced by airfoils and hydrofoils is used to produce thrust by all flying animals and many swimming ones, and is usually optimal at higher Re. At low Re, most swimmers use drag-based mechanisms. A few swimmers use jetting for rapid escape despite its energetic inefficiency. At low Re, suspension feeding depends on mechanisms other than direct sieving because thick boundary layers reduce effective porosity. Most biomaterials exhibit a combination of solid and fluid properties, i.e., viscoelasticity. Even rigid biomaterials exhibit creep over many days, whereas pliant biomaterials may exhibit creep over hours or minutes. Instead of rigid materials

  8. The biomechanics of solids and fluids: the physics of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David E.

    2016-09-01

    Biomechanics borrows and extends engineering techniques to study the mechanical properties of organisms and their environments. Like physicists and engineers, biomechanics researchers tend to specialize on either fluids or solids (but some do both). For solid materials, the stress-strain curve reveals such useful information as various moduli, ultimate strength, extensibility, and work of fracture. Few biological materials are linearly elastic so modified elastic moduli are defined. Although biological materials tend to be less stiff than engineered materials, biomaterials tend to be tougher due to their anisotropy and high extensibility. Biological beams are usually hollow cylinders; particularly in plants, beams and columns tend to have high twist-to-bend ratios. Air and water are the dominant biological fluids. Fluids generate both viscous and pressure drag (normalized as drag coefficients) and the Reynolds number (Re) gives their relative importance. The no-slip conditions leads to velocity gradients (‘boundary layers’) on surfaces and parabolic flow profiles in tubes. Rather than rigidly resisting drag in external flows, many plants and sessile animals reconfigure to reduce drag as speed increases. Living in velocity gradients can be beneficial for attachment but challenging for capturing particulate food. Lift produced by airfoils and hydrofoils is used to produce thrust by all flying animals and many swimming ones, and is usually optimal at higher Re. At low Re, most swimmers use drag-based mechanisms. A few swimmers use jetting for rapid escape despite its energetic inefficiency. At low Re, suspension feeding depends on mechanisms other than direct sieving because thick boundary layers reduce effective porosity. Most biomaterials exhibit a combination of solid and fluid properties, i.e., viscoelasticity. Even rigid biomaterials exhibit creep over many days, whereas pliant biomaterials may exhibit creep over hours or minutes. Instead of rigid materials

  9. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Fitsiou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil, Mentha spicata (spearmint, Pimpinella anisum (anise and Fortunella margarita (kumquat. GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4% in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9% in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1% in anise, and limonene (93.8% in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma.

  10. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitsiou, Eleni; Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Spyridopoulou, Katerina; Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Angeliki; Vamvakias, Manolis; Bardouki, Haido; Panayiotidis, Mihalis Ι; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Chlichlia, Katerina; Pappa, Aglaia

    2016-08-16

    Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Fortunella margarita (kumquat). GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4%) in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9%) in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1%) in anise, and limonene (93.8%) in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma.

  11. Directed Fluid Transport with Biomimetic ``Silia'' Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, A. R.; Evans, B. A.; Carstens, B. L.; Falvo, M. R.; Washburn, S.; Superfine, R.

    2008-10-01

    We present results on the long-range, directed fluid transport produced by the collective beating of arrays of biomimetic ``silia.'' Silia are arrays of free-standing nanorods roughly the size of biological cilia, which we fabricate from a polymer-magnetic nanoparticle composite material. With external permanent magnets we actuate our silia such that their motion mimics the beating of biological cilia. Biological cilia have evolved to produce microscale fluid transport and are increasingly being recognized as critical components in a wide range of biological systems. However, despite much effort cilia generated fluid flows remain an area of active study. In the last decade, cilia-driven fluid flow in the embryonic node of vertebrates has been implicated as the initial left-right symmetry breaking event in these embryos. With silia we generate directional fluid transport by mimicking the tilted conical beating of these nodal cilia and seek to answer open questions about the nature of particle advection in such a system. By seeding fluorescent microparticles into the fluid we have noted the existence of two distinct flow regimes. The fluid flow is directional and coherent above the tips of the silia, while between the silia tips and floor particle motion is complicated and suggestive of chaotic advection.

  12. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  13. Gyroelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch

  14. Biology's built-in Faraday cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Maurice M.

    2014-05-01

    Biological fluids are water-based, ionic conductors. As such, they have both high relative dielectric constants and substantial conductivities, meaning they are lossy dielectrics. These fluids contain charged molecules (free charges), whose movements play roles in essentially all cellular processes from metabolism to communication with other cells. Using the problem of a point source in air above a biological fluid of semi-infinite extent, the bound charges in the fluid are shown to perform the function of a fast-acting Faraday cage, which protects the interior of the fluid from external electric fields. Free charges replace bound charges in accordance with the fluid's relaxation time, thereby providing a smooth transition between the initial protection provided by the bound charges and the steady state protection provided by the free charges. The electric fields within the biological fluid are thus small for all times just as they would be inside a classical Faraday cage.

  15. Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Povey, Malcolm J W

    1997-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the use of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of fluids. Focusing on ultrasonic velocimetry, the author covers the basic topics and techniques necessaryfor successful ultrasound measurements on emulsions, dispersions, multiphase media, and viscoelastic/viscoplastic materials. Advanced techniques such as scattering, particle sizing, and automation are also presented. As a handbook for industrial and scientific use, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization is an indispensable guide to chemists and chemical engineers using ultrasound for research or process monitoring in the chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, biotechnology,and fuels industries. Key Features * Appeals to anyone using ultrasound to study fluids * Provides the first detailed description of the ultrasound profiling technique for dispersions * Describes new techniques for measuring phase transitions and nucleation, such as water/ice and oil/fat * Presents the l...

  16. Peptidome analysis of amniotic fluid from pregnancies with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yating; Zhang, Lei; Rui, Can; Ding, Hongjuan; Mao, Pengyuan; Ruan, Hongjie; Jia, Ruizhe

    2017-11-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), a life‑threatening, complicated pregnancy‑associated disease, has recently become a research focus in obstetrics. However, the peptidome of the amniotic fluid in PE patients has rarely been investigated. The present study used peptidomic profiling to perform a comparative analysis of human amniotic fluid between normal and PE pregnancies. Centrifugal ultrafiltration and liquid chromatography‑tandem mass spectrometry (LC‑MS/MS) was combined with isotopomeric dimethyl labels to gain a deeper understanding of the role of proteins and the peptidome in the onset of PE. Following ultrafiltration and LC‑MS/MS, 352 peptides were identified. Of these, 23 peptides were observed to be significantly differentially expressed (6 downregulated and 17 upregulated; POntology and Blastp analyses, the functions and biological activities of these 23 peptides were identified and revealed to include autophagy, signal transduction, receptor activity, enzymatic activity and nucleic acid binding. In addition, a bibliographic search revealed that some of the identified peptides, including Titin, are crucial to the pathogenesis underlying PE. The present study identified 23 peptides expressed at significantly different levels in the amniotic fluid of PE and normal pregnancies. A comprehensive peptidome analysis is more efficient than a simple biomarker analysis at revealing deficiencies and improving the detection rate in diseases. These analyses therefore provide a substantial advantage in applications aimed at the discovery of disease‑specific biomarkers.

  17. Delineation of pulmonary airway fluid protein fractions with HRPO binding-avidity by far-Western ligand blot and mass spectrometry analyses: a model methodology for detecting mannose-binding protein expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Cody P; Rashmir-Raven, Ann; Jones, Toni; Mochal, Cathleen; Linford, Robert L; Brashier, Michael; Eddy, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Limited research to date has characterized the potential for HRPO to function as a primary molecular probe. Pulmonary airway fluid was developed by non-reducing far-Western (ligand) blot analyses utilizing conjugated HRPO-strepavidin or non-conjugated HRPO without the presence of primary immunoglobulin. Endogenous esterase-like biochemical activity of fractions within pulmonary airway fluid was inactivated to determine if they were capable of biochemically converting HRPO chemiluminescent substrate. Complementary analyses modified pulmonary fluid and HRPO with beta-galactosidase and alpha-mannosidase respectively, in addition to determining the influence of mannose and maltose competitive binding on HRPO far-Western (ligand) blot analyses. Identification of pulmonary fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western blot analyses was determined by mass spectrometry. Modification of pulmonary fluid with beta-galactosidase, and HRPO with alpha-mannosidase in concert with maltose and mannose competitive binding analyses altered the intensity and spectrum of pulmonary fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western blot analysis. Identity of pulmonary airway fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western (ligand) blot analysis were transferrin, dynein, albumin precursor, and two 156 kDa equine peptide fragments. HRPO can function as a partially-selective primary molecular probe when applied in either a conjugated or non-conjugated form. Some protein fractions can form complexes with HRPO through molecular mechanisms that involve physical interactions at the terminal alpha-mannose-rich regions of HRPO glycan side-chains. Based on its known molecular composition and structure, HRPO provides an opportunity for the development of diagnostics methodologies relevant to disease biomarkers that possess mannose-binding avidity.

  18. A differentially expressed set of microRNAs in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) can diagnose CNS malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusco, Alessandra; Bottoni, Arianna; Laganà, Alessandro; Acunzo, Mario; Fassan, Matteo; Cascione, Luciano; Antenucci, Anna; Kumchala, Prasanthi; Vicentini, Caterina; Gardiman, Marina P; Alder, Hansjuerg; Carosi, Mariantonia A; Ammirati, Mario; Gherardi, Stefano; Luscrì, Marilena; Carapella, Carmine; Zanesi, Nicola; Croce, Carlo M

    2015-08-28

    Central Nervous System malignancies often require stereotactic biopsy or biopsy for differential diagnosis, and for tumor staging and grading. Furthermore, stereotactic biopsy can be non-diagnostic or underestimate grading. Hence, there is a compelling need of new diagnostic biomarkers to avoid such invasive procedures. Several biological markers have been proposed, but they can only identify specific prognostic subtype of Central Nervous System tumors, and none of them has found a standardized clinical application.The aim of the study was to identify a Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA signature that could differentiate among Central Nervous System malignancies.CSF total RNA of 34 neoplastic and of 14 non-diseased patients was processed by NanoString. Comparison among groups (Normal, Benign, Glioblastoma, Medulloblastoma, Metastasis and Lymphoma) lead to the identification of a microRNA profile that was further confirmed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization.Hsa-miR-451, -711, 935, -223 and -125b were significantly differentially expressed among the above mentioned groups, allowing us to draw an hypothetical diagnostic chart for Central Nervous System malignancies.This is the first study to employ the NanoString technique for Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA profiling. In this article, we demonstrated that Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA profiling mirrors Central Nervous System physiologic or pathologic conditions. Although more cases need to be tested, we identified a diagnostic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA signature with good perspectives for future diagnostic clinical applications.

  19. Transcriptomes and expression profiling of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea provide insight into the biology of azooxanthellate corals

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Lauren

    2017-07-19

    Despite the importance of deep-sea corals, our current understanding of their ecology and evolution is limited due to difficulties in sampling and studying deep-sea environments. Moreover, a recent re-evaluation of habitat limitations has been suggested after characterization of deep-sea corals in the Red Sea, where they live at temperatures of above 20 °C at low oxygen concentrations. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals, we produced reference transcriptomes and studied gene expression of three deep-sea coral species from the Red Sea, i.e. Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus typus. Our analyses suggest that deep-sea coral employ mitochondrial hypometabolism and anaerobic glycolysis to manage low oxygen conditions present in the Red Sea. Notably, we found expression of genes related to surface cilia motion that presumably enhance small particle transport rates in the oligotrophic deep-sea environment. This is the first study to characterize transcriptomes and in situ gene expression for deep-sea corals. Our work offers several mechanisms by which deep-sea corals might cope with the distinct environmental conditions present in the Red Sea As such, our data provide direction for future research and further insight to organismal response of deep-sea coral to environmental change and ocean warming.

  20. Transcriptomes and expression profiling of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea provide insight into the biology of azooxanthellate corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Lauren K; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Röthig, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Roik, Anna; Michell, Craig; Voolstra, Christian R

    2017-07-25

    Despite the importance of deep-sea corals, our current understanding of their ecology and evolution is limited due to difficulties in sampling and studying deep-sea environments. Moreover, a recent re-evaluation of habitat limitations has been suggested after characterization of deep-sea corals in the Red Sea, where they live at temperatures of above 20 °C at low oxygen concentrations. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals, we produced reference transcriptomes and studied gene expression of three deep-sea coral species from the Red Sea, i.e. Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus typus. Our analyses suggest that deep-sea coral employ mitochondrial hypometabolism and anaerobic glycolysis to manage low oxygen conditions present in the Red Sea. Notably, we found expression of genes related to surface cilia motion that presumably enhance small particle transport rates in the oligotrophic deep-sea environment. This is the first study to characterize transcriptomes and in situ gene expression for deep-sea corals. Our work offers several mechanisms by which deep-sea corals might cope with the distinct environmental conditions present in the Red Sea As such, our data provide direction for future research and further insight to organismal response of deep-sea coral to environmental change and ocean warming.

  1. Phytochemical profile and biological activities of Deverra tortuosa (Desf.)DC.: a desert aromatic shrub widespread in Northern Region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetat, Arbi; Boulila, Abdennacer; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2018-04-16

    The present study describes the chemical composition of the essential oil of different plant parts of Devrra tortuosa; in vivo and in vitro biological activities of plant extract and essential oils. Apiol was found to be the major component of the oil (between 65.73% and 74.41%). The best antioxidant activities were observed for the oil of flowers (IC50 = 175 μg/ml). The samples of stems and roots exhibit lower antioxidant activity (IC50 = 201 μg/ml and 182 μg/ml, respectively). The values of IC50 showed that the extracts of methanol exhibit the highest antioxidants activities (IC50 = 64.8 102 μg/ml). EOs showed excellent antifungal activity against yeasts with low azole susceptibilities (i.e. Malassezia spp. and Candida krusei). The MIC values of oils varied between 2.85 mg/mL and 27 mg/mL. The obtained results also showed that the plant extracts inhibited the germination and the shoot and root growth of Triticum æstivum seedlings.

  2. The Naples High- and Low-Excitability rats: selective breeding, behavioral profile, morphometry, and molecular biology of the mesocortical dopamine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Davide; Vallone, Daniela; Welzl, Hans; Sadile, Adolfo G

    2002-09-01

    The Naples High- (NHE) and Low-Excitability (NLE) rat lines have been selected since 1976 on the basis of behavioral arousal to novelty (Làt-maze). Selective breeding has been conducted under continuous genetic pressure, with no brother-sister mating. The behavioral analyses presented here deal with (1) activity in environments of different complexity, i.e., holeboard and Làt maze; (2) maze learning in hexagonal tunnel, Olton, and Morris water mazes and; (3) two-way active avoidance and conditioned taste aversion tests. Morphometric analyses deal with central dopaminergic systems at their origin and target sites, as well as the density of dopamine transporter immunoreactivity. Molecular biology analyses are also presented, dealing with recent experiments on the prefrontal cortex (PFc), cloning and identifying differentially expressed genes using subtractive libraries and RNAase protection. The divergence between NLE and NHE rats varies as a function of the complexity level of the environment, with an impaired working and reference memory in both lines compared to random bred (NRB) controls. Moreover, data from the PFc of NHE rats show a hyperdopaminergic innervation, with overexpression of mRNA species involved in basal metabolism, and down-regulation of dopamine D1 receptors. Altogether, the evidence gathered so far supports a hyperfunctioning mesocorticolimbic system that makes NHE rats a useful tool for the study of hyperactivity and attention deficit, learning and memory disabilities, and drug abuse.

  3. Transcriptional Profiling of Hypoxic Neural Stem Cells Identifies Calcineurin-NFATc4 Signaling as a Major Regulator of Neural Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta; Fernández, Virginia; Monllau, Josep M.; Borrell, Víctor; Lerin, Carles; de la Iglesia, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in a hypoxic microenvironment within the brain. However, the crucial transcription factors (TFs) that regulate NSC biology under physiologic hypoxia are poorly understood. Here we have performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of microarray datasets from hypoxic versus normoxic NSCs with the aim of identifying pathways and TFs that are activated under oxygen concentrations mimicking normal brain tissue microenvironment. Integration of TF target (TFT) and pathway enrichment analysis identified the calcium-regulated TF NFATc4 as a major candidate to regulate hypoxic NSC functions. Nfatc4 expression was coordinately upregulated by top hypoxia-activated TFs, while NFATc4 target genes were enriched in hypoxic NSCs. Loss-of-function analyses further revealed that the calcineurin-NFATc4 signaling axis acts as a major regulator of NSC self-renewal and proliferation in vitro and in vivo by promoting the expression of TFs, including Id2, that contribute to the maintenance of the NSC state. PMID:26235896

  4. Biological Reference Interval for Hematological Profile of Umbilical Cord Blood: A Study Conducted at A Tertiary Care Centre in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Reddy S. Sudheer; Priyathersini, N.; Rajendran, Rithika; Rajendran, Rashmika; Ramadoss, Umalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Umbilical cord blood (UCB) a source of hematopoietic stem cells, is also an acceptable sample to assess neonatal sepsis. Though reports are available for stem cell counts very minimal literature is available regarding hematologic parameters, which may vary on ethnicity. Aim To establish biological reference interval for hematological parameters of umbilical cord blood to guide neonatologists, hematopoietic stem cell transplant specialists and future analysis. Materials and Methods Prospective longitudinal study was done from January 2014 to April 2014 after ethics committee approval. UCB from 120 full term new borns of normal birth weight born out of uneventful pregnancy to mothers aged between 21 to 45 years with hemoglobin above 10g/dL were processed in Beckman Coulter LH780 analyzer for complete blood count and counter checked by peripheral smear. Results tabulated in Microsoft excel are analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics 16 software. Results Male to female ratio is 1:1.05. There is no difference in the values between males and females. When compared with few studies available, though many values are comparable a few values are not comparable. Conclusion This study can be a useful guide to neonatologists, hematopoietic stem cells transplant hematologists and future analysis. PMID:26557584

  5. Transcriptomes and expression profiling of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea provide insight into the biology of azooxanthellate corals

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Lauren; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Rö thig, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Roik, Anna Krystyna; Michell, Craig; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of deep-sea corals, our current understanding of their ecology and evolution is limited due to difficulties in sampling and studying deep-sea environments. Moreover, a recent re-evaluation of habitat limitations has been suggested after characterization of deep-sea corals in the Red Sea, where they live at temperatures of above 20 °C at low oxygen concentrations. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals, we produced reference transcriptomes and studied gene expression of three deep-sea coral species from the Red Sea, i.e. Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus typus. Our analyses suggest that deep-sea coral employ mitochondrial hypometabolism and anaerobic glycolysis to manage low oxygen conditions present in the Red Sea. Notably, we found expression of genes related to surface cilia motion that presumably enhance small particle transport rates in the oligotrophic deep-sea environment. This is the first study to characterize transcriptomes and in situ gene expression for deep-sea corals. Our work offers several mechanisms by which deep-sea corals might cope with the distinct environmental conditions present in the Red Sea As such, our data provide direction for future research and further insight to organismal response of deep-sea coral to environmental change and ocean warming.

  6. Biological and haematological safety profile of oral amodiaquine and chloroquine in healthy volunteers with or without Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeast Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaga, J J; Lusingu, J P; Makunde, R; Malebo, H M; Chile, M M; Akida, J A; Lemnge, M M; Rønn, A M; Theander, T G; Bygbjerg, I C; Kitua, A Y

    2008-07-01

    Amodiaquine (AQ), an effective antimalarial drug for uncomplicated malaria, has been greatly restricted after cases of life-threatening agranulocytosis and hepatic toxicity during prophylactic use. We conducted a hospital based open-label randomised clinical trial in 40 indigenous semi-immune healthy adult male volunteers with and without malaria parasites. The objective was to collect data on biological and haematological safety, tolerability, and parasitological efficacy to serve as baseline in the evaluation of the effectiveness of AQ preventive intermittent treatment against malaria morbidity in infants. Volunteers were stratified according to parasitaemia status and randomly assigned 20 participants each arm to three days treatment with either AQ or chloroquine (CQ). The level of difference of selected haematological and hepatological values pre-and post-trial were marginal and within the normal limits. Clinical adverse effects mostly mild and transient were noticed in 33.3% CQ treated-aparasitaemic, 23.8% of CQ treated-parasitaemic, 28.6% ofAQ-treated parasitaemic and 14.3% of aparasitaemic receiving AQ. Amodiaquine attained 100% parasitological clearance rate versus 70% in CQ-treated volunteers. The findings indicate that there was no agranulocytosis or hepatic toxicity suggesting that AQ may pose no public health risk in its wide therapeutic dosage uses. Larger studies are needed to exclude rare adverse effects.

  7. Tissue-specific transcriptomic profiling provides new insights into the reproductive ecology and biology of the iconic seagrass species Posidonia oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrambasaguas, Laura; Jahnke, Marlene; Biffali, Elio; Borra, Marco; Sanges, Remo; Marín-Guirao, Lázaro; Procaccini, Gabriele

    2017-10-01

    Seagrasses form extensive meadows in shallow coastal waters and are among the world's most productive ecosystems. Seagrasses can produce both clonally and sexually, and flowering has long been considered infrequent, but important for maintaining genetically diverse stands. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in flowering of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, an iconic species endemic to the Mediterranean. We generated a de novo transcriptome of this non-model species for leaf, male and female flower tissue of three individuals, and present molecular evidence for genes that may be involved in the flowering process and on the reproductive biology of the species. We present evidence that suggests that P. oceanica exhibits a strategy of protogyny, where the female part of the hermaphroditic flower develops before the male part, in order to avoid self-fertilization. We found photosynthetic genes to be up-regulated in the female flower tissues, indicating that this may be capable of photosynthesis. Finally, we detected a number of interesting genes, previously known to be involved in flowering pathways responding to light and temperature cues and in pathways involved in anthocyanin and exine synthesis. This first comparative transcriptomic approach of leaf, male and female tissue provides a basis for functional genomics research on flower development in P. oceanica and other seagrass species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluid Mechanics and Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Gary S.

    2006-01-01

    Homeland security involves many applications of fluid mechanics and offers many opportunities for research and development. This review explores a wide selection of fluids topics in counterterrorism and suggests future directions. Broad topics range from preparedness and deterrence of impending terrorist attacks to detection, response, and recovery. Specific topics include aircraft hardening, blast mitigation, sensors and sampling, explosive detection, microfluidics and labs-on-a-chip, chemical plume dispersal in urban settings, and building ventilation. Also discussed are vapor plumes and standoff detection, nonlethal weapons, airborne disease spread, personal protective equipment, and decontamination. Involvement in these applications requires fluid dynamicists to think across the traditional boundaries of the field and to work with related disciplines, especially chemistry, biology, aerosol science, and atmospheric science.

  9. Fluid discrimination based on rock physics templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Yin, Xingyao; Li, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir fluid discrimination is an indispensable part of seismic exploration. Reliable fluid discrimination helps to decrease the risk of exploration and to increase the success ratio of drilling. There are many kinds of fluid indicators that are used in fluid discriminations, most of which are single indicators. But single indicators do not always work well under complicated reservoir conditions. Therefore, combined fluid indicators are needed to increase accuracies of discriminations. In this paper, we have proposed an alternative strategy for the combination of fluid indicators. An alternative fluid indicator, the rock physics template-based indicator (RPTI) has been derived to combine the advantages of two single indicators. The RPTI is more sensitive to the contents of fluid than traditional indicators. The combination is implemented based on the characteristic of the fluid trend in the rock physics template, which means few subjective factors are involved. We also propose an inversion method to assure the accuracy of the RPTI input data. The RPTI profile is an intuitionistic interpretation of fluid content. Real data tests demonstrate the applicability and validity. (paper)

  10. A Comparative Oncology Study of Iniparib Defines Its Pharmacokinetic Profile and Biological Activity in a Naturally-Occurring Canine Cancer Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Saba

    Full Text Available Development of iniparib as an anti-cancer agent was hindered in part by lingering questions regarding its mechanism of action, the activity of its metabolites, and their potential accumulation in tumors. Due to strong similarities in metabolism of iniparib between humans and dogs, a veterinary clinical trial in pet dogs with spontaneous cancers was designed to answer specific questions pertaining to pharmacokinetic exposures and tolerability of iniparib. Dogs were treated with iniparib alone and in combination with carboplatin chemotherapy. Iniparib doses ranged between 10-70 mg/kg intravenously (IV. Plasma, tumor and normal tissue samples were collected before and at various time points scheduled after exposure for pharmacokinetic and biologic analysis. The primary endpoints included characterization of dose-limiting toxicities (DLT and determination of the drug exposures that could be achieved in both normal and tumor tissues. Nineteen dogs were treated. DLT included fever, anorexia, diarrhea, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia; most effects were attributable to carboplatin based on the timing of adverse event onset. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD of iniparib was not identified. Moderate to high variability in plasma exposure was noted for iniparib and all metabolites between animals. When quantifiable, iniparib and metabolite plasma:tumor ratios were < 0.088 and <1.7, respectively. In this study, iniparib was well tolerated as a single agent and in combination with carboplatin over a range of doses. However, clinically relevant concentrations of the parent drug and selected metabolites were not detectable in canine tumor tissues at any studied dose, thus eliminating expectations for clinical responses in dogs or humans. Negative clinical trials in humans, and the uncertainties of its mechanism of action, ultimately led to the decision to stop clinical development of the drug. Nevertheless, the questions that can be asked and answered within

  11. Alterations in glucocorticoid negative feedback following maternal Pb, prenatal stress and the combination: A potential biological unifying mechanism for their corresponding disease profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi-George, A.; Virgolini, M.B.; Weston, D.; Cory-Slechta, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Combined exposures to maternal lead (Pb) and prenatal stress (PS) can act synergistically to enhance behavioral and neurochemical toxicity in offspring. Maternal Pb itself causes permanent dysfunction of the body's major stress system, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. The current study sought to determine the potential involvement of altered negative glucocorticoid feedback as a mechanistic basis of the effects in rats of maternal Pb (0, 50 or 150 ppm in drinking water beginning 2 mo prior to breeding), prenatal stress (PS; restraint on gestational days 16-17) and combined maternal Pb + PS in 8 mo old male and female offspring. Corticosterone changes were measured over 24 h following an i.p. injection stress containing vehicle or 100 or 300 μg/kg (females) or 100 or 150 μg/kg (males) dexamethasone (DEX). Both Pb and PS prolonged the time course of corticosterone reduction following vehicle injection stress. Pb effects were non-monotonic, with a greater impact at 50 vs. 150 ppm, particularly in males, where further enhancement occurred with PS. In accord with these findings, the efficacy of DEX in suppressing corticosterone was reduced by Pb and Pb + PS in both genders, with Pb efficacy enhanced by PS in females, over the first 6 h post-administration. A marked prolongation of DEX effects was found in males. Thus, Pb, PS and Pb + PS, sometimes additively, produced hypercortisolism in both genders, followed by hypocortisolism in males, consistent with HPA axis dysfunction. These findings may provide a plausible unifying biological mechanism for the reported links between Pb exposure and stress-associated diseases and disorders mediated via the HPA axis, including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anxiety, schizophrenia and depression. They also suggest broadening of Pb screening programs to pregnant women in high stress environments

  12. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  13. Fenproporex and amphetamine pharmacokinetics in oral fluid after controlled oral administration of fenproporex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiran, Eloisa; Souza, Daniele Zago; Boehl, Paula Otero; Cássia Mariotti, Kristiane de; Pechansky, Flavio; Duarte, Paulina do Carmo Arruda Vieira; De Boni, Raquel Brandini; Fröehlich, Pedro Eduardo; Limberger, Renata Pereira

    2012-10-01

    Fenproporex hydrochloride (FEN) is an anorectic drug used in the treatment of obesity, and its major metabolite is amphetamine (AMP), another central nervous system stimulant. The concentration versus time profile of FEN and its metabolite AMP has been described in classic biological matrices such as plasma and urine; however, there are no reports of such data in oral fluid. The aim of this study is to describe the pharmacokinetics of FEN and AMP in oral fluid after intake of FEN. Twenty-five milligrams of FEN (1 capsule of Desobesi-m) was orally administered to 6 male volunteers, and oral fluid samples were collected with a Quantisal device during 24.00 hours after drug ingestion. These samples were submitted to solid-phase microextraction before analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected-ion-monitoring mode, using deuterium-labeled AMP as internal standard. After FEN administration, both analytes could be detected in oral fluid of all volunteers with an initial detection time varying from 0.50 to 1.00 hour. FEN peak concentrations occurred between 1.00 and 1.50 hours after administration and were between 70.7 and 227.5 μg/L. For AMP, peak concentration occurred between 1.50 and 4.00 hours, reaching 33.0-150.9 μg/L. The authors observed that oral administration of FEN resulted in significant amounts of FEN and AMP in oral fluid, showing that oral fluid could be a biological matrix suitable for pharmacokinetic studies for both analytes. Using a compartmental approach, FEN data were best fitted by 1-compartment model with first-order input and output, whereas AMP followed a 2-compartment model with first-order input and output.

  14. Biological profiling of prospective antidepressant response in major depressive disorder: Associations with (neuro)inflammation, fatty acid metabolism, and amygdala-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocking, R J T; Nap, T S; Westerink, A M; Assies, J; Vaz, F M; Koeter, M W J; Ruhé, H G; Schene, A H

    2017-05-01

    independent samples are needed to replicate and test the clinical applicability of these biological predictors for treatment response to result in a precision/personalized medicine approach for treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapich, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid [fr

  16. Modern fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2018-01-01

    Modern Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition provides up-to-date coverage of intermediate and advanced fluids topics. The text emphasizes fundamentals and applications, supported by worked examples and case studies. Scale analysis, non-Newtonian fluid flow, surface coating, convection heat transfer, lubrication, fluid-particle dynamics, microfluidics, entropy generation, and fluid-structure interactions are among the topics covered. Part A presents fluids principles, and prepares readers for the applications of fluid dynamics covered in Part B, which includes computer simulations and project writing. A review of the engineering math needed for fluid dynamics is included in an appendix.

  17. The Impact of Microbial Ecology and Chemical Profile on the Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR Process: A Case Study of Northern Wastewater Treatment Works, Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilunga Kamika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO and glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO populations as well as of the chemical profile on the performance of Unit-3 (open elutriation tanks and Unit-5 (covered elutriation tank of the City of Johannesburg Northern Wastewater Treatment Works was determined. Physicochemical parameters of wastewater samples were measured using standard methods. Bacterial diversity was determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of the variable region V1-3. Results showed soluble COD concentrations from settled sewage for Unit-3 at 192.8 mg COD/L and for Unit-5 at 214.6 mg COD/L, which increased to 301.8 mg COD/L and 411.6 mg COD/L in the overflow from elutriation tanks and decreased to 170.9 mg COD/L and 256.3 mg COD/L at the division boxes, respectively. Both long-chain volatile fatty acids (heptanoic acid, isobutyric acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, pentanoic acid, 4-methylpentanoic acid, methylheptanoic acid and short-chain volatile fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid were present within concentration ranges of 17.19 mg/L to 54.98 mg/L and 13.64 mg/L to 87.6 mg/L for Unit 3 and 38.61 mg/L to58.85 mg/L and 21.63 mg/L to 92.39 mg/L for Unit 5, respectively. In the secondary settling tanks, the phosphate-removal efficiency in Unit-5 appeared to be slightly higher (0.08 mg P/L compared to that of Unit-3 (0.11 mg P/L. The average DO concentrations (2.1 mg/L and 2.2 mg/L as well as the pH values (pH 7 to pH 7.5 were found to be slightly higher in Unit-5 in the aerobic zones. The high presence of PAOs in the bioreactors (Unit-5: Dechloromonas (14.96%, Acinetobacter (6.3%, Zoogloea (4.72% in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (22.37 % in the aerobic zone; Unit-3: Dechloromonas (37.25% in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (23.97% in the aerobic zone confirmed the phosphate-removal efficiencies of both units. Negligible GAOs were found in the aerobic zones (Defluviicoccus spp.: 0

  18. The impact of microbial ecology and chemical profile on the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process: a case study of Northern Wastewater Treatment Works, Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamika, Ilunga; Coetzee, Martie; Mamba, Bhekie Brilliance; Msagati, Titus; Momba, Maggy N B

    2014-03-10

    The impact of polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) populations as well as of the chemical profile on the performance of Unit-3 (open elutriation tanks) and Unit-5 (covered elutriation tank) of the City of Johannesburg Northern Wastewater Treatment Works was determined. Physicochemical parameters of wastewater samples were measured using standard methods. Bacterial diversity was determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of the variable region V1-3. Results showed soluble COD concentrations from settled sewage for Unit-3 at 192.8 mg COD/L and for Unit-5 at 214.6 mg COD/L, which increased to 301.8 mg COD/L and 411.6 mg COD/L in the overflow from elutriation tanks and decreased to 170.9 mg COD/L and 256.3 mg COD/L at the division boxes, respectively. Both long-chain volatile fatty acids (heptanoic acid, isobutyric acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, pentanoic acid, 4-methylpentanoic acid, methylheptanoic acid) and short-chain volatile fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid) were present within concentration ranges of 17.19 mg/L to 54.98 mg/L and 13.64 mg/L to 87.6 mg/L for Unit 3 and 38.61 mg/L to58.85 mg/L and 21.63 mg/L to 92.39 mg/L for Unit 5, respectively. In the secondary settling tanks, the phosphate-removal efficiency in Unit-5 appeared to be slightly higher (0.08 mg P/L) compared to that of Unit-3 (0.11 mg P/L). The average DO concentrations (2.1 mg/L and 2.2 mg/L) as well as the pH values (pH 7 to pH 7.5) were found to be slightly higher in Unit-5 in the aerobic zones. The high presence of PAOs in the bioreactors (Unit-5: Dechloromonas (14.96%), Acinetobacter (6.3%), Zoogloea (4.72%) in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (22.37 %) in the aerobic zone; Unit-3: Dechloromonas (37.25%) in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (23.97%) in the aerobic zone) confirmed the phosphate-removal efficiencies of both units. Negligible GAOs were found in the aerobic zones (Defluviicoccus spp.: 0.33% for

  19. Effect of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the level and activity of PAPP-A and the hormone profile in fluid from normal human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtkjær, Jane Alrø; Borgbo, Tanni; Kløverpris, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To reveal a possible relationship between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PAPP-A—1224 (rs7020782) and 327 (rs12375498)—and the level and activity of PAPP-A in follicular fluid (FF) of human small antral follicles, and to analyze the intrafollicular hormone levels. Design:...

  20. Perfil socioeconômico e expectativa docente de ingressantes no Curso de Licenciatura em Ciências Biológicas. Socioeconomic profile and teaching expectations of undergraduate students of Biological Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Rodrigo Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A opção dos estudantes por um curso de graduação em licenciatura envolve vários fatores. Porém, muitas vezes, os jovens não estão preparados para esta escolha, gerando frustrações e desistências. Desta forma, este trabalho objetivou traçar o perfil socioeconômico e conhecer as expectativas profissionais acerca da docência de estudantes ingressantes no Curso de Licenciatura em Ciências Biológicas de uma instituição privada de Ensino Superior, localizada no município de Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil. Foram distribuídos questionários estruturados aos estudantes, contendo perguntas fechadas e abertas, a fim de conhecer o perfil socioeconômico e as razões da escolha do curso, além de analisar suas expectativas futuras quanto à docência. Concluiu-se que o perfil dos estudantes ingressantes no Curso de Licenciatura em Ciências Biológicas é, em sua maioria, composto por mulheres, alunos que concluíram o Ensino Médio em escolas da rede pública de ensino, são de classe média baixa e filhos de pais com baixo nível de escolaridade. A docência é preterida por aproximadamente metade destes estudantes, os quais relataram que não possuem as características necessárias para lecionarem. Em relação aos que pretendem lecionar, quase a totalidade dos estudantes gostariam de ministrar aulas no Ensino Superior em vez de lecionar nos níveis de Ensino Fundamental e Médio. Choosing a degree course involves many factors, and young people are often not prepared for this choice, causing frustration and dropouts. In this context, this study focused on certain socioeconomic profiles and teaching expectations of students entering the Biological Sciences undergraduate course. Structured questionnaires, containing open and closed questions, were distributed in order to learn more about the students’ socioeconomic profile and their reasons for choosing the course, and to analyze their expectations regarding future teaching. We conclude

  1. Packing frustration in dense confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Kim; Sarman, Sten; Kjellander, Roland

    2014-09-07

    Packing frustration for confined fluids, i.e., the incompatibility between the preferred packing of the fluid particles and the packing constraints imposed by the confining surfaces, is studied for a dense hard-sphere fluid confined between planar hard surfaces at short separations. The detailed mechanism for the frustration is investigated via an analysis of the anisotropic pair distributions of the confined fluid, as obtained from integral equation theory for inhomogeneous fluids at pair correlation level within the anisotropic Percus-Yevick approximation. By examining the mean forces that arise from interparticle collisions around the periphery of each particle in the slit, we calculate the principal components of the mean force for the density profile--each component being the sum of collisional forces on a particle's hemisphere facing either surface. The variations of these components with the slit width give rise to rather intricate changes in the layer structure between the surfaces, but, as shown in this paper, the basis of these variations can be easily understood qualitatively and often also semi-quantitatively. It is found that the ordering of the fluid is in essence governed locally by the packing constraints at each single solid-fluid interface. A simple superposition of forces due to the presence of each surface gives surprisingly good estimates of the density profiles, but there remain nontrivial confinement effects that cannot be explained by superposition, most notably the magnitude of the excess adsorption of particles in the slit relative to bulk.

  2. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different