Pae, Hye K.; Greenberg, Daphne
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between receptive and expressive language skills characterized by the performance of nonnative speakers (NNSs) of English in the academic context. Test scores of 585 adult NNSs were selected from Form 2 of the Pearson Test of English Academic's field-test database. A correlated…
Kilman, L.; Zekveld, A.A.; Hallgren, M.; Ronnberg, J.
The present study examined to what extent proficiency in a non-native language influences speech perception in noise. We explored how English proficiency affected native (Swedish) and non-native (English) speech perception in four speech reception threshold (SRT) conditions, including two energetic
Kilman, Lisa; Zekveld, Adriana; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker
The present study examined to what extent proficiency in a non-native language influences speech perception in noise. We explored how English proficiency affected native (Swedish) and non-native (English) speech perception in four speech reception threshold (SRT) conditions, including two energetic (stationary, fluctuating noise) and two informational (two-talker babble Swedish, two-talker babble English) maskers. Twenty-three normal-hearing native Swedish listeners participated, age between 28 and 64 years. The participants also performed standardized tests in English proficiency, non-verbal reasoning and working memory capacity. Our approach with focus on proficiency and the assessment of external as well as internal, listener-related factors allowed us to examine which variables explained intra- and interindividual differences in native and non-native speech perception performance. The main result was that in the non-native target, the level of English proficiency is a decisive factor for speech intelligibility in noise. High English proficiency improved performance in all four conditions when the target language was English. The informational maskers were interfering more with perception than energetic maskers, specifically in the non-native target. The study also confirmed that the SRT's were better when target language was native compared to non-native.
In 2001, California instituted a statewide test measuring English proficiency for English learners, students who are not proficient in English. In 2003 and 2004, nearly 500,000 English learners in grades 1-5 took this test each year. The relationship between bilingual education receipt and English proficiency is estimated using value-added…
Full Text Available Abstract Background English language proficiency is considered a basic skill that students from different language backgrounds are expected to master, independent of whether they are native or non-native speakers. Tests that measure language proficiency in non-native speakers are typically linked to the common European framework of reference for languages. Such tests, however, often lack the criteria to define a practically relevant degree of proficiency in English. We approach this deficit by assessing non-native speakers’ performance within a native speakers’ framework. Method Items from two English reading assessments—the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA and the National Assessment (NA for English as a foreign language in Germany—were administered to N = 427 German high school students. Student abilities were estimated by drawing plausible values in a two-dimensional Rasch model. Results Results show that non-native speakers of English generally underperformed compared to native speakers. However, academic track students in the German school system achieved satisfactory levels of proficiency on the PISA scale. Linking the two scales showed systematic differences in the proficiency level classifications. Conclusion The findings contribute to the validation and international localization of NA standards for English as a foreign language. Practical implications are discussed with respect to policy-defined benchmarks for the successful participation in a global English-speaking society.
For nonnative English speakers, taking a standardized English proficiency test seems inevitable, because the scores achieved play an important role in such life events as admission to a school, gaining a scholarship, or securing a job. Considering their importance, it is imperative that such tests be not only valid and reliable, but also fair.…
Zhang, Jin; Xie, Lingli; Li, Yongjun; Chatterjee, Monita; Ding, Nai
This study investigated how speech recognition in noise is affected by language proficiency for individual non-native speakers. The recognition of English and Chinese sentences was measured as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in sixty native Chinese speakers who never lived in an English-speaking environment. The recognition score for speech in quiet (which varied from 15%-92%) was found to be uncorrelated with speech recognition threshold (SRTQ/2), i.e. the SNR at which the recognition score drops to 50% of the recognition score in quiet. This result demonstrates separable contributions of language proficiency and auditory processing to speech recognition in noise.
Full Text Available This paper takes an overall literature review of non-native English-speaking teachers’ professional identity so as to bring forth the issue of “non-native speakership” and to elicit the marginal area of research on this issue. Firstly, it gives an overview description of the definition of “identity” and “professional identity” developed over the years, some related concepts and identity formation process. Then it reviews the empirical works of teacher identity, especially non-native English-speaking teachers’ professional identity. These works include research on teachers’ perception of their English proficiency, their identity construction and development and their own narrative stories. Subjects of these works range from student teachers, novice teachers and experienced teachers. Finally, it concludes that future research on this issue can still further enrich the current literature by means of wider research confines, more diversified research techniques and subjects as well.
Rooy, Susan Coetzee-Van
More and more learners of English from the Expanding Circle are travelling to Outer Circle contexts to learn English or to improve their English proficiency. This is also the case for some Korean families who moved to Potchefstroom, South Africa. This phenomenon poses challenges in terms of assessment of English proficiency, and emphasizes the…
Richards, Jack C.
Most of the world's English language teachers speak English as a second or third language rather than as their first language. For many, their level of proficiency in English may not reach benchmarks established by their employers, raising the issue that is the focus of this article, namely, what kind of proficiency in English is necessary to be…
Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.
Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter
The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…
This book takes a new and holistic approach to fluency in English speech and differentiates between productive, perceptive, and nonverbal fluency. The in-depth corpus-based description of productive fluency points out major differences of how fluency is established in native and nonnative speech. It also reveals areas in which even highly advanced learners of English still deviate strongly from the native target norm and in which they have already approximated to it. Based on these findings, selected learners are subjected to native speakers' ratings of seven perceptive fluency variables in or
Full Text Available There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disadvantages of being a native or nonnative teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. A total of 200 native and nonnative teachers of English from the UK and the US, i.e. the inner circle, and Turkey and Iran, the expanding circle, participated in this study. A significant majority of nonnative teachers believed that native speaker teachers have better speaking proficiency, better pronunciation, and greater self-confidence. The findings also showed nonnative teachers’ lack of self-confidence and awareness of their role and status compared with native-speaker teachers, which could be the result of existing inequities between native and nonnative English-speaking teachers in ELT. The findings also revealed that native teachers disagreed more strongly with the concept of native teachers’ superiority over nonnative teachers. Native teachers argued that nonnative teachers have a good understanding of teaching methodology whereas native teachers are more competent in correct language. It can be concluded that teacher education programs in the expanding-circle countries should include materials for teachers to raise their awareness of their own professional status and role and to remove their misconception about native speaker fallacy.
Shin, Sarah J.
This article addresses the challenges that non-native English-speaking teacher trainees face as they begin teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) in Western, English-speaking countries. Despite a great deal of training, non-native speaker teachers may be viewed as inadequate language teachers because they often lack native speaker competence…
Empirical data that indicate a discrepancy between perceptions and scores on English tests among South African participants (1998-2011) are reported. A discrepancy between perceptions of English proficiency and scores on English tests is important because of its potential impact on language learner motivation. It will be ...
Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S; Frank, Reanne
We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S.; Frank, Reanne
We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. PMID:24576636
In 2006, the Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon (TriMet) secured grant funding from the Federal Transit Administration : (FTA) that enabled the agency to launch a creative and ambitious Limited English Proficiency (LEP) demonst...
Al-Issa, Ali S. M.; Al-Bulushi, Ali Hussain; Al-Zadjali, Rima Mansoor
Despite the emphasis laid on demonstrating English language proficiency by Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (NNESTs), research has shown that for various reasons English language teachers graduating from a state-owned university in an Arab country for the past 25 years or so have been found lacking communication skills due to reasons pertinent…
Shneyderman, Aleksandr; Froman, Terry
The time it takes for an English Language Learner (ELL) to reach reading proficiency in English depends on the grade level of entry into the English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) program and on the student's initial English proficiency level. The summary table below presents the average years to English proficiency across different grade…
Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.
This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…
Qian, Yang; Jingxia, Liu
With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars' attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research…
Kamhi-Stein, Lía D.
It has been almost 20 years since what is known as the non-native English-speaking (NNES) professionals' movement--designed to increase the status of NNES professionals--started within the US-based TESOL International Association. However, still missing from the literature is an understanding of what a movement is, and why non-native English…
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited English proficient. 300.27 Section 300.27... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.27 Limited English proficient. Limited English proficient has the meaning given the term in section 9101(25) of the ESEA. (Authority: 20...
Yang Qian; Liu Jingxia
With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars’ attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research is conducted from the point of college students until recently. This paper focuses on Chinese college students’ perceptions of native English and n...
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Faulkner-Bond, Molly
States use standards-based English language proficiency (ELP) assessments to inform relatively high-stakes decisions for English learner (EL) students. Results from these assessments are one of the primary criteria used to determine EL students' level of ELP and readiness for reclassification. The results are also used to evaluate the…
Warzybok, Anna; Brand, Thomas; Wagener, Kirsten C; Kollmeier, Birger
The current study investigates the extent to which the linguistic complexity of three commonly employed speech recognition tests and second language proficiency influence speech recognition thresholds (SRTs) in noise in non-native listeners. SRTs were measured for non-natives and natives using three German speech recognition tests: the digit triplet test (DTT), the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA), and the Göttingen sentence test (GÖSA). Sixty-four non-native and eight native listeners participated. Non-natives can show native-like SRTs in noise only for the linguistically easy speech material (DTT). Furthermore, the limitation of phonemic-acoustical cues in digit triplets affects speech recognition to the same extent in non-natives and natives. For more complex and less familiar speech materials, non-natives, ranging from basic to advanced proficiency in German, require on average 3-dB better signal-to-noise ratio for the OLSA and 6-dB for the GÖSA to obtain 50% speech recognition compared to native listeners. In clinical audiology, SRT measurements with a closed-set speech test (i.e. DTT for screening or OLSA test for clinical purposes) should be used with non-native listeners rather than open-set speech tests (such as the GÖSA or HINT), especially if a closed-set version in the patient's own native language is available.
Hayes, S C; Farnill, D
Concern is often expressed about the English language proficiency (ELP) of students engaged in professional training. This report assesses the ELP of the 1990 and 1991 intakes into medicine at the University of Sydney. A quick screening test and individual in-depth tests were used in a two-stage design. Admission to the course is highly competitive and most students are selected from the top 0.75% of Higher School Certificate results but 15% and 19% of the year cohorts were found to be below average in ELP. English proficiency was found to be consistently correlated with first- and second-year university results. Initiatives taken to support students with language disadvantages and to ensure that graduates will be able to communicate effectively with patients are outlined.
Neave-DiToro, Dorothy; Rubinstein, Adrienne; Neuman, Arlene C
exhibited a mild SNR loss. Acoustics in the classroom are an important consideration for nonnative speakers who are proficient in English and enrolled in college. To address the need for a clearer speech signal by nonnative students (and for all students), universities should follow ANSI recommendations, as well as minimize background noise in occupied classrooms. Behavioral/instructional strategies should be considered to address factors that cannot be compensated for through acoustic design.
Frazier, Stefan; Phillabaum, Scott
This paper reports the results of a survey of California TESOL educators about issues related to nonnative English-speaking teachers (NNESTs). A good deal of research suggests that NNESTs are as effective, if not more so, than native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) and that their treatment in today's work world should be reconsidered; in…
Reni Dwi Pertiwi
Full Text Available English is now used as an international language, so that every person in order to communicate at the international level are required this language. To improving english proficiency, people used native speaker, course, story book, film game and etc. Games or better known as PC gaming is another alternative in improving the English proficiency. Beside this is fun, player required to read and listen the story game to finish the game. So that player can improve English proficiency while the player play game. In this paper, author present what game are fun and not boring also can improving English proficiency. The measuring improving English proficiency is observed from reading,writing, listening and grammar Keyword: English, Game, improving ,Proficiency
Full Text Available With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars’ attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research is conducted from the point of college students until recently. This paper focuses on Chinese college students’ perceptions of native English and non-native English in order to offer insights into the mainstream English language teaching in terms of its exclusive reference to English as a native language in China. This paper draws on the data contributed by 50 Chinese university students through questionnaires. The questionnaire responses displayed a superficial preference for native English and a potential inclination for non-native English in EFL classrooms. The article argues that factors behind the attitude point to the need of changing mainstream English teaching. Keywords: Native English, Non-native English, Chinese college students’ attitudes, mainstream English teaching
might exist between overall language proficiency, collocational competence and spoken fluency in non-native English-speaking university lecturers. The data came from 15 20-minute mini-lectures recorded between 2009 and 2011 for an English oral proficiency test for lecturers employed at the University......Despite the large body of research into formulaic language and fluency, there seems to be a lack of empirical evidence for how collocations, often considered a subset of formulaic language, might impact on fluency. To address this problem, this dissertation examined to what extent correlations...
Henry, Denfield L.; Nistor, Nicolae; Baltes, Beate
Multiple studies propose that English proficiency dictates English language learners' (ELLs) performances on mathematics assessments. The current study investigates the predictive power of English proficiency on mathematics scores, while controlling for gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and grade level among ELLs at a south Florida elementary…
Coughlin, Caitlin E.; Tremblay, Annie
This study examines the roles of proficiency and working memory (WM) capacity in second-/foreign-language (L2) learners' processing of agreement morphology. It investigates the processing of grammatical and ungrammatical short- and long-distance number agreement dependencies by native English speakers at two proficiencies in French, and the…
Santana, Josefina C.; García-Santillán, Arturo; Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena
This study explores different variables leading to proficiency in English as a second language. Level of English on a placement exam taken upon entering a private university in Mexico was correlated to several variables. Additionally, participants (N = 218) were asked their perception of their own proficiency. A linear regression and a one-factor…
Roever, Carsten; Pan, Yi-Ching
The General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) was developed in 1999, commissioned by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan. The purpose of the test is to provide individuals with a gauge of their English language proficiency and assist employers and educational institutions in selection and placement. Also, it aims to encourage the study of English…
Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K
Medical risk communication has been infrequently studied in immigrants with limited non-native language proficiency, even though they may be at greatest risk of illness. In a study, we examined to what extent Polish immigrants to the UK have difficulties in understanding treatment risk reduction expressed as ratios either in their native language or in a non-native language (English). We further investigated whether this population can be aided by using visual displays to enhance comprehension. A survey was conducted in the UK in spring, 2009, involving a sample of Polish immigrants (n = 96). Estimates of treatment risk reduction, confidence in estimates, and perceptions of treatment effectiveness. When assessing treatment risk reduction, participants often paid too much attention to the number of treated and non-treated patients who died (i.e. numerators) and insufficient attention to the overall number of treated and non-treated patients (i.e. denominators). This denominator neglect was especially noticeable when treatment risk reduction was not expressed in participants' native language. However, provision of visual aids in addition to the numerical information about risk reduction proved to be an effective method for eliminating denominator neglect. The visual aids drew participants' attention to the overall number of treated and non-treated patients and helped them to make more accurate risk estimates. When communicating risks to immigrants with limited non-native language proficiency, we should move beyond the simple, direct translation of health messages that are already being used with the indigenous population to messages that are more appropriate. The use of materials that include visual aids is an effective method of communicating medical risk information to immigrant populations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Freeman, Donald; Katz, Anne; Garcia Gomez, Pablo; Burns, Anne
The expansion of English teaching in state education systems places increasing demands on English language teachers and how they are trained. A major thrust of these efforts has focused on improving teachers' English language proficiency. This expectation is manifested in policy and pedagogical directives that teachers "teach English in…
The paper first presents a background to English as the international and global language and the second official language as well as the medium of instruction in Lesotho. It further discusses the meaning of proficiency in English and the rationale for teaching and learning English as well as using English as the medium of ...
Peng, Z Ellen; Wang, Lily M
A large number of non-native English speakers may be found in American classrooms, both as listeners and talkers. Little is known about how this population comprehends speech in realistic adverse acoustical conditions. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of background noise level (BNL), reverberation time (RT), and talker foreign accent on native and non-native listeners' speech comprehension, while controlling for English language abilities. A total of 115 adult listeners completed comprehension tasks under 15 acoustic conditions: three BNLs (RC-30, RC-40, and RC-50) and five RTs (from 0.4 to 1.2 s). Fifty-six listeners were tested with speech from native English-speaking talkers and 59 with native Mandarin-Chinese-speaking talkers. Results show that, while higher BNLs were generally more detrimental to listeners with lower English proficiency, all listeners experienced significant comprehension deficits above RC-40 with native English talkers. This limit was lower (i.e., above RC-30), however, with Chinese talkers. For reverberation, non-native listeners as a group performed best with RT up to 0.6 s, while native listeners performed equally well up to 1.2 s. A matched foreign accent benefit has also been identified, where the negative impact of higher reverberation does not exist for non-native listeners who share the talker's native language.
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills
Zia Tajeddin; Aylar Adeh
There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disad...
Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh
Full Text Available Proficiency in English language skills among graduates that create advantages for the organization is preferred by prospective employers as one of the main criteria for employability. This article provides an overview of undergraduates in higher education and also workplace literacy from the perspective of the employers in the manufacturing industry. The result from the research demonstrates that Malaysian manufacturing industry employers perceive that the graduate employees’ English language proficiency skills are still below their expectations. Therefore, this study recommends that there is a need for intervention into language teaching to improve the English language syllabus level of English proficiency at primary, secondary and tertiary level. At the same time, emphasis on the importance of English in everyday use should be inculcated without neglecting the national language of Malaysia. This will ensure that the teaching of English will be in line with globalization and current workplace demands.
Solak, Ekrem; Bayar, Adem
Motivation can be considered one of the most important factors determining success in language classroom. Therefore, this research aims to determine the variables influencing the motivational strategies used by non-native English teachers in Turkish context. 122 non-native English teachers teaching English at a state-run university prep school…
Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.; Arroyo, Alan A.
This study investigated the relationship between language learning strategy (LLS) preferences and English proficiency among Chinese university students. Oxford's (1990), Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an institutional version (ITP) of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) were administered to 168 third-year English…
Calandruccio, Lauren; Buss, Emily
When listening in noisy environments, good speech perception often relies on the ability to integrate cues distributed across disparate frequency regions. The present study evaluated this ability in non-native speakers of English. Native English-speaking and native Mandarin-speaking listeners who acquired English as their second language participated. English sentence recognition was evaluated in a two-stage procedure. First, the bandwidth associated with ∼15% correct was determined for a band centered on 500 Hz and a band centered at 2500 Hz. Performance was then evaluated for each band alone and both bands combined. Data indicated that non-natives needed significantly wider bandwidths than natives to achieve comparable performance with just the low or just the high band alone. Further, even when provided with wider bandwidth within each frequency region, non-natives were worse than natives at integrating information across bands. These data support the idea that greater bandwidth requirements and a reduced ability to integrate speech cues distributed across frequency may play an important role in the greater difficulty non-natives often experience when listening to English speech in noisy environments.
Singhasak, Piyahathai; Methitham, Phongsakorn
This study aims at examining Thainess as a writing strategy used in non-literary texts written by non-professional bilingual writers. These writers are advanced language learners who are pursuing their Master's degree in English. Seven English narratives of their language learning experiences were analyzed based on Kachruvian's framework of…
Cheatham, Gregory A.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Wodrich, David L.; Kasai, Masahiro
The purpose of this analog study was to determine if increased access to information about a hypothetical English Language Learner (ELL) students' language proficiency increased preservice teachers' recognition that limited English proficiency is the likely cause of student difficulties. We find that the provision of increasing levels of…
Wolfe, Joanna; Shanmugaraj, Nisha; Sipe, Jaclyn
Many communication instructors make allowances for grammatical error in nonnative English speakers' writing, but do businesspeople do the same? We asked 169 businesspeople to comment on three versions of an email with different types of errors. We found that businesspeople do make allowances for errors made by nonnative English speakers,…
Daftari, Giti Ehtesham; Tavil, Zekiye Müge
The discrimination between native and non-native English speaking teachers is reported in favor of native speakers in literature. The present study examines the linguistic insecurity of non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) and investigates its influence on learners' productive skills by using SPSS software. The eighteen teachers…
Mutlu, Sevcan; Ortaçtepe, Deniz
The present study explored the identity (re)construction of five nonnative English teachers who went to the USA on a prestigious scholarship for one year to teach their native language, Turkish. In that sense, it investigated how this shift from being a nonnative English teacher to a native Turkish teacher influenced their self-image,…
Walkinshaw, Ian; Duong, Oanh Thi Hoang
This paper examines a common belief that learners of English as a foreign language prefer to learn English from native-speaker teachers rather than non-native speakers of English. 50 Vietnamese learners of English evaluated the importance of native-speakerness compared with seven qualities valued in an English language teacher: teaching…
Designing acoustics for linguistically diverse classrooms: Effects of background noise, reverberation and talker foreign accent on speech comprehension by native and non-native English-speaking listeners
Peng, Zhao Ellen
The current classroom acoustics standard (ANSI S12.60-2010) recommends core learning spaces not to exceed background noise level (BNL) of 35 dBA and reverberation time (RT) of 0.6 second, based on speech intelligibility performance mainly by the native English-speaking population. Existing literature has not correlated these recommended values well with student learning outcomes. With a growing population of non-native English speakers in American classrooms, the special needs for perceiving degraded speech among non-native listeners, either due to realistic room acoustics or talker foreign accent, have not been addressed in the current standard. This research seeks to investigate the effects of BNL and RT on the comprehension of English speech from native English and native Mandarin Chinese talkers as perceived by native and non-native English listeners, and to provide acoustic design guidelines to supplement the existing standard. This dissertation presents two studies on the effects of RT and BNL on more realistic classroom learning experiences. How do native and non-native English-speaking listeners perform on speech comprehension tasks under adverse acoustic conditions, if the English speech is produced by talkers of native English (Study 1) versus native Mandarin Chinese (Study 2)? Speech comprehension materials were played back in a listening chamber to individual listeners: native and non-native English-speaking in Study 1; native English, native Mandarin Chinese, and other non-native English-speaking in Study 2. Each listener was screened for baseline English proficiency level, and completed dual tasks simultaneously involving speech comprehension and adaptive dot-tracing under 15 acoustic conditions, comprised of three BNL conditions (RC-30, 40, and 50) and five RT scenarios (0.4 to 1.2 seconds). The results show that BNL and RT negatively affect both objective performance and subjective perception of speech comprehension, more severely for non-native
Ruth A. ORTEGA-DELA CRUZ
Full Text Available Learning second language considers a number of factors that influence the manner in which the language is taught. Understanding of the learners’ goals and motivation for learning is one. Using descriptive-correlational research design, this study determined the influence of student English utility and teacher efficacy on the students’ English proficiency. A total of 101 students from first year to fourth year level served as the respondents of the study. The study quantified the students’ perception towards English utility and their evaluation of English teacher efficacy which employed a researcher-made survey questionnaire. Results revealed high positive perceptions of students towards English utility. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the perceptions of high school students on the efficacy of their English teachers. Correlation coefficients indicated a positive linear relationship among the given variables. The p-value revealed significant relationship of teacher efficacy (r = .691, p-value = .000 and English utility (r = .467, p-value = .000 to students’ English proficiency. Results of regression statistics revealed that English utility has no significant influence on the student English proficiency. Therefore, the main factor that must still be considered then should be the teacher. Finally, there is an explicit indication that high level of teachers’ efficacy performing in teaching has much powerful influence on the English proficiency of high school students. Thus improving the methods of teaching English provides a better way of motivating students to achieve higher levels of proficiency in the future.
Whiteside, K; Gooch, Deborah; Norbury, CF
Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4?5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6?7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL...
Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina
The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children’s growth and development. PMID:22389551
Feedback in Online Course for Non-Native English-Speaking Students is an investigation of the effectiveness of audio and text feedback provided in English in an online course for non-native English-speaking students. The study presents results showing how audio and text feedback can impact on non-native English-speaking students' higher-order learning as they participate in an asynchronous online course. It also discusses the results of how students perceive both types of the feedback provided. In addition, the study examines how the impact and perceptions differ when the instructor giving the
Barrett, Alice N.; Barile, John P.; Malm, Esther K.; Weaver, Scott R.
Studies show math achievement to be the best predictor of entering post-secondary education. However, less is known about the predictors of math achievement, particularly among immigrant youth. This study examined English proficiency and peer interethnic relations as predictors of mathematics achievement among Latino and Asian high school students, postulating an interaction between the predictors and mediation by academic motivation. A multilevel moderated-mediation model was used to analyze data from a national sample of 2,113 non-native English speaking Latino and Asian students attending high school in the U.S. We found that higher academic motivation mediated the relationship between English proficiency during their sophomore year and gains in senior math achievement scores for both Asian and Latino students. For Latino students however, this indirect path was only significant for students whose perceptions of positive peer interethnic relations at school were average or above average. PMID:22959129
Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini
Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.
Full Text Available Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL applications for improving the oral skills of low-proficient learners have to cope with non-native speech that is particularly challenging. Since unconstrained non-native ASR is still problematic, a possible solution is to elicit constrained responses from the learners. In this paper, we describe experiments aimed at selecting utterances from lists of responses. The first experiment on utterance selection indicates that the decoding process can be improved by optimizing the language model and the acoustic models, thus reducing the utterance error rate from 29–26% to 10–8%. Since giving feedback on incorrectly recognized utterances is confusing, we verify the correctness of the utterance before providing feedback. The results of the second experiment on utterance verification indicate that combining duration-related features with a likelihood ratio (LR yield an equal error rate (EER of 10.3%, which is significantly better than the EER for the other measures in isolation.
Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh; Julie Chuah Suan Choo
Proficiency in English language skills among graduates that create advantages for the organization is preferred by prospective employers as one of the main criteria for employability. This article provides an overview of undergraduates in higher education and also workplace literacy from the perspective of the employers in the manufacturing industry. The result from the research demonstrates that Malaysian manufacturing industry employers perceive that the graduate employees’ English languag...
Choy, Siew Chee; Davenport, Betty M.
The ability to think in a foreign language is reflected more accurately in the ability to speak and write the language. Colleges and universities need to supplement the Test of English as a Foreign Language with tests of English conversation, specialized vocabulary, and written composition. (MLW)
New conceptualizations of English are challenging traditional norms of what the language is, as well as how it is taught and by whom. These changes, coupled with the expansion of teaching English across the educational spectrum from younger grades to tertiary levels, present challenges to many national education systems. The role of teachers'…
Guo, Qian; Koretz, Daniel
The large number of limited English proficient (LEP) children in U.S. schools and the uncertainty about the impact of bilingual education versus English immersion on their achievement warrant rigorous investigation of the effects of "English immersion laws." We estimated the impact of "Question 2", the Massachusetts English…
Gustafson, Marianne; Bochner, Joseph
The purpose of this article is to describe a procedure that has been used successfully to evaluate the critical thinking (CT) abilities of a population of undergraduates having limited proficiency in the English language. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to obtain reliable evaluations of CT skills in undergraduates who…
Wei, Meifen; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Du, Yi; Lin, Shu-Ping
The aim of this study was to examine the moderators of (a) general or cross-cultural advisory working alliances and (b) perceived English proficiency on the association between acculturative stress and psychological distress. A total of 143 East Asian international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression…
Hwang, Jin Kyoung; Lawrence, Joshua Fahey; Collins, Penelope; Snow, Catherine
In this article, the researchers examined general vocabulary, academic vocabulary, and reading comprehension growth trajectories of adolescent redesignated fluent English proficient (RFEP) students using individual growth modeling analysis. The sample included 1,226 sixth- to eighth-grade RFEP students from six middle schools in an urban school…
Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson
Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…
Wu, Chia-Pei; Lin, Huey-Ju
This study utilized the Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English writing anxiety scale to examine the relationship between learning strategies and English writing anxiety in 102 university-level English language learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in a university in Taiwan. Kruskal Wallis Test…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient....134 How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student? A student is identified as limited English proficient (LEP) by using a nationally recognized scientifically research-based test. ...
This book focuses on strategies and procedures for assessing the academic language ability of students entering an English-medium university, so that those with significant needs can have access to opportunities to enhance their language skills.
Lutfi Ashar Mauludin
Full Text Available Native-English Speaker Teachers (NESTs and Non-Native English Speaker Teachers (NNESTs have their own advantages and disadvantages. However, for English Language Learners (ELLs, NNESTs have more advantages in helping students to acquire English skills. At least there are three factors that can only be performed by NNESTs in English Language Learning. The factors are knowledge of the subject, effective communication, and understanding students‘ difficulties/needs. The NNESTs can effectively provide the clear explanation of knowledge of the language because they are supported by the same background and culture. NNESTs also can communicate with the students with all levels effectively. The use of L1 is effective to help students building their knowledge. Finally, NNESTs can provide the objectives and materials that are suitable with the needs of the students.
Chur-Hansen, A; Vernon-Roberts, J
Medical educators from the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Adelaide, South Australia, have expressed reservations about the adequacy of some undergraduate medical students' English language proficiency for satisfactory academic and clinical performance. This study explores the occurrence and nature of the comments made in writing by clinical teachers about the English language proficiency of 568 students over a period of 4 years. The frequency and nature of the comments made by clinicians have important implications for the planning and implementation of pedagogical strategies to support non-English-speaking background medical students experiencing difficulties with their course due to language. Although the University of Adelaide has introduced initiatives in response to some of the problems that have been identified, it is recommended that any teaching interventions require careful evaluation through a longitudinal research design to ensure that their aims are being achieved.
Rosenthal, Judith W.
Between 1980 and 1990, the total number of Asian, Hispanic, American Indian, and foreign undergraduates increased by more than 50% at public and private, four-year and two-year colleges. Many of these students may be of limited English proficiency, suggesting that the traditional science lecture/lab format may need modification to incorporate the theory of second language acquisition as it pertains to the practice of content instruction. Various methods exist to improve science instruction for limited English proficient undergraduates. These included the adjunct and tutorial models, sheltered or bridge science instruction, faculty development, and science instruction in the students' native language. Any plan for science education reform at the collegiate level or for increasing minority participation in science must address the needs of the growing population of undergraduates who speak English as a second language.
Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing the general English proficiency level of the academics of Teacher Training and Education Institutions (LPTK's as indicated by their TOEFL scores. Specifically, the study is focused on finding out whether there is any difference among the academics' English proficiencies when they are grouped in terms of the geographic regions of their institutions and their fields of study. This study is also intended to reveal any possible relationship between the academics' English proficiency and their age. The results indicate that the English proficiency of the academics on the average is far below the average of that of the international students. The academics in West Java are the highest in their English proficiency, and the English group, as expected, has the best English proficiency. In addition, there is a negative correlation between English proficiency and age
Phillabaum, Scott; Frazier, Stefan
Recent research on how TESOL professionals educate nonnative English-speaking students in MA programs indicates a general conviction that native-speaking and nonnative-speaking MA students should be treated equally during their studies in MA programs. Absent from this discussion and much of the literature on this topic, however, are the voices of…
Murray, Neil; Hicks, Margaret
As the university student body becomes ever more diverse, the place and nature of English language provision is coming under unprecedented scrutiny and is the object of greater regulation. Today, more than ever before, institutions of higher education are being called to account for the way in which they support this diverse population in respect…
English has become the most frequently used language for scientific communication in the biomedical field. Therefore, scholars from all over the world try to publish their findings in English. This trend has a number of advantages, along with several disadvantages. In the current article, the most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers of English are reviewed. The most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers may include: Overlooking, either unintentionally or even deliberately, the most important local health problems; failure to carry out groundbreaking research due to limited medical research budgets; violating generally accepted codes of publication ethics and committing research misconduct and publications in open-access scam/predatory journals rather than prestigious journals. The above mentioned disadvantages could eventually result in academic establishments becoming irresponsible or, even worse, corrupt. In order to avoid this, scientists, scientific organizations, academic institutions, and scientific associations all over the world should design and implement a wider range of collaborative and comprehensive plans.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: English has become the most frequently used language for scientific communication in the biomedical field. Therefore, scholars from all over the world try to publish their findings in English. This trend has a number of advantages, along with several disadvantages. METHODS: In the current article, the most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers of English are reviewed. RESULTS: The most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers may include: Overlooking, either unintentionally or even deliberately, the most important local health problems; failure to carry out groundbreaking research due to limited medical research budgets; violating generally accepted codes of publication ethics and committing research misconduct and publications in open-access scam/predatory journals rather than prestigious journals. CONCLUSIONS: The above mentioned disadvantages could eventually result in academic establishments becoming irresponsible or, even worse, corrupt. In order to avoid this, scientists, scientific organizations, academic institutions, and scientific associations all over the world should design and implement a wider range of collaborative and comprehensive plans.
Heba Awadh Alharbi
Full Text Available In English as a foreign language (EFL contexts, the absence of authentic language learning situations outside the classroom presents a significant challenge to improving students' English communication skills. Specific obstacles in the learning environment can also result in students’ limited use of English inside the classroom. These issues ultimately affect students’ English speaking capacity. Focusing on the Saudi EFL context, this paper attempted to identify the causes of Saudi students’ low proficiency in English communication and provide some recommendations to address these issues. The most significant findings of the paper were: (1 reforming specific Ministry of Education and Higher Education policies in Saudi Arabia is crucial; (2 the Saudi education system should reinforce the use of contemporary approaches to teaching that emphasise problem solving and critical thinking skills and put students in charge of their own learning; and (3 the ministry should consider converting some Saudi public schools into bilingual schools.
Mallet, Dann G.
This autoethnographic investigation considers an English-speaking lecturer's observation and consideration of the predicament of non-native speakers of English in an English language mathematics classroom based on that same (non Spanish-speaking) lecturer's experience in a Spanish language mathematics classroom. Difficulties of understanding a…
The existence of different varieties of English in target language use (TLU) domains calls into question the usefulness of listening comprehension tests whose input is limited only to a native speaker variety. This study investigated the impact of non-native varieties or accented English speech on test takers from three different English use…
Chen, D.; Tigelaar, E.H.; Verloop, N.
Nonnative-English-speaking teachers who teach English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) can play an important role in the promotion of intercultural competence and often have an advantage over native-English-speaking ESL/EFL teachers because they once were language learners and more aware of
Although the current corpus of English Language Teaching [ELT] literature acknowledges the fact that being a successful and effective English Language teacher goes beyond one‟s linguistic heritage as a native speaker of the language, Non-Native English Speakers (NNES) still face marginalization in regard to their ...
Roberts, Theresa; Neal, Harriet
Thirty-three preschool children who were learning English as a second language participated in 16 weeks of either comprehension-oriented or letter/rhyme-focused small group instruction. Pretests and posttests of book vocabulary, story comprehension, print concepts, letter naming, writing, rhyming, and English oral proficiency were given. Children…
Whiteside, Katie E.; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F.
Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic…
Freberg, Miranda E.
The purpose of the study was to investigate how English language proficiency is related to teacher judgments of students' academic and interpersonal competence. It was hypothesized that English Language Learner (ELL) students would generally be perceived as having weaker academic and interpersonal skills than their non-ELL counterparts regardless…
Menges, Patricia A.; Kelly, Michael G.
Vocational education for limited English proficiency (LEP) students at Waubonsee Community College, Illinois, which includes a vocational English as a second language (VESL) course, is described, with examples from the tool training program. With state funding, the Waubonsee's LEP project for vocational education offers short-term, part-time…
Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Taekyu; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Rose, Adam J; Hanchate, Amresh D
Limited English proficiency (LEP) is associated with poor health status and worse outcomes. To examine disparities in hypertension between National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) respondents with LEP versus adequate English proficiency. Retrospective analysis of multi-year survey data. Adults 18 years of age and older who participated in the NHANES survey during the period 2003-2012. We defined participants with LEP as anyone who completed the NHANES survey in a language other than English or with the support of an interpreter. Using logistic regression, we estimated the odds ratio for undiagnosed or uncontrolled hypertension (systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > 90 mmHg) among LEP participants relative to those with adequate English proficiency. We adjusted for sociodemographic, acculturation-related, and hypertension-related variables. Fourteen percent (n = 3,269) of the participants had limited English proficiency: 12.4% (n = 2906) used a Spanish questionnaire and 1.6% (n = 363) used an interpreter to complete the survey in another language. Those with LEP had higher odds of elevated blood pressure on physical examination (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.47 [1.07-2.03]). This finding persisted among participants using an interpreter (AOR = 1.88 [1.15-3.06]) but not among those using the Spanish questionnaire (AOR = 1.32 [0.98-1.80]). In a subgroup analysis, we found that the majority of uncontrolled hypertension was concentrated among individuals with a known diagnosis of hypertension (AOR = 1.80 [1.16-2.81]) rather than those with undiagnosed hypertension (AOR = 1.14 [0.74-1.75]). Interpreter use was associated with increased odds of uncontrolled hypertension, especially among patients who were not being medically managed for hypertension (AOR = 6.56 [1.30-33.12]). In a nationally representative sample, participants with LEP were more likely to have poorly
The paper utilises the World Englishes paradigm to explore the issue of language proficiency: what type of English language proficiency will be most appropriate to South Africa at the start of the millennium? Three broad aspects of proficiency are proposed for further investigation, and in each case one particular area of ...
The importance of the role of language in teacher education programmes and in children's learning is crucial. This study focuses on the use of English as the language of learning and teaching and its impact on the language development of English second language (ESL) student teachers and ESL learners. Against the ...
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English... translated materials and other programs that support the assistance of persons with limited English... Following Information Title of Proposal: Limited English Proficiency Initiative (LEPI) Program. OMB Approval...
Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is the study of the interaction between learning English for Specific Purposes (ESP, in particular, English for the Financial Sector, and general English proficiency. The research examines the effects of an ESP course being taught for a year on the students' general English proficiency.Two sets of tests were prepared for that purpose and administered to 30 first-year students of finance and law. The students took the placement test twice, at the beginning and at the end of the school year. To monitor test performance over a research period, a parallel form measuring the same competences was administered at the beginning of the second semester. In the test development process a special consideration has been paid to the level of difficulty and its relation to the students' prior educational context. Drawing on the National State Matura exams the test is set at Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR Level B2. As regards its content the test is comprised of reading comprehension tasks (multiple matching, multiple-choice cloze, gapped text and grammar tasks aiming to examine lexical and grammatical competence.There were two major assumptions in this study: 1 Learning ESP can improve students' general English proficiency, and 2 There is a more substantial improvement in lexical competence as compared to the improvement in grammatical competence.There is strong evidence in support of the first hypothesis, whereas for the second one the results were ambiguous. After major findings are presented and discussed, implications for ESP teaching are given in closing.
Full Text Available English has been taught at elementary schools as one of the local content subjects. It is necessary to study English from an early age in order to achieve good mastery in it. To master English means to master the four skills in it and also the language aspects, including vocabulary. As one of the language aspects, vocabulary plays an important role in language learning. This study reports on pupils’ proficiency in mastering English vocabulary after three years of studying in elementary school. The writer chose 55 grade-four pupils of SD Methodist Banda Aceh as a sample for this study. They were given a vocabulary test related to reading and writing skills consisting of 26 items. The test was to be done in 20 minutes. After calculating the data, it was found that the mean score (x of the pupils was 69.5, with the highest score at 92.3 and the lowest score at 26.9. More than 50% of the pupils could answer the questions correctly in less than 20 minutes. Only 4 out of the 55 pupils answered the questions less than 50% correctly and no one answered 100% correct. According to these results, this study showed that the pupils achieved good proficiency in vocabulary.
Ochoa, Salvador Hector; And Others
A study of the language proficiency assessment practices of 859 school psychologists, when working with bilingual or limited English proficient students, found that 62 percent of school psychologists conducted their own assessments and most often used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised or the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody.…
Schroeder, Rui M.
This study reports on the three-year development and validation of a new assessment tool--the Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS). The questionnaire is the first of its kind to assess the listening and speaking strategy use of non-native English speaking (NNES) graduate students. A combination of sources was used to develop the…
Davies, Sarah E; Dodd, Karen J; Tu, April; Zucchi, Emiliano; Zen, Stefania; Hill, Keith D
To determine whether English proficiency and/or the frequency of interpreter use impacts on health outcomes for inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Retrospective case-control study. People admitted for inpatient stroke rehabilitation. A high English proficiency group comprised people with native or near native English proficiency (n = 80), and a low English proficiency group comprised people who preferred a language other than English (n = 80). Length of stay (LOS), discharge destination and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The low English proficiency group showed a greater improvement in FIM from admission to discharge (p = 0.04). No significant differences were found between groups in LOS, discharge destination and number of encounters with allied health professionals. Increased interpreter usage improved FIM efficiency but did not significantly alter other outcomes. English proficiency does not appear to impact on health outcomes in inpatient rehabilitation with a primarily in-house professional interpreter service. However, there is a need for a larger powered study to confirm these findings. Implications for rehabilitation People with low English proficiency undergoing inpatient stroke rehabilitation in a setting with a primarily in-house professional interpreter service, achieved similar outcomes to those with high English proficiency irrespective of frequency of interpreter usage. A non-significant increase of 4 days length of stay was observed in the low English proficiency group compared to the high English proficiency group. For patients with low English proficiency, greater change in Functional Independence Measure efficiency scores was observed for those with higher levels of interpreter use relative to those with low interpreter use. Clinicians should optimise use of interpreters with patients with low English proficiency when possible.
Cutler, A.; Weber, A.C.; Smits, R.; Cooper, N.
Native American English and non-native (Dutch) listeners identified either the consonant or the vowel in all possible American English CV and VC syllables. The syllables were embedded in multispeaker babble at three signal-to-noise ratios (0, 8, and 16 dB). The phoneme identification performance of
Cooper, N.; Cutler, A.; Wales, R.
Four cross-modal priming experiments and two forced-choice identification experiments investigated the use of suprasegmental cues to stress in the recognition of spoken English words, by native (English-speaking) and nonnative (Dutch) listeners. Previous results had indicated that suprasegmental
Zhang, Fengjuan; Zhan, Ju
This study explores the knowledge base of non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) working in the Canadian English as a second language (ESL) context. By examining NNESTs' experiences in seeking employment and teaching ESL in Canada, and investigating ESL program administrators' perceptions and hiring practices in relation to NNESTs, it…
Ma, Lai Ping Florence
The Native English Teachers (NETs) Scheme has been in place for over 20 years in secondary schools in Hong Kong and yet how students perceive these teachers is under-researched. This article reports a study which analyses student perceptions of the advantage and disadvantages of learning English from NETs and their non-native counterparts, local…
Butler, Yuko Goto
The current study examined the effects of Korean elementary school teachers' accents on their students' listening comprehension. It also examined students' attitudes toward teachers with American-accented English (a native speaker model) and Korean-accented English (a nonnative speaker model). A matched-guised technique was used. A Korean American…
This mixed methods study investigates how Japanese non-native English speaking teachers' (NNESTs) efficacy and identity are developed and differentiated from those of native English speaking teachers (NESTs). To explore NNESTs' efficacy, this study focuses on the contributing factors, such as student engagement, classroom management, instructional…
Asik, Asuman; Cephe, Pasa Tevfik
This study investigated the production of discourse markers by non-native speakers of English and their occurrences in their spoken English by comparing them with those used in native speakers' spoken discourse. Because discourse markers (DMs) are significant items in spoken discourse of native speakers, a study about the use of DMs by nonnative…
Numerous studies have been conducted to explore issues surrounding non-native speakers (NNS) English teachers and native speaker (NS) teachers which concern, among others, the comparison between the two, the self-perceptions of NNS English teachers and the effectiveness of their teaching, and the students' opinions on and attitudes towards them.…
Rabab'ah, Ghaleb; Al-Marshadi, Ahmed
This study investigates citation practices among native and nonnative English writers. Five Master EFL theses written by Arab EFL learners were compared to 5 Master EFL theses written by native speakers of English. Adopting Swales' (1990) categorization, the employed citation patterns were analyzed and categorized into two types: integral and…
Jane W. Njeru
Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication between patients with limited English proficiency (LEP and telephone triage services has not been previously explored. The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization characteristics of a primary care triage call center by patients with LEP. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of the utilization of a computer-aided, nurse-led telephone triage system by English proficiency status of patients empaneled to a large primary care practice network in the Midwest United States. Interpreter Services (IS need was used as a proxy for LEP. Results Call volumes between the 587 adult patients with LEP and an age-frequency matched cohort of English-Proficient (EP patients were similar. Calls from patients with LEP were longer and more often made by a surrogate. Patients with LEP received recommendations for higher acuity care more frequently (49.4% versus 39.0%; P < 0.0004, and disagreed with recommendations more frequently (30.1% versus 20.9%; P = 0.0004. These associations remained after adjustment for comorbidities. Patients with LEP were also less likely to follow recommendations (60.9% versus 69.4%; P = 0.0029, even after adjusting for confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49, 0.85; P < 0.001. Conclusion Patients with LEP who utilized a computer-aided, nurse-led telephone triage system were more likely to receive recommendations for higher acuity care compared to EP patients. They were also less likely to agree with, or follow, recommendations given. Additional research is needed to better understand how telephone triage can better serve patients with LEP.
Maria Elizete Luz Saes
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to provide tools for reflections on some learning difficulties presented by students when they are submitted to English proficiency examinations, as well as to suggest some methodological proposals that can be implemented among didactic support groups, monitoring or in classrooms, by means of face-to-face or distance learning activities. The observations resulting from the performance presented by the students have motivated the preparation of this paper, whose theoretical assumptions are based on the needs analysis of the target audience, the exploration of oral and written discursive genres and the possibilities of interaction provided by technological mediation.
TOEFL in August 1978, using 104 DLIELC students. The results of this study showed a high correlation of .80 (PR < .001) between the two tests . 9 Another...information that will contribute to the establishment of minimum competency. levels for two tests of English proficiency -- the English Comprehension Level... Test and the Oral Proficiency Interview. Data were collected from the Defense Language Institute and the Personnel Information Systems Command, based on
Ingram, D. E.
The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses proficiency in English both generally and for special purposes of non-native English speakers studying, training, or learning English in English-speaking countries. The Speaking subtest of the IELTS measures a candidate's general proficiency in speaking in everyday situations via a…
This preliminary study examined the effect of proficiency and study abroad experience on L2 learners' ability to produce routines. Participants were 64 Japanese students in an English-medium university in Japan. They were divided into three groups: Group 1 had lower proficiency with no study abroad experience, Group 2 had higher proficiency but no…
Zurca, Adrian D; Fisher, Kiondra R; Flor, Remigio J; Gonzalez-Marques, Catalina D; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I; October, Tessie W
Health care disparities have been described for children of limited English-proficient (LEP) families compared with children of English-proficient (EP) families. Poor communication with the medical team may contribute to these worse health outcomes. Previous studies exploring communication in the PICU have excluded LEP families. We aimed to understand communication experiences and preferences in the 3 primary communication settings in the PICU. We also explored LEP families' views on interpreter use in the PICU. EP and Spanish-speaking LEP families of children admitted to the PICU of a large tertiary pediatric hospital completed surveys between 24 hours and 7 days of admission. A total of 161 of 184 families were surveyed (88% response rate); 52 were LEP and 109 EP. LEP families were less likely to understand the material discussed on rounds (odds ratio [OR] 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.90), to report that PICU nurses spent enough time speaking with them (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.05-0.41), and to report they could rely on their nurses for medical updates (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.02-0.25) controlling for covariates, such as education, insurance type, presence of a chronic condition, PICU length of stay, and mortality index. LEP families reported 53% of physicians and 41% of nurses used an interpreter "often." Physician and nurse communication with LEP families is suboptimal. Communication with LEP families may be improved with regular use of interpreters and an increased awareness of the added barrier of language proficiency. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available Most research in third language acquisition has focused on the effects that factors such as language distance, second language (L2 status, proficiency or recency have on the choice of the source language (L1 in cross-linguistic influence (CLI. This paper presents a study of these factors, and of the influence that the L1 (Spanish has on L2 (English and L3 (Catalan oral production. Lexical and syntactic transfer are analysed in the production of Catalan and English of two multilingual speakers with similar knowledge of non-native languages. They were interviewed twice in an informal environment. The results show that the L1 is the main source of transfer, both in L2 and L3 production, but its influence decreases as proficiency in the target language increases. Language distance also plays an important role in CLI, especially if proficiency in the source language is high and if there has been recent exposure to it. The findings also suggest that while syntactic transfer is exclusively L1-based, lexical transfer can occur from a non-native language.
SIMION MINODORA OTILIA
Full Text Available The technological development, the growing economic globalization and the majordemographic shifts have brought about the need for a global language. In international business, travel, scienceand technology, education, immigration, academia, diplomacy and entertainment, English is the dominantlanguage, being spoken by over one billion people. English is used inside and outside the professionalenvironment, both for communication in global business and for communication in social networks, butproficiency in English can definitely enhance people’s career opportunities both if they look for a job in thecountry or plan to go abroad to find employment. It may determine a division among those who have access toinformation and prosperity and those who don’t. In the future not just wealth but also the way it is created willhave a great impact on people’s increasing communicative needs of international languages. It is obvious thenthat more and more people will need proficiency in English ,both as a language for international communicationand as the basis for constructing cultural identities .
Valentin Ekiaka Nzai
Full Text Available Culturally responsive instruction has been suggested as quality education (Edwards, 2003 for minority students in subtractive and additivebilingualism settings. However, analytical curriculum development of several official English programs revealed that the gender-centric (malecentricand Ethno-centric (Euro/Western-centric approaches were deeply embedded in most English textbooks of curriculum development.The intent of partial mixed methods paper consisted of exploring some non-native English speaking teachers English teachers’ culturallyresponsive leadership profile in order to further the discussion on not only how to promote English curriculum transformation in English assecond language (ESL and English as foreign language (EFL settings, but also to effectively train culturally responsive non-native Englishspeaking (NNES English pre-service teachers. Comparative data analysis suggested that there were no causal relationship between NNESEnglish teachers’ culturally responsive leadership styles and their abilities to perform multicultural transformation of English curriculums. To behighly effective in transforming English curriculum, NNES English teachers needed to be systematically trained on how to do so. Implicationsfor NNES English pre-service teacher education are framed from the culturally responsive and anti-oppressive education approaches.
Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 2015
The "Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment" (WELPA) is a No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-compliant instrument that is used in Grades K-12 as a formal and standardized method of measuring language proficiency. The test results provide important information for classifying English Language Learners (ELLs) and subsequently for…
PEOPLE (Pruebas de Expresion Oral y Percepcion de la Lengua Espanol) was developed as a test to help distinguish between a language difference and a language deficit in non English proficient (NEP) and limited English proficient (LEP) elementary Hispanic students. PEOPLE was developed, pilot tested in 14 school districts in Los Angeles County with…
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards; Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program (LEPI... funding under the Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Limited English Proficiency Initiative... INFORMATION: Executive Order 13166 signed in August 2000 requires all federal agencies to improve access to...
Green, James A.
Non-local ethnicity or nationality and lower English proficiency have been linked with poor performance in health professional education. This study sought to compare the relative contributions of ethnicity and English proficiency, and to do so in a context where students had not been selected via interviews or some other proxy for language…
Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…
The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…
This study presents findings on three research agendas: (1) the difference between native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) and non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) in students' attitudes toward and motivation for learning English, (2) the moderating effect of the type of class (i.e., English Conversation vs. Practical English) on the…
Slama, Rachel; Molefe, Ayrin; Gerdeman, Dean; Herrera, Angelica; Brodziak de los Reyes, Iliana; August, Diane; Cavazos, Linda
English learner students are challenged by the difficult task of learning English concurrently with learning content in areas such as reading and math. English learner students who have not attained proficiency in English or learned core course content by the middle and upper grades may not have the requisite skills to enroll in courses required…
Blanchard, Daniel; Tetreault, Joel; Higgins, Derrick; Cahill, Aoife; Chodorow, Martin
This report presents work on the development of a new corpus of non-native English writing. It will be useful for the task of native language identification, as well as grammatical error detection and correction, and automatic essay scoring. In this report, the corpus is described in detail.
Olmstead, Anne J; Viswanathan, Navin; Aivar, M Pilar; Manuel, Sarath
Experiments investigating phonetic convergence in conversation often focus on interlocutors with similar phonetic inventories. Extending these experiments to those with dissimilar inventories requires understanding the capacity of speakers to imitate native and non-native phones. In the present study, we tested native Spanish and native English speakers to determine whether imitation of non-native tokens differs qualitatively from imitation of native tokens. Participants imitated a [ba]-[pa] continuum that varied in VOT from -60 ms (prevoiced, Spanish [b]) to +60 ms (long lag, English [p]) such that the continuum consisted of some tokens that were native to Spanish speakers and some that were native to English speakers. Analysis of the imitations showed two critical results. First, both groups of speakers demonstrated sensitivity to VOT differences in tokens that fell within their native regions of the VOT continuum (prevoiced region for Spanish and long lag region for English). Secondly, neither group of speakers demonstrated such sensitivity to VOT differences among tokens that fell in their non-native regions of the continuum. These results show that, even in an intentional imitation task, speakers cannot accurately imitate non-native tokens, but are clearly flexible in producing native tokens. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the constraints on convergence in interlocutors from different linguistic backgrounds.
Liu, Yingliang; Jernigan, Justin
In order for culturally and linguistically diverse faculty members to thrive in their teaching role, it is important that their adjustment to the culture and climate of the US colleges and universities be understood and supported. To that end, this qualitatively oriented study of 28 NNES (non-native English speaking) faculty members addresses the…
Rubrico, Jessie Grace U.; Hashim, Fatimah
Engaging non-native pre-service English teachers who are still learning the language themselves requires two tasks: facilitating their language teaching skills and scaffolding their language learning. This action research interfaced Facebook and Photovoice technologies in order to empower participants to be proactive in their language learning and…
Authority in the classroom is an important concept to teachers everywhere. The act of teaching continuously engages them in the negotiation and construction of an identity that is accepted as authoritative by their students. Identity and authority, however, are in conflict in the context of NNSTs ["non-native" speaker teachers] of English (and…
This paper looks into the effect of use of international English on non-native students' dignity in Australian academic and social contexts. The study was undertaken through in-depth interviews with 28 participants from 13 countries. The results partly revealed that there was neither speech convergence nor culture convergence between non-native…
Bozavli, Ebubekir; Gulmez, Recep
The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of FLA (foreign language anxiety) in native/non-native speaker of English classrooms. In this study, two groups of students (90 in total) of whom 38 were in NS (native speaker) class and 52 in NNS (non-native speaker) class taking English as a second language course for 22 hours a week at Erzincan…
native English speaking adults toward explicit grammar instruction (EGI). The factors influencing those attitudes and perceptions are also explored. The data collected in this study indicate that adult English as a second language (ESL) students ...
Boulet, J R; van Zanten, M; McKinley, D W; Gary, N E
The purpose of this study was to gather additional evidence for the validity and reliability of spoken English proficiency ratings provided by trained standardized patients (SPs) in high-stakes clinical skills examination. Over 2500 candidates who took the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates' (ECFMG) Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) were studied. The CSA consists of 10 or 11 timed clinical encounters. Standardized patients evaluate spoken English proficiency and interpersonal skills in every encounter. Generalizability theory was used to estimate the consistency of spoken English ratings. Validity coefficients were calculated by correlating summary English ratings with CSA scores and other external criterion measures. Mean spoken English ratings were also compared by various candidate background variables. The reliability of the spoken English ratings, based on 10 independent evaluations, was high. The magnitudes of the associated variance components indicated that the evaluation of a candidate's spoken English proficiency is unlikely to be affected by the choice of cases or SPs used in a given assessment. Proficiency in spoken English was related to native language (English versus other) and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The pattern of the relationships, both within assessment components and with external criterion measures, suggests that valid measures of spoken English proficiency are obtained. This result, combined with the high reproducibility of the ratings over encounters and SPs, supports the use of trained SPs to measure spoken English skills in a simulated medical environment.
Ockey, Gary J.
This study investigates the use of TOEFL as an instrument for measuring change in English language proficiency of graduate students at the International University of Japan. The data, which was analyzed, included entry and exit TOEFL scores of 181 students who participated in the nine-week Intensive English Program during one of the summers between 1994 and 1997. The results suggest that TOEFL scores can be used to show a change in English language proficiency for the students as a group, but...
Chin Wen Chien
Full Text Available This study analyzes 58 non-native pre-service elementary school English teachers’ narratives about their pronunciation learning and teaching. Two important findings emerge in this study. First, participants did not have the same attitude toward their roles as non-native English speakers regarding pronunciation learning and teaching. Second, regardless of their attitude or roles as non-native English speakers, participants claimed that when they become language teachers in the future, they will apply a variety of instructional strategies to help their potential learners in terms of pronunciation instruction. Four suggestions are provided for pronunciation training in the language teacher education programs.
Edward W. Wolfe
Full Text Available The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL contains a direct writing assessment, and examinees are given the option of composing their responses at a computer terminal using a keyboard or composing their responses in handwriting. This study sought to determine whether performance on a direct writing assessment is comparable for examinees when given the choice to compose essays in handwriting versus word processing. We examined this relationship controlling for English language proficiency and several demographic characteristics of examinees using linear models. We found a weak two-way interaction between composition medium and English language proficiency with examinees with weaker English language scores performing better on handwritten essays while examinees with better English language scores performing comparably on the two testing media. We also observed predictable differences associated with geographic region, native language, gender, and age.
John Robert SCHMITZ
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In a series of three articles published in the Journal of Pragmatics (1995, henceforth JP, the purpose of the papers is to question the division of English spoken in the world into, on one hand, "native" varieties (British English, American English. Australian English and, on the other, "new/nonnative" varieties (Indian English, Singaporean English, Nigerian English. The JP articles are indeed groundbreaking for they mark one of the first interactions among scholars from the East with researchers in the West with regard to the growth and spread of the language as well as the roles English is made to play by its impressive number of users. The privileged position of prestige and power attributed to the inner circle varieties (USA, UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand is questioned. Rajagopalan (1997, motivated by his reading of the JP papers, adds another dimension to this questioning by pointing to the racial and discriminatory stance underlying the notions "native speaker" and "nonnative speaker" (henceforth, respectively NS and NNS. Rajagopalan has written extensively on the issue of nativity or "nativeness"; over the years, Schmitz has also written on the same topic. There appears, in some cases, to be a number of divergent views with regard to subject on hand on the part of both authors. The purpose of this article is to engage in a respectful debate to uncover misreading and possible misunderstanding on the part of Schmitz. Listening to one another and learning from each another are essential in all academic endeavors.
Building on Kachru's (2005) diagram of World Englishes and Norton's (2000) theoretical conception of identity, the researcher acknowledges that each Non-Native English Speaking Teacher (NNEST) comes to the English-speaking community with a different variety of Englishes. Each believes in various cultural values and norms, and his or her identity…
Full Text Available The importance of the role of language in teacher education programmes and in children's learning is crucial. This study focuses on the use of English as the language of learning and teaching and its impact on the language development of English second language (ESL student teachers and ESL learners. Against the background of major theories in second language (L2 acquisition and learning, this topic is contextualized within the South African education system. An empirical inquiry was carried out in which portfolios (evidence of practical teaching including lesson plans and learners' work submitted by final year student teachers enrolled at a large distance teaching university for the Advanced Certificate in Education: Inclusive Education were scrutinised. A comparison of teacher and learner written errors was made. Based on the findings, a questionnaire was designed to determine the extent of the impact of teachers' limited English proficiency on learners' English proficiency. The findings of the questionnaire responses are presented. Recommendations are made on how student teachers can improve their teaching practice to ensure quality ESL teacher input and ESL learner performance.
Language learning motivation is one of vital factors which strongly correlates to the success in second language acquisition. Listening proficiency, as one of the basic language abilities, is paid much attention in English instruction, but presently the college English listening teaching is a weak link in English language teaching in China, which…
Chen, Jun; Intaraprasert, Channarong
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of reading strategies by the university Business English majors in relation to their levels of reading proficiency. The participants were 926 university Business English majors from 6 universities in southwest China. The Strategy Questionnaire for Business English Reading (SQBER) and the…
Full Text Available The study tends to explore the possible reforms to raise the proficiency level of the adult English as Foreign Language (EFL learners. With this end in view, it investigates non-native EFL teachers’ beliefs in relation to adult learners’ beliefs in teaching grammar to university students in the Saudi Arabian EFL context. It finds out the harmony and disharmony between the teachers at the giving end and the taught at the receiving end to create a culture of awareness and to build a better teaching-learning environment. The study tries to fill the existing research gap as no previous research has tried to find out the solution to the problem from this angle. The main data collection tools are two five-point Likert-scale questionnaires, administered to 70 non-native EFL teachers and their 80 adult students. Teachers and learners have been selected based on stratified random sampling. Quantitative data have been analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS. The major findings of the study are that there is discrepancy in the grammar teaching beliefs of the EFL teachers and the taught and there is a communication gap between them which result into low English proficiency level of the EFL adult learners. Eventually, pedagogical implications of the lack of harmony between the teachers’ teaching creeds and the learners’ learning demands/expectations are provided for effective grammar teaching and better EFL classroom environment. The study recommends a better communicative harmony in both the stakeholders to bring reforms in adult education in EFL context.
Heng, Chan Swee
Any attempt to define English language proficiency can never be divorced from the theories that describe the nature of language, language acquisition and human cognition. By virtue of such theories being socially constructed, the descriptions are necessarily value-laden. Thus, a definition of language proficiency can only, at best, be described as…
Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar
Though many previous studies have reported enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals, few have investigated if such control is modulated by language proficiency. Here, we examined the inhibitory control of high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on an oculomotor Stroop task. Subjects were asked to make a saccade as fast as possible towards…
San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran
The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Su-Hie Ting; Ernisa Marzuki; Kee-Man Chuah; Jecky Misieng; Collin Jerome
Employability of graduates is a concern in many countries, including Malaysia, and the high unemployment rate among graduates is often attributed to their lack of English proficiency and communication skills...
Young, Ray; Faux, William V., II
This study illustrated the perceptions of native English speakers about difficult conversations with non-native English speakers. A total of 114 native English speakers enrolled in undergraduate communication courses at a regional state university answered a questionnaire about a recent difficult conversation the respondent had with a non-native…
This paper examines the influence of age of immersion and proficiency in a second language on speech movement consistency in both a first and a second language. Ten monolingual speakers of English and 20 Bengali-English bilinguals (10 with low L2 proficiency and 10 with high L2 proficiency) participated. Lip movement variability was assessed based…
International audience; The input factors that may cause variation in bilingual proficiency were investigated in 38 French-English bilinguals aged six to eight, of middle to high socio-economic status, attending an international state school in France. Data on children’s current and cumulative language exposure and family background were collected through questionnaires given to parents and children. Language proficiency was measured using the standardised French and English versions of the P...
Bloem, Jelke; Wieling, Martijn; Nerbonne, John; Côté, Marie-Hélène; Knooihuizen, Remco; Nerbonne, John
In this work, we demonstrate the application of statistical measures from dialectometry to the study of accented English speech. This new methodology enables a more quantitative approach to the study of accents. Studies on spoken dialect data have shown that a combination of representativeness (the
Bradshaw, Michael; Tomany-Korman, Sandra; Flores, Glenn
Twenty-three million Americans have limited English proficiency. Language barriers can have major adverse consequences in health care, but little is known about whether pharmacies provide adequate care to patients with limited English proficiency. We sought to evaluate pharmacies' ability to provide non-English-language prescription labels, information packets, and verbal communication, and assess pharmacies' satisfaction with communication with patients who have limited English proficiency. We used a cross-sectional, mixed-methods survey of Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, pharmacies. Survey questions addressed sociodemographic and language-service characteristics of pharmacies. A pharmacist or technician at each pharmacy was asked 45 questions by telephone, fax, or mail. The main outcome measures were the ability of pharmacies to provide non-English-language prescription labels, information packets, and verbal communication; and pharmacy satisfaction with communication with patients who have limited English proficiency. Of 175 pharmacies, 73% responded. Forty-seven percent of the pharmacies never/only sometimes can print non-English-language prescription labels, 54% never/only sometimes can prepare non-English-language information packets, and 64% never/only sometimes can verbally communicate in non-English languages. Eleven percent use patients' family members/friends to interpret. Only 55% were satisfied with their communication with patients who have limited English proficiency. In multivariate analyses, community pharmacies had significantly lower odds of being able to verbally communicate in non-English languages, whereas pharmacies using telephone interpreting services had significantly higher odds. Pharmacies' suggestions for improving patient communication included continuing education, producing a chain-wide list of resources, hiring bilingual staff, using telephone interpreters, analyzing translation quality/accuracy of labels and information packets, and
Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Neissi, Sina
The relationship between identity processing styles and language proficiency in English as foreign language (EFL) was investigated among the Persian EFL learners. 266 Persian candidates taking part in a Ph.D. examination at Shiraz University took part. The Language Proficiency Test was used to measure language proficiency in English. The Identity Styles Inventory was used to measure normative, informational, and diffuse-avoidant identity processing styles. Relationships between normative and informational styles and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were positive and significant. Negative relationships between diffuse-avoidant style and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were observed. There were significant sex differences for diffuse-avoidant style and for vocabulary.
Bleakley, Hoyt; Chin, Aimee
Are U.S. immigrants' English proficiency and social outcomes the result of their cultural preferences, or of more fundamental constraints? Using 2000 Census microdata, we relate immigrants' English proficiency, marriage, fertility and residential location variables to their age at arrival in the U.S., and in particular whether that age fell within the "critical period" of language acquisition. We interpret the differences between younger and older arrivers as effects of English-language skills and construct an instrumental variable for English-language skills. Two-stage-least-squares estimates suggest that English proficiency increases the likelihood of divorce and intermarriage. It decreases fertility and, for some, ethnic enclave residence. (JEL J24, J12, J13, J61).
Zhao, Huafang; Maina, Nyambura
This is one of several studies conducted by the Office of Shared Accountability that evaluated students identified as eligible for English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) services in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS). This study has two major purposes: (1) to examine English proficiency levels and progress in English…
Gill, Kavarljit Kaur; Williams, Andrew N.
Learning another language is very much affected by positive or negative connotations attached to the new language by the language learner. Entering Malaysian public universities there are many students with a low proficiency in English, despite spending eleven years studying English in schools. Could it be that the lack of progress among these…
Full Text Available Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach that aims to develop students’ critical thinking, political and social awareness, and self esteem through dialogue learning and reflection. Related to the teaching of EFL, this pedagogy holds the potential to empower non native English speaking teachers (NNESTs when incorporated into English teacher education programs. It can help aspiring NNESTs to grow awareness of the political and sociocultural implications of EFL teaching, to foster their critical thinking on any concepts or ideas regarding their profession, and more importantly, to recognize their strengths as NNESTs. Despite the potential, the role of critical pedagogy in improving EFL teacher education program in Indonesia has not been sufficiently discussed. This article attempts to contribute to the discussion by looking at a number of ways critical pedagogy can be incorporated in the programs, the rationale for doing so, and the challenges that might come on the way.
The purpose of this article is to investigate the similarities and differences in the usage of discourse markers such as because, so, and, etc. among the following three types of university students: native speakers of English (NS), non-native Chinese students (CNNS, mainland Chinese), and non-native Japanese students (JNNS). All the CNNS and JNNS have studies English as a foreign language for more than six years. This paper shows that the three groups of students share a few characteristics ...
Lazarus Ndiku Makewa
Full Text Available This paper looked at students’ perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky’s theory of value. Correlation design was used to describe the association between the student and teacher-related factors and students’ perceived level of English proficiency. Purposive sampling was used to select 300 form three students. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the participants. Reliability of the research instrument was determined by conducting a pilot study. Pearson Descriptive statistics and Kendall’s Tau-b were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that the students’ perceived level of proficiency in spoken English was average. The findings indicated a significant positive correlation between perceived English proficiency and attitude toward the English language, classroom activities, teacher motivation, and classroom environment. It is suggested that further studies integrate qualitative research methods to the research design in order to get an in-depth understanding of students’ perception on English proficiency.
Education Turnkey Systems, Inc., Falls Church, VA.
Results are presented of a federally funded project that identified new communication aids, software, and assistive technologies that can be used in special education with students who are limited English proficient. The research was conducted in learning centers that use the comprehensive Competencies Program (CCP) English-as-a-Second-Language…
Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Laitusis, Cara; Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene
This paper is the second in a series from Educational Testing Service (ETS) that conceptualizes next-generation English language proficiency (ELP) assessment systems for K-12 English learners (ELs) in the United States.The first paper articulated a high-level conceptualization of next-generation ELP assessment systems (Hauck, Wolf, & Mislevy,…
Chen, Long Hwa; Chen, Hsin-Fan
This paper uses the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and accounts for potential identification bias in order to shed light on the role of computer use as well as English ability on the gender wage differential in Taiwan. The results show that both computer use and English proficiency benefit female...
Castro Garcés, Angela Yicely; López Olivera, Silvio Fabián
This paper reports on the findings of a research study carried out in the Bachelor of Arts in English program of study at a Colombian university. It aims at identifying the communication strategies used by four pre-service English teachers with A2 and B2 levels of language proficiency and, also, at examining how these communication strategies…
Myartawan, I. Putu Ngurah Wage; Latief, Mohammad Adnan; Suharmanto
The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between learner autonomy psychologically defined in the study as a composite of behavioral intentions to do autonomous learning and self-efficacy in relation to autonomous learning, and English proficiency. The sample comprised 120 first semester English-majored students of a state university…
Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III; Kutschera, P. C.; Capili, Claire Ann P.
The study focuses on the background of Social Science and Humanities students (specifically in the course General Psychology) on their English education and competence. This research aims to identify the common factors of these students in terms of their English Proficiency. The students will answer survey questions that will give us information…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English... transmission of data. Title of Proposal: Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program Reporting. OMB Control...
Cha, Kijoo; Goldenberg, Claude
This study examined how emergent bilingual children's English and Spanish proficiencies moderated the relationships between Spanish and English input at home (bilingual home language input [BHLI]) and children's oral language skills in each language. The sample comprised over 1,400 Spanish-dominant kindergartners in California and Texas. BHLI was…
Makewa, Lazarus Ndiku; Role, Elizabeth; Tuguta, Ellen
This paper looked at students' perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky's theory of…
Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman
Due to the alarming signals of declining proficiency level among English Language learners in Malaysia, this study set out to learn more about the learners' perceptions of the teachers' code-switching in English Language classrooms. The objectives of this study were to investigate: a) learners' perceptions of teachers' code-switching, b) the…
Villalba, Jose A.
Latino/Latina children who are considered to be limited-English proficient may be unwilling participants in unique and difficult personal and school-related experiences. The inherent differences in their native culture and language may lead to special academic placements in English-as-a-second-language programs. Participation in a…
Macqueen, Susy; Harding, Luke
In 2002 the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES) implemented a revised version of the Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE). CPE, which is the highest level of the Main Suite of Cambridge ESOL exams, comprises five modules, "Reading," "Writing," "Use of English," "Listening" and "Speaking," the latter of which is the…
Capps, Randy; Fix, Michael; McHugh, Margie; Lin, Serena Yi-Ying
This new report by Migration Policy Institute's (MPI's) National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy examines the funding formula used to distribute Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Title II federal funds for adult education, literacy, and English as a Second Language instruction. Though all adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) are…
O'Neill, Thomas R; Marks, Casey; Wendt, Anne
The purpose of this research was to provide sufficient information to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) to make a defensible recommended passing standard for English proficiency. This standard was based upon the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A large panel of nurses and nurse regulators (N = 25) was convened to determine how much English proficiency is required to be minimally competent as an entry-level nurse. Two standard setting procedures were combined to produce recommendations for each panelist. In conjunction with collateral information, these recommendations were reviewed by the NCSBN Examination Committee, which decided upon an NCSBN recommended standard, a TOEFL score of 220.
Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun; Chen, Chia-Tsen
The goal of this study was to examine durations of American English vowels produced by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers and the effects of vowel duration on vowel intelligibility. Twelve American English vowels were recorded in the /hVd/ phonetic context by native speakers and non-native speakers. The English vowel duration patterns as a function of vowel produced by non-native speakers were generally similar to those produced by native speakers. These results imply that using duration differences across vowels may be an important strategy for non-native speakers' production before they are able to employ spectral cues to produce and perceive English speech sounds. In the intelligibility experiment, vowels were selected from 10 native and non-native speakers and vowel durations were equalized at 170 ms. Intelligibility of vowels with original and equalized durations was evaluated by American English native listeners. Results suggested that vowel intelligibility of native and non-native speakers degraded slightly by 3-8% when durations were equalized, indicating that vowel duration plays a minor role in vowel intelligibility.
Arellano, Brenda; Liu, Feng; Stoker, Ginger; Slama, Rachel
To what extent do Spanish-speaking English learner students develop English proficiency and grade-level readiness in English language arts and math from early elementary school to upper elementary school? Is there a relationship between proficiency in a student's primary home language, Spanish, and the amount of time needed to attain fluency in…
McKee, Michael M.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael
Inadequate health literacy and limited English proficiency are associated with poor health care access and outcomes. Despite what appears to be an interaction phenomenon—whereby the rate of inadequate health literacy is particularly high among limited English proficiency populations—researchers in health literacy and limited English proficiency rarely collaborate. As a result, few health literacy instruments and interventions have been developed or validated for smaller linguistic populations...
Heba Awadh Alharbi
In English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts, the absence of authentic language learning situations outside the classroom presents a significant challenge to improving students' English communication skills...
In recent years, the UK, like many other English first-language-speaking countries, has encountered a steady and continuous increase in the numbers of non-native English-speaking learners entering state primary and secondary schools. A significant proportion of these learners has specific language and subject learning needs, many of which can only…
English is one of International languages in the world and mainly used in International forums. Because of its importance, Indonesian government decides to make English as a formal subject in schools. Students are expected to have basic competences in four skills those are listening, speaking, reading, and writing comprehensively to reach functional literate. Students should have strategies to improve their proficiency and skill in English. The aims of this study are to find out (1) how langu...
Farshid Tayari Ashtiani
The goal of this study was to test the effect of typographical features of subtitles including size, color and position on nonnative English viewers’ retention and recall of lyrics in music videos. To do so, the researcher played a simple subtitled music video for the participants at the beginning of their classes, and administered a 31-blank cloze test from the lyrics at the end of the classes. In the second test, the control group went through the same procedure but experimental group watch...
Chakraborty, Rahul; Goffman, Lisa
Purpose: To assess the influence of second language (L2) proficiency on production characteristics of rhythmic sequences in the L1 (Bengali) and L2 (English), with emphasis on linguistic transfer. One goal was to examine, using kinematic evidence, how L2 proficiency influences the production of iambic and trochaic words, focusing on temporal and…
Considering the issue of World Englishes, the present study attempts to investigate whether Japanese teachers of English (JTEs) prefer assistant English teachers (AETs) with native-like pronunciation yet minor inappropriate grammar use or those with native-level grammar yet English recognizably accented by their native language, and to what extent…
Paredes, Anghela Z; Idrees, Jay J; Beal, Eliza W; Chen, Qinyu; Cerier, Emily; Okunrintemi, Victor; Olsen, Griffin; Sun, Steven; Cloyd, Jordan M; Pawlik, Timothy M
The number of patients in the United States (US) who speak a language other than English is increasing. We evaluated the impact of English proficiency on self-reported patient-provider communication and shared decision-making. The 2013-2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey database was utilized to identify respondents who spoke a language other than English. Patient-provider communication (PPC) and shared decision-making (SDM) scores from 4-12 were categorized as "poor" (4-7), "average" (8-11), and "optimal." The relationship between PPC, SDM, and English proficiency was analyzed. Among 13,880 respondents, most were white (n = 10,281, 75%), age 18-39 (n = 6,677, 48%), male (n = 7,275, 52%), middle income (n = 4,125, 30%), and born outside of the US (n = 9,125, 65%). English proficiency was rated as "very well" (n = 7,221, 52%), "well" (n = 2,378, 17%), "not well" (n = 2,820, 20%), or "not at all" (n = 1,463, 10%). On multivariable analysis, patients who rated their English as "well" (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.37-2.18) or "not well" (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10-2.14) were more likely to report "poor" PPC (both P English proficiency as "not well" (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04-1.65, P = .02). Decreased English proficiency was associated with worse self-reported patient-provider communication and shared decision-making. Attention to patients' language needs is critical to patient satisfaction and improved perception of care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dennaoui, Kamelia; Nicholls, Ruth Jane; O'Connor, Meredith; Tarasuik, Joanne; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Goldfeld, Sharon
Evidence suggests that early proficiency in the language of school instruction is an important predictor of academic success for bilingual children. This study investigated whether English-proficiency at 4-5 years of age predicts academic language and literacy skills among Australian bilingual children at 10-11 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children ( LSAC, 2012 ). The LSAC comprises a nationally representative clustered cross-sequential sample of Australian children. Data were analysed from a sub-sample of 129 bilingual children from the LSAC Kindergarten cohort (n = 4983), for whom teachers completed the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) checklist (a population measure of early childhood development) and the Academic Rating Scale (ARS) language and literacy subscale. Linear regression analyses revealed that bilingual children who commenced school with stronger English proficiency had higher academic language and literacy scores at the end of primary school (β = 0.45). English proficiency remained a significant predictor, even when accounting for gender and socio-economic disadvantage (β = 0.38). The findings indicate that bilingual children who begin school without English proficiency are at risk of difficulties with academic language and literacy, even after 6 years of schooling. Risk factors need to be identified so early support can be targeted towards the most vulnerable children.
Alharbi, Heba Awadh
In English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts, the absence of authentic language learning situations outside the classroom presents a significant challenge to improving students' English communication skills. Specific obstacles in the learning environment can also result in students' limited use of English inside the classroom. These issues…
Saidatul Akmar Zainal Abidin; Asiah Jamil
Malaysia is fast becoming a major attraction for candidates from all over the world to pursue their higher education. Currently students (local and international) who pursue postgraduate (hereafter, PG) education in Malaysia use the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores as indicators of their English ability. These are tests from the United States ...
Ismail Hakki MIRICI
It is a widely known fact that today, language proficiency exams are indispensable parts of our academic life. Especially, those who aim to achieve the objectives in an educational system are in need of declaring and proving that they have a good command of at least one foreign language-most commonly English. English proficiency exams such as FCE, CAE, IELTS and TOEFL are some of the most well-known commercial tests that assess four language skills and language competence of language users. I...
Espinosa, K E; Massey, D S
"We replicate prior research into the determinants of English language proficiency among immigrants using a dataset that controls for potential biases stemming from selective emigration, omitted variables, and the mismeasurement of key constructs. In general, we reproduce the results of earlier work, leading us to conclude that despite inherent methodological problems, research based on cross-sectional censuses and surveys yields fundamentally accurate conclusions. In particular, we find unambiguous evidence that English proficiency rises with exposure to U.S. society, and we reaffirm earlier work showing a clear pattern of language assimilation among Mexican migrants to the United States." excerpt
Ng, Manwa L; Chen, Yang
The present study examined English sentence stress produced by native Cantonese speakers who were speaking English as a second language (ESL). Cantonese ESL speakers' proficiency in English stress production as perceived by English-speaking listeners was also studied. Acoustical parameters associated with sentence stress including fundamental frequency (F0), vowel duration, and intensity were measured from the English sentences produced by 40 Cantonese ESL speakers. Data were compared with those obtained from 40 native speakers of American English. The speech samples were also judged by eight native listeners who were native speakers of American English for placement, degree, and naturalness of stress. Results showed that Cantonese ESL speakers were able to use F0, vowel duration, and intensity to differentiate sentence stress patterns. Yet, both female and male Cantonese ESL speakers exhibited consistently higher F0 in stressed words than English speakers. Overall, Cantonese ESL speakers were found to be proficient in using duration and intensity to signal sentence stress, in a way comparable with English speakers. In addition, F0 and intensity were found to correlate closely with perceptual judgement and the degree of stress with the naturalness of stress.
Dev, Smitha; Qiqieh, Sura
The present study aims to find out the relationship between English Language proficiency, self-esteem, and academic achievement of the students in Abu Dhabi University (ADU). The variables were analyzed using "t" test, chi-squire and Pearson's product moment correlation. In addition, Self-rating scale, Self-esteem inventory and Language…
Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo H.
This study analyzes the Arizona policy of utilizing a single assessment of English proficiency to determine if students should be exited from the ELL program, which is ostensibly designed to make it possible for them to succeed in the mainstream classroom without any further language support. The study examines the predictive validity of this…
Chiang, Vico; Crickmore, Barbara-Lee
Post-graduate international nursing students who seek continuing education are accepted by nursing programs in a number of Western countries. Teaching experience from an Australian school of nursing program reflected that although these students demonstrated the minimum English proficiency required by the university, advanced English and communication proficiency related to clinical practice was required when they received clinical placements in an unfamiliar environment.
Full Text Available Although the number of pragmatics-based studies has increased recently, the comparison of speech act performances of non-native speakers of English is an under-researched area. The present study was conducted to bridge this gap by comparing the refusal responses of Turkish, Polish and Latvian pre-service English teachers in terms of the strategies they used and the appropriateness levels by using a Discourse Completion Test created by the author including 4 refusal eliciting situations. The responses were coded and evaluated. According to the results, it was found out that indirect refusal strategies were more popular than direct strategies for all groups. The most common strategies found for direct and indirect categories are the same for all groups. Evaluation of a native speaker showed that there was no significant difference among the groups in terms of appropriate use of refusal strategies.
Bagheri, H.; Ibrahim, N. A.; Habil, H.
Background: In many parts of the world, patients may find it difficult to visit doctors who share the same language and culture due to the intermingling of people and international recruitment of doctors among many other reasons. In these multilingual multicultural settings (MMSs), doctor-patient interactions face new communication challenges. This study aims to identify the structure of clinical consultation and its phases in an MMS where both doctors and patients are non-native speakers (NNSs) of English. Method: This study takes on a discourse analytic approach to examine the structure of clinical consultation as an activity type. 25 clinical consultation sessions between non-native speakers of English in a public healthcare centre in Malaysia were audio-recorded. Findings and Discussion: The results show that there are some deviations from the mainstream structure of clinical consultations although, in general, the pattern is compatible with previous studies. Deviations are particularly marked in the opening and closing phases of consultation. Conclusion: In almost all interactions, there is a straightforward manner of beginning medical consultations. The absence of greetings may have naturally reduced the length of talk. Hence, by directly entering medical talks, the doctors voice their concern on the curing aspects of the consultation rather than its caring facets. The preference of curing priority to caring is more goal-oriented and in alignment with the consultation as an activity type. PMID:25560336
Coniam, David; Falvey, Peter; Xiao, Yangyu
This study investigates the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of a high-stakes assessment of English language teachers' proficiency--the minimum language standards Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers (English) [LPATE], which was introduced in 2000. Given that the test has now been in place for 17 years, the study investigates the…
Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei
To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…
Full Text Available Nonnative English-speaking scholars and trainees are increasingly submitting their work to English journals. The study’s aim was to describe their experiences regarding scientific writing in English using a qualitative phenomenographic approach. Two focus groups (5 doctoral supervisors and 13 students were conducted. Participants were nonnative English-speakers in a Swedish health sciences faculty. Group discussion focused on scientific writing in English, specifically, rewards, challenges, facilitators, and barriers. Participants were asked about their needs for related educational supports. Inductive phenomenographic analysis included extraction of referential (phenomenon as a whole and structural (phenomenon parts aspects of the transcription data. Doctoral supervisors and students viewed English scientific writing as challenging but worthwhile. Both groups viewed mastering English scientific writing as necessary but each struggles with the process differently. Supervisors viewed it as a long-term professional responsibility (generating knowledge, networking, and promotion eligibility. Alternatively, doctoral students viewed its importance in the short term (learning publication skills. Both groups acknowledged they would benefit from personalized feedback on writing style/format, but in distinct ways. Nonnative English-speaking doctoral supervisors and students in Sweden may benefit from on-going writing educational supports. Editors/reviewers need to increase awareness of the challenges of international contributors and maximize the formative constructiveness of their reviews.
Erdodi, Laszlo A; Jongsma, Katherine A; Issa, Meriam
The present study was designed to examine the potential of the Boston Naming Test - Short Form (BNT-15) to provide an objective estimate of English proficiency. A secondary goal was to examine the effect of limited English proficiency (LEP) on neuropsychological test performance. A brief battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 79 bilingual participants (40.5% male, MAge = 26.9, MEducation = 14.2). The majority (n = 56) were English dominant (EN), and the rest were Arabic dominant (AR). The BNT-15 was further reduced to 10 items that best discriminated between EN and AR (BNT-10). Participants were divided into low, intermediate, and high English proficiency subsamples based on BNT-10 scores (≤6, 7-8, and ≥9). Performance across groups was compared on neuropsychological tests with high and low verbal mediation. The BNT-15 and BNT-10 respectively correctly identified 89 and 90% of EN and AR participants. Level of English proficiency had a large effect (partial η2 = .12-.34; Cohen's d = .67-1.59) on tests with high verbal mediation (animal fluency, sentence comprehension, word reading), but no effect on tests with low verbal mediation (auditory consonant trigrams, clock drawing, digit-symbol substitution). The BNT-15 and BNT-10 can function as indices of English proficiency and predict the deleterious effect of LEP on neuropsychological tests with high verbal mediation. Interpreting low scores on such measures as evidence of impairment in examinees with LEP would likely overestimate deficits.
Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of dominance of Mandarin-English bilinguals' languages affects phonetic processing of tone content in their native language, Mandarin. Method: We tested 72 Mandarin-English bilingual college students with a range of language-dominance profiles in the 2 languages and ages of…
A-Momani, Mufadi; Ababneh, Sana'
The present study aimed at investigating the effect of an instructional program on vocational educational students' proficiency of vocational educational terms in English. The study sample consisted of 60 male and female students from Al-Balqa'a Applied University, Jordan. Moreover, the study investigated the effect the students' gender and…
Goda, Yoshiko; Yamada, Masanori; Matsuda, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroshi; Saito, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Hiroyuki
Our research project focuses on learning strategies and motivation among academic procrastinators in computer assisted language learning (CALL) settings. In this study, we aim to compare them according to students' levels of English proficiency. One hundred and fourteen university students participated in this research project. Sixty-four students…
Shuman, Clayton; Montie, Mary; Galinato, Jose; Patak, Lance; Titler, Marita
In this article, the authors discuss implications for nurse administrators from a recent qualitative study regarding nursing personnel perceptions of limited English proficient (LEP) patient-clinician communication. Few studies have examined nursing personnel's use and perceptions of communication resources when caring for LEP patients.
This paper reports a follow-up study that explored the relationship between EFL learners' critical literacy practices and the English language proficiency. It investigated four focal EFL learners' critical literacy practices in their dialogic interaction and also analyzed 39 students' views on their critical literacy learning. The four focal…
Spano, Sedra G.
Information about limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) is summarized. In the 1990-91 school year, 5,047 students in the AISD were served in LEP programs at elementary schools (3,933 students), middle schools (555 students), and secondary schools (559 students). Most were Spanish…
Ravi, Sunil Kumar; Chengappa, Shyamala K.
The present study aimed at exploring the semantic and syntactic processing differences between native and second languages in 20 early high proficient Kannada--English bilingual adults through accuracy and reaction time (RT) measurements. Subjects participated in a semantic judgement task (using 50 semantically correct and 50 semantically…
Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda
The analysis of 21,409 participants of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort focused on home and school factors sought to understand the level of reading mastery that children experienced throughout elementary school and Grade 8 by relating home language use, timing of oral English language proficiency, and the provision of…
Umatilla Education Service District, OR.
This packet of materials was developed (1) to address the liability concerns of woodworking instructors by providing safety instruction materials and tests for limited English proficient (LEP) or Spanish-speaking students, and (2) to provide some ideas, strategies, and resources for working effectively with LEP students in the vocational…
Southern Poverty Law Center (NJ1), 2013
Fueled by two decades of historic immigration, American demographics are changing. Many school districts are often ill prepared to meet the needs of limited English proficient (LEP) students and families. This Teaching Tolerance booklet points administrators to best practices in the effort to create a supportive learning environment for all…
Full Text Available Employability of graduates is a concern in many countries, including Malaysia, and the high unemployment rate among graduates is often attributed to their lack of English proficiency and communication skills. These two distinctive elements are often collated, and it is important to find out which is more important to employers. The study examined the employers’ views on the importance of English proficiency and communication skill for graduates to be employed in the Malaysian private sector. The data were from semi-structured interviews conducted with 10 employers in the private sector who were in the position to recruit staff. The 21,433-word interview transcripts were analyzed. The results revealed that employers in the Malaysian private sector view language proficiency and communication skills as separate qualities. The employers are willing to consider employing candidates with average English proficiency if they have good communication skills, except for jobs which require more communication in English such as customer service and marketing. The results also revealed that good communication skills can increase employability and opportunities for career advancement. The findings highlight the communication skills that universities need to emphasize so that their graduates have the necessary skills to perform well in employment interviews and in their work.
Arkoudis, Sophie; Baik, Chi; Bexley, Emmaline; Doughney, Lachlan
This report presents the "English Language Proficiency" (ELP) and Employability Framework", which has been designed to inform and support higher education institutions' (HEIs) policies and practices on ELP and graduate employability. The "Framework" was developed through a review of the national and international…
This article looks at how arts integration can boost the language development of limited English proficient students in kindergarten through second grade. I first review existing research on how young children learn and describe the special challenges faced by children who must learn in an unfamiliar language. I then identify arts-based mechanisms…
Thomas, Clayton F.; Monoson, Patricia K.
A survey indicates that student complaints led legislators in 20 states to mandate that higher education institutions develop policies on oral English proficiency of instructors, including language certification for international teaching assistants. Many institutions responded with policies requiring formal language testing and remedial…
Chan Swee Heng
Full Text Available Any attempt to define English language proficiency can never be divorced from the theories that describe the nature of language, language acquisition and human cognition. By virtue of such theories being socially constructed, the descriptions are necessarily value-laden. Thus, a definition of language proficiency can only, at best, be described as developmental, following changes that are linguistic, pragmatic, cultural and political. In defining English proficiency for tertiary education, the context is naturally also linked to the focus on university education. The argument has been that an ‘acceptable’ level of language competence of a university applicant is anything but constant. Tremendous social changes have seen traditional values of elitism in university education giving way to the ‘massification’ of education. As Kaplan and Baldauf (1997:257 affirms, “The principal problem in tertiary education is not declining literacy standards but rather it is about meeting changed societal, cultural and informational requirements and circumstances”. In the light of these changes, this paper attempts to trace influencing factors that help define an ‘acceptable’ level of English proficiency for Malaysian tertiary education. The paper examines past and present efforts of establishing an English language policy and assessment practice for tertiary education, and concludes with some views on future development that could evolve from the current indicative pursuits of establishing language learning and ability.
Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.
Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…
Ankara : The Program of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2011. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2011. Includes bibliographical references leaves 59-63. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between language achievement and starting age of learning English as a foreign language, type of high school, languages known by the learners and spoken in their home environment and learners’ attitudes towards language learning, and also...
Atechi, Samuel; Angwah, Julius
Teachers of English in Cameroon are proficient speakers of Cameroon English and their non-native status militates against their usage of Standard British English in the English language classrooms. This makes the attainment of British English thorny and perhaps impossible in Cameroon. Standing on that premise, we were motivated to find out…
Egbert, Joy; Simich-Dudgeon, Carmen
Discusses using verbal interactions to foster social studies learning, the language and content needs of immigrant students, and strategies that are effective with non-native English learners. Introduces two technology-enhanced, verbal-interactive activities, using personal narratives and storytelling in social studies, for both middle and high…
Baker, Fiona S.
This study explores the expectations and early and subsequent realities of text-to-speech software for 24 nonnative-English-speaking college students who were experiencing reading difficulties in their freshman year of college. The study took place over two semesters in one academic year (from September to June) at a community college on the…
This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has…
Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri Mohamad; Segaran, Kogilathah
One of the critical issues pertaining learning English as second language successfully is pronunciation, which consequently contributes to learners' poor communicative power. This situation is moreover crucial among non-native speakers. Therefore, various initiatives have been taken in order to promote effective language learning, which includes…
A great deal of research has examined the status of nonnative-English-speaking (NNES) professionals in TESOL from multiple perspectives, including graduate students (Brutt-Griffler & Samimy, 2001; Liu, 1999; Park, 2012), program administrators (Clark & Paran, 2007; Nemtchinova, 2005), and ESL/EFL learners (Arva & Medgyes, 2000; Butler,…
Shi, Lu-Feng; Koenig, Laura L
Non-native listeners do not recognize English sentences as effectively as native listeners, especially in noise. It is not entirely clear to what extent such group differences arise from differences in relative weight of semantic versus syntactic cues. This study quantified the use and weighting of these contextual cues via Boothroyd and Nittrouer's j and k factors. The j represents the probability of recognizing sentences with or without context, whereas the k represents the degree to which context improves recognition performance. Four groups of 13 normal-hearing young adult listeners participated. One group consisted of native English monolingual (EMN) listeners, whereas the other three consisted of non-native listeners contrasting in their language dominance and first language: English-dominant Russian-English, Russian-dominant Russian-English, and Spanish-dominant Spanish-English bilinguals. All listeners were presented three sets of four-word sentences: high-predictability sentences included both semantic and syntactic cues, low-predictability sentences included syntactic cues only, and zero-predictability sentences included neither semantic nor syntactic cues. Sentences were presented at 65 dB SPL binaurally in the presence of speech-spectrum noise at +3 dB SNR. Listeners orally repeated each sentence and recognition was calculated for individual words as well as the sentence as a whole. Comparable j values across groups for high-predictability, low-predictability, and zero-predictability sentences suggested that all listeners, native and non-native, utilized contextual cues to recognize English sentences. Analysis of the k factor indicated that non-native listeners took advantage of syntax as effectively as EMN listeners. However, only English-dominant bilinguals utilized semantics to the same extent as EMN listeners; semantics did not provide a significant benefit for the two non-English-dominant groups. When combined, semantics and syntax benefitted EMN
Full Text Available The use of the target language to manage a class and organise its work represents one of the few genuinely communicative uses of the target language in many formal foreign-language or bilingual-education teaching situations. It is thus important that both teachers and learners understand and know how to use the key expressions involved. These tend to be highly metaphoric (Low, 2008 with one particularly productive conceptual metaphor involving the JOURNEY (or TRAVEL source domain seemingly standing out. There seems to have been little investigation to date into whether or not learners whose first language is not English actually understand the expressions involved in such classroom management language. Moreover, with the recent growing interest in the area of content-based learning, there is increasing pressure on language teachers, whose first language is not English, to use English as their classroom management language. Our first aim was to look at whether the acceptability judgements for classroom management expressions offered by non-native speaking teachers of English resembled those of native speakers, and whether these judgements reflected corpus findings regarding the frequency of usage in spoken English. To do this, we analysed native and non-native speaker responses to a short questionnaire. Our second aim was to look at how non-native speakers of English perceive the meanings of these expressions, comparing our findings to native speaker judgements and corpus results.
Saidatul Akmar Zainal Abidin
Full Text Available Malaysia is fast becoming a major attraction for candidates from all over the world to pursue their higher education. Currently students (local and international who pursue postgraduate (hereafter, PG education in Malaysia use the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL or International English Language Testing System (IELTS scores as indicators of their English ability. These are tests from the United States and the United Kingdom, respectively, tailor-made for university education in those countries. Recent literature in testing and evaluation describes the need for more localized tests, developed for the “local” context of a particular country. Thus, the need for a test that could be utilized and customized to the needs of the students studying in Malaysia is foreseeable. This is in line with the concept of test localization. It stipulates that for a test to be valid, its design and development must take into consideration the population, context, and the domain in which the test is used. A project was undertaken where a new English test named Graduate Admission Test of English (GATE was developed for PG admission into universities in Malaysia. This article describes the process of developing a new test that measures English language competency of PG students who intend to pursue their studies in Malaysia. It includes the use of a test specification/blueprint that contains validity elements adopted from a test validation framework developed by Weir. The article emphasizes the rigor of developing such a test, which includes aspects of test development, operation, analysis, and validation.
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Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the speech act of assignment submission and presence of facework in submission emails sent to faculty members by native and nonnative English speaking graduate students. Brown and Levinson’s politeness theory (1987 and Spencer-Oatey’s (2002, 2008 rapport management framework were utilized to analyze the emails. The corpus consisted of 105 emails from 40 NES and NNES students. Drawing on speech event analysis approach (Merrison, Wilson, Davies, & Haugh, 2012, we analyze both submission head act as well as optional elements like openings, small talk and closings in an email. Our exploratory study revealed that, contrary to the argument that CMC is a lean medium (Duthler, 2006 in which it is difficult to achieve interpersonal communication, through the employment of opening, small talk and closing strategies, students attended to relational goals in their email communication.
Given the rapid growth in international contacts worldwide, English is increasingly becoming the chosen medium to facilitate communication among people of diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. However, the question remains as to how non-native speakers of English of varying levels of proficiency, using different varieties of English, are…
Moore, Kathleen A.; Rutherford, Camille; Crawford, Keith A.
Postsecondary international students who are also English language learners face a number of challenges when studying abroad and often are provided with services to support their learning. Though some research examines how institutions can support this population of students, few studies explore how technology is used to support language…
Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam
This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.
Bin Mohamed Ali, Haja Mohideen
Many job advertisements seeking teachers of English to work in Japan, China, South Korea and Thailand, for instance, specify that they are looking for native speaking teachers from USA, UK, Australia and New Zealand. They do not seem to be interested even in trained non-native speaking teachers from their own countries. This situation also exists…
O'Neill, Thomas R; Tannenbaum, Richard J; Tiffen, Jennifer
When nurses who are educated internationally immigrate to the United States, they are expected to have English language proficiency in order to function as a competent nurse. The purpose of this research was to provide sufficient information to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) to make a defensible recommended passing standard for English proficiency. This standard was based upon the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A large panel of nurses and nurse regulators (N = 25) was convened to determine how much English proficiency is required to be minimally competent as an entry-level nurse. Two standard setting procedures, the Simulated Minimally Competent Candidate (SMCC) procedure and the Examinee Paper Selection Method, were combined to produce recommendations for each panelist. In conjunction with collateral information, these recommendations were reviewed by the NCSBN Examination Committee, which decided upon an NCSBN recommended standard, a TOEFL score of 220. Because the adoption of this standard rests entirely with the individual state, NCSBN has little more to do with implementing the standard, other than answering questions and providing documentation about the standard.
Data provided by ETS, the company that creates and administers the TOEFL exam, reveals that Japanese students perform poorly relative to students in other Asian countries. The Japanese English education system's relative lack of focus on speaking and listening skills explains the poor performance on those areas of the test. However, Japanese students do spend significant time studying grammar, vocabulary, and writing, which presents an apparent inconsistency with TOEFL writing scores. This pa...
Salimi, Esmaeel Ali; Farsi, Mitra
This study on evaluating an English program of studies for foreign students seeking admission to the UE Graduate School attempts to examine the prevailing conditions of foreign students in the UE Graduate School with respect to their competence and competitiveness in English proficiency. It looks into the existing English programs of studies in…
Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel
Adopting a longitudinal design, this study investigates the effects of foreign language anxiety on foreign language proficiency over time within English and Japanese learning contexts. It also explores the stability of anxiety in English and Japanese over time and the stability of anxiety across English and Japanese. Chinese university students (N…
Farshid Tayari Ashtiani
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the effect of typographical features of subtitles including size, color and position on nonnative English viewers’ retention and recall of lyrics in music videos. To do so, the researcher played a simple subtitled music video for the participants at the beginning of their classes, and administered a 31-blank cloze test from the lyrics at the end of the classes. In the second test, the control group went through the same procedure but experimental group watched the customized subtitled version of the music video. The results demonstrated no significant difference between the two groups in the first test but in the second, the scores remarkably increased in the experimental group and proved better retention and recall. This study has implications for English language teachers and material developers to benefit customized bimodal subtitles as a mnemonic tool for better comprehension, retention and recall of aural contents in videos via Computer Assisted Language Teaching approach.
Huang, Yun-Yin; Liu, Chen-Chung; Wang, Yu; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Hung-Ming
English proficiency difference among students is a challenging pedagogical issue in EFL classrooms worldwide. Collaborative digital storytelling has been adopted in language learning settings to increase motivation and engagement, especially for young learners. However, it remains unknown whether students of different proficiency levels can…
Scarpino, Shelley E.
Purpose: This study was conducted to determine if phonological production proficiency in bilingual Spanish-English preschoolers could be predicted by their language environment, language ability, and phonological production proficiency in their other language. Method: Participants were 199 Latino children and their families. Children ranged in age…
Subramaniam, Mydili R; Mahajan, Prashant V; Knazik, Stephen R; Giblin, Paul T; Thomas, Ronald; Kannikeswaran, Nirupama
Previous studies have shown that limited-English-proficient (LEP) patients are less likely to utilize health care services. Objective. To assess the knowledge and perceived barriers to utilization of emergency medical services (EMS) by LEP caregivers of children served by an urban EMS system. We prospectively surveyed a convenience sample of caregivers of children presenting to the emergency department (ED) from January to December 2008. Caregivers were identified as LEP using their response to the U.S. Census question ;;How well do you speak English?'' Caregivers were assigned to one of three cohorts: 1) LEP Spanish- and Arabic-speaking caregivers (n = 50), 2) proficient-in-English (PE) Spanish- and Arabic-speaking caregivers (n = 50), and (3) native English-speaking (NES) caregivers (n = 100). We collected data on EMS awareness and perceived barriers to EMS utilization using a written survey administered in the caregivers' preferred language (English, Spanish, or Arabic). We used descriptive methods to summarize sample characteristics and comparative methods (chi-square test, analysis of variance [ANOVA], and t-test) to compare group differences. There were no differences in the patient age groups, triage categories, caregiver age, and payer status among the three groups. The LEP caregivers were less aware of EMS (93% NES vs. 94% PE vs. 60% LEP; p caregivers were unaware of the telephone number to call for EMS. Concerns about inability to communicate with the operator and cost were cited by the LEP caregivers as the main barriers to EMS utilization. Caregivers with limited English proficiency are less aware of and are less likely to utilize EMS for their children. Barriers to utilization include concerns of cost and communication with the operator.
Hoda Talebi Habib Abadi
Full Text Available This study investigated whether Iranian EFL learners are aware of different varieties of English spoken throughout the world and whether they have tendency towards a particular variety of English. Likewise, it explored the attitudes of Iranian EFL learners towards the native and non-native varieties of English. Moreover, it made an attempt to investigate whether such attitudes are gender-oriented. To this end, 30 intermediate male and female Iranian EFL learners whose age ranged from 22 to 30 formed the sample population of this study. They responded to three questionnaires. Then, the collected data were subjected to a one-way repeated measure ANOVA, Fisher's LSD post hoc test, and independent-samples t-tests. The main conclusion of this study was that Iranian EFL learners do not believe in a single world English anymore; instead, they gradually believe in "world Englishes". They are indeed receding from that perfect English accent and are accepting other Englishes for their communication with people around the world. In addition, although the participants accepted non-native varieties, having tendency towards American and British accents reveals the fact that they have positive attitudes towards language learning.
Thompson, Darcy A; Matson, Pamela A; Ellen, Jonathan M
Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0-4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing.
Baker, Rachel Elizabeth
This dissertation examines Mandarin and Korean speakers' acquisition of English focus marking, which is realized by accenting particular words within a focused constituent. It is important for non-native speakers to learn how accent placement relates to focus in English because appropriate accent placement and realization makes a learner's English more native-like and easier to understand. Such knowledge may also improve their English comprehension skills. In this study, 20 native English speakers, 20 native Mandarin speakers, and 20 native Korean speakers participated in four experiments: (1) a production experiment, in which they were recorded reading the answers to questions, (2) a perception experiment, in which they were asked to determine which word in a recording was the last prominent word, (3) an understanding experiment, in which they were asked whether the answers in recorded question-answer pairs had context-appropriate prosody, and (4) an accent placement experiment, in which they were asked which word they would make prominent in a particular context. Finally, a new group of native English speakers listened to utterances produced in the production experiment, and determined whether the prosody of each utterance was appropriate for its context. The results of the five experiments support a novel predictive model for second language prosodic focus marking acquisition. This model holds that both transfer of linguistic features from a learner's native language (L1) and features of their second language (L2) affect learners' acquisition of prosodic focus marking. As a result, the model includes two complementary components: the Transfer Component and the L2 Challenge Component. The Transfer Component predicts that prosodic structures in the L2 will be more easily acquired by language learners that have similar structures in their L1 than those who do not, even if there are differences between the L1 and L2 in how the structures are realized. The L2
Huang, I-Chen; Varghese, Manka M.
Research in English language teaching and teacher identity has increasingly focused on understanding non-native English-speaking teachers. In addition, much of this research has been conducted in adult English as a second language (ESL) settings. Through a multiple-case qualitative study of four teachers in an underexplored research setting--that…
This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has claimed the opposite. However, email technology also allows writers to plan and revise messages before sending them, thus affording the opportunity to ed...
This study assessed home and community language proficiency in Spanish-English bilingual university students to investigate whether the vocabulary gap reported in studies of bilingual children persists into adulthood. Sixty-five early bilinguals (mean age = 21 years) were assessed in English and Spanish vocabulary and verbal reasoning ability using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (Schrank & Woodcock, 2009). Their English scores were compared to 74 monolinguals matched in age and level of education. Participants also completed a background questionnaire. Bilinguals scored below the monolingual control group on both subtests, and the difference was larger for vocabulary compared to verbal reasoning. However, bilinguals were close to the population mean for verbal reasoning. Spanish scores were on average lower than English scores, but participants differed widely in their degree of balance. Participants with an earlier age of acquisition of English and more current exposure to English tended to be more dominant in English. Vocabulary tests in the home or community language may underestimate bilingual university students' true verbal ability and should be interpreted with caution in high-stakes situations. Verbal reasoning ability may be more indicative of a bilingual's verbal ability.
Al-Issa, Ali; Al-Bulushi, Ali; Al-Zadjali, Rima
Proficiency in the English language has been described as central for determining Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (N-NESTs) selection for joining the profession. The Ministry of Education in the Sultanate of Oman decided to set the score of Band 6 on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) for accepting the English Language…
Rajprasit, Krich; Pratoomrat, Panadda; Wang, Tuntiga
English language and communication abilities are an essential part of the global engineering community. However, non-native English speaking engineers and students tend to be unable to master these skills. This study aims to gauge the perceived levels of their general English language proficiency, to explore their English communicative problems,…
Isikli, Ceren; Tarakçioglu, Asli Ö.
Introduction of English literature as a separate school subject into Turkish high school curriculum has revealed a huge number of problems during its practical applications: students' low levels of proficiency in English, teacher incompetence, low motivation, lack of confidence, limited resources, lack of materials etc. Given the great extent and…
This commentary reviews recent literature on a number of problematic issues arising from the use of English proficiency tests by registration bodies as the sole assessment of the professional communication skills of overseas qualified health professionals from non-English-speaking backgrounds. It discusses differences between the assessment…
Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel
Adopting a longitudinal design, this study investigates the effects of foreign language anxiety on foreign language proficiency over time within English and Japanese learning contexts. It also explores the stability of anxiety in English and Japanese over time and the stability of anxiety across
Tran, Tammie M.
The problem. This research study explores an important issue in the field of TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and second language acquisition (SLA). Its purpose is to examine the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency. Furthermore, it investigates the extent to…
pronunciation of the word “time” by a person from the East is said with a hard “i” vowel sound. But, a person from the South may pronounce it as “Tom...Control (ATC) Procedures, (4) Word Meaning and Pronunciation , (5) Language Experiences in Non-Native English-Speaking Airspace/ Airports, (6) Non...with U.S. pilots’ flight experiences when word meanings and pronunciation became barriers to efficient and effective communica- tion. It covered the
Anni Holila Pulungan
Full Text Available Every child is born with an innate endowment by which (a language(s acquisition is possible. This view emphasizes the role of universal properties every child is born with to acquire (a language(s. This paper presents the acquisition of English negation 'no' and 'not' by an Indonesian child brought up in Indonesian - English Non-native Parents Bilingual Program (NPBP. The analysis is directed to reveal the pattern of 'no' and 'not' use as the evidence that a child still acquires a targeted language despite the poor targeted language input s/he is exposed to. The result of the analysis shows that the acquisition of English negation 'no' and 'not' by an Indonesian child in Indonesian - English NPBP also has a pattern which falls into syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic cases. To some extent, it supports Universal Grammar frame, but there are some which provide new insights on this issue.
Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate if there is a relationship between English language proficiency and the overall academic performance of Preparatory Year students in three faculties: Engineering, Business (including Business Administration, Economics and Political Science and Informatics and Computer Science. Data was obtained from the Student Record System of 566 students and three sets of statistical analysis were performed. The results indicated that there is a significant but moderate positive relation between the students’ proficiency in English and their overall academic success. Specifically, the higher the English proficiency of students on entry to the university, the better they performed in their degree area courses as well as in their English levels.
Full Text Available Some Grade 4 educators have expressed feelings of ineptitude regarding the support of ESL (English Second Language learners with limited English proficiency as they do not know how to support these learners effectively. Their litany emphasises ESL educators' need for supportive and preventive intervention. A Story-based Language Enrichment Programme (SLEP was compiled to suit the needs of educators teaching Grade 4 ESL learners with limited English proficiency. The programme was designed to maintain or improve the English proficiency of ESL learners. An intervention research method was followed to test the efficacy of SLEP. Forty teachers implemented SLEP over a six-week period. Thirty-nine teachers provided constructive feedback at the end of this period. Between 92% and 100% of the participants rated SLEP positively. Rural participants suggested some refinements to the programme. The overall conclusion was that SLEP makes a useful contribution to ESL practice.
Grogan, A.; Parker Jones, O.; Ali, N.; Crinion, J.; Orabona, S.; Mechias, M. L.; Ramsden, S.; Green, D. W.; Price, C. J.
We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel based morphometry (VBM) to investigate whether the efficiency of word processing in the non-native language (lexical efficiency) and the number of non-native languages spoken (2+ versus 1) were related to local differences in the brain structure of bilingual and multilingual speakers.…
Hadler, Max W; Chen, Xiao; Gonzalez, Erik; Roby, Dylan H
HMO enrollees with limited English proficiency, and particularly those in poorer health, face communication barriers despite language assistance regulations. More than 1.3 million California HMO enrollees ages 18 to 64 do not speak English well enough to communicate with medical providers and may experience reduced access to high-quality health care if they do not receive appropriate language assistance services. Based on analysis of the 2007 and 2009 California Health Interview Surveys (CHIS), commercial HMO enrollees with limited English proficiency (LEP) in poorer health are more likely to have difficulty understanding their doctors, placing this already vulnerable population at even greater risk. The analysis also uses CHIS to examine the potential impact of health plan monitoring starting in 2009 (due to a 2003 amendment to the Knox-Keene Health Care Services Act) requiring health plans to provide free qualified interpretation and translation services to HMO enrollees. The authors recommend that California's health plans continue to incorporate trained interpreters into their contracted networks and delivery systems, paying special attention to enrollees in poorer health. The results may serve as a planning tool for health plans, providing a detailed snapshot of enrollee characteristics that will help design effective programs now and prepare for a likely increase in insured LEP populations in the future, as full implementation of the Affordable Care Act takes place over the next decade.
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Kao, Jenny; Herman, Joan; Bachman, Lyle F.; Bailey, Alison; Bachman, Patina L.; Farnsworth, Tim; Chang, Sandy M.
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has made a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency (ELP), as well as content knowledge and skills. Although states have…
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Herman, Joan L.; Bachman, Lyle F.; Bailey, Alison L.; Griffin, Noelle
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB, 2002) has had a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency, as well as content knowledge and skills. While states…
Chang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Tseng, Ju-Shih
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of English proficiency (low vs. high) and material presentation mode (single channel vs. dual channel) on English listening comprehension, cognitive load and learning attitude in a ubiquitous learning environment. An experimental learning activity was implemented using PDA as a learning…
McKee, Michael M; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K
Inadequate health literacy and limited English proficiency are associated with poor health care access and outcomes. Despite what appears to be an interaction phenomenon--whereby the rate of inadequate health literacy is particularly high among limited English proficiency populations--researchers in health literacy and limited English proficiency rarely collaborate. As a result, few health literacy instruments and interventions have been developed or validated for smaller linguistic populations. Interventions to improve health outcomes for people with low health literacy and limited English proficiency show great potential to alleviate many of the health disparities currently experienced by some of the most disenfranchised individuals in our health care system, those from smaller linguistic minority groups, including Deaf American Sign Language users. It is critical for health literacy and limited English proficiency researchers to work together to understand how culture, language, literacy, education, and disabilities influence health disparities and health outcomes. It is important to ensure that research is collaborative and inclusive in order to broaden the reach of future interventions to smaller linguistic minority populations.
Kawase, Saya; Hannah, Beverly; Wang, Yue
This study examines how visual speech information affects native judgments of the intelligibility of speech sounds produced by non-native (L2) speakers. Native Canadian English perceivers as judges perceived three English phonemic contrasts (/b-v, θ-s, l-ɹ/) produced by native Japanese speakers as well as native Canadian English speakers as controls. These stimuli were presented under audio-visual (AV, with speaker voice and face), audio-only (AO), and visual-only (VO) conditions. The results showed that, across conditions, the overall intelligibility of Japanese productions of the native (Japanese)-like phonemes (/b, s, l/) was significantly higher than the non-Japanese phonemes (/v, θ, ɹ/). In terms of visual effects, the more visually salient non-Japanese phonemes /v, θ/ were perceived as significantly more intelligible when presented in the AV compared to the AO condition, indicating enhanced intelligibility when visual speech information is available. However, the non-Japanese phoneme /ɹ/ was perceived as less intelligible in the AV compared to the AO condition. Further analysis revealed that, unlike the native English productions, the Japanese speakers produced /ɹ/ without visible lip-rounding, indicating that non-native speakers' incorrect articulatory configurations may decrease the degree of intelligibility. These results suggest that visual speech information may either positively or negatively affect L2 speech intelligibility.
This paper addresses the question of what language proficiency (LP) is, both theoretically and empirically. It does so my making a distinction, on the one hand, between basic and higher language cognition, and, on the other hand, between core and peripheral components of LP. The paper furthermore
Lukkarinen, M. (Markus)
The objective of this paper is to study the Finnish National core curriculum for basic education and its English language proficiency objectives and analyse how video games can help ninth graders to aim at these objectives and improve their English language skills. Additionally, this thesis examines if the genre of a video game played has an impact on the English language learning experience, i.e., whether playing, for instance, a role-playing game benefits the student more in terms of Englis...
The READERS (Rapid English Assimilation Developing English Reading and Speaking) program is designed to facilitate teachers and students in rapid English assimilation, focusing on grammar and verbal recall as pertaining to the English language. The purpose of this qualitative method case study was to investigate the effects of rapid English…
Evaluating the lexico-grammatical differences in the writing of native and non-native speakers of English in peer-reviewed medical journals in the field of pediatric oncology: Creation of the genuine index scoring system.
Gayle, Alberto Alexander; Shimaoka, Motomu
The predominance of English in scientific research has created hurdles for "non-native speakers" of English. Here we present a novel application of native language identification (NLI) for the assessment of medical-scientific writing. For this purpose, we created a novel classification system whereby scoring would be based solely on text features found to be distinctive among native English speakers (NS) within a given context. We dubbed this the "Genuine Index" (GI). This methodology was validated using a small set of journals in the field of pediatric oncology. Our dataset consisted of 5,907 abstracts, representing work from 77 countries. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to generate our model and for scoring. Accuracy, precision, and recall of the classification model were 93.3%, 93.7%, and 99.4%, respectively. Class specific F-scores were 96.5% for NS and 39.8% for our benchmark class, Japan. Overall kappa was calculated to be 37.2%. We found significant differences between countries with respect to the GI score. Significant correlation was found between GI scores and two validated objective measures of writing proficiency and readability. Two sets of key terms and phrases differentiating NS and non-native writing were identified. Our GI model was able to detect, with a high degree of reliability, subtle differences between the terms and phrasing used by native and non-native speakers in peer reviewed journals, in the field of pediatric oncology. In addition, L1 language transfer was found to be very likely to survive revision, especially in non-Western countries such as Japan. These findings show that even when the language used is technically correct, there may still be some phrasing or usage that impact quality.
Davis, Chevelle Ma; Guo, Mary; Miyamura, Jill; Chang, Ann; Nelson-Hurwitz, Denise C; Sentell, Tetine
Childbirth is the most common reason women are hospitalized in the United States. Understanding (1) how expectant mothers gather information to decide where to give birth, and (2) who helps make that decision, provides critical health communication and decision-making insights. Diverse Asian American and Pacific Islander (AA/PI) perspectives on such topics are understudied, particularly among those with limited English proficiency (LEP). LEP is defined as having a limited ability to read, write, speak, or understand English. To address this research gap, we interviewed 400 women (18+ years) with a recent live birth on O'ahu, Hawai'i. Participants completed a 1-hour, in-person interview in English (n=291), Tagalog (n=42), Chinese (n=36), or Marshallese (n=31). Women were asked (1) what information was most important in deciding where to deliver and why; and (2) who participated in the decision-making and why. Responses were compared by LEP (n=71; 18%) vs English-proficient (n=329; 82%) in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Both LEP and English-proficient participants reported their obstetrician as the most important source of health information. Significantly more LEP participants valued advice from family or acquaintances as important sources of information compared to English-proficient participants. The top three health decision-makers for both those with LEP and English-proficient participants were themselves, their obstetrician, and their spouse, which did not differ significantly by language proficiency. These findings provide insights into health information sources and decision-making across diverse AA/PI populations, including those with LEP, and can help direct health interventions such as disseminating patient education and healthcare quality information.
Full Text Available This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has claimed the opposite. However, email technology also allows writers to plan and revise messages before sending them, thus affording the opportunity to edit not only for grammar and mechanics, but also for pragmatic clarity and politeness.The study examines email requests sent by native and non-native English speaking graduate students to faculty at a major American university over a period of several semesters and applies Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper’s (1989 speech act analysis framework – quantitatively to distinguish levels of directness, i.e. pragmatic clarity; and qualitatively to compare syntactic and lexical politeness devices, the request perspectives, and the specific linguistic request realization patterns preferred by native and non-native speakers. Results show that far more requests are realized through direct strategies as well as hints than conventionally indirect strategies typically found in comparative speech act studies. Politeness conventions in email, a text-only medium with little guidance in the academic institutional hierarchy, appear to be a work in progress, and native speakers demonstrate greater resources in creating e-polite messages to their professors than non-native speakers. A possible avenue for pedagogical intervention with regard to instruction in and acquisition of politeness routines in hierarchically upward email communication is presented.
Full Text Available This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the at- tempts to reveal: (1 the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2 the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners’ speaking proficiency. The data from 595 second year senior high school students from eleven schools in East Java, Indonesia were collected using a 70 item questionnaire of Oral Communication Learning Strategy (OCLS and a 10 item self-assessment of speaking proficiency. The statistical analysis revealed that gender provided significant effects on the intensity of use of six types of strategies of learning speaking skill – interactional-maintenance, self-evaluation, fluency-oriented, time gaining, compensation, and interpersonal strategies – with female learners reporting higher intensity of use. A further analysis found that four strategy types – interactional-maintenance, self-improvement, compensation, and memory strategies – greatly contribute to the speaking proficiency. These findings imply that strategies-based instruction, covering the four most influential strategies, needs to be integrated explicitly in the speaking class to help learners, particularly male learners, cope with problems in learning speaking skill.
Daysal, N. Meltem; Chin, Aimee; Imberman, Scott
Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district provides...... bilingual education above this 20-student cutoff. Using this discontinuity as an instrument for district bilingual education provision, we find that providing bilingual education programs (relative to providing only English as a Second Language programs) does not significantly impact the standardized test...... scores of students with Spanish as their home language (comprised primarily of ever-LEP students). However, we find significant positive impacts on non-LEP students’ achievement, which indicates that education programs for LEP students have spillover effects to non-LEP students....
Full Text Available Patients use call light systems to initiate communication with their health care team. Little is known how this process is affected when language barriers exist between an English-speaking nurse and a patient with limited English proficiency (LEP. The aims of this study are to describe (a the perceptions of nurses regarding their communication with patients with LEP, (b how call lights affect their communication with patients with LEP, and (c the perceptions of nurses on the impact of advancement in call light technology on patients with LEP. Using focus groups, nurses were asked about their interactions with patients with LEP. The following themes emerged: barriers to communication, formal tools for communication, gestures and charades, reliance on family, creating a better call light system, and acceptability of Eloquence™. This results show that call lights affect the interaction of nurses with patients with LEP and complex issues arise in the subsequent communication that is initiated by the call light.
Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.
This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.
Blake, Helen L; Mcleod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Fuller, Gail
Proficiency in the language of the country of residence has implications for an individual's level of education, employability, income and social integration. This paper explores the relationship between the spoken English proficiency of residents of Australia on census day and their educational level, employment and income to provide insight into multilingual speakers' ability to participate in Australia as an English-dominant society. Data presented are derived from two Australian censuses i.e. 2006 and 2011 of over 19 million people. The proportion of Australians who reported speaking a language other than English at home was 21.5% in the 2006 census and 23.2% in the 2011 census. Multilingual speakers who also spoke English very well were more likely to have post-graduate qualifications, full-time employment and high income than monolingual English-speaking Australians. However, multilingual speakers who reported speaking English not well were much less likely to have post-graduate qualifications or full-time employment than monolingual English-speaking Australians. These findings provide insight into the socioeconomic and educational profiles of multilingual speakers, which will inform the understanding of people such as speech-language pathologists who provide them with support. The results indicate spoken English proficiency may impact participation in Australian society. These findings challenge the "monolingual mindset" by demonstrating that outcomes for multilingual speakers in education, employment and income are higher than for monolingual speakers.
Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad
All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level.
Yu, Wei; Cheah, Charissa S L; Sun, Shuyan
The authors' objective was to investigate the association between Chinese immigrant mothers' authoritative parenting and their children's socioemotional and behavioral difficulties. Participants were 136 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers with 3-5-year-old children residing in the United States. Authoritative parenting was associated with lower socioemotional and behavioral difficulties in children as reported by preschool teachers. Further moderation analyses revealed that immigrant mothers' English proficiency moderated the association between authoritative parenting and children's difficulties. Specifically, authoritative parenting was significantly associated with fewer total difficulties only for children with mothers who reported higher English proficiency.
Kim, Yoon Kyong; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam
Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) competence in preschool, having a mother born in the United States, and attending larger schools with fewer DLLs were associated with higher initial levels of English proficiency in kindergarten and/or steeper growth over time. Survival analyses indicated that it took about 2 years for half of the sample to become proficient in English according to the school district's criterion. Higher initial proficiency in kindergarten, not receiving free/reduced lunch, not being Hispanic or Black, strong cognitive, language, and socioemotional skills at age 4, and maternal education were associated with faster attainment of English proficiency. It is important for teachers, parents, researchers, and policy makers to understand that DLL students come from diverse backgrounds and that poverty and other factors influence the speed of English language development for DLLs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Chung, Wei-Lun; Bidelman, Gavin M
We examined cross-language differences in neural encoding and tracking of intensity and pitch cues signaling English stress patterns. Auditory mismatch negativities (MMNs) were recorded in English and Mandarin listeners in response to contrastive English pseudowords whose primary stress occurred either on the first or second syllable (i.e., "nocTICity" vs. "NOCticity"). The contrastive syllable stress elicited two consecutive MMNs in both language groups, but English speakers demonstrated larger responses to stress patterns than Mandarin speakers. Correlations between the amplitude of ERPs and continuous changes in the running intensity and pitch of speech assessed how well each language group's brain activity tracked these salient acoustic features of lexical stress. We found that English speakers' neural responses tracked intensity changes in speech more closely than Mandarin speakers (higher brain-acoustic correlation). Findings demonstrate more robust and precise processing of English stress (intensity) patterns in early auditory cortical responses of native relative to nonnative speakers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Yao; Dai, Zhongxin
Knowledge of English vocabulary contributes to the learner's proficiency of English as a foreign language, but how the learner's lexical knowledge behaves in the contribution. Researchers in mainland China have conducted studies of various kinds in order to find out how the learner's lexical knowledge correlates with his proficiency. This article…
Daniel Linder; Goedele De Sterck
That the English language is the prevailing language in international scientific discourse is an undeniable fact for research professionals who are non-native speakers of English (NNSE). An exploratory, survey-based study of scientists in the experimental disciplines of neuroscience and medicine seeks to reveal, on the one hand, the habits of scientists who in their research practice come across neologisms in English and need to use them in oral and written scientific discou...
Manesha Kaur Rajendra Singh
Full Text Available Speaking is an important skill that needs to be mastered as it is the best way to communicate with other people in order to deliver opinions and express ideas, but the fact is that secondary school students’ ability in speaking English is low in Malaysia. It is caused by several factors such as lack of vocabulary, poor pronunciation, weak grammar and poor fluency that hinders the mastery of English language. In this research, Oral Proficiency in English for Secondary Schools (OPS-English Programme was employed to improve students’ speaking skill by engaging them in vocabulary based activities. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the effectiveness of OPS-English in improving the students speaking skills and increasing their vocabulary count. This is an experimental pretest-posttest control group design study which involved 70 students from a school located in one of the districts in Kedah, Malaysia. The duration of the study was 8 weeks. The data collection was done using pre-test and post-test. The data from the pre-test and post-test was analysed quantitatively using independent sample test. The findings of this study show that OPS-English can improve students’ vocabulary. This is proven by experimental group’s students’ test score that showed improvement in the post-test. OPS-English is a suitable programme that should be used to improve students’ vocabulary. The result of this study provides useful insights for English language teachers in teaching speaking. Keywords: OPS-English, speaking ability, secondary school students, vocabulary activities
Rabbidge, Michael; Chappell, Philip
The teaching of English as a foreign language in South Korean public schools has seen the implementation of a number of new innovations. One such innovation, the teaching of English through English, dubbed TETE, is a government-initiated policy that requires public schools to teach English by only using English. Nevertheless, studies reveal that…
Joel M. Magogwe
Full Text Available This study explored metacognitive awareness level of University of Botswana students in the Faculty of Social Sciences. It also considered the more recent research focusing on the role of metacognitive awareness in reading and how it relates to proficiency. The following questions are addressed: (1 What are the self-reported reading proficiencies of the University of Botswana students? (2 Are the University of Botswana students aware of their metacognitive reading strategies? (3 What kind of metacognitive reading strategies are frequently used? (4 Is there a difference in metacognitive awareness of reading strategies used by high- and low-proficiency students respectively? The Survey of Reading Strategies Questionnaire (SORS developed by Mokhtari and Sheorey (2002, and the semi-structured interview technique were used to collect data for this study. The findings indicate that University of Botswana English as Second Language (ESL students reported high reading proficiency and high use of metacognitive strategies, but there was no vast difference in terms of proficiency. Students who reported their proficiency as high had an edge over low-proficiency ones mainly because their management and monitoring of reading was guided more by the goals they have set themselves than by the tests and assignments they were supposed to write.
Glenn Ole Hellekjær
Full Text Available This article presents a study of the academic reading proficiency in English of 217 senior level Norwegian upper secondary school students who upon graduation are considered qualified for higher education. Testing with an International English Language Testing System (IELTS Academic Reading Module revealed that two thirds of the 178 respondents with ordinary EFL courses did not achieve the equivalent of the IELTS Band 6 score minimum that is usually required for admission to British and Australian universities. In comparison, two thirds of a sample of 39 respondents with a single, sheltered Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL subject achieved a Band 6 score or better. Closer analysis indicates that the poor test scores can be attributed to weaknesses in current English as a Foreign Language (EFL instruction where reading is neglected, where students do not learn to adjust how they read to reading purpose, and where they do not learn how to handle unfamiliar words to avoid disrupting the reading process. The article ends with suggestions on how to improve EFL instruction, in Norway and elsewhere.
Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.
Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…
This study examined the relationship between attachment, travel experiences, and English proficiency and international students' acculturative stress and depressive symptoms. A total of 91 graduate international students completed online surveys. Pearson correlations showed that both attachment anxiety and avoidance were positively correlated with…
One public school district developed a full-day kindergarten program for at-risk students, including those who are limited English-proficient (LEP), as a strategy to close the achievement gap. Not all LEP students in this district attended the full-day program due to limited space. The district administrators were looking for research-based…
Chin, A.; Meltem Daysal, N.; Imberman, S.A.
Abstract: Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district
Ernst, Jeremy V.; Li, Songze; Williams, Thomas O.
The ever-changing student population of engineering design graphics students necessitates broader sets of instructor adeptness. Specifically, preparedness to educate and provide adequate educational access to content for students with identified categorical disabilities and Limited English Proficiency (LEP) is now an essential readiness skill for…
Barrett, Alice N.; Barile, John P.; Malm, Esther K.; Weaver, Scott R.
Studies show math achievement to be the best predictor of entering post-secondary education. However, less is known about the predictors of math achievement, particularly among immigrant youth. This study examined English proficiency and peer interethnic relations as predictors of mathematics achievement among Latino and Asian high school…
Fong, Carlton J.; Krause, Jaimie M.; Acee, Taylor W.; Weinstein, Claire Ellen
The study investigated motivational differences and higher education outcomes between limited English proficiency (LEP) Hispanic students compared with non-LEP Hispanic students. With a sample of 668 Hispanic community college students, we measured various forms of achievement motivation informed by self-determination theory, grade point average…
Sunderman, Gretchen L.; Priya, Kanu
This study investigates the phonological nature of the lexical links in the bilingual lexicon using different-script bilinguals. Highly proficient Hindi-English bilinguals performed a translation recognition task (i.e., decide whether two words presented sequentially are a correct translation pair). For the critical trials, the second word was a…
This research paper presents a learners' perspective on (the promotion of) learner autonomy and Self-Access Language Learning in an English Proficiency Program. It provides an evaluation of the success of these course elements as well as an interpretation of students' understanding of the related concepts. Finally, it identifies factors that…
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Deng, Shiying; Alvarez, Rocio; Li, Jing
The current study uses Garcia Coll et al.'s (1996) developmental competence model of ethnic minority children and Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory as frameworks for investigating the mechanisms whereby early adolescent English proficiency relates to perceived discriminatory experiences and adolescent depressive symptoms. Data from 444…
Roca-Varela, Mª Luisa; Palacios, Ignacio M.
This paper examines some of the best known proficiency tests in English, with particular focus on the oral component. Attention is paid to the following issues, among others: the weighting of oral elements in testing, the criteria used for the assessment of oral skills and the relation of these to the general guidelines in the "Common…
Chan, Hoi Wing
This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning . Out-of-class…
Christensen, Laurene L.; Albus, Debra A.; Liu, Kristin K.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Kincaid, Aleksis
English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities are required to participate in all state and district assessments similar to their peers without disabilities. This includes assessments used for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I accountability purposes for demonstrating proficiency in academic content, assessments used…
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must projects that serve adults with limited English proficiency provide for the needs of those adults? 472.33 Section 472.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION...
Wang, Tuntiga; Rajprasit, Krich
Theoretically, beliefs about English language learning have a psychological factor, such as predicting the rate of success or failure among learners in the classroom context. However, learners with different levels of language proficiency may perceive such beliefs in a different way, which may lead to the development of special needs, in terms of…
Gordon, Nancy; Gregory-Burns, Gina; Dean, Susan; Torreblanca, Antonia
Background/Aims To investigate communication problems and preferences of Limited English Proficiency Spanish speakers in a predominantly English-oriented medical care system. Methods Waiting room survey (self-administered questionnaire) conducted January-October 2011 at 5 Kaiser Permanente Northern California facilities (incl. 4 Latino Health Modules). Study Sample: Patients classified based on self-report as having Very Limited English Proficiency (VLEP, n=1527, doesn’t speak English at all or not well) or Limited English Proficiency (LEP, n=431, speaks English well, but not very well). The sample included 380 women and 169 men aged 18–39, 681 women and 294 men aged 40–59, and 290 women and 108 men aged = 60. By age group, 74.1%, 79.2%, and 80.2%, respectively, were classified as VLEP, with women comprising approximately 71% of VLEP and 60% of LEP in each age group. Over 85% came from Mexico or Central America. Results Educational attainment very low in both LEP and VLEP groups, but across all age groups, significantly lower for VLEP vs. LEP. Approximately 75% of LEP (“speak English well”) patients have trouble at least sometimes understanding people speaking to them in English. Over half of LEP patients have difficulty understanding letters and information in English. Nearly half of LEP and 15% of VLEP patients want to receive letters and instructions in both English and Spanish. Home Internet access is approximately 80% for LEP and 55% for VLEP aged 20–59; 46% and 28%, respectively, for ages =60. Ability to use email and the Internet significantly declines with age; lower among VLEP than LEP across age groups. Significant VLEP-LEP and age group differences exist for communication modality preferences. Preference for modalities involving computer/Internet decrease with age and language proficiency within age group; while age differences persist, VLEP-LEP differences within age group are smaller for text messages, DVDs, and phone-based messages
Bruen, Jennifer; Kelly, Niamh
This paper considers the position of university language students whose mother tongue is other than the medium of instruction. Specifically, it investigates the attitudes and experiences of non-native English speakers studying either German or Japanese as foreign languages at an English-medium university. The findings indicate that the non-native…
Topic management by non-native speakers (NNSs) during informal conversations has received comparatively little attention from researchers, and receives surprisingly little attention in second language learning and teaching. This article reports on one of the topic management strategies employed by international students during informal, social…
Jaquet, Karina; Fong, Anthony B.
Research has found high repetition rates for students in Algebra I, with one study finding a repetition rate of 44 percent for students in a large urban high school district. Less is known about how math performance and Algebra I course repetition rates vary among students with different levels of English proficiency. This report examines Algebra…
Xie, Zilong; Yi, Han-Gyol; Chandrasekaran, Bharath
Nonnative speech poses a challenge to speech perception, especially in challenging listening environments. Audiovisual (AV) cues are known to improve native speech perception in noise. The extent to which AV cues benefit nonnative speech perception in noise, however, is much less well-understood. Here, we examined native American English-speaking and native Korean-speaking listeners' perception of English sentences produced by a native American English speaker and a native Korean speaker across a range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs;-4 to -20 dB) in audio-only and audiovisual conditions. We employed psychometric function analyses to characterize the pattern of AV benefit across SNRs. For native English speech, the largest AV benefit occurred at intermediate SNR (i.e. -12 dB); but for nonnative English speech, the largest AV benefit occurred at a higher SNR (-4 dB). The psychometric function analyses demonstrated that the AV benefit patterns were different between native and nonnative English speech. The nativeness of the listener exerted negligible effects on the AV benefit across SNRs. However, the nonnative listeners' ability to gain AV benefit in native English speech was related to their proficiency in English. These findings suggest that the native language background of both the speaker and listener clearly modulate the optimal use of AV cues in speech recognition.
Approximately 50% of publications in English peer reviewed journals are contributed by non-native speakers (NNS) of the language. Basic thought processes are considered to be universal yet there are differences in thought patterns and particularly in discourse management of writers with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. The study highlights some areas of potential incompatibility in native and NNS processing of English scientific papers. Principles and conventions in generating academic discourse are considered in terms of frequently occurring failures of NNS to meet expectations of editors, reviewers, and readers. Major problem areas concern organization and flow of information, principles of cohesion and clarity, cultural constraints, especially those of politeness and negotiability of ideas, and the complicated area of English modality pragmatics. The aim of the paper is to sensitize NN authors of English academic reports to problem areas of discourse processing which are stumbling blocks, often affecting acceptance of manuscripts. The problems discussed are essential for acquiring pragmalinguistic and sociocultural competence in producing effective communication. PMID:23118596
Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh K
Many studies have confirmed the presence of a bilingual advantage which is manifested as enhanced cognitive and attention control. However, very few studies have investigated the role of second language proficiency on the modulation of conflict-monitoring in bilinguals. We investigated this by comparing high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on a modified saccadic arrow Stroop task under different monitoring conditions, and tested the predictions of the bilingual executive control advantage proposal. The task of the participants was to make an eye movement toward the color patch in the same color as the central arrow, ignoring the patch to which the arrow was pointing. High-proficient bilinguals had overall faster saccade latency on all types of trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals. The overall saccadic latency for high proficiency bilinguals was similarly affected by the different types of monitoring conditions, whereas conflict resolution advantage was found only for high monitoring demanding condition. The results support a conflict-monitoring account in a novel oculomotor task and also suggest that language proficiency could modulate executive control in bilinguals.
Full Text Available Many studies have confirmed the presence of a bilingual advantage which is manifested as enhanced cognitive and attention control. However, very few studies have investigated the role of second language proficiency on the modulation of conflict-monitoring in bilinguals. We investigated this by comparing high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on a modified saccadic arrow Stroop task under different monitoring conditions, and tested the predictions of the bilingual executive control advantage proposal. The task of the participants was to make an eye movement towards the colour patch in the same colour as the central arrow, ignoring the patch to which the arrow was pointing. High-proficient bilinguals had overall faster saccade latency on all types of trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals. The overall saccadic latency for high proficiency bilinguals was similarly affected by the different types of monitoring conditions, whereas conflict resolution advantage was found only for high monitoring demanding condition. The results support a conflict-monitoring account in a novel oculomotor task and also suggest that language proficiency could modulate executive control in bilinguals.
Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Lauderdale, Diane S; Meltzer, David; Shorey, Jeanette M; Levinson, Wendy; Thisted, Ronald A
OBJECTIVE To determine whether professional interpreter services increase the delivery of health care to limited–English-proficient patients. DESIGN Two-year retrospective cohort study during which professional interpreter services for Portuguese and Spanish-speaking patients were instituted between years one and two. Preventive and clinical service information was extracted from computerized medical records. SETTING A large HMO in New England. PARTICIPANTS A total of 4,380 adults continuously enrolled in a staff model health maintenance organization for the two years of the study, who either used the comprehensive interpreter services (interpreter service group [ISG]; N = 327) or were randomly selected into a 10% comparison group of all other eligible adults (comparison group [CG]; N = 4,053). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS The measures were change in receipt of clinical services and preventive service use. Clinical service use and receipt of preventive services increased in both groups from year one to year two. Clinical service use increased significantly in the ISG compared to the CG for office visits (1.80 vs 0.70; P interpreter services. CONCLUSION Professional interpreter services can increase delivery of health care to limited–English-speaking patients. PMID:11520385
Sajjadi, Samad; Ahmadi, Majid; Heidarpour, Maryam; Yakta, Ali Salahi; Khadembashi, Naghmeh; Rafatbakhsh, Mohammad
Despite its inevitable significance, the effect of in-service English education on medical professionals has rarely been studied longitudinally. The reason can be issues such as physicians' heavy workload, commuting problems, inappropriate class times, and inexperienced teaching staff. A needs assessment worksheet was administered to faculty members of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran and the responses were analyzed. A project for the promotion of faculty members' English proficiency was formulated. Then, following a placement test, 235 applicants from the university colleges and hospitals were classified into 28 homogeneous groups. After four terms of instruction, the participants' scores on the pre- and post- assessments were analyzed. There was significant improvement in participants' total scores on different communicative skills (Pgrammar (P<0.001), but failed to progress significantly on reading comprehension (P = 0.523). The administration of in-service education for skill-oriented courses, over a long period, can be quite encouraging and should be further strengthened. Regular instructions on each individual skill on the one hand and on their combination on the other are essential for success in such education.
Yeung, Susanna S; Chan, Carol K K
Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2 English reading among Hong Kong ESL kindergarteners. This study aims to investigate L1 and L2 phonological awareness and oral language proficiency as predictors of English reading among children with Chinese as L1. One hundred and sixty-one typically developing children with a mean age of 5.16 (SD=.35) selected from seven preschools in Hong Kong. Participants were assessed for English reading, English and Chinese phonological awareness at different levels, English oral language skills, and letter naming ability. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that both oral language proficiency and phonological awareness measures significantly predicted L2 word reading, when statistically controlled for age and general intelligence. Among various phonological awareness units, L2 phonemic awareness was the best predictor of L2 word reading. Cross-language transfer was shown with L1 phonological awareness at the tone level, uniquely predicting L2 word reading. The present findings show the important role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels (rime and phoneme) and oral language proficiency in the course of L2 reading development in Chinese ESL learners. The significant contribution of L1 tone awareness to L2 reading suggests that phonological sensitivity is a general competence that ESL children need to acquire in early years. The findings have significant implications for understanding L2 reading development and curriculum development. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role. MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to examine the relationship between English language proficiency test (as measured by MUET bands to predict the undergraduates academic achievement (as measured by Cumulative Grade Point Average score. It also aims to determine the recommended MUET band as an entry requirement for prospective technical programme undergraduates in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM. The study was carried out among 225 final year undergraduates of five different faculties in UPM, namely Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. The data used were obtained by administering a brief questionnaire and were quantitatively analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 19. The study revealed that there is a medium positive correlation between English language proficiency and academic achievement where students who have scored higher bands for MUET are the ones who obtained higher CGPA in their study. Based on the findings, it is recommended that UPM and other local universities make changes towards the minimum MUET entry requirement to help prospective undergraduates excel in their academic study. Keywords: English language proficiency, academic achievement, technical programme, MUET, CGPA
Nafi, Jamal Subhi Ismail; Qabaja, Ziad Mohammed Mahmoud; Al-Kar, Hibah Jabir Ibrahim
The purpose of this study is to investigate the attitudes of Palestinian undergraduate students towards native and non-native English language teachers and their relation to students' listening ability. To achieve this purpose and to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses, the researchers adopted both the descriptive and inferential…
This study investigated the influence of teacher vocal qualities and confirmation behaviors on student learning. Students (N = 197) enrolled in nonnative English-speaking teachers' classes completed a battery of instruments. Results indicated that both vocal qualities and confirmation behaviors were negatively related to receiver apprehension,…
Tsai, Yi-Rung; Tsou, Wenli
...) in English as a lingua franca context of higher education in Taiwan. English instructors’ verbal discourses with regard to various types of strategies during instruction were documented and examined...
The aim of this study is to investigate which pronunciations of English are difficult or different from one's first language, as well as to explore which factors are crucial for communication with people from other cultures when English is used as one of the World Englishes. Ninety-one undergraduate students (85 females and 6 males) from two…
Landau, Ruth E; Beck, Alan; Glickman, Larry T; Litster, Annette; Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Moore, George E
Veterinary schools and colleges generally include communication skills training in their professional curriculum, but few programs address challenges resulting from language gaps between pet owners and practitioners. Due to shifting US demographics, small animal veterinary practices must accommodate an increasing number of limited English proficient (LEP) Spanish-speaking pet owners (SSPOs). A national survey was conducted to assess the interest and preparedness of US veterinary students to communicate with LEP SSPOs when they graduate. This online survey, with more than 2,000 first-, second-, and third-year US veterinary students, revealed that over 50% of students had worked at a practice or shelter that had LEP Spanish-speaking clients. Yet fewer than 20% of these students described themselves as prepared to give medical information to an LEP SSPO. Over three-fourths of respondents agreed that communication with LEP SSPOs was important for veterinarians in general, and two-thirds agreed that communication with LEP SSPOs was important for themselves personally. Ninety percent of students who described themselves as conversant in Spanish agreed that they would be able to communicate socially with SSPOs, while only 55% said they would be able to communicate medically with such clients. Overall, two-thirds of students expressed interest in taking Spanish for Veterinary Professionals elective course while in school, with the strongest interest expressed by those with advanced proficiency in spoken Spanish. Bridging language gaps has the potential to improve communication with LEP SSPOs in the veterinary clinical setting and to improve patient care, client satisfaction, and the economic health of the veterinary profession.
Blumenfeld, Henrike K; Bobb, Susan C; Marian, Viorica
Assessment tools are needed to accurately index performance in bilingual populations. This study examines the verbal fluency task to further establish the relative sensitivities of letter and category fluency in assessing bilingual language skills in Spanish-English bilinguals. English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals had 1 minute to name words belonging to a category (e.g. animals) or starting with a letter (e.g. A). Number of words retrieved, proficiency, cognate and frequency effects were examined. In their dominant language (English), bilinguals and monolinguals showed similar fluency patterns, generating more words in category than letter tasks. This category advantage disappeared for bilinguals tested in their non-dominant language (Spanish). Further, bilinguals retrieved a higher percentage of cognates (e.g. lagoon-laguna) than monolinguals across tasks and languages. In particular, as proficiency increased in their non-dominant language, bilinguals were more likely to produce cognates (including cognates with lower word frequencies). While bilinguals and monolinguals performed largely the same, bilinguals showed fine-grained differences from monolinguals in both their dominant and non-dominant languages. Based on these results, it is recommended that clinicians evaluate findings from bilinguals' verbal fluency tasks with attention to language proficiency, cognate words produced and relative to normative data that match their clients' language histories.
Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Bobb, Susan C.; Marian, Viorica
Purpose Assessment tools are needed to accurately index performance in bilingual populations. We examine the verbal fluency task to further establish the relative sensitivities of letter and category fluency in assessing bilingual language skills in Spanish-English bilinguals. Method English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals had one minute to name words belonging to a category (e.g., animals) or starting with a letter (e.g., A). Number of words retrieved, proficiency, cognate and frequency effects were examined. Results In their dominant language (English), bilinguals and monolinguals showed similar fluency patterns, generating more words in category than letter tasks. This category advantage disappeared for bilinguals tested in their non-dominant language (Spanish). Further, bilinguals retrieved a higher percentage of cognates (e.g., lagoon-laguna) than monolinguals across tasks and languages. In particular, as proficiency increased in their non-dominant language, bilinguals were more likely to produce cognates (including cognates with lower word frequencies). Conclusion While bilinguals and monolinguals performed largely the same, bilinguals showed fine-grained differences from monolinguals in both their dominant and non-dominant languages. Based on these results, we recommend that clinicians evaluate findings from bilinguals’ verbal fluency tasks with attention to language proficiency, cognate words produced, and relative to normative data that match their clients’ language histories. PMID:27172853
Chen, Stephen H.; Zhou, Qing; Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Bunge, Silvia A.
The present study examined whether bilingualism-related advantages in self-regulation could be observed: (a) among Chinese American immigrant children with varying levels of Chinese and English proficiencies, and (b) across different domains of self-regulation in laboratory, home, and classroom contexts. A socioeconomically diverse sample of first- and second-generation Chinese American immigrant children between ages 7 and 10 (n = 223) was administered assessments of Chinese and English language proficiencies and a multi-method, multi-informant battery of self-regulation measures. Multiple regression analyses suggested that controlling for covariates (child age, gender, and SES), children's bilingualism-related advantages were limited to higher performance only on computerized tasks of cognitive flexibility, and only among children with higher degrees of fluency in both Chinese and English. By contrast, proficiencies in one language (either Chinese or English) were uniquely and positively associated with other domains of self-regulation, including parent and teacher-reported effortful control. These results suggest that the bilingual advantage for self-regulation may be observed as a continuous variable among immigrant children with varying levels of bilingual fluency; however, this advantage may not extend across all domains and contexts of self-regulation. PMID:25324795
Stephen H Chen
Full Text Available The present study examined whether bilingualism-related advantages in self-regulation could be observed: a among Chinese American immigrant children with varying levels of Chinese and English proficiencies, and b across different domains of self-regulation in laboratory, home, and classroom contexts. A socioeconomically diverse sample of first- and second-generation Chinese American immigrant children between ages 7 and 10 (n = 223 was administered assessments of Chinese and English language proficiencies and a multi-method, multi-informant battery of self-regulation measures. Multiple regression analyses suggested that controlling for covariates (child age, gender, and SES, children’s bilingualism-related advantages were limited to higher performance only on computerized tasks of cognitive flexibility, and only among children with higher degrees of fluency in both Chinese and English. By contrast, proficiencies in one language (either Chinese or English were uniquely and positively associated with other domains of self-regulation, including parent and teacher-reported effortful control. These results suggest that the bilingual advantage for self-regulation may be observed as a continuous variable among immigrant children with varying levels of bilingual fluency; however, this advantage may not extend across all domains and contexts of self-regulation.
the border of Russia several times in the past year because they didn’t have an English-speaking controller on duty. High Pitched Voice I have...understanding of the English language.16 Amazonia also has very poor equipment. There are a lot of mountains to deal with and hundreds of miles...accents. Several pilots commented that a key factor that deter- mined proficiency in English was learning it early in life . From their flight
Full Text Available This study investigates novice non-native English teachers’ opinions about the effectiveness of their teacher education programme and the challenges during their initial years of teaching. The results of a survey administered to fifty-five novice teachers and follow-up interviews identify strengths and weaknesses in their teacher education programme and catalogue the difficulties they faced when they star-ted to teach. The study found significant differences between the content of novice teachers’ academic courses in their teacher education programme and the conditions they experienced in classrooms. The major challenges of their first years of teaching were related to lesson delivery, managing behaviour, unmotivated students, and students with learning disabilities. The article includes suggestions to prepare teachers for the actualities of working in schools.
Shaw, Graham P; Molnar, David
Medical education in the United States and Canada continues to evolve. However, many of the changes in pedagogy are being made without appropriate evaluation. Here, we attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of lecture capture technology as a learning tool in Podiatric medical education. In this pilot project, student performance in an inaugural lecture capture-supported biochemistry course was compared to that in the previous academic year. To examine the impact of online lecture podcasts on student performance a within-subjects design was implemented, a two way ANCOVA with repeated measures. The use of lecture capture-supported pedagogy resulted in significantly higher student test scores, than achieved historically using traditional pedagogy. The overall course performance using this lecture capture-supported pedagogy was almost 6% higher than in the previous year. Non-native English language speakers benefitted more significantly from the lecture capture-supported pedagogy than native English language speakers, since their performance improved by 10.0 points. Given that underrepresented minority (URM) students, whose native language is not English, makes up a growing proportion of medical school matriculates, these observations support the use of lecture capture technology in other courses. Furthermore, this technology may also be used as part of an academic enrichment plan to improve performance on the American Podiatric Medical Licensing Examination, reduce the attrition of URM students and potentially address the predicted minority physician shortage in 2020. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Suk, Daria Soon-Young; Lee, Yae-Sheik
Shows how lexical and conceptual representation may be structured in the lexicon of Korean English-as-a- Second-Language users of high proficiency based on the data obtained from currently-used Grade 7 English textbooks in Korea. Findings show the existence of misusage due to Korean influence on second language English. (Author/VWL)
Ana I. Moreno
Full Text Available Previous quantitative studies suggest that the burden researchers who use English as an additional language perceive when writing research articles (RAs for publication in English (as L2 is 24% greater than the burden they perceive when they write RAs for publication in their L1. It remains unclear precisely which aspects of research article (RA writing in English present these writers with the greatest challenge and just why they perceive this increase in difficulty. A structured questionnaire comprising thirty-seven questions about researchers’ publication experiences in scientific journals in English and in Spanish was designed and sent out to all (n = 8,794 Spanish postdoctoral researchers at one research-only institution and four universities in Spain, yielding responses from 1,717 researchers. Our first results show that the discussion is the section that is perceived as more difficult to write for English-medium journals, across the four broad knowledge areas in a way that cannot be fully explained by their lower level of proficiency in English (as L2. This article proposes the rhetorical transfer hypothesis as a possible explanation for their additional difficulty. Our results also reveal that their increased perceived difficulty writing RA discussions in English (as L2 does not decrease noticeably until Spanish researchers report high or very high levels of proficiency in English (as L2 for academic or general purposes or have published on average at least 37 RAs as corresponding author in English-medium journals over the last ten years. Implications for English for Academic Purposes (EAP research and pedagogy are discussed.
Ng, Manwa L; Chen, Yang; Chan, Ellen Y K
The present study objectively examined the possible difference in vocal characteristics associated with English and Cantonese produced by proficient Cantonese-English bilingual speakers. Forty native speakers of Cantonese (20 males and 20 females) who were proficient in Cantonese and English participated in the study. An array of acoustical parameters, including fundamental frequency (F0) values and first spectral peak (FSP), mean spectral energy (MSE), and spectral tilt (ST) extracted from long-term average speech spectra were obtained from connected speech samples produced in Cantonese and English by the bilingual speakers. Acoustical parameters were measured using Praat (P. Boersma & D. Weenink, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) and used to objectively describe the voice quality. Results indicated that female bilingual speakers had significantly higher F0 values in speaking English than Cantonese. Although exhibiting comparable FSP values, the bilingual speakers showed significantly higher MSE and lower ST values when speaking Cantonese compared with English. The present findings imply that, even with the same phonatory apparatus, language being spoken can have an effect on the speakers' voice quality. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Carmen Helena Guerrero Nieto
Full Text Available This study analyzes the online, peer-peer dialogue between two groups of nonnative English-speaking teachers who are attending graduate programs in Colombia and the United States. Framed by the theoretical concepts of critical pedagogy and global professional identity, a qualitative analysis of the data shows that their expert vs. novice roles played a significant part in shaping their positions on the four themes that they discussed: the role of English language teaching in the global world, institutional constraints on teachers, whose culture to teach, and linguistic diversity in the classroom. This study highlights the responsibility of teacher education programs to cultivate healthy nonnative English speaker teachers’ professional identities given the global complexities that continue to unfold around these teachers.
Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang
The current study examined Vowel Inherent Spectral Change (VISC) of English vowels spoken by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers. Two metrics, spectral distance (amount of spectral shift) and spectral angle (direction of spectral shift) of formant movement from the onset to the offset, were measured for 12 English monophthongs produced in a /hvd/ context. While Chinese speakers showed significantly greater spectral distances of vowels than English and Korean speakers, there was no significant speakers' native language effect on spectral angles. Comparisons to their native vowels for Chinese and Korean speakers suggest that VISC might be affected by language-specific phonological structure.
A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes
Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This
Lor, Maichou; Xiong, Phia; Schweia, Rebecca J.; Bowers, Barbara; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.
Background Language barriers are a large and growing problem for patients in the U.S. and around the world. Interpreter services are a standard solution for addressing language barriers and most research has focused on utilization of interpreter services and their effect on health outcomes for patients who do not speak the same language as their healthcare providers including nurses. However, there is limited research on patients’ perceptions of these interpreter services. Objective To examine Hmong- and Spanish-speaking patients’ perceptions of interpreter service quality in the context of receiving cancer preventive services. Methods Twenty limited English proficient Hmong (n=10) and Spanish-speaking participants (N=10) ranging in age from 33 to 75 years were interviewed by two bilingual researchers in a Midwestern state. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English. Analysis was done using conventional content analysis. Results The two groups shared perceptions about the quality of interpreter services as variable along three dimensions. Specifically, both groups evaluated quality of interpreters based on the interpreters’ ability to provide: (a) literal interpretation, (b) cultural interpretation, and (c) emotional interpretation during the health care encounter. The groups differed, however, on how they described the consequences of poor interpretation quality. Hmong participants described how poor quality interpretation could lead to: (a) poor interpersonal relationships among patients, providers, and interpreters, (b) inability of patients to follow through with treatment plans, and (c) emotional distress for patients. Conclusions Our study highlights the fact that patients are discerning consumers of interpreter services; and could be effective partners in efforts to reform and enhance interpreter services. PMID:25865517
Lor, Maichou; Xiong, Phia; Schwei, Rebecca J; Bowers, Barbara J; Jacobs, Elizabeth A
Language barriers are a large and growing problem for patients in the US and around the world. Interpreter services are a standard solution for addressing language barriers and most research has focused on utilization of interpreter services and their effect on health outcomes for patients who do not speak the same language as their healthcare providers including nurses. However, there is limited research on patients' perceptions of these interpreter services. To examine Hmong- and Spanish-speaking patients' perceptions of interpreter service quality in the context of receiving cancer preventive services. Twenty limited English proficient Hmong (n=10) and Spanish-speaking participants (n=10) ranging in age from 33 to 75 years were interviewed by two bilingual researchers in a Midwestern state. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English. Analysis was done using conventional content analysis. The two groups shared perceptions about the quality of interpreter services as variable along three dimensions. Specifically, both groups evaluated quality of interpreters based on the interpreters' ability to provide: (a) literal interpretation, (b) cultural interpretation, and (c) emotional interpretation during the health care encounter. The groups differed, however, on how they described the consequences of poor interpretation quality. Hmong participants described how poor quality interpretation could lead to: (a) poor interpersonal relationships among patients, providers, and interpreters, (b) inability of patients to follow through with treatment plans, and (c) emotional distress for patients. Our study highlights the fact that patients are discerning consumers of interpreter services; and could be effective partners in efforts to reform and enhance interpreter services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Certificate of English Language Proficiency exam (KPG1). Its ultimate purpose was to explore the contribution of such features to perceived text difficulty while at the same time examining the relationship between strategy use and test-takers...
M.Ed. (Educational Linguistics) This study examined language barriers affecting a selected group of Grade Four learners from a disadvantaged community, to whom English, the medium of classroom instruction, was their second language. They were disadvantaged because their language proficiency had not been developed early enough to serve as a springboard for conceptualizations of academic aspects. They struggled to express themselves and grappled with simple linguistic concepts which they wer...
Schenker, Yael; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Nickleach, Dana; Karliner, Leah S
Professional interpreter use improves the quality of care for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP), but little is known about interpreter use in the hospital. Evaluate interpreter use for clinical encounters in the hospital. Cross-sectional. Hospitalized Spanish and Chinese-speaking LEP patients. Patient reported use of interpreters during hospitalization. Among 234 patients, 57% reported that any kind of interpreter was present with the physician at admission, 60% with physicians during hospitalization, and 37% with nurses since admission. The use of professional interpreters with physicians was infrequent overall (17% at admission and 14% since admission), but even less common for encounters with nurses (4%, p interpreter was more common with physicians (28% at admission, 23% since admission) than with nurses (18%, p = 0.008). Few patients reported that physicians spoke their language well (19% at admission, 12% since admission) and even fewer reported that nurses spoke their language well (6%, p = 0.0001). Patients were more likely to report that they either "got by" without an interpreter or were barely spoken to at all with nurses (38%) than with physicians at admission (14%) or since admission (15%, p Interpreter use varied by type of clinical contact, but was overall more common with physicians than with nurses. Professional interpreters were rarely used. With physicians, use of ad hoc interpreters such as family or friends was most common; with nurses, patients often reported, "getting by" without an interpreter or barely speaking at all.
Flores, Glenn; Torres, Sylvia; Holmes, Linda Janet; Salas-Lopez, Debbie; Youdelman, Mara K; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C
We surveyed New Jersey (NJ) hospitals to assess current language services and identify policy recommendations on meeting limited English proficiency (LEP) patients' needs. Survey with 37 questions regarding hospital/patient features, interpreter services, and resources/policies needed to provide quality interpreter services. Sixty-seven hospitals responded (55% response rate). Most NJ hospitals have no interpreter services department, 80% provide no staff training on working with interpreters, 31% lack multilingual signs, and 19% offer no written translation services. Only 3% of hospitals have full-time interpreters, a ratio of 1 interpreter:240,748 LEP NJ residents. Most hospitals stated third-party reimbursement for interpreters would be beneficial, by reducing costs, adding interpreters, meeting population growth, and improving communication. Most NJ hospitals have no full-time interpreters, interpreter services department, or staff training on working with interpreters, and deficiencies exist in hospital signage and translation services. Most NJ hospitals stated third-party reimbursement for interpreter services would be beneficial.
Riera, Antonio; Ocasio, Agueda; Tiyyagura, Gunjan; Thomas, Anita; Goncalves, Patricia; Krumeich, Lauren; Ragins, Kyle; Trevino, Sandra; Vaca, Federico E
To evaluate limited English proficiency (LEP) Latino caregiver asthma knowledge after exposure to an educational video designed for this target group. A cross-sectional, interventional study was performed. We aimed to evaluate the post-test impact on asthma knowledge from baseline after exposure to a patient-centered, evidence-based, and professionally produced Spanish asthma educational video. Participants included LEP Latino caregivers of children 2-12 years old with persistent asthma. Enrollment was performed during ED encounters or scheduled through a local community organization. Asthma knowledge was measured with a validated Spanish parental asthma knowledge questionnaire. Differences in mean scores were calculated with a paired t-test. Twenty caregivers were enrolled. Participants included mothers (100%) from Puerto Rico (75%), with a high-school diploma or higher (85%), with no written asthma action plan (65%), whose child's asthma diagnosis was present for at least 3 years (80%). Mean baseline asthma knowledge scores improved 8 points from 58.4 to 66.4 after watching the educational video (95% CI 5.3-10.7; t(19) = 6.21, p asthma knowledge for a Latino population facing communication barriers to quality asthma care. Dissemination of this educational resource to LEP caregivers has the potential to improve pediatric asthma care in the United States.
College students in the non-English-speaking world have to overcome formidable barriers in reading and writing when their medium of instruction is English. One particular problem faced by science majors is the writing of lab reports, a demanding task that might not be effectively supported by the standard guides and manuals available. This paper…
This article challenges the categorisation of English into national forms, arguing that this obscures differences in usage within a nation and ignores genres and registers that exist around the world. Further, I suggest that in addition to examining the spread of English around the world, scholars should study the ubiquity of various discourses…
Himmawan Adi Nugroho
Full Text Available Teacher training institutions hold an important role in preparing their students, the prospective or pre-service teachers, to become professional teachers based on their specific fields of study. This study examined the pre-service EFL teachers’ perception of self-efficacy and their English proficiency toward their preparedness for the teaching practicum program. The study used a survey research design using questionnaire as the instrument to get the pre-service EFL teachers’ perception of self-efficacy. The English proficiency data was from the TEP (test of English proficiency collected from the university’s language center where the pre-service EFL teachers took the test. Findings show that the pre-service EFL teachers have medium to high self-efficacy toward their teaching of EFL. They feel ready in spite of the fact they still have the feeling of anxiety. The courses related with the preparation to become a good and qualified EFL teachers and also for the teaching practicum program helped them to feel more confident.
Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei
This study examined whether students studying literature in complementary learning clusters would show more improvement in medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency compared to those in conventional learning clusters. Ninety-three students participated in the study (M age = 18.2 years, SD = 0.4; 36 men, 57 women). A quasi-experimental design was used over 16 weeks, with the control group (n = 47) working in conventional learning clusters and the experimental group (n = 46) working in complementary learning clusters. Complementary learning clusters were those in which individuals had complementary strengths enabling them to learn from and offer assistance to other cluster members, hypothetically facilitating the learning process. Measures included the Medical Humanities Literacy Scale, Critical Thinking Disposition Assessment, English proficiency tests, and Analytic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric. The results showed that complementary learning clusters have the potential to improve students' medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.
Chen, M C; Lin, Huey-Ju
Questionnaires were administered to 120 students. Cluster analysis was used to examine whether specific groups could be described by a writing self-efficacy scale, English writing anxiety scale, and a written General English Proficiency Test. Three clusters were observed. Demographic variables were compared for each cluster, including age, sex, program of study, years of English instruction, native language, and number of English speaking acquaintances. Efforts to reduce writing anxiety and promote writing self-efficacy could enhance writing scores of participants.
Chakraborty, Rahul; Shanmugam, Ramalingam
The study explored the influence of second language proficiency on the kinematic duration of single words. Participants produced real and novel words with variable stress targets (e.g., trochaic and iambic) embedded in first language (L1) and second language (L2) sentence frames. Participants were monolingual English speakers (n=10) and Bengali-English bilinguals with early exposure to English (n=10) and late exposure to English (n=10). Bengali was the L1 and English was the L2 for all 20 bilingual participants. Duration of lip movements for the target real and novel words was analysed. Results suggest that kinematic duration of single words was not influenced by speakers' L2 proficiency. However, L2 proficiency influenced foreign accent ratings for the real words, but not the novel words. Kinematic duration and perception of accent were not correlated, which might imply that accent reduction might not always be a direct consequence of shorter word duration.
Full Text Available This study examined the secondary students’ perceptions towards NESTs and NNESTs in an English course in Surabaya regarding the teachers’ teaching competence, cultural knowledge of English language teaching, teaching style, and classroom management. Most secondary students perceived both teacher groups were good at most categories. Using questionnaires distributed to 96 secondary school students of an English course who participated in this study, the researchers found that 38 students took part in doing a focus group interview. The interview was done to capture deeper perceptions that could be gained. The study reported that cultural knowledge of the English language teachers, especially the NESTs, exceeded that of the NNESTs. This research finding also proved that students perceived NESTs to be as good as NNESTs in such areas as teaching grammar, listening, reading, and writing. Furthermore, both NESTs and NNESTs were perceived to be not able to understand the students’ special needs since teachers at the the English course under study handled one level for about twelve meetings only.
Garcia, Maria E; Ochoa-Frongia, Lisa; Moise, Nathalie; Aguilera, Adrian; Fernandez, Alicia
Patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) have high rates of depression, yet face challenges accessing effective care in outpatient settings. We undertook a systematic review to investigate the effectiveness of the collaborative care model for depression for LEP patients in primary care. We queried online PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases (January 1, 2000, to June 10, 2017) for quantitative studies comparing collaborative care to usual care to treat depression in adults with LEP in primary care. We evaluated the impact of collaborative care on depressive symptoms or on depression treatment. Two reviewers independently extracted key data from the studies and assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane bias and quality assessment tool (RCTs) and the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (non-RCTs). Of 86 titles identified, 15 were included (representing 9 studies: 5 RCTs, 3 cohort studies, and 1 case-control study). Studies included 4859 participants; 2679 (55%) reported LEP. The majority spoke Spanish (93%). The wide variability in study design and outcome definitions precluded performing a meta-analysis. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 2 years. Three of four high-quality RCTs reported that 13-25% more patients had improved depressive symptoms when treated with culturally tailored collaborative care compared to usual care; the last had high treatment in the control arm and found equal improvement. Two non-RCT studies suggest that Spanish-speaking patients may benefit as much as, if not more than, English-speaking patients treated with collaborative care. The remaining studies reported increased receipt of preferred depression treatment (therapy vs. antidepressants) in the intervention groups. Eight of nine studies used bilingual providers to deliver the intervention. While limited by the number and variability of studies, the available research suggests that collaborative care for depression delivered by bilingual providers may be more
Full Text Available This qualitative phenomenological research study explores the practices of instructors teaching through the medium of English as a foreign language, in classroom management course. Data collection instruments are semi-structured interviews and the course syllabi. Phenomenological data analysis techniques (bracketing, determining themes were employed. Results indicate that instructors do not use a specific model for the classroom management course. The challenges faced with design of an English-medium instruction such as difficulty in finding cultural course materials, lack of confidence among local students, adaptation of international students and the solutions (dividing the course into two parts: theory and practice; sharing own experiences; using tentative course syllabus of instructors for these challenges were explored, and suggestions for the designers of English-medium courses were discussed
Instructional Design Implications for Non-native English Speaking Graduate Students: Perceptions on Intercultural Communicative Competences and Instructional Design Strategies for Socially Engaged Learning
A university is an academic place with students from a variety of cultures. Non-native English speaking (NNS) graduate students are a group representing diverse cultural backgrounds. However, these studentsâ challenges in linguistic and socio-cultural adjustment impact their effective learning and academic success. Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) is an important ability that they need to consider. It assesses attitude, skills, knowledge, adaptability, flexibility, and communica...
Full Text Available That the English language is the prevailing language in international scientific discourse is an undeniable fact for research professionals who are non-native speakers of English (NNSE. An exploratory, survey-based study of scientists in the experimental disciplines of neuroscience and medicine seeks to reveal, on the one hand, the habits of scientists who in their research practice come across neologisms in English and need to use them in oral and written scientific discourse in their own languages, and, on the other hand, their attitudes towards these neologisms and towards English as the language of international science. We found that all scientists write and publish their research articles (RAs in English and most submit them unrevised by native speakers of English. When first encountering a neologism in English, scientists tend to pay close attention to these new concepts, ideas or terms and very early in the reception process attempt to coin acceptable, natural-sounding Spanish equivalents for use in the laboratory and in their Spanish texts. In conjunction with the naturalized Spanish term, they often use the English neologism verbatim in a coexistent bilingual form, but they avoid using only the English term and very literal translations. These behaviors show an ambivalent attitude towards English (the language of both new knowledge reception and dissemination of their RAs and Spanish (used for local professional purposes and for popularization: while accepting to write in their acquired non-native language, they simultaneously recognize that their native language needs to preserve its specificity as a language of science.
Adkins, Patricia G.
A review of the difficulties Spanish-Americans and Mexican-Americans encounter in learning English, caused by a lack of knowledge of common idioms and figures of speech in current usage, leads to a discussion of two pilot studies in which the frequency of occurrence of idiomatic and figurative constructions in the reading materials presented to…
Over the past decade, English Language Teaching (ELT) scholars have shown an increased interest in exploring the intersections of racism and native speakerism, leading to more articles, special journal issues, and edited collections dealing with this topic. While this work has been valuable, it has largely been limited to considering one's…
Selvi, Ali Fuad
Parallel to the growing recognition of English as an international language, the fundamental premises of the TESOL discipline (e.g., the ownership of the language, native speakers as a goal and model of competence for learning and teaching, linguistic standards and language variety/ies to be taught, monolingual/monocultural approach to teaching)…
Bulamur, Ayse Naz
I examine how American students respond to foreign instructors, who teach English Composition and Research Writing. I discuss how minority teacher's cultural, lingual, and ethnic differences interfere with classroom dynamics in the United States. I rely on my experiences as a Turkish instructor of composition at the University of Wisconsin,…
This study examined why some high achievers on the course final exam were unsuccessful on the proficiency exam in English. We hypothesized that the learning motives and learning behaviors (learning strategy, learning time) had different effects on the outcomes of the exams. First, the relation between the variables was investigated using structural equation modeling. Second, the learning behaviors of students who got good marks on both exams were compared with students who did well only on the course final exam. The results were as follows. (a) Learning motives influenced test performance via learning behaviors. (b) Content-attached motives influenced all variables concerning learning behaviors. (c) Content-detached motives influenced all variables concerning learning behaviors that were related only to the course final exam. (d) The students who got good marks on both exams performed the learning behaviors that were useful on the proficiency exam more frequently than the students who did well only on the course final exam.
Pecoraro, Diane; Phommasouvanh, Bounlieng
The Limited English Proficient (LEP) Parent Involvement Project, a collaborative project between two state agencies, aims to help refugee and immigrant parents to be effective in their new American culture. Materials are provided that were developed for use in various adult education settings such as English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes,…
Parker, Caroline E.; Louie, Josephine; O'Dwyer, Laura
Using assessment results for 5th and 8th grade English language learner students in New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont, the report finds that the English language domains of reading and writing (as measured by a proficiency assessment) are significant predictors of performance on reading, writing, and mathematics assessments and that the…
Parker, Caroline E.; Louie, Josephine; O'Dwyer, Laura
Using assessment results for 5th and 8th grade English language learner students in New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont, the report finds that the English language domains of reading and writing (as measured by a proficiency assessment) are significant predictors of performance on reading, writing, and mathematics assessments and that the…
Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.
In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…
Cackley, Alicia Puente
According to Census data, more than 12 million adults in the United States report they do not speak English well or at all. Proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and understanding the English language appears to be linked to multiple dimensions of adult life in the United States, including financial literacy--the ability to make informed…
Baron, Patricia A.; Papageorgiou, Spiros
The purpose of this study was to collect recommendations for minimum score requirements (cut scores) on the "TOEFL Junior"® English language proficiency test in order to guide decisions on the placement of learners into English as a second language (ESL) support classes. The TOEFL Junior test, intended primarily for students ages 11 and…
Full Text Available The analysis of raters' comments on pragmatic assessment of L2 learners is among new and understudied concepts in second language studies. To shed light on this issue, the present investigation targeted important variables such as raters’ criteria and rating patterns by analyzing the interlanguage pragmatic assessment process of the Iranian non-native English speaking raters (NNESRs regarding the request speech act, while considering important factors such as raters’ gender and background teaching experiences. For this purpose, 62 raters’ rating scores and comments on Iranian EFL learners’ requests based on six situations of specified video prompts were analyzed. The results of the content analysis of raters’ comments revealed nine criteria, including pragmalinguistic and socio-pragmatic components of language, which have been noted by raters differently through six request situations. Among the considered criteria, politeness, conversers’ relationship, style and register, and explanation were of great importance to NNESRs. Furthermore, t-test and chi-square analysis of raters’ assigned rating scores and mentioned criteria across different situations verified the insignificance of factors such as raters’ gender and teaching experiences on the process of EFL learners’ pragmatic assessment. In addition, the results of the study suggest the necessity of teaching L2 pragmatics in language classes and in teacher training courses.
Arciuli, Joanne; Cupples, Linda
Onset gating was used to investigate the effects of stress typicality during the processing of disyllabic nouns and verbs by 34 native and 36 nonnative speakers of English. We utilized 50-msec increments and included two conditions. In the silenced condition, only word onsets were presented (the participants had no information about the duration or stress pattern of the entire word). In the filtered condition, word onsets were presented with a low-pass filtered version of the remainder of the word (this type of filtering provides duration and stress information in the absence of phonemic information). The results demonstrated significant effects of stress typicality in both groups of speakers. Typically stressed trochaic nouns and iambic verbs exhibited advantaged processing, as compared with atypically stressed iambic nouns and trochaic verbs. There was no significant effect of presentation condition (silenced or filtered). The results are discussed in light of recent research in which the effects of lexical stress during spoken word recognition have been investigated.
Tuba Gokmenoglu; Sevinç Gelmez-Burakgazi
This qualitative phenomenological research study explores the practices of instructors teaching through the medium of English as a foreign language, in classroom management course. Data collection instruments are semi-structured interviews and the course syllabi. Phenomenological data analysis techniques (bracketing, determining themes) were employed. Results indicate that instructors do not use a specific model for the classroom management course. The challenges faced with design of an Engli...
F. Filiz Yalçın Tılfarlıoğlu
Jackson, Carrie N.; van Hell, Janet G.
Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English wh-subject-extractions and wh-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject- versus object-extractions in English. However, less-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers exhibit greater processing costs on subject-extractions relative to object-extractions, similar to previously reported findings (e.g., Dussias and Piñar, forthcoming; Juffs 2005; Juffs and Harrington 1995). These findings are discussed in light of relevant research surrounding on-line processing among L2 speakers and their ability to adopt native-like processing patterns in the L2. PMID:22888175
Fien, Hank; Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Smith, Jean L. Mercier; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Beck, Carrie Thomas
This study examined the validity of Nonsense Word Fluency as an index of beginning reading proficiency for students in kindergarten through second grade. Validity evidence for Nonsense Word Fluency is addressed in the context of research-based instructional practices implemented on a large scale. Technical adequacy data are presented for all…
Tang, Amy S; Kruger, Jenna F; Quan, Judy; Fernandez, Alicia
Resident physicians' use of professional interpreters drives communication with hospitalized patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). We surveyed residents from three specialties across two hospitals affiliated with one academic medical institution about their communication with their last hospitalized LEP patient. Among 149 respondents (73% response rate), 71% reported using professional interpreters for fewer than 60% of hospital encounters. Most (91%) perceived their quality of communication with hospitalized LEP patients as worse than with English-speaking patients. Professional interpreter use varied substantially by resident and by hospital encounter, with more reporting use of ad hoc interpreters, their own language skills, or not talking to the patient due to time constraints during pre-rounds (39%), team rounds (49%), or check-ins (40%) than during procedural consents (9%) or family meetings (17%). The reported variation suggests targets for quality improvement efforts and the need for clear enforceable guidelines on resident communication with hospitalized LEP patients.
Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C
Approximately 3.5 million U.S. schoolchildren are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Disparities in children's health and health care are associated with both LEP and speaking a language other than English at home, but prior research has not examined which of these two measures of language barriers is most useful in examining health care disparities. Our objectives were to compare primary language spoken at home vs. parental LEP and their associations with health status, access to care, and use of health services in children. We surveyed parents at urban community sites in Boston, asking 74 questions on children's health status, access to health care, and use of health services. Some 98% of the 1,100 participating children and families were of non-white race/ethnicity, 72% of parents were LEP, and 13 different primary languages were spoken at home. "Dose-response" relationships were observed between parental English proficiency and several child and parental sociodemographic features, including children's insurance coverage, parental educational attainment, citizenship and employment, and family income. Similar "dose-response" relationships were noted between the primary language spoken at home and many but not all of the same sociodemographic features. In multivariate analyses, LEP parents were associated with triple the odds of a child having fair/poor health status, double the odds of the child spending at least one day in bed for illness in the past year, and significantly greater odds of children not being brought in for needed medical care for six of nine access barriers to care. None of these findings were observed in analyses of the primary language spoken at home. Individual parental LEP categories were associated with different risks of adverse health status and outcomes. Parental LEP is superior to the primary language spoken at home as a measure of the impact of language barriers on children's health and health care. Individual parental LEP
Uther, Maria; Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Iverson, Paul
The finding that hyperarticulation of vowel sounds occurs in certain speech registers (e.g., infant- and foreigner-directed speech) suggests that hyperarticulation may have a didactic function in facilitating acquisition of new phonetic categories in language learners. This event-related potential study tested whether hyperarticulation of vowels elicits larger phonetic change responses, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) and tested native and non-native speakers of English. Data from 11 native English-speaking and 10 native Greek-speaking participants showed that Greek speakers in general had smaller MMNs compared to English speakers, confirming previous studies demonstrating sensitivity of the MMN to language background. In terms of the effect of hyperarticulation, hyperarticulated stimuli elicited larger MMNs for both language groups, suggesting vowel space expansion does elicit larger pre-attentive phonetic change responses. Interestingly Greek native speakers showed some P3a activity that was not present in the English native speakers, raising the possibility that additional attentional switch mechanisms are activated in non-native speakers compared to native speakers. These results give general support for models of speech learning such as Kuhl's Native Language Magnet enhanced (NLM-e) theory. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cynthia M. Mojica
Full Text Available Despite the availability of effective early detection technologies, more than half (61% of colorectal cancers in the United States and 55% in California are identified at an advanced stage. Data on colorectal cancer patients (N=35,030 diagnosed from 2005 to 2007 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. Multivariate analyses found a relationship among neighborhood concentration of recent immigrants, neighborhood rates of limited English proficiency, and late-stage colorectal cancer diagnosis. Hispanics living in neighborhoods with a greater percentage of recent immigrants (compared to the lowest percentage had greater odds (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.22, 2.02 of late-stage diagnosis whereas Hispanics living in neighborhoods with the highest percentage of limited English proficiency (compared to the lowest percentage had lower odds (OR .71, 95% CI .51, .99 of late-stage diagnosis. These relationships were not observed for other ethnic groups. Results highlight the complex relationship among race/ethnicity, neighborhood characteristics, and colorectal cancer stage at diagnosis.
Vela, Monica; Fritz, Cassandra; Jacobs, Elizabeth A
Limited English proficient (LEP) patients are at risk of disparities in health and health care quality. These disparities can be mitigated by providing care in a language they understand. Undergraduate medical education provides an opportunity to stress that language barriers negatively impact the quality and safety of health care for LEP patients and to teach students how to overcome them. Because the preponderance of LEP patients in the USA is Spanish speaking, the majority of US medical schools have established medical Spanish coursework for interested students. However, 70 % of medical schools note significant obstacles to delivering this curriculum. The most commonly cited obstacles include a lack of time to deliver it, heterogeneous student skill levels, and insufficient faculty support. We also note that educators need to make sure not to propagate disparities and medical errors for LEP patients. We provide recommendations for establishing medical students' linguistic and cultural competence for the care Spanish-speaking limited English proficiency patients, with the caution that this instruction must be coupled with education as to when to call on an interpreter if participants are not fluent in Spanish at the end of the course.
Warfarin is a widely used oral anticoagulant. It is highly efficacious for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic disorders despite its narrow therapeutic window. Poor compliance with warfarin is common and a major contributor to poor anticoagulation control. A number of psychosocial issues (e.g. depressive symptoms, attitudinal and behavioral factors, cognitive function, lack of social support, limited English proficiency, health illiteracy) have been associated with warfarin non-compliance among patients in anticoagulation clinics. Patient-specific features, such as these, are important to identify in order to develop appropriate and practical interventions. Health literacy and limited English proficiency are the extension of issues related to culture, language, and ethnicity. A better understanding of patients' functioning level and health utilization factors may help to develop and target interventions for high risk patients and reduce complications from suboptimal therapy and poor warfarin management due to non-compliance. Four patient case scenarios will be used to illustrate these issues and identify potential interventions to optimize warfarin therapy.
Intelligibility has been widely regarded as an appropriate goal for second language pronunciation teaching. Yet there is no universally accepted definition of intelligibility, nor any field-wide consensus on the best way to measure it. Further, there is little empirical evidence to suggest which pronunciation features are crucial for…
In my master's thesis, I focus on the connection between social environment and learning a foreign language, namely English. I write about out-of-school exposure, which is an important part of informal learning of English as a foreign language. In the theoretical part I discuss to what extent English is present in every-day life in Slovenia, the Netherlands and globally. This part contains facts about important out-of-school effects that affect learning English: social environment, family ba...
Yoo, Hanwook; Manna, Venessa F.
This study assessed the factor structure of the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC®) Listening and Reading test, and its invariance across subgroups of test-takers. The subgroups were defined by (a) gender, (b) age, (c) employment status, (d) time spent studying English, and (e) having lived in a country where English is the…
Interpreting Mini-Mental State Examination Performance in Highly Proficient Bilingual Spanish-English and Asian Indian-English Speakers: Demographic Adjustments, Item Analyses, and Supplemental Measures.
Milman, Lisa H; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Corcoran, Chris D; Damele, Deanna M
Performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), among the most widely used global screens of adult cognitive status, is affected by demographic variables including age, education, and ethnicity. This study extends prior research by examining the specific effects of bilingualism on MMSE performance. Sixty independent community-dwelling monolingual and bilingual adults were recruited from eastern and western regions of the United States in this cross-sectional group study. Independent sample t tests were used to compare 2 bilingual groups (Spanish-English and Asian Indian-English) with matched monolingual speakers on the MMSE, demographically adjusted MMSE scores, MMSE item scores, and a nonverbal cognitive measure. Regression analyses were also performed to determine whether language proficiency predicted MMSE performance in both groups of bilingual speakers. Group differences were evident on the MMSE, on demographically adjusted MMSE scores, and on a small subset of individual MMSE items. Scores on a standardized screen of language proficiency predicted a significant proportion of the variance in the MMSE scores of both bilingual groups. Bilingual speakers demonstrated distinct performance profiles on the MMSE. Results suggest that supplementing the MMSE with a language screen, administering a nonverbal measure, and/or evaluating item-based patterns of performance may assist with test interpretation for this population.
Van Canh, Le; Renandya, Willy A.
How does teachers' target language proficiency correlate with their ability to use the target language effectively in order to provide optimal learning opportunities in the language classroom? Adopting a conversation analysis approach, this study examines the extent to which teachers' use of the target language in the classroom creates learning…
Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros
The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…
Calandruccio, Lauren; Bradlow, Ann R; Dhar, Sumitrajit
Masking release for an English sentence-recognition task in the presence of foreign-accented English speech compared with native-accented English speech was reported in Calandruccio et al (2010a). The masking release appeared to increase as the masker intelligibility decreased. However, it could not be ruled out that spectral differences between the speech maskers were influencing the significant differences observed. The purpose of the current experiment was to minimize spectral differences between speech maskers to determine how various amounts of linguistic information within competing speech Affiliationect masking release. A mixed-model design with within-subject (four two-talker speech maskers) and between-subject (listener group) factors was conducted. Speech maskers included native-accented English speech and high-intelligibility, moderate-intelligibility, and low-intelligibility Mandarin-accented English. Normalizing the long-term average speech spectra of the maskers to each other minimized spectral differences between the masker conditions. Three listener groups were tested, including monolingual English speakers with normal hearing, nonnative English speakers with normal hearing, and monolingual English speakers with hearing loss. The nonnative English speakers were from various native language backgrounds, not including Mandarin (or any other Chinese dialect). Listeners with hearing loss had symmetric mild sloping to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Listeners were asked to repeat back sentences that were presented in the presence of four different two-talker speech maskers. Responses were scored based on the key words within the sentences (100 key words per masker condition). A mixed-model regression analysis was used to analyze the difference in performance scores between the masker conditions and listener groups. Monolingual English speakers with normal hearing benefited when the competing speech signal was foreign accented compared with native
Jensen, Christian; Denver, Louise; Mees, Inger M.
proficiency and perceptions of general lecturing competence (defined here as knowledge of subject and teaching skills). Statistical analyses of 1,700 student responses to 31 non-native English-speaking lecturers at a major business school in Denmark revealed that the students’ perceptions of the lecturers....... This effect should be addressed when universities use student ratings to evaluate teaching in English-medium content courses.......This study examines the evaluative reactions of university students to their non-native lecturers’ English skills in English-medium instruction, i.e. when English is used as a lingua franca in an academic context. In particular, we examine the relationship between perceptions of English language...
M.A. (Applied Linguistics)) The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of two techniques of assessing writing proficiency. Both measuring techniques, Le. objective (multiple-choice question) and subjective (essay-type question) have their advantages as well as limitations and little agreement regarding their validity and reliability has been reached to date. Today great pressure is put on educational bodies to ensure that tests are fair to all those who attempt t...
Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak
A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…
This study has attempted to discover to what extent a sojourner's L2 proficiency, personality and some other qualities he/she has can predict success in intercultural adjustment. Adjustment of Japanese high school students studying in the U.S. was assessed through a questionnaire in which they were asked to self-rate the degree of satisfaction and how they perceived various aspects of their life in America. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with four dependent variables which focus ...
We report on an exploratory sample of a wider research project to assess second language phonological competence in young children of differing linguistic background learning English as a foreign language. Our investigation begins with some Japanese 4-year-olds who have studied English for one year. Early results suggest an unexpectedly high level of their perceptual proficiency with regard to non-native English contrasts, leading to a possible re-appraisal of the enduring impact of a native ...
Mounty, Judith L.; Pucci, Concetta T.; Harmon, Kristen C.
A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from…
Papageorgiou, Spiros; Morgan, Rick; Becker, Valerie
The purpose of this study was to enhance the meaning of the scores of an English-language test by developing performance levels and descriptors for reporting overall test performance. The levels and descriptors were intended to accompany the total scale scores of TOEFL Junior® Standard, an international test of English as a second/foreign…
Rodda, Michael; Eleweke, C. Jonah; Chapman, Jonathan
This article examines the deafness and hearing perspectives concerning people with deafness and English literacy. Because literacy is important for people with deafness, it is suggested that carefully developed bilingual-bicultural programs could facilitate the development of English literacy skills in individuals who are deaf. (Contains…
Blackwell, Jacqueline Rushin
The purpose of this research is to identify teaching strategies and practices that impact the vocabulary and language development for English Language Learners. Today, there are over 3.5 million non-English speaking students enrolled in public classrooms and the number has continued to climb over the past decade. Many ELL students live in poverty…
Wanchid, Raveewan; Charoensuk, Valaikorn
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the use of paper-based and weblog-based electronic portfolios on the writing achievement of limited English proficiency students, to survey the students' attitudes towards the use of the portfolio assessment, and to compare the viewpoints of the students in the control and experimental…
Chin, Aimee; Daysal, N. Meltem; Imberman, Scott A.
Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district offers bilingual education above this 20-student cutoff. Using…
Ribot, Krystal M.; Hoff, Erika
Relations between bilingual children's patterns of conversational code-switching (responding to one language with another), the balance of their dual language input, and their expressive and receptive proficiency in two languages were examined in 115 2½-year-old simultaneous Spanish-English bilinguals in the U.S. Children were more likely to…
Ortiz, Alba A.; And Others
This document is Part III of a research study examining special education service delivery for limited English proficient (LEP) Hispanic students who have been placed in programs for the learning-disabled, speech handicapped, and mentally retarded. The objectives of Part III of this study were: (1) identify the characteristics of Hispanic students…
Grover, Amy; Deakyne, Sara; Bajaj, Lalit; Roosevelt, Genie E
Appropriate interpretation is imperative for families with limited English proficiency (LEP). We compared throughput times for ED visits involving families with LEP based on type of interpretation provided: in-person interpretation, remote telephonic interpretation or bilingual providers. This study is a secondary analysis of a prospective study of caretaker satisfaction with different interpreter modalities. We queried the medical record for event time stamps, clinical factors and disposition. The in-person cohort (116 min) had a significantly shorter total throughput time than telephonic (141 min) and bilingual provider (153 min) cohorts (P interpretation when controlling for potential confounders such as admission rate (P = 0.006). In-person interpretation significantly decreased ED throughput times and may be an important consideration in the choice of interpreter modality.
The TOEFL test is an Internationally accepted standard of English that measures the academic English proficiency of a non-native speaker of English. This research is aimed at designing TOEFL training syllabuses and workbooks that meet the needs of non-English department students of UNIPDU Jombang with low level of English proficiency. In general, the contents of the syllabuses based on the studentsâ€™ needs analysis are as follows: 1. Listening comprehension: PART A:Â meaning questions, sugg...
Klaassen, R.G.; Bos, M.H.P.C.; Roubos, Tim; Veronesi, Daniela; Nickenig, Christoph
Delft University of Technology (DUT) screened her (non-native English) scientific staff on their level of language proficiency over the year academic 2006/2007. In this paper the large scale operation, involving planning, policy decisions, assessment means, advise and training are discussed. Results
Man, Jonathan P; Weinkauf, Justin G; Tsang, Monica; Sin, Don D
National factor(s) influencing publication output in the highest ranked medical journals are largely unknown. We sought to examine the relationship between national research funding and English proficiency on publication output. We identified all original research articles appearing in the five highest ranked general medical journals between 1997 and 2001. Using the country of the corresponding author as the source nation for each article, we determined a standardized publication rate across developed nations. We used multiple regression techniques to determine the influence of national expenditures on research and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), a surrogate for English proficiency, on publication output. There was a significant relationship of national spending on research and TOEFL scores to publication output of developed countries (p = 0.04; p < 0.01, respectively). These two variables explained approximately 71.5% of the variation in publication rate across developed nations around the world (R = 0.85; p < 0.01). Normalized for population size, English-speaking nations and certain northern European countries such as Denmark, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Sweden had the highest rate of publication in the five highest ranked general medical journals, while Asian countries had generally low rates of publication. Research spending and English proficiency were strongly associated with publication output in the highest ranked general medical journals. While these data cannot be considered definitive due to their observational nature, they do suggest that for English-language medical journals, research funding and English proficiency may be important determinants of publication.
Coleman, Jami-Sue; Angosta, Alona D
To explore the lived experiences of acute-care bedside nurses caring for patients and their families with limited English proficiency. Approximately 8.6% of the total US population is considered limited English proficient. In the hospital setting, registered nurses provide the most direct contact with patients and their families. Effective communication between patients and healthcare professionals is essential when providing quality health care. There are only few published studies about registered nurses' experiences caring for patients with language barriers, but studies among nurses' experiences on patients with limited English proficiency and their families in an acute-care setting have not been explored. A qualitative exploratory study was performed. The phenomenology research approach provides the most meaningful ways to describe and understand the entirety of the bedside nurses' experiences. A convenience, purposive sample of 40 registered nurses who work in bedside care in a 380-bed hospital in the western USA were interviewed. Each nurse had a minimum of three years of acute-care experience. The sample size was determined by data saturation. Four themes emerged from the data of this research including: Desire to Communicate; Desire to Connect; Desire to Provide Care; and Desire to Provide Cultural Respect and Understanding. Care of patients with limited English proficiency is a challenge to many nurses and other healthcare providers. This study reinforces the need to give acute-care nurses a voice to share their experiences and ideas for solutions to the challenges they face in the care they provide. Findings from this study have the potential to identify clinically relevant concerns, barriers to communication, resources for effective communication, and needs or concerns of the bedside nurses when providing care. A look at the process and organisational system may suggest opportunities for improvement in support of the nurses' expressed desires to provide
Genoff, Margaux C; Zaballa, Alexandra; Gany, Francesca; Gonzalez, Javier; Ramirez, Julia; Jewell, Sarah T; Diamond, Lisa C
To systematically review the literature on the impact of patient navigators on cancer screening for limited English proficient (LEP) patients. Electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO via OVID, Web of Science, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Scopus) through 8 May 2015. Articles in this review had: (1) a study population of LEP patients eligible for breast, cervical or colorectal cancer screenings, (2) a patient navigator intervention to provide services prior to or during cancer screening, (3) a comparison of the patient navigator intervention to either a control group or another intervention, and (4) language-specific outcomes related to the patient navigator intervention. We assessed the quality of the articles using the Downs and Black Scale. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria and evaluated the screening rates for breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer in 15 language populations. Fourteen studies resulted in improved screening rates for LEP patients between 7 and 60%. There was great variability in the patient navigation interventions evaluated. Training received by navigators was not reported in nine of the studies and no studies assessed the language skills of the patient navigators in English or the target language. This study is limited by the variability in study designs and limited reporting on patient navigator interventions, which reduces the ability to draw conclusions on the full effect of patient navigators. Overall, we found evidence that navigators improved screening rates for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening for LEP patients. Future studies should systematically collect data on the training curricula for navigators and assess their English and non-English language skills in order to identify ways to reduce disparities for LEP patients.
Pérez-Sabater, Carmen; Montero-Fleta, Begoña
Following one of the new challenges suggested by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, a treatment was developed to enhance pragmatic competence, since this competence is not easy to acquire by non-native speakers. Within this context, we focused on pragmatic awareness in the workplace, an area of expertise in growing demand…
Full Text Available By administering Simon, Simon switching, and operation-span working memory tasks to Cantonese-English bilingual children who varied in their first-language (L1, Cantonese and second-language (L2, English proficiencies, as quantified by standardized vocabulary test performance, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiency on attentional control performance. Apart from mean performance, we conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants’ reaction time distributions in the Simon task. Bilinguals’ L2 proficiency was associated with higher scores in the operation span task, and a shift of reaction time distributions in incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials (Simon effect in µ, and the tail size of reaction time distributions (τ regardless of trial types. Bilinguals’ L1 proficiency, which was strongly associated with participants’ age, showed similar results, except that it was not associated with the Simon effect in µ. In contrast, neither bilinguals’ L1 nor L2 proficiency modulated the global switch cost or local switch cost in the Simon switching task. After taking into account potential cognitive maturation by partialling out the participants’ age, only (a scores in the working memory task and (b RT in incongruent trials and (c Simon effect in µ in the Simon task could still be predicted by bilinguals’ L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings suggest that bilingual children’s L2 proficiency was associated with their conflict resolution and working memory capacity, but not goal maintenance or task-set switching, when they performed the cognitive tasks that demanded attentional control. This was not entirely consistent with the findings of college-age bilinguals reported in previous studies.
Lee, Jonathan S; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Gregorich, Steven E; Crawford, Michael H; Green, Adrienne; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Karliner, Leah S
Language barriers disrupt communication and impede informed consent for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) undergoing healthcare procedures. Effective interventions for this disparity remain unclear. Assess the impact of a bedside interpreter phone system intervention on informed consent for patients with LEP and compare outcomes to those of English speakers. Prospective, pre-post intervention implementation study using propensity analysis. Hospitalized patients undergoing invasive procedures on the cardiovascular, general surgery or orthopedic surgery floors. Installation of dual-handset interpreter phones at every bedside enabling 24-h immediate access to professional interpreters. Primary predictor: pre- vs. post-implementation group; secondary predictor: post-implementation patients with LEP vs. English speakers. Primary outcomes: three central informed consent elements, patient-reported understanding of the (1) reasons for and (2) risks of the procedure and (3) having had all questions answered. We considered consent adequately informed when all three elements were met. We enrolled 152 Chinese- and Spanish-speaking patients with LEP (84 pre- and 68 post-implementation) and 86 English speakers. Post-implementation (vs. pre-implementation) patients with LEP were more likely to meet criteria for adequately informed consent (54% vs. 29%, p = 0.001) and, after propensity score adjustment, had significantly higher odds of adequately informed consent (AOR 2.56; 95% CI, 1.15-5.72) as well as of each consent element individually. However, compared to post-implementation English speakers, post-implementation patients with LEP had significantly lower adjusted odds of adequately informed consent (AOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.16-0.91). A bedside interpreter phone system intervention to increase rapid access to professional interpreters was associated with improvements in patient-reported informed consent and should be considered by hospitals seeking to improve
Kenison, Tiffany C; Madu, Andrea; Krupat, Edward; Ticona, Luis; Vargas, Iris M; Green, Alexander R
Patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) experience lower-quality health care and are at higher risk of experiencing adverse events than fluent English speakers. Despite some formal training for health professions students on caring for patients with LEP, the hidden curriculum may have a greater influence on learning. The authors designed this study to characterize the hidden curriculum that medical and nursing students experience regarding the care of patients with LEP. In 2014, the authors invited students from one medical school and one nursing school, who had completed an interprofessional pilot curriculum on caring for patients with LEP 6 to 10 months earlier, to participate in semistructured interviews about their clinical training experiences with LEP patients. The authors independently coded the interview transcripts, compared them for agreement, and performed content analysis to identify major themes. Thirteen students (7 medical and 6 nursing students) participated. Four major themes emerged: role modeling, systems factors, learning environment, and organizational culture. All 13 students described negative role modeling experiences, and most described role modeling that the authors coded as "indifferent." Students felt that the current system and learning environment did not support or emphasize high-quality care for patients with LEP. The hidden curriculum that health professional students experience regarding the care of patients with LEP is influenced by systems limitations and a learning environment and organizational culture that value efficiency over effective communication. Role modeling seems strongly linked to these factors as supervisors struggle with these same challenges.
Kamara, Daniella; Weil, Jon; Youngblom, Janey; Guerra, Claudia; Joseph, Galen
In cancer genetic counseling (CGC), communication across language and culture challenges the model of practice based on shared decision-making. To date, little research has examined the decision-making process of low-income, limited English proficiency (LEP) patients in CGC. This study identified communication patterns in CGC sessions with this population and assessed how these patterns facilitate or inhibit the decision-making process during the sessions. We analyzed 24 audio recordings of CGC sessions conducted in Spanish via telephone interpreters at two public hospitals. Patients were referred for risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer; all were offered genetic testing. Audio files were coded by two bilingual English-Spanish researchers and analyzed using conventional content analysis through an iterative process. The 24 sessions included 13 patients, 6 counselors, and 18 interpreters. Qualitative data analyses identified three key domains - Challenges Posed by Hypothetical Explanations, Misinterpretation by the Medical Interpreter, and Communication Facilitators - that reflect communication patterns and their impact on the counselor's ability to facilitate shared decision-making. Overall, we found an absence of patient participation in the decision-making process. Our data suggest that when counseling LEP Latina patients via medical interpreter, prioritizing information with direct utility for the patient and organizing information into short- and long-term goals may reduce information overload and improve comprehension for patient and interpreter. Further research is needed to test the proposed counseling strategies with this population and to assess how applicable our findings are to other populations.
Mounty, Judith L; Pucci, Concetta T; Harmon, Kristen C
A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from learning to read to reading to learn. Analysis of 12 interactive, semi-structured interviews identified informal and formal teaching and learning practices in ASL/English bilingual homes and classrooms. These practices value, reinforce, and support the bidirectional acquisition of both languages and provide a strong foundation for literacy. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Charpy, Jean-Pierre; Carnet, Didier
In the global world of international communication, employers or institutions that wish to determine the language skills of non-native speakers of English usually turn to generalist proficiency tests such as the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) or the slightly more business-oriented TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication). These tests enable test takers to certify that they have reached a certain level in skills needed in everyday life and, sometimes, workplace si...
Cunha, Alexandre; dos Santos, Bernardo; Dias, Álvaro Machado; Carmagnani, Anna Maria; Lafer, Beny; Busatto, Geraldo F
This study evaluates the success of graduate students in psychiatry in an emerging country, in terms of the quantity and quality of their publication productivity (given by the number of papers and impact factors of the journals in which they publish). We investigated to what extent student proficiency in English and the scientific capabilities of academic advisors predict that success. Our sample comprised 43 master's and doctoral students in psychiatry (n = 28 and n = 15, respectively) at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. We collected information about their knowledge of English and the ways in which they wrote their articles to be submitted to periodicals published in English. Multiple regression analyses were carried out in order to investigate the influence English proficiency, h-index of supervisors and use of language editing assistance had on the number and impact of student publications. Although 60% of students scored ≥80 (out of 100) on English tests given at admission to the graduate program, 93.09% of the sample used some form of external editing assistance to produce their papers in English. The variables "number of publications" and "impact factor of journals" were significantly related to each other (r = 0.550, p periodicals where students published their articles as first authors correlated significantly not only with student proficiency in English at admission (p = 0.035), but also with the degree of language editing assistance (p = 0.050) and the h-index of the academic advisor (p = 0.050). Albeit relevant, knowledge of English was not the key factor for the publication success of the graduate students evaluated. Other variables (h-index of the advisor and third-party language editing assistance) appear to be also important predictors of success in publication.
Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik
This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…
Sylven, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia
Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people's everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as…
Rafieyan, Vahid; Rafieyan, Ali; Rafieyan, Navid; Rafieyan, Saeid; Rafieyan, Parvaneh; Rafieyan, Mohamad
The very information structure of written communication depends not just on the writer's meaning and purpose but rather on the extent to which writer and reader share knowledge of pragmatic features of the language. To assess the actual effect of developing target language pragmatic competence through telecollaboration on improving English as…
Roshid, Mohammod Moninoor; Chowdhury, Raqib
Recent literature has suggested that the relationship between globalisation and the English language implicates employability in the job market. Although the effects are uneven in different occupational groups and in different countries, such relationship is growing in significance to policy makers. This paper has explored the hitherto unstudied…
Bumgarner, Erin; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Accumulating evidence suggests that children's approaches to learning (ATL) at kindergarten entry predict their academic achievement years later. However, the gains associated with ATL may be diminished for Hispanic immigrant children, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). We tested whether ATL predicted math scores in a sample of…
Parker, Melissa M; Fernández, Alicia; Moffet, Howard H; Grant, Richard W; Torreblanca, Antonia; Karter, Andrew J
Providing culturally competent care to the growing number of limited-English proficiency (LEP) Latinos with diabetes in the United States is challenging. To evaluate changes in risk factor control among LEP Latinos with diabetes who switched from language-discordant (English-only) primary care physicians (PCPs) to language-concordant (Spanish-speaking) PCPs or vice versa. This pre-post, difference-in-differences study selected 1605 adult patients with diabetes who self-identified as Latino, whose preferred language was Spanish, and who switched PCPs between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013. Study participants were members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care system (an integrated health care delivery system with access to bilingual PCPs and/or professional interpreter services). Spanish-speaking and English-only PCPs were identified by self-report or utilization data. Change in patient-PCP language concordance after switching PCPs. Glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 9%), low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) control (LDL language-discordant PCPs to concordant PCPs relative to those who switched from one discordant PCP to another discordant PCP. After adjustment and accounting for secular trends, the prevalence of glycemic control increased by 10% (95% CI, 2% to 17%; P = .01), poor glycemic control decreased by 4% (95% CI, -10% to 2%; P = .16) and LDL control increased by 9% (95% CI, 1% to 17%; P = .03). No significant changes were observed in SBP control. Prevalence of LDL control increased 15% (95% CI, 7% to 24%; P language-discordant to concordant PCPs. Facilitating language-concordant care may be a strategy for diabetes management among LEP Latinos.
Chang, Hsiao-Yun Annie; Chan, Luke; Siren, Betty
This is a report of a study which evaluated simulation-based learning as a teaching strategy for improving participants' ENP reading proficiency in the senior college program of students whose first language is Chinese, not English. Simulation-based learning is known to be one of most effective teaching strategies in the healthcare professional curricula, which brings a clinical setting into the classroom. However, developing English reading skills for English written nursing journals through simulation-based learning in the nursing curricula, is largely unknown. We used a quasi-experimental approach with nonequivalent control group design to collect the causal connections between intervention and outcomes. 101 students were enrolled in this study (response rate 92.6%) of these 48 students volunteered for the intervention group, and 53 students for the control group. The findings indicated that the intervention group had significantly higher mean scores in ENP reading proficiency with unknown words in the article (p=.004), vocabulary (pstudents showed more improvement in their English reading, both from quantitative and qualitative findings. Simulation-based learning may have some advantages in improving the English reading ability on English written nursing journals among nursing students. However, the benefits to the students of this study is still to be determined, and further exploration is needed with well designed research and a universal method of outcome measurement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chun, Sun Young
Although the number of native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) contexts has increased in recent years with the emergence of English as an international language, only a few studies on NESTs and non-NESTs have extensively and directly examined students' beliefs about these two groups of teachers. To fill this…
Frantz, Roger S.; Bailey, Alison L.; Starr, Laura; Perea, Luis
The current focus across the U.S. on student college and career readiness standards makes clear that both instruction and assessment of academic English will continue to be important for school-age English learner (EL) students. This article presents an overview and summary of key literature on academic language (usually academic English);…
Malt, Barbara C; Eiter, Brianna
Native speakers of English use idioms such as put your foot down and spill the beans to label events that are not described literally by the words that compose the idioms. For many such expressions, the idiomatic meanings are transparent; that is, the connection between the literal expression and its figurative meaning makes sense to native speakers. We tested Keysar and Bly's (1995) hypothesis that this sense of transparency for the meaning of everyday idioms does not necessarily obtain because the idiomatic meanings are derived from motivating literal meanings or conceptual metaphors, but rather (at least in part) because language users construct explanations after the fact for whatever meaning is conventionally assigned to the expression. Non-native speakers of English were exposed to common English idioms and taught either the conventional idiomatic meaning or an alternative meaning. In agreement with Keysar and Bly's suggestion, their subsequent sense of transparency was greater for the meaning that the speakers had learned and used, regardless of which one it was.
Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there were significant differences in audibility of American English vowels in noise produced by non-native and native speakers. Detection thresholds for 12 English vowels with equalized durations of 170 ms produced by 10 English-, Chinese- and Korean-native speakers were measured for young normal-hearing English-native listeners in the presence of speech-shaped noise presented at 70 dB SPL. Similar patterns of vowel detection thresholds as a function of the vowel category were found for native and non-native speakers, with the highest thresholds for /u/ and /ʊ/ and lowest thresholds for /i/ and /e/. In addition, vowel detection thresholds for non-native speakers were significantly lower and showed greater speaker variability than those for native speakers. Thresholds for vowel detection predicted from an excitation-pattern model corresponded well to behavioral thresholds, implying that vowel detection was primarily determined by the vowel spectrum regardless of speaker language background. Both behavioral and predicted thresholds showed that vowel audibility was similar or even better for non-native speakers than for native speakers, indicating that vowel audibility did not account for non-native speakers' lower-than-native intelligibility in noise. Effects of non-native speakers' English proficiency level on vowel audibility are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Morhardt, Darby; Pereyra, Marta; Iris, Madelyn
Limited data exist on how members of different cultures understand dementia. The Northwestern Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer's Disease Center in collaboration with Coalition of Limited English Speaking Elderly and Alzheimer's Association-Greater Illinois Chapter collaborated to raise awareness in 5 limited English proficiency (LEP) communities (Assyrian, Arabic, Bosnian, Hindi, and Urdu) during 2005 to 2008 through a grant from the Administration on Aging Alzheimer's Disease Demonstration Grants to States. After the second year of the program, 267 individuals with cognitive impairment were identified with cognitive impairment and enrolled; however, only 13% of those sought a medical evaluation to obtain a diagnosis or further help for their memory problems. This project sought to: (1) understand how these LEP community groups conceptualize dementia and (2) understand reasons LEP communities sought or did not seek a diagnosis. Using a community-based participatory research approach, ethnic community leaders conducted 48 interviews in a convenience sample of persons enrolled in the previous Administration on Aging demonstration grant. These interviews were conducted with family members of identified persons with dementia in their native language. Interview notes were translated and subjected to thematic analysis. The majority view memory loss as explainable and normative--due to aging, reaction to medication or trauma experienced by war, family problems, or the immigration experience. This conceptualization and the perception that a doctor cannot help influenced whether they sought an evaluation. Those who saw a doctor were looking for medical treatment and help with difficult behaviors. Experience in the doctor's office was variable. Discussion of analysis with ethnic communities revealed the significance of stigma in the data gathering. Continued community-based participatory research approaches with LEP communities could further highlight needs for culturally
Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Sorkin, Dara H; Phillips, Russell S; Greenfield, Sheldon; Massagli, Michael P; Clarridge, Brian; Kaplan, Sherrie H
Provider-patient language discordance is related to worse quality care for limited English proficient (LEP) patients who speak Spanish. However, little is known about language barriers among LEP Asian-American patients. We examined the effects of language discordance on the degree of health education and the quality of interpersonal care that patients received, and examined its effect on patient satisfaction. We also evaluated how the presence/absence of a clinic interpreter affected these outcomes. Cross-sectional survey, response rate 74%. A total of 2,746 Chinese and Vietnamese patients receiving care at 11 health centers in 8 cities. Provider-patient language concordance, health education received, quality of interpersonal care, patient ratings of providers, and the presence/absence of a clinic interpreter. Regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding. Patients with language-discordant providers reported receiving less health education (beta = 0.17, p interpreter. Patients with language-discordant providers also reported worse interpersonal care (beta = 0.28, p interpreter did not mitigate these effects and in fact exacerbated disparities in patients' perceptions of their providers. Language barriers are associated with less health education, worse interpersonal care, and lower patient satisfaction. Having access to a clinic interpreter can facilitate the transmission of health education. However, in terms of patients' ratings of their providers and the quality of interpersonal care, having an interpreter present does not serve as a substitute for language concordance between patient and provider.
Simon, Lisa; Hum, Lauren; Nalliah, Romesh
Legal protections in the United States mandate that individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP) have equal access to health care. However, LEP populations are at higher risk of poor health. Dental school clinics offer lower cost care by supervised dental students and often provide care for LEP patients. The aims of this study were to survey dental students about their clinical experience with LEP patients, the interpreter resources available at their dental school clinics, and the extent of instruction on these topics. Academic deans at 19 dental schools (30.6% of 62 invited schools) distributed the survey to their students, and the survey was completed by 325 students (4.2% of students at the 19 participating schools). Among the responding students, 44% reported their dental school clinic lacked formal interpreter services, and most of the respondents reported receiving minimal instruction on caring for LEP patients. Only 54% of the responding students reported feeling adequately prepared to manage LEP patients following graduation. These results suggest there is limited access to interpreter services for students while in dental school. A large proportion of these dental students thus reported feeling unprepared to treat LEP patients after graduation.
Cao, Fan; Tao, Ran; Liu, Li; Perfetti, Charles A.; Booth, James R.
The assimilation hypothesis argues that second language learning recruits the brain network for processing the native language, whereas the accommodation hypothesis argues that learning a second language recruits brain structures not involved in native language processing. This study tested these hypotheses by examining brain activation of a group of native Chinese speakers, who were late bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English, when they performed a rhyming judgment to visually presented English word pairs (CE group) during fMRI. Assimilation was examined by comparing the CE group to native Chinese speakers performing the rhyming task in Chinese (CC group), and accommodation was examined by comparing the CE group to native English speakers performing the rhyming task in English (EE group). The CE group was very similar in activation to the CC group, supporting the assimilation hypothesis. Additional support for the assimilation hypothesis was the finding that higher proficiency in the CE group was related to increased activation in the Chinese network (as defined by the CC > EE), including the left middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the right precuneus, and decreased activation in the English network (as defined by the EE > CC), including the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior temporal gyrus. Although most of the results support assimilation, there was some evidence for accommodation as the CE group showed less activation in the Chinese network including the right middle occipital gyrus, which has been argued to be involved in holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. PMID:23654223
Cao, Fan; Tao, Ran; Liu, Li; Perfetti, Charles A; Booth, James R
The assimilation hypothesis argues that second language learning recruits the brain network for processing the native language, whereas the accommodation hypothesis argues that learning a second language recruits brain structures not involved in native language processing. This study tested these hypotheses by examining brain activation of a group of native Chinese speakers, who were late bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English, when they performed a rhyming judgment to visually presented English word pairs (CE group) during fMRI. Assimilation was examined by comparing the CE group to native Chinese speakers performing the rhyming task in Chinese (CC group), and accommodation was examined by comparing the CE group to native English speakers performing the rhyming task in English (EE group). The CE group was very similar in activation to the CC group, supporting the assimilation hypothesis. Additional support for the assimilation hypothesis was the finding that higher proficiency in the CE group was related to increased activation in the Chinese network (as defined by the CC > EE), including the left middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the right precuneus, and decreased activation in the English network (as defined by the EE > CC), including the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior temporal gyrus. Although most of the results support assimilation, there was some evidence for accommodation as the CE group showed less activation in the Chinese network including the right middle occipital gyrus, which has been argued to be involved in holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters.
Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2011. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2011. Includes bibliographical references leaves 111-114. Many factors are known to influence the pronunciation of English by speakers of other languages, including: the speaker’s L1, age of beginning English, length of study, gender, motivation, aptitude, and personality. Other socio-cultural factors, such as ethnic group affiliation and des...
Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun
This study examined intelligibility of twelve American English vowels produced by English, Chinese, and Korean native speakers in quiet and speech-shaped noise in which vowels were presented at six sensation levels from 0 dB to 10 dB. The slopes of vowel intelligibility functions and the processing time for listeners to identify vowels were…
Singh, Manesha Kaur Rajendra; Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar; Eng, Lin Siew
Speaking is an important skill that needs to be mastered as it is the best way to communicate with other people in order to deliver opinions and express ideas, but the fact is that secondary school students' ability in speaking English is low in Malaysia. It is caused by several factors such as lack of vocabulary, poor pronunciation, weak grammar…
Haas, Eric; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min
When is the right moment to transition an English learner student from part-time participation in English language development classes into full-time participation in mainstream English-only classes? English learner students should be moved into full-time mainstream English-only classes when they are sufficiently fluent in English to be able to…
Lee, Jonathan S; Nápoles, Anna; Mutha, Sunita; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Gregorich, Steven E; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Karliner, Leah S
Assess effects of a bedside interpreter-phone intervention on hospital discharge preparedness among patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). Mixed-methods study compared patient-reported discharge preparedness and knowledge of medications and follow-up appointments among 189 Chinese- and Spanish-speakers before (n=94) and after (n=95) bedside interpreter-phone implementation, and examined nurse and resident-physician interpreter-phone utilization through focus groups. Pre-post discharge preparedness (Care Transitions Measure mean 77.2 vs. 78.5; p=0.62) and patient-reported knowledge of follow-up appointments, discharge medication administration and side effects did not differ significantly. Pre-post knowledge of medication purpose increased in bivariate (88% vs. 97%, p=0.02) and propensity score adjusted analyses [aOR (adjusted odds ratio), 4.49; 95% CI, 1.09-18.4]. Nurses and physicians reported using interpreter-phones infrequently for discharge communication, preferring in-person interpreters for complex discharges and direct communication with family for routine discharges. Post-implementation patients reported continued use of ad-hoc family interpreters (43%) or no interpretation at all (22%). Implementation of a bedside interpreter-phone systems intervention did not consistently improve patient-reported measures of discharge preparedness, possibly due to limited uptake during discharges. Hospital systems must better understand clinician preferences for discharge communication to successfully increase professional interpretation and shift culture away from using family members as interpreters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Landau, Ruth E; Beck, Alan; Glickman, Larry T; Litster, Annette; Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Moore, George E
To investigate the preparedness of small animal veterinary personnel to communicate with Spanish-speaking pet owners with limited English-language proficiency (LEP). Cross-sectional telephone survey. Data from 383 small animal veterinary practices. Telephone surveys were conducted with veterinarians and office or practice managers from a random sample of US small animal veterinary practices in 10 states to estimate the number of Spanish-speaking pet owners with LEP visiting these practices, proportion of practices that used services to facilitate communication with Spanish-speaking clients with LEP, and degree of veterinarian satisfaction with their communication with those clients. Responses were obtained from 383 of 1,245 (31%) eligible practices, of which 340 (89%) had Spanish-speaking clients with LEP and 200 (52%) had such clients on a weekly basis. Eight percent of practices had veterinary personnel who were conversant or fluent in spoken Spanish. Veterinarians who depended on clients' friends or family to translate were significantly less satisfied with client communication than were those who could converse in Spanish with clients directly. Availability of Spanish-speaking staff and offering of Spanish-language resources were associated with an increase in the number of Spanish-speaking clients with LEP seen on a weekly basis. Industry- and practice-generated Spanish-language materials were offered at 32% (124/383) and 21% (81/383) of practices, respectively; 329 (86%) practices had no Spanish-language marketing. Opportunities were identified for improving communication with pet owners with LEP in the veterinary clinical setting, which could ultimately positively impact patient well-being and client compliance.
Ika Apriani Fata
Full Text Available This study aims at exploring the production of stress by non native English teachers in Aceh. It also inquires into how these teachers of English overcame their shortcomings in oral English language teaching. 45 non native English teachers from Aceh were recorded. They came from four regions in the province of Aceh, namely Aceh Timur, Langsa, Aceh Utara and Aceh Besar. The participants have taught English from five to 15 years. The approach used in this paper is qualitative by focusing on the method of lexical stress analysis suggested by Crystal (1969, Halliday (1970 and McCawley (1986. The study reveals that variations of lexical stresses were produced by the teachers with 13-15 years of teaching experience. Those from Langsa and Aceh Timur produced the most varied stresses. Therefore, it is suggested for future research to conduct a more in-depth study on this topic with a wider sample of participants and more target words. It is also proposed that possible socio-phonological language inferences in the production of English stress by EFL teachers should be explored.
Yoo's (2014) article raises a number of questions concerning local teachers' status and the ownership of English in the Expanding Circle. In this article, I address five issues that I see as most important relating to the ownership of English and empowering local teachers in the Expanding Circle. I provide up-to-date evidence of World…
The impact of globalisation in the last 20 years has led to an overwhelming increase in the use of English as the medium through which many business people get their work done. As a result, the linguistic landscape within which we now operate as researchers and teachers has changed both rapidly and beyond all recognition. In the discussion below,…
Full Text Available The Mismatch Negativity (MMN response has often been used to measure memory traces for phonological representations and to show effects of long-term native language (L1 experience on neural organization. We know little about whether phonological representations of non-native (L2 phonemes are modulated by experience with distinct non-native accents. We used MMN to examine effects of experience with L2-accented speech on auditory brain responses. Specifically, we tested whether it is long-term experience with language-specific L2 pronunciations or instead acoustic similarity between L2 speech sounds that modulates non-native phoneme perception. We registered MMN responses of Dutch and German proficient L2 speakers of English to the English interdental fricative /θ/ and compared it to its non-native pronunciations /s/ (typical pronunciation of /θ/ for German speakers and /t/ (typical pronunciation of /θ/ for Dutch speakers. Dutch and German listeners heard the English pseudoword thond and its pronunciation deviants sond and tond. We computed the identity Mismatch Negativity (iMMN by analyzing the difference in ERPs when the deviants were the frequent versus the infrequent stimulus for the respective group of L2 listeners. For both groups, tond and sond elicited mismatch effects of comparable size. Overall, the results suggest that experience with deviant pronunciations of L2 speech sounds in foreign-accented speech does not alter auditory memory traces. Instead, non-native phoneme perception seems to be modulated by acoustic similarity between speech sounds rather than by experience with typical L2 pronunciation patterns.
Rallo Fabra, Lucrecia
This paper investigates the production of English unstressed vowels by two groups of early (ESp) and late Spanish (LSp) bilinguals and a control group of native English (NE) monolinguals. Three acoustic measurements were obtained: duration and intensity ratios of unstressed to stressed vowels, normalized vowel formants and euclidean distances. Both groups of bilinguals showed significantly fewer differences in duration between stressed and unstressed vowels than the NE monolinguals. Intensity differences depended on whether the stress pattern of the target English words matched the stress pattern of their Spanish cognates. As for vowel quality, the early bilinguals reduced the unstressed vowels, which clustered around the midcenter area of the vowel space, in the same fashion as the NE monolinguals, suggesting that vowel reduction might be operating at the phonological level. However, the late bilinguals showed a context-dependent, phonetic-level pattern with vowels that were more peripheral in the vowel space. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Prior, Anat; MacWhinney, Brian; Kroll, Judith F.
We present a set of translation norms for 670 English and 760 Spanish nouns, verbs and class ambiguous items that varied in their lexical properties in both languages, collected from 80 bilingual participants. Half of the words in each language received more than a single translation across participants. Cue word frequency and imageability were both negatively correlated with number of translations. Word class predicted number of translations: Nouns had fewer translations than did verbs, which had fewer translations than class-ambiguous items. The translation probability of specific responses was positively correlated with target word frequency and imageability, and with its form overlap with the cue word. Translation choice was modulated by L2 proficiency: Less proficient bilinguals tended to produce lower probability translations than more proficient bilinguals, but only in forward translation, from L1 to L2. These findings highlight the importance of translation ambiguity as a factor influencing bilingual representation and performance. The norms can also provide an important resource to assist researchers in the selection of experimental materials for studies of bilingual and monolingual language performance. These norms may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:18183923
speak in Spanish to Aero México pilots and English to pilots flying for British Airways or Qantas Airways. We explored how the controllers...vocabulary, cadence, and phonetic segments (Fromkin, 1971); third, you develop a set of motor commands in your brain that are sent to the respiratory
Azize, Pary M; Cattani, Allegra; Endacott, Ruth
To identify the factors that influence decisions made by health professionals when assessing the pain of native English speaking and children whose English is an additional language. Pain assessment in children is often poorly executed following acute injury. Whilst a range of pain assessment tools have been developed, little guidance is provided for assessing pain in children with English as an additional language. Factorial survey design. Twenty minor injuries unit nurses and 20 children's nursing students participated in an electronic survey to make judgements on 12 scenarios describing a child attending a minor injuries unit following an incident, accompanied by a parent. Respondents had to decide the most important form of pain assessment, and whether they would ask a parent or an interpreter to assess the pain of the child. An open-ended question asked about the difficulties found in making a judgement. Observation of the child's behaviour was the most common pain assessment reported. The visual analogue scale was significantly associated with children with proficient English. Respondents were significantly more likely to involve parents in the assessment if they could speak English well compared to parents with poor English skills. Moreover, nursing students were significantly more likely than registered nurses to call for support from an interpreter. Thematic analysis identified three themes related to difficulties with pain assessment: contrasting approaches, differing perceptions of pain and overcoming challenges. The reduced ability to communicate between child, parent and healthcare professional highlights the need to identify forms of assessment based on individual cases. The number of children with English as an additional language has seen a marked rise over the last decade. In situations where communication ability is reduced, assessment of pain should be tailored to meet the needs of the child. This may require timely access to interpreter services
Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that high levels of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA have a negative effect on foreign language learning (Horwitz, 2001; Lu & Liu, 2011 while moderate levels of Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity (SLTA are believed to boost foreign language learning (Ely, 1995. There is prima facie evidence that both dimensions are inversely related as Foreign Language Learning contexts are full of ambiguities which may contribute to anxiety. However, the relationship between FLCA and SLTA has been under-researched. The present study is an attempt to fill this gap by investigating the link between SLTA and FLCA in English of 73 secondary school students in Hong Kong. They filled out an online questionnaire consisting of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986 and the Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale (Ely, 1995. Statistical analyses revealed that FLCA, SLTA and Self-rated English proficiency predict half of the variance in each other; in other words, students who were more tolerant of second language ambiguity were less anxious in their EFL classes and they also felt more proficient.
Alzu'bi, Mohammad Akram
This study aimed at investigating the impact of extensive reading on improving reading proficiency. The study tried to find the effect of ER on EFL student's reading, vocabulary and grammar. The researcher designed two instruments; a program based on the extensive reading strategy and general test. Forty-one university students who study English…
Forrest, James; Dandy, Justine
Much is known about immigrants' majority language proficiency in the first (immigrant) generation. Less is understood of differences in linguistic shift compared with heritage language retention in subsequent generations. Focusing on Sydney, Australia's largest "EthniCity," we build on Clyne and Kipp's (1999. "Pluricentric Languages…
Dikilitas, Kenan; Demir, Bora
This qualitative study investigates discourse-level patterns typically employed by a Turkish lecturer based on the syntactic patterns found in the collected data. More specifically, the study aims to reveal how different native and non-native speakers of English perceive discourse patterns used by a non-native lecturer teaching in English. The…
Full Text Available This paper presents a study of practice that was conducted during the piloting of a vocational (health care e-course at the Distance Learning department of a College of Further and Higher Education in England. The purpose of the study was to establish a course of action aiming to support non-native English speaking learners to successfully complete the essay-type questions of the e-course assignments. The exploratory nature of the study means that in effect the study comprises of two distinct, yet interrelated parts, with the first one looking into how two (2 non-native English speaking learners (participants used different e-course resources to help them compose their answers. Based on the findings, the second part examines the role of writing frameworks (in the form of email communication between the tutor and the participants in helping the latter to compose answers that met the assessment criteria in terms of a content (subject accuracy, b length and c originality. Discussion of the findings includes implications for providing additional English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL support to distance learners, suggestions for further improvements to the e-course and recommendations for further research.
Ting, Yu-Liang; Tai, Yaming; Lin, Hsin-Yi
The integration of technology into English teaching is a trend in primary education. The purpose of this study is to explore how the interactive whiteboard (IWB) can be used in the teaching and learning of English as a Foreign Language. Through a wide range of interactive hands-on activities, the IWB's features are illustrated for the design of…
Fryer, Caroline Elizabeth; Mackintosh, Shylie F; Stanley, Mandy J; Crichton, Jonathan
To explore the process of decision-making of older people with limited English proficiency (LEP) about using a professional interpreter during their health care after stroke. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used. Up to two in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 older people with LEP from seven different language groups, and one older person who preferred to speak English, who had recently received health care after an acute stroke. Professional interpreters assisted with 19 of the 24 study interviews. Data were analysed and theoretical processes developed using a constant comparative method. Professional interpreters were not a strong presence in the health care experience after stroke for participants. The use of professional interpreters was a complex decision for participants, influenced by their perception of the language and health care expertise of themselves and others, their perceived position to make the decision and whom they trusted. Getting by in English allowed participants to follow rules-based talk of health professionals, but did not enable them to understand detailed information or explanation, or to engage in the management of their condition in a meaningful way. Health professionals have an opportunity and a mandate to demonstrate leadership in the interpreter decision by providing knowledge, opportunity and encouragement for people with LEP, to use an interpreter to engage in, and understand, their health care after stroke. Health professionals may need to advise when interpretation is needed for health care situations, when communication difficulties may not be anticipated by the person with LEP.
Ribot, Krystal M.; Hoff, Erika
Relations between bilingual children’s patterns of conversational code-switching (responding to one language with another), the balance of their dual language input, and their expressive and receptive proficiency in two languages were examined in 115 2½-year-old simultaneous Spanish-English bilinguals in the U.S. Children were more likely to code-switch in response to Spanish than English. Children’s expressive vocabulary scores were higher in English than in Spanish, while their English and Spanish receptive language scores were not different. Analyses of subgroups of children with different but consistent patterns of code-switching confirmed that children who code-switched to English showed greater English skills, specifically in the expressive domain. Children who did not code-switch were more balanced bilinguals in both expressive and receptive skills. Children with other code-switching patterns showed still different profiles of dual language expressive and receptive proficiency. These findings reveal that some, but not all, bilingual children show different profiles of expressive and receptive skill in their two languages and that these proficiency profiles are related to their language choices in conversation. PMID:25750468
Geva, Esther; Yaghoub Zadeh, Zohreh
The research examined the extent to which (a) Grade 2 English-as-a-second-language (ESL) and English-as-a-first-language (EL1) children resemble each other on word and text reading efficiency and (b) whether individual differences in word and text reading efficiency in the two language groups can be understood in terms of similar underlying…
Corsetti, Cristiane Ruzicki
Full Text Available O presente artigo baseia-se em minha monografia do curso de especialização, cujo objetivo foi justificar a importância do desenvolvimento de atividades de conscientização pragmática, em sala de aula de inglês como língua estrangeira. O conceito de competência pragmática foi abordado e descreveu-se seu impacto no desempenho linguístico. Foram analisadas as provas de compreensão e de produção orais de um exame de proficiência britânico intitulado “Certificate of Proficiency in English”, da universidade de Cambridge. Neste artigo, irei descrever as conclusões a respeito da prova de compreensão oral. A análise foi baseada nos modelos de código e inferencial de comunicação verbal e o princípio da relevância de Sperber e Wilson (1986, e na teoria dos atos de fala de Searle (1979. Os resultados oferecem um olhar sobre as habilidades inferenciais e conhecimentos pragmáticos a serem desenvolvidos ou ensinados de forma explícita em sala de aula de inglês como língua estrangeira
Karliner, Leah S.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Gregorich, Steven E.
Background Twenty-five million people in the U.S. have limited English proficiency (LEP); this growing and aging population experiences worse outcomes when hospitalized. Federal requirements that hospitals provide language access services are very challenging to implement in the fast-paced, 24-hour hospital environment. Objective Determine if increasing access to professional interpreters improves hospital outcomes for older patients with LEP Design Natural experiment on a medicine floor of an academic hospital Participants Patients age ≥50 discharged between Jan 15, 2007–Jan 15, 2010. Exposure Dual-handset interpreter telephone at every bedside July 15, 2008–Mar 14, 2009 Outcome Measures 30-day readmission, length of stay (LOS), estimated hospital expenditures Results Of 8,077 discharges, 1,963 were for LEP, and 6,114 for English-proficient (EP) patients. There was a significant decrease in observed 30-day readmission rates for the LEP group during the 8-month intervention period compared to 18 months pre-intervention (17.8% vs. 13.4%); at the same time EP readmission rates increased (16.7% vs. 19.7%); results remained significant in adjusted analyses. This improved readmission outcome for the LEP group was not maintained during the subsequent post-intervention period when the telephones became less accessible. There was no significant intervention impact on LOS in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. After accounting for interpreter services costs, the estimated 119 readmissions averted during the intervention period were associated with estimated monthly hospital expenditure savings of $161,404. Conclusions Comprehensive language access represents an important, high value service that all medical centers should provide in order to achieve equitable, quality healthcare for vulnerable LEP populations. PMID:27579909
Sha, Isolde Hon Pei; Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani; Mukundan, Jayakaran
.... Other than that, the actions, gestures, emotions, settings, etc, that is observed by students in a video can provide significant visual stimulus for the practice and production of the English language...
Full Text Available This qualitative study investigates discourse-level patterns typically employed by a Turkish lecturer based on the syntactic patterns found in the collected data. More specifically, the study aims to reveal how different native and non-native speakers of English perceive discourse patterns used by a non-native lecturer teaching in English. The data gathered from a Turkish lecturer teaching finance, and the interviews both with the lecturer and the students. The lecturer and the students were videotaped and the data was evaluated by content analysis. The results revealed a difference between the way non-native and native speakers evaluate an oral discourse of a non-native lecturer teaching in English. Native speakers of English found the oral performance moderately comprehensible, while non-native speakers found it relatively comprehensible.
Gil, Stephanie; Hooke, Mary C; Niess, Dawn
Patients and families with limited English proficiency (LEP) face a multitude of barriers both inside and outside the hospital walls. These barriers can contribute to difficulty accessing care and understanding/adhering to treatment recommendations, ultimately placing them at higher risk for poorer outcomes than their English-speaking counterparts. The LEP Patient Family Advocate role was created with the aim of improving access, promoting effective communication, and equalizing care for children with cancer from families with LEP. The goal of this mixed methods study was to describe the level of satisfaction and experiences of parents and health care providers who used the LEP Patient Family Advocate while receiving or providing care. Twelve parents and 15 health care providers completed quantitative surveys and an open-ended question about their experiences. High levels of satisfaction were reported. Themes about the role from qualitative responses included its positive effect on communication, trust, and connectedness between parents and staff. Continuity of care and safety were improved, and parents thought the role helped decrease their stress. The LEP Patient Family Advocate has a positive influence on family-centered cultural care. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.
McClellan, Sean R; Wu, Frances M; Snowden, Lonnie R
Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits federal funds recipients from providing care to limited English proficiency (LEP) persons more limited in scope or lower in quality than care provided to others. In 1999, the California Department of Mental Health implemented a "threshold language access policy" to meet its Title VI obligations. Under this policy, Medi-Cal agencies must provide language assistance programming in a non-English language where a county's Medical population contains either 3000 residents or 5% speakers of that language. We examine the impact of threshold language policy-required language assistance programming on LEP persons' access to mental health services by analyzing the county-level penetration rate of services for Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese speakers across 34 California counties, over 10 years of quarterly data. Exploiting a time series with nonequivalent control group study design, we studied this phenomena using linear regression with random county effects to account for trends over time. Threshold language policy-required assistance programming led to an immediate and significant increase in the penetration rate of mental health services for Russian (8.2, P language speaking persons. Threshold language assistance programming was effective in increasing mental health access for Russian and Vietnamese, but not for Spanish-speaking LEP persons.
Athanasopoulos, Panos; Damjanovic, Ljubica; Burnand, Julie; Bylund, Emanuel
The aim of the current study is to investigate motion event cognition in second language learners in a higher education context. Based on recent findings that speakers of grammatical aspect languages like English attend less to the endpoint (goal) of events than do speakers of nonaspect languages like Swedish in a nonverbal categorization task…
Jang, Eunice Eunhee; Cummins, Jim; Wagner, Maryam; Stille, Saskia; Dunlop, Maggie
Research on issues concerning the assessment of school-age English language learners (ELLs) in curriculum-learning contexts has been relatively less productive than assessment of adult language learners. A growing demand for assessing school-age ELLs has led to the development of assessment frameworks that provide the opportunity to examine the…
Tai, Sophie; Chen, Hao-Jan
Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) has gained increasing acceptance since it provides learners with abundant resources. Most researches confirm the beneficial effect of CALL on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' cognitive, metacognitive, and affective developments. However, the diversity of students' intelligence is associated…
Moses, Britani Creel
The purpose of this study was to predict the third grade English reading TAKS scores while considering the same students' native language, Spanish, reading level as assessed by a state-approved reading assessment, the Evaluacion del desarrollo de la lectura (EDL), from the end of the second grade year. In addition, this study was been designed to…
Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Britigan, Denise H.; Murnan, Judy; King, Keith; Vaughn, Lisa M.
The purposes of the study were to determine the health literacy levels of Latinos in the Greater Cincinnati Area in both English and Spanish by utilizing two standardized quantitative measures of health literacy, and to undertake an assessment of the relationship between language, health literacy and acculturation in this community. Given a rapid…
Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel
The study explores the effects of teacher support and student cohesiveness on foreign language (FL) learning outcomes and compares their effect with that of FL anxiety. One hundred and forty-six first-year Chinese undergraduates of Japanese, who were also learning English, participated in two surveys that were administered over a 2-month interval.…
Yoke, Soo Kum; Hasan, Nor Haniza
The teaching of English grammar to second language learners is usually a tedious, stressful and time consuming activity and even after all the effort, students have generally found these lessons boring and confusing. As such, innovative language instructors have been trying different approaches to the teaching of grammar in their classrooms. Using…
Nilas, L; Løkkegaard, E C; Laursen, J B; Kling, J; Cortes, D
From 2012-2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, "Internationalization at Home ", offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students in a clinical setting. Using semi-quantitative questionnaires to 89 clinicians about use of English and need for training, this paper considers if Danish clinical doctors are prepared to teach in English. The majority self-assessed their English proficiency between seven and eight on a 10 unit visual analogue scale, with 10 equivalent to working in Danish, while 15 % rated five or less. However, one-fourth found teaching and writing in English to be twice as difficult than in Danish, and 12 % rated all teaching tasks in English at four or less compared to Danish. The self-assessed need for additional English skills was perceived low. Teaching in English was rated as 30 % more difficult than in Danish, and a significant subgroup of doctors had difficulties in all forms of communication in English, resulting in challenges when introducing international students in non-native English speaking medical departments.
Language proficiency among young South Africans is low. This is true not only of mother tongue speakers of English and Afrikaans, but also, and especially, of non-mother tongue speakers of English, among whom language proficiency levels raise serious concern. Some examples are given to illustrate the importance of ...
A modified matched guise technique was used with 57 subjects to evaluate 14 recorded voices in 3 accent categories (broad, mild, hypercorrect). Some differences were found between native speakers and nonnative speakers, and the results pose questions in terms of the two distinct judgmental dimensions of solidarity and status. (60 references) (LB)
Does Student Proficiency on Local Reading Assessment Measures Align with State Mandated Reading Proficiency Standards? An Investigation of the Relationship between the Developmental Reading Assessment, Reading Curriculum Based Measurement, and Maze, with the New York State English Language Arts Exam
Weschler, Michael J.
Data from three reading assessment tools--the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA), Reading Curriculum Based Measurement (R-CBM), and Maze--were compiled from 61 fourth grade and 59 fifth grade students across Fall and Spring administrations in order to determine how proficiency on these measures was associated with proficiency on the New York…
Conger, Dylan; Hatch, Megan; McKinney, Jessica; Atwell, Meghan Salas; Lamb, Anne
Since the 2002 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was signed into law, schools have been allowed to administer grade-level content reading exams in the native language of English Language Learner (ELL) students for up to three years after they enter the school system. From that point, the students are expected to take the state assessments in…
Johnson, Ruth; Jenks, Frederick L.
A study investigated the perceptions of native English-speakers concerning the spoken grammatical and phonetic (accent) errors of non-native speakers. Speech samples were collected from three non-native speakers of English of varied linguistic backgrounds (German, Spanish, and Arabic) and one speaker of North American English. Each of the four…
Woutersen, Mirjam; And Others
A study investigated lexical decision-making among Dutch-English bilinguals in the auditory modality. Subjects, bilinguals at three proficiency levels (intermediate, high, and near-native) were presented with 40 cognate and 40 non-cognate word pairs, a similar number of English and Dutch distractors, and a similar number of nonsense words in each…
Global Professional Identity in Deterretorialized Spaces: A Case Study of a Critical Dialogue between Expert and Novice Nonnative English Speaker Teachers (Identidad profesional global en espacios desterritorializados: un estudio de caso de los diálogos críticos entre profesores de inglés no nativos)
Guerrero Nieto, Carmen Helena; Meadows, Bryan
This study analyzes the online, peer-peer dialogue between two groups of nonnative English-speaking teachers who are attending graduate programs in Colombia and the United States. Framed by the theoretical concepts of critical pedagogy and global professional identity, a qualitative analysis of the data shows that their expert vs. novice roles…
Novice Non-Native English Teachers' Reflections on Their Teacher Education Programmes and Their First Years of Teaching (Reflexiones de profesores novatos y no nativos del inglés sobre sus programas de formación y sus primeros años de instrucción)
This study investigates novice non-native English teachers' opinions about the effectiveness of their teacher education programme and the challenges during their initial years of teaching. The results of a survey administered to fifty-five novice teachers and follow-up interviews identify strengths and weaknesses in their teacher education…
Zawiszewski, Adam; Gutierrez, Eva; Fernandez, Beatriz; Laka, Itziar
In this study, we explore native and non-native syntactic processing, paying special attention to the language distance factor. To this end, we compared how native speakers of Basque and highly proficient non-native speakers of Basque who are native speakers of Spanish process certain core aspects of Basque syntax. Our results suggest that…
ESTILOS DE APRENDIZAJE, ESTRATEGIAS DE LECTURA Y SU RELACIÓN CON EL RENDIMIENTO ACADÉMICO DE LA LENGUA EXTRANJERA. (LEARNING STYLES, READING STRATEGIES AND THEIR INFLUENCE IN THE PROFICIENCY IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE)
C Mirtha Manzano Díaz; C Eugenio Hidalgo Diez
... y reflexivo se asocian al uso frecuente de estrategias de lectura; y estos influyen en el rendimiento de la lengua extranjera en estos estudiantes. ABSTRACT This research aims to find out the relationship among learning reflexive, active, pragmatic and theoretical styles, reading strategies, and the proficiency level in the English language. The instruments were applied to second-academic-year students of the Ciego de Avila University, the reliability and validity of the instruments were confirmed by methods as...
Zapata, Julián; Kirkedal, Andreas Søeborg
In this paper, we report on a two-part experiment aiming to assess and compare the performance of two types of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems on two different computational platforms when used to augment dictation workflows. The experiment was performed with a sample of speakers...... of three major languages and with different linguistic profiles: non-native English speakers; non-native French speakers; and native Spanish speakers. The main objective of this experiment is to examine ASR performance in translation dictation (TD) and medical dictation (MD) workflows without manual...... transcription vs. with transcription. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of a particular ASR approach in different computational platforms when used by various speakers of a given language, who may have different accents and levels of proficiency in that language, and who may have different levels...
Assessing speaking skills is regarded as a complex and hard process compared with the other language skills. Considering the idiosyncratic characteristics of EFL learners, oral proficiency assessment issue becomes even more important. Keeping this situation in mind, judgements and reliability of raters need to be consistent with each other. This…
Villalobos Ulate, Nuria
A detailed analysis is provided here of the concept, perceptions and attitudes towards native and non-native English speaking teachers. The notion that the ideal language educator is a native speaker is explained and questioned, and examples of the unfair treatment non-native speakers of English sometimes receive are given. The strengths in both NESTs and NNESTs are highlighted. Se analiza el concepto, las percepciones y actitudes de los docentes hablantes nativos y no nativos del inglés. ...
Latsanyphone, Soulignavong; Bouangeune, Souvannasy
Many English professionals do not seem to pay much attention to the use of L1 in English language classrooms, based on the tenets that English should be taught in English to expose the learners to English which would enhance their knowledge of English and accelerate their learning. While research findings have been inconsistent in relation to this…
English has become the world's international language, used for international communication mostly among non-native speakers of other languages and 80 percent of all the English teachers around the world are nonnative English-speaking (NNES) teachers (Canagarajah, 1999). Therefore, there is a growing need to investigate the EIL (English as an…
Science as a second language: Analysis of Emergent Bilinguals performance and the impact of English language proficiency and first language characteristics on the Colorado measures of academic success for science
Bruno, Joanna K.
In an age when communication is highly important and states across the nation, including Colorado, have adopted Common Core State Standards, the need for academic language is even more important than ever. The language of science has been compared to a second language in that it uses specific discourse patterns, semantic rules, and a very specific vocabulary. There is a need for educators to better understand how language impacts academic achievement, specifically concerning Emergent Bilinguals (EBs). Research has identified the need to study the role language plays in content assessments and the impact they have on EBs performance (Abedi, 2008b; Abedi, Hofestter & Lord, 2004; Abedi & Lord, 2001). Since language is the means through which content knowledge is assessed, it is important to analyze this aspect of learning. A review of literature identified the need to create more reliable and valid content assessments for EBs (Abedi, 2008b) and to further study the impact of English proficiency on EBs performance on standardized assessments (Solorzano, 2008; Wolf, & Leon, 2009). This study contributes to the literature by analyzing EBs performance on a state-level science content assessment, taking into consideration English language proficiency, receptive versus productive elements of language, and students' home language. This study further contributes by discussing the relationship between language proficiency, and the different strands of science (physical, life, and earth) on the state science assessment. Finally, this study demonstrates that home language, English language proficiency, and receptive and productive elements of language are predictive of EBs' achievement on the CMAS for science, overall and by strand. It is the blending of the social (listening and speaking) with the academic (reading and writing) that is also important and possibly more important.
Kenan Dikilitaş; Bora Demir
This qualitative study investigates discourse-level patterns typically employed by a Turkish lecturer based on the syntactic patterns found in the collected data. More specifically, the study aims to reveal how different native and non-native speakers of English perceive discourse patterns used by a non-native lecturer teaching in English. The data gathered from a Turkish lecturer teaching finance, and the interviews both with the lecturer and the students. The lecturer and the students were ...
Burns, Matthew K.; Frederick, Amy; Helman, Lori; Pulles, Sandra M.; McComas, Jennifer J.; Aguilar, Lisa
Many English language learners (ELLs) experience difficulties with basic English reading due in part to low language proficiency. The authors examined the relationship between English language proficiency and growth during reading interventions for ELLs. A total of 201 second- and third-grade students with a variety of home languages participated.…
Perold Potgieter, Anneke; Southwood, Frenette
This study investigated how trilinguals fare on the cross-linguistic lexical tasks (CLT)-Afrikaans, -isiXhosa and -South African English (SAE) (cf. Haman et al., 2015) compared to monolingual controls, and whether the CLT-Afrikaans renders comparable results across socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. The LITMUS-CLTs were administered to 41 low SES 4-year-olds (11 trilinguals; 10 monolingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and SAE) and the LITMUS-CLT-Afrikaans to 11 mid-SES 4-year-old monolinguals. Results (a) indicate that trilinguals' proficiency in their exposure-dominant language did not differ significantly from monolinguals' proficiency, but their proficiency in their additional two languages was significantly lower than monolinguals' proficiency; (b) reflect the extent, but not current amount, of exposure trilinguals had had over time to each of their languages; and (c) show that low and mid-SES monolinguals differed significantly on noun-related, but not verb-related, CLT measures. Possible reasons for and the clinical implications of these results are discussed.
Full Text Available This article reports on an exploratory study that aimed at describing and comparing a range of linguistic features that characterize the reading texts used at the B2 and C1 level of the Greek State Certificate of English Language Proficiency exam (KPG1. Its ultimate purpose was to explore the contribution of such features to perceived text difficulty while at the same time examining the relationship between strategy use and test-takers’ perceived level of reading comprehension difficulty reported in 7,250 questionnaires. Text analysis revealed significant differences between B2 and C1 reading texts for a specific number of text features such as word, paragraph and text length, readability indices, levels of word frequency and presence of words with rich conceptual content. A significant correlation was also found between B2 test-takers’ perception of reading module difficulty and specific text features i.e. lexical diversity, abstract words, positive additive connectives and anaphoric references between adjacent sentences. With regard to C1 test-takers, data analysis showed that two specific text variables i.e. positive logical connectives and argument overlap, correlated significantly with readers’ perception of reading module difficulty. Finally, problem-solving reading strategies such as rereading the text, guessing the meaning of unknown words and translating in mother tongue were found to correlate significantly with perceived text difficulty, whereas support-type reading strategies such as underlining or selectively reading parts of the text were less often employed regardless KPG test-takers’ perception of text difficulty. The findings of this study could help both EFL teachers and test designers gain valuable knowledge regarding EFL learners’ reading habits and also become more alert to the difficulty specific text features impose on the latter.
Collado, Anahi; Castillo, Soraida D; Maero, Fabian; Lejuez, C W; Macpherson, Laura
Latinos with limited English proficiency (LEP) experience multiple barriers to accessing efficacious mental health treatments. Using a stage model of behavior therapy research, this Stage I investigation evaluated the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD), an intervention that may be well equipped to address existing treatment barriers. A sample of 10 Latinos with LEP and depressive symptomatology participated in a 10-session, direct (i.e., literal) Spanish-language translation of BATD, with no other cultural modifications. Participants were assessed at each session for depressive symptomatology and for the proposed BATD mechanisms: activity engagement and environmental reward. One month after treatment, participants were reassessed and interviewed to elicit feedback about BATD. Hierarchical linear model analyses were used to measure BATD outcomes. Results showed depressive symptomatology decreased (p<.001), while both activation (p=.04) and environmental reward (p=.02) increased over the course of BATD. Increases in activation corresponded concurrently with decreases in depression (p=.01), while environmental reward preceded decreases in depressive symptomatology (all p's ≤ .04). Follow-up analyses revealed sustained clinical gains in depression and activation, and an increase in environmental reward at follow-up. Participant interviews conducted 1 month after treatment conclusion indicated that BATD is an acceptable treatment for our sample of interest. Despite the limitations inherent in a study restricted to a sample of 10, preliminary outcomes of this Stage I research suggest that members of this otherwise underserved group showed improvements in depressive symptomatology and are willing to participate in and adhere to BATD. The study's positive outcomes suggest that a Stage II randomized clinical trial is a logical next step. © 2013.
Kim, Giyeon; Aguado Loi, Claudia X; Chiriboga, David A; Jang, Yuri; Parmelee, Patricia; Allen, Rebecca S
Language barriers pose problems in mental health care for foreign-born individuals in the United States. Immigrants with psychiatric disorders may be at particular risk but are currently understudied. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of limited English proficiency (LEP) on mental health service use among immigrant adults with psychiatric disorders. Drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), Latino and Asian immigrant adults aged 18-86 with any instrument-determined mood, anxiety, and substance use disorder (n = 372) were included in the present analysis. Results from hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that having health insurance, poor self-rated mental health, and more psychiatric disorders were independently associated with higher probability of mental health service use in the Latino group. After controlling for all background characteristics and mental health need factors, LEP significantly decreased odds of mental health service use among Latino immigrants. None of the factors including LEP predicted mental health service use among Asian immigrants, who were also the least likely to access such services. LEP was a barrier to mental health service use among Latino immigrants with psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that future approaches to interventions might be well advised to include not only enhancing the availability of bilingual service providers and interpretation services but also increasing awareness of such options for at least Latino immigrants. In addition, further investigation is needed to identify factors that can enhance access to mental health care services among Asians. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Although English is now a recognized international language and the concept of native speaker is becoming more doubtful every day, the empowerment of the native speakers of English as language teaching professionals is still continuing (McKay, 2002), especially in Asian countries like China and Japan. One of the latest examples showing the…
"If I write like a scientist, then soy un cientifico": Differentiated Writing Supports and the Effects on Fourth-Grade English Proficient Students' and English Language Learners' Science Content Knowledge and Explanatory Writing About Magnetism and Electricity
Lichon, Kathryn A.
The purpose of this pre-post quasi-experimental dissertation was to investigate the effects of differentiated writing supports on English Proficient Students' (EPSs) and English Language Learners' (ELLs) science content knowledge and explanatory writing about magnetism and electricity. Eighty-seven fourth-grade students (EPSs = 35; ELLs = 52) were randomly assigned to two groups based on two differentiated writing: guided questions ( n = 43) or targeted writing frames (n = 44). In the guided questions condition, students completed four question sets after a science investigation, and in the targeted writing frames condition, students completed the same four question sets, but with explicit support for vocabulary, transitions, and relational language in the form of if-then statements. Over the course of the four week intervention, students completed a total of nine writing tasks, and were pretested and posttested on six variables: magnetism and electricity content knowledge test, explanatory writing task, total number of words written, total number of sentences written, number of if-then statements, and number of content-based vocabulary words. Results indicate that EPSs and ELLs in both writing conditions improved significantly from pretest to posttest on six content and explanatory writing variables, with statistically significant gain scores occurring for the magnetism and electricity content knowledge test in which the targeted writing frames condition had a larger rate of gain. ANCOVA results indicated that in comparing writing conditions, a statistically significant difference was found for magnetism and electricity content knowledge posttests, when controlling for pretests. No statistically significant effects for language classification on the six variables were found when controlling for pretest scores. Interaction effects between writing condition and language classification were statistically significantly different for the interaction effect found on if
The focus of this research is on the nature of lexical cross-linguistic influence (CLI) between non-native languages. Using oral interviews with 157 L1 Italian high-school students studying English and German as non-native languages, the project investigated which kinds of lexis appear to be more susceptible to transfer from German to English and…
This study examines socioeconomic status (SES), English language proficiency (ELP), vocabulary proficiency (VP), and math proficiency (MP) of students to determine if SES, as determined by the Free and Reduced Lunch Program (FRL), as well as English language proficiency (ELP) and vocabulary proficiency (VP), as measured by CELLA scale scores and…
The present study investigates (i) English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii) how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as linguistic proficiency develops; and (iii) the extent to which receptive knowledge of ...
Joseph R. Betancourt
Full Text Available The article by Cheri Wilson, “Patient Safety and Healthcare Quality: The Case for Language Access”, highlights the challenges of providing Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS to patients with Limited English Proficiency (LEP. As the US pursues high-value, high-performance healthcare, our ability to meet the needs of our most vulnerable will determine whether we succeed or fail in the long run. With the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA, this is more important than ever before, as it is estimated that the newly insured are more likely to be minority and less likely to speak English than their currently insured counterparts. As such, we must create a safe, high-quality healthcare system for all, especially in this time of incredible healthcare transformation and unprecedented diversity. Improving Patient Safety Systems for Patients With Limited English Proficiency: A Guide for Hospitals provides a blueprint for achieving this goal, and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH is taking action.
Svetlana V Cook
Full Text Available The present paper explores nonnative (L2 phonological encoding of lexical entries and dissociates the difficulties associated with L2 phonological and phonolexical encoding by focusing on similarly sounding L2 words that are not differentiated by difficult phonological contrasts. We test two main claims of the fuzzy lexicon hypothesis: (1 L2 fuzzy phonolexical representations are not fully specified and lack details at both phonological and phonolexical levels of representation (Experiment 1; and (2 fuzzy phonolexical representations can lead to establishing incorrect form-to-meaning mappings (Experiment 2.The Russian-English Translation Priming task (Experiment 1, TJT explores how the degree of phonolexical similarity between a word and its lexical competitor affects lexical access of Russian words. Words with smaller phonolexical distance (e.g., parent - parrot show longer reaction times and lower accuracy compared to words with a larger phonolexical distance (e.g., parent – parchment in lower-proficiency nonnative speakers, and, to a lesser degree, higher-proficiency speakers. This points to a lack of detail in nonnative phonolexical representations necessary for efficient lexical access. The Russian Pseudo-Semantic Priming task (Experiment 2, PSP addresses the vulnerability of form-to-meaning mappings as a consequence of fuzzy phonolexical representations in L2. We primed the target with a word semantically related to its phonological competitor, or a potentially confusable word. The findings of Experiment 2 extend the results of Experiment 1 that, unlike native speakers, nonnative speakers do not properly encode phonolexical information. As a result, they are prone to access an incorrect lexical representation of a competitor word, as indicated by a slowdown in the judgments to confusable words.The study provides evidence that fuzzy phonolexical representations result in unfaithful form-to-meaning mappings, which lead to retrieval of
Marina, Olga A.; Rajprasit, Krich
Communication mobility has been suggested as an element of the complex construct of professional communicative competence, with a shared core of English in the oral mode, for professional international communication. This study aims (1) to investigate the possible correlation between the perceived level of communication mobility, and the influence…
Cho, T.; McQueen, J.M.
We investigated how listeners of two unrelated languages, Korean and Dutch, process phonologically viable and nonviable consonants spoken in Dutch and American English. To Korean listeners, released final stops are nonviable because word-final stops in Korean are never released in words spoken in
This article reports on a study contrasting 41 native speakers (NSs) and 38 non-native speakers (NNSs) of English from two short initial teacher training courses, the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults and the Trinity College London CertTESOL. After a brief history and literature review, I present findings on teachers'…
Thompson, Amy S.; Fioramonte, Amy
A sizable body of literature has been established surrounding native speaker teachers versus nonnative speaker teachers of English. Presently, a paucity of research exists related to teachers working with languages other than English. In an attempt to fill this research gap, this qualitative research study presents the experiences of novice…
Full Text Available This paper presents a study of misspellings, based on annotated data from the ETS Spelling corpus. The corpus consists of 3000 essays written by examinees, native (NS and non-native speakers (NNS of English, on the writing sections of GRE® and TOEFL® examinations. We find that the rate of misspellings decreases as writing proficiency (essay score increases, both in TOEFL and in GRE. Severity of misspellings depends on writing proficiency and not on NS/NNS distinction. Word-length and word-frequency have strong influences on production of misspellings, showing patterns associated with proficiency. For word-frequency, there is also a clear effect of NS/NNS distinction.
Michael D Tyler; Best, Catherine T.; Faber, Alice; Levitt, Andrea G.
Research on language-specific tuning in speech perception has focused mainly on consonants, while that on non-native vowel perception has failed to address whether the same principles apply. Therefore, non-native vowel perception was investigated here in light of relevant theoretical models: The Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) and the Natural Referent Vowel (NRV) framework. American-English speakers completed discrimination and L1-assimilation (categorization and goodnes...
This paper reports on an intervention study which investigated the effect of teaching English phonotactics upon Arabic speakers' lexical segmentation of running speech in English. The study involved a native English-speaking group (N = 12), a non-native control group (N = 20); and a non-native experimental group (N = 20). Each group was pre-tested…
Kim, Young Soo
This study investigates 43 Korean adults’ attitudes towards native and non-native varieties of English in relation to the perspective of EIL (English as an international language). This study addresses three research questions: 1) do Korean adults prefer certain varieties of English? 2) do Korean adults at least accept non-native varieties of English?, and 3) are Korean adults aware of different varieties of English? In order to examine participants’ language attitudes, this study employed bo...
Olmstead, Annie J; Viswanathan, Navin
Nonnative phonetic learning is an area of great interest for language researchers, learners, and educators alike. In two studies, we examined whether nonnative phonetic discrimination of Hindi dental and retroflex stops can be improved by exposure to lexical items bearing the critical nonnative stops. We extend the lexical retuning paradigm of Norris, McQueen, and Cutler (Cognitive Psychology, 47, 204-238, 2003) by having naive American English (AE)-speaking participants perform a pretest-training-posttest procedure. They performed an AXB discrimination task with the Hindi retroflex and dental stops before and after transcribing naturally produced words from an Indian English speaker that either contained these tokens or not. Only those participants who heard words with the critical nonnative phones improved in their posttest discrimination. This finding suggests that exposure to nonnative phones in native lexical contexts supports learning of difficult nonnative phonetic discrimination.
This discussion paper focuses on English proficiency standards for nursing registration in Australia, how Australia has dealt with the issue of language proficiency, and the factors which have led to the establishment of the current language standards. Also, this paper will provide a comparison of the two language tests that are currently accepted in Australia (OET and IELTS), including the appropriateness of these tests and the minimum standards used. The paper will also examine the use of educational background as an indicator of language proficiency. Finally, communication-based complaints in the post-registration environment will be explored, and some discussion will be provided about why pre-registration measures might have failed to prevent such problematic situations from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bradlow, Ann R; Ackerman, Lauren; Burchfield, L Ann; Hesterberg, Lisa; Luque, Jenna; Mok, Kelsey
We motivate and present a corpus of scripted and spontaneous speech in both the native and the non-native language of talkers from various language backgrounds. Using corpus recordings from 11 native English and 11 late Mandarin-English bilinguals we compared speech timing across native English, native Mandarin, and Mandarin-accented English. Findings showed similarities across native Mandarin and native English in speaking rate and in reduction of the number of acoustic relative to orthographic syllables. The two languages differed in silence-to-speech ratio and in the number of words between pauses, possibly reflecting phrase-level structural differences between English and Mandarin. Non-native English had a significantly slower speaking rate and lower rate of syllable reduction than both native English and native Mandarin. But, non-native English was similar to native English in terms of silence-to-speech ratio and was similar to native Mandarin in terms of words per pause. Finally, some talker-specificity in terms of (non)optimal speech timing appeared to transfer from native to non-native speech within the Mandarin-English bilinguals. These findings provide an empirical base for testing how language-dependent, structural features combine with general features of non-native speech production and with talker-dependent features in determining foreign-language speech production.
Hutchinson, Mary; Hadjioannou, Xenia
In this study, the authors examine the impact of an English as a second language (ESL) professional development offering designed to meet this challenge: the Modular Design for English Language Learners (MODELL) instruction program. The authors were part of a team of faculty that designed and developed this hybrid professional development program…
So, Connie K.; Attina, Virginie
This study examined the effect of native language background on listeners' perception of native and non-native vowels spoken by native (Hong Kong Cantonese) and non-native (Mandarin and Australian English) speakers. They completed discrimination and an identification task with and without visual cues in clear and noisy conditions. Results…
have been maintained and intensified since then, as African and Indian scholarship demonstrates. Language plays a key role in education, the World Bank taking over where colonial regimes left off. Anglo-American efforts to maintain global English dominance have intensified since 1945 and are central...... to the present-day world ‘order’, as the postcolonial is subsumed under global empire, assisted by English linguistic neoimperialism. Some scholars who deny the existence of linguistic imperialism are reported on, and the complexity of language policy in European integration is demonstrated. The article......The article exemplifies and presents the characteristics of linguistic imperialism, linguistic capital accumulation following the same pattern as capitalist economic dominance. The text summarizes the way English was established in the colonial period. Many of the mechanisms of linguistic hierarchy...
Tyler, Michael D.; Best, Catherine T.; Faber, Alice; Levitt, Andrea G.
Research on language-specific tuning in speech perception has focused mainly on consonants, while that on non-native vowel perception has failed to address whether the same principles apply. Therefore, non-native vowel perception was investigated here in light of relevant theoretical models: The Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) and the Natural Referent Vowel (NRV) framework. American-English speakers completed discrimination and L1-assimilation (categorization and goodness rating) tests on six non-native vowel contrasts. Discrimination was consistent with PAM assimilation types, but asymmetries predicted by NRV were only observed for single-category assimilations, suggesting that perceptual assimilation might modulate the effects of vowel peripherality on non-native vowel perception. PMID:24923313
Tyler, Michael D; Best, Catherine T; Faber, Alice; Levitt, Andrea G
Research on language-specific tuning in speech perception has focused mainly on consonants, while that on non-native vowel perception has failed to address whether the same principles apply. Therefore, non-native vowel perception was investigated here in light of relevant theoretical models: the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) and the Natural Referent Vowel (NRV) framework. American-English speakers completed discrimination and native language assimilation (categorization and goodness rating) tests on six nonnative vowel contrasts. Discrimination was consistent with PAM assimilation types, but asymmetries predicted by NRV were only observed for single-category assimilations, suggesting that perceptual assimilation might modulate the effects of vowel peripherality on non-native vowel perception. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.