WorldWideScience

Sample records for proficiency visual-integrative abilities

  1. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  2. The Effects of Language Environment and Oral Language Ability on Phonological Production Proficiency in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpino, Shelley E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to determine if phonological production proficiency in bilingual Spanish-English preschoolers could be predicted by their language environment, language ability, and phonological production proficiency in their other language. Method: Participants were 199 Latino children and their families. Children ranged in age…

  3. The mediating role of cognitive ability on the relationship between motor proficiency and early academic achievement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoret, Geneviève; Bigras, Nathalie; Duval, Stéphanie; Lemay, Lise; Tremblay, Tania; Lemire, Julie

    2017-12-06

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motor proficiency and academic achievement in 7 years-old children. A mediating model in which the relation between motor proficiency and academic achievement is mediated by cognitive ability was tested. Participants included 152 children from the longitudinal study Jeunes enfants et leurs milieux de vie (Young Children and their Environments). Motor proficiency was evaluated with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT2), cognitive ability with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and academic achievement with the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II (WIAT II). Results showed that motor proficiency, cognitive ability and academic achievement were positively correlated with each other. A structural equation modeling analysis revealed that motor proficiency had a positive effect on academic achievement through an indirect path via cognitive ability. These results highlight the fundamental importance of motor skills in children's academic achievement in early school years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnostic Utility of WISC-IV General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index Difference Scores among Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devena, Sarah E.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index have been advanced as possible diagnostic markers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This hypothesis was tested with a hospital sample with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 78), a referred but nondiagnosed…

  5. Effects of Board Game on Speaking Ability of Low-proficiency ESL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Mei Fung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ESL learners often experience anxiety and feel uncomfortable when speaking in the target language. This paper examines the anxiety level of polytechnic students when speaking English and the effects of board game on their speaking performance. The participants were selected from two intact classes which were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups comprising 30 students each. Data were obtained from pre- and post-treatment speaking tests and questionnaire. The questionnaire measuring anxiety factors was adapted from Yaikhong and Usaha (2012 and Woodrow (2006. The board game “What Say You” employed during the treatment was a speaking activity which required players to speak on a topic within a given time frame. The experimental group played the board games over six sessions. The results from the experimental and control groups showed significant difference in the pre- and post-treatment speaking test scores. However, the speaking performance of the experimental group revealed significantly higher scores. Students who were initially hesitant and passive were more willing to speak and were able to present and justify their ideas more confidently as compared to the control group after the treatment. The findings reveal that the board game is a useful tool to engage learners’ participation in class and to enhance the speaking ability of low-proficiency ESL learners.

  6. The relationship between automatic assessment of oral proficiency and other indicators of first year students' linguistic abilities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Febe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Academic literacy proficiency is key to the success of a student at university. Currently, the large-scale assessment of language proficiency, particularly at higher education levels, is dominated by reading and writing tests because listening...

  7. EFL STUDENTS’ABILITY IN PERFORMING AUTONOMOUS LEARNING AND THEIR WRITING PROFICIENCY ACROSS COGNITIVE STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Dewi Masita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended do investigate the relationship between students’ autonomy and their writing proficiency across cognitive styles. Correlational research design was fit to understand the relationship between two continuous variables. To obtain the required data, Writing Autonomy Questionnaire, and writing test was administered to 155 students of sixth semester from two private colleges at Malang. The result presented that there is significant and positive correlation between those variables (r = .437. Meanwhile variables pressented gave contribution to the other variable due to its correlationship. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara autonomy mahasiswa dan kemampuan menulis mereka berdasarkan gaya berpikir. Metode penelitian yang sesuai adalah korelasi untiuk memahami hubungan dua variabel. Writing Autonomy Questionnaire, dan tes menulis disebarkan kepada 155 siswa semester 6 untuk memperoleh data yang diperlukan. Hasil peneliatian ini menunjukkan bahwa ada hubungan positif dan signifikan antara kedua variabel tersebut (r = .437. Sementara itu variabel yang teridentifikasi tersebut saling berkontribusi dikarenakan hasil analisa yang menunjukkan hubungan positif dan signifikan.

  8. Attention control and ability level in a complex cognitive skill: attention shifting and second-language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalowitz, Norman; Frenkiel-Fishman, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between attention control and proficiency in a complex cognitive skill. The participants were English-French bilinguals with varying degrees of second-language (French) proficiency. Proficiency was operationalized as efficiency of lexical access in an animacy judgment task, as reflected in the coefficient of variability of response time adjusted for first-language performance on the same task. Attention control was operationalized as the shift cost obtained in a linguistic version of the alternating runs task-switching paradigm. Hierarchical regression revealed that, overall, attention control accounted for 59% of the variance of proficiency and that second-language attention control alone accounted for 32% of the unique variance of proficiency, indicating a high degree of skill domain (second language) specificity in the relationship between attention control and proficiency. The results speak to issues regarding the development of expertise, second-language acquisition, and a cognitive linguistic approach to language and attention.

  9. English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…

  10. Students with Non-Proficient Information Seeking Skills Greatly Over-Estimate Their Abilities. A Review of: Gross, Melissa, and Don Latham.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The objective of this study is an investigation of the relationship between students’ self-assessment of their information literacy skills and their actual skill level, as well as an analysis of whether library anxiety is related to information skill attainment. Design – Quantitative research design (Information Literacy Test (ILT, Library Anxiety Scale (LAS, pre and post surveys.Setting – Florida State University, United States.Subjects – Students, incoming freshmen.Methods – Information literacy skills were measured using the Information Literacy Test (ILT, presenting subjects with 65 multiple choice items designed around four of the five ACRL information literacy standards, in which students were expectedto: 1 determine the nature and extent of the information needed; 2 access needed information effectively and efficiently; 3 evaluate information and its sources critically and incorporates selected information into his/her knowledge base system; 4 understand many of the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses information ethically and legally. The ILT categorized participant scores as non-proficient(Main Results – The main aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that students who test non-proficient on an information literacy test tend to overestimate their competency to a higher degree than proficient and advanced students. In the pre- and post-surveys, the students were asked to estimate their performance onthe ILT in terms of the expected percentage of questions they would answer correctly, the number of questions they expected to answer correctly, and how their performance on the ILT would compare toothers taking the test (in percentage. The results of the study show that all students overestimate their abilities, both in terms of performance and relative performance, in the pre-survey. The estimated percentage correct answers for the whole group was 75%, but

  11. Task and Ability Analysis as a Basis for Examining Content and Construct Comparability in Two EFL Proficiency Test Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory analysis comparing two test batteries for English-as-a-Foreign-Language reading comprehension used a single framework of communicative language ability and test method facets to investigate construct validity. The framework's use in the content analysis of communicative language tests, and for the comparison of content across tests,…

  12. Knowledge and Processes That Predict Proficiency in Digital Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, Monica E.; Mayer, Richard E.; Metzger, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency in digital literacy refers to the ability to read and write using online sources, and includes the ability to select sources relevant to the task, synthesize information into a coherent message, and communicate the message with an audience. The present study examines the determinants of digital literacy proficiency by asking 150…

  13. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  14. Bottom-up Visual Integration in the Medial Parietal Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nösberger, Myriam; Gutbrod, Klemens; Weber, Konrad P; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Largely based on findings from functional neuroimaging studies, the medial parietal lobe is known to contribute to internally directed cognitive processes such as visual imagery or episodic memory. Here, we present 2 patients with behavioral impairments that extend this view. Both had chronic unilateral lesions of nearly the entire medial parietal lobe, but in opposite hemispheres. Routine neuropsychological examination conducted >4 years after the onset of brain damage showed little deficits of minor severity. In contrast, both patients reported persistent unusual visual impairment. A comprehensive series of tachistoscopic experiments with lateralized stimulus presentation and comparison with healthy participants revealed partial visual hemiagnosia for stimuli presented to their contralesional hemifield, applying inferential single-case statistics to evaluate deficits and dissociations. Double dissociations were found in 4 experiments during which participants had to integrate more than one visual element, either through comparison or formation of a global gestalt. Against the background of recent neuroimaging findings, we conclude that of all medial parietal structures, the precuneus is the most likely candidate for a crucial involvement in such bottom-up visual integration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Relationship between Cognitive Development and Foreign Language Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Everett Franklin, Jr.

    Based on research relating William Perry's scheme of cognitive development to foreign language proficiency, a developmental hypothesis concerning language ability is proposed. This approach suggests that lower developmental stages in the cognitive domain retard the achievement of communicative language proficiency, while higher developmental…

  16. Moving Readers from Struggling to Proficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    If we want to move children from struggling to read to being proficient readers, we must address the disparate ways that teachers respond to readers with varying abilities. Restorative practices, akin to restorative justice, build relationships, make connections, and foster a reader's sense of ownership and empowerment. What would happen if…

  17. Production of Routines in L2 English: Effect of Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of proficiency and study abroad experience on L2 learners' ability to produce routines. Participants were 64 Japanese students in an English-medium university in Japan. They were divided into three groups: Group 1 had lower proficiency with no study abroad experience, Group 2 had higher proficiency but no…

  18. Impaired Visual Integration in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königs, Marsh; Weeda, Wouter D; van Heurn, L W Ernest; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Poll-Thé, Bwee Tien; Beelen, Anita; van der Wees, Marleen; Kemps, Rachèl J J K; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Axonal injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause impaired sensory integration. We aim to determine the effects of childhood TBI on visual integration in relation to general neurocognitive functioning. We compared children aged 6-13 diagnosed with TBI (n = 103; M = 1.7 years post-injury) to children with traumatic control (TC) injury (n = 44). Three TBI severity groups were distinguished: mild TBI without risk factors for complicated TBI (mildRF- TBI, n = 22), mild TBI with ≥1 risk factor (mildRF+ TBI, n = 46) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 35). An experimental paradigm measured speed and accuracy of goal-directed behavior depending on: (1) visual identification; (2) visual localization; or (3) both, measuring visual integration. Group-differences on reaction time (RT) or accuracy were tracked down to task strategy, visual processing efficiency and extra-decisional processes (e.g. response execution) using diffusion model analysis. General neurocognitive functioning was measured by a Wechsler Intelligence Scale short form. The TBI group had poorer accuracy of visual identification and visual integration than the TC group (Ps ≤ .03; ds ≤ -0.40). Analyses differentiating TBI severity revealed that visual identification accuracy was impaired in the moderate/severe TBI group (P = .05, d = -0.50) and that visual integration accuracy was impaired in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (Ps impaired visual integration accuracy down to lower visual integration efficiency in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (Ps impairments observed in the TBI group (P = .009, d = -0.48) were statistically explained by visual integration efficiency (P = .002). Children with mildRF+ TBI or moderate/severe TBI have impaired visual integration efficiency, which may contribute to poorer general neurocognitive functioning.

  19. Impaired Visual Integration in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsh Königs

    Full Text Available Axonal injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI may cause impaired sensory integration. We aim to determine the effects of childhood TBI on visual integration in relation to general neurocognitive functioning.We compared children aged 6-13 diagnosed with TBI (n = 103; M = 1.7 years post-injury to children with traumatic control (TC injury (n = 44. Three TBI severity groups were distinguished: mild TBI without risk factors for complicated TBI (mildRF- TBI, n = 22, mild TBI with ≥1 risk factor (mildRF+ TBI, n = 46 or moderate/severe TBI (n = 35. An experimental paradigm measured speed and accuracy of goal-directed behavior depending on: (1 visual identification; (2 visual localization; or (3 both, measuring visual integration. Group-differences on reaction time (RT or accuracy were tracked down to task strategy, visual processing efficiency and extra-decisional processes (e.g. response execution using diffusion model analysis. General neurocognitive functioning was measured by a Wechsler Intelligence Scale short form.The TBI group had poorer accuracy of visual identification and visual integration than the TC group (Ps ≤ .03; ds ≤ -0.40. Analyses differentiating TBI severity revealed that visual identification accuracy was impaired in the moderate/severe TBI group (P = .05, d = -0.50 and that visual integration accuracy was impaired in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (Ps < .02, ds ≤ -0.56. Diffusion model analyses tracked impaired visual integration accuracy down to lower visual integration efficiency in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (Ps < .001, ds ≤ -0.73. Importantly, intelligence impairments observed in the TBI group (P = .009, d = -0.48 were statistically explained by visual integration efficiency (P = .002.Children with mildRF+ TBI or moderate/severe TBI have impaired visual integration efficiency, which may contribute to poorer general neurocognitive functioning.

  20. Facets of Speaking Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants--181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch--performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel of judges and formed the dependent variable in…

  1. Evaluation by Proficiency Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerby, Dale

    1977-01-01

    Albuquerque Technical-Vocational Institute's system for grading business courses by proficiency certification in place of the traditional A through F system is described. A certificate is developed for each course, with evaluation of student performance in each area. This system requires a greater volume of paper work and skill analysis but it is…

  2. Facets of speaking proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N.H.; Steinel, M.P.; Florijn, A.F.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants—181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch—performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel

  3. Bilingual Education and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, California instituted a statewide test measuring English proficiency for English learners, students who are not proficient in English. In 2003 and 2004, nearly 500,000 English learners in grades 1-5 took this test each year. The relationship between bilingual education receipt and English proficiency is estimated using value-added…

  4. An Exploration of Academic Reading Proficiency at the University Level: A Cross-Sectional Study of 848 Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzycki, Meg; Howard, Pamela; Allen, Diane; Desa, Geoffrey; Rosegard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Academic reading proficiently is characterized by the ability to perform cognitive tasks associated with interpreting text. Researchers developed an externally validated Informal Academic Reading Proficiency Test to gauge undergraduates' academic reading proficiency. A cross-sectional study of 23 classes completed the reading test in 2014. This…

  5. Impaired visual integration in children with traumatic brain injury: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konigs, M.; Weeda, W.D.; van Heurn, L.W.E.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Goslings, J.C.; Luitse, J.S.K.; Poll-The, B.T.; Beelen, A.; Wees, M.; Kemps, R.J.J.K.; Catsman-Berrevoets, C.E.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Axonal injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause impaired sensory integration. We aim to determine the effects of childhood TBI on visual integration in relation to general neurocognitive functioning. Methods We compared children aged 6-13 diagnosed with TBI (n = 103; M = 1.7

  6. Impaired Visual Integration in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury: An Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Königs (Marsh); W.D. Weeda (Wouter D.); L.W.E. Van Heurn (L.W. Ernest); R.J. Vermeulen (R. Jeroen); J.C. Goslings (Carel); J.S.K. Luitse (Jan S.K.); B.T. Poll-Thé (Bwee Tien); A. Beelen (Anita); M. Van Der Wees (Marleen); R.J.J.K. Kemps (Rachèl J.J.K.); C.E. Catsman-Berrevoets (Coriene); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground Axonal injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause impaired sensory integration. We aim to determine the effects of childhood TBI on visual integration in relation to general neurocognitive functioning. Methods We compared children aged 6-13 diagnosed with TBI (n =

  7. Organization and ELISA-Based Results of the First Proficiency Testing to Evaluate the Ability of European Union Laboratories to Detect Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type B (SEB in Buffer and Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Nia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to organize the first proficiency test (PT dedicated to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB detection in milk and buffer solutions. This paper describes the organization of the PT trial according to EN ISO 17043 requirements. Characterization of the SEB stock solution was performed using SDS-PAGE and SE-specific ELISA, and amino acid analysis was used to assign its protein concentration. The solution was then used to prepare six PT materials (four milk and two buffer batches at a ng/g toxin level, which included one blank and one SEA-containing milk as specificity control. Suitable material homogeneity and stability were assessed using screening and quantitative ELISAs. Among the methods used by the participants, ELISA-based methods demonstrated their efficiency for the detection of SEB in both simple and complex matrices. The results serve as a basis for further improving the detection capabilities in expert laboratories and can therefore be considered as a contribution to biopreparedness.

  8. Pathways From Toddler Information Processing to Adolescent Lexical Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation of 3-year core information-processing abilities to lexical growth and development. The core abilities covered four domains-memory, representational competence (cross-modal transfer), processing speed, and attention. Lexical proficiency was assessed at 3 and 13 years with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and verbal fluency. The sample (N = 128) consisted of 43 preterms (toddler information processing and language proficiency and, independent of stability in language, direct predictive links between (a) 3-year cross-modal ability and 13-year PPVT and (b) 3-year processing speed and both 13-year measures, PPVT and verbal fluency. Thus, toddler information processing was related to growth in lexical proficiency from 3 to 13 years. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Clinical Wisdom among Proficient Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Hall, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    This paperexamines clinical wisdom which has emerged from a broader study anout nurse managers´influence on proficient registered nurse turnover and retention. The purpose of the study was to increase understanding of proficient nurses´experience and clinical practice by giving voice to the nurses...

  10. Proficiency Effect on L2 Pragmatic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This paper synthesizes cross-sectional studies of the effect of proficiency on second language (L2) pragmatics to answer the synthesis question: Does proficiency affect adult learners' pragmatic competence? Findings have revealed an overall positive proficiency effect on pragmatic competence, and in most cases higher proficiency learners have…

  11. Assessing Critical Thinking Skills in Students with Limited English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Marianne; Bochner, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a procedure that has been used successfully to evaluate the critical thinking (CT) abilities of a population of undergraduates having limited proficiency in the English language. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to obtain reliable evaluations of CT skills in undergraduates who…

  12. Convergent and Discriminant Validation of Oral Language Proficiency Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; Palmer, Adrian S.

    In a study designed to validate oral language proficiency tests, it is planned to administer a series of tests to 100 native Mandarin Chinese-speaking subjects (foreign students and their spouses). The tests will measure communicative competence in speaking (ability to speak, exhibiting control of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and pragmatic rules;…

  13. The Impact of Second Language Proficiency in Dyadic Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David; Mills, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback is widely used in second and foreign language writing contexts. While second language (L2) proficiency is likely to be an important factor in determining peers' ability to give and utilize feedback, its contribution has been relatively under-researched. In the present study, 54 undergraduates in a foreign language writing context…

  14. Computer proficiency questionnaire: assessing low and high computer proficient seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D; Mitzner, Tracy; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran

    2015-06-01

    Computers and the Internet have the potential to enrich the lives of seniors and aid in the performance of important tasks required for independent living. A prerequisite for reaping these benefits is having the skills needed to use these systems, which is highly dependent on proper training. One prerequisite for efficient and effective training is being able to gauge current levels of proficiency. We developed a new measure (the Computer Proficiency Questionnaire, or CPQ) to measure computer proficiency in the domains of computer basics, printing, communication, Internet, calendaring software, and multimedia use. Our aim was to develop a measure appropriate for individuals with a wide range of proficiencies from noncomputer users to extremely skilled users. To assess the reliability and validity of the CPQ, a diverse sample of older adults, including 276 older adults with no or minimal computer experience, was recruited and asked to complete the CPQ. The CPQ demonstrated excellent reliability (Cronbach's α = .98), with subscale reliabilities ranging from .86 to .97. Age, computer use, and general technology use all predicted CPQ scores. Factor analysis revealed three main factors of proficiency related to Internet and e-mail use; communication and calendaring; and computer basics. Based on our findings, we also developed a short-form CPQ (CPQ-12) with similar properties but 21 fewer questions. The CPQ and CPQ-12 are useful tools to gauge computer proficiency for training and research purposes, even among low computer proficient older adults. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Auditory cross-modal reorganization in cochlear implant users indicates audio-visual integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Stropahl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is clear evidence for cross-modal cortical reorganization in the auditory system of post-lingually deafened cochlear implant (CI users. A recent report suggests that moderate sensori-neural hearing loss is already sufficient to initiate corresponding cortical changes. To what extend these changes are deprivation-induced or related to sensory recovery is still debated. Moreover, the influence of cross-modal reorganization on CI benefit is also still unclear. While reorganization during deafness may impede speech recovery, reorganization also has beneficial influences on face recognition and lip-reading. As CI users were observed to show differences in multisensory integration, the question arises if cross-modal reorganization is related to audio-visual integration skills. The current electroencephalography study investigated cortical reorganization in experienced post-lingually deafened CI users (n = 18, untreated mild to moderately hearing impaired individuals (n = 18 and normal hearing controls (n = 17. Cross-modal activation of the auditory cortex by means of EEG source localization in response to human faces and audio-visual integration, quantified with the McGurk illusion, were measured. CI users revealed stronger cross-modal activations compared to age-matched normal hearing individuals. Furthermore, CI users showed a relationship between cross-modal activation and audio-visual integration strength. This may further support a beneficial relationship between cross-modal activation and daily-life communication skills that may not be fully captured by laboratory-based speech perception tests. Interestingly, hearing impaired individuals showed behavioral and neurophysiological results that were numerically between the other two groups, and they showed a moderate relationship between cross-modal activation and the degree of hearing loss. This further supports the notion that auditory deprivation evokes a reorganization of the

  16. Arthroscopic proficiency: methods in evaluating competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The current paradigm of arthroscopic training lacks objective evaluation of technical ability and its adequacy is concerning given the accelerating complexity of the field. To combat insufficiencies, emphasis is shifting towards skill acquisition outside the operating room and sophisticated assessment tools. We reviewed (1) the validity of cadaver and surgical simulation in arthroscopic training, (2) the role of psychomotor analysis and arthroscopic technical ability, (3) what validated assessment tools are available to evaluate technical competency, and (4) the quantification of arthroscopic proficiency. Methods The Medline and Embase databases were searched for published articles in the English literature pertaining to arthroscopic competence, arthroscopic assessment and evaluation and objective measures of arthroscopic technical skill. Abstracts were independently evaluated and exclusion criteria included articles outside the scope of knee and shoulder arthroscopy as well as original articles about specific therapies, outcomes and diagnoses leaving 52 articles citied in this review. Results Simulated arthroscopic environments exhibit high levels of internal validity and consistency for simple arthroscopic tasks, however the ability to transfer complex skills to the operating room has not yet been established. Instrument and force trajectory data can discriminate between technical ability for basic arthroscopic parameters and may serve as useful adjuncts to more comprehensive techniques. There is a need for arthroscopic assessment tools for standardized evaluation and objective feedback of technical skills, yet few comprehensive instruments exist, especially for the shoulder. Opinion on the required arthroscopic experience to obtain proficiency remains guarded and few governing bodies specify absolute quantities. Conclusions Further validation is required to demonstrate the transfer of complex arthroscopic skills from simulated environments to the

  17. Language proficiency and nursing registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    This discussion paper focuses on English proficiency standards for nursing registration in Australia, how Australia has dealt with the issue of language proficiency, and the factors which have led to the establishment of the current language standards. Also, this paper will provide a comparison of the two language tests that are currently accepted in Australia (OET and IELTS), including the appropriateness of these tests and the minimum standards used. The paper will also examine the use of educational background as an indicator of language proficiency. Finally, communication-based complaints in the post-registration environment will be explored, and some discussion will be provided about why pre-registration measures might have failed to prevent such problematic situations from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proficiency and the Bilingual Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, Mirjam; And Others

    A study investigated lexical decision-making among Dutch-English bilinguals in the auditory modality. Subjects, bilinguals at three proficiency levels (intermediate, high, and near-native) were presented with 40 cognate and 40 non-cognate word pairs, a similar number of English and Dutch distractors, and a similar number of nonsense words in each…

  19. A French Speaking Proficiency Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimsleur, Paul

    An attempt to test students objectively in a five-part, French, speaking proficiency test is described and discussed. Concrete nouns, abstract words, pronunciation, syntax, and fluency are tested with a combination of tape and picture stimuli. Reliability, validity, and practical questions are raised; and previous aural-oral testing procedures are…

  20. Second Language Proficiency Assessment and Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    A discussion of the role of second language proficiency assessment in the evaluation of language programs argues that for four reasons, the use of proficiency is inappropriate as a central element in evaluation. The reasons are: (1) the construct of proficiency has not been operationalized in a way that enables it to be used usefully; (2)…

  1. Professor's Page: Is Understanding a Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The everyday use of "proficient" carries connotations of having reached a level of expertise. One would not describe someone stumbling through a rendition of "Chopsticks" as a proficient piano player; but novice pianists work on musical proficiencies--practicing scales or playing a polka--in parallel. They do not put off…

  2. Motor Proficiency in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Fotini Venetsanou; Antonis Kambas

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine motor proficiency in young children, focusing on potential gender differences. For that purpose, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP-LF) was administered to 540 children (272 boys), 4½ to 6 years old. First, the 2 (sex) × 4 (age groups) ANOVA computed on children’s total BOTMP-LF scores showed that age had a statistically significant effect, whereas gender did ...

  3. Fundamental movement skills proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder: does physical self-concept matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sit, Cindy H P; Capio, Catherine M; Burnett, Angus; Ha, Amy S C; Huang, Wendy Y J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) examine differences in fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency, physical self-concept, and physical activity in children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and (2) determine the association of FMS proficiency with physical self-concept while considering key confounding factors. Participants included 43 children with DCD and 87 age-matched typically developing (TD) children. FMS proficiency was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development - second edition. Physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed using self-report questionnaires. A two-way (group by gender) ANCOVA was used to determine whether between-group differences existed in FMS proficiency, physical self-concept, and physical activity after controlling for age and BMI. Partial correlations and hierarchical multiple regression models were used to examine the relationship between FMS proficiency and physical self-concept. Compared with their TD peers, children with DCD displayed less proficiency in various components of FMS and viewed themselves as being less competent in physical coordination, sporting ability, and physical health. Physical coordination was a significant predictor of ability in object control skills. DCD status and gender were significant predictors of FMS proficiency. Future FMS interventions should target children with DCD and girls, and should emphasize improving object control skills proficiency and physical coordination. Children with DCD tend to have not only lower FMS proficiency than age-matched typically developing children but also lower physical self-concept. Self-perceptions of physical coordination by children with DCD are likely to be valuable contributors to development of object control skills. This may then help to develop their confidence in performing motor skills. Children with DCD need supportive programs that facilitate the development of object control skills. Efficacy of training

  4. Collinear facilitation and contour integration in autism: evidence for atypical visual integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eJachim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, atypical communication and a restricted repertoire of interests and activities. Altered sensory and perceptual experiences are also common, and a notable perceptual difference between individuals with ASD and controls is their superior performance in visual tasks where it may be beneficial to ignore global context. This superiority may be the result of atypical integrative processing. To explore this claim we investigated visual integration in adults with ASD (diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome using two psychophysical tasks thought to rely on integrative processing - collinear facilitation and contour integration. We measured collinear facilitation at different flanker orientation offsets and contour integration for both open and closed contours. Our results indicate that compared to matched controls, ASD participants show (i reduced collinear facilitation, despite equivalent performance without flankers and (ii less benefit from closed contours in contour integration. These results indicate weaker visuospatial integration in adults with ASD and suggest that further studies using these types of paradigms would provide knowledge on how contextual processing is altered in ASD.

  5. Partial Dictation as a Measure of EFL Listening Proficiency: Evidence from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongwen

    2013-01-01

    Partial dictation is a measure of EFL listening proficiency that can be easily constructed, administered, and scored by EFL teachers. However, it is controversial whether this form of test measures lower-order abilities exclusively or involves both lower- and higher-order abilities. In order to answer this question, a study was designed to examine…

  6. Academic Proficiency (Language and Content) and the Role of Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This report continues the work of Krashen and Brown (2007), developing and evaluating a set of hypotheses for the development of academic proficiency. That article defined academic proficiency as having two components: academic language proficiency and knowledge of academic content.

  7. NCES Finds States Lowered "Proficiency" Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    With 2014 approaching as the deadline by which states must get all their students up to "proficient" levels on state tests, a study released last week by the U.S. Department of Education's top statistics agency suggests that some states may have lowered student-proficiency standards on such tests in recent years. For the 47-state study,…

  8. Proficiency test for aflatoxin in pig feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  9. Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

  10. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates (i) English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii) how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as linguistic proficiency develops; and (iii) the extent to which receptive knowledge of ...

  11. Intelligibility and Perceptions of English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooy, Susan Coetzee-Van

    2009-01-01

    More and more learners of English from the Expanding Circle are travelling to Outer Circle contexts to learn English or to improve their English proficiency. This is also the case for some Korean families who moved to Potchefstroom, South Africa. This phenomenon poses challenges in terms of assessment of English proficiency, and emphasizes the…

  12. Language proficiency: Current strategies, future remedies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language proficiency among young South Africans is low. This is true not only of mother tongue speakers of English and Afrikaans, but also, and especially, of non-mother tongue speakers of English, among whom language proficiency levels raise serious concern. Some examples are given to illustrate the importance of ...

  13. 14 CFR 61.98 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.98 Section 61.98... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Recreational Pilots § 61.98 Flight proficiency... and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation of this section that apply...

  14. 14 CFR 61.187 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.187 Section 61.187... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.187 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who is applying for a...

  15. 14 CFR 61.107 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.107 Section 61.107... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Private Pilots § 61.107 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who applies for a private pilot certificate must receive and log ground and flight...

  16. Development of a Bayesian Estimator for Audio-Visual Integration: A Neurocomputational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Mauro; Crisafulli, Andrea; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Magosso, Elisa; Cuppini, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    The brain integrates information from different sensory modalities to generate a coherent and accurate percept of external events. Several experimental studies suggest that this integration follows the principle of Bayesian estimate. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this behavior, and its development in a multisensory environment, are still insufficiently understood. We recently presented a neural network model of audio-visual integration (Neural Computation, 2017) to investigate how a Bayesian estimator can spontaneously develop from the statistics of external stimuli. Model assumes the presence of two unimodal areas (auditory and visual) topologically organized. Neurons in each area receive an input from the external environment, computed as the inner product of the sensory-specific stimulus and the receptive field synapses, and a cross-modal input from neurons of the other modality. Based on sensory experience, synapses were trained via Hebbian potentiation and a decay term. Aim of this work is to improve the previous model, including a more realistic distribution of visual stimuli: visual stimuli have a higher spatial accuracy at the central azimuthal coordinate and a lower accuracy at the periphery. Moreover, their prior probability is higher at the center, and decreases toward the periphery. Simulations show that, after training, the receptive fields of visual and auditory neurons shrink to reproduce the accuracy of the input (both at the center and at the periphery in the visual case), thus realizing the likelihood estimate of unimodal spatial position. Moreover, the preferred positions of visual neurons contract toward the center, thus encoding the prior probability of the visual input. Finally, a prior probability of the co-occurrence of audio-visual stimuli is encoded in the cross-modal synapses. The model is able to simulate the main properties of a Bayesian estimator and to reproduce behavioral data in all conditions examined. In

  17. Development of a Bayesian Estimator for Audio-Visual Integration: A Neurocomputational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ursino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The brain integrates information from different sensory modalities to generate a coherent and accurate percept of external events. Several experimental studies suggest that this integration follows the principle of Bayesian estimate. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this behavior, and its development in a multisensory environment, are still insufficiently understood. We recently presented a neural network model of audio-visual integration (Neural Computation, 2017 to investigate how a Bayesian estimator can spontaneously develop from the statistics of external stimuli. Model assumes the presence of two unimodal areas (auditory and visual topologically organized. Neurons in each area receive an input from the external environment, computed as the inner product of the sensory-specific stimulus and the receptive field synapses, and a cross-modal input from neurons of the other modality. Based on sensory experience, synapses were trained via Hebbian potentiation and a decay term. Aim of this work is to improve the previous model, including a more realistic distribution of visual stimuli: visual stimuli have a higher spatial accuracy at the central azimuthal coordinate and a lower accuracy at the periphery. Moreover, their prior probability is higher at the center, and decreases toward the periphery. Simulations show that, after training, the receptive fields of visual and auditory neurons shrink to reproduce the accuracy of the input (both at the center and at the periphery in the visual case, thus realizing the likelihood estimate of unimodal spatial position. Moreover, the preferred positions of visual neurons contract toward the center, thus encoding the prior probability of the visual input. Finally, a prior probability of the co-occurrence of audio-visual stimuli is encoded in the cross-modal synapses. The model is able to simulate the main properties of a Bayesian estimator and to reproduce behavioral data in all conditions

  18. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.

  19. 14 CFR 61.127 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Commercial Pilots § 61.127 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who applies for a commercial pilot certificate must receive and log ground and...

  20. Limited english proficiency accessibility program : demonstration program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In 2006, the Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon (TriMet) secured grant funding from the Federal Transit Administration : (FTA) that enabled the agency to launch a creative and ambitious Limited English Proficiency (LEP) demonst...

  1. Improving English Listening Proficiency: The Application of ARCS Learning-Motivational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Language learning motivation is one of vital factors which strongly correlates to the success in second language acquisition. Listening proficiency, as one of the basic language abilities, is paid much attention in English instruction, but presently the college English listening teaching is a weak link in English language teaching in China, which…

  2. The role of computer use and English proficiency in gender wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Long Hwa; Chen, Hsin-Fan

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and accounts for potential identification bias in order to shed light on the role of computer use as well as English ability on the gender wage differential in Taiwan. The results show that both computer use and English proficiency benefit female...

  3. Performance-Based Task Assessment of Higher-Order Proficiencies in Redesigned STEM High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Glennie, Elizabeth; Li, Songze

    2017-01-01

    This study explored student abilities in applying conceptual knowledge when presented with structured performance tasks. Specifically, the study gauged proficiency in higher-order applications of students enrolled in earth and environmental science or biology. The student sample was drawn from a Redesigned STEM high school model where a tested…

  4. Problems in Examining the Validity of the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problem of measuring the validity of interview ratings in the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPI), proposes frameworks to distinguish abilities from testing methods, and considers factors affecting test performance. Suggestions for research and development on the ACTFL OPI…

  5. Teachers' English Proficiency and Classroom Language Use: A Conversation Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Canh, Le; Renandya, Willy A.

    2017-01-01

    How does teachers' target language proficiency correlate with their ability to use the target language effectively in order to provide optimal learning opportunities in the language classroom? Adopting a conversation analysis approach, this study examines the extent to which teachers' use of the target language in the classroom creates learning…

  6. Speaking in Multiple Languages: Neural Correlates of Language Proficiency in Multilingual Word Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videsott, Gerda; Herrnberger, Barbel; Hoenig, Klaus; Schilly, Edgar; Grothe, Jo; Wiater, Werner; Spitzer, Manfred; Kiefer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The human brain has the fascinating ability to represent and to process several languages. Although the first and further languages activate partially different brain networks, the linguistic factors underlying these differences in language processing have to be further specified. We investigated the neural correlates of language proficiency in a…

  7. Proficiency testing in the light of a new rationale in metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The novel proposed definition of measurement result in the international metrology vocabulary requires a revision of standards and guidelines for proficiency testing (PT), and a new approach to processing proficiency data is needed to test the ability of laboratories to present not only unbiased...... to an accepted reference value that fully reflects the uncertainties reported by participants in a PT scheme and permits calculation of En-numbers to distinguish whether or not measurement results are consistent with the accepted definition of the measurand. The strategy is applied to PT data from a recent...

  8. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests to detect viral fish diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahns, Søren; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Skall, Helle Frank

    An inter-laboratory proficiency test has ben provided by the European Community Laboratory (CRL) for Fish Diseases every year since 1996. The test is provided to all European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) that are obliged to participate and to a limited number of non-European NRLs, making...... the total number of participating laboratories 35. The test is primarily designed to assess the ability of participating laboratories to identify and quantify the notifiable non-exotic fish pathogenic viruses: Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious haematopietic necrosis virus (IHNV......) but also to assess their ability to differentiate other fish viruses as spring viraemia of carp virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, perch rhabdovirus etc. Five coded ampoules are provided to participants containing lyophilised supernatant from infected cell cultures. The CRL collect the data...

  9. Do proficiency testing participants learn from their mistakes? Experience from the EXCEL throat culture module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Robert W

    2002-02-01

    Participation in proficiency testing is required under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988. Although the primary purpose of this testing is evaluation of current laboratory performance, a major secondary benefit of such testing is postulated to be progressive improvement in laboratory performance over time as laboratories learn from their previous experiences and feedback. To test the hypothesis that a secondary result of proficiency testing is improvement over time of laboratory performance. The performance of participants in a large proficiency testing program (EXCEL), designed for clinic and office laboratories, on a specific problematic competence, the ability to differentiate group A streptococcus from group C streptococci, was monitored during a 6-year period (1996-2001) for changes in participant performance. With each testing cycle, feedback on performance relative to peers and an educational discussion analyzing performance and suggesting best practices was submitted to participants. Despite consistent feedback, there was no significant change in participant performance throughout the period studied. In a large, stable proficiency testing program, a significant throat culture competence, which demonstrated less than optimal performance, did not improve over time, suggesting that current utilization of proficiency testing results in laboratory improvement programs is suboptimal.

  10. Proficient beyond borders: assessing non-native speakers in a native speakers’ framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Fleckenstein

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background English language proficiency is considered a basic skill that students from different language backgrounds are expected to master, independent of whether they are native or non-native speakers. Tests that measure language proficiency in non-native speakers are typically linked to the common European framework of reference for languages. Such tests, however, often lack the criteria to define a practically relevant degree of proficiency in English. We approach this deficit by assessing non-native speakers’ performance within a native speakers’ framework. Method Items from two English reading assessments—the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA and the National Assessment (NA for English as a foreign language in Germany—were administered to N = 427 German high school students. Student abilities were estimated by drawing plausible values in a two-dimensional Rasch model. Results Results show that non-native speakers of English generally underperformed compared to native speakers. However, academic track students in the German school system achieved satisfactory levels of proficiency on the PISA scale. Linking the two scales showed systematic differences in the proficiency level classifications. Conclusion The findings contribute to the validation and international localization of NA standards for English as a foreign language. Practical implications are discussed with respect to policy-defined benchmarks for the successful participation in a global English-speaking society.

  11. Music proficiency and quantification of absolute pitch: a large-scale study among Brazilian musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Bender Chagas Leite

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch (AP is the ability to identify and name the pitch of a sound without external reference. Often, accuracy and speed at naming isolated musical pitches are correlated with demographic, biological and acoustical parameters to gain insight into the genesis and evolution of this ability in specific cohorts. However, the majority of those studies were conducted in North America, Europe or Asia. To fill this gap, here we investigated the pitch-naming performance in a large population of Brazilian conservatory musicians (N = 200. As previously shown, we found that the population performance was rather a continuum than an all-or-none ability. By comparing the observed distribution of correct responses to a theoretical binomial distribution, we estimated the prevalence of AP as being 18% amongst regular music students. High accuracy thresholds (e.g., 85% of correct responses yielded a prevalence of 4%, suggesting that AP might have been underestimated in previous reports. Irrespective of the threshold used, AP prevalence was higher in musicians who started their musical practice and formal musical education early in life. Finally, we compared the performance of those music students (average proficiency group with another group of students selected to take part in the conservatory orchestra (high proficiency group, N = 30. Interestingly, the prevalence of AP was higher in the later in comparison to the former group. In addition, even when the response was incorrect, the mean absolute deviation from the correct response was smaller in the high proficiency group compared to the average proficiency group (Glass's Δ: 0.5. Taken together, our results show that the prevalence of AP in Brazilian students is similar to other non-tonal language populations, although this measure is highly dependent on the scoring threshold used. Despite corroborating that early involvement with musical practice and formal education can foster AP ability, the present

  12. Music Proficiency and Quantification of Absolute Pitch: A Large-Scale Study among Brazilian Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Raphael B C; Mota-Rolim, Sergio A; Queiroz, Claudio M T

    2016-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify and name the pitch of a sound without external reference. Often, accuracy and speed at naming isolated musical pitches are correlated with demographic, biological, and acoustical parameters to gain insight into the genesis and evolution of this ability in specific cohorts. However, the majority of those studies were conducted in North America, Europe, or Asia. To fill this gap, here we investigated the pitch-naming performance in a large population of Brazilian conservatory musicians (N = 200). As previously shown, we found that the population performance was rather a continuum than an "all-or-none" ability. By comparing the observed distribution of correct responses to a theoretical binomial distribution, we estimated the prevalence of AP as being 18% amongst regular music students. High accuracy thresholds (e.g., 85% of correct responses) yielded a prevalence of 4%, suggesting that AP might have been underestimated in previous reports. Irrespective of the threshold used, AP prevalence was higher in musicians who started their musical practice and formal musical education early in life. Finally, we compared the performance of those music students (average proficiency group) with another group of students selected to take part in the conservatory orchestra (high proficiency group, N = 30). Interestingly, the prevalence of AP was higher in the latter in comparison to the former group. In addition, even when the response was incorrect, the mean absolute deviation from the correct response was smaller in the high proficiency group compared to the average proficiency group (Glass's Δ: 0.5). Taken together, our results show that the prevalence of AP in Brazilian students is similar to other non-tonal language populations, although this measure is highly dependent on the scoring threshold used. Despite corroborating that early involvement with musical practice and formal education can foster AP ability, the present data

  13. Beyond English proficiency: rethinking immigrant integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S; Frank, Reanne

    2014-05-01

    We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Beyond English Proficiency: Rethinking Immigrant Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S.; Frank, Reanne

    2014-01-01

    We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. PMID:24576636

  15. ESL Proficiency and a Word Frequency Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlech-Jones, Brian

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)

  16. Discrepancies between perceptions of English proficiency and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical data that indicate a discrepancy between perceptions and scores on English tests among South African participants (1998-2011) are reported. A discrepancy between perceptions of English proficiency and scores on English tests is important because of its potential impact on language learner motivation. It will be ...

  17. Measuring Task Proficiency with Tailored Response Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Herbert George; And Others

    Tailored Response Testing (TRT) is a new type of test that has demonstrated its applicability to the evaluation of human performance in a wide variety of occupations and work settings. The Navy is using TRT to measure the technical proficiency of job incumbents in three of its jobs. The methodology holds great promise for testing aboard ships as…

  18. Crime Laboratory Proficiency Testing Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph L.; And Others

    A three-year research effort was conducted to design a crime laboratory proficiency testing program encompassing the United States. The objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility of preparation and distribution of different classes of physical evidence; (2) assess the accuracy of criminalistics laboratories in the processing of selected…

  19. One Hundred Percent Proficiency: A Mission Impossible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Eric; Wilson, Glen; Cobb, Casey; Rallis, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Applying microeconomic theory to No Child Left Behind predicts that its use of significant consequences for schools that do not reach 100% proficiency on rigorous standardized tests by 2014 will likely prevent most, if not all schools, from providing a high-quality education for their students. The central problem is cost. Quality assurance models…

  20. Current Proficiency Testing: A Reflection of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine-Niakaris, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Looks at the washback effect in language testing, using as an example the new University of Michigan Examination for Certificate of Competency (ECCE), designed for intermediate- to upper-intermediate level learners. The ECCE can be considered an example of the movement toward achievement-oriented proficiency tests. (Author/VWL)

  1. 14 CFR 61.157 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.157 Section 61.157... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.157 Flight... and log ground and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation under this...

  2. 5 CFR 9901.364 - Foreign language proficiency pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901... Foreign Language Proficiency Pay (FLPP) if they are certified as proficient in a foreign language the... annual list of foreign languages necessary for national security interests and to establish overall...

  3. Time to English Reading Proficiency. Research Brief. RB 1201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneyderman, Aleksandr; Froman, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The time it takes for an English Language Learner (ELL) to reach reading proficiency in English depends on the grade level of entry into the English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) program and on the student's initial English proficiency level. The summary table below presents the average years to English proficiency across different grade…

  4. 34 CFR 300.27 - Limited English proficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited English proficient. 300.27 Section 300.27... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.27 Limited English proficient. Limited English proficient has the meaning given the term in section 9101(25) of the ESEA. (Authority: 20...

  5. Profiles in Bilingualism: Factors Influencing Kindergartners' Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Wu, Shuang; Daraghmeh, Ahlam

    2012-01-01

    Three common assumptions concerning bilingual children's language proficiency are: (1) their proficiency in two languages is usually unbalanced; (2) low socioeconomic status (SES) indicates low proficiency in both languages; and (3) encouraging parents to speak some societal language at home will promote its development. Examining the vocabulary…

  6. Segmentation and accuracy-based scores for the automatic assessment of oral proficiency for proficient L2 speakers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Febe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the automatic assessment of oral proficiency for advanced second language speakers. A spoken dialogue system is used to guide students through an oral test and to record their answers. Indicators of oral proficiency...

  7. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  8. Local and Global Task Switching Costs in Bilinguals Who Vary in Second Language Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relationship between bilinguals' second language (L2) proficiency and their performance on a Stroop switching task, in which a color word (e.g., GREEN) appeared in a congruent ink color (e.g., green) or an incongruent ink color (e.g., red). Participants either read aloud the color word in the word-reading trials or named the ink color in the color-naming trials. Bilinguals who varied in L2 proficiency received 2 pure blocks, consisting of word-reading trials and color-naming trials, respectively, and 1 mixed block, consisting of intermixed word-reading and color-naming trials in an alternating-runs pattern. Comparing performance in nonswitch trials in the mixed block and the pure block provides a measure of global switch costs, whereas differences on switch trials and nonswitch trials in the mixed block reflect local switch costs. Bilinguals with higher L2 proficiency showed a marginally smaller Stroop effect in color naming, a smaller local switch cost in word reading (but not in color naming), and a smaller word-reading versus color-naming task set asymmetry in local switch costs. The latter result was consistent with the language switching finding that the L1/L2 switch cost asymmetry decreased as a function of bilinguals' L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings support the facilitative role of L2 proficiency in bilinguals' task set switching: Those with higher L2 proficiency have better task set shifting and reconfiguration and updating abilities when they switch from a more difficult task set (color naming) to an easier task set (word reading) in a task-switching paradigm.

  9. Performance Monitoring and Response Inhibition in a Saccadic Countermanding Task in High and Low proficient bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika eSingh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 fluency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR task (Experiment1 and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR task (Experiment 2. In this task typically a target is presented to which subject must make saccade (No step trials, unless a new target appears on the other location after some delay from the first target onset (Step trials. On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first instead program a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT, which is the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target, as a measure of response inhibition, and post-stop slowing as a measure of performance monitoring, we observed two important results. It was found that high proficiency bilinguals showed more post-stop slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficiency bilinguals for both VGR and MGR. Secondly, high and low proficiency bilingual exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR, showing no altering effect of language proficiency on the response inhibition in bilinguals. These results suggest that bilingualism impacts performance monitoring which is modulated by language proficiency if not the inhibitory control system. Higher fluency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility, and ability to adjust behaviour that facilitates attainment of cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems.

  10. Neural correlates of multisensory reliability and perceptual weights emerge at early latencies during audio-visual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Stephanie C; Kayser, Stephanie J; Kayser, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    To make accurate perceptual estimates, observers must take the reliability of sensory information into account. Despite many behavioural studies showing that subjects weight individual sensory cues in proportion to their reliabilities, it is still unclear when during a trial neuronal responses are modulated by the reliability of sensory information or when they reflect the perceptual weights attributed to each sensory input. We investigated these questions using a combination of psychophysics, EEG-based neuroimaging and single-trial decoding. Our results show that the weighted integration of sensory information in the brain is a dynamic process; effects of sensory reliability on task-relevant EEG components were evident 84 ms after stimulus onset, while neural correlates of perceptual weights emerged 120 ms after stimulus onset. These neural processes had different underlying sources, arising from sensory and parietal regions, respectively. Together these results reveal the temporal dynamics of perceptual and neural audio-visual integration and support the notion of temporally early and functionally specific multisensory processes in the brain. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Visually integrating and exploring high throughput Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS results using PheWAS-View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendergrass Sarah A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenome-Wide Association Studies (PheWAS can be used to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and a wide spectrum of phenotypes. This is a complementary approach to Genome Wide Association studies (GWAS that calculate the association between hundreds of thousands of SNPs and one or a limited range of phenotypes. The extensive exploration of the association between phenotypic structure and genotypic variation through PheWAS produces a set of complex and comprehensive results. Integral to fully inspecting, analysing, and interpreting PheWAS results is visualization of the data. Results We have developed the software PheWAS-View for visually integrating PheWAS results, including information about the SNPs, relevant genes, phenotypes, and the interrelationships between phenotypes, that exist in PheWAS. As a result both the fine grain detail as well as the larger trends that exist within PheWAS results can be elucidated. Conclusions PheWAS can be used to discover novel relationships between SNPs, phenotypes, and networks of interrelated phenotypes; identify pleiotropy; provide novel mechanistic insights; and foster hypothesis generation – and these results can be both explored and presented with PheWAS-View. PheWAS-View is freely available for non-commercial research institutions, for full details see http://ritchielab.psu.edu/ritchielab/software.

  12. Medical training and English language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, S C; Farnill, D

    1993-01-01

    Concern is often expressed about the English language proficiency (ELP) of students engaged in professional training. This report assesses the ELP of the 1990 and 1991 intakes into medicine at the University of Sydney. A quick screening test and individual in-depth tests were used in a two-stage design. Admission to the course is highly competitive and most students are selected from the top 0.75% of Higher School Certificate results but 15% and 19% of the year cohorts were found to be below average in ELP. English proficiency was found to be consistently correlated with first- and second-year university results. Initiatives taken to support students with language disadvantages and to ensure that graduates will be able to communicate effectively with patients are outlined.

  13. Language barriers to prescriptions for patients with limited English proficiency: a survey of pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Michael; Tomany-Korman, Sandra; Flores, Glenn

    2007-08-01

    Twenty-three million Americans have limited English proficiency. Language barriers can have major adverse consequences in health care, but little is known about whether pharmacies provide adequate care to patients with limited English proficiency. We sought to evaluate pharmacies' ability to provide non-English-language prescription labels, information packets, and verbal communication, and assess pharmacies' satisfaction with communication with patients who have limited English proficiency. We used a cross-sectional, mixed-methods survey of Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, pharmacies. Survey questions addressed sociodemographic and language-service characteristics of pharmacies. A pharmacist or technician at each pharmacy was asked 45 questions by telephone, fax, or mail. The main outcome measures were the ability of pharmacies to provide non-English-language prescription labels, information packets, and verbal communication; and pharmacy satisfaction with communication with patients who have limited English proficiency. Of 175 pharmacies, 73% responded. Forty-seven percent of the pharmacies never/only sometimes can print non-English-language prescription labels, 54% never/only sometimes can prepare non-English-language information packets, and 64% never/only sometimes can verbally communicate in non-English languages. Eleven percent use patients' family members/friends to interpret. Only 55% were satisfied with their communication with patients who have limited English proficiency. In multivariate analyses, community pharmacies had significantly lower odds of being able to verbally communicate in non-English languages, whereas pharmacies using telephone interpreting services had significantly higher odds. Pharmacies' suggestions for improving patient communication included continuing education, producing a chain-wide list of resources, hiring bilingual staff, using telephone interpreters, analyzing translation quality/accuracy of labels and information packets, and

  14. Speaking in multiple languages: neural correlates of language proficiency in multilingual word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videsott, Gerda; Herrnberger, Bärbel; Hoenig, Klaus; Schilly, Edgar; Grothe, Jo; Wiater, Werner; Spitzer, Manfred; Kiefer, Markus

    2010-06-01

    The human brain has the fascinating ability to represent and to process several languages. Although the first and further languages activate partially different brain networks, the linguistic factors underlying these differences in language processing have to be further specified. We investigated the neural correlates of language proficiency in a homogeneous sample of multilingual native Ladin speakers from a mountain valley in South Tyrol, Italy, who speak Italian as second language at a high level, and English at an intermediate level. In a constrained word production task under functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants had to name pictures of objects in Ladin, Italian and English in separate blocks. Overall, multilingual word production activated a common set of brain areas dedicated to known subcomponents of picture naming. In comparison to English, the fluently spoken languages Ladin and Italian were associated with enhanced right prefrontal activity. In addition, the MR signal in right prefrontal cortex correlated with naming accuracy as a measure of language proficiency. Our results demonstrate the significance of right prefrontal areas for language proficiency. Based on the role of these areas for cognitive control, our findings suggest that right prefrontal cortex supports language proficiency by effectively supervising word retrieval. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Defining English Language Proficiency for Malaysian Tertiary Education: Past, Present and Future Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Swee Heng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Any attempt to define English language proficiency can never be divorced from the theories that describe the nature of language, language acquisition and human cognition. By virtue of such theories being socially constructed, the descriptions are necessarily value-laden. Thus, a definition of language proficiency can only, at best, be described as developmental, following changes that are linguistic, pragmatic, cultural and political. In defining English proficiency for tertiary education, the context is naturally also linked to the focus on university education. The argument has been that an ‘acceptable’ level of language competence of a university applicant is anything but constant. Tremendous social changes have seen traditional values of elitism in university education giving way to the ‘massification’ of education. As Kaplan and Baldauf (1997:257 affirms, “The principal problem in tertiary education is not declining literacy standards but rather it is about meeting changed societal, cultural and informational requirements and circumstances”. In the light of these changes, this paper attempts to trace influencing factors that help define an ‘acceptable’ level of English proficiency for Malaysian tertiary education. The paper examines past and present efforts of establishing an English language policy and assessment practice for tertiary education, and concludes with some views on future development that could evolve from the current indicative pursuits of establishing language learning and ability.

  16. SYKE Proficiency Test 10/2014 Phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorio, Kristiina; Björklöf, Katarina; Kuosa, Harri; Jokipii, Reija; Järvinen, Marko; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Leivuori, Mirja; Niemelä, Maija; Väisänen, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) organized in 2014 the fourth virtual phytoplankton proficiency test based on filmed material. A total of 39 analysts from 27 organizations and eight countries took part the test. The test material represented phytoplankton that typically occurs in boreal lakes and in the northern Baltic Sea. The test included three components: 1) phytoplankton species identification test, 2) phytoplankton counting test and 3) phytoplankton measurement of cell dimens...

  17. Investigating Language Proficiency and Learning Style Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bradford; Pirotto, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences (ID) among language learners (e.g. language aptitude or motivation), are variables that are theorized to affect the degree of success one will have in acquiring a second language (L2). This study sought to add to the body of literature on learning style. 225first year students (divided into two groups based on English proficiency) at a private Japanese university were surveyed to determine their preferred learning style(s). The data obtained were then examined in relati...

  18. Understanding the High School Proficiency Test and the Early Warning Test in Relation to HCCC Enrollment Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffy, Fred

    The Grade 11 High School Proficiency Test (HSPT) and the New Jersey Early Warning Test (EWT) are two key standardized tests that indicate academic ability of county high school graduates which colleges will need to address. While HSPT scores for county high school districts reflect a range of competency in reading, math, and writing, the majority…

  19. Popular Culture, English Out-of-Class Activities, and Learner Autonomy among Highly Proficient Secondary Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hoi Wing

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning [1]. Out-of-class…

  20. Visual integration in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle eSmith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Atypical integration is a topic of debate in the autism literature. Some theories suggest that altered perception in autism spectrum disorder (ASD is due to a failure to integrate information from meaningful context into the final percept, whereas others suggest that integration of low-level features is impaired. Empirical research which forms the basis for these theories has failed to account for higher-level influences not inherent in the stimuli (i.e. instructions and goals and assess integration at both lower and higher perceptual levels within the same task. Here, we describe how perceived expectations and goals of a task can modulate the processing of low-level visual input via the medial pre-frontal cortex. We then go on to illustrate how future research might assess the relative contribution of both low and high-level processes using the same paradigm. We conclude by recommending that when results appear conflicting, consideration of the relative strength of low-level input versus feedback or high-level processes may prove helpful. Importantly, research in this area needs to more broadly consider the various influences on perception, and find better ways to assess the contributions of early and later visual processes.

  1. Online Speaking Strategy Assessment for Improving Speaking Ability in the Area of Language for Specific Purposes: The Case of Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee; Prapphal, Kanchana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in strategies used in an online language for specific purposes (LSP) speaking test in tourism with two proficiency groups of students, and to investigate the strategies that should be used for low-proficiency students to improve their LSP speaking ability. The Web-based Speaking Test in…

  2. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring the Games Influence on Improving English Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Dwi Pertiwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available English is now used as an international language, so that every person in order to communicate at the international level are required this language. To improving english proficiency, people used native speaker, course, story book, film game and etc. Games or better known as PC gaming is another alternative in improving the English proficiency. Beside this is fun, player required to read and listen the story game to finish the game. So that player can improve English proficiency while the player play game. In this paper, author present what game are fun and not boring also can improving English proficiency. The measuring improving English proficiency is observed from reading,writing, listening and grammar Keyword: English, Game, improving ,Proficiency

  4. Investigating the Relationship Between Metalinguistic Knowledge and L2 Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    飯田, 毅; Tsuyoshi, IIDA; Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have examined the relationship between metalinguistic knowledge and L2 proficiency, this relationship has not been sufficiently clarified yet. The present study examined the relationship between metalinguistic knowledge and L2 proficiency among different groups of learners. Also, it clarified to what extent metalinguistic knowledge contributes to L2 proficiency. The participants were 50 Japanese undergraduates comprising instructed-only EFL learners, returnees who ha...

  5. Validating English Language Proficiency Assessment Uses for English Learners: Academic Language Proficiency and Content Assessment Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Faulkner-Bond, Molly

    2016-01-01

    States use standards-based English language proficiency (ELP) assessments to inform relatively high-stakes decisions for English learner (EL) students. Results from these assessments are one of the primary criteria used to determine EL students' level of ELP and readiness for reclassification. The results are also used to evaluate the…

  6. Differences in Less Proficient and More Proficient ESL College Writing in the Philippine Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustilo, Leah E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at characterizing what skilled or more proficient ESL college writing is in the Philippine setting through a contrastive analysis of three groups of variables identified from previous studies: resources, processes, and performance of ESL writers. Based on Chenoweth and Hayes' (2001; 2003) framework, the resource level…

  7. The relationship between self-efficacy and reading proficiency of first-year students: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi A.N.Y. Boakye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-efficacy, which is the belief about one’s ability to perform a task successfully, has been widely acknowledged as important in learning. This affective factor, though not explicitly evident, has been said to play an important role in academic performance. However, its role in reading development has not been widely investigated. To determine the relationship between self-efficacy and reading proficiency, a study was conducted with first-year students in a South African tertiary institution. Students’ self-efficacy levels were elicited through a questionnaire and their reading proficiency was obtained through the Test of Academic Literacy levels (TALL, which essentially assesses reading proficiency. An analysis of variance showed a robust relationship between reading self-efficacy and reading proficiency for this cohort of students. Regression analysis conducted with other affective factors showed self-efficacy as the best predictor of students’ reading proficiency. Results are discussed as they relate to previous research and recommendations are made to include the development of self-efficacy in reading instruction.

  8. Proficiency test in the accreditation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.

    2008-08-01

    In the accreditation process of a radioactivity measurements laboratory, according to ISO standard 17025, proficiency tests play a fundamental role. These PTs constitute an irreplaceable tool for the validation of measuring methods. In the case of Spain, ENAC, which is the Spanish accreditation national body, requires that the laboratory has to take part in a PT for each one of the accredited measuring methods in the period of time between two reassessments of the accreditation, what happens every 4-5 years. In specific areas of determination procedures, among which radioactive measurements could be included, the number of methods which can be accredited is very large. The purpose of the present work is to establish a classification into families of the different radioactivity measurement procedures, as well as to establish complementary actions that guarantee that carrying out periodically proficiency-tests on any of the included procedures in each family, every measurement procedure include in that family is controlled, complying with the criteria established by ENAC.

  9. Evaluation of Mycology Laboratory Proficiency Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Andrew A.; Salkin, Ira F.; McGinnis, Michael R.; Gromadzki, Sally; Pasarell, Lester; Kemna, Maggi; Higgins, Nancy; Salfinger, Max

    1999-01-01

    Changes over the last decade in overt proficiency testing (OPT) regulations have been ostensibly directed at improving laboratory performance on patient samples. However, the overt (unblinded) format of the tests and regulatory penalties associated with incorrect values allow and encourage laboratorians to take extra precautions with OPT analytes. As a result OPT may measure optimal laboratory performance instead of the intended target of typical performance attained during routine patient testing. This study addresses this issue by evaluating medical mycology OPT and comparing its fungal specimen identification error rates to those obtained in a covert (blinded) proficiency testing (CPT) program. Identifications from 188 laboratories participating in the New York State mycology OPT from 1982 to 1994 were compared with the identifications of the same fungi recovered from patient specimens in 1989 and 1994 as part of the routine procedures of 88 of these laboratories. The consistency in the identification of OPT specimens was sufficient to make accurate predictions of OPT error rates. However, while the error rates in OPT and CPT were similar for Candida albicans, significantly higher error rates were found in CPT for Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and other common pathogenic fungi. These differences may, in part, be due to OPT’s use of ideal organism representatives cultured under optimum growth conditions. This difference, as well as the organism-dependent error rate differences, reflects the limitations of OPT as a means of assessing the quality of routine laboratory performance in medical mycology. PMID:10364601

  10. Language Ability and Adjustment: Western Expatriates in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Although the standard of English proficiency is rising in China, using English in conversations with Chinese host nationals may be difficult. Therefore, proficiency in the Chinese language, may promote the adjustment of foreign business expatriates in China. To test this proposition, a mail survey...... was directed to Western business expatriates assigned to China. Controlling for the time expatriates had spent in China, results showed that their language ability had a positive association with their sociocultural adjustment. Not surprisingly, this positive relationship was strongest for interaction...

  11. Relationship between Language Proficiency and Growth during Reading Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Frederick, Amy; Helman, Lori; Pulles, Sandra M.; McComas, Jennifer J.; Aguilar, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Many English language learners (ELLs) experience difficulties with basic English reading due in part to low language proficiency. The authors examined the relationship between English language proficiency and growth during reading interventions for ELLs. A total of 201 second- and third-grade students with a variety of home languages participated.…

  12. Variables Affecting Proficiency in English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Josefina C.; García-Santillán, Arturo; Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena

    2017-01-01

    This study explores different variables leading to proficiency in English as a second language. Level of English on a placement exam taken upon entering a private university in Mexico was correlated to several variables. Additionally, participants (N = 218) were asked their perception of their own proficiency. A linear regression and a one-factor…

  13. 285 Teachers‟ Experience and Students‟ Numerical Proficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... Five null hypotheses were formed and tested at 5% level of significance. Results show that numerical proficiency of students taught by experienced teachers were better than those taught by less experienced teachers. There was no significant difference in the numerical proficiency of male and female ...

  14. Piano Proficiency: The Perfect Accompaniment for Successful Music Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobetsky, Victor V.

    2004-01-01

    Do prospective music teachers with piano proficiency have an advantage in the job market? Can playing the piano well help practicing teachers achieve greater success in the classroom? In this article, the author stresses that piano proficiency is a necessary survival tool for music teachers regardless of their primary instrument or vocal specialty…

  15. Communication Strategies: An Interplay between Proficiency and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Hussein; Angameh, Farzad

    2008-01-01

    This paper is intended to investigate the interplay between proficiency and gender in the use of communication strategies. Sixty Iranian university male and female subjects studying English took part in the experiment and performed two tasks: word recognition and picture-story narration. The results indicate that proficiency had a more perceptible…

  16. Proficiency test for tropane alkaloids in food en feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  17. Test Reviews: GEPT--General English Proficiency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Carsten; Pan, Yi-Ching

    2008-01-01

    The General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) was developed in 1999, commissioned by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan. The purpose of the test is to provide individuals with a gauge of their English language proficiency and assist employers and educational institutions in selection and placement. Also, it aims to encourage the study of English…

  18. Restructuring a Traditional Foreign Language Program for Oral Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara-Norman, Filisha; And Others

    The restructuring of the Romance language program at Howard University to improve oral proficiency involved modification of goals, syllabi, classroom activities, and testing. Goals were adapted to American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)/Educational Testing Service (ETS) guidelines for oral proficiency. Assessment of French…

  19. The correlation between motor proficiency and physical activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: One of the risks associated with low physical activity levels is the insufficient development of motor proficiency, which in turn has an impact on participation in physical activity and sport during adolescence. Objectives: To determine the relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity levels in ...

  20. Measuring Language Dominance and Bilingual Proficiency Development of Tarahumara Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciotto, Carla

    This paper examines the language dominance and oral bilingual proficiency of Tarahumara-Spanish speaking students from Chihuahua, Mexico, within the framework of Cummins' model of bilingual proficiency development. Cummins' model distinguishes between basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency…

  1. Proficiency-Based Curriculum Design: Principles Derived from Government Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Describes principles for designing a proficiency-based course to prepare students for the ACTFL/ETS Advanced Plus/Superior level according to Interagency Language Roundtable guidelines. Proposes ways to combine grammatical and "functional/notional" syllabuses with a proficiency approach. Examines the implications of these principles for…

  2. Across the Threshold: A Call for ILR Proficiency Descriptor Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Don

    2017-01-01

    Whereas the Interagency Language Roundtable Language Skill Level Descriptions broke new ground for assessing proficiency in foreign languages, the need for user-oriented (rather than assessment-oriented) proficiency scales has led, especially in Europe, to the creation of scales consisting of positively formulated "can-do" statements,…

  3. Proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Jong, de J.; Lee, van der M.K.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The here described proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed was organised by RIKILT, Wageningen UR in accordance with ISO 17043. RIKILT Wageningen UR has an ISO/IEC 17043 accreditation for proficiency tests of residues in products of animal origin. However, this specific test is not part

  4. Teaching English through English: Proficiency, Pedagogy and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the world's English language teachers speak English as a second or third language rather than as their first language. For many, their level of proficiency in English may not reach benchmarks established by their employers, raising the issue that is the focus of this article, namely, what kind of proficiency in English is necessary to be…

  5. Second Language Proficiency and Cross-Language Lexical Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hell, Janet G.; Tanner, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Although research has consistently shown that a bilingual's two languages interact on multiple levels, it is also well-established that bilinguals can vary considerably in their proficiency in the second language (L2). In this paper we review empirical studies that have examined how differences in L2 proficiency modulate cross-language…

  6. The Development of ESL Proficiency and Pragmatic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Carsten; Al-Gahtani, Saad

    2015-01-01

    ESL learners can find it challenging to use English in a way that is pragmatically appropriate to the situation and interlocutor. In this article, we explore the impact of increased proficiency on learners' pragmatic performance. ESL learners in Australia at four proficiency levels completed three role plays, and we analysed how the learners…

  7. Second Language Grammatical Proficiency and Third Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtadi, Laleh; Koosha, Mansour; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The main concern of the present study was to investigate the probable correlation between the bilinguals' second language grammatical proficiency level and their third language grammatical proficiency level. The current study was implemented on selecting a total of 100 Iranian female high school students studying at second grade from two…

  8. On the Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the present study was to examine the strength of the relationship between language proficiency in English and the 9 types of intelligences. As such, the objectives of this study were three-folded. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences and language proficiency among the…

  9. Communication Anxiety and Its Effect on Oral Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurshberger, Lisa

    A study investigated the bipolar tension/relaxation factors that affect a second language learner's oral proficiency. While the traditional assumption in the field of second language acquisition is that negative attitudes toward communicative interaction naturally predicate low proficiency, the data gathered from 50 subjects studying English as a…

  10. Examining the Relationship between Math Scores and English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Denfield L.; Nistor, Nicolae; Baltes, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies propose that English proficiency dictates English language learners' (ELLs) performances on mathematics assessments. The current study investigates the predictive power of English proficiency on mathematics scores, while controlling for gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and grade level among ELLs at a south Florida elementary…

  11. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  12. An exploratory study of proficient undergraduate Chemistry II students' application of Lewis's model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sumudu R.

    This exploratory study was based on the assumption that proficiency in chemistry must not be determined exclusively on students' declarative and procedural knowledge, but it should be also described as the ability to use variety of reasoning strategies that enrich and diversify procedural methods. The study furthermore assumed that the ability to describe the structure of a molecule using Lewis's model and use it to predict its geometry as well as some of its properties is indicative of proficiency in the essential concepts of covalent bonding and molecule structure. The study therefore inquired into the reasoning methods and procedural techniques of proficient undergraduate Chemistry II students when solving problems, which require them to use Lewis's model. The research design included an original survey, designed by the researcher for this study, and two types of interviews, with students and course instructors. The purpose of the survey was two-fold. First and foremost, the survey provided a base for the student interview selection, and second it served as the foundation for the inquiry into the strategies the student use when solving survey problems. Twenty two students were interviewed over the course of the study. The interview with six instructors allowed to identify expected prior knowledge and skills, which the students should have acquired upon completion of the Chemistry I course. The data, including videos, audios, and photographs of the artifacts produced by students during the interviews, were organized and analyzed manually and using QSR NVivo 10. The research found and described the differences between proficient and non-proficient students' reasoning and procedural strategies when using Lewis's model to describe the structure of a molecule. One of the findings clearly showed that the proficient students used a variety of cues to reason, whereas other students used one memorized cue, or an algorithm, which often led to incorrect representations in

  13. An Investigation of School Psychologists' Assessment Practices of Language Proficiency with Bilingual and Limited-English-Proficient Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Salvador Hector; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of the language proficiency assessment practices of 859 school psychologists, when working with bilingual or limited English proficient students, found that 62 percent of school psychologists conducted their own assessments and most often used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised or the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody.…

  14. Key Factors in Obstetric Delivery Decision-Making among Asian and Pacific Islander Women by English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chevelle Ma; Guo, Mary; Miyamura, Jill; Chang, Ann; Nelson-Hurwitz, Denise C; Sentell, Tetine

    2017-10-01

    Childbirth is the most common reason women are hospitalized in the United States. Understanding (1) how expectant mothers gather information to decide where to give birth, and (2) who helps make that decision, provides critical health communication and decision-making insights. Diverse Asian American and Pacific Islander (AA/PI) perspectives on such topics are understudied, particularly among those with limited English proficiency (LEP). LEP is defined as having a limited ability to read, write, speak, or understand English. To address this research gap, we interviewed 400 women (18+ years) with a recent live birth on O'ahu, Hawai'i. Participants completed a 1-hour, in-person interview in English (n=291), Tagalog (n=42), Chinese (n=36), or Marshallese (n=31). Women were asked (1) what information was most important in deciding where to deliver and why; and (2) who participated in the decision-making and why. Responses were compared by LEP (n=71; 18%) vs English-proficient (n=329; 82%) in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Both LEP and English-proficient participants reported their obstetrician as the most important source of health information. Significantly more LEP participants valued advice from family or acquaintances as important sources of information compared to English-proficient participants. The top three health decision-makers for both those with LEP and English-proficient participants were themselves, their obstetrician, and their spouse, which did not differ significantly by language proficiency. These findings provide insights into health information sources and decision-making across diverse AA/PI populations, including those with LEP, and can help direct health interventions such as disseminating patient education and healthcare quality information.

  15. The Effect of Practicing Mental Calculation Strategies on Teacher Candidates’ Numeracy Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masooma Ali Al Mutawah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on year 4 students enrolled in the Bachelor of Education program for Cycle one teacher candidates. The effect of practicing mental calculation strategies in improving students’ numeracy proficiency was put under some tests to measure its effect in a scientific way. A Pre-quiz was conducted before with no prior practice done in order to check the strategies the students were using in performing calculations. After four weeks practice and implementation which focused mainly on addition and subtraction questions, as a result a post quiz was written by the students. The improvement results were recorded and analyzed. After four weeks of practicing multiplication and division questions, another post quiz was written by the students as a result of that. Once again, the improvement results also were recorded and analyzed. Furthermore, interviews and observations also were used to record changes in the students’ perspectives about using the mental strategies and their feelings toward their numeracy level. The results of the study showed that practicing the mental strategies had a significant impact on the students’ numeracy proficiency and their perspective toward their mental strategies. The study also showed that more practice had a significant impact on the students’ confidence as well as their ability to perform different mental strategies in their daily life. Keywords: Calculation strategies, Numeracy proficiency

  16. Proficiency test of gamma spectrometry laboratories in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelic, G., E-mail: gpantelic@nadlanu.co [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health Dr Dragomir Karajovic, Deligradska 29, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia, Autoput 3, 11070 Belgrade (Serbia); Vuletic, V. [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health Dr Dragomir Karajovic, Deligradska 29, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrovic, R. [Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia, Autoput 3, 11070 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents the statistical evaluation of results from the analysis of 8 radionuclides in water samples within the frame of the First Proficiency Test of gamma spectrometry Laboratories in Serbia organized in 2008. The water samples used in this proficiency test were prepared using certified radioactive solution containing gamma emitting radionuclides. This solution was diluted and used as a master solution for preparation of test samples. The overall performance evaluation showed that 64.7% of all reported results met the individual proficiency test criteria, where 26.5% of all reported results did not pass the overall PT acceptance criterion.

  17. The Effect of Metadiscourse Instruction on Iranian EFL Learners' Speaking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahour, Touran; Maleki, Saeideh Entezari

    2014-01-01

    This study attempted to unveil the effect of metadiscourse instruction on the improvement of the speaking ability of Iranian EFL learners. After the administration of a language proficiency test, 34 homogeneous participants were assigned into the experimental and control groups. Then, the two groups were compared on their speaking ability. After…

  18. Relationships between Handwriting Performance and Organizational Abilities among Children with and without Dysgraphia: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara; Aloni, Tsipi; Josman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Organizational ability constitutes one executive function (EF) component essential for common everyday performance. The study aim was to explore the relationship between handwriting performance and organizational ability in school-aged children. Participants were 58 males, aged 7-8 years, 30 with dysgraphia and 28 with proficient handwriting.…

  19. Effects of Audio-Visual Integration on the Detection of Masked Speech and Non-Speech Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Henderson, Rachel; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    Integration of simultaneous auditory and visual information about an event can enhance our ability to detect that event. This is particularly evident in the perception of speech, where the articulatory gestures of the speaker's lips and face can significantly improve the listener's detection and identification of the message, especially when that…

  20. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  1. Can Lextale-Esp discriminate between groups of highly proficient Catalan-Spanish bilinguals with different language dominances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Pilar; Brysbaert, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Researchers have recently introduced various LexTALE-type word recognition tests in order to assess vocabulary size in a second language (L2) mastered by participants. These tests correlate well with other measures of language proficiency in unbalanced bilinguals whose second language ability is well below the level of their native language. In the present study, we investigated whether LexTALE-type tests also discriminate at the high end of the proficiency range. In several regions of Spain, people speak both the regional language (e.g., Catalan or Basque) and Spanish to very high degrees. Still, because of their living circumstances, some consider themselves as either Spanish-dominant or regional-language dominant. We showed that these two groups perform differently on the recently published Spanish Lextale-Esp: The Spanish-dominant group had significantly higher scores than the Catalan-dominant group. We also showed that the noncognate words of the test have the highest discrimination power. This indicates that the existing Lextale-Esp can be used to estimate proficiency differences in highly proficient bilinguals with Spanish as an L2, and that a more sensitive test could be built by replacing the cognates.

  2. Trainee-Associated Factors and Proficiency at Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Kazem Aghamir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is a complicated procedure for urology trainees. This study was designed to investigate the effect of trainees’ ages and previous experience, as well as the number of operated cases, on proficiency at PNL by using patient outcomes. A cross sectional observational study was designed during a five-year period. Trainees in PNL fellowship programs were included. At the end of the program, the trainees’ performance in PNL was assessed regarding five competencies and scored 1-5. If the overall score was 4 or above, the trainee was considered as proficient. The trainees’ age at the beginning of the program and the years passed from their residency graduation were asked and recorded. Also, the number of PNL cases operated by each trainee was obtained via their logbooks. The age, years passed from graduation, and number of operated cases were compared between two groups of proficient and non-proficient trainees. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the effect of aforementioned variables on the occurrence of the proficiency. Forty-two trainees were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation for the overall score were 3.40 (out of 5 and 0.67, respectively. Eleven trainees (26.2% recognized as proficient in performing PNL. Univariate regression analysis indicated that each of three variables (age, years passed from graduation and number of operated cases had statistically significant effect on proficiency. However, the multivariate regression analysis revealed that just the number of cases had significant effect on achieving proficiency. Although it might be assumed that trainees’ age negatively correlates with their scores, in fact, it is their amount of practice that makes a difference. A certain number of cases is required to be operated by a trainee in order to reach the desired competency in PNL.

  3. Trainee-Associated Factors and Proficiency at Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamir, Seyed Mohammad Kazem; Behtash, Negar; Hamidi, Morteza; Farahmand, Hasan; Salavati, Alborz; Mortaz Hejri, Sara

    2017-07-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is a complicated procedure for urology trainees. This study was designed to investigate the effect of trainees' ages and previous experience, as well as the number of operated cases, on proficiency at PNL by using patient outcomes. A cross sectional observational study was designed during a five-year period. Trainees in PNL fellowship programs were included. At the end of the program, the trainees' performance in PNL was assessed regarding five competencies and scored 1-5. If the overall score was 4 or above, the trainee was considered as proficient. The trainees' age at the beginning of the program and the years passed from their residency graduation were asked and recorded. Also, the number of PNL cases operated by each trainee was obtained via their logbooks. The age, years passed from graduation, and number of operated cases were compared between two groups of proficient and non-proficient trainees. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the effect of aforementioned variables on the occurrence of the proficiency. Forty-two trainees were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation for the overall score were 3.40 (out of 5) and 0.67, respectively. Eleven trainees (26.2%) recognized as proficient in performing PNL. Univariate regression analysis indicated that each of three variables (age, years passed from graduation and number of operated cases) had statistically significant effect on proficiency. However, the multivariate regression analysis revealed that just the number of cases had significant effect on achieving proficiency. Although it might be assumed that trainees' age negatively correlates with their scores, in fact, it is their amount of practice that makes a difference. A certain number of cases is required to be operated by a trainee in order to reach the desired competency in PNL.

  4. Level up : Language proficiency and gamification in upper secondaryschool

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Gamification is a new but upcoming feature in classrooms that has grown with the digitalisation in Swedish homes and schools. The aim of this literature review is to research how gamification can influence upper secondary students’ language proficiency in English as a foreign language. Five sources were analysed, four journals and one conference paper, and the results show that gamification could increase language proficiency if it is used in a moderate amount and that the summative assessmen...

  5. PROFICIENT CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT THROUGH FOCUSED MATHEMATIC TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Samuelsson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A not entirely unusual position among teachers is that they believe that they must first establish a peaceful classroom before they can begin to teach the subject. This research, shows how a proficient mathematics teacher teaches his subject and thereby creates a quiet and focused classroom and exerts effective leadership, just by teaching mathematics. The researchers observed a male mathematics teacher for almost half a year, i.e. one semester. The results of research present several patterns that the researchers saw during the observations of his teaching. The teacher showed an interest in each student’s mathematical thinking and expressed explicitly how students were expected to learn mathematics. He also directed students’ attention to mathematics and established a culture where all solutions were important in the teaching process. In the teaching process, he used multiple representations to motivate students and a lot of supportive expressions that made them feel that they were able to learn mathematics. He worked patiently to establish structures, and there was almost no disruptive behaviour. Students simply did not have time to interfere because they were so engaged in learning mathematics.

  6. STRATEGIES OF MAINTAINING PROFICIENCY BY TEACHERS OF ENGLISH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.

  7. Engaging Struggling Adolescent Readers through Situational Interest: A Model Proposing the Relationships among Extrinsic Motivation, Oral Reading Proficiency, Comprehension, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Reading ability and motivation among adolescents across the country continues to be problematic, as only slightly more than one-third read at a proficient level (Grigg, Donahue, & Dion, 2007; Unrau & Schlackman, 2006). Hidi and Renninger (2006) have proposed a four-phase model of situational interest that suggests how activities involving…

  8. Consumer Finance: Factors Affecting the Financial Literacy of Individuals with Limited English Proficiency. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-518

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cackley, Alicia Puente

    2010-01-01

    According to Census data, more than 12 million adults in the United States report they do not speak English well or at all. Proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and understanding the English language appears to be linked to multiple dimensions of adult life in the United States, including financial literacy--the ability to make informed…

  9. The TOEFL: Incomplete Test of English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Siew Chee; Davenport, Betty M.

    1986-01-01

    The ability to think in a foreign language is reflected more accurately in the ability to speak and write the language. Colleges and universities need to supplement the Test of English as a Foreign Language with tests of English conversation, specialized vocabulary, and written composition. (MLW)

  10. German National Proficiency Scales in Biology: Internal Structure, Relations to General Cognitive Abilities and Verbal Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampa, Nele; Köller, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    National and international large-scale assessments (LSA) have a major impact on educational systems, which raises fundamental questions about the validity of the measures regarding their internal structure and their relations to relevant covariates. Given its importance, research on the validity of instruments specifically developed for LSA is…

  11. Evidence for the Decreasing Impact of Cognitive Ability on Second Language Development as Proficiency Increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Ellen J.; Sanz, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether the role of working memory capacity varies over the course of second language (L2) morphosyntactic development. Eighty-seven beginning, intermediate, and advanced university L2 Spanish learners completed two nonverbal tasks measuring executive function (EF) and phonological working memory (PWM) in their native…

  12. Segmentation and accuracy-based scores for the automatic assessment of oral proficiency for proficient L2 speakers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Febe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available . Results indicate that, both for segmentation as well as accuracy-based scores, the most simple scores correlate best with the humans’ opinion on the students’ proficiency. Combining different scores using multiple linear regression leads to marginally...

  13. Influence of exercise on skill proficiency in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Kingsley, Michael

    2011-07-01

    The ability to maintain technical performances (i.e. skills) throughout soccer match-play is considered to be crucial in determining the outcome of competitive fixtures. Consequently, coaches dedicate a large proportion of time to practicing isolated skills, such as passing, shooting and dribbling. Unlike other elements that contribute to team-sport performances, it is unusual for coaches to use methods other than observations to assess changes resulting from technical training. Researchers have employed various tests to measure isolated soccer skills; however, reliance on outcome measures that include number of contacts (ball juggling tasks), time (dribbling tasks) and points scored (criterion-based passing and shooting tests) means that the outcomes are difficult for coaches to interpret. Skill tests that use video-analysis techniques to measure ball speed, precision and success of soccer skills offer valid and reliable alternatives. Although equivocal results are published, skill performances can be affected by assorted factors that threaten homeostasis, including match-related fatigue, dehydration and reductions in blood glucose concentrations. While acknowledging methodological constraints associated with using skill tests with limited ecological validity and cognitive demands, the effects of these homeostatic disturbances might vary according to the type of skill being performed. Shooting performances appear most susceptible to deterioration after exercise. Strategies such as aerobic training, fluid-electrolyte provision and acute carbohydrate supplementation have been found to improve proficiency in technical actions performed after soccer-specific exercise. However, mechanisms that cause deterioration in skill during soccer-specific exercise remain to be fully elucidated and strategies to optimize technical performance throughout match-play are warranted.

  14. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  15. Proficiency testing for psychoactive substances in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, S D; Brusini, G; Maietti, S; Frison, G; Castagna, F; Allevi, S; Menegus, A M; Tedeschi, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the general design and main results of the Italian proficiency testing program for the analysis of psychoactive substances in urine, a long-term initiative created in 1995 on an educational basis and characterized by an innovative internet-based service for data exchange between laboratories and the organizing body. Batches of six urine samples, validated by reference laboratories, are sent every 3 months to participating laboratories, which may choose which classes of substances to test from those planned by the program panel and, within those classes, which type of analytical commitment to work on: identification of just one class (Option 1), identification of single substances (Option 2), or identification and quantification of single substances (Option 3). Comprehensive periodical reports and annual reports are provided to participants with evaluation of their performance and an annual workshop is organized to discuss technical-scientific topics related to clinical, forensic and analytical toxicology. About 200 laboratories currently participate in the program and a total of 67,059 analyses have been carried out since 1995. The mean percentage of correct results was 96.8%, with a yearly improvement of about 0.4%. The best average false positive and false negative rates were obtained for methadone (0.2% and 2.1% respectively) and cocaine (0.3% and 2.2%). The worst average false positive rates were obtained for amphetamines and opiates (3.2% and 5.0%) and worst average false negative rates for amphetamines, barbiturates and cannabinoids (17.4%, 30.7% and 19.9%).

  16. Assessing English proficiency for university study

    CERN Document Server

    Read, J

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on strategies and procedures for assessing the academic language ability of students entering an English-medium university, so that those with significant needs can have access to opportunities to enhance their language skills.

  17. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency. This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency. These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency.

  18. Using the TOEFL to measure the reading proficiency levels of deaf college applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMaglio, L J

    1991-07-01

    The TOEFL is widely used by colleges and universities in the United States and Canada to measure the English language proficiency levels of hearing international applicants. At the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a faculty committee recommended that this popular test instrument be used to measure the English reading skills of deaf international applicants to the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. This study examined the merits of using the TOEFL to measure the English reading ability of hearing post-secondary international students seeking admission to English-based colleges and universities. Forty-one hearing foreign students were tested in the fall of 1989 at the English Language Institute at SUNY Buffalo. The instruments chosen were both the TOEFL and the California Achievement Test of reading ability. The majority of the research subjects who scored between 400 and 500 on the TOEFL achieved a grade level of less than 8.0 on the California Achievement Test.

  19. Specific aspects of cognitive and language proficiency account for variability in neural indices of semantic and syntactic processing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton Wray, Amanda; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2013-07-01

    The neural activity mediating language processing in young children is characterized by large individual variability that is likely related in part to individual strengths and weakness across various cognitive abilities. The current study addresses the following question: How does proficiency in specific cognitive and language functions impact neural indices mediating language processing in children? Thirty typically developing seven- and eight-year-olds were divided into high-normal and low-normal proficiency groups based on performance on nonverbal IQ, auditory word recall, and grammatical morphology tests. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited by semantic anomalies and phrase structure violations in naturally spoken sentences. The proficiency for each of the specific cognitive and language tasks uniquely contributed to specific aspects (e.g., timing and/or resource allocation) of neural indices underlying semantic (N400) and syntactic (P600) processing. These results suggest that distinct aptitudes within broader domains of cognition and language, even within the normal range, influence the neural signatures of semantic and syntactic processing. Furthermore, the current findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of developmental studies of ERPs indexing language processing, and they highlight the need to take into account cognitive abilities both within and outside the classic language domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The proficiency testing of determination of dioxins in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, R.; Tsutsumi, T.; Maitani, T. [National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Jissen Womens Univ., Hino (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Food intake is the main route of human dioxin exposure, making the determination of dioxins in food indispensable for risk assessment and risk management of dioxins. The uncertainty of analytical results, however, can be very great because of the low concentration of the analytes and complicated cleanup procedures. The risk assessment of dioxins based on analytical results also suffers from a similar degree of uncertainty. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan has published ''Guideline for the Determination of Dioxins in Food'' to standardize the analytical procedures. The guideline contains the quality assurance procedures to obtain reliable analytical results and recommends participation in the relevant proficiency testing scheme. The proficiency testing provides the fair evaluation of the analytical results. The central science laboratory in England and the food and drug safety center in Japan offer the proficiency testing on food. The National Institute of Health Sciences of Japan (NIHS) also has carried out proficiency testing of dioxins in food since 1998 to assure the quality of analytical results for dioxins. In this presentation we will show the results of 5 rounds of proficiency testing.

  1. The VIPER project (Visualization Integration Platform for Exploration Research): a biologically inspired autonomous reconfigurable robotic platform for diverse unstructured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Oliver J.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-09-01

    Over the last decade the world has seen numerous autonomous vehicle programs. Wheels and track designs are the basis for many of these vehicles. This is primarily due to four main reasons: a vast preexisting knowledge base for these designs, energy efficiency of power sources, scalability of actuators, and the lack of control systems technologies for handling alternate highly complex distributed systems. Though large efforts seek to improve the mobility of these vehicles, many limitations still exist for these systems within unstructured environments, e.g. limited mobility within industrial and nuclear accident sites where existing plant configurations have been extensively changed. These unstructured operational environments include missions for exploration, reconnaissance, and emergency recovery of objects within reconfigured or collapsed structures, e.g. bombed buildings. More importantly, these environments present a clear and present danger for direct human interactions during the initial phases of recovery operations. Clearly, the current classes of autonomous vehicles are incapable of performing in these environments. Thus the next generation of designs must include highly reconfigurable and flexible autonomous robotic platforms. This new breed of autonomous vehicles will be both highly flexible and environmentally adaptable. Presented in this paper is one of the most successful designs from nature, the snake-eel-worm (SEW). This design implements shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators which allow for scaling of the robotic SEW designs from sub-micron scale to heavy industrial implementations without major conceptual redesigns as required in traditional hydraulic, pneumatic, or motor driven systems. Autonomous vehicles based on the SEW design posses the ability to easily move between air based environments and fluid based environments with limited or no reconfiguration. Under a SEW designed vehicle, one not only achieves vastly improved maneuverability within a

  2. Foraging proficiency during the nonbreeding season of a specialized forager: are juvenile American Oystercatchers "bumble-beaks" compared to adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Christine E.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2010-01-01

    In many species, immature individuals are less proficient at foraging than are adults, and this difference may be especially critical during winter when survival can be at its minimum. We investigated the foraging proficiency of adult and immature American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) during the nonbreeding season. Oystercatchers forage on prey that must be handled with specialized skills, so age-related differences in foraging behavior may be expected. We found that adults spent more time searching than did immatures, a trend toward immatures taking longer to handle prey than did adults, and immatures more often handling prey unsuccessfully than did adults. Feeding rates and diet composition did not differ by age class. We posit that the immature birds traded off longer handling times with shorter searching times and that ultimately the abundant prey in the region may contribute to the ability of immature birds to feed at rates similar to those of adults.

  3. Prior Generic Arthroscopic Volume Correlates with Hip Arthroscopic Proficiency: A Simulator Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan, Gurhan; Alvand, Abtin; Judge, Andrew; Pollard, Thomas C B; Glyn-Jones, Sion; Rees, Jonathan L

    2018-01-03

    Changing trends in surgical education and patient expectation are leading to proficiency models of progression and the use of simulators. Hip arthroscopy is increasingly performed and has a steep learning curve mainly addressed during fellowship training. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of previous generic arthroscopic experience on performance at a simulated hip arthroscopy task to both estimate the minimum case numbers that correlate with expert proficiency levels and help to guide selection for hip arthroscopy fellowships. Fifty-two participants were recruited to a cross-sectional study. Four consultants (expert hip arthroscopists), 28 trainees (residents and fellows), and 20 novices (interns and medical students) performed a standardized bench-top simulated hip arthroscopy task. A validated global rating scale (GRS) score and motion analysis were used to assess surgical performance. Prior arthroscopic experience was recorded from surgical electronic logbooks. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were conducted to identify optimum cut-points for task proficiency at both expert and competent GRS levels. There were significant differences (p arthroscopic ability of all experience groups based on GRS assessment and for all motion analysis metrics. There was a significant positive correlation between logbook numbers and GRS scores (p arthroscopic procedures were necessary to achieve an expert GRS score, and 78 prior arthroscopic procedures were necessary for a competent score. Performing a basic hip arthroscopy task competently requires substantial previous generic arthroscopic experience. The numbers identified in this study provide targets for residents. Program directors appointing to hip arthroscopy fellowship training posts may find these results useful as a guide during the selection process.

  4. Manufacturing Industry Employers’ Perception of Graduates’ English Language Skills Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Proficiency in English language skills among graduates that create advantages for the organization is preferred by prospective employers as one of the main criteria for employability.  This article provides an overview of undergraduates in higher education and also workplace literacy from the perspective of the employers in the manufacturing industry. The result from the research demonstrates that Malaysian manufacturing industry employers perceive that the graduate employees’ English language proficiency skills are still below their expectations. Therefore, this study recommends that there is a need for intervention into language teaching to improve the English language syllabus level of English proficiency at primary, secondary and tertiary level. At the same time, emphasis on the importance of English in everyday use should be inculcated without neglecting the national language of Malaysia.  This will ensure that the teaching of English will be in line with globalization and current workplace demands.

  5. Empirical Validation of Listening Proficiency Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Troy L.; Clifford, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Because listening has received little attention and the validation of ability scales describing multidimensional skills is always challenging, this study applied a multistage, criterion-referenced approach that used a framework of aligned audio passages and listening tasks to explore the validity of the ACTFL and related listening proficiency…

  6. Language anxiety and proficiency in a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R L; Ganschow, L; Artzer, M; Siebenhar, D; Plageman, M

    1997-10-01

    Study examined the extent to which there would be differences in oral and written proficiency in a foreign language among groups of low-, average-, and high-anxious high school students. Participants were 60 girls attending a single-sex, college-preparatory high school and completing the second year of a foreign language course. Analysis showed over-all differences on measures of proficiency in the foreign language among the three groups. The results support the hypothesis that anxiety about foreign language learning is likely to represent students' differences in language learning.

  7. Paramedics’ Ability to Perform Drug Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eastwood, Kathyrn J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to perform drug calculations accurately is imperative to patient safety. Research into paramedics’ drug calculation abilities was first published in 2000 and for nurses’ abilities the research dates back to the late 1930s. Yet, there have been no studies investigating an undergraduate paramedic student’s ability to perform drug or basic mathematical calculations. The objective of this study was to review the literature and determine the ability of undergraduate and qualified paramedics to perform drug calculations.Methods: A search of the prehospital-related electronic databases was undertaken using the Ovid and EMBASE systems available through the Monash University Library. Databases searched included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, CINAHL, JSTOR, EMBASE and Google Scholar, from their beginning until the end of August 2009. We reviewed references from articles retrieved.Results: The electronic database search located 1,154 articles for review. Six additional articles were identified from reference lists of retrieved articles. Of these, 59 were considered relevant. After reviewing the 59 articles only three met the inclusion criteria. All articles noted some level of mathematical deficiencies amongst their subjects.Conclusions: This study identified only three articles. Results from these limited studies indicate a significant lack of mathematical proficiency amongst the paramedics sampled. A need exists to identify if undergraduate paramedic students are capable of performing the required drug calculations in a non-clinical setting.[WestJEM. 2009;10:240-243.

  8. Paramedics’ Ability to Perform Drug Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Kathryn J; Boyle, Malcolm J; Williams, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Background: The ability to perform drug calculations accurately is imperative to patient safety. Research into paramedics’ drug calculation abilities was first published in 2000 and for nurses’ abilities the research dates back to the late 1930s. Yet, there have been no studies investigating an undergraduate paramedic student’s ability to perform drug or basic mathematical calculations. The objective of this study was to review the literature and determine the ability of undergraduate and qualified paramedics to perform drug calculations. Methods: A search of the prehospital-related electronic databases was undertaken using the Ovid and EMBASE systems available through the Monash University Library. Databases searched included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, CINAHL, JSTOR, EMBASE and Google Scholar, from their beginning until the end of August 2009. We reviewed references from articles retrieved. Results: The electronic database search located 1,154 articles for review. Six additional articles were identified from reference lists of retrieved articles. Of these, 59 were considered relevant. After reviewing the 59 articles only three met the inclusion criteria. All articles noted some level of mathematical deficiencies amongst their subjects. Conclusions: This study identified only three articles. Results from these limited studies indicate a significant lack of mathematical proficiency amongst the paramedics sampled. A need exists to identify if undergraduate paramedic students are capable of performing the required drug calculations in a non-clinical setting. PMID:20046240

  9. Paramedics' ability to perform drug calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Kathryn J; Boyle, Malcolm J; Williams, Brett

    2009-11-01

    The ability to perform drug calculations accurately is imperative to patient safety. Research into paramedics' drug calculation abilities was first published in 2000 and for nurses' abilities the research dates back to the late 1930s. Yet, there have been no studies investigating an undergraduate paramedic student's ability to perform drug or basic mathematical calculations. The objective of this study was to review the literature and determine the ability of undergraduate and qualified paramedics to perform drug calculations. A search of the prehospital-related electronic databases was undertaken using the Ovid and EMBASE systems available through the Monash University Library. Databases searched included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, CINAHL, JSTOR, EMBASE and Google Scholar, from their beginning until the end of August 2009. We reviewed references from articles retrieved. The electronic database search located 1,154 articles for review. Six additional articles were identified from reference lists of retrieved articles. Of these, 59 were considered relevant. After reviewing the 59 articles only three met the inclusion criteria. All articles noted some level of mathematical deficiencies amongst their subjects. This study identified only three articles. Results from these limited studies indicate a significant lack of mathematical proficiency amongst the paramedics sampled. A need exists to identify if undergraduate paramedic students are capable of performing the required drug calculations in a non-clinical setting.

  10. Overlapping neural circuitry for narrative comprehension and proficient reading in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Vannest, Jennifer J; Holland, Scott K

    2013-11-01

    Narrative comprehension is a perinatal linguistic ability which is more intuitive than reading activity. Whether there are specific shared brain regions for narrative comprehension and reading that are tuned to reading proficiency, even before reading is acquired, is the question of the current study. We acquired fMRI data during a narrative comprehension task at two age points, when children are age 5-7 (K-2nd grade) and later when the same children were age 11 (5th-7th grade). We then examined correlations between this fMRI data and reading and reading comprehension scores from the same children at age 11. We found that greater frontal and supramarginal gyrus (BA 40) activation in narrative comprehension at the age of 5-7 years old was associated with better word reading and reading comprehension scores at the age of 11. A shift towards temporal and occipital activation was found when correlating their narrative comprehension functional data at age 11, with reading scores at the same age point. We suggest that increased reliance on executive functions and auditory-visual networks when listening to stories before reading is acquired, facilitates reading proficiency in older age and may be a biomarker for future reading ability. Children, who rely on use of imagination/visualization as well as auditory processing for narrative comprehension when they reach age 11, also show greater reading abilities. Understanding concordant neural pathways supporting auditory narrative and reading comprehension might be guide for development of effective tools for reading intervention programs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on the motor skill proficiency of soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeederberg, C; Leach, L; Lambert, E V; Noakes, T D; Dennis, S C; Hawley, J A

    1996-12-01

    This study examined the effects of ingesting a glucose-polymer (GP) solution on the motor skill proficiencies of association football (soccer) players from two teams playing during two matches in a cool environment. Fifteen minutes before each match and at halftime, players from both teams ingested 5 ml/kg of either placebo or a 6.9% GP solution. GP ingestion did not improve tackling, heading, dribbling, or shooting ability. On the contrary, the mean of successful tackles was lower with GP ingestion than with placebo. The success rate for heading, dribbling, and shooting also tended to be lower in the GP than in the placebo condition. In contrast, success in passing and ball control was similar in the two conditions. Improvements in passing and ball control may have been related to a decrease in the intensity of play in the second half of the game. These data indicate that there are no measurable benefits of GP ingestion for the motor skill proficiencies of soccer players during games played in a cool environment.

  12. Teachers' perceptions of students' mathematics proficiency may exacerbate early gender gaps in achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Cimpian, Joseph P; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Ganley, Colleen M; Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin

    2014-04-01

    A recent wave of research suggests that teachers overrate the performance of girls relative to boys and hold more positive attitudes toward girls' mathematics abilities. However, these prior estimates of teachers' supposed female bias are potentially misleading because these estimates (and teachers themselves) confound achievement with teachers' perceptions of behavior and effort. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), Study 1 demonstrates that teachers actually rate boys' mathematics proficiency higher than that of girls when conditioning on both teachers' ratings of behavior and approaches to learning as well as past and current test scores. In other words, on average girls are only perceived to be as mathematically competent as similarly achieving boys when the girls are also seen as working harder, behaving better, and being more eager to learn. Study 2 uses mediation analysis with an instrumental-variables approach, as well as a matching strategy, to explore the extent to which this conditional underrating of girls may explain the widening gender gap in mathematics in early elementary school. We find robust evidence suggesting that underrating girls' mathematics proficiency accounts for a substantial portion of the development of the mathematics achievement gap between similarly performing and behaving boys and girls in the early grades. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Medical language proficiency: A discussion of interprofessional language competencies and potential for patient risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Melodie

    2016-02-01

    In increasingly multilingual healthcare environments worldwide, ensuring accurate, effective communication is requisite. Language proficiency is essential, particularly medical language proficiency. Medical language is a universal construct in healthcare, the shared language of health and allied health professions. It is highly evolved, career-specific, technical and cultural-bound-a language for specific purposes. Its function differs significantly from that of a standard language. Proficiency requires at minimum, a common understanding of discipline-specific jargon, abstracts, euphemisms, abbreviations; acronyms. An optimal medical language situation demands a level of competency beyond the superficial wherein one can convey or interpret deeper meanings, distinguish themes, voice opinion, and follow directions precisely. It necessitates the use of clarity, and the ability to understand both lay and formal language-characteristics not essential to standard language. Proficiency influences professional discourse and can have the potential to positively or negatively affect patient outcomes. While risks have been identified when there is language discordance between care provider and patient, almost nothing has been said about this within care teams themselves. This article will do so in anticipation that care providers, regulators, employers, and researchers will acknowledge potential language-based communication barriers and work towards resolutions. This is predicated on the fact that the growing interest in language and communication in healthcare today appears to be rested in globalization and increasingly linguistically diverse patient populations. Consideration of the linguistically diverse healthcare workforce is absent. An argument will be posited that if potential risks to patient safety exist and there are potentials for disengagement from care by patients when health providers do not speak their languages then logically these language-based issues can

  14. The influence of lexical-access ability and vocabulary knowledge on measures of speech recognition in noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaandorp, M.W.; de Groot, A.M.B.; Festen, J.M.; Smits, C.; Goverts, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main objective was to investigate the effect of linguistic abilities (lexical-access ability and vocabulary size) on different measures of speech-in-noise recognition in normal-hearing listeners with various levels of language proficiency. Design: Speech reception thresholds (SRTs)

  15. Listening and Reading Proficiency Levels of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirner, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines listening and reading proficiency levels of U.S. college foreign language students at major milestones throughout their undergraduate career. Data were collected from more than 3,000 participants studying seven languages at 21 universities and colleges across the United States. The results show that while listening…

  16. Developing a Psychometrically Sound Measure of Collegiate Teaching Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Donald C.; Engelland, Brian T.; Matherine, Curtis F.; Martin, William C.; Orgeron, Craig P.; Ring, J. Kirk; Smith, Gregory R.; Williams, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    While student evaluation of teaching (SET) has become a common practice on most college campuses, research suggests that weaknesses exist in many of the common instruments employed for this assessment. This study lays the groundwork for the development of an improved psychometrically sound measure of teaching proficiency that can be used in a…

  17. Oral proficiency assessment: the use of automatic speech ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and assessment of oral proficiency and listening comprehension is one of the most problematic aspects in language teaching, especially when the majority of testtakers are non-standard users of English. The main problems concern the feasibility of such testing and the need for reliable scoring. As far as ...

  18. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency of Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.; Arroyo, Alan A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between language learning strategy (LLS) preferences and English proficiency among Chinese university students. Oxford's (1990), Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an institutional version (ITP) of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) were administered to 168 third-year English…

  19. Advisory Working Alliance, Perceived English Proficiency, and Acculturative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Du, Yi; Lin, Shu-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the moderators of (a) general or cross-cultural advisory working alliances and (b) perceived English proficiency on the association between acculturative stress and psychological distress. A total of 143 East Asian international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression…

  20. Masked translation priming effects with low proficient bilinguals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dimitropoulou, Maria; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    ... (Experimental Psychology 56:173–179). In a series of masked translation priming lexical decision experiments we examined whether the same pattern of effects would emerge with late and low proficient Greek (L1)–Spanish (L2) bilinguals...

  1. Online Assessment of Oral Proficiency for Intercultural Professional Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2012-01-01

    Rusman, E., & Stoyanov, S. (2011, 18 May). Online Assessment of Oral Proficiency for Intercultural Professional Communication. Presentation about the CEFcult project (www.cefcult.eu) at the workshop ‘Crossing borders’ organised by the Talenacademie, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University in the

  2. A retrospective evaluation of proficiency testing, and rapid HIV test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proficiency testing (PT) has been implemented as a form of External Quality Assurance (EQA) by the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Kenya since 2007 in order to monitor and improve on the quality of HIV testing and counselling HTC services. Objective: To compare concordance between National HIV ...

  3. Mismatch repair proficiency is not required for radioenhancement by gemcitabine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bree, Chris; Rodermond, Hans M.; de Vos, Judith; Haveman, Jaap; Franken, Nicolaas A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Mismatch repair (MMR) proficiency has been reported to either increase or decrease radioenhancement by 24-h incubations with gemcitabine. This study aimed to establish the importance of MMR for radioenhancement by gemcitabine after short-exposure, high-dose treatment and long-exposure,

  4. Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    When two or more languages are part of a child's world, we are presented with a rich opportunity to learn something about language in general and about how the mind works. In this book, Norbert Francis examines the development of bilingual proficiency and the different kinds of competence that come together in making up its component parts. In…

  5. Internet Behaviours as Predictors of Reading Proficiency of Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two instruments were validated and used for data collection: Students' Internet Behaviour Questionnaire r=.87) and Reading Proficiency Test (r=.79). Frequency counts, percentages and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse data. The results which were interpreted at 0.05 level of significance show students' ...

  6. Vocabulary and Reading Performances of Redesignated Fluent English Proficient Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin Kyoung; Lawrence, Joshua Fahey; Collins, Penelope; Snow, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the researchers examined general vocabulary, academic vocabulary, and reading comprehension growth trajectories of adolescent redesignated fluent English proficient (RFEP) students using individual growth modeling analysis. The sample included 1,226 sixth- to eighth-grade RFEP students from six middle schools in an urban school…

  7. Fundamental movement skill proficiency of South African girls from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency can contribute to a decrease in participation in energy-expending recreational and sporting endeavours. Against the backdrop of the increasing obesity epidemic, ensuring that these foundational motor skills are established in childhood is justified. The purpose of this ...

  8. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Herrmann, Susan Strange

    2009-01-01

    A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos-methyl,...

  9. Determinants of second language proficiency among refugees in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, F.A. van

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the language acquisition of refugees in Western countries. This study examines how pre- and post-migration characteristics of refugees are related to their second language proficiency. Data are from a survey of 3,500 refugees, who were born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former

  10. Conversion to a Proficiency Oriented Curriculum at the University Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carmen Villegas; And Others

    A state grant to the Department of Romance Languages of the University of Tennessee in Knoxville has allowed development of a proficiency-based curriculum for first- and second-year French and Spanish. Most of the effort to date has been preparation of the syllabus based on specified goals and objectives, or student outcomes, focusing on allowing…

  11. The educational consequences of language proficiency for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5–6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys’ language test scores. In

  12. The Education Consequences of Language Proficiency for Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5-6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys' language test scores. In

  13. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  14. Impact of English Proficiency on Academic Performance of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson

    2015-01-01

    Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…

  15. Developing Autonomous Learning for Oral Proficiency Using Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SoHee

    2014-01-01

    Since online educational technology can support a ubiquitous language learning environment, there are many ways to develop English learners' autonomy through self-access learning. This study investigates whether English as a second language (ESL) learners can improve their oral proficiency through independent study by using online self-study…

  16. Second Language Proficiency and Cross-Language Lexical Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, J.G. van; Tanner, D.

    2012-01-01

    Although research has consistently shown that a bilingual's two languages interact on multiple levels, it is also well-established that bilinguals can vary considerably in their proficiency in the second language (L2). In this paper we review empirical studies that have examined how differences in

  17. Are antibiotic screening approaches sufficiently adequate? A proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A proficiency test including the screening analysis of antibiotics in beef using cryogenicly minced materials was organized by RIKILT in 2009. The test included blank beef samples and beef samples spiked with either flumequine or a combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin around the maximum

  18. Reduced Frontal Activation with Increasing 2nd Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Lehmann, Christoph; Wiest, Roland; Strik, Werner; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The factors influencing the degree of separation or overlap in the neuronal networks responsible for the processing of first and second language are still subject to investigation. This longitudinal study investigates how increasing second language proficiency influences activation differences during lexico-semantic processing of first and second…

  19. Music Teachers in Turkey: Their Proficiency, Working Environments and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otacioglu, Sena Gursen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was the collection of data concerning Turkish music teachers' proficiency and their place in the primary and secondary education system. In addition, information was collected regarding the teachers' working environment and professional complications. A total of 200 music teachers' opinions were compiled for the determination…

  20. English-for-Teaching: Rethinking Teacher Proficiency in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Donald; Katz, Anne; Garcia Gomez, Pablo; Burns, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of English teaching in state education systems places increasing demands on English language teachers and how they are trained. A major thrust of these efforts has focused on improving teachers' English language proficiency. This expectation is manifested in policy and pedagogical directives that teachers "teach English in…

  1. Proficiency in English as a second official language (ESOL) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper first presents a background to English as the international and global language and the second official language as well as the medium of instruction in Lesotho. It further discusses the meaning of proficiency in English and the rationale for teaching and learning English as well as using English as the medium of ...

  2. Automated Assembly of Pre-equated Language Proficiency Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Grant; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an automated language proficiency test assembly system at an air force base English Language Center. The study focuses on the equivalence of mean score difficulty, total score variance, and intercorrelation covariance across test norms and finds a high level of test-form equivalence and internal consistency. (nine…

  3. The Relationship Between Foreign Language Proficiency and Various Psychological Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, Mats

    A large-scale test development project at the Language Teaching Research Center of the University of Gothenburg aims to develop tests in English as a foreign language for use in various areas of business and public administration. After testing, certificates stating current proficiency level in each of the four language skills (listening, reading,…

  4. Beyond Host Language Proficiency: Coping Resources Predicting International Students' Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Anita S.; Bodycott, Peter; Ramburuth, Prem

    2015-01-01

    As international students navigate in a foreign educational environment, having higher levels of coping or stress-resistance resources--both internal and external--could be related to increased satisfaction with personal and university life. The internal coping resources examined in this study were host language proficiency, self-esteem,…

  5. Learning Disabled Children's Syntactic Proficiency on a Communicative Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Mavis; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The syntactic proficiency of 67 learning disabled children was evaluated during a task requiring them to convey information to a listener. Learning disabled children in all grades were found to produce shorter mean main clauses than nondisabled children even on this relatively simple communicative task. (Author/SEW)

  6. Equine-assisted therapy as intervention for motor proficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Equine-assisted therapy as intervention for motor proficiency in children with autism spectrum disorder: Case studies. ... EAT interventions could provide a suitable alternative approach for children on this spectrum who experience impairments in low muscle tone, repetitive motor movements, poor motor planning, postural ...

  7. Determinants of Second Language Proficiency among Refugees in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tubergen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the language acquisition of refugees in Western countries. This study examines how pre- and post-migration characteristics of refugees are related to their second language proficiency. Data are from a survey of 3,500 refugees, who were born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia and Somalia, and who resided in the…

  8. Comparison of Critical Listening Proficiency of Teacher Candidates in Terms of Several Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazu, Hilal; Demiralp, Demet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The research has been designed to determine the level of critical listening proficiency of the teacher candidates. It aims at finding answers to the following questions: (1) What is the level of critical listening proficiency of teacher candidates? (2) Do the teacher candidates' levels of critical listening proficiency indicate a…

  9. Language Proficiency and Language Policy in South Africa: Findings from New Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posel, Dorrit; Casale, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This study explores new data from 2008 on language proficiency and labour market outcomes in the context of South Africa's language-in-education policy. We show that the economic returns to English language proficiency are large and higher than those to home language proficiency for the majority of employed South Africans. This helps explain why…

  10. English language proficiency in South Africa at the turn of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper utilises the World Englishes paradigm to explore the issue of language proficiency: what type of English language proficiency will be most appropriate to South Africa at the start of the millennium? Three broad aspects of proficiency are proposed for further investigation, and in each case one particular area of ...

  11. 25 CFR 39.134 - How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient....134 How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student? A student is identified as limited English proficient (LEP) by using a nationally recognized scientifically research-based test. ...

  12. Instructional Efficacy of Portfolio for Assessing Iranian EFL Learners' Speaking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mahshad; Koosha, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Regarding the fundamental role of speaking in language skills, this study intended to investigate the effects of speaking portfolio as an alternative form of assessment for assessing Iranian EFL learners' speaking ability at the intermediate and advanced proficiency levels and also its impact on their attitudes. Accordingly, from the population of…

  13. Perceptions and Problems of English Language and Communication Abilities: A Final Check on Thai Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajprasit, Krich; Pratoomrat, Panadda; Wang, Tuntiga

    2015-01-01

    English language and communication abilities are an essential part of the global engineering community. However, non-native English speaking engineers and students tend to be unable to master these skills. This study aims to gauge the perceived levels of their general English language proficiency, to explore their English communicative problems,…

  14. The relationship between spoken English proficiency and participation in higher education, employment and income from two Australian censuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Helen L; Mcleod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Fuller, Gail

    2016-09-14

    Proficiency in the language of the country of residence has implications for an individual's level of education, employability, income and social integration. This paper explores the relationship between the spoken English proficiency of residents of Australia on census day and their educational level, employment and income to provide insight into multilingual speakers' ability to participate in Australia as an English-dominant society. Data presented are derived from two Australian censuses i.e. 2006 and 2011 of over 19 million people. The proportion of Australians who reported speaking a language other than English at home was 21.5% in the 2006 census and 23.2% in the 2011 census. Multilingual speakers who also spoke English very well were more likely to have post-graduate qualifications, full-time employment and high income than monolingual English-speaking Australians. However, multilingual speakers who reported speaking English not well were much less likely to have post-graduate qualifications or full-time employment than monolingual English-speaking Australians. These findings provide insight into the socioeconomic and educational profiles of multilingual speakers, which will inform the understanding of people such as speech-language pathologists who provide them with support. The results indicate spoken English proficiency may impact participation in Australian society. These findings challenge the "monolingual mindset" by demonstrating that outcomes for multilingual speakers in education, employment and income are higher than for monolingual speakers.

  15. The oscillatory activities and its synchronization in auditory-visual integration as revealed by event-related potentials to bimodal stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Xu, Peng; Yao, Li; Shu, Hua; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2012-03-01

    Neural mechanism of auditory-visual speech integration is always a hot study of multi-modal perception. The articulation conveys speech information that helps detect and disambiguate the auditory speech. As important characteristic of EEG, oscillations and its synchronization have been applied to cognition research more and more. This study analyzed the EEG data acquired by unimodal and bimodal stimuli using time frequency and phase synchrony approach, investigated the oscillatory activities and its synchrony modes behind evoked potential during auditory-visual integration, in order to reveal the inherent neural integration mechanism under these modes. It was found that beta activity and its synchronization differences had relationship with gesture N1-P2, which happened in the earlier stage of speech coding to pronouncing action. Alpha oscillation and its synchronization related with auditory N1-P2 might be mainly responsible for auditory speech process caused by anticipation from gesture to sound feature. The visual gesture changing enhanced the interaction of auditory brain regions. These results provided explanations to the power and connectivity change of event-evoked oscillatory activities which matched ERPs during auditory-visual speech integration.

  16. Can Higher-Proficiency L2 Learners Benefit from Working with Lower-Proficiency Partners in Peer Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shulin; Hu, Guangwei

    2017-01-01

    Informed by Vygotsky's conceptualization of the Zone of Proximal Development, this case study investigated the benefits of peer feedback on second language (L2) writing for students with high L2 proficiency and the factors that may influence their learning in peer feedback in the Chinese English-as-a-foreign-language context. Specifically, the…

  17. Home and Community Language Proficiency in Spanish-English Early Bilingual University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Jens

    2017-10-17

    This study assessed home and community language proficiency in Spanish-English bilingual university students to investigate whether the vocabulary gap reported in studies of bilingual children persists into adulthood. Sixty-five early bilinguals (mean age = 21 years) were assessed in English and Spanish vocabulary and verbal reasoning ability using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (Schrank & Woodcock, 2009). Their English scores were compared to 74 monolinguals matched in age and level of education. Participants also completed a background questionnaire. Bilinguals scored below the monolingual control group on both subtests, and the difference was larger for vocabulary compared to verbal reasoning. However, bilinguals were close to the population mean for verbal reasoning. Spanish scores were on average lower than English scores, but participants differed widely in their degree of balance. Participants with an earlier age of acquisition of English and more current exposure to English tended to be more dominant in English. Vocabulary tests in the home or community language may underestimate bilingual university students' true verbal ability and should be interpreted with caution in high-stakes situations. Verbal reasoning ability may be more indicative of a bilingual's verbal ability.

  18. Phonological awareness and oral language proficiency in learning to read English among Chinese kindergarten children in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Susanna S; Chan, Carol K K

    2013-12-01

    Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2 English reading among Hong Kong ESL kindergarteners. This study aims to investigate L1 and L2 phonological awareness and oral language proficiency as predictors of English reading among children with Chinese as L1. One hundred and sixty-one typically developing children with a mean age of 5.16 (SD=.35) selected from seven preschools in Hong Kong. Participants were assessed for English reading, English and Chinese phonological awareness at different levels, English oral language skills, and letter naming ability. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that both oral language proficiency and phonological awareness measures significantly predicted L2 word reading, when statistically controlled for age and general intelligence. Among various phonological awareness units, L2 phonemic awareness was the best predictor of L2 word reading. Cross-language transfer was shown with L1 phonological awareness at the tone level, uniquely predicting L2 word reading. The present findings show the important role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels (rime and phoneme) and oral language proficiency in the course of L2 reading development in Chinese ESL learners. The significant contribution of L1 tone awareness to L2 reading suggests that phonological sensitivity is a general competence that ESL children need to acquire in early years. The findings have significant implications for understanding L2 reading development and curriculum development. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Role of Oral Proficiency on Reading Comprehension: Within-Language and Cross-Language Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Yang, Lu; Lohr, Brandi; Leung, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the role of oral proficiency, as measured with elicited narratives using a wordless picture book, Frog Where are You? (Meyer, 1969/1994), on English reading comprehension with a total of 102 English Language Learners (ELLs), including both Spanish and Cantonese speakers. Narrative samples were collected in the winter of first grade and reading skills were assessed on the same children one year later in second grade. Children were enrolled in either bilingual programs or mainstream programs. Multiple regression results show it was not the quantity and variety of words used in the narratives that predicted English reading comprehension one year later. Instead, the ability to produce a coherent oral narrative, in either the home language or English, explained a small variance in English reading comprehension for both English learner groups. These findings highlight the importance of examining narrative skills, especially as measured by narrative structure. Implications for parents and educators are discussed. PMID:28717774

  20. The relationship between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency of prospective teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M (Mary Grosser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the relationships that exist between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency ofa group of first-year prospective teachers at a South African university (n = 89. The results revealed the nature of the critical thinking skills as well as the academic language proficiency of the students. Significant correlations between academic language proficiency and making inferences, as well as between academic language proficiency and critical thinking as a general competency, were noted. The article concludes with recommendations on how to enhance critical thinking and language proficiency in the teacher-training curriculum.

  1. The English Proficiency of the Academics of the Teacher Training and Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saukah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing the general English proficiency level of the academics of Teacher Training and Education Institutions (LPTK's as indicated by their TOEFL scores. Specifically, the study is focused on finding out whether there is any difference among the academics' English proficiencies when they are grouped in terms of the geographic regions of their institutions and their fields of study. This study is also intended to reveal any possible relationship between the academics' English proficiency and their age. The results indicate that the English proficiency of the academics on the average is far below the average of that of the international students. The academics in West Java are the highest in their English proficiency, and the English group, as expected, has the best English proficiency. In addition, there is a negative correlation between English proficiency and age

  2. First Language Proficiency and Successful Foreign Language Learning: The Case of High School Students Learning French as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnintedem, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a correlation between first language proficiency as measured by the Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT II) Reading and Language Arts and foreign language proficiency as measured by the French Language Proficiency Test. Data for the independent variable, first language proficiency, was collected from the…

  3. Clinical teachers' perceptions of medical students' English language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chur-Hansen, A; Vernon-Roberts, J

    1998-07-01

    Medical educators from the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Adelaide, South Australia, have expressed reservations about the adequacy of some undergraduate medical students' English language proficiency for satisfactory academic and clinical performance. This study explores the occurrence and nature of the comments made in writing by clinical teachers about the English language proficiency of 568 students over a period of 4 years. The frequency and nature of the comments made by clinicians have important implications for the planning and implementation of pedagogical strategies to support non-English-speaking background medical students experiencing difficulties with their course due to language. Although the University of Adelaide has introduced initiatives in response to some of the problems that have been identified, it is recommended that any teaching interventions require careful evaluation through a longitudinal research design to ensure that their aims are being achieved.

  4. Theory and practice: Science for undergraduates of limited English proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Judith W.

    1993-06-01

    Between 1980 and 1990, the total number of Asian, Hispanic, American Indian, and foreign undergraduates increased by more than 50% at public and private, four-year and two-year colleges. Many of these students may be of limited English proficiency, suggesting that the traditional science lecture/lab format may need modification to incorporate the theory of second language acquisition as it pertains to the practice of content instruction. Various methods exist to improve science instruction for limited English proficient undergraduates. These included the adjunct and tutorial models, sheltered or bridge science instruction, faculty development, and science instruction in the students' native language. Any plan for science education reform at the collegiate level or for increasing minority participation in science must address the needs of the growing population of undergraduates who speak English as a second language.

  5. Fluctuation analysis of proficient and dysgraphic handwriting in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, S.; Roman, H. E.

    2009-03-01

    We analyze handwriting records from several school children with the aim of characterizing the fluctuating behavior of the writing speed. It will be concluded that remarkable differences exist between proficient and dysgraphic handwritings which were unknown so far. It is shown that in the case of proficient handwriting, the variations in handwriting speed are strongly autocorrelated within times corresponding to the completion of a single character or letter, while become uncorrelated at longer times. In the case of dysgraphia, such correlations persist on longer time scales and the autocorrelation function seems to display algebraic time decay, indicating the presence of strong anomalies in the handwriting process. Applications of the results in educational/clinical programs are envisaged.

  6. Identification of Current Proficiency Level of Extension Competencies and the Competencies Needed for Extension Agents to Be Successful in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dona Lakai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this era of globalization, competency is an issue of concern to any field of professionals and their clients. Competency is an integrated set of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that allow one to effectively carry out the activities of a given work to the standards expected in the employment context. The purpose of this descriptive survey study was to determine the current proficiency level of North Carolina Cooperative Extension agents’ competencies and the other competencies they need to develop to be successful in Cooperative Extension. Findings indicate that the current proficiency level of competency for Extension agents in North Carolina Cooperative Extension varies from moderate to high in all 42 items listed in the survey. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that Extension agents’ years of Extension experience and age were major determinants of their overall proficiency level. Extension agents’ proficiency levels did not vary with gender, level of education, professional association affiliation, job position, or area of job responsibility. The research revealed that emotional intelligence, interpersonal skills, flexibility for adapting to changing environments, and ability to manage resources were the most significant other competencies needed for Extension agents to be successful in current context.

  7. Manufacturing Industry Employers’ Perception of Graduates’ English Language Skills Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh; Julie Chuah Suan Choo

    2012-01-01

    Proficiency in English language skills among graduates that create advantages for the organization is preferred by prospective employers as one of the main criteria for employability.  This article provides an overview of undergraduates in higher education and also workplace literacy from the perspective of the employers in the manufacturing industry. The result from the research demonstrates that Malaysian manufacturing industry employers perceive that the graduate employees’ English languag...

  8. A Study on Listening Anxiety and Listening Proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ju-hong

    2015-01-01

    Three instruments are adopted including the Foreign Language Listening Anxiety Scales (FLLAS), a listening metacog⁃nitive strategy-use questionnaire and a CET-4 listening test. The results indicate that a large proportion of students report experi⁃encing listening anxiety. There is significantly negative correlation between listening anxiety and listening proficiency and there is significant difference in the use of metacognitive strategies across three listening anxiety levels.

  9. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz; Arshad Abd Samad; Ismi Arif bin Ismail; Nooreen Noordin

    2014-01-01

    Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, co...

  10. Cell Phone Use and Child and Adolescent Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between cell phone use, including minutes spent talking and number of text messages sent, and two measures of children’s reading proficiency — tests of word decoding and reading comprehension — in the United States. Data were drawn from the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative survey of 1,147 children 10–18 in 2009. Children whose parents were better educated, who had higher family incomes, who had fewer siblings, and who lived in urban areas were more likely to own or share a cell phone. Among those with access to a phone, children who spent more time talking on the phone were less proficient at word decoding, whereas children who spent more time sending text messages had greater reading comprehension. Although girls spent more time texting than did boys, there were no gender differences in the association between time spent talking or number of text messages sent with achievement. In spite of racial/ethnic differences in cell phone use levels, there were no racial/ethnic differences in the association between cell phone use and reading proficiency. PMID:27683624

  11. Resenha: Measuring L2 Proficiency: Perspectives from SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Scholl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O livro Measuring L2 Proficiency: Perspectives from SLA traz contribuições de autores de diferentes áreas da pesquisa sobre Aquisição de Segunda Língua para a discussão sobre o que significa ser proficiente em uma segunda língua. Essa publicação tem como objetivo principal diminuir a lacuna existente entre a pesquisa de aquisição de segunda língua e o ensino de línguas, trazendo ideias concretas sobre a identificação e a avaliação de proficiência linguística para aplicação em pesquisa ou sala de aula. Assim, a leitura dos artigos que compõem o volume pode contribuir com pesquisadores e professores que em seu trabalho lidem com o conceito de proficiência ou com a sua avaliação.

  12. Does a peer model's task proficiency influence children's solution choice and innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lara A; Kendal, Rachel L; Flynn, Emma G

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether 4- to 6-year-old children's task solution choice was influenced by the past proficiency of familiar peer models and the children's personal prior task experience. Peer past proficiency was established through behavioral assessments of interactions with novel tasks alongside peer and teacher predictions of each child's proficiency. Based on these assessments, one peer model with high past proficiency and one age-, sex-, dominance-, and popularity-matched peer model with lower past proficiency were trained to remove a capsule using alternative solutions from a three-solution artificial fruit task. Video demonstrations of the models were shown to children after they had either a personal successful interaction or no interaction with the task. In general, there was not a strong bias toward the high past-proficiency model, perhaps due to a motivation to acquire multiple methods and the salience of other transmission biases. However, there was some evidence of a model-based past-proficiency bias; when the high past-proficiency peer matched the participants' original solution, there was increased use of that solution, whereas if the high past-proficiency peer demonstrated an alternative solution, there was increased use of the alternative social solution and novel solutions. Thus, model proficiency influenced innovation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Influence of Linguistic Proficiency on Masked Text Recognition Performance in Adults With and Without Congenital Hearing Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysmans, Elke; Bolk, Elske; Zekveld, Adriana A; Festen, Joost M; de Groot, Annette M B; Goverts, S Theo

    2016-01-01

    The authors first examined the influence of moderate to severe congenital hearing impairment (CHI) on the correctness of samples of elicited spoken language. Then, the authors used this measure as an indicator of linguistic proficiency and examined its effect on performance in language reception, independent of bottom-up auditory processing. In groups of adults with normal hearing (NH, n = 22), acquired hearing impairment (AHI, n = 22), and moderate to severe CHI (n = 21), the authors assessed linguistic proficiency by analyzing the morphosyntactic correctness of their spoken language production. Language reception skills were examined with a task for masked sentence recognition in the visual domain (text), at a readability level of 50%, using grammatically correct sentences and sentences with distorted morphosyntactic cues. The actual performance on the tasks was compared between groups. Adults with CHI made more morphosyntactic errors in spoken language production than adults with NH, while no differences were observed between the AHI and NH group. This outcome pattern sustained when comparisons were restricted to subgroups of AHI and CHI adults, matched for current auditory speech reception abilities. The data yielded no differences between groups in performance in masked text recognition of grammatically correct sentences in a test condition in which subjects could fully take advantage of their linguistic knowledge. Also, no difference between groups was found in the sensitivity to morphosyntactic distortions when processing short masked sentences, presented visually. These data showed that problems with the correct use of specific morphosyntactic knowledge in spoken language production are a long-term effect of moderate to severe CHI, independent of current auditory processing abilities. However, moderate to severe CHI generally does not impede performance in masked language reception in the visual modality, as measured in this study with short, degraded

  14. Disparities in Hypertension Associated with Limited English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Taekyu; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Rose, Adam J; Hanchate, Amresh D

    2017-06-01

    Limited English proficiency (LEP) is associated with poor health status and worse outcomes. To examine disparities in hypertension between National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) respondents with LEP versus adequate English proficiency. Retrospective analysis of multi-year survey data. Adults 18 years of age and older who participated in the NHANES survey during the period 2003-2012. We defined participants with LEP as anyone who completed the NHANES survey in a language other than English or with the support of an interpreter. Using logistic regression, we estimated the odds ratio for undiagnosed or uncontrolled hypertension (systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > 90 mmHg) among LEP participants relative to those with adequate English proficiency. We adjusted for sociodemographic, acculturation-related, and hypertension-related variables. Fourteen percent (n = 3,269) of the participants had limited English proficiency: 12.4% (n = 2906) used a Spanish questionnaire and 1.6% (n = 363) used an interpreter to complete the survey in another language. Those with LEP had higher odds of elevated blood pressure on physical examination (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.47 [1.07-2.03]). This finding persisted among participants using an interpreter (AOR = 1.88 [1.15-3.06]) but not among those using the Spanish questionnaire (AOR = 1.32 [0.98-1.80]). In a subgroup analysis, we found that the majority of uncontrolled hypertension was concentrated among individuals with a known diagnosis of hypertension (AOR = 1.80 [1.16-2.81]) rather than those with undiagnosed hypertension (AOR = 1.14 [0.74-1.75]). Interpreter use was associated with increased odds of uncontrolled hypertension, especially among patients who were not being medically managed for hypertension (AOR = 6.56 [1.30-33.12]). In a nationally representative sample, participants with LEP were more likely to have poorly

  15. Acquisition of Skill Proficiency Over Multiple Sessions of a Novel Rover Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, S. L.; DeDios,Y. E.; MacDougall, H. G.; Moore, S. T.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Following long-duration exploration transits, adaptive changes in sensorimotor function may impair the crew's ability to safely perform manual control tasks such as operating pressurized rovers. Postflight performance will also be influenced by the level of preflight skill proficiency they have attained. The purpose of this study was to characterize the acquisition of skills in a motion-based rover simulation over multiple sessions, and to investigate the effects of varying the simulation scenarios. METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects were tested in 5 sessions, with 1-3 days between sessions. Each session consisted of a serial presentation of 8 discrete tasks to be completed as quickly and accurately as possible. Each task consisted of 1) perspective-taking, using a map that defined a docking target, 2) navigation toward the target around a Martian outpost, and 3) docking a side hatch of the rover to a visually guided target. The simulator utilized a Stewart-type motion base (CKAS, Australia), single-seat cabin with triple scene projection covering 150 deg horizontal by 50 deg vertical, and joystick controller. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (tasks identical in the first 4 sessions) or a varied-practice group. The dependent variables for each task included accuracy toward the target and time to completion. RESULTS: The greatest improvements in time to completion occurred during the docking phase. The varied-practice group showed more improvement in perspective-taking accuracy. Perspective-taking accuracy was also affected by the relative orientation of the rover to the docking target. Skill acquisition was correlated with self-ratings of previous gaming experience. DISCUSSION: Varying task selection and difficulty will optimize the preflight acquisition of skills when performing novel operational tasks. Simulation of operational manual control will provide functionally relevant evidence regarding the impact of sensorimotor adaptation on early

  16. Effects of proficiency and age of language acquisition on working memory performance in bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vejnović Dušan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined language proficiency and age of language acquisition influences on working memory performance in bilinguals. Bilingual subjects were administered reading span task in parallel versions for their first and second language. In Experiment 1, language proficiency effect was tested by examination of low and highly proficient second language speakers. In Experiment 2, age of language acquisition was examined by comparing the performance of proficient second language speakers who acquired second language either early or later in their lives. Both proficiency and age of language acquisition were found to affect bilingual working memory performance, and the proficiency effect was observed even at very high levels of language competence. The results support the notion of working memory as a domain that is influenced both by a general pool of resources and certain domain specific factors.

  17. Does English proficiency impact on health outcomes for inpatients undergoing stroke rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah E; Dodd, Karen J; Tu, April; Zucchi, Emiliano; Zen, Stefania; Hill, Keith D

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether English proficiency and/or the frequency of interpreter use impacts on health outcomes for inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Retrospective case-control study. People admitted for inpatient stroke rehabilitation. A high English proficiency group comprised people with native or near native English proficiency (n = 80), and a low English proficiency group comprised people who preferred a language other than English (n = 80). Length of stay (LOS), discharge destination and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The low English proficiency group showed a greater improvement in FIM from admission to discharge (p = 0.04). No significant differences were found between groups in LOS, discharge destination and number of encounters with allied health professionals. Increased interpreter usage improved FIM efficiency but did not significantly alter other outcomes. English proficiency does not appear to impact on health outcomes in inpatient rehabilitation with a primarily in-house professional interpreter service. However, there is a need for a larger powered study to confirm these findings. Implications for rehabilitation People with low English proficiency undergoing inpatient stroke rehabilitation in a setting with a primarily in-house professional interpreter service, achieved similar outcomes to those with high English proficiency irrespective of frequency of interpreter usage. A non-significant increase of 4 days length of stay was observed in the low English proficiency group compared to the high English proficiency group. For patients with low English proficiency, greater change in Functional Independence Measure efficiency scores was observed for those with higher levels of interpreter use relative to those with low interpreter use. Clinicians should optimise use of interpreters with patients with low English proficiency when possible.

  18. Communication With Limited English-Proficient Families in the PICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurca, Adrian D; Fisher, Kiondra R; Flor, Remigio J; Gonzalez-Marques, Catalina D; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I; October, Tessie W

    2017-01-01

    Health care disparities have been described for children of limited English-proficient (LEP) families compared with children of English-proficient (EP) families. Poor communication with the medical team may contribute to these worse health outcomes. Previous studies exploring communication in the PICU have excluded LEP families. We aimed to understand communication experiences and preferences in the 3 primary communication settings in the PICU. We also explored LEP families' views on interpreter use in the PICU. EP and Spanish-speaking LEP families of children admitted to the PICU of a large tertiary pediatric hospital completed surveys between 24 hours and 7 days of admission. A total of 161 of 184 families were surveyed (88% response rate); 52 were LEP and 109 EP. LEP families were less likely to understand the material discussed on rounds (odds ratio [OR] 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.90), to report that PICU nurses spent enough time speaking with them (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.05-0.41), and to report they could rely on their nurses for medical updates (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.02-0.25) controlling for covariates, such as education, insurance type, presence of a chronic condition, PICU length of stay, and mortality index. LEP families reported 53% of physicians and 41% of nurses used an interpreter "often." Physician and nurse communication with LEP families is suboptimal. Communication with LEP families may be improved with regular use of interpreters and an increased awareness of the added barrier of language proficiency. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. The role of ESP courses in general English proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Cigan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is the study of the interaction between learning English for Specific Purposes (ESP, in particular, English for the Financial Sector, and general English proficiency. The research examines the effects of an ESP course being taught for a year on the students' general English proficiency.Two sets of tests were prepared for that purpose and administered to 30 first-year students of finance and law. The students took the placement test twice, at the beginning and at the end of the school year. To monitor test performance over a research period, a parallel form measuring the same competences was administered at the beginning of the second semester. In the test development process a special consideration has been paid to the level of difficulty and its relation to the students' prior educational context. Drawing on the National State Matura exams the test is set at Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR Level B2. As regards its content the test is comprised of reading comprehension tasks (multiple matching, multiple-choice cloze, gapped text and grammar tasks aiming to examine lexical and grammatical competence.There were two major assumptions in this study: 1 Learning ESP can improve students' general English proficiency, and 2 There is a more substantial improvement in lexical competence as compared to the improvement in grammatical competence.There is strong evidence in support of the first hypothesis, whereas for the second one the results were ambiguous. After major findings are presented and discussed, implications for ESP teaching are given in closing.

  20. Telephone triage utilization among patients with limited English proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane W. Njeru

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication between patients with limited English proficiency (LEP and telephone triage services has not been previously explored. The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization characteristics of a primary care triage call center by patients with LEP. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of the utilization of a computer-aided, nurse-led telephone triage system by English proficiency status of patients empaneled to a large primary care practice network in the Midwest United States. Interpreter Services (IS need was used as a proxy for LEP. Results Call volumes between the 587 adult patients with LEP and an age-frequency matched cohort of English-Proficient (EP patients were similar. Calls from patients with LEP were longer and more often made by a surrogate. Patients with LEP received recommendations for higher acuity care more frequently (49.4% versus 39.0%; P < 0.0004, and disagreed with recommendations more frequently (30.1% versus 20.9%; P = 0.0004. These associations remained after adjustment for comorbidities. Patients with LEP were also less likely to follow recommendations (60.9% versus 69.4%; P = 0.0029, even after adjusting for confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49, 0.85; P < 0.001. Conclusion Patients with LEP who utilized a computer-aided, nurse-led telephone triage system were more likely to receive recommendations for higher acuity care compared to EP patients. They were also less likely to agree with, or follow, recommendations given. Additional research is needed to better understand how telephone triage can better serve patients with LEP.

  1. Proficiency examination in English language: Needs analysis and methodological proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elizete Luz Saes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to provide tools for reflections on some learning difficulties presented by students when they are submitted to English proficiency examinations, as well as to suggest some methodological proposals that can be implemented among didactic support groups, monitoring or in classrooms, by means of face-to-face or distance learning activities. The observations resulting from the performance presented by the students have motivated the preparation of this paper, whose theoretical assumptions are based on the needs analysis of the target audience, the exploration of oral and written discursive genres and the possibilities of interaction provided by technological mediation.

  2. Evaluating Elementary-Aged Students' Abilities to Generalize and Maintain Fluency Gains of a Performance Feedback Writing Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hier, Bridget O.; Eckert, Tanya L.

    2014-01-01

    National estimates of students' writing abilities in the United States indicate that in 2002, 72% of elementary-aged students were unable to write with grade-level proficiency (Persky, Daane, & Jin, 2003). Although performance feedback is one type of intervention that improves students' writing skills, no study to date has examined…

  3. Tests of Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    specific abilities while Ree and others (Olea & Ree, 1994; Ree, TESTS OF GENERAL COGNITIVE ABILITY 9 Carretta, & Doub , 1998/1999; Ree, Carretta...Ree, M. J., Carretta, T. R., & Doub , T. (1998/1999). A Test of Three Models of the Role of g and Prior Job Knowledge in the Acquisition of Subsequent

  4. The effects of L2 proficiency level on the processing of wh-questions among Dutch second language speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carrie N.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English wh-subject-extractions and wh-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject- versus object-extractions in English. However, less-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers exhibit greater processing costs on subject-extractions relative to object-extractions, similar to previously reported findings (e.g., Dussias and Piñar, forthcoming; Juffs 2005; Juffs and Harrington 1995). These findings are discussed in light of relevant research surrounding on-line processing among L2 speakers and their ability to adopt native-like processing patterns in the L2. PMID:22888175

  5. The relationship between maternal education and the neural substrates of phoneme perception in children: Interactions between socioeconomic status and proficiency level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Lisa L; Liebenthal, Einat; Desai, Anjali; Binder, Jeffrey R

    2017-08-01

    Relationships between maternal education (ME) and both behavioral performances and brain activation during the discrimination of phonemic and nonphonemic sounds were examined using fMRI in children with different levels of phoneme categorization proficiency (CP). Significant relationships were found between ME and intellectual functioning and vocabulary, with a trend for phonological awareness. A significant interaction between CP and ME was seen for nonverbal reasoning abilities. In addition, fMRI analyses revealed a significant interaction between CP and ME for phonemic discrimination in left prefrontal cortex. Thus, ME was associated with differential patterns of both neuropsychological performance and brain activation contingent on the level of CP. These results highlight the importance of examining SES effects at different proficiency levels. The pattern of results may suggest the presence of neurobiological differences in the children with low CP that affect the nature of relationships with ME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Automatic failure in gynecologic cytology proficiency testing. Results from the College of American Pathologists proficiency testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Ann T; Crothers, Barbara A; Bentz, Joel S; Souers, Rhona J; Fatheree, Lisa A; Wilbur, David C

    2009-11-01

    Automatic failure in gynecologic cytology proficiency testing occurs when a high-grade lesion or carcinoma (HSIL+, Category D) is misinterpreted as negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (Category B). To document the automatic failure rate in 2006 and 2007 from the College of American Pathologists proficiency testing program (PAP PT) and compare them to projected values from 2004. Identify automatic failures from PAP PT in 2006 and 2007 and compare the rates of failure regarding participant and preparation type to validated slides in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in 2004. There were 65 264 participant responses for HSIL+ slides included in this analysis from 2006 and 2007. Overall, 1% (666 of 65 264) of the HSIL+ responses were classified as negative, resulting in automatic failure for the participant. There were significantly fewer automatic failures in 2007 as compared with either 2006 or projected from 2004 data (P < .001). Conventional preparations had a lower automatic failure rate than liquid-based preparations but only for 2006. Both pathologists and cytotechnologists interpreting liquid-based preparations faired better than projected from 2004 data. The automatic failure rate in PAP PT is lower than expected based on 2004 data from the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program. Automatic failures are a relatively small component (1% or less) of proficiency testing failures. The rate of automatic failure decreased from 2006 to 2007 and may be due to loss of poor performers in the testing pool, the test-taking environment, or removal of less robust slides from the program.

  7. SYNCHRONOUS CMC, WORKING MEMORY, AND L2 ORAL PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Payne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002. Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989 model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC and second language (L2 speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002 with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

  8. Investigating elementary school pupils’ proficiency in mastering English vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Achmad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available English has been taught at elementary schools as one of the local content subjects. It is necessary to study English from an early age in order to achieve good mastery in it. To master English means to master the four skills in it and also the language aspects, including vocabulary. As one of the language aspects, vocabulary plays an important role in language learning. This study reports on pupils’ proficiency in mastering English vocabulary after three years of studying in elementary school. The writer chose 55 grade-four pupils of SD Methodist Banda Aceh as a sample for this study. They were given a vocabulary test related to reading and writing skills consisting of 26 items. The test was to be done in 20 minutes. After calculating the data, it was found that the mean score (x of the pupils was 69.5, with the highest score at 92.3 and the lowest score at 26.9. More than 50% of the pupils could answer the questions correctly in less than 20 minutes. Only 4 out of the 55 pupils answered the questions less than 50% correctly and no one answered 100% correct. According to these results, this study showed that the pupils achieved good proficiency in vocabulary.

  9. Circadian differences in hemisphere-linked spelling proficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, L L; Diubaldo, D

    1995-03-01

    Male and female adolescents (N = 113) were assigned randomly to spelling instruction in either morning or afternoon groups for a school year. A spelling list (100 words) was administered at the beginning of the school year to obtain a sample of error responses and estimate proficiency. Although equally proficient, subjects tested in the afternoon showed more phonetically inappropriate errors, while those tested in the morning showed more phonetically appropriate errors. This error pattern is viewed as support for a more engaged left hemisphere in the morning. There were no differences on two types of visual errors. Subjects then received instruction in spelling for nine months in either morning or afternoon settings. Time-of-day effects were not evident on the word list and there were too few errors to conduct a posttest error analysis. However, standardized test results for a subgroup revealed that subjects receiving morning instruction made greater gains on phonetically regular words compared to phonetically irregular words--an effect consistent with a circadian-linked higher level of left hemisphere engagement early in the day. The findings are of a pilot nature, but implications for education and further research are discussed.

  10. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  11. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  12. Infant statistical-learning ability is related to real-time language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Jill; Shoaib, Amber; Thompson, Abbie; Estes, Katharine Graf

    2018-03-01

    Infants are adept at learning statistical regularities in artificial language materials, suggesting that the ability to learn statistical structure may support language development. Indeed, infants who perform better on statistical learning tasks tend to be more advanced in parental reports of infants' language skills. Work with adults suggests that one way statistical learning ability affects language proficiency is by facilitating real-time language processing. Here we tested whether 15-month-olds' ability to learn sequential statistical structure in artificial language materials is related to their ability to encode and interpret native-language speech. Specifically, we tested their ability to learn sequential structure among syllables (Experiment 1) and words (Experiment 2), as well as their ability to encode familiar English words in sentences. The results suggest that infants' ability to learn sequential structure among syllables is related to their lexical-processing efficiency, providing continuity with findings from children and adults, though effects were modest.

  13. The Relationship between the Critical Thinking Skills and the Academic Language Proficiency of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, M. M.; Nel, Mirna

    2013-01-01

    We report on the relationships that exist between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency of a group of first-year prospective teachers at a South African university (n = 89). The results revealed the nature of the critical thinking skills as well as the academic language proficiency of the students. Significant…

  14. Effects of reading proficiency on embedded stem priming in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Grainger, Jonathan; Casalis, Séverine; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2015-11-01

    Prior evidence from masked morphological priming has revealed conflicting findings regarding the acquisition of morpho-orthographic segmentation mechanisms in developing readers. Here, we examined changes in masked morphological priming across grade within a large sample of French primary school children (n = 191, Grades 2-5) and how these effects are modulated by individual differences in reading proficiency, spelling proficiency, and morphological awareness. Target words were preceded by either (a) a suffixed word prime (e.g., tristesse-TRISTE), (b) a suffixed nonword prime (e.g., tristerie-TRISTE), (c) a non-suffixed nonword prime (e.g., tristald-TRISTE), or (d) an unrelated prime (e.g., direction-TRISTE) using very short prime durations (50 ms). Moreover, a frequency manipulation was included for suffixes and non-suffixes. The results revealed robust suffixed word priming across all children independent of grade and proficiency. On the other hand, priming in the suffixed and non-suffixed nonword conditions was modulated by reading proficiency, with high-proficiency children showing facilitation and low-proficiency children showing inhibition. The effects of suffix and non-suffix frequency were modulated by grade, with decreasing effects as grade increased. None of the observed priming effects were modulated by grade, spelling proficiency, or morphological awareness. The results suggest that reading proficiency is an important predictor for embedded stem activation mechanisms in primary school children, which we discuss in the context of recent theories of morphological processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Strategy Use, Listening Problems, and Motivation of High- and Low-Proficiency Chinese Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kit-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Building on previous listening strategy research, the author aimed to explore the differences between Chinese high-proficiency listeners (HLs) and low-proficiency listeners (LLs) on their strategy use, problems, and motivation in native language (L1) listening. It involved 1,290 Grade 7 and 1,515 Grade 9 students. Both quantitative and qualitative…

  16. Motor proficiency profile of Grade 1 learners in the North West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for developmental problems associated with inadequate motor skills and should consequently be addressed, especially during the preschool years and the initial years of the primary school phase. Key words: Motor proficiency; School beginner; Gender; Race; Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 Short Form.

  17. Hi-LAB: A New Measure of Aptitude for High-Level Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linck, Jared A.; Hughes, Meredith M.; Campbell, Susan G.; Silbert, Noah H.; Tare, Medha; Jackson, Scott R.; Smith, Benjamin K.; Bunting, Michael F.; Doughty, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Few adult second language (L2) learners successfully attain high-level proficiency. Although decades of research on beginning to intermediate stages of L2 learning have identified a number of predictors of the rate of acquisition, little research has examined factors relevant to predicting very high levels of L2 proficiency. The current study,…

  18. Defining English Language Proficiency for Malaysian Tertiary Education: Past, Present and Future Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Chan Swee

    2012-01-01

    Any attempt to define English language proficiency can never be divorced from the theories that describe the nature of language, language acquisition and human cognition. By virtue of such theories being socially constructed, the descriptions are necessarily value-laden. Thus, a definition of language proficiency can only, at best, be described as…

  19. Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment (WELPA). Form C 2015. Interpretation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment" (WELPA) is a No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-compliant instrument that is used in Grades K-12 as a formal and standardized method of measuring language proficiency. The test results provide important information for classifying English Language Learners (ELLs) and subsequently for…

  20. The Interplay of Processing Task, Text Type, and Proficiency in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mami

    2012-01-01

    This study was an investigation of how particular processing tasks influence L2 reading in relation to text type effects and L2 reading proficiency. Two groups of Japanese university EFL students (N = 103), varying in English reading proficiency, read a narrative passage and an expository passage in one of three task conditions: outlining,…

  1. Non-Discriminatory Assessment: Formal and Informal Assessment of Limited English Proficient Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sharon

    PEOPLE (Pruebas de Expresion Oral y Percepcion de la Lengua Espanol) was developed as a test to help distinguish between a language difference and a language deficit in non English proficient (NEP) and limited English proficient (LEP) elementary Hispanic students. PEOPLE was developed, pilot tested in 14 school districts in Los Angeles County with…

  2. The Impact of the Oral Proficiency Interview on One Foreign Language Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissau, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) has been increasingly used in academia. However, while multiple studies have documented the growth in OPI implementation across the United States and the proficiency rates of its completers, few have focused specifically on foreign language teacher candidates, and even fewer have investigated the impact that…

  3. 76 FR 66318 - Announcement of Funding Awards; Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program (LEPI), Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards; Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program (LEPI... funding under the Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Limited English Proficiency Initiative... INFORMATION: Executive Order 13166 signed in August 2000 requires all federal agencies to improve access to...

  4. The influence of non-native language proficiency on speech perception perfomance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilman, L.; Zekveld, A.A.; Hallgren, M.; Ronnberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent proficiency in a non-native language influences speech perception in noise. We explored how English proficiency affected native (Swedish) and non-native (English) speech perception in four speech reception threshold (SRT) conditions, including two energetic

  5. Validating the Technology Proficiency Self-Assessment Questionnaire for 21st Century Learning (TPSA C-21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Accurately measuring levels of technology proficiency in current and future classroom teachers are an important first step toward enhancing comfort level and confidence in integrating technology into the educational environment. The original Technology Proficiency Self-Assessment (TPSA) survey has maintained respectable psychometric properties for…

  6. Definitions and Approaches to Measuring Reading Proficiency. CEELO FastFact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors-Tadros, Lori

    2014-01-01

    A state contacted the Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) for guidance in developing a definition of "reading proficiency" and what it means to "read on grade level by third grade." The state also requested information on how national sources or states define and measure proficiency. The state was particularly…

  7. Proficiency Assessment Standards in Second Language Acquisition Research: "Clozing" the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Annie

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to sensitize SLA researchers to the importance of documenting and controlling for their participants' proficiency in the target language, with the goal of establishing more robust proficiency assessment standards in experimental research. First, this article presents a survey of recent (2000-2008) foreign and second-language…

  8. Proficiency and Working Memory Based Explanations for Nonnative Speakers' Sensitivity to Agreement in Sentence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Caitlin E.; Tremblay, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the roles of proficiency and working memory (WM) capacity in second-/foreign-language (L2) learners' processing of agreement morphology. It investigates the processing of grammatical and ungrammatical short- and long-distance number agreement dependencies by native English speakers at two proficiencies in French, and the…

  9. The Effect of English Proficiency and Ethnicity on Academic Performance and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-local ethnicity or nationality and lower English proficiency have been linked with poor performance in health professional education. This study sought to compare the relative contributions of ethnicity and English proficiency, and to do so in a context where students had not been selected via interviews or some other proxy for language…

  10. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  11. The application of data from proficiency testing to laboratory accreditation according to ISO 17025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    Current methods of testing laboratories for their proficiency in reporting correct measurement results are liable to substantial errors of the 2nd kind. This means that laboratories with deflated uncertainties are accepted as proficient, even though their reported measurement results pave the way...

  12. Modeling the development of L1 and EFL writing proficiency of secondary school students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; van Gelderen, A.; Stoel, R.D.; Hulstijn, J.; de Glopper, K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed

  13. Modeling the Development of L1 and EFL Writing Proficiency of Secondary School Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, Rob; van Gelderen, Amos; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Hulstijn, Jan; de Glopper, Cornelis

    This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed

  14. Empirical Profiles of Academic Oral English Proficiency from an International Teaching Assistant Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikkyu

    2017-01-01

    Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…

  15. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  16. The Evaluation of Communicative Language Proficiency: A Critique of the ACTFL Oral Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle; Savignon, Sandra J.

    1986-01-01

    Current ACTFL (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages) Oral Language Proficiency Guidelines are based on an overly narrow view of communicative language proficiency. However, the guidelines do provide a basis for the development of effective teaching and testing methods. (CB)

  17. An Examination of Some Language Proficiency Tests from a Communicative Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.

    A theoretical framework that distinguishes the knowledge, or competence, aspect of language proficiency from the skills aspect is outlined, and the factors in the language testing situation that affect performance on language tests are examined. The model is intended for use in assessing the construct validity of tests of language proficiency and…

  18. ELL High School Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategy Use and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Nam, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the metacognitive awareness and reading strategies use of high school-­aged English language learners (ELLs) and the relationship between ELL reading strategy use and reading proficiency as measured by a standardized reading test and self-­rated reading proficiency. Results reveal that participants reported moderate use of…

  19. The Effect of Reading Proficiency on Student Success in Online Credit Recovery Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisoc, Randolph P.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study applied the theory that reading skills are predictive of high school graduation to examine the impact that reading proficiency has on student success in online credit recovery programs for credit deficient students, many of whom struggle with reading. Since reading proficiency impacts academic achievement in general, this…

  20. Exploring Oral Proficiency Profiles of Heritage Speakers of Russian and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swender, Elvira; Martin, Cynthia L.; Rivera-Martinez, Mildred; Kagan, Olga E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic profiles of heritage speakers of Russian and Spanish. Data from the 2009-2013 ACTFL-UCLA NHLRC Heritage Language Project included biographical information as well as speech samples that were elicited using the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview-computer and were rated according to the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines…

  1. Does Language Proficiency Modulate Oculomotor Control? Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Though many previous studies have reported enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals, few have investigated if such control is modulated by language proficiency. Here, we examined the inhibitory control of high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on an oculomotor Stroop task. Subjects were asked to make a saccade as fast as possible towards…

  2. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Blumenfeld, Henrike K

    2015-06-01

    Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Speech movements of 29 native English speakers with low or high proficiency in Spanish were recorded while producing simple and syntactically complex sentences in English and Spanish. Sentences were loaded with cognate (e.g., baby-bebé) or noncognate (e.g., dog-perro) words. Effects of proficiency, lexicality (cognate vs. noncognate), and syntactic complexity on maximum speed, range of movement, duration, and speech movement variability were examined. In general, speakers with lower L2 proficiency differed in their speech motor control and performance from speakers with higher L2 proficiency. Speakers with higher L2 proficiency generally had less speech movement variability, shorter phrase durations, greater maximum speeds, and greater ranges of movement. In addition, lexicality and syntactic complexity affected speech motor control and performance. L2 proficiency, lexicality, and syntactic complexity influence speech motor control and performance in adult L2 learners. Information about relationships between speech motor control, language proficiency, and cognitive-linguistic demands may be used to assess and treat bilingual clients and language learners.

  3. Who's Coming to My Party? Peer Talk as a Bridge to Oral Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Megan

    2012-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I investigate heterogeneous-language peer interactions in an English-only kindergarten classroom. English Learners and English Proficient students co-created language necessary to build an argument, one discourse valued in schools. Students developed complex oral language proficiency skills but were viewed as engaging…

  4. Video Analysis of Athletic Training Student Performance: Changing Educational Competency into Clinical Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Jeffrey K.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Assessing clinical proficiency and documenting learning over time is quite challenging. Educators must look for unique ways to effectively examine students' performance and archive evidence of their academic progress. Objective: To discuss the use of video analysis to bridge the gap from educational competency to clinical proficiency, and…

  5. Assessing Second-Language Oral Proficiency for Research: The Spanish Elicited Imitation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Harriet Wood

    2016-01-01

    Proficiency is a key variable in late second language (L2) learning, but one that is undermeasured in current research. This study investigates whether L2 oral proficiency can be quickly and reliably assessed via the Spanish "elicited imitation task" (EIT; Ortega, Iwashita, Rabie, & Norris, 1999). Thirty-seven L2 learners of Spanish…

  6. Technological Proficiency as a Key to Job Security. Trends and Issues Alert No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    Although not all current jobs require basic computer skills, technological advances in society have created new jobs and changed the ways many existing jobs are performed. Clearly, workers who are proficient in technology have a greater advantage in the current workplace and the need for technologically proficient workers will only continue to…

  7. EFL Proficiency in Language Learning and Learner Autonomy Perceptions of Turkish Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Süleyman; Çeliköz, Nadir; Sari, Irfan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationships of Turkish-English Language Teaching (ELT) learners' perceptions of learner autonomy with ELT learner's proficiency level in language learning. Particularly, the study aimed at investigating to what extent ELT learners' autonomy perceptions are affected by proficiency level of learners.…

  8. Disclosure of Information about English Proficiency: Preservice Teachers' Presumptions about English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Wodrich, David L.; Kasai, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this analog study was to determine if increased access to information about a hypothetical English Language Learner (ELL) students' language proficiency increased preservice teachers' recognition that limited English proficiency is the likely cause of student difficulties. We find that the provision of increasing levels of…

  9. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  10. Dynamics in intention to stay and changes in language proficiency of recent migrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, P.G.; Lubbers, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on consequences of changes in intention to stay for Dutch language proficiency of recent migrants. It is anticipated that migrants who decide at a later instance to stay longer in the Netherlands have made less language investments and therefore have a lower proficiency than

  11. The Great Leap Forward: Stepping Cautiously into the Proficiency-Based Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovik, Thomas A.

    As with any other development in foreign language education, it is critical that the elements of proficiency teaching be transferred to practitioners so that past mistakes, such as those made with the audiolingual method, are not repeated. Proficiency teaching must be carefully analyzed and critically presented to the next generation of teachers.…

  12. A Blueprint for Developing Culturally Proficient/Responsive School Administrators in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Jeffrey P.; Smith, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the important topic of culturally proficient/responsive school administrators for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with learning disabilities (LD). Culturally proficient/responsive school administrators with knowledge and strong leadership skills in multicultural education are essential to impact school…

  13. Secrets of Their Success: A Multiple Case Study of Mathematically Proficient Homeschool Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Betty Roberts

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple case study was to explain how mathematically proficient homeschool graduates acquired their proficiency. Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1999) ecological and Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) models were used as theoretical frameworks to analyze the development of the graduates in the homeschool environment. The National…

  14. Nature of L2 Grammatical Proficiency: A Multi-Dimensional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Samani, Behrouz Nouri

    2011-01-01

    This is a study with descriptive hypothesis-testing design investigating the true nature of L2 grammatical proficiency via focusing on its component parts. It examines the performance of 60 female EFL learners between 19 and 30 years of age at 2 proficiency levels using 2 types of computerized Grammaticality Judgement tasks in different orders…

  15. Digital Games and the US National Research Council's Science Proficiency Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garza, Mario; Clark, Douglas B.; Nelson, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    This review synthesises research on digital games and science learning as it supports the goals for science proficiency outlined in the report by the US National Research Council on science education reform. The review is organised in terms of these research-based goals for science proficiency in light of their alignment with current science…

  16. The Influence of Textbook Format on Postsecondary Proficient and Remedial Readers: Designing Information Using Visual Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetlan, W. Lou

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the design of textbook material affects comprehension and memory of textbook material under certain cognitive conditions for proficient and remedial readers. Using quantitative and qualitative research methods, format was found to significantly affect comprehension and memory. Proficient Male scored significantly…

  17. Girls underestimate maths ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    A study by psychologists in the US has found that high-school girls rate their competence in mathematics lower than boys, even for those with similar abilities (Front. Psychol. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00386).

  18. Identity processing styles and language proficiency among Persian learners of English as a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Neissi, Sina

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between identity processing styles and language proficiency in English as foreign language (EFL) was investigated among the Persian EFL learners. 266 Persian candidates taking part in a Ph.D. examination at Shiraz University took part. The Language Proficiency Test was used to measure language proficiency in English. The Identity Styles Inventory was used to measure normative, informational, and diffuse-avoidant identity processing styles. Relationships between normative and informational styles and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were positive and significant. Negative relationships between diffuse-avoidant style and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were observed. There were significant sex differences for diffuse-avoidant style and for vocabulary.

  19. The relationship between fundamental movement skill proficiency and physical self-confidence among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Bronagh; Belton, Sarahjane; Powell, Danielle; Issartel, Johann

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to assess fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency, physical self-confidence levels, and the relationship between these variables and gender differences among adolescents. Three hundred and ninety five adolescents aged 13.78 years (SD = ±1.2) from 20 schools were involved in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD), TGMD-2 and Victorian Skills Manual were used to assess 15 FMS. Participants' physical self-confidence was also assessed using a valid skill-specific scale. A significant correlation was observed between FMS proficiency and physical self-confidence for females only (r = 0.305, P self-confidence levels than females (P = 0.001). Males scored significantly higher than females in FMS proficiency (P self-confidence group were significantly less proficient at FMS than the medium (P self-confidence groups (P self-confidence and FMS proficiency.

  20. CA8-05: Communication Problems and Preferences of Limited English Proficient Spanish Speakers in a Predominantly English-oriented Medical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Nancy; Gregory-Burns, Gina; Dean, Susan; Torreblanca, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims To investigate communication problems and preferences of Limited English Proficiency Spanish speakers in a predominantly English-oriented medical care system. Methods Waiting room survey (self-administered questionnaire) conducted January-October 2011 at 5 Kaiser Permanente Northern California facilities (incl. 4 Latino Health Modules). Study Sample: Patients classified based on self-report as having Very Limited English Proficiency (VLEP, n=1527, doesn’t speak English at all or not well) or Limited English Proficiency (LEP, n=431, speaks English well, but not very well). The sample included 380 women and 169 men aged 18–39, 681 women and 294 men aged 40–59, and 290 women and 108 men aged = 60. By age group, 74.1%, 79.2%, and 80.2%, respectively, were classified as VLEP, with women comprising approximately 71% of VLEP and 60% of LEP in each age group. Over 85% came from Mexico or Central America. Results Educational attainment very low in both LEP and VLEP groups, but across all age groups, significantly lower for VLEP vs. LEP. Approximately 75% of LEP (“speak English well”) patients have trouble at least sometimes understanding people speaking to them in English. Over half of LEP patients have difficulty understanding letters and information in English. Nearly half of LEP and 15% of VLEP patients want to receive letters and instructions in both English and Spanish. Home Internet access is approximately 80% for LEP and 55% for VLEP aged 20–59; 46% and 28%, respectively, for ages =60. Ability to use email and the Internet significantly declines with age; lower among VLEP than LEP across age groups. Significant VLEP-LEP and age group differences exist for communication modality preferences. Preference for modalities involving computer/Internet decrease with age and language proficiency within age group; while age differences persist, VLEP-LEP differences within age group are smaller for text messages, DVDs, and phone-based messages

  1. Relationship between EFL Learners’ Self-Efficacy and Imposter Phenomenon and their Effects on Learners’ Writing Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Yamini; Forough Behbahani Mandanizadeh

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between self-efficacy and imposter phenomenon and their effects on EFL learners' writing ability. Participants were 94 male and female university students. The aim was to find out how self-efficacy and imposter phenomenon would be related, how these personal factors would relate to writing ability, and whether gender and proficiency level would moderate between the personal factors and writing.

  2. The Relationship Between Listening Strategy Performance and Critical Listening Ability of Indonesian Students

    OpenAIRE

    Arono Arono

    2015-01-01

    It is believed that students’ critical listening ability can be improved through proper listening strategy performance. This action research (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2007) was conducted in line with the assumption that students of Indonesia Literature and Language Education, Bengkulu University and Bengkulu Muhammadiyah University could reach proficient level provided that they were taught properly. The goal of this research was to reveal listening strategy performance related to students’ cri...

  3. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  4. Influence of L2 Proficiency on Speech Movement Variability: Production of Prosodic Contrasts by Bengali-English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of age of immersion and proficiency in a second language on speech movement consistency in both a first and a second language. Ten monolingual speakers of English and 20 Bengali-English bilinguals (10 with low L2 proficiency and 10 with high L2 proficiency) participated. Lip movement variability was assessed based…

  5. Development of arithmetical abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Levstek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic (from the word 'arithmos' which means 'numbers' is an elementary branch of mathematics. Numeracy is essential for understanding mathematics, so the development of arithmetic abilities has been an area of scientific research for a long time. Recent research has shown that the development of arithmetic abilities is not based only on gaining experience and learning. Some arithmetic abilities, especially the sense of quantity, are innate. Even babies are able to distinguish between groups with different number of elements and they perceive numeracy amodally. Six-month-olds distinguish between two groups with the numeracy ratio of 1 : 2. With age this ratio improves rapidly. Five-year-old children already distinguish between groups with the number ratio 7 : 8. The ability to compare two quantities begins to develop after 15 months of age and children learn how to count spontaneously, together with the acquisition of language. Speech enables children to understand number in its abstract, symbolic sense, thus opening the way to symbolic arithmetic. During the preschool period children use intuition when doing calculations, but in school the arithmetic is based on the knowledge of arithmetical algorithms. So, in order to acquire mathematical knowledge, it is necessary to incorporate memory and automate arithmetical processes, without the use of intuition. However, research has shown that intuition is very important and is even a predictive factor for the development of mathematical abilities throughout the schooling process.

  6. Improving Students' English Speaking Proficiency in Saudi Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Awadh Alharbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In English as a foreign language (EFL contexts, the absence of authentic language learning situations outside the classroom presents a significant challenge to improving students' English communication skills. Specific obstacles in the learning environment can also result in students’ limited use of English inside the classroom. These issues ultimately affect students’ English speaking capacity. Focusing on the Saudi EFL context, this paper attempted to identify the causes of Saudi students’ low proficiency in English communication and provide some recommendations to address these issues. The most significant findings of the paper were: (1 reforming specific Ministry of Education and Higher Education policies in Saudi Arabia is crucial; (2 the Saudi education system should reinforce the use of contemporary approaches to teaching that emphasise problem solving and critical thinking skills and put students in charge of their own learning; and (3 the ministry should consider converting some Saudi public schools into bilingual schools.

  7. Scientific issues related to the cytology proficiency testing regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The member organizations of the CETC feel strongly that there are significant flaws associated with the proposed proficiency test and its implementation. The most immediate modifications include lengthening the required testing interval, utilizing stringently validated and continuously monitored slides, changing the grading scheme and changing the focus of the test from individuals to laboratory level testing, as described above. Integration of new computer-assisted and location-guided screening technologies into the testing protocol is necessary for the testing program to be compliant with the current CLIA law. The regulation also needs to be flexible enough to accommodate new technologies that are implemented in laboratory practice, education and administration of the test. The changes recommended in this document address the most immediate technical and scientific concerns with the current implementation of PT for gynecologic cytology. The CETC will be submitting a subsequent document, following full review of the current regulations, with recommendations for changes, justifications and impact.

  8. Proficiency test for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Nícoli, Ieda Gomes; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho dos calibradores de radionuclídeos de 55 serviços de medicina nuclear brasileiros em medição de atividade de radiofármaco contendo 99Tc m. Testes de proficiência foram aplicados em 63 resultados originados do programa de comparação promovido pelo Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes do Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O desempenho foi avaliado em relação ao critério de aceitação de ±10% de exatidão exigido pela...

  9. Abilities and barriers to practicing evidence-based nursing for burn specialist nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liqing; Fan, Xuegong; Peng, Huan

    2017-08-07

    To explore the abilities and barriers of practicing evidence-based nursing (EBN) for burn specialist nurses so as to provide rationales for its clinical training and practice. From January 2016 to March 2016, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with a self-designed questionnaire among burn specialist nurses in Hunan Province. Data analysis was performed with SPSS software (version 20). Burn specialist nurses in Hunan Province had diminished EBN abilities. The three procedures of EBN with the lowest score were "summarizing evidence through systematic reviews", "rigorous evaluations of evidence" and "systematic literature searches". And the three procedures of "clarifying problems", "disseminating evidence" and "introducing evidence" scored the highest. The systematic literature retrieval ability of nurses at class III general hospitals was higher than that of class II counterparts (P=0.001). Thus EBN ability was positively correlated with barriers to practicing EBN, English proficiency, research experiences and educator status. Burn specialist nurses at classes III & II general hospitals in Hunan Province had poor EBN abilities. Influencing factors of EBN ability included barriers to practicing EBN, English proficiency, research experiences and educator status. Therefore it is imperative to implement targeted trainings and integrated managements for improved ability of practicing EBN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of UV-induced G1 arrest by exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields in repair-proficient and -deficient yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Y; Ikehata, M; Miyakoshi, J; Koana, T

    2003-11-01

    To assess the possibility that extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields obstruct the damage repair process, the gene conversion frequency and cell cycle kinetics in a DNA repair-proficient and nucleotide excision repair (NER)-deficient strain of diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA repair- or NER-deficient cells were irradiated with sublethal doses of ultraviolet light (UV) radiation followed by exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields up to 30 mT for 48 h. After exposure, colony-forming ability was scored as revertants in which gene conversion had restored the functional allele of the ARG4 gene conversion hotspot. Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. Gene conversion rate was increased by the combined exposure in DNA repair-proficient cells, whereas it remained unchanged between UV alone and the combined exposure in NER-deficient cells. The UV-induced G1 arrest was inhibited by exposure to 30 mT ELF magnetic fields in both repair-proficient and -deficient cells. The results suggest that exposure to high-density (30 mT) ELF magnetic fields decreases the efficiency of NER by suppressing G1 arrest, which in turn led to enhancement of the UV-induced gene conversion.

  11. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  12. Synchronization of Mental Abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.

    2008-01-01

    I think it is better to summarize some cognitive issues in relation to this subject; how we learn, how we should organize learning (instructions), knowledge, etc. before treating creativity and rationality. Is it, really, possible to consider creativity without any kind of involvement of the ability

  13. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, the hemispheric dominance of the Brodmann area (BA) 6-temporal pathway (mainly along the arcuate fasciculus) shifted from the left to the right hemisphere. With further increased proficiency, however, lateralization dominance was again found in the left BA6-temporal pathway. This result is consistent with reports in the literature that imply a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in L2 processing especially for less proficient L2 speakers. This is the first time that an L2 proficiency-dependent laterality shift in the structural connectivity of language pathways during L2 acquisition has been observed to shift from left to right and back to left hemisphere dominance with increasing L2 proficiency. The authors additionally find that changes in fractional anisotropy values after the course are related to the time elapsed between the two scans. The results suggest that structural connectivity in (at least part of) the perisylvian language network may be subject to fast dynamic changes following language learning.

  14. [The influence of proficiency level of foreign language on the activation patterns of language areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryll, Amira; Binder, Marek; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The of aim of the present study was the estimation of the influence of proficiency level of the second language on activation patterns of language areas. 30 volunteers participated in the experiment (15 females and 15 males) from 18 to 40 years of age. Mean age was 28 years. All participants were divided by linguist into two groups according to their proficiency level of the foreign language: high proficiency group (HP) and low proficiency group (LP). Block design method was used in the performed experiment. The experimental task was speech production in the form of sentences, the control tusk was silence. The experiment was performed using 1,5 T MR system. Functional data analysis was performed using SPM2 software (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Great Britain). In low proficiency group (LP) stronger activation was found in right inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris) incuding insula and in the left hemisphere on the border of supramarginal and superior temporal gyrus. In high proficiency group (HP) more activated in second language (L2) was the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris), and a small part of left middle frontal gyrus. Proficiency level of the second language influences the pattern of activation of language areas.

  15. Exploring EFL Learners’ Experience of Foreign Language Proficiency Maintenance: A Phenomenological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Ostovar-Namaghi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Having developed foreign language proficiency, a large number of EFL learners experience some degrees of foreign language loss later in life since English has no social function in many EFL contexts including Iran. However, there are some language learners who actively maintain and develop their proficiency long after they leave language education programs. This study aims at uncovering techniques applied by this minority group in maintaining their foreign language proficiency. Participants who were willing to share their experience of proficiency maintenance were selected through purposive and snowball sampling and verbalizations of their experience were then analyzed in line with phenomenology research design. Abstraction and thematic analysis of the participants’ experiences revealed that they actively create conditions that are conducive to proficiency maintenance such as reviewing previously learned materials, watching target language movies and actively manipulating subtitles, reading for pleasure, attending discussion groups, and using internet to communicate in the target language. While proficiency loss and attrition is the norm in EFL contexts, maintenance is an exception; hence, the findings of this study have clear and immediate implications for both foreign language teachers and learners since they provide them with down-to-earth, data-driven techniques of proficiency maintenance.

  16. Generation of replication-proficient influenza virus NS1 point mutants with interferon-hyperinducer phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Pérez-Cidoncha

    Full Text Available The NS1 protein of influenza A viruses is the dedicated viral interferon (IFN-antagonist. Viruses lacking NS1 protein expression cannot multiply in normal cells but are viable in cells deficient in their ability to produce or respond to IFN. Here we report an unbiased mutagenesis approach to identify positions in the influenza A NS1 protein that modulate the IFN response upon infection. A random library of virus ribonucleoproteins containing circa 40 000 point mutants in NS1 were transferred to infectious virus and amplified in MDCK cells unable to respond to interferon. Viruses that activated the interferon (IFN response were subsequently selected by their ability to induce expression of green-fluorescent protein (GFP following infection of A549 cells bearing an IFN promoter-dependent GFP gene. Using this approach we isolated individual mutant viruses that replicate to high titers in IFN-compromised cells but, compared to wild type viruses, induced higher levels of IFN in IFN-competent cells and had a reduced capacity to counteract exogenous IFN. Most of these viruses contained not previously reported NS1 mutations within either the RNA-binding domain, the effector domain or the linker region between them. These results indicate that subtle alterations in NS1 can reduce its effectiveness as an IFN antagonist without affecting the intrinsic capacity of the virus to multiply. The general approach reported here may facilitate the generation of replication-proficient, IFN-inducing virus mutants, that potentially could be developed as attenuated vaccines against a variety of viruses.

  17. The assessment of Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düger, T; Bumin, G; Uyanik, M; Aki, E; Kayihan, H

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective is to research the relationship between motor abilities and demographic characteristics such as age and sex, in healthy children aged 4-11 years. One hundred and twenty children in kindergarten (n = 30) and primary school (n = 90) were included in the study and evaluated by the Occupational Therapy Unit. All children were divided into four groups according to age, 4-5, 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years. The primary school children were classified according to academic learning, being successful or unsuccessful. In this study, Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency was used to assess the gross motor skills and fine motor skills. These tests are running speed and agility (subtest 1/item 1), balance/walking forward heel-to-toe on walking line (subtest 2/item 6), bilateral coordination/tapping-foot and finger on same side synchronized (subtest 3/item 2), strength/standing broad jump (subtest 4/item 1), response speed (subtest 6/item 1), visual motor control/cutting out a circle with preferred hand (subtest 7/item 1), upper-limb speed and dexterity/pacing pennies in two boxes with both hands (subtest 8/item 2). When the children were classified according to sex, there were significant differences in subtests 6 and 7. According to academic learning, there were significant differences in subtests 2 and 8. When the results were evaluated due to age, important differences were found in subtests 1, 2, 4 and 8. It was seen that gross and fine motor skills in early childhood showed variety between age, sex and academic learning. The scores of motor abilities were better in successful children than unsuccessful children. The outcome of this study revealed that the Bruininks-Oseretsky test can be useful to investigate unexplored aspects of motor development.

  18. Results of the Proficiency Test, PT1 and PT2, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Christophersen, Maj-Britt

    A comparative test of diagnostic procedures was provided by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Fish Diseases. The test was divided into proficiency test 1 (PT1) and proficiency test 2 (PT2). The number of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) participating in PT1 and PT2 was 43. ....... The tests were sent from the EURL in the beginning of September 2012. Both PT1 and PT2 are accredited by DANAK under registration number 515 for proficiency testing according to the quality assurance standard DS/EN ISO/IEC 17043....

  19. EFL Speech Production: Exploring the relationship between working memory capacity and proficiency level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicele Vergine Vieira Prebianca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available : The present study explores the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC and proficiency level in EFL1 speech production. Forty-one participants performed two WMC tests – the Speaking Span Test in L1 and in L2. The statistical analysis indicated both a variation on WMC scores in L2 as a function of proficiency as well as a difference between WMC scores in L1 and in L2. Findings are explained mainly in respect to the interplay between automatic and controlled processes on memory retrieval and on the development of L2 proficiency

  20. EFL Speech Production: Exploring the relationship between working memory capacity and proficiency level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicele Vergine Vieira PREBIANCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC and proficiency level in EFL1 speech production. Forty-one participants performed two WMC tests – the Speaking Span Test in L1 and in L2. The statistical analysis indicated both a variation on WMC scores in L2 as a function of proficiency as well as a difference between WMC scores in L1 and in L2. Findings are explained mainly in respect to the interplay between automatic and controlled processes on memory retrieval and on the development of L2 proficiency.

  1. The Interplay among Emotional Intelligence, Classroom Management, and Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the interplay among Iranian EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence, classroom management, and their general English language proficiency. The result of the data analysis showed that: 1 there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the classroom management of Iranian EFL teachers, 2 there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, and 3 there was a statistically significant relationship between the classroom management and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers. Teacher trainers, researchers in teacher education, and language teachers may benefit from the findings of the present research.

  2. Design and implementation of a proficiency-based, structured endoscopy course for medical students applying for a surgical specialty

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Win, Gunter; Van Bruwaene, Siska; Allen, Christopher; De Ridder, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background Surgical simulation is becoming increasingly important in surgical education. Despite the important work done on simulators, simulator model development, and simulator assessment methodologies, there is a need for development of integrated simulators in the curriculum. In this paper, we describe the design of our evidence-based preclinical training program for medical students applying for a surgical career at the Centre for Surgical Technologies. Methods Twenty-two students participated in this training program. During their final months as medical students, they received structured, proficiency-based endoscopy training. The total amount of mentored training was 18 hours and the training was organized into three training blocks. The first block focused on psychomotor training, the second block focused on laparoscopic stitching and suturing, and the third block on laparoscopic dissection techniques and hemostasis. Deliberate practice was allowed and students had to show proficiency before proceeding to the next training block. Students’ psychomotor abilities were tested before the course and after each training block. At the beginning of their careers as surgical registrars, their performance on a laparoscopic suturing task was compared with that of registrars from the previous year who did not have this training course. Student opinions about this course were evaluated using a visual analog scale. Results All students rated the training course as useful and their psychomotor abilities improved markedly. All students performed deliberate practice, and those who participated in this course scored significantly (P < 0.0001) better on the laparoscopic suturing task than first year registrars who did not participate in this course. Conclusion Organization of a structured preclinical training program in laparoscopy for final year medical students is feasible, attractive, and successful. PMID:23901308

  3. Music and nonmusical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E G

    2001-06-01

    Reports that exposure to music causes benefits in nonmusical domains have received widespread attention in the mainstream media. Such reports have also influenced public policy. The so-called "Mozart effect" actually refers to two relatively distinct phenomena. One concerns short-term increases in spatial abilities that are said to occur from listening to music composed by Mozart. The other refers to the possibility that formal training in music yields nonmusical benefits. A review of the relevant findings indicates that the short-term effect is small and unreliable. Moreover, when it is evident, it can be explained by between-condition differences in the listener's mood or levels of cognitive arousal. By contrast, the effect of music lessons on nonmusical aspects of cognitive development is still an open question. Several studies have reported positive associations between formal music lessons and abilities in nonmusical (e.g., linguistic, mathematical, and spatial) domains. Nonetheless, compelling evidence for a causal link remains elusive.

  4. Practice does not make perfect: no causal effect of music practice on music ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Madison, Guy; Pedersen, Nancy L; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Ullén, Fredrik

    2014-09-01

    The relative importance of nature and nurture for various forms of expertise has been intensely debated. Music proficiency is viewed as a general model for expertise, and associations between deliberate practice and music proficiency have been interpreted as supporting the prevailing idea that long-term deliberate practice inevitably results in increased music ability. Here, we examined the associations (rs = .18-.36) between music practice and music ability (rhythm, melody, and pitch discrimination) in 10,500 Swedish twins. We found that music practice was substantially heritable (40%-70%). Associations between music practice and music ability were predominantly genetic, and, contrary to the causal hypothesis, nonshared environmental influences did not contribute. There was no difference in ability within monozygotic twin pairs differing in their amount of practice, so that when genetic predisposition was controlled for, more practice was no longer associated with better music skills. These findings suggest that music practice may not causally influence music ability and that genetic variation among individuals affects both ability and inclination to practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Five year results of an international proficiency testing programme for measurement of antifungal drug concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lempers, V.J.C.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Touw, D.J.; Burger, D.M.; Uges, D.R.A.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Brüggemann, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since 2007 the Dutch Association for Quality Assessment in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (KKGT) has organized an international interlaboratory proficiency testing (PT) programme for measurement of antifungal drugs in plasma. We describe the 5 year results of the laboratories' performance.

  6. EMPLOYERS’ VIEWS ON IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH PROFICIENCY AND COMMUNICATION SKILL FOR EMPLOYABILITY IN MALAYSIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Su-Hie Ting; Ernisa Marzuki; Kee-Man Chuah; Jecky Misieng; Collin Jerome

    2017-01-01

    Employability of graduates is a concern in many countries, including Malaysia, and the high unemployment rate among graduates is often attributed to their lack of English proficiency and communication skills...

  7. Online Assessment of Oral Proficiency for Intercultural Professional Communication: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2012-01-01

    Rusman, E., & Stoyanov, S. (2011). Online Assessment of Oral Proficiency for Intercultural Professional Communication: An introduction. Presentation about the CEFcult project (www.cefcult.eu) as an introduction to various personal interviews held with stakeholders, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open

  8. 76 FR 81958 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English Proficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English... translated materials and other programs that support the assistance of persons with limited English... Following Information Title of Proposal: Limited English Proficiency Initiative (LEPI) Program. OMB Approval...

  9. Interações sociais e proficiência motora em escolares do ensino fundamental Social interactions and motor proficiency in pupils attending elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Akemi Miyabayashi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo discute características de crianças que ingressam no ensino fundamental. Mais especificamente, o objetivo do estudo foi analisar a proficiência motora dessas crianças em relação com o nível socioeconômico e as interações sociais. O trabalho foi realizado com 30 crianças, as quais foram analisadas a partir do cruzamento de dados provenientes de teste de proficiência motora, questionário socioeconômico, observação direta e sociograma. Os resultados apontam que existe significância entre índices maiores de renda e sociabilidade com proficiência motora. Entretanto, o estudo também aponta para os desvios em relação à tendência encontrada, refletindo sobre a necessidade em se analisar os fatores macroscópicos do desenvolvimento sem recorrer a determinismos.This study discusses the characteristics of Brazilian children enrolled in elementary schools. Namely, the main focus of the investigation was to analyze the motor proficiency of pupils attending the first year of primary education in relation to their socioeconomic status and their social interaction at school. The study was conducted with 30 children, who were analyzed based on crossing data obtained from sources such as motor proficiency tests, socioeconomic questionnaire, direct observation and a sociogram. Results showed significance when comparing indexes of high income and sociability with motor proficiency. Nevertheless, the study also points out to some deviation in relation to the trend observed, thus showing that there is a need for analyzing the macroscopic factors of development, instead of just recurring to determinism.

  10. [Value of laparoscopic virtual reality simulator in laparoscopic suture ability training of catechumen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian-liang; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Guo-feng; Li, Ning-chen; Zhang, Xiang-hua; Na, Yan-qun

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the value of laparoscopic virtual reality simulator in laparoscopic suture ability training of catechumen. After finishing the virtual reality training of basic laparoscopic skills, 26 catechumen were divided randomly into 2 groups, one group undertook advanced laparoscopic skill (suture technique) training with laparoscopic virtual reality simulator (virtual group), another used laparoscopic box trainer (box group). Using our homemade simulations, before grouping and after training, every trainee performed nephropyeloureterostomy under laparoscopy, the running time, anastomosis quality and proficiency were recorded and assessed. For virtual group, the running time, anastomosis quality and proficiency scores before grouping were (98 ± 11) minutes, 3.20 ± 0.41, 3.47 ± 0.64, respectively, after training were (53 ± 8) minutes, 6.87 ± 0.74, 6.33 ± 0.82, respectively, all the differences were statistically significant (all P training were (52 ± 9) minutes, 6.08 ± 0.90, 6.33 ± 0.78, respectively, all the differences also were statistically significant (all P training, the running time and proficiency scores of virtual group were similar to box group (all P > 0.05), however, anstomosis quality scores in virtual group were higher than in box group (P = 0.02). The laparoscopic virtual reality simulator is better than traditional box trainer in advanced laparoscopic suture ability training of catechumen.

  11. Development of a proficiency-based virtual reality simulation training curriculum for laparoscopic appendicectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirimanna, Pramudith; Gladman, Marc A

    2017-10-01

    Proficiency-based virtual reality (VR) training curricula improve intraoperative performance, but have not been developed for laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA). This study aimed to develop an evidence-based training curriculum for LA. A total of 10 experienced (>50 LAs), eight intermediate (10-30 LAs) and 20 inexperienced (training and assessment tool. Consequently, the first evidence-based internationally applicable training curriculum for LA was constructed, which facilitates skill acquisition to proficiency. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Test Anxiety and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety in a Reading-Proficiency Test

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Chin Tsai; Yi-Chih Li

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assesse...

  13. Predictors and Outcomes of Early vs. Later English Language Proficiency Among English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children’s growth and development. PMID:22389551

  14. THE OBSERVATION OF TEACHER CANDIDATE RELATED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TEACHER'S PROFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    BAHŞİ, Muammer; TURAN, Mehmet; YILAYAZ, Ömer

    2009-01-01

    In this study it is evaluated science and tecnology teacher's proficiency based on students insights of science and tecnology education students in education faculty. It was used Standarts for Teacher Proficiency which is prepared from Ministry of National Education. The research was conducted on 85 Science and Tecnology students (4th classes) studying at the education faculty of Firat University. Data from results of study was analysed by using SPSS.

  15. English Language Proficiency and Early School Attainment Among Children Learning English as an Additional Language

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteside, K; Gooch, Deborah; Norbury, CF

    2016-01-01

    Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4?5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6?7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL...

  16. Proficiency test for gamma spectroscopic analysis with a simulated fission product reference spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhu, P; De Geer, L-E; McWilliams, E; Plenteda, R; Werzi, R

    2006-01-01

    Within the proficiency test programme for the radionuclide laboratories supporting the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, a simulated gamma spectrum with the characteristics of an atmospheric nuclear test was used as reference material. The spectrum was produced by the MCNP-based Virtual Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory (VGSL), using analysis results of a historical measurement of nuclear weapons debris as input. The method was found suitable for a proficiency test assessing laboratories' gamma spectroscopic analysis.

  17. The Interplay among Emotional Intelligence, Classroom Management, and Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Hamidi; Mohammad Khatib

    2016-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the interplay among Iranian EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence, classroom management, and their general English language proficiency. The result of the data analysis showed that: 1) there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the classroom management of Iranian EFL teachers, 2) there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the language proficiency of Iran...

  18. The use of TOEFL to measure a change in English proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ockey, Gary J.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the use of TOEFL as an instrument for measuring change in English language proficiency of graduate students at the International University of Japan. The data, which was analyzed, included entry and exit TOEFL scores of 181 students who participated in the nine-week Intensive English Program during one of the summers between 1994 and 1997. The results suggest that TOEFL scores can be used to show a change in English language proficiency for the students as a group, but...

  19. Relating input factors and dual language proficiency in French-English bilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The input factors that may cause variation in bilingual proficiency were investigated in 38 French-English bilinguals aged six to eight, of middle to high socio-economic status, attending an international state school in France. Data on children’s current and cumulative language exposure and family background were collected through questionnaires given to parents and children. Language proficiency was measured using the standardised French and English versions of the P...

  20. The Pre-attentive L2 Orthographic Perception Mechanism Utilized by Bilinguals with Different Proficiency Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Liang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Language proficiency is predicted to modulate orthographic-semantic association in second language (L2 vocabulary acquisition, in accordance with the assumptions of the Developmental Bilingual Interactive-Activation model (BIA-d (Grainger et al., 2010. The current study explored this modulation during pre-attentive L2 orthographic perception. ERPs were recorded from Chinese–English bilinguals with different L2 proficiency during their pre-attentive response to deviant and standard stimuli arranged in the oddball paradigm. Two stimulus types were investigated separately: L2 orthography and L1 orthography. In the L2 orthography condition, a MMN-N400 complex (i.e., deviancy effect was found in the high L2 proficiency bilinguals, but only a marginally significant reduced negativity in an early time window was found in the low L2 proficiency bilinguals. In the L1 orthography condition, the high and low L2 proficiency bilinguals showed similar deviancy effect in the form of MMN-P3a-LPC complex. The current findings suggest that proficiency modulates pre-attentive L2 orthographic perception, such that the high L2 proficiency bilinguals activate the associated semantic representation instantly upon orthographic decoding, while the orthographic-semantic connection is not activated for the low L2 proficiency bilinguals. This is probably due to their difference in the strength of orthographic-semantic association. These findings contribute to the understanding of orthographic processing by bilinguals at the pre-attentive level and provide supporting evidence for the BIA-d model.

  1. Evidence-based dentistry: assessment to document progression to proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T A; Straub-Morarend, C L; Guzmán-Armstrong, S; Handoo, N

    2017-11-01

    The integration of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) into pre-doctoral dental curricula requires the identification of desired outcomes, development of curricular content and design of assessment strategies which guide student performance whilst documenting achievement of desired curricular outcomes. Models for developing EBD curriculums have been described in the literature; however, the logistics of designing assessment instruments to progressively document student performance have received less attention. The objective of this article is to describe the University of Iowa's College of Dentistry's development and implementation of assessment strategies to guide student learning of EBD knowledge, application and assimilation to serve as a model for other institutions developing EBD assessment protocols. Desired EBD knowledge and behaviour outcomes guided the development of curricular content and progressive formative and summative assessment strategies. Vertically and horizontally integrated educational activities enabling students to demonstrate EBD knowledge whilst modelling desired behaviours were identified, whilst assessment principles guided development of learning guides and assessment instruments to document achievement of desired outcomes. Consistent EBD language and educational activities are utilised throughout the 4-year interdisciplinary curriculum with stepwise assessment protocols matched to the curriculum. Examples of student learning guides and assessment instruments are provided. Curricular design guides development of assessment strategies. Assessment protocols provide consistent formative and summative feedback to enable continuous student growth to become proficient EBD practitioners. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH AND CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMION MINODORA OTILIA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The technological development, the growing economic globalization and the majordemographic shifts have brought about the need for a global language. In international business, travel, scienceand technology, education, immigration, academia, diplomacy and entertainment, English is the dominantlanguage, being spoken by over one billion people. English is used inside and outside the professionalenvironment, both for communication in global business and for communication in social networks, butproficiency in English can definitely enhance people’s career opportunities both if they look for a job in thecountry or plan to go abroad to find employment. It may determine a division among those who have access toinformation and prosperity and those who don’t. In the future not just wealth but also the way it is created willhave a great impact on people’s increasing communicative needs of international languages. It is obvious thenthat more and more people will need proficiency in English ,both as a language for international communicationand as the basis for constructing cultural identities .

  3. Language proficiency among hospitalized immigrant psychiatric patients in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Baldessarini, Ross J; Iuso, Salvatore; La Torre, Antonella; D'Onghia, Antonio; La Salandra, Michela; Mazza, Maristella; Bellomo, Antonello

    2014-05-01

    and aim: Lack of cultural adaptation may risk or worsen mental illness among immigrants, and interfere with assessment and treatment. Language proficiency (LP) seems essential for access to foreign environments, and the limited research concerning its effects on mental health care encouraged this preliminary study. We reviewed clinical records of all immigrant psychiatric patients hospitalized at the University of Foggia in 2004-09 (N = 85), and compared characteristics of patients with adequate versus inadequate LP. Subjects (44 men, 41 women; aged 35.7±10.0 years) represented 3.62±0.94% of all hospitalizations in six years. (2004-09). Most (60.0%) had emigrated from other European countries. Many were diagnosed with a DSM-IV unspecified psychosis (40.0%) or adjustment disorder (18.8%), and 45.9% were in first-lifetime episodes. Average comprehension and spoken LP was considered adequate in 62.4% and inadequate in 37.6%. In multivariate modelling, adequate LP was more prevalent among women, emigration from another European country, receiving more psychotropic drugs at hospitalization, and having entered Italy legally. Findings support an expected importance of LP among immigrant psychiatric inpatients, and encourage language assessment and training as part of the comprehensive support of such patients, especially men.

  4. Mismatch repair proficiency and in vitro response to 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carethers, J M; Chauhan, D P; Fink, D; Nebel, S; Bresalier, R S; Howell, S B; Boland, C R

    1999-07-01

    The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system recognizes certain DNA adducts caused by alkylation damage in addition to its role in recognizing and directing repair of interstrand nucleotide mismatches and slippage mistakes at microsatellite sequences. Because defects in the MMR system can confer tolerance to acquired DNA damage and, by inference, the toxic effects of certain chemotherapeutic agents, we investigated the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on colon cancer cell lines. We determined growth selection by cell enrichment assay and cloning efficiency after treatment with 5 micromol/L 5-FU, assayed nucleic 3H-5-FU incorporation, and analyzed the cell cycle by flow cytometry. 5-FU treatment provided a growth advantage for MMR-deficient cell lines, indicating a relative degree of tolerance to 5-FU by the MMR-deficient cell lines. Enhanced survival was statistically significant after 5 days of growth, and a 28-fold reduction in survival was noted in the MMR-proficient cells by clonagenic assays after 10 days of growth. Differences in nucleotide uptake of 5-FU did not account for the observed growth differences, and specific cell cycle checkpoint arrest was not detected. Intact DNA MMR seems to recognize 5-FU incorporated into DNA but may do so in a different manner than other types of alkylation damage. Defective DNA MMR might be one mechanism for tumor resistance to 5-FU.

  5. Improving Assessment of Foreign Language Proficiency in Internationally Majoring Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina L. Kobiakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the issues related to the development of the theoretical platform and the methodology for a model used to control and evaluate educational achievements at the Russian-based university-level foreign-language using such foreign practices as merit point system, testing technology and traditional controls. Having analyzed European practices of control and evaluation of students' foreign language proficiency, in particular, the experience of France, she advocates for the adoption by the national university system of the best available foreign methodology in the field. The article depicts the proprietary model for the comprehensive assessment of the educational outcomes of the internationally majoring students in the French language. The model, customized for Russian universities, is based on the professionally oriented competence-based practical course of the French language for internationally majoring students designed by the author. With the regard to that content and basing on DELF, DALF and TCF language tests and exercise systems for the French language studies by European and Russian practitioners, she advances her own testing, communication and translation exercises toolbox. That comprehensive evaluation model was successful tested at the MGIMO. In the course of that experiment, national testing techniques and the content of linguistic tests and didactic tools were streamlined with the European requirements.

  6. Leishmania spp.: proficiency of drug-resistant parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natera, Sonimar; Machuca, Claudia; Padrón-Nieves, Maritza; Romero, Amarilis; Díaz, Emilia; Ponte-Sucre, Alicia

    2007-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by at least 17 different species of protozoan Leishmania parasites and currently affects around 12 million people living mostly in tropical and subtropical areas. Failure to treat leishmaniasis successfully is often due to drug resistance. However, there are no cellular and molecular markers of chemoresistance against leishmanicidal drugs and the only reliable method for monitoring resistance of individual isolates is the in vitro amastigote/macrophage model. It is thus necessary to find cellular and molecular markers that can be used systematically to identify the drug-resistant phenotype of the infecting parasites. Until now, whether drug resistance in Leishmania compromises parasite proficiency, e.g. in terms of infectivity or metabolism, has not been systematically evaluated. Therefore, here we examine whether the physiological changes expressed by drug-resistant Leishmania reflect a modification of parasite vitality in drug-resistant compared with drug-sensitive parasites. Finally, the clinical implications of drug resistance in Leishmania are also discussed.

  7. Rasch analysis of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition in intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition (BOT-2) is widely used to assess motor skills for both clinical and research purposes; however, its validity has not been adequately assessed in intellectual disabilities (ID). This study used partial credit Rasch model to examine the measurement properties of the BOT-2 among 446 children and adolescents with ID aged 4-18 years. Seventeen items were identified as problematic in the Rasch modeling. After removal of these items, the appropriateness of the response categories was examined in the 36 remaining items. Where the item response categories failed to express an increasing level of the trait (disordered thresholds), collapsing adjacent categories was performed to address this issue. After rescoring most items, items in each composite of the revised BOT-2 showed good fit to the Rasch model and demonstrated excellent reliability (range 0.90-0.97). No differential item functioning was detected with respect to age and gender. The ability of the revised composites to differentiate between mild versus moderate to severe ID was better than those of the original BOT-2. Items from the manual coordination and strength and agility composites were well targeted to the sample, whereas items from fine manual control and body coordination composites were mostly targeted at the lower levels of ability in these domains. Items of higher difficulty may be supplemented to increase the range of ability levels of the people to whom these two composites can be applied with precision.

  8. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Proficiency of English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Filiz Yalçın Tılfarlıoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to examine L2 learners’ VLS use habits and the relationship of VLS with their vocabulary proficiency levels. In addition, language learners’ beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness were also studied to understand L2 learners’ VLS use habits more deeply. To examine these matters, a descriptive research design was employed. The participants included 252 preparatory students from different proficiency groups (Upper-Intermediate, Intermediate, Pre-Intermediate, Beginner at Gaziantep University Higher School of Foreign Languages. To collect the related data, they were given “Vocabulary Learning Strategies Questionnaire” and “Vocabulary Levels Test”. The data analyses were conducted by descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the study showed that the participants used a wide range of VLS, and there was an overlap between their beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness and how often they used them to a large extent. Secondly, Memory Strategies correlated positively with the participants’ academic and general vocabulary proficiency levels. However, there were also some differences among the proficiency groups about which specific VLS are correlated with their vocabulary proficiency levels. As to the regression analysis results, none of the VLS predicted participants’ vocabulary proficiency levels.

  9. The influence of non-native language proficiency on speech perception performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilman, Lisa; Zekveld, Adriana; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent proficiency in a non-native language influences speech perception in noise. We explored how English proficiency affected native (Swedish) and non-native (English) speech perception in four speech reception threshold (SRT) conditions, including two energetic (stationary, fluctuating noise) and two informational (two-talker babble Swedish, two-talker babble English) maskers. Twenty-three normal-hearing native Swedish listeners participated, age between 28 and 64 years. The participants also performed standardized tests in English proficiency, non-verbal reasoning and working memory capacity. Our approach with focus on proficiency and the assessment of external as well as internal, listener-related factors allowed us to examine which variables explained intra- and interindividual differences in native and non-native speech perception performance. The main result was that in the non-native target, the level of English proficiency is a decisive factor for speech intelligibility in noise. High English proficiency improved performance in all four conditions when the target language was English. The informational maskers were interfering more with perception than energetic maskers, specifically in the non-native target. The study also confirmed that the SRT's were better when target language was native compared to non-native.

  10. Fine motor skill proficiency in typically developing children: On or off the maturation track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, David; Issartel, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Fine motor skill proficiency is an essential component of numerous daily living activities such as dressing, feeding or playing. Poor fine motor skills can lead to difficulties in academic achievement, increased anxiety and poor self-esteem. Recent findings have shown that children's gross motor skill proficiency tends to fall below established developmental norms. A question remains: do fine motor skill proficiency levels also fall below developmental norms? The aim of this study was to examine the current level of fine motor skill in Irish children. Children (N=253) from 2nd, 4th and 6th grades (mean age=7.12, 9.11 and 11.02 respectively) completed the Fine Motor Composite of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd Edition (BOT-2). Analysis revealed that only 2nd grade children met the expected level of fine motor skill proficiency. It was also found that despite children's raw scores improving with age, children's fine motor skill proficiency was not progressing at the expected rate given by normative data. This leads us to question the role and impact of modern society on fine motor skills development over the past number of decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. General English Ability, Specific Purpose English Ability, and Computer Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapphal, Kanchana

    2003-01-01

    Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)

  12. Reduced proficiency in homologous recombination underlies the high sensitivity of embryonal carcinoma testicular germ cell tumors to Cisplatin and poly (adp-ribose polymerase inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cavallo

    Full Text Available Testicular Germ Cell Tumors (TGCT and patient-derived cell lines are extremely sensitive to cisplatin and other interstrand cross-link (ICL inducing agents. Nevertheless, a subset of TGCTs are either innately resistant or acquire resistance to cisplatin during treatment. Understanding the mechanisms underlying TGCT sensitivity/resistance to cisplatin as well as the identification of novel strategies to target cisplatin-resistant TGCTs have major clinical implications. Herein, we have examined the proficiency of five embryonal carcinoma (EC cell lines to repair cisplatin-induced ICLs. Using γH2AX staining as a marker of double strand break formation, we found that EC cell lines were either incapable of or had a reduced ability to repair ICL-induced damage. The defect correlated with reduced Homologous Recombination (HR repair, as demonstrated by the reduction of RAD51 foci formation and by direct evaluation of HR efficiency using a GFP-reporter substrate. HR-defective tumors cells are known to be sensitive to the treatment with poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitor. In line with this observation, we found that EC cell lines were also sensitive to PARP inhibitor monotherapy. The magnitude of sensitivity correlated with HR-repair reduced proficiency and with the expression levels and activity of PARP1 protein. In addition, we found that PARP inhibition strongly enhanced the response of the most resistant EC cells to cisplatin, by reducing their ability to overcome the damage. These results point to a reduced proficiency of HR repair as a source of sensitivity of ECs to ICL-inducing agents and PARP inhibitor monotherapy, and suggest that pharmacological inhibition of PARP can be exploited to target the stem cell component of the TGCTs (namely ECs and to enhance the sensitivity of cisplatin-resistant TGCTs to standard treatments.

  13. Science Proficiency and Course Taking in High School: The Relationship of Science Course-Taking Patterns to Increases in Science Proficiency between 8th and 12th Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Timothy

    This analysis uses data on science achievement and transcript reports of science course taking patterns of students from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) to estimate the relationship between science course taking and the change in science proficiency levels between 8th and 12th grades. It also explores the extent to…

  14. Measuring Second Language Proficiency with EEG Synchronization: How Functional Cortical Networks and Hemispheric Involvement Differ as a Function of Proficiency Level in Second Language Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterer, Susanne; Pereda, Ernesto; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the question of whether university-based high-level foreign language and linguistic training can influence brain activation and whether different L2 proficiency groups have different brain activation in terms of lateralization and hemispheric involvement. The traditional and prevailing theory of hemispheric involvement in…

  15. Limited English proficient Hmong- and Spanish-speaking patients’ perceptions of the quality of interpreter services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, Maichou; Xiong, Phia; Schweia, Rebecca J.; Bowers, Barbara; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Language barriers are a large and growing problem for patients in the U.S. and around the world. Interpreter services are a standard solution for addressing language barriers and most research has focused on utilization of interpreter services and their effect on health outcomes for patients who do not speak the same language as their healthcare providers including nurses. However, there is limited research on patients’ perceptions of these interpreter services. Objective To examine Hmong- and Spanish-speaking patients’ perceptions of interpreter service quality in the context of receiving cancer preventive services. Methods Twenty limited English proficient Hmong (n=10) and Spanish-speaking participants (N=10) ranging in age from 33 to 75 years were interviewed by two bilingual researchers in a Midwestern state. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English. Analysis was done using conventional content analysis. Results The two groups shared perceptions about the quality of interpreter services as variable along three dimensions. Specifically, both groups evaluated quality of interpreters based on the interpreters’ ability to provide: (a) literal interpretation, (b) cultural interpretation, and (c) emotional interpretation during the health care encounter. The groups differed, however, on how they described the consequences of poor interpretation quality. Hmong participants described how poor quality interpretation could lead to: (a) poor interpersonal relationships among patients, providers, and interpreters, (b) inability of patients to follow through with treatment plans, and (c) emotional distress for patients. Conclusions Our study highlights the fact that patients are discerning consumers of interpreter services; and could be effective partners in efforts to reform and enhance interpreter services. PMID:25865517

  16. Limited English proficient Hmong- and Spanish-speaking patients' perceptions of the quality of interpreter services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, Maichou; Xiong, Phia; Schwei, Rebecca J; Bowers, Barbara J; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Language barriers are a large and growing problem for patients in the US and around the world. Interpreter services are a standard solution for addressing language barriers and most research has focused on utilization of interpreter services and their effect on health outcomes for patients who do not speak the same language as their healthcare providers including nurses. However, there is limited research on patients' perceptions of these interpreter services. To examine Hmong- and Spanish-speaking patients' perceptions of interpreter service quality in the context of receiving cancer preventive services. Twenty limited English proficient Hmong (n=10) and Spanish-speaking participants (n=10) ranging in age from 33 to 75 years were interviewed by two bilingual researchers in a Midwestern state. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English. Analysis was done using conventional content analysis. The two groups shared perceptions about the quality of interpreter services as variable along three dimensions. Specifically, both groups evaluated quality of interpreters based on the interpreters' ability to provide: (a) literal interpretation, (b) cultural interpretation, and (c) emotional interpretation during the health care encounter. The groups differed, however, on how they described the consequences of poor interpretation quality. Hmong participants described how poor quality interpretation could lead to: (a) poor interpersonal relationships among patients, providers, and interpreters, (b) inability of patients to follow through with treatment plans, and (c) emotional distress for patients. Our study highlights the fact that patients are discerning consumers of interpreter services; and could be effective partners in efforts to reform and enhance interpreter services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of language proficiency and executive control on verbal fluency performance in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We use a time-course analysis to examine the roles of vocabulary size and executive control in bilinguals' verbal fluency performance. Two groups of bilinguals and a group of monolingual adults were tested in English with verbal fluency subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The two bilingual groups were equivalent in their self-rated English proficiency but differed in levels of receptive and expressive vocabulary. We hypothesized that the difference between the two bilingual groups in vocabulary and between the monolingual and bilingual groups in executive control would lead to differences in performance on the category and letter fluency tests and dissociate the roles of vocabulary knowledge and executive control in verbal production. Bilinguals and monolinguals performed equivalently in category fluency, but the high-vocabulary bilingual group outperformed both monolinguals and low-vocabulary bilinguals in letter fluency. An analysis of the retrieval time-course functions in letter fluency showed dissociable effects of resources available at the initiation of the trial, considered to reflect vocabulary size, and ability to monitor and retrieve new items using a novel phonemic-based word searching strategy, considered to reflect executive control. The difference in slope of the best-fitting curves reflected enhanced executive control for both bilingual groups compared to monolinguals, whereas the difference in the starting point of the logarithmic functions reflected higher levels of vocabulary for high-vocabulary bilinguals and monolinguals compared to low-vocabulary bilinguals. The results are discussed in terms of the contributions of linguistic resources and executive control to verbal performance.

  18. Ecological validity of the German Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinçon, Sabine; Green, Dido; Blank, Rainer; Jenetzky, Ekkehart

    2017-06-01

    The diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is based on poor motor coordination in the absence of other neurological disorders. In order to identify the presence of movement difficulties, a standardised motor assessment is recommended to determine the extent of movement problems which may contribute to deficits in daily task performance. A German version of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (German BOT-2) was recently published. This study aimed to determine the ecological validity of the German BOT-2 by considering the relationship between assessment of fundamental motor skills with the BOT-2 and performance of everyday motor activities as evaluated by parents. This study used data obtained from the German BOT-2 standardisation study (n=1.177). Subtests were compared with theoretically corresponding tasks via parental ratings of overall fine and gross motor abilities and performance in six typical motor activities. Non-parametric Jonckheere Terpstra test was used to identify differences in ordered contrasts. Subtests reflecting 'Strength', 'Running Speed and Agility', 'Upper-Limb Coordination', 'Balance', and 'Fine Motor Precision' were associated with parental evaluation of gross motor skills (parts and crafts (p<0.001). Gross motor subtests of 'Bilateral Coordination' and 'Balance' showed no relationship to bike riding or performance in sports. Subtests of 'Upper-Limb Coordination' and 'Strength' showed significant correlations with sports, ball games and cycling. The results of this study suggest that the closer the proximity in the nature of the motor skills assessed in the German BOT-2 to daily motor tasks, the stronger the relationship between the clinical test and parental report of everyday performance of their child. The body functions tested in the German BOT-2, and hypothesized to underpin certain skills, were not automatically relevant for specific activities undertaken by German children. Future research

  19. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  20. The 2010 Global Proficiency Study of Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Vaccinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Carina; Forslund, Ola; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Zhou, Tiequn

    2012-01-01

    Accurate and internationally comparable human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA genotyping is essential both for evaluation of HPV vaccines and for effective monitoring and implementation of vaccination programs. The World Health Organization (WHO) HPV Laboratory Network (LabNet) regularly issues international proficiency studies. The 2010 HPV genotyping proficiency panel for HPV vaccinology contained 43 coded samples composed of purified plasmids of 16 HPV types (HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68a and 68b) and 3 coded extraction controls. Proficient typing was defined as detection in both single and multiple infections of 50 international units (IU) of HPV type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 DNA and 500 genome equivalents (GE) for the other 14 HPV types. Ninety-eight laboratories worldwide submitted a total of 132 data sets. Twenty-four different HPV genotyping assay methods were used, with Linear Array being the most commonly used. Other major assays used were a line blot assay (Inno-LiPa), CLART, type-specific real-time PCR, PCR Luminex, and different microarray assays. Altogether, 72 data sets were proficient for detection of more than 1 type, and only 26 data sets proficiently detected all 16 HPV types. The major oncogenic HPV types, 16 and 18, were proficiently detected in 95.0% (114/120) and 87.0% (94/108) of data sets, respectively. Forty-six data sets reported multiple false-positive results and were considered nonproficient. A trend toward increased sensitivity of assays was seen for the 41 laboratories that participated in both 2008 and 2010. In conclusion, continued global proficiency studies will be required for establishing comparable and reliable HPV genotyping services for vaccinology worldwide. PMID:22535980

  1. Varieties of numerical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaene, S

    1992-08-01

    This paper provides a tutorial introduction to numerical cognition, with a review of essential findings and current points of debate. A tacit hypothesis in cognitive arithmetic is that numerical abilities derive from human linguistic competence. One aim of this special issue is to confront this hypothesis with current knowledge of number representations in animals, infants, normal and gifted adults, and brain-lesioned patients. First, the historical evolution of number notations is presented, together with the mental processes for calculating and transcoding from one notation to another. While these domains are well described by formal symbol-processing models, this paper argues that such is not the case for two other domains of numerical competence: quantification and approximation. The evidence for counting, subitizing and numerosity estimation in infants, children, adults and animals is critically examined. Data are also presented which suggest a specialization for processing approximate numerical quantities in animals and humans. A synthesis of these findings is proposed in the form of a triple-code model, which assumes that numbers are mentally manipulated in an arabic, verbal or analogical magnitude code depending on the requested mental operation. Only the analogical magnitude representation seems available to animals and preverbal infants.

  2. Health Literacy and the Disenfranchised: The Importance of Collaboration Between Limited English Proficiency and Health Literacy Researchers

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Michael M.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate health literacy and limited English proficiency are associated with poor health care access and outcomes. Despite what appears to be an interaction phenomenon—whereby the rate of inadequate health literacy is particularly high among limited English proficiency populations—researchers in health literacy and limited English proficiency rarely collaborate. As a result, few health literacy instruments and interventions have been developed or validated for smaller linguistic populations...

  3. Reading ability reflects individual differences in auditory brainstem function, even into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoe, Erika; Brody, Lisa; Theodore, Rachel M

    2017-01-01

    Research with developmental populations suggests that the maturational state of auditory brainstem encoding is linked to reading ability. Specifically, children with poor reading skills resemble biologically younger children with respect to their auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to speech stimulation. Because ABR development continues into adolescence, it is possible that the link between ABRs and reading ability changes or resolves as the brainstem matures. To examine these possibilities, ABRs were recorded at varying presentation rates in adults with diverse, yet unimpaired reading levels. We found that reading ability in adulthood related to ABR Wave V latency, with more juvenile response morphology linked to less proficient reading ability, as has been observed for children. These data add to the evidence indicating that auditory brainstem responses serve as an index of the sound-based skills that underlie reading, even into adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. On the Effects of Teacher’s Sense of Humor on Iranian’s EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme Ghanei Motlagh; Khalil Motallebzade; Mohammad Ali Fatemi

    2014-01-01

    Teacher’s sense of humor is like a miracle in creating effective teaching and learning environments where there is no place for stress and anxiety but instead intrinsic motivation is enhanced. The present study aims mainly, to explore the effects of teachers’ sense of humor of EFL intermediate learners' reading comprehension ability. Having administered a test of reading proficiency, 58 learners are selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. Also two English language teachers...

  5. INFLUENCE OF STUDENT ENGLISH UTILITY AND TEACHER EFFICACY ON ENGLISH PROFICIENCY OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. ORTEGA-DELA CRUZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning second language considers a number of factors that influence the manner in which the language is taught. Understanding of the learners’ goals and motivation for learning is one. Using descriptive-correlational research design, this study determined the influence of student English utility and teacher efficacy on the students’ English proficiency. A total of 101 students from first year to fourth year level served as the respondents of the study. The study quantified the students’ perception towards English utility and their evaluation of English teacher efficacy which employed a researcher-made survey questionnaire. Results revealed high positive perceptions of students towards English utility. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the perceptions of high school students on the efficacy of their English teachers. Correlation coefficients indicated a positive linear relationship among the given variables. The p-value revealed significant relationship of teacher efficacy (r = .691, p-value = .000 and English utility (r = .467, p-value = .000 to students’ English proficiency. Results of regression statistics revealed that English utility has no significant influence on the student English proficiency. Therefore, the main factor that must still be considered then should be the teacher. Finally, there is an explicit indication that high level of teachers’ efficacy performing in teaching has much powerful influence on the English proficiency of high school students. Thus improving the methods of teaching English provides a better way of motivating students to achieve higher levels of proficiency in the future.

  6. Language proficiency modulates the recruitment of non-classical language areas in bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K Leonard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilingualism provides a unique opportunity for understanding the relative roles of proficiency and order of acquisition in determining how the brain represents language. In a previous study, we combined magnetoencephalography (MEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to examine the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing in a group of Spanish-English bilinguals who were more proficient in their native language. We found that from the earliest stages of lexical processing, words in the second language evoke greater activity in bilateral posterior visual regions, while activity to the native language is largely confined to classical left hemisphere fronto-temporal areas. In the present study, we sought to examine whether these effects relate to language proficiency or order of language acquisition by testing Spanish-English bilingual subjects who had become dominant in their second language. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether activity in bilateral visual regions was related to the presentation of written words in our previous study, so we presented subjects with both written and auditory words. We found greater activity for the less proficient native language in bilateral posterior visual regions for both the visual and auditory modalities, which started during the earliest word encoding stages and continued through lexico-semantic processing. In classical left fronto-temporal regions, the two languages evoked similar activity. Therefore, it is the lack of proficiency rather than secondary acquisition order that determines the recruitment of non-classical areas for word processing.

  7. Students’ Perceived Level of English Proficiency in Secondary Schools in Dodoma, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Ndiku Makewa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper looked at students’ perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky’s theory of value. Correlation design was used to describe the association between the student and teacher-related factors and students’ perceived level of English proficiency. Purposive sampling was used to select 300 form three students. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the participants. Reliability of the research instrument was determined by conducting a pilot study. Pearson Descriptive statistics and Kendall’s Tau-b were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that the students’ perceived level of proficiency in spoken English was average. The findings indicated a significant positive correlation between perceived English proficiency and attitude toward the English language, classroom activities, teacher motivation, and classroom environment. It is suggested that further studies integrate qualitative research methods to the research design in order to get an in-depth understanding of students’ perception on English proficiency.

  8. The English proficiency and academic language skills of Australian bilingual children during the primary school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennaoui, Kamelia; Nicholls, Ruth Jane; O'Connor, Meredith; Tarasuik, Joanne; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Goldfeld, Sharon

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that early proficiency in the language of school instruction is an important predictor of academic success for bilingual children. This study investigated whether English-proficiency at 4-5 years of age predicts academic language and literacy skills among Australian bilingual children at 10-11 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children ( LSAC, 2012 ). The LSAC comprises a nationally representative clustered cross-sequential sample of Australian children. Data were analysed from a sub-sample of 129 bilingual children from the LSAC Kindergarten cohort (n = 4983), for whom teachers completed the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) checklist (a population measure of early childhood development) and the Academic Rating Scale (ARS) language and literacy subscale. Linear regression analyses revealed that bilingual children who commenced school with stronger English proficiency had higher academic language and literacy scores at the end of primary school (β = 0.45). English proficiency remained a significant predictor, even when accounting for gender and socio-economic disadvantage (β = 0.38). The findings indicate that bilingual children who begin school without English proficiency are at risk of difficulties with academic language and literacy, even after 6 years of schooling. Risk factors need to be identified so early support can be targeted towards the most vulnerable children.

  9. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Iranian EFL Learners’ Speaking Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loghman Ansarian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of problem-based learning through cognition-based tasks on speaking proficiency of Iranian intermediate EFL learners in comparison to the effect of objective-based tasks. To this end, a true experimental research design was employed. Ninety five (N=95 language learners studying at a language institute in the city of Esfahan, Iran were given an IELTS listening and speaking test as the proficiency test and 75 learners were selected. In the next phase of the study, a second IELTS speaking test was administered as the homogeneity test and the pre-test to seventy five (N=75 learners chosen from the population and forty-eight (N=48 homogeneous intermediate learners were selected for the study (i.e., 24 learners in control group and 24 in experimental one. The results of an independent-sample t-test gained from the study proved that not only does implementation of problem-based learning through cognition-based tasks significantly increased intermediate participants’ speaking proficiency, but also it had more positive effect in comparison to objective-based tasks on participants’ speaking proficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that problem-based learning ought to be taken into account by educational scholars, those in charge of syllabus, material producers, language teachers and language learners. Keywords: Cognition-Based Tasks, Objective-Based Tasks, EFL Learners, Speaking Proficiency, Problem-Based Learning

  10. Evaluating the spoken English proficiency of graduates of foreign medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, J R; van Zanten, M; McKinley, D W; Gary, N E

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather additional evidence for the validity and reliability of spoken English proficiency ratings provided by trained standardized patients (SPs) in high-stakes clinical skills examination. Over 2500 candidates who took the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates' (ECFMG) Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) were studied. The CSA consists of 10 or 11 timed clinical encounters. Standardized patients evaluate spoken English proficiency and interpersonal skills in every encounter. Generalizability theory was used to estimate the consistency of spoken English ratings. Validity coefficients were calculated by correlating summary English ratings with CSA scores and other external criterion measures. Mean spoken English ratings were also compared by various candidate background variables. The reliability of the spoken English ratings, based on 10 independent evaluations, was high. The magnitudes of the associated variance components indicated that the evaluation of a candidate's spoken English proficiency is unlikely to be affected by the choice of cases or SPs used in a given assessment. Proficiency in spoken English was related to native language (English versus other) and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The pattern of the relationships, both within assessment components and with external criterion measures, suggests that valid measures of spoken English proficiency are obtained. This result, combined with the high reproducibility of the ratings over encounters and SPs, supports the use of trained SPs to measure spoken English skills in a simulated medical environment.

  11. Opportunities-to-Learn at Home: Profiles of Students With and Without Reaching Science Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Whitford, Melinda

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between opportunity-to-learn (OTL) at home and students' attainment of science proficiency. The data set used was the 2006 PISA science US national sample. Data mining was used to create patterns of association between home OTL variables and student attainment of science proficiency. It was found that students who failed to reach science proficiency are characterized by having fewer than 100 books at home; these students are also found to take out-of-school individual or group lessons with their teachers or with other teachers. On the other hands, students who reached science proficiency are characterized by having more than 100 books at home, not taking any out-of-school lessons, and having a highest parent level of graduate education. In addition to the above common characteristics, other home characteristics (e.g. computer and internet at home and language spoke at home) are also identified in profiles of students who have reached science proficiency. We explain the above findings in terms of current social-cultural theories. We finally discuss implications of the above findings for future studies and for improving science education policy and practice.

  12. Ability evaluation by binary tests: Problems, challenges & recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkansky, E.; Turetsky, V.

    2016-11-01

    Binary tests designed to measure abilities of objects under test (OUTs) are widely used in different fields of measurement theory and practice. The number of test items in such tests is usually very limited. The response to each test item provides only one bit of information per OUT. The problem of correct ability assessment is even more complicated, when the levels of difficulty of the test items are unknown beforehand. This fact makes the search for effective ways of planning and processing the results of such tests highly relevant. In recent years, there has been some progress in this direction, generated by both the development of computational tools and the emergence of new ideas. The latter are associated with the use of so-called “scale invariant item response models”. Together with maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach, they helped to solve some problems of engineering and proficiency testing. However, several issues related to the assessment of uncertainties, replications scheduling, the use of placebo, as well as evaluation of multidimensional abilities still present a challenge for researchers. The authors attempt to outline the ways to solve the above problems.

  13. Teaching and assessing technical proficiency in surgical subspecialty fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Susan L; Wang, Ming-Hsien; Gilson, Marta M; Chen, Belinda; Kern, David E

    2012-01-01

    To determine how programs are teaching and assessing procedural skills, and their perceived success. Cross-sectional survey. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) approved training programs in pediatric urology and colorectal surgery. Program directors and recent graduates (2007-2009). Thirty-nine program directors (60%), and 57 graduates (64%) responded; 89.5% of graduates and 94.9% of program directors felt training occurred successfully for the procedures that trainees were performing in their present practice. Nearly 90% of trainees and all program directors reported that there was no formal assessment of procedural competency at the beginning of training, although 66.7% of program directors reported that trainees were assessed "informally." Both program directors and trainees reported dialogue with faculty was the most frequent method used in preparing for operative procedures. Other methods (textbook/atlas, journals, web-based programs, videos) were used less frequently. Program directors with shorter tenure were more likely to use web-based and video methods; younger trainees were less likely to use textbooks/atlases. Faculty feedback on clinical decision-making and postprocedural review were perceived by both program directors and trainees as the most effective assessment methods for improving performance; however, trainees were more likely than program directors to report that postprocedure reviews were not included in their training (15.8% vs 9%, p = 0.045). Patient outcomes, written feedback from peers, and self-assessment were included in most programs, but valued less. Simulation was used in only about half the programs and was valued more highly by trainees than program directors (p = 0.011). Training in procedural proficiency was viewed as successful by both program directors and graduates. Dialogue with, assessment by, and feedback from faculty were frequently used and most valued; stressing the importance of the facilitator

  14. High second-language proficiency protects against the effects of reverberation on listening comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Hurtig, Anders; Ljung, Robert; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation Among U.S. Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Chin, Aimee

    2010-01-01

    Are U.S. immigrants' English proficiency and social outcomes the result of their cultural preferences, or of more fundamental constraints? Using 2000 Census microdata, we relate immigrants' English proficiency, marriage, fertility and residential location variables to their age at arrival in the U.S., and in particular whether that age fell within the "critical period" of language acquisition. We interpret the differences between younger and older arrivers as effects of English-language skills and construct an instrumental variable for English-language skills. Two-stage-least-squares estimates suggest that English proficiency increases the likelihood of divorce and intermarriage. It decreases fertility and, for some, ethnic enclave residence. (JEL J24, J12, J13, J61).

  16. Conscience in Language Teaching and its Relationship with Language Proficiency and Emotional Intelligence of EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Jalili Kalangestani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the relationship among Iranian EFL teachers’ language teaching conscience, language proficiency, and emotional intelligence. To this purpose, 82 homogenized language teachers, M.A. students and M.A. holders in TEFL, English literature, and English translation, both males and females, were taken as the participants.  The result of the data analysis showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between the language teaching conscience and the emotional intelligence of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .83, p < .05, 2. There was also a statistically significant relationship between the language teaching conscience and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .59, p < .05. And finally, there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .52, p < .05. Teacher trainers, researchers in teacher education, and language teachers can benefit from the findings of this study.

  17. The relationship between uncinate fasciculus white matter integrity and verbal memory proficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, David J; Krafft, Cynthia E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Chi, Lingxi; Rodrigue, Amanda L; Pierce, Jordan E; Allison, Jerry D; Yanasak, Nathan E; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2014-08-20

    During childhood, verbal learning and memory are important for academic performance. Recent functional MRI studies have reported on the functional correlates of verbal memory proficiency, but few have reported the underlying structural correlates. The present study sought to test the relationship between fronto-temporal white matter integrity and verbal memory proficiency in children. Diffusion weighted images were collected from 17 Black children (age 8-11 years) who also completed the California Verbal Learning Test. To index white matter integrity, fractional anisotropy values were calculated for bilateral uncinate fasciculus. The results revealed that low anisotropy values corresponded to poor verbal memory, whereas high anisotropy values corresponded to significantly better verbal memory scores. These findings suggest that a greater degree of myelination and cohesiveness of axonal fibers in uncinate fasciculus underlie better verbal memory proficiency in children.

  18. Food security during infancy: implications for attachment and mental proficiency in toddlerhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslow, Martha; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Capps, Randolph; Horowitz, Allison; Moore, Kristin A; Weinstein, Debra

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between household food security (access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food) during infancy and attachment and mental proficiency in toddlerhood. Data from a longitudinal nationally representative sample of infants and toddlers (n = 8944) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-9-month (2001-2002) and 24-month (2003-2004) surveys were used. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect associations between food insecurity at 9 months, and attachment and mental proficiency at 24 months. Food insecurity worked indirectly through depression and parenting practices to influence security of attachment and mental proficiency in toddlerhood. Social policies that address the adequacy and predictability of food supplies in families with infants have the potential to affect parental depression and parenting behavior, and thereby attachment and cognitive development at very early ages.

  19. Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-efficacy and Its Relation to ESL Writing Proficiency and Academic Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Raoofi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Writing is an essential skill for academic development within any disciplinary area. Despite the rapidly growing body of research on the various aspects of second language writing, research on writing self-efficacy remains scarce. This study investigated the relationship the between writing self-efficacy and writing proficiency in English as a second language. In this cross-sectional study, 304 Malaysian undergraduate students completed a writing self-efficacy questionnaire. The participants’ writing proficiency was assessed using two different writing tasks. The results showed that there was a significant difference in writing self-efficacy among the three writing proficiency groups. It was also found that science students had significantly higher writing self-efficacy than those in social sciences. Limitations of the study and Implications for second language writing instruction are also discussed.

  1. WEB-BASED LANGUAGE CLUB AFFECTING EFL LEARNERS’ PROFICIENCY: A CASE OF IRANIAN LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ashraf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Language clubs have been reported to be effective in learning languages, increasing motivation and independence (Gao, 2009. The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of a web-based language club on the language proficiency of Iranian EFL learners. A number of pre-intermediate learners form two universities (118 were selected among 154 through a test of proficiency (TOEFL PBL, then they were put into experimental and control groups. The participants in experimental group got on line and acted as a member of a virtual language club for a period of 6 months. They got involved with activities like emailing, chatting, and weblogging. Data were collected through TOEFL PBL. The analyzed data from the test of proficiency indicated the outperformance of those in experimental group. Consequently, it might be proposed that web-based language clubs can make language learning easier and more efficient.

  2. Effect of Patternmaker’s Proficiency On the Creation of Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyoungok

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the patternmaker’s proficiency on the creation of clothing was investigated by the observation of the patternmaking process for clothing that satisfies the designer. We asked Japanese and French patternmakers to make a clothing pattern for the same design. The reasons for the differences in resultant clothing patterns and toiles made by the two patternmakers are discussed. Although the patternmaking processes used by the proficient patternmakers were similar, the resultant patterns were different owing to different recognition of the design. In particular, the shape and size of the collar that the designer emphasized in the illustration were different in the resultant patterns. Differences in patternmaking originated from differences in the patternmakers′ levels of expertise in terms of education, experience, and proficiency. However, the designer was satisfied with both patterns.

  3. Understanding the Heritage Language Student: Proficiency and Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Given the ever-growing number of Spanish heritage learners in both universities and colleges, the need has continued to grow for the development of placement exams that accurately measure language ability, are simple to evaluate, and are easy to administer to large numbers of students. This article analyzes the implementation of a placement exam…

  4. Differential Item Functioning on Two Tests of EFL Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Katherine E.; Bachman, Lyle F.

    1992-01-01

    The extent to which items from the Test of English as a Foreign Language and the First Certificate in English function differently for test-takers of equal ability from different native language and curricular backgrounds was investigated. Results suggest a need for methods like logistic regression to examine nonuniform differential item…

  5. Toward an English Proficiency Test for Postgraduates in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Saidatul Akmar Zainal Abidin; Asiah Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is fast becoming a major attraction for candidates from all over the world to pursue their higher education. Currently students (local and international) who pursue postgraduate (hereafter, PG) education in Malaysia use the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores as indicators of their English ability. These are tests from the United States ...

  6. Does Student Proficiency on Local Reading Assessment Measures Align with State Mandated Reading Proficiency Standards? An Investigation of the Relationship between the Developmental Reading Assessment, Reading Curriculum Based Measurement, and Maze, with the New York State English Language Arts Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschler, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Data from three reading assessment tools--the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA), Reading Curriculum Based Measurement (R-CBM), and Maze--were compiled from 61 fourth grade and 59 fifth grade students across Fall and Spring administrations in order to determine how proficiency on these measures was associated with proficiency on the New York…

  7. An Investigation of Vocabulary Learning Strategies by Iranian EFL Students in Different Proficiency Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Jafari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out the various strategies used in learning vocabularies among Iranian EFL learners in three different proficiency levels (beginner, intermediate and advanced in Zanjan province. The vocabulary learning strategies which have been used in this research include determination, social, memory, cognitive, and meta-cognitive which follow Schmitt’s taxonomy. 110 students were randomly selected from two language institutes in Zanjan. Schmitt’s (1997 Vocabulary Learning Strategies’ questionnaire was administered to the learners with three proficiency levels. Then, descriptive statistics and Anova were utilized to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics revealed that the participants of the study regardless of their proficiency levels were generally medium strategy users who used all these strategies moderately except for the determination strategies that were used in high level. In addition, basic learners used all different types of strategies more frequently than intermediate and advanced learners. By comparing two other proficiency levels, advanced learners used determination strategies and meta-cognitive strategies more frequently than intermediate learners, while social, memory and cognitive strategies were used more frequently by Intermediates. In order to perceive if the results were statistically significant, Anova for between group mean differences was conducted. It revealed the fact that there is no significant difference among learners with different proficiency levels in application of determination and meta-cognitive strategies while the learners with lower proficiency level used social, memory and cognitive strategies more frequently, that is, these three strategies were used more frequently by basic, intermediate and advanced learners respectively.

  8. The Factors Affecting The Succes In English Proficiency Exams And Possible Contrubitions of The Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Hakki MIRICI

    2003-01-01

    It is a widely known fact that today, language proficiency exams are indispensable parts of our academic life. Especially, those who aim to achieve the objectives in an educational system are in need of declaring and proving that they have a good command of at least one foreign language-most commonly English. English proficiency exams such as FCE, CAE, IELTS and TOEFL are some of the most well-known commercial tests that assess four language skills and language competence of language users. I...

  9. The Effects of Type and Quantity of Input on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Language Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hassanzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the written texts on foreign language learning, a group of studies has stressed the function of learning context and learning chances for learners’ language input. The present thesis had two main goals: on the one hand, different types of input to which Iranian grade four high school EFL learners’ are exposed were looked at; on the other hand, the possible relationship between types and quantity of input and Iranian EFL learners’ oral proficiency was investigated. It was supposed that EFL learners who have access to more input will show better oral proficiency than those who do not have. Instruments used in the present study for the purpose of data collation included  PET test, researcher- made questionnaire, oral language proficiency test and face- to -face interview. Data were gathered from 50 Iranian female grade four high school foreign language learners who were selected from among 120 students whose score on PET test were +1SD from the mean score. The results of the Spearman rank –order correlation test for the types of input and oral language proficiency scores, showed that the participants’ oral proficiency score significantly correlated with the intended four sources of input including spoken (rho= 0.416, sig=0.003, written (rho= 0.364, sig=0.009, aural (rho= 0.343, sig=0.015 and visual or audio-visual types of input (rho= 0.47, sig=0.00. The findings of Spearman rank –order correlation test for the quantity of input and oral language proficiency scores also showed a significant relationship between quantity of input and oral language proficiency (rho= 0.543, sig= 0.00. The findings showed that EFL learners’ oral proficiency is significantly correlated with efficient and effective input. The findings may also suggest  answers to the question why most Iranian English learners fail to speak English fluently, which might be due to  lack of effective input. This may emphasize the importance of the types and quantity of

  10. How noise and language proficiency influence speech recognition by individual non-native listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Xie, Lingli; Li, Yongjun; Chatterjee, Monita; Ding, Nai

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how speech recognition in noise is affected by language proficiency for individual non-native speakers. The recognition of English and Chinese sentences was measured as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in sixty native Chinese speakers who never lived in an English-speaking environment. The recognition score for speech in quiet (which varied from 15%-92%) was found to be uncorrelated with speech recognition threshold (SRTQ/2), i.e. the SNR at which the recognition score drops to 50% of the recognition score in quiet. This result demonstrates separable contributions of language proficiency and auditory processing to speech recognition in noise.

  11. Recommending a minimum English proficiency standard for entry-level nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Thomas R; Marks, Casey; Wendt, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to provide sufficient information to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) to make a defensible recommended passing standard for English proficiency. This standard was based upon the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A large panel of nurses and nurse regulators (N = 25) was convened to determine how much English proficiency is required to be minimally competent as an entry-level nurse. Two standard setting procedures were combined to produce recommendations for each panelist. In conjunction with collateral information, these recommendations were reviewed by the NCSBN Examination Committee, which decided upon an NCSBN recommended standard, a TOEFL score of 220.

  12. Quality control of the analysis of histamine in fish by proficiency test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Warlley P.; Tette, Patrícia A. S.; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of histamine is required by the European Union for the importation of tuna and other Scombroid fish. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of the analysis of histamine in fish, by means of reference material (RM) and of proficiency test (PT). Sample analysis carried out using RM provided 89.4% recovery. During the proficiency test, the histamine content of the sample was 311.9 mg/kg and the z-score was zero. These results assure the good performance of the laboratory in the analysis of histamine in fish, asuring reliability of results to clients.

  13. Results of LLNL's Participation in the 16th OPCW Proficiency Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, H R; Alcaraz, A

    2005-01-24

    The Sixteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test started in October 2004. The samples were prepared by scientists affiliated with the Forensic Science Center at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, USA. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy. The test scenario and the spiking and background chemicals were discussed and agreed in advance with the OPCW. The samples were prepared in accordance with ''Work Instruction for the Preparation of Test Samples for OPCW Proficiency Tests'' (Document No.: QDOC/LAB/WI/PT2). The preparation of the test samples and their analysis are described in this report.

  14. A review of the TAEA proficiency test on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides activities in black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeltepe, E; Şahin, N K; Aslan, N; Hult, M; Özçayan, G; Wershofen, H; Yücel, Ü

    2017-10-07

    A proficiency test amongst 15 Turkish laboratories with participation of 5 non-Turkish laboratories was organized to determine the 137 Cs, 40 K and 90 Sr massic activities in black tea powder samples. The bulk material, consisting of tea produced in 2014, was mixed with contaminated tea that was withdrawn from the market after the Chernobyl accident. Nineteen laboratories reported 41 results. The evaluation of the results was based on the accuracy and precision criteria adopted by the IAEA Proficiency Testing Group and resulted in 49% acceptable results, 19% acceptable with warning and 32% were found to be not acceptable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relationship between L2 Proficiency and Lexical and Grammatical Features in Japanese EFL Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuya, KASHIWAGI; Kitakyushu University

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted which focus on interlanguage features in second language (L2) development of EFL learners. Although contribution of the first language (L1) to L2 development is considered to be such a feature, research into how an EFL learner's L2 proficiency moderates L1 influence on written features is limited. In order to probe the relationship between Japanese EFL learners' L2 proficiency and the degree of L1 influence on their products in second language (L2) writing, th...

  16. Determinants of English proficiency among Mexican migrants to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, K E; Massey, D S

    1997-01-01

    "We replicate prior research into the determinants of English language proficiency among immigrants using a dataset that controls for potential biases stemming from selective emigration, omitted variables, and the mismeasurement of key constructs. In general, we reproduce the results of earlier work, leading us to conclude that despite inherent methodological problems, research based on cross-sectional censuses and surveys yields fundamentally accurate conclusions. In particular, we find unambiguous evidence that English proficiency rises with exposure to U.S. society, and we reaffirm earlier work showing a clear pattern of language assimilation among Mexican migrants to the United States." excerpt

  17. Reliability and Discriminative Ability of a New Method for Soccer Kicking Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Radman

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the test-retest reliability of a newly developed 356 Soccer Shooting Test (356-SST, and the discriminative ability of this test with respect to the soccer players' proficiency level and leg dominance. Sixty-six male soccer players, divided into three groups based on their proficiency level (amateur, n = 24; novice semi-professional, n = 18; and experienced semi-professional players, n = 24, performed 10 kicks following a two-step run up. Forty-eight of them repeated the test on a separate day. The following shooting variables were derived: ball velocity (BV; measured via radar gun, shooting accuracy (SA; average distance from the ball-entry point to the goal centre, and shooting quality (SQ; shooting accuracy divided by the time elapsed from hitting the ball to the point of entry. No systematic bias was evident in the selected shooting variables (SA: 1.98±0.65 vs. 2.00±0.63 m; BV: 24.6±2.3 vs. 24.5±1.9 m s-1; SQ: 2.92±1.0 vs. 2.93±1.0 m s-1; all p>0.05. The intra-class correlation coefficients were high (ICC = 0.70-0.88, and the coefficients of variation were low (CV = 5.3-5.4%. Finally, all three 356-SST variables identify, with adequate sensitivity, differences in soccer shooting ability with respect to the players' proficiency and leg dominance. The results suggest that the 356-SST is a reliable and sensitive test of specific shooting ability in men's soccer. Future studies should test the validity of these findings in a fatigued state, as well as in other populations.

  18. Gynecologic cytology proficiency testing failures: what have we learned?: observations from the college of american pathologists gynecologic cytology proficiency testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatman, Barbara S; Bentz, Joel S; Fatheree, Lisa A; Souers, Rhona; Ostrowski, Saula; Moriarty, Ann T; Henry, Michael; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Booth, Christine N; Wilbur, David C

    2011-11-01

    In 2006, the first gynecologic cytology proficiency tests were offered by the College of American Pathologists. Four years of data are now available using field-validated slides, including conventional and liquid-based Papanicolaou tests. To characterize the pattern of error types that resulted in initial proficiency-test failure for cytotechnologists, primary screening pathologists, and secondary pathologists (those whose slides are prescreened by cytotechnologists). The results of 37 029 initial College of American Pathologists Papanicolaou proficiency tests were reviewed from 4 slide-set modules: conventional, ThinPrep, SurePath, or a module containing all 3 slide types. During this 4-year period, cytotechnologists were least likely to fail the initial test (3.4%; 614 of 18 264), followed by secondary pathologists (ie, those reviewing slides already screened by a cytotechnologist) with a failure rate of 4.2% (728 of 17 346), and primary pathologists (ie, those screening their own slides) having the highest level of failure (13.7%; 194 of 1419). Failure rates have fallen for all 3 groups over time. Pathologists are graded more stringently on proficiency tests, and more primary pathologists would have passed if they had been graded as cytotechnologists. There were no significant differences among performances using different types of slide sets. False-positive errors were common for both primary (63.9%; 124 of 194 errors) and secondary (55.6%; 405 of 728 errors) pathologists, whereas automatic failures were most common for cytotechnologists (75.7%; 465 of 614 errors). The failure rate is decreasing for all participants. The failures for primary pathologist screeners are due to false-positive responses. Primary screening cytotechnologists and secondary pathologists have automatic failures more often than do primary screening pathologists.

  19. Student Engagement in Long-Term Collaborative EFL Storytelling Activities: An Analysis of Learners with English Proficiency Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Yin; Liu, Chen-Chung; Wang, Yu; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Hung-Ming

    2017-01-01

    English proficiency difference among students is a challenging pedagogical issue in EFL classrooms worldwide. Collaborative digital storytelling has been adopted in language learning settings to increase motivation and engagement, especially for young learners. However, it remains unknown whether students of different proficiency levels can…

  20. The Development and Validation of a Spanish Elicited Imitation Test of Oral Language Proficiency for the Missionary Training Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    The Missionary Training Center (MTC), affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, needs a reliable and cost effective way to measure the oral language proficiency of missionaries learning Spanish. The MTC needed to measure incoming missionaries' Spanish language proficiency for training and classroom assignment as well as to…

  1. Do Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience Affect Speech Act Production? Analysis of Appropriateness, Accuracy, and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the effect of general proficiency and study-abroad experience in production of speech acts among learners of L2 English. Participants were 25 native speakers of English and 64 Japanese college students of English divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 22) had lower proficiency and no study-abroad experience.…

  2. Second language fluency: speaking style or proficiency? Correcting measures of second language fluency for first language behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N.H.; Groenhout, R.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    In second language (L2) research and testing, measures of oral fluency are used as diagnostics for proficiency. However, fluency is also determined by personality or speaking style, raising the question to what extent L2 fluency measures are valid indicators of L2 proficiency. In this study, we

  3. The Influence of Subject Knowledge and Second Language Proficiency on the Reading Comprehension of Scientific and Technical Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tim; Berry, Vivien

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of background knowledge and second language proficiency in relation to two sets of specific reading materials. One came from an IELTS reading module related to science and technology; the other was from a highly-specific popular science text. Results showed that both language proficiency and background knowledge predicted…

  4. Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales: Results from the 2013 NAEP Reading and Mathematics Assessments. NCES 2015-046

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira de Mello, V.; Bohrnstedt, G.; Blankenship, C.; Sherman, D.

    2015-01-01

    Under the 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, states developed their own assessments and set their own proficiency standards to measure student achievement. This has resulted in a great deal of variation among the states, both in their proficiency standards and in their student assessments (NCES 2008-475).…

  5. Mapping State Proficiency Standards Onto NAEP Scales: 2005-2007. Research and Development Report. NCES 2010-456

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira de Mello, Victor; Blankenship, Charles; McLaughlin, Don

    2009-01-01

    Since 2003, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has compared each state's standard for proficient performance in reading and mathematics by placing the state standards onto the NAEP scale. The procedure, "mapping," allows the level of achievement required for proficient performance in one state to be compared with the…

  6. Lexical noun phrases in texts written by deaf children and adults with different proficiency levels in sign language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, E.M. van; Hell, J.G. van

    2010-01-01

    We report an analysis of lexical noun phrases (NPs) in narrative and expository texts written by Dutch deaf individuals from a bimodal bilingual perspective. Texts written by Dutch deaf children and adults who are either proficient in Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) or low-proficient in SLN

  7. Improving English proficiency of post-graduate international nursing students seeking further qualifications and continuing education in foreign countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Vico; Crickmore, Barbara-Lee

    2009-07-01

    Post-graduate international nursing students who seek continuing education are accepted by nursing programs in a number of Western countries. Teaching experience from an Australian school of nursing program reflected that although these students demonstrated the minimum English proficiency required by the university, advanced English and communication proficiency related to clinical practice was required when they received clinical placements in an unfamiliar environment.

  8. Socio-Demographic and Practice-Oriented Factors Related to Proficiency in Problem Solving: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…

  9. The Effect of Storytelling Technique on Speaking Ability of Female Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Zare-Behtash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present quasi-experimental study is to investigate the effect of storytelling technique on writing ability of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To this end, 40 female intermediate EFL learners with the age range of 14-16 attending Chabahar Maritime University High School were initially selected. The homogeneity of their proficiency level was established via the administration of a TOEFL (the Paper-Based Test proficiency test. Then they were randomly divided into two control and experimental groups. A speaking test was administered to female subjects of both groups at the beginning of the study. The experimental group used storytelling technique two times a week while the control group was not trained on this technique. At the end of the study, a speaking test was administered to all subjects for examining their ability in speaking skill. Independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test were performed for data analysis. The results showed that storytelling technique had a significant effect on improving the speaking ability of intermediate EFL learners.

  10. The impact of simulation-based learning on students' English for Nursing Purposes (ENP) reading proficiency: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Yun Annie; Chan, Luke; Siren, Betty

    2013-06-01

    This is a report of a study which evaluated simulation-based learning as a teaching strategy for improving participants' ENP reading proficiency in the senior college program of students whose first language is Chinese, not English. Simulation-based learning is known to be one of most effective teaching strategies in the healthcare professional curricula, which brings a clinical setting into the classroom. However, developing English reading skills for English written nursing journals through simulation-based learning in the nursing curricula, is largely unknown. We used a quasi-experimental approach with nonequivalent control group design to collect the causal connections between intervention and outcomes. 101 students were enrolled in this study (response rate 92.6%) of these 48 students volunteered for the intervention group, and 53 students for the control group. The findings indicated that the intervention group had significantly higher mean scores in ENP reading proficiency with unknown words in the article (p=.004), vocabulary (pstudents showed more improvement in their English reading, both from quantitative and qualitative findings. Simulation-based learning may have some advantages in improving the English reading ability on English written nursing journals among nursing students. However, the benefits to the students of this study is still to be determined, and further exploration is needed with well designed research and a universal method of outcome measurement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  12. Language mastery, narrative abilities and oral expression abilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of language and language mastery for science learning has been the object of extensive investigation in recent decades, leading to ample recognition. However, specific focus on the role of narrative abilities is still scarce. This work focuses on the relevance of narrative abilities for chemistry learning.

  13. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances. We ensured exogenous...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub-teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  14. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We ensured...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub-teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  15. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 (student) teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub- teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  16. The Impact of an Instructional Program on Students' Proficiency of English Vocational Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    A-Momani, Mufadi; Ababneh, Sana'

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of an instructional program on vocational educational students' proficiency of vocational educational terms in English. The study sample consisted of 60 male and female students from Al-Balqa'a Applied University, Jordan. Moreover, the study investigated the effect the students' gender and…

  17. When experts are oceans apart: comparing expert performance values for proficiency-based laparoscopic simulator training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Rovers, M.M.; Alken, A.P.; Kengen, B.; Goor, H. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgical training is moving away from the operating room toward simulation-based skills training facilities. This has led to the development of proficiency-based training courses in which expert performance data are used for feedback and assessment. However, few expert value data sets

  18. Simultaneous and Successive Cognitive Processing and Writing Skills: Relationships Between Proficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Muriel; Wachs, Mary

    1986-01-01

    Investigated relationships between individual differences in (1) levels of writing skills and (2) proficiencies at simultaneous and successive cognitive processing. Correlated students' writings with the following word and sentence level problems: spelling errors, missing or inappropriate punctuation of sentence parts, missing noun and verb…

  19. Another Look at Correlations between the Oral Proficiency Interview and the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazulik, Johannes; Brown, Cheri

    A study supplementing earlier research by Lalande and Schweckendiek investigated comparisons and correlations obtained from testing a group of 17 university students of German using both the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) and the most recent revision of the examination for the…

  20. Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

    1986-01-01

    Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

  1. Facilitating the Use of Assistive Technology by Special Education Students with Limited English Proficiency. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Turnkey Systems, Inc., Falls Church, VA.

    Results are presented of a federally funded project that identified new communication aids, software, and assistive technologies that can be used in special education with students who are limited English proficient. The research was conducted in learning centers that use the comprehensive Competencies Program (CCP) English-as-a-Second-Language…

  2. Tap and Text: Using Poetry to Develop Rhythmic Proficiency in Percussive Dance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ryan P.

    2017-01-01

    As a longtime student and aficionado of both poetry and percussive dance, Ryan Casey presents ways in which poetry--both written and spoken word--can be used in a dance class to develop rhythmic proficiency in percussive dancers of varying ages and skill levels, and explains why he believes this practice is accessible and educational. Although the…

  3. Orthographic activation in L2 spoken word recognition depends on proficiency: evidence from eye-tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Veivo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of orthographic and phonological information in spoken word recognition was studied in a visual world task where L1 Finnish learners of L2 French (n = 64 and L1 French native speakers (n = 24 were asked to match spoken word forms with printed words while their eye movements were recorded. In Experiment 1, French target words were contrasted with competitors having a longer (base vs. bague or a shorter word initial phonological overlap (base vs. bain and an identical orthographic overlap. In Experiment 2, target words were contrasted with competitors of either longer (mince vs. mite or shorter word initial orthographic overlap (mince vs. mythe and of an identical phonological overlap. A general phonological effect was observed in the L2 listener group but not in the L1 control group. No general orthographic effects were observed in the L2 or L1 groups, but a significant effect of proficiency was observed for orthographic overlap over time: higher proficiency L2 listeners used also orthographic information in the matching task in a time-window from 400 to 700ms, whereas no such effect was observed for lower proficiency listeners. These results suggest that the activation of orthographic information in L2 spoken word recognition depends on proficiency in L2.

  4. Oral Proficiency Teaching with WebCERF and Skype: Scenarios for Online Production and Interaction Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Sake; Meima, Estelle; Oggel, Gerdientje

    2013-01-01

    This article reports our findings on using WebCEF as a CEFR familiarization and self-assessment tool for oral proficiency. Furthermore, we outline how we have implemented Skype as a tool for telecollaboration in our language programmes. The primary purpose of our study was to explore how students and teachers would perceive the potential benefits…

  5. The Ghost in the Machine: An Examination of the Concept of Language Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    1986-01-01

    Proficiency, which refers to a concept that is more complex than is generally acknowledged, is an overworked term in second language teaching that lacks a satisfactory operational definition. Linguistic knowledge is currently defined most often in terms of what an individual is able to do with the knowledge, as in the movement for competency-based…

  6. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  7. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  8. Conceptualizing Accessibility for English Language Proficiency Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-16-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Laitusis, Cara; Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series from Educational Testing Service (ETS) that conceptualizes next-generation English language proficiency (ELP) assessment systems for K-12 English learners (ELs) in the United States.The first paper articulated a high-level conceptualization of next-generation ELP assessment systems (Hauck, Wolf, & Mislevy,…

  9. Relationships among Preschool English Language Learner's Oral Proficiency in English, Instructional Experience and Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Theresa; Neal, Harriet

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-three preschool children who were learning English as a second language participated in 16 weeks of either comprehension-oriented or letter/rhyme-focused small group instruction. Pretests and posttests of book vocabulary, story comprehension, print concepts, letter naming, writing, rhyming, and English oral proficiency were given. Children…

  10. Using Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Enhancing Language Proficiency with a Focus on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Gholam-Reza; Hartoonian, Anahid

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulated learning strategies have recently received a remarkable attention by researchers. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between self-regulated learning strategies and students' language proficiency as well as their reading comprehension. To do so, 115 Iranian EFL university students were selected. First, a TOEFL test…

  11. Learning Strategies and Motivation among Procrastinators of Various English Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Yoshiko; Yamada, Masanori; Matsuda, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroshi; Saito, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Our research project focuses on learning strategies and motivation among academic procrastinators in computer assisted language learning (CALL) settings. In this study, we aim to compare them according to students' levels of English proficiency. One hundred and fourteen university students participated in this research project. Sixty-four students…

  12. Registered Nurse and Nursing Assistant Perceptions of Limited English-Proficient Patient-Clinician Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Clayton; Montie, Mary; Galinato, Jose; Patak, Lance; Titler, Marita

    2017-12-01

    In this article, the authors discuss implications for nurse administrators from a recent qualitative study regarding nursing personnel perceptions of limited English proficient (LEP) patient-clinician communication. Few studies have examined nursing personnel's use and perceptions of communication resources when caring for LEP patients.

  13. Effects of Task-Based Videoconferencing on Speaking Performance and Overall Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Atsushi; Yabuta, Yukiko; Nakamura, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find the effects of using Videoconferencing (VC) as a tool for foreign language instructions in a semester long research study. The research questions focus on the effects of VC (1) on speaking skills, and (2) on general proficiency scores. English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners in a university in Japan were…

  14. Equivalence of Screen versus Print Reading Comprehension Depends on Task Complexity and Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, Wolfgang; Schroeders, Ulrich; Lenhard, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    As reading and reading assessment become increasingly implemented on electronic devices, the question arises whether reading on screen is comparable with reading on paper. To examine potential differences, we studied reading processes on different proficiency and complexity levels. Specifically, we used data from the standardization sample of the…

  15. Critical Literacy Practices in the EFL Context and the English Language Proficiency: Further Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Mei-yun

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a follow-up study that explored the relationship between EFL learners' critical literacy practices and the English language proficiency. It investigated four focal EFL learners' critical literacy practices in their dialogic interaction and also analyzed 39 students' views on their critical literacy learning. The four focal…

  16. Native Language Phonological Skills in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the link between low second language performance and difficulties with native language phonological processing. Participants were native Hebrew speakers, 19-31 years of age, who learned English as a second language in a school setting. Individuals with dyslexia performed below high-proficiency second language learners on…

  17. Deaf College Students' Mathematical Skills Relative to Morphological Knowledge, Reading Level, and Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ronald R.; Gaustad, Martha G.

    2007-01-01

    This study of deaf college students examined specific relationships between their mathematics performance and their assessed skills in reading, language, and English morphology. Simple regression analyses showed that deaf college students' language proficiency scores, reading grade level, and morphological knowledge regarding word segmentation and…

  18. FEEDBACK: An Updated Look at Limited-English-Proficient Students in AISD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Sedra G.

    1991-01-01

    Information about limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) is summarized. In the 1990-91 school year, 5,047 students in the AISD were served in LEP programs at elementary schools (3,933 students), middle schools (555 students), and secondary schools (559 students). Most were Spanish…

  19. Measuring Speech Recognition Proficiency: A Psychometric Analysis of Speed and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.; Kurth, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the validity of various measures of speed and accuracy for assessing proficiency in speech recognition. The study specifically compared two different word-count indices for speed and accuracy (the 5-stroke word and the 1.4-syllable standard word) on a timing administered to 114 speech recognition students measured at 1-, 2-,…

  20. How high-commitment HRM relates to engagement and commitment: the moderating role of task proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.; Kalshoven, K.

    2014-01-01

    In a multisource field study, we examine the relationship between employee perceptions of high-commitment human resource management (HRM), task proficiency, work engagement, and organizational commitment. Based on conservation of resources (COR) theory, we first propose that work engagement mediates

  1. Linguistic Proficiency Assessment in Second Language Acquisition Research: The Elicited Imitation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Stéphanie; Tremblay, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the elicited imitation task (EIT) as a tool for measuring linguistic proficiency in a second/foreign (L2) language, focusing on French. Nonnative French speakers (n = 94) and native French speakers (n = 6) completed an EIT that included 50 sentences varying in length and complexity. Three raters evaluated productions on…

  2. A Stylistic and Proficiency-based Approach to EFL Learners’ Performance Inconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam-Reza Abbasian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Performance deficiencies and inconsistencies among SLA or FL learners can be attributed to variety of sources including both systemic (i.e., language issues and individual variables.  Contrary to a rich background, the literature still suffers from a gap as far as delving into the issue from language proficiency and learning style is concerned. To fill the gap, this study addressed EFL learners’ interlanguage performance (i.e., error types in the light of their learning styles and language proficiency levels.  Participants were 73 Iranian graduate EFL learners, who received the Michigan proficiency tests along with the Perceptual Learning-Style Preference Questionnaire (of Reid in order to measure their language proficiency level and learning style types. For the purpose of the study they were divided into pre-intermediate, intermediate and upper-intermediate levels. To explore their performance inconsistencies, both oral data from an semi-structured (SST interview and written data based on an on-the-spot piece of writing were used and then classified based on Corder’s (1971 scheme into pre-systematic, systematic and post-systematic errors.   The results revealed significant relationships among the target variables, if not predictor-predicted relationships. The non-linear relationship among the variable underscores significance of an integrative approach to EFL learner’s performance inconsistencies and the importance of stylistic instruction in EFL contexts.

  3. The Art of Teacher Talk: Examining Intersections of the Strands of Scientific Proficiencies and Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Jennifer K.; Cavlazoglu, Baki; Scogin, Stephen C.; Stuessy, Carol L.

    2017-01-01

    This research examined how a teacher's discussion of the strands of scientific proficiencies changed over the course of an inquiry cycle as students engaged in a complex, technology-enhanced inquiry learning environment called "PlantingScience" (PS). Our research is descriptive in nature and attempts to deconstruct the complexity of…

  4. Sentence Processing in High Proficient Kannada--English Bilinguals: A Reaction Time Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Sunil Kumar; Chengappa, Shyamala K.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the semantic and syntactic processing differences between native and second languages in 20 early high proficient Kannada--English bilingual adults through accuracy and reaction time (RT) measurements. Subjects participated in a semantic judgement task (using 50 semantically correct and 50 semantically…

  5. Relationship between Screen-Time and Motor Proficiency in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoret, Geneviève; Bigras, Nathalie; Lemay, Lise; Lehrer, Joanne; Lemire, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between screen time (ST) and children's motor proficiency. The amount of time 113 children spent watching television, using a computer, and playing video games as reported by parents at ages 4, 5, and 7 was measured and children's motor skills were evaluated at age 7 with the…

  6. Communication Strategies Used by Pre-Service English Teachers of Different Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Garcés, Angela Yicely; López Olivera, Silvio Fabián

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a research study carried out in the Bachelor of Arts in English program of study at a Colombian university. It aims at identifying the communication strategies used by four pre-service English teachers with A2 and B2 levels of language proficiency and, also, at examining how these communication strategies…

  7. Formulaic Sequences and Perceived Oral Proficiency: Putting a Lexical Approach to the Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Frank; Eyckmans, June; Kappel, Jenny; Stengers, Helene; Demecheleer, Murielle

    2006-01-01

    This study reports a small-scale experiment that was set up to estimate the extent to which (i) the use of formulaic sequences (standardized phrases such as collocations and idiomatic expressions) can help learners come across as proficient L2 speakers and (ii) an instructional method that emphasizes "noticing" of L2 formulaic sequences can help…

  8. PEG-SO 3 H as a catalyst in aqueous media: A simple, proficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 1. PEG-SO3H as a catalyst in aqueous media: A simple, proficient and green approach for the synthesis of quinoline derivatives. M A Nasseri S A Alavi B Zakerinasab. Volume 125 Issue 1 January 2013 pp 109-116 ...

  9. Oral English Language Proficiency and Reading Mastery: The Role of Home Language and School Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of 21,409 participants of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort focused on home and school factors sought to understand the level of reading mastery that children experienced throughout elementary school and Grade 8 by relating home language use, timing of oral English language proficiency, and the provision of…

  10. The Correlation between Learner Autonomy and English Proficiency of Indonesian EFL College Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myartawan, I. Putu Ngurah Wage; Latief, Mohammad Adnan; Suharmanto

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between learner autonomy psychologically defined in the study as a composite of behavioral intentions to do autonomous learning and self-efficacy in relation to autonomous learning, and English proficiency. The sample comprised 120 first semester English-majored students of a state university…

  11. The Role of Language Proficiency in Self-Related Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Zarei, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Iranian EFL learners' proficiency level on their self-related personality traits (self-esteem and self-efficacy). To this end, 141 English major students, male and female, studying at Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU) and Kar Non-profit University in Qazvin, Iran were…

  12. Upgrading the Target Language Proficiency Levels of Foreign Language Teachers. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, June K.

    Language teachers recognize that improving their foreign language proficiency is an ongoing process. New ways of evaluating teachers' language skills, and curriculum changes emphasizing performance highlight skill inadequacies. Many teachers have not reached functional language levels, and language skill upgrading is a more relevant issue than…

  13. English Proficiency and Competency Background of Social Science and Humanities Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III; Kutschera, P. C.; Capili, Claire Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on the background of Social Science and Humanities students (specifically in the course General Psychology) on their English education and competence. This research aims to identify the common factors of these students in terms of their English Proficiency. The students will answer survey questions that will give us information…

  14. Operating Room Performance Improves after Proficiency-Based Virtual Reality Cataract Surgery Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Kjærbo, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of virtual reality proficiency-based training on actual cataract surgery performance. The secondary purpose of the study was to define which surgeons benefit from virtual reality training. DESIGN: Multicenter masked clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen catarac...

  15. Estimating the Impact of the Massachusetts English Immersion Law on Limited English Proficient Students' Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Koretz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The large number of limited English proficient (LEP) children in U.S. schools and the uncertainty about the impact of bilingual education versus English immersion on their achievement warrant rigorous investigation of the effects of "English immersion laws." We estimated the impact of "Question 2", the Massachusetts English…

  16. Seeking out Challenges to Develop L2 Self-Confidence: A Language Learner's Journey to Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwads, Emily; Roger, Peter Stewart

    2015-01-01

    As one constituent of second language (L2) motivation, L2 "self-­confidence" has been shown to be a significant predictor of language proficiency. More recently, L2 self-­confidence has been studied as part of the "willingness to communicate" (WTC) construct. Less is known, however, about the processes by which learners develop…

  17. The Impact of Resilience on L2 Learners' Motivated Behaviour and Proficiency in L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Yoon-Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study focused on the factors that constitute second language (L2) learners' resilience, and how these factors are related to L2 learning by investigating what relation resilience may have to motivated behaviour and proficiency in English learning. A total of 1620 secondary school learners of English participated in a questionnaire…

  18. Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) in L2 Oral Proficiency Development: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huifen

    2015-01-01

    The ever growing interest in the development of foreign or second (L2) oral proficiency in a computer-mediated communication (CMC) classroom has resulted in a large body of studies looking at both the direct and indirect effects of CMC interventions on the acquisition of oral competences. The present study employed a quantitative meta-analytic…

  19. Reading Strategies Employed by University Business English Majors with Different Levels of Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Intaraprasert, Channarong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of reading strategies by the university Business English majors in relation to their levels of reading proficiency. The participants were 926 university Business English majors from 6 universities in southwest China. The Strategy Questionnaire for Business English Reading (SQBER) and the…

  20. The Relationship between FL Reading Strategies and FL Reading Proficiency: A Study on Turkish EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönen, Ipek Kuru

    2015-01-01

    Reading in FL possesses certain challenges for FL readers such as difficulty in inferring underlying messages in texts and dealing with unfamiliar cultural load. All these challenges may be associated with FL learners' reading proficiency and their use of FL reading strategies especially while reading academic materials. This study aims at…

  1. The Relationships among Heritage Language Proficiency, Ethnic Identity, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    With the trend toward globalization and the continual change of the ethnic composition of the U.S. population, there is increasing awareness in the U.S. that not every child is raised in an English-only family. The purpose of this research is to explore the relationships among heritage language proficiency, ethnic identity, and self-esteem in the…

  2. English Language Proficiency and Early School Attainment among Children Learning English as an Additional Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Katie E.; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F.

    2017-01-01

    Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic…

  3. Do Teachers' Wages Matter for Proficiency? Evidence from a Funding Reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Filho, Naercio; Pazello, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses the 1998 reform in the funding of fundamental education in Brazil (FUNDEF) to identify the effect of teachers' wages on the proficiency of public school pupils. Wages are set by legislation at the local level and this reform established a floor on the share of expenditures on teacher wages out of total revenues in each Brazilian…

  4. A Comparison of IRT Proficiency Estimation Methods under Adaptive Multistage Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim; Yoo, Hanwook

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry is an investigation of item response theory (IRT) proficiency estimators' accuracy under multistage testing (MST). We chose a two-stage MST design that includes four modules (one at Stage 1, three at Stage 2) and three difficulty paths (low, middle, high). We assembled various two-stage MST panels (i.e., forms) by manipulating two…

  5. 76 FR 65742 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English Proficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English... transmission of data. Title of Proposal: Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program Reporting. OMB Control...

  6. Proficiency testing schemes as a quality rating in industrial hygiene laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Dobecki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication presents the principles of organization, implementation, assessment and exploitation of proficiency testing results in the work environmental laboratory based on basic requirements included in standard PN-EN ISO/IEC 17043 and ISO 13528. The basis for the proper functioning of the laboratory is to use and observe the basic requirements for the competence to carry out the tests and the guidelines on ensuring reliable and accurate results, specified e.g., according to the guidelines described in the standard PN-EN ISO/IEC 17043. The confirmation of the laboratory competence is the obtained accreditation. To obtain this certificate several conditions, including proficiency testing (PT should be met. The main aspects of this paper is to show the role of proficiency testing in the process of assuring a properly functioning quality system in the laboratory. The accreditation requirements, the types of proficiency testing schemes, methods of statistical analysis and interpretation of results are also discussed by the authors. Med Pr 2016;67(2:267–283

  7. Woodworking Safety. A Guide for Teachers of Limited English Proficient Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umatilla Education Service District, OR.

    This packet of materials was developed (1) to address the liability concerns of woodworking instructors by providing safety instruction materials and tests for limited English proficient (LEP) or Spanish-speaking students, and (2) to provide some ideas, strategies, and resources for working effectively with LEP students in the vocational…

  8. A Quantitative Study on the Relationship between Teachers' Technology Perceptions and Math Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Vernon William

    2009-01-01

    Increases in instructional technology investments in recent years have been discrepant with anticipated gains in math proficiency levels. Past researchers have attempted to explain the relationship between available educational technology and teacher-perceived benefits of technology-assisted instruction as a predictor of effective integration…

  9. Proficiency test for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Traag, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The test provides an evaluation of the methods applied for quantification of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fat by the laboratories. The proficiency test was organised according to ISO 17043. For this test, four samples were prepared: - sunflower oil spiked with dioxins and PCBs; - sunflower oil

  10. Self and Teacher Assessment as Predictors of Proficiency Levels of Turkish EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünaldi, Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    Although self-assessment of foreign language skills is not a new topic, it has not yet been widely explored in the Turkish English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context. The current study investigates the potential of self-assessment of foreign language skills in determining proficiency levels of Turkish learners of EFL: 239 learners participated in…

  11. Interactional Competence across Proficiency Levels: How Do Learners Manage Interaction in Paired Speaking Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaczi, Evelina D.

    2014-01-01

    Paired speaking tasks are now commonly used in both pedagogic and assessment contexts, as they elicit a wide range of interactional skills. The current study aims to offer an investigation of the interaction co-constructed by learners at different proficiency levels who are engaged in a paired speaking test, and to provide insights into the…

  12. The Effectiveness of Data Science as a Means to Achieve Proficiency in Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccucci, Wendy; Tamarkin, Dawn; Jones, Kiku

    2015-01-01

    Data Science courses are becoming more prevalent in recent years. Increasingly more universities are offering individual courses and majors in the field of Data Science. This study evaluates data science education as a means to become proficient in scientific literacy. The results demonstrate how the educational goals of a Data Science course meet…

  13. The Role of Age of Acquisition in Late Second Language Oral Proficiency Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The current project examined whether and to what degree age of acquisition (AOA), defined as the first intensive exposure to a second language (L2) environment, can be predictive of the end state of postpubertal L2 oral proficiency attainment. Data were collected from 88 experienced Japanese learners of English and two groups of 20 baseline…

  14. Best Practices: Engaging Limited English Proficient Students and Families. A Teaching Tolerance Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Poverty Law Center (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by two decades of historic immigration, American demographics are changing. Many school districts are often ill prepared to meet the needs of limited English proficient (LEP) students and families. This Teaching Tolerance booklet points administrators to best practices in the effort to create a supportive learning environment for all…

  15. Connecting RESEARCH to PRACTICE: Knowing Who Is Proficient Isn't Always Sufficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossin-Wilson, Will

    2009-01-01

    During the past decade, the percentage of proficient students (PPS) has become the primary indicator of school performance. Educators use the PPS to monitor changes in performance over time, compare performance across groups, and assess trends in achievement gaps. The PPS is relatively new, first used with the National Assessment of Educational…

  16. The KERA Endgame: Which Kentucky Schools Will Achieve Proficiency by 2014?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Phillip W.

    The passage of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) in the 1990s made Kentucky one of the first states to initiate comprehensive education reform. It established a legislatively mandated goal that all public schools reach "proficiency" (100 of 140 points) on an accountability index by 2014. This paper tries to predict which schools…

  17. Oral proficiency teaching with WebCEF and Skype : Scenarios for online production and interaction tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, S.; Meima, Estelle; Oggel, Gerdientje

    2012-01-01

    This article reports our findings on using WebCEF as a CEFR familiarization and self-assessment tool for oral proficiency. Furthermore, we outline how we have implemented Skype as a tool for telecollaboration in our language programmes. The primary purpose of our study was to explore how students

  18. The Complex Relationship between Bilingual Home Language Input and Kindergarten Children's Spanish and English Oral Proficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kijoo; Goldenberg, Claude

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how emergent bilingual children's English and Spanish proficiencies moderated the relationships between Spanish and English input at home (bilingual home language input [BHLI]) and children's oral language skills in each language. The sample comprised over 1,400 Spanish-dominant kindergartners in California and Texas. BHLI was…

  19. The Role of Oral Communicative Tasks (OCT) in Developing the Spoken Proficiency of Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha, S.; Mekala, S.

    2017-01-01

    The mastery of speaking skills in English has become a major requisite in engineering industry. Engineers are expected to possess speaking skills for executing their routine activities and career prospects. The article focuses on the experimental study conducted to improve English spoken proficiency of Indian engineering students using task-based…

  20. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Iranian EFL Learners' Speaking Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarian, Loghman; Adlipour, Ali Akbar; Saber, Mehrnoush Akhavan; Shafiei, Elmira

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of problem-based learning through cognition-based tasks on speaking proficiency of Iranian intermediate EFL learners in comparison to the effect of objective-based tasks. To this end, a true experimental research design was employed. Ninety five (N = 95) language learners studying at a language institute in the…

  1. Students' Perceived Level of English Proficiency in Secondary Schools in Dodoma, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makewa, Lazarus Ndiku; Role, Elizabeth; Tuguta, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This paper looked at students' perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky's theory of…

  2. Teachers' Code-Switching in Classroom Instructions for Low English Proficient Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    Due to the alarming signals of declining proficiency level among English Language learners in Malaysia, this study set out to learn more about the learners' perceptions of the teachers' code-switching in English Language classrooms. The objectives of this study were to investigate: a) learners' perceptions of teachers' code-switching, b) the…

  3. Incremental Validity of Multidimensional Proficiency Scores from Diagnostic Classification Models: An Illustration for Elementary School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunina-Habenicht, Olga; Rupp, André A.; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic classification models (DCMs) hold great potential for applications in summative and formative assessment by providing discrete multivariate proficiency scores that yield statistically driven classifications of students. Using data from a newly developed diagnostic arithmetic assessment that was administered to 2032 fourth-grade students…

  4. A La Buena: Living Better. Bilingual Adult Proficiency Level Materials for Everyday Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip D., Jr.; And Others

    These bilingual English/Spanish Adult Proficiency Materials comprise three adult education courses in these areas: consumer education, health, and nutrition. Part 1, Consumer Education, covers these topics: money management, credit, frauds, consumer complaints, housing, utility bills, saving energy, banking, insurance (car, health, life), buying a…

  5. English Language Proficiency and Teacher Judgments of the Academic and Interpersonal Competence of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freberg, Miranda E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how English language proficiency is related to teacher judgments of students' academic and interpersonal competence. It was hypothesized that English Language Learner (ELL) students would generally be perceived as having weaker academic and interpersonal skills than their non-ELL counterparts regardless…

  6. A Psychoeducational Group for Limited-English Proficient Latino/Latina Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Jose A.

    2003-01-01

    Latino/Latina children who are considered to be limited-English proficient may be unwilling participants in unique and difficult personal and school-related experiences. The inherent differences in their native culture and language may lead to special academic placements in English-as-a-second-language programs. Participation in a…

  7. EMPLOYERS’ VIEWS ON IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH PROFICIENCY AND COMMUNICATION SKILL FOR EMPLOYABILITY IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Hie Ting

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Employability of graduates is a concern in many countries, including Malaysia, and the high unemployment rate among graduates is often attributed to their lack of English proficiency and communication skills. These two distinctive elements are often collated, and it is important to find out which is more important to employers. The study examined the employers’ views on the importance of English proficiency and communication skill for graduates to be employed in the Malaysian private sector. The data were from semi-structured interviews conducted with 10 employers in the private sector who were in the position to recruit staff. The 21,433-word interview transcripts were analyzed. The results revealed that employers in the Malaysian private sector view language proficiency and communication skills as separate qualities. The employers are willing to consider employing candidates with average English proficiency if they have good communication skills, except for jobs which require more communication in English such as customer service and marketing. The results also revealed that good communication skills can increase employability and opportunities for career advancement. The findings highlight the communication skills that universities need to emphasize so that their graduates have the necessary skills to perform well in employment interviews and in their work.

  8. English Language Proficiency and Employability Framework for Australian Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoudis, Sophie; Baik, Chi; Bexley, Emmaline; Doughney, Lachlan

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the "English Language Proficiency" (ELP) and Employability Framework", which has been designed to inform and support higher education institutions' (HEIs) policies and practices on ELP and graduate employability. The "Framework" was developed through a review of the national and international…

  9. Investigating Transfer of Academic Proficiency among Trilingual Immigrant Students: A Holistic Tri-Directional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The study addresses the degree of transfer of literacy dimensions of academic proficiency (AP), that is, reading comprehension and writing, across three languages--Russian (L1), Hebrew (L2), and English (L3)--and investigates whether a common conceptual source underlies the linguistic and cognitive operations of the trilingual learner (Grosjean,…

  10. Supporting the Language Development of Limited English Proficient Students through Arts Integration in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Liane

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at how arts integration can boost the language development of limited English proficient students in kindergarten through second grade. I first review existing research on how young children learn and describe the special challenges faced by children who must learn in an unfamiliar language. I then identify arts-based mechanisms…

  11. A CEFR-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing System for Chinese Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsuan-Po; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Tsai, Ya-Hsun; Liao, Chen-Huei

    2012-01-01

    In the era of globalization, the trend towards learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) has become increasingly popular worldwide. The increasing demand in learning CFL has raised the profile of the Chinese proficiency test (CPT). This study will analyze in depth the inadequacy of current CPT's utilizing the common European framework of…

  12. Proficiency Differences in Syntactic Processing of Monolingual Native Speakers Indexed by Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulak, Eric; Neville, Helen J.

    2010-01-01

    Although anecdotally there appear to be differences in the way native speakers use and comprehend their native language, most empirical investigations of language processing study university students and none have studied differences in language proficiency, which may be independent of resource limitations such as working memory span. We examined…

  13. The Language Proficiency Interview (LPI) and Its Applicability in Corporate Language Training Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupak, Steven A.

    The Language Proficiency Interview's structure, administration, and rating scale are outlined by an officer of the organization that designed it (Educational Testing Service), and some common mistakes made in its administration are listed. The need for training in the test's administration is emphasized. Its application in the corporate situation…

  14. Experience of Social Media, Training and Development on Work Proficiency: A Qualitative Study with Security Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyireh, Rexford Owusu; Okyireh, Marijke Akua Adobea

    2016-01-01

    How useful is social media and training programs to the development of professionals in the security sector? In this study the researchers examined three key issues pertaining to training programs. These were marketing of training programs, participant experiences of training content and work proficiency. A sample of ten participants of a forensic…

  15. Early Childhood Reading Skills and Proficiency in NAEP Eighth-Grade Reading Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Enis; Ogut, Burhan; Kim, Young Yee

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between reading skills in earlier grades and achieving "Proficiency" on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) grade 8 reading assessment was examined by establishing a statistical link between NAEP and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) grade 8 reading assessments using data from a common…

  16. Nurturing Reading Proficiency of Pupils through Phonics: Entrepreneurial Opportunities for Early Childhood Educators in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaga, Opeyemi; Akintola, Olugbenga Adeyanju; Okpor, Christiana Isiwat

    2017-01-01

    Nurturing reading proficiency among the Nigerian children has become pivotal to a functional and development-oriented education. The place of phonics in achieving this strategic goal seems unquestionable with attendant entrepreneurial opportunities for early childhood educators. This study therefore, investigates the influence of phonics in…

  17. Computer Proficiency for Online Learning: Factorial Invariance of Scores among Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Amy L.; Reeves, Todd D.; Smith, Thomas J.; Walker, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Online learning is variously employed in K-12 education, including for teacher professional development. However, the use of computer-based technologies for learning purposes assumes learner computer proficiency, making this construct an important domain of procedural knowledge in formal and informal online learning contexts. Addressing this…

  18. Correlations between Learners' Initial EFL Proficiency and Variables of Clicker-Aided Flipped EFL Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhonggen; Yu, Liheng

    2017-01-01

    Although the flipped class has been hotly discussed, the clicker-aided flipped EFL class (CFEC) still remains a mystery for most scholars. This study aims to determine the correlations between the initial EFL proficiency and other variables of the clicker-aided EFL flipped class. The sample was made up of randomly selected 79 participants (Female…

  19. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Method: Speech…

  20. The Effect of Practicing Mental Calculation Strategies on Teacher Candidates' Numeracy Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mutawah, Masooma Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted on year 4 students enrolled in the Bachelor of Education program for Cycle one teacher candidates. The effect of practicing mental calculation strategies in improving students' numeracy proficiency was put under some tests to measure its effect in a scientific way. A Pre-quiz was conducted before with no prior practice…