WorldWideScience

Sample records for proficiency test scores

  1. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  2. Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

    1986-01-01

    Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

  3. Scoring in genetically modified organism proficiency tests based on log-transformed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Ellison, Stephen L R; Owen, Linda; Mathieson, Kenneth; Powell, Joanne; Key, Pauline; Wood, Roger; Damant, Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    The study considers data from 2 UK-based proficiency schemes and includes data from a total of 29 rounds and 43 test materials over a period of 3 years. The results from the 2 schemes are similar and reinforce each other. The amplification process used in quantitative polymerase chain reaction determinations predicts a mixture of normal, binomial, and lognormal distributions dominated by the latter 2. As predicted, the study results consistently follow a positively skewed distribution. Log-transformation prior to calculating z-scores is effective in establishing near-symmetric distributions that are sufficiently close to normal to justify interpretation on the basis of the normal distribution.

  4. TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

  5. Proficiency tests, Evaluating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cofino, W.P.; Molenaar, J.; Torfs, P.J.J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Marine monitoring programs provide data that are essential for marine management. The reliability of such data is underpinned by proficiency tests. In the context of Quasimeme, a proficiency testing program for the marine environment, a statistical model has been developed in 2000 to evaluate data

  6. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  7. Testing Proficiency in Interpersonal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Burton H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses several hypotheses about the measurement of speech-communication proficiency which are being tested at the University of Hawaii and a testing instrument entitled Dy Comm'' (dyadic communication) which emerged from this research. (DD)

  8. Maintenance proficiency evaluation test bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Loran

    2003-01-01

    The Maintenance Proficiency Evaluation Test Bank (MPETB) is an Electric Power Research Institute- (EPRJ-) operated, utility-sponsored means of developing, maintaining, and disseminating secure, high-quality written and performance maintenance proficiency tests. EPRTs charter is to ensure that all tests and test items that go into the Test Bank have been validated, screened for reliability, and evaluated to high standards of psychometric excellence. Proficiency tests of maintenance personnel.(mechanics, electricians, and instrumentation and control [I and C] technicians) are most often used to determine if an experienced employee is capable of performing maintenance tasks without further training. Such tests provide objective evidence for decisions to exempt an employee from what, for the employee, is unnecessary training. This leads to considerable savings in training costs and increased productivity because supervisors can assign personnel to tasks at which their competence is proven. The ultimate objective of proficiency evaluation is to ensure that qualified maintenance personnel are available to meet the maintenance requirements of the plant Numerous task-specific MPE tests (both written and performance) have been developed and validated using the EPRI MPE methodology by the utilities participating in the MPETB project A task-specific MPE consists of a multiple-choice written examination and a multi-step performance evaluation that can be used to assess an individual's present knowledge and skill level for a given maintenance task. The MPETB contains MPEs and test items for the mechanical, electrical, and I and C classifications that are readily available to participating utilities. Presently, utilities are placing emphasis on developing MPEs to evaluate outage-related maintenance tasks that demonstrate the competency and qualifications of plant and contractor personnel before the start of outage work. Utilities are also using the MPE methodology and process to

  9. [Laboratory accreditation and proficiency testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwa, Katsuhiko

    2003-05-01

    ISO/TC 212 covering clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems will issue the international standard for medical laboratory quality and competence requirements, ISO 15189. This standard is based on the ISO/IEC 17025, general requirements for competence of testing and calibration laboratories and ISO 9001, quality management systems-requirements. Clinical laboratory services are essential to patient care and therefore should be available to meet the needs of all patients and clinical personnel responsible for human health care. If a laboratory seeks accreditation, it should select an accreditation body that operates according to this international standard and in a manner which takes into account the particular requirements of clinical laboratories. Proficiency testing should be available to evaluate the calibration laboratories and reference measurement laboratories in clinical medicine. Reference measurement procedures should be of precise and the analytical principle of measurement applied should ensure reliability. We should be prepared to establish a quality management system and proficiency testing in clinical laboratories.

  10. Students' proficiency scores within multitrait item response theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present a series of item response models of data collected using the Force Concept Inventory. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was designed to poll the Newtonian conception of force viewed as a multidimensional concept, that is, as a complex of distinguishable conceptual dimensions. Several previous studies have developed single-trait item response models of FCI data; however, we feel that multidimensional models are also appropriate given the explicitly multidimensional design of the inventory. The models employed in the research reported here vary in both the number of fitting parameters and the number of underlying latent traits assumed. We calculate several model information statistics to ensure adequate model fit and to determine which of the models provides the optimal balance of information and parsimony. Our analysis indicates that all item response models tested, from the single-trait Rasch model through to a model with ten latent traits, satisfy the standard requirements of fit. However, analysis of model information criteria indicates that the five-trait model is optimal. We note that an earlier factor analysis of the same FCI data also led to a five-factor model. Furthermore the factors in our previous study and the traits identified in the current work match each other well. The optimal five-trait model assigns proficiency scores to all respondents for each of the five traits. We construct a correlation matrix between the proficiencies in each of these traits. This correlation matrix shows strong correlations between some proficiencies, and strong anticorrelations between others. We present an interpretation of this correlation matrix.

  11. Proficiency Testing in Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abbas; Suhairy Sani; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Abd Nassir Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Department of Standard Malaysia (DSM) launched myPTP programme on 31 December 2013 in accordance to ISO/IC 17043. The standard states the requirements for Proficiency Testing. The provider of these services is called Proficiency Testing Provider (PTP). The role of PTP is to compare the proficiency level between inspection bodies or laboratories. With the assistance of expert panel, the PTP will determine the assigned value as reference to be compared to the values obtained from the inspection bodies or laboratories. Quality wise, this services is important as participation will improve wuality of the inspection quality continuously and increase confidence level of client and improve safety level. Requirement of PT in NDT is mentioned in SC1.5- Specific Criteria for Accreditation of Mechanical Testing and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) for MS ISO/IEC17025 and MTR2- MIBAS Technical Requirements for Accreditation of NDT. This paper explains and discusses the result of this proficiency test done on a number of NDT companies that participated. (author)

  12. Proficiency test for allergens in food 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Alamenou, P.; Elbers, I.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014 a proficiency test for allergens in baby cereal was organized by RIKILT, Wageningen UR. This PT-test enabled laboratories to evaluate their competence for the analysis of allergens in baby cereal. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were accepted. The proficiency test was

  13. Proficiency test for aflatoxin in pig feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  14. Examining the Relationship among Reading Curriculum-Based Measures, Level of Language Proficiency, and State Accountability Test Scores with Middle School Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Nicole Osterman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive ability of oral reading fluency (R-CBM) on a sixth grade high-stakes assessment with ELL and non-ELL students, as well as determine the average rate of growth on R-CBM and how that relates to level of English Proficiency. The participants in the current study included 350 sixth grade…

  15. Proficiency Test SYKE 8/2012. Volatile organic compounds in water and soil

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen-Ylönen, Kaija; Nuutinen, Jari; Leivuori, Mirja; Ilmakunnas, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Proftest SYKE carried out the proficiency test for analysis of volatile organic compounds from water and soil in October 2012. One artificial sample and one river water sample and one soil sample were distributed. In total, 15 laboratories participated in the proficiency test. Either the calculated concentration or the robust mean value was chosen to be the assigned value for the measurement. The performance of the participants was evaluated by using z scores. In this proficiency test 72 % of...

  16. Evaluation of Mycology Laboratory Proficiency Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Andrew A.; Salkin, Ira F.; McGinnis, Michael R.; Gromadzki, Sally; Pasarell, Lester; Kemna, Maggi; Higgins, Nancy; Salfinger, Max

    1999-01-01

    Changes over the last decade in overt proficiency testing (OPT) regulations have been ostensibly directed at improving laboratory performance on patient samples. However, the overt (unblinded) format of the tests and regulatory penalties associated with incorrect values allow and encourage laboratorians to take extra precautions with OPT analytes. As a result OPT may measure optimal laboratory performance instead of the intended target of typical performance attained during routine patient te...

  17. Does Wechsler Intelligence Scale administration and scoring proficiency improve during assessment training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Tyson L; Zachar, Peter; Ray, Glen E; Lobello, Steven G; Underhill, Andrea T

    2007-04-01

    Studies have found that Wechsler scale administration and scoring proficiency is not easily attained during graduate training. These findings may be related to methodological issues. Using a single-group repeated measures design, this study documents statistically significant, though modest, error reduction on the WAIS-III and WISC-III during a graduate course in assessment. The study design does not permit the isolation of training factors related to error reduction, or assessment of whether error reduction is a function of mere practice. However, the results do indicate that previous study findings of no or inconsistent improvement in scoring proficiency may have been the result of methodological factors. Implications for teaching individual intelligence testing and further research are discussed.

  18. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  19. Evaluation of Mycology Laboratory Proficiency Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Andrew A.; Salkin, Ira F.; McGinnis, Michael R.; Gromadzki, Sally; Pasarell, Lester; Kemna, Maggi; Higgins, Nancy; Salfinger, Max

    1999-01-01

    Changes over the last decade in overt proficiency testing (OPT) regulations have been ostensibly directed at improving laboratory performance on patient samples. However, the overt (unblinded) format of the tests and regulatory penalties associated with incorrect values allow and encourage laboratorians to take extra precautions with OPT analytes. As a result OPT may measure optimal laboratory performance instead of the intended target of typical performance attained during routine patient testing. This study addresses this issue by evaluating medical mycology OPT and comparing its fungal specimen identification error rates to those obtained in a covert (blinded) proficiency testing (CPT) program. Identifications from 188 laboratories participating in the New York State mycology OPT from 1982 to 1994 were compared with the identifications of the same fungi recovered from patient specimens in 1989 and 1994 as part of the routine procedures of 88 of these laboratories. The consistency in the identification of OPT specimens was sufficient to make accurate predictions of OPT error rates. However, while the error rates in OPT and CPT were similar for Candida albicans, significantly higher error rates were found in CPT for Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and other common pathogenic fungi. These differences may, in part, be due to OPT’s use of ideal organism representatives cultured under optimum growth conditions. This difference, as well as the organism-dependent error rate differences, reflects the limitations of OPT as a means of assessing the quality of routine laboratory performance in medical mycology. PMID:10364601

  20. Proficiency test in the accreditation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.

    2008-01-01

    In the accreditation process of a radioactivity measurements laboratory, according to ISO standard 17025, proficiency tests play a fundamental role. These PTs constitute an irreplaceable tool for the validation of measuring methods. In the case of Spain, ENAC, which is the Spanish accreditation national body, requires that the laboratory has to take part in a PT for each one of the accredited measuring methods in the period of time between two reassessments of the accreditation, what happens every 4-5 years. In specific areas of determination procedures, among which radioactive measurements could be included, the number of methods which can be accredited is very large. The purpose of the present work is to establish a classification into families of the different radioactivity measurement procedures, as well as to establish complementary actions that guarantee that carrying out periodically proficiency-tests on any of the included procedures in each family, every measurement procedure include in that family is controlled, complying with the criteria established by ENAC

  1. A retrospective evaluation of proficiency testing, and rapid HIV test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proficiency testing (PT) has been implemented as a form of External Quality Assurance (EQA) by the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Kenya since 2007 in order to monitor and improve on the quality of HIV testing and counselling HTC services. Objective: To compare concordance between National HIV ...

  2. Laboratory competence evaluation through proficiency testing - mycotoxins in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torović Ljilja D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory for analysis of mycotoxins in food at the Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina (Novi Sad, Serbia participated in 15 proficiency testing schemes in period 2012-2016, comprising 22 determinations of regulated mycotoxins: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenone, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin, in different food commodities: wheat, corn, barley, breakfast cereals, infant food, milk, wine and fruit juice. Analyses were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (patulin, deoxynivalenol or fluorescence detection (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone using o-phthalaldehyde precolumn derivatization (fumonisins or UV postcolumn derivatization (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, following clean-up on immunoaffinity columns with specific antibodies, except in case of patulin when solvent extraction and solid-phase C-18 clean-up were used. Laboratory performance assessed in terms of z scores showed all satisfactory results. In depth evaluation revealed following distribution of z scores (absolute values: 59.1% up to 0.5, 36.4% between 0.5 and 1.0, and 4.5% above 1.0. Analysis of trends performed for multiple determinations of individual mycotoxins showed several changes of z score to better or worse rank. Overall assessment of the performance in proficiency testing demonstrated laboratory competence for analysis of mycotoxins in food.

  3. Aberrant PO2 values in proficiency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzi, C E; Clausen, J L; Mahoney, J

    1993-03-01

    We prospectively determined the frequency of aberrant vials of fluorocarbon/buffer used for proficiency testing of measurements of pH, PCO2, and PO2, using 20 duplicate vials from 12 lots of fluorocarbon/buffer and two arterial blood gas analyzers in eight reference laboratories. We defined aberrant vials as vials for which both duplicate measurements differed from the mean value of repeated measurements for the specific instrument (for each lot of testing materials) by > 0.04 for pH, > 10% of the mean or 3.0 mm Hg, whichever was greater, for PCO2; or > 10% of the mean or 6 mm Hg, whichever was greater, for PO2. Four of 1620 vials (0.25%) were aberrant, all based on PO2 measurements (range of mean values: pH, 7.181-7.631; PCO2, 12.7-65.9; PO2, 32.5-150.1) were 0.0055 for pH, 0.67 mm Hg for PCO2, and 1.65 mm Hg for PO2. Deliberate contamination of the fluorocarbon emulsion with room air, as might occur during sampling from the vial, indicated that only minor increases in PO2 (e.g., 1.0 mm Hg at PO2 of 56 mm Hg) occur when samples are aspirated. Larger increases in PO2 (mean 7.1 mm Hg at a PO2 of 66 mm Hg) occurred when the syringe samples were contaminated with room air. We conclude that isolated aberrant measurements of PO2 in blood gas proficiency testing attributable to vial contents can occur, but the frequency is very low.

  4. Proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Jong, de J.; Lee, van der M.K.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The here described proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed was organised by RIKILT, Wageningen UR in accordance with ISO 17043. RIKILT Wageningen UR has an ISO/IEC 17043 accreditation for proficiency tests of residues in products of animal origin. However, this specific test is not part

  5. Proficiency test for tropane alkaloids in food en feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  6. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  7. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  8. Proficiency test for paracitides in salmon muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of parasiticides in salmon muscle. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for the quantitative analysis of parasiticides in salmon muscle.

  9. Setting Language Proficiency Score Requirements for English-as-a-Second-Language Placement Decisions in Secondary Education. Research Report. ETS RR-16-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patricia A.; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect recommendations for minimum score requirements (cut scores) on the "TOEFL Junior"® English language proficiency test in order to guide decisions on the placement of learners into English as a second language (ESL) support classes. The TOEFL Junior test, intended primarily for students ages 11 and…

  10. Incremental Validity of Multidimensional Proficiency Scores from Diagnostic Classification Models: An Illustration for Elementary School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunina-Habenicht, Olga; Rupp, André A.; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic classification models (DCMs) hold great potential for applications in summative and formative assessment by providing discrete multivariate proficiency scores that yield statistically driven classifications of students. Using data from a newly developed diagnostic arithmetic assessment that was administered to 2032 fourth-grade students…

  11. School-Age Test Proficiency and Special Education After Congenital Heart Disease Surgery in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, Sarah B; Bai, Shasha; Luo, Chunqiao; Cleavenger, Jordyn E; Gibson, Neal; Holland, Greg; Mosley, Bridget S; Kaiser, Jeffrey R; Bhutta, Adnan T

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate test proficiency and the receipt of special education services in school-age children who had undergone surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) at age Education longitudinal database containing achievement test scores in literacy and mathematics for grades 3-4 and special education codes. The primary negative outcome was not achieving grade-level proficiency on achievement tests. Logistic regression accounting for repeated measures was used to evaluate for associations between achieving proficiency and demographic data, maternal education, and clinical factors. A total of 362 of 458 (79%) children who underwent surgery for CHD were matched to the Arkansas Department of Education database, 285 of whom had grade 3 and/or 4 achievement tests scores. Fewer students with CHD achieved proficiency in literacy and mathematics (P education predicted proficiency in literacy (P special education services (26.9% vs 11.6%; P special education services than all state students. Results from this study support the need for neurodevelopmental evaluations as standard practice in children with CHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Visualisation of Proficiency Test Exercise by Means of Kiri Plots. Informatics Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Trinidad, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the visualisation procedure of the proficiency tests by means of Kiri Plots, based on three tests: z-score, zeta-score and the relative uncertainty outlier. The results assessment of the intercomparison exercises and proficiency tests among Spanish environmental radioactivity laboratories and Spanish Nuclear Power Plants Laboratories is performed by Environmental Radioactivity and Radiological Surveillance Unit following the ISO-43 e ISO/ IUPAC standards and applying the z-score test. The application of new graphics methods and tests to a better evaluation of uncertainties reported by Labs is described in this paper. An informatics programme has been developed in Visual Basic for applications that allows the graphic representation of Tables and Figures automatically in an excel-sheet and later statistical simulations changing the ratios between the reference value uncertainties and the concentration activities values from the participants laboratories. (Author) 26 refs.

  13. The proficiency testing of determination of dioxins in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, R.; Tsutsumi, T.; Maitani, T. [National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Jissen Womens Univ., Hino (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Food intake is the main route of human dioxin exposure, making the determination of dioxins in food indispensable for risk assessment and risk management of dioxins. The uncertainty of analytical results, however, can be very great because of the low concentration of the analytes and complicated cleanup procedures. The risk assessment of dioxins based on analytical results also suffers from a similar degree of uncertainty. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan has published ''Guideline for the Determination of Dioxins in Food'' to standardize the analytical procedures. The guideline contains the quality assurance procedures to obtain reliable analytical results and recommends participation in the relevant proficiency testing scheme. The proficiency testing provides the fair evaluation of the analytical results. The central science laboratory in England and the food and drug safety center in Japan offer the proficiency testing on food. The National Institute of Health Sciences of Japan (NIHS) also has carried out proficiency testing of dioxins in food since 1998 to assure the quality of analytical results for dioxins. In this presentation we will show the results of 5 rounds of proficiency testing.

  14. Final report proficiency test on the determination of α, β and γ-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Trinkl, A.; Benesch, T.; Sansone, U.

    2005-06-01

    A proficiency test on the determination of α, β and γ-emitting radionuclides was organised within the frame of the Technical Cooperation project: RAS/9/024 'Environmental Radiation Monitoring and Regional Data Base' to evaluate the analytical performance of 14 laboratories from 12 Asian countries. This report summarises the performance evaluation of the participating laboratories. Analytical data evaluation of this proficiency test showed that 58% of all reported results obtained a 'Passed' final score for both the trueness and precision criteria applied to this exercise. (author)

  15. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Herrmann, Susan Strange

    2009-01-01

    A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos...

  16. Statistical analysis of nematode counts from interlaboratory proficiency tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den W.; Hartsema, O.; Nijs, Den J.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    A series of proficiency tests on potato cyst nematode (PCN; n=29) and free-living stages of Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus (n=23) were investigated to determine the accuracy and precision of the nematode counts and to gain insights into possible trends and potential improvements. In each test, each

  17. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  18. A new role of proficiency testing in nuclear analytical work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The most recent definition of measurement result requires a statement of uncertainty whenever results obtained by nuclear or other quantitative methods of analysis are reported. Proficiency testing (PT) therefore must include the ability of laboratories to present not only unbiased quantity values...

  19. Planes, Politics and Oral Proficiency: Testing International Air Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the variation in oral proficiency demonstrated by 14 Air Traffic Controllers across two types of testing tasks: work-related radio telephony-based tasks and non-specific English tasks on aviation topics. Their performance was compared statistically in terms of level ratings on the International Civil Aviation Organization…

  20. Factors Affecting Result in Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK Level 6: Reading Section and Preparation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the author’s personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  1. Predicting occupational personality test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Drakeley, R

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between students' actual test scores and their self-estimated scores on the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI; R. Hogan & J. Hogan, 1992), an omnibus personality questionnaire, was examined. Despite being given descriptive statistics and explanations of each of the dimensions measured, the students tended to overestimate their scores; yet all correlations between actual and estimated scores were positive and significant. Correlations between self-estimates and actual test scores were highest for sociability, ambition, and adjustment (r = .62 to r = .67). The results are discussed in terms of employers' use and abuse of personality assessment for job recruitment.

  2. Blood-alcohol proficiency test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary survey has been performed to ascertain the validity of the blood alcohol analysis performed by a number of laboratories on a voluntary basis. Values of accuracy and precision of the tests are presented. /Abstract from report summary pag...

  3. The English Proficiency Test of the Iranian Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Noori

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the serious decisions which every administrator may need to make during his/her professional career is to select or reject applicants based on their general language skills or competence. These significant decisions, which may be of serious consequences not only for the individuals but also for the society in general, are occasionally made based on norm-referenced proficiency tests. Out of internationally available proficiency tests such as the TOEFL test, those which fit the specific local cultural and academic contexts seem of greater prominence. One such test, which has been specifically designed for the Iranian EFL context by the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology, is the MSRT proficiency test. While a few studies have been conducted on the analysis of the reliability and validity of the mentioned test, no study has yet reviewed the test and its component parts. Therefore, the current study aimed at considering the strengths and weaknesses of the test in general and its component items in particular. The results implicated that the MSRT benefits from more efficient general reliability and validity, well planned language items, practicality, ease of administration, objective scoring, ease of accessibility, as well as reasonable fees, while it needs to be more substantiated in terms of the inclusion of the speaking skill assessment, the computerized adaptive assessment procedures, and the correction factor for guessing. In addition, the use of the individual-based listening apparatus for testing listening comprehension as well as the consideration of the integrative communicative tests for its concurrent validity purposes can contribute to more appropriate distinction of proficient and non-proficient applicants.

  4. Proficiency Testing Activities of Frequency Calibration Laboratories in Taiwan, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    cht.com.tw Abstract In order to meet the requirements of ISO 17025 and the demand of TAF (Taiwan Accreditation Foundation) for calibration inter... IEC 17025 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. The proficiency testing results are then important...on-site evaluation, an assessment team is organized to examine the technical competence of the labs and their compliance with the requirements of ISO

  5. Scientific issues related to the cytology proficiency testing regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prey Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The member organizations of the Cytology Education and Technology Consortium believe there are significant flaws in current cytology proficiency testing regulations. The most immediate needed modifications include lengthening the required testing interval, utilizing stringently validated and continuously monitored slides, changing the grading scheme, and changing the focus of the test from the individual to laboratory level testing. Integration of new computer-assisted and located-guided screening technologies into the testing protocols is necessary for the testing protocol to be compliant with the law.

  6. Proficiency Test SYKE 9/2012. Oil hydrocarbons in water and soil

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen-Ylönen, Kaija; Nuutinen, Jari; Leivuori, Mirja; Ilmakunnas, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Proftest SYKE carried out the proficiency test for analysis of oil hydrocarbons from water and soil in October 2012. One artificial sample and one surface water sample and one soil sample for the determination of oil hydrocarbons were distributed. In total, 18 laboratories participated in the PT. Either the calculated concentration or the robust mean value was chosen to be the assigned value for the measurement. The performance of the participants was evaluated by using z scores. In this p...

  7. Nordic proficiency test for whole body counting facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Risco Norrlid, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (Sweden)); Halldorsson, O. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, GR (Iceland)); Holm, S. (Copenhagen Univ. Hospital. NM and PET (Denmark)); Huikari, J. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Isaksson, M. (Goeteborg Univ., Dep. Radiation Physics Sahlgren Academy (Sweden)); Lind, B. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway))

    2012-01-15

    The PIANOLIB activity aims to harmonize the calibrations of the measurement equipment in the region and to evaluate the quality of this kind of measurement by means of a proficiency test exercise. In this report the results of the proficiency test are presented. The exercise consisted in determining the activity of a phantom filled with two sets of certified radioactive materials, K-40 and Cs-137, in radioactive rods, uniformly spaced inside of the phantom. Most of the participants were able to quantify correctly the activities of K-40 and Cs-137 and by comparison with the results of a previous exercise of this kind, the overall performance is equally good. The problems experienced by laboratories which submitted non-acceptable results could generally be attributed to the calibration of their systems. It is important to keep the practice of intercomparison and NKS continues to be the best framework for supporting this kind of activity. (Author)

  8. High school science teacher perceptions of the science proficiency testing as mandated by the State of Ohio Board of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Samuel Shird

    There is a correlation between the socioeconomic status of secondary schools and scores on the State of Ohio's mandated secondary science proficiency tests. In low scoring schools many reasons effectively explain the low test scores as a result of the low socioeconomics. For example, one reason may be that many students are working late hours after school to help with family finances; parents may simply be too busy providing family income to realize the consequences of the testing program. There are many other personal issues students face that may cause them to score poorly an the test. The perceptions of their teachers regarding the science proficiency test program may be one significant factor. These teacher perceptions are the topic of this study. Two sample groups ware established for this study. One group was science teachers from secondary schools scoring 85% or higher on the 12th grade proficiency test in the academic year 1998--1999. The other group consisted of science teachers from secondary schools scoring 35% or less in the same academic year. Each group of teachers responded to a survey instrument that listed several items used to determine teachers' perceptions of the secondary science proficiency test. A significant difference in the teacher' perceptions existed between the two groups. Some of the ranked items on the form include teachers' opinions of: (1) Teaching to the tests; (2) School administrators' priority placed on improving average test scores; (3) Teacher incentive for improving average test scores; (4) Teacher teaching style change as a result of the testing mandate; (5) Teacher knowledge of State curriculum model; (6) Student stress as a result of the high-stakes test; (7) Test cultural bias; (8) The tests in general.

  9. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests to detect viral fish diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahns, Søren; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Skall, Helle Frank

    An inter-laboratory proficiency test has ben provided by the European Community Laboratory (CRL) for Fish Diseases every year since 1996. The test is provided to all European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) that are obliged to participate and to a limited number of non-European NRLs, making......) but also to assess their ability to differentiate other fish viruses as spring viraemia of carp virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, perch rhabdovirus etc. Five coded ampoules are provided to participants containing lyophilised supernatant from infected cell cultures. The CRL collect the data...

  10. Psychomotor testing predicts rate of skill acquisition for proficiency-based laparoscopic skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Korndorffer, James R; Black, F William; Dunne, J Bruce; Sierra, Rafael; Touchard, Cheri L; Rice, David A; Markert, Ronald J; Kastl, Peter R; Scott, Daniel J

    2006-08-01

    Laparoscopic simulator training translates into improved operative performance. Proficiency-based curricula maximize efficiency by tailoring training to meet the needs of each individual; however, because rates of skill acquisition vary widely, such curricula may be difficult to implement. We hypothesized that psychomotor testing would predict baseline performance and training duration in a proficiency-based laparoscopic simulator curriculum. Residents (R1, n = 20) were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective study at the beginning of the academic year. All completed the following: a background information survey, a battery of 12 innate ability measures (5 motor, and 7 visual-spatial), and baseline testing on 3 validated simulators (5 videotrainer [VT] tasks, 12 virtual reality [minimally invasive surgical trainer-virtual reality, MIST-VR] tasks, and 2 laparoscopic camera navigation [LCN] tasks). Participants trained to proficiency, and training duration and number of repetitions were recorded. Baseline test scores were correlated to skill acquisition rate. Cutoff scores for each predictive test were calculated based on a receiver operator curve, and their sensitivity and specificity were determined in identifying slow learners. Only the Cards Rotation test correlated with baseline simulator ability on VT and LCN. Curriculum implementation required 347 man-hours (6-person team) and 795,000 dollars of capital equipment. With an attendance rate of 75%, 19 of 20 residents (95%) completed the curriculum by the end of the academic year. To complete training, a median of 12 hours (range, 5.5-21), and 325 repetitions (range, 171-782) were required. Simulator score improvement was 50%. Training duration and repetitions correlated with prior video game and billiard exposure, grooved pegboard, finger tap, map planning, Rey Figure Immediate Recall score, and baseline performance on VT and LCN. The map planning cutoff score proved most specific in identifying slow learners

  11. Science Teacher Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy as Predictors of Students' End-of-Instruction (EOI) Biology I Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Julie; Moseley, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary Biology I teachers whose students' mean scores on the statewide End-of-Instruction (EOI) Biology I test met or exceeded the state academic proficiency level (Proficient Group) to teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary Biology I teachers whose students' mean scores on the…

  12. Proficiency testing of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) labs in Brazil by measurement comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimarães, Jorge Vallim; Dias, Maurício Henrique Costa; Dos Santos, José Carlos Araujo

    2009-01-01

    This work reports the analysis and main results of a recently concluded proficiency testing round with the major electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) laboratories in Brazil. Seven labs conducted radiated emission measurements at their test facilities under the coordination of an independent third party supervised by the Brazilian accreditation body, INMETRO. Six of them are currently the only labs accredited on EMC measurements in Brazil. The guidelines of international standards such as ISO/IEC Guide 43 and ISO 13528 were followed, while the scope of the tests focused on EMC compliance of information technology devices, based on CISPR 22. A multi-tone signal generator was specifically designed and assembled for the present proficiency testing conditions. Statistical metrics such as z-score and normalized error have been adopted to assess global and individual performances of the participant laboratories. The normalized error indicated 10 unacceptable results out of 35 results, while only 3 out of 35 z-scores were out of the acceptance range. Considering that the participant labs are actually only for test measurements (not for calibration), the overall performance may be taken as satisfactory, based on the fact that the z-score should be used in this case

  13. [An experimental proficiency test for ability to screen 104 residual pesticides in agricultural products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Yukari; Ishimitsu, Susumu; Otaki, Kayo; Uchimi, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Daba, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Tetsu; Ukyo, Masaho; Tonogai, Yasuhide

    2003-10-01

    An experimental proficiency test program for ability to screen 104 residual pesticides in agricultural products has been conducted. Eight Japanese laboratories joined the program. Items tested in the present study were limit of detection, internal proficiency test (self spike) and external proficiency test (blind spike). All 104 pesticides were well detected and recovered from agricultural foods in the internal proficiency test. However, the results of the external proficiency test did not completely agree with those of the internal proficiency tests. After 5 rounds of the blind spike test, the ratio of the number of correctly detected pesticides to that of actually contained ones (49 total) ranged from 65% to 100% among laboratories. The numbers of mistakenly detected pesticides by a laboratory were 0 to 15. Thus, there was a great difference among the laboratories in the ability to screen multiresidual pesticides.

  14. Summary of microsatellite instability test results from laboratories participating in proficiency surveys: proficiency survey results from 2005 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Theresa A; Bridge, Julia A; Sabatini, Linda M; Nowak, Jan A; Vasalos, Patricia; Jennings, Lawrence J; Halling, Kevin C

    2014-03-01

    The College of American Pathologists surveys are the largest laboratory peer comparison programs in the world. These programs allow laboratories to regularly evaluate their performance and improve the accuracy of the patient test results they provide. Proficiency testing is offered twice a year to laboratories performing microsatellite instability testing. These surveys are designed to emulate clinical practice, and some surveys have more challenging cases to encourage the refinement of laboratory practices. This report summarizes the results and trends in microsatellite instability proficiency testing from participating laboratories from the inception of the program in 2005 through 2012. We compiled and analyzed data for 16 surveys of microsatellite instability proficiency testing during 2005 to 2012. The number of laboratories participating in the microsatellite instability survey has more than doubled from 42 to 104 during the 8 years analyzed. An average of 95.4% of the laboratories correctly classified each of the survey test samples from the 2005A through 2012B proficiency challenges. In the 2011B survey, a lower percentage of laboratories (78.4%) correctly classified the specimen, possibly because of overlooking subtle changes of microsatellite instability and/or failing to enrich the tumor content of the specimen to meet the limit of detection of their assay. In general, laboratories performed well in microsatellite instability testing. This testing will continue to be important in screening patients with colorectal and other cancers for Lynch syndrome and guiding the management of patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

  15. Preparation, characterization and use of a reference material to proficiency testing for determination of metals in fish tissue in natura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Luciana Vieira de

    2013-01-01

    The proficiency tests are widely used to evaluate the analytical capacity of laboratories and also as part of the accreditation process. For this reason, are important tools for the control of the quality of the analytical results obtained in the laboratories that work directly with seafood companies. In Brazil there are no providers of proficiency testing for metals potentially toxic in fish tissues. In this work will be described all steps used for the production of reference materials to be used in a proficiency testing pilot study for As, Cd, Pb and Hg in fish tissue following the recommendations of the ISO Guide 35. He preparation scheme consisted in selecting the individuals, cleaning, grinding, homogenization and fortification with As, Cd and Pb in two concentration levels. The preparation resulted in 164 sachets of 10 g each. In order to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation in the samples conservation 52 sachets were irradiated with 60 Co (10.00 ± 1.05 kGy) in a gamma cell. This material with others non irradiated 52 sachets were used for the homogeneity and stability studies. The remaining 60 were used for the proficiency testing. The results demonstrated that both materials were homogeneous and presented good stability (during a period of 45 days). However, the irradiated material present better integrity, concerning biological degradation, when stored in ambient temperature. For this reason they were used to the proficiency testing pilot program. Ten laboratories participated in the proficiency testing pilot study and the results were evaluated using the following tests: z-score, confidence ellipse and En numbers. This work demonstrates the capability of the laboratory to produce reference materials as well as to organize and conduct proficiency testing. (author)

  16. Uncertainty evaluation in 2008 IAEA proficiency test using phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabiana F.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Geraldo, Bianca; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth M.B.

    2009-01-01

    LAPOC participated in the 2008 IAEA ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) Proficiency Test (PT) for phosphogypsum, which is a NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) derived from phosphate industry, an abundant solid waste of low cost. Its reutilization would avoid environmental impact in large areas where the product is stored. Research involving possible uses for phosphogypsum is ever more important, from economic, technological, and environmental points of view. This paper describes results from this Proficiency Test (measured radionuclides: 234 U, 238 U, 226 Ra, 230 Th, and 210 Pb), as well as a short description of the nuclear analytical techniques emphasizing sources of uncertainty, such as Alpha Spectrometry (Alpha Analyst, Canberra, surface barrier detectors) and Gamma Spectrometry (Canberra, Hyper Pure Germanium Detector with 45 % efficiency). Corrections for decay, reference date, and recovery were applied. As an example, results obtained for 210 Pb through the use of a specific uncertainty calculation software are presented below. Each parameter whose uncertainty is quantified was carefully described, with appropriate numerical value and unit, to determine its partial contribution to the combined total uncertainty. Results from PTs provide independent information on performance of a Laboratory and have an important role in method validation; especially because it allows the assessment of the method performance over an entire range of concentrations and matrices. PTs are an important tool to demonstrate equivalence of measurements, if not their metrological comparability, and to promote education and improvement of Laboratory practice. (author)

  17. Organization of Proficiency Testing for Dairy Laboratories in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia in Order to Improve Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Mikulec

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation in proficiency testing is not only an obligation for all analytical laboratories which tend to be credible, but also an opportunity to check how the results agree with the reference or assign value. The Reference Laboratory for Milk and Dairy Products of the Dairy Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb, is itself incorporated in the proficiency testing organized by dairy laboratories from Germany, Italy, France, Switzerland and Slovenia. The aim is to find out its own accuracy and reliability in particular milk and dairy products analyses. On the basis of seven years experience of participating in proficiency testing, five years ago the Reference Laboratory started organizing its own proficiency testing for dairy laboratories in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia for milk components such as milk fat, protein, lactose and somatic cells count. The results of the analyses have been statistically analyzed and, on the basis of Z-score, the successful measurements have been estimated. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the organisation and data processing of proficiency testing for milk fat, protein, lactose and somatic cells count in milk for the involved dairy laboratories.

  18. Usefulness of a psychology proficiency test to evaluate psychology education : A study at a small psychology college

    OpenAIRE

    田積, 徹; 石原, 俊一; 嶋原, 栄子; 谷口, 麻起子; 新美, 秀和; 炭谷, 将史; 李, 艶; 高橋, 宗; 高橋, 啓子

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to reveal the association between results on a psychology proficiency test (PPT) and academic performance in psychology courses of students studying psychology at a small local college. This study controlled for factors of metacognition and motivation to achieve that are presumably related to results on the PPT. Two scores served as indicators of performance in psychology courses. These scores were calculated for students taking psychology courses, which included those cours...

  19. Performance of IPEN/CNEN-SP Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory for microelement determinations in proficiency testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Souza, Gilberto B. de; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of Neutron Activation Laboratory, IPEN - CNEN/SP, was evaluated for the Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Na and Zn determinations in animal feed samples for ruminants through a proficiency test (PT) program. This PT program is organized by EMBRAPA Cattle Southeast to evaluate laboratories that analyze animal feed samples. Considering the fractions of satisfactory z-scores (%) of evaluated analytes to determine the laboratories performance, the general performance indicator obtained by IPEN - CNEN/SP ranged from 90 to 95% of the satisfactory results during the period of participation in the evaluation, four years. (author)

  20. 42 CFR 493.901 - Approval of proficiency testing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Distribute the samples, using rigorous quality control to assure that samples mimic actual patient specimens... gynecologic cytology and on individual laboratory performance on testing events, cumulative reports and scores...

  1. Self-Assessment, Preparation and Response Time on a Computerized Oral Proficiency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Carpenter, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Two studies investigated technical aspects of a computer-mediated test, the Computerized Oral Proficiency Instrument (COPI), particularly in contrast to a similar tape-mediated test, the Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI). The first study investigated how examinees used self-assessment to choose an appropriate starting level on the COPI.…

  2. The Unified Language Testing Plan: Speaking Proficiency Test. Spanish and English Pilot Validation Studies. Report Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Julie A.

    This report describes one segment of the Federal Language Testing Board's Unified Language Testing Plan (ULTP), the validation of speaking proficiency tests in Spanish and English. The ULTP is a project to increase standardization of foreign language proficiency measurement and promote sharing of resources among testing programs in the federal…

  3. Results of the Proficiency Test, PT1 and PT2, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Christophersen, Maj-Britt

    A comparative test of diagnostic procedures was provided by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Fish Diseases. The test was divided into proficiency test 1 (PT1) and proficiency test 2 (PT2). The number of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) participating in PT1 and PT2 was 43. ....... The tests were sent from the EURL in the beginning of September 2012. Both PT1 and PT2 are accredited by DANAK under registration number 515 for proficiency testing according to the quality assurance standard DS/EN ISO/IEC 17043....

  4. Proficiency testing for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria diagnosis in clinical laboratories in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onubogu, Catherine C.; Okoye, Rosemary N.; Nwokoye, Nkiru N.; Onwuamah, Chika K.; Musa, Adesola Z.; Raheem, Toyosi Y.; Aniedobe, Maureen N.; Nduaga, Samuel J.; Essien, Ini-Obong; Idigbe, Emmanuel O.

    2014-01-01

    Background Proficiency testing (PT) is a means of verifying the reliability of laboratory results, but such programmes are not readily available to laboratories in developing countries. This project provided PT to laboratories in Nigeria. Objectives To assess the proficiency of laboratories in the diagnosis of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Methods This was a prospective study carried out between 2009 and 2011. A structured questionnaire was administered to 106 randomly-selected laboratories. Forty-four indicated their interest in participation and were enrolled. Four rounds of pre-characterised plasma panels for HIV, sputum films for tuberculosis and blood films for malaria were distributed quarterly by courier over the course of one year. The results were returned within two weeks and scores of ≥ 80% were reported as satisfactory. Mentoring was offered after the first and second PT rounds. Results Average HIV PT scores increased from 74% to 95% from the first round to the third round, but decreased in the fourth round. For diagnosis of tuberculosis, average scores increased from 42% in the first round to 78% in the second round; but a decrease to 34% was observed in the fourth round. Malaria PT performance was 2% at first, but average scores increased between the second and fourth rounds, culminating in a fourth-round score of 39%. Many participants requested training and mentoring. Conclusions There were gross deficiencies in the quality of laboratory services rendered across Nigeria. In-country PT programmes, implemented in conjunction with mentoring, will improve coverage and diagnosis of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. PMID:29043176

  5. The application of data from proficiency testing to laboratory accreditation according to ISO 17025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    Current methods of testing laboratories for their proficiency in reporting correct measurement results are liable to substantial errors of the 2nd kind. This means that laboratories with deflated uncertainties are accepted as proficient, even though their reported measurement results pave the way...

  6. Generalization of the Lord-Wingersky Algorithm to Computing the Distribution of Summed Test Scores Based on Real-Number Item Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghoon

    2013-01-01

    With known item response theory (IRT) item parameters, Lord and Wingersky provided a recursive algorithm for computing the conditional frequency distribution of number-correct test scores, given proficiency. This article presents a generalized algorithm for computing the conditional distribution of summed test scores involving real-number item…

  7. Approaches to Learning and Hispanic Children's Math Scores: The Moderating Role of English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgarner, Erin; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that children's approaches to learning (ATL) at kindergarten entry predict their academic achievement years later. However, the gains associated with ATL may be diminished for Hispanic immigrant children, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). We tested whether ATL predicted math scores in a sample of…

  8. Ebola Preparedness: Diagnosis Improvement Using Rapid Approaches for Proficiency Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine A; Theis, Torsten; Gray, Joanna; Rawlinson, William D

    2017-03-01

    The unprecedented 2015 Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa was declared a public health emergency, making diagnosis and quality of testing a global issue. The accuracy of laboratory diagnostic capacity for EBOV was assessed in 2014 to 2016 using a proficiency testing (PT) strategy developed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs (RCPAQAP) in Biosecurity. Following a literature search, EBOV-specific gene targets were ranked according to the frequency of their use in published methods. The most commonly used gene regions (nucleoprotein [NP], glycoprotein [GP], and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [L]) were selected for the design of in vitro RNA transcripts to be included in the simulated EBOV specimens used for EBOV detection with PCR-based assays. Specimens were tested for stability and found to be stable on long-term storage (1 year) at -80°C and on shorter-term storage in lyophilized form (1 week at ambient temperature and a subsequent week at -80°C). These specimens were used in three EBOV PTs offered from April 2014 to March 2016. In the first and third PTs, all laboratories (3/3 and 9/9, respectively) correctly identified specimens containing EBOV RNA transcripts, while in the second PT, all but one laboratory (5/6) correctly confirmed the presence of EBOV. The EBOV PT panel was useful for ensuring the competency of laboratories in detecting EBOV in the absence of readily available clinical samples. The simulated EBOV specimen was safe, stable, and reliable and can be used in lyophilized form for future EBOV PT programs, allowing simplicity of transport. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Analytical quality control of neutron activation analysis by interlaboratory comparison and proficiency test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Jeong, Y. S.

    2002-01-01

    Two air filters (V-50, P-50) artificially loaded with urban dust were provided from IAEA and trace elements to study inter-laboratory comparison and proficiency test were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis non-destructively. Standard reference material(Urban Particulate Matter, NIST SRM 1648) of National Institute of Standard and Technology was used for internal analytical quality control. About 20 elements in each loaded filter sample were determined, respectively. Our analytical data were compared with statistical results using neutron activation analysis, particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, etc., which were collected from 49 laboratories of 40 countries. From the results that were statistically re-treated with reported values, Z-scores of our analytical values are within ±2. In addition, the results of proficiency test are passed and accuracy and precision of the analytical values are reliable. Consequently, it was proved that analytical quality control for the analysis of air dust samples is reasonable

  10. Computer Proficiency for Online Learning: Factorial Invariance of Scores among Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Amy L.; Reeves, Todd D.; Smith, Thomas J.; Walker, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Online learning is variously employed in K-12 education, including for teacher professional development. However, the use of computer-based technologies for learning purposes assumes learner computer proficiency, making this construct an important domain of procedural knowledge in formal and informal online learning contexts. Addressing this…

  11. Using a composite morbidity score and cultural survey to explore characteristics of high proficiency neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaempf, Joseph W; Wang, Lian; Dunn, Michael

    2018-01-03

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) collaboration has not eliminated the morbidity variability seen among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Factors other than inconstant application of potentially better practices (PBPs) might explain divergent proficiency. Measure a composite morbidity score and determine whether cultural, environmental and cognitive factors distinguish high proficiency from lower proficiency NICUs. Retrospective analysis using a risk-adjusted composite morbidity score (Benefit Metric) and cultural survey focusing on very low birth weight (VLBW) infants from 39 NICUs, years 2000-2014. The Benefit Metric and yearly variance from the group mean was rank-ordered by NICU. A comprehensive survey was completed by each NICU exploring whether morbidity variance correlated with CQI methodology, cultural, environmental and/or cognitive characteristics. 58 272 VLBW infants were included, mean (SD) age 28.2 (3.0) weeks, birth weight 1031 (301) g. The 39 NICU groups' Benefit Metric improved 40%, from 80 in 2000 to 112 in 2014 (Pexpectations of providers, enhanced learning opportunities, knowledge of CQI fundamentals and more generous staffing. Cultural, environmental and cognitive characteristics vary among NICUs perhaps more than traditional CQI methodology and PBPs, possibly explaining the inconstancy of VLBW infant morbidity reduction efforts. High proficiency NICUs foster spirited team work and camaraderie, sustained learning opportunities and support of favourable staffing that allows problem solving and widespread involvement in CQI activities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Proficiency testing of skin prick testers as part of a quality assurance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Allesen-Holm, Pernille; Karved, Lisbeth Sys

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test is an important diagnostic procedure in clinical allergy but documentation of the quality is often missing. METHODS: We describe a proficiency system to evaluate staff members in relation to the international recommended reproducibility in terms of coefficient...... of variation (CV 0.85) based on blinded octuplicate histamine testing using histamine 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/ml. RESULTS: Fourteen trained allergy nurses participated in the proficiency testing. More than 95 % of the nurses, generated coefficient of variation...

  13. Five year results of an international proficiency testing programme for measurement of antifungal drug concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lempers, V.J.C.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Touw, D.J.; Burger, D.M.; Uges, D.R.A.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Brüggemann, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since 2007 the Dutch Association for Quality Assessment in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (KKGT) has organized an international interlaboratory proficiency testing (PT) programme for measurement of antifungal drugs in plasma. We describe the 5 year results of the laboratories' performance.

  14. TEST OF ENGLISH FOR AVIATION PERSONNEL TO MEET ICAO LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Petrashchuk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  The article is devoted to the actual problem of the assessment of English language proficiency of aviation personnel. The paper presents an English language test, which is used for professional pilots and air traffic controllers.

  15. Toward an English Proficiency Test for Postgraduates in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidatul Akmar Zainal Abidin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is fast becoming a major attraction for candidates from all over the world to pursue their higher education. Currently students (local and international who pursue postgraduate (hereafter, PG education in Malaysia use the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL or International English Language Testing System (IELTS scores as indicators of their English ability. These are tests from the United States and the United Kingdom, respectively, tailor-made for university education in those countries. Recent literature in testing and evaluation describes the need for more localized tests, developed for the “local” context of a particular country. Thus, the need for a test that could be utilized and customized to the needs of the students studying in Malaysia is foreseeable. This is in line with the concept of test localization. It stipulates that for a test to be valid, its design and development must take into consideration the population, context, and the domain in which the test is used. A project was undertaken where a new English test named Graduate Admission Test of English (GATE was developed for PG admission into universities in Malaysia. This article describes the process of developing a new test that measures English language competency of PG students who intend to pursue their studies in Malaysia. It includes the use of a test specification/blueprint that contains validity elements adopted from a test validation framework developed by Weir. The article emphasizes the rigor of developing such a test, which includes aspects of test development, operation, analysis, and validation.

  16. The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

  17. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  18. IELTS as a Literacy-Based Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Purwanto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory case study aimed at investigating whether or not International English Language Testing Systems (IELTS scores correspond with literacy levels. During the 2011-2012 academic year, 20 first semester students in the English Literature Program in the Faculty of Language and Cultural Studies (Fakultas Bahasa dan Ilmu Budaya at Universitas Stikubank (UNISBANK were randomly selected to take the IELTS. Results were matched against predetermined criteria for literacy levels (Hammond, et al. 1992 in order to classify them into the appropriate levels of literacy. Findings indicate that all students (100 percent were at the performative level of literacy with respect to their overall IELTS scores. Only 25 percent of the students on the speaking subtest and 20 percent of the students on the reading subtest managed to test at the functional level. It is therefore recommended that action research be conducted in Central Java level to upgrade the level of literacy from the performative level up to the informative level. As well, similar research may be conducted with a multi-disciplinary approach employing a correlational study between IELTS band scores with literacy levels.

  19. Proficiency test Plant 6 - determination of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn in dry mushroom powder (Suillus bovinus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Dudek, J.; Chajduk, E.; Sypula, M.; Sadowska-Bratek, M.

    2006-01-01

    Proficiency testing scheme PLANT 6: Determination of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn in dry mushroom powder (Suillus bovinus) has been described. The proficiency test has been provided by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw) with cooperation with POLLAB-CHEM/EURACHEM-PL and REFMAT Society. Wild mushrooms were collected in the forest in north-west Poland, cleaned, i.e. dust, soil and attached mosses were removed. Mushrooms were cut into smaller parts and air dried in a dryer. Dried mushrooms were milled in a centrifugal mill and sieved. Particles of fraction below 1 mm diameter were collected. Analytical samples of 20 g mass were prepared. The material were then characterized by homogeneity testing and determination of assigned values for concentration of elements in question. The testing samples were sent to the laboratories participating in the proficiency test. The results supplied by the participants were statistically evaluated and the calculated values of z-score and En numbers were used for the evaluation of the participating laboratory competency. (author)

  20. Summary of Score Changes (in other Tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, T. Anne; McCandless, Sam A.

    Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores have declined during the last 14 years. Similar score declines have been observed in many different testing programs, many groups, and tested areas. The declines, while not large in any given year, have been consistent over time, area, and group. The period around 1965 is critical for the interpretation of…

  1. Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL[R] Internet-Based and Paper-Based Tests. January 2008-December 2008 Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Testing Service, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM], better known as TOEFL[R], is designed to measure the English-language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 130 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and…

  2. Participation on official proficiency test of the OPCW: case study of Brazilian Army – IDQBRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T. C.; Ferreira, C. N.; Cardozo, M.; de Paula, R. L.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, Brazil has been the scene of international events, gaining worldwide repercussion. However, this increases the risk of terrorist attacks using chemical warfare agents. It brings the need to achieve proficiency to do a quick and unequivocal identification of these dangerous compounds. Thinking about it, the Laboratory of Chemical Analyzes (LAQ) of Brazilian Army has participated since the end of 2010 in the interlaboratory tests promoted by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). In this article, we discuss about the participation of LAQ in the 40th OPCW Proficiency Test, one more step in the way to become a laboratory designated by OPCW and an international reference.

  3. Indiana Teachers' Perspectives on Testing Accommodations for Limited English Proficient Students Taking the Graduation Qualifying Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetler, Angela Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines teachers' perspectives on testing accommodations for Limited English Proficient (LEP) students taking Indiana's Graduation Qualifying Exam (GQE). The Indiana Department of Education (IDOE) states that the purpose of testing accommodations is to "level the playing field" between LEP students and their…

  4. Results of the Proficiency Test, PT1 and PT2, 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahns, Søren; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Christophersen, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    A comparative test of diagnostic procedures was provided by the EU Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Fish Diseases to 41 National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) in the start of middle of October 2011. The test was prepared and tested according to protocols accredited by DANAK under registration numb...... 515 to proficiency testing according to the quality assurance standard DS/EN ISO/IEC 17043. The test consisted of 2 tests: PT1 and PT2....

  5. Proficiency testing in the light of a new rationale in metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The novel proposed definition of measurement result in the international metrology vocabulary requires a revision of standards and guidelines for proficiency testing (PT), and a new approach to processing proficiency data is needed to test the ability of laboratories to present not only unbiased...... quantity values, but reliable estimates of their uncertainty. Hence, an accepted reference value with the smallest possible uncertainty is needed to ascertain the proficiency of laboratories reporting results with lower than average uncertainty. A strategy based on the T-statistic is proposed leading...... to an accepted reference value that fully reflects the uncertainties reported by participants in a PT scheme and permits calculation of En-numbers to distinguish whether or not measurement results are consistent with the accepted definition of the measurand. The strategy is applied to PT data from a recent...

  6. Interpreting the Relationships between TOEFL iBT Scores and GPA: Language Proficiency, Policy, and Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, April; Yan, Xun

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the predictive validity of the TOEFL iBT with respect to academic achievement as measured by the first-year grade point average (GPA) of Chinese students at Purdue University, a large, public, Research I institution in Indiana, USA. Correlations between GPA, TOEFL iBT total and subsection scores were examined on 1990 mainland…

  7. Procedures and reasoning for skill proficiency testing in physical education teacher education programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Baghurst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine how the testing of skill proficiency is being conducted in physical education teacher education (PETE programs in the USA and how fitness or skill proficiencies, as attributes of a physical educator, are perceived. Participants were 312 college PETE program coordinators who completed an online survey about skill testing in their program. The eligible respondents yielded a 52.7% total response rate. Most participants believed that skill proficiency for PETE students was important, but only 46% of programs reported testing within their program. Many participants stated it was possible for their students to graduate without demonstrating proficiency in skill technique, yet were confident their students would pass an independent skill test. Only 46.2% of respondents indicated their students needed to demonstrate proper skill technique in order to graduate, and there was no consistent method of assessment. Responses were evenly split regarding the importance of a physical educator being able to demonstrate proper skill technique or be physically fit. The lack of skill testing in programs, combined with the variation in assessment, is concerning, and the development of a standardized skill-based test may provide more rigor to this important area of teacher credibility and effectiveness.

  8. English Language Proficiency Tests and Academic Achievement: A Study on the Malaysian University English Test as a Predictor of Technical Programme Undergraduates Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhazlini Rahmat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role.  MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to examine the relationship between English language proficiency test (as measured by MUET bands to predict the undergraduates academic achievement (as measured by Cumulative Grade Point Average score. It also aims to determine the recommended MUET band as an entry requirement for prospective technical programme undergraduates in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM. The study was carried out among 225 final year undergraduates of five different faculties in UPM, namely Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.  The data used were obtained by administering a brief questionnaire and were quantitatively analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 19.  The study revealed that there is a medium positive correlation between English language proficiency and academic achievement where students who have scored higher bands for MUET are the ones who obtained higher CGPA in their study. Based on the findings, it is recommended that UPM and other local universities make changes towards the minimum MUET entry requirement to help prospective undergraduates excel in their academic study. Keywords: English language proficiency, academic achievement, technical programme, MUET, CGPA

  9. Proficiency testing schemes as a quality rating in industrial hygiene laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Dobecki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication presents the principles of organization, implementation, assessment and exploitation of proficiency testing results in the work environmental laboratory based on basic requirements included in standard PN-EN ISO/IEC 17043 and ISO 13528. The basis for the proper functioning of the laboratory is to use and observe the basic requirements for the competence to carry out the tests and the guidelines on ensuring reliable and accurate results, specified e.g., according to the guidelines described in the standard PN-EN ISO/IEC 17043. The confirmation of the laboratory competence is the obtained accreditation. To obtain this certificate several conditions, including proficiency testing (PT should be met. The main aspects of this paper is to show the role of proficiency testing in the process of assuring a properly functioning quality system in the laboratory. The accreditation requirements, the types of proficiency testing schemes, methods of statistical analysis and interpretation of results are also discussed by the authors. Med Pr 2016;67(2:267–283

  10. The accreditation programs and proficiency test in Taiwan for personnel dosimeter services (1991-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.T.; Hwang, W.S.; Su, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    According to the ionizing radiation safety regulation approved by the ROC Atomic Energy Council (AEC), personnel dosimeter processors shall be accredited by the Chinese National Laboratory Accreditation (CNLA) program before offering dosimeter services and shall be accredited every two years (now has been rescheduled to be every three years since 1996). The aim of this program is to secure quality and technical capability of personnel dosimeters, and to provide systematic improvement for the internal calibration and testing laboratory applying for accreditation by means of assessment procedures. The criteria used to evaluate the capability at laboratories are ISO/IEC 25 (1990) and technical guide in different accreditation fields. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) was entrusted by CNLA as the central laboratory to perform the proficiency test of personnel dosimeters for laboratory accreditation in December 1990. Such proficiency tests, based on ANSI N13.11 (1983), which is mainly separated to accident categories and protection categories which consists of eight parts of tests including single and mixture radiation of x-ray, gamma, beta and neutron, have been conducted four times, in 1991, 1993, 1995 and 1998. This paper deals with the test procedures and results of proficiency tests of personnel dosimeters from 1991 until 1998. The results of the four proficiency tests showed that, for accident categories, the pass rate is about 91%; for protection categories, the pass rate is about 98%. Meanwhile, the central laboratory will adopt a new version of HPS N13.11 (1993) to replace ANSI N13.11 (1983) as new criteria for the next proficiency test to be conducted in 2001. (author)

  11. What Do Test Scores Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; McIntosh, James

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores...... of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture and possible incentive problems make it more di¢ cult to understand what the tests measure....

  12. CIEMAT interlaboratories comparison of the results obtained in the proficiency test run by IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E.

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs

  13. An overview of South Africa's first proficiency testing scheme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    either looking at selected organic contaminants listed in the World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water guidelines or .... Group 1: metals testing (Al, As, Ba, Be, B, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, ... tests: nitrite, chromium VI, chlorine, chloramine, bromate,.

  14. The Impact of Gender in Oral Proficiency Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Kieran

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of gender in speaking tests and suggests that in oral interviews it is possible that both interviewing and rating may be highly gendered processes. Audiotaped female and male test-takers who undertook practice IELTS interviews, one with a female interviewer and once with a male interviewer. Results from discourse and test score…

  15. What do educational test scores really measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55 and tested in 1968. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. The bulk of unobservable effects are uncorrelate......, and possible incentive problems make it more difficult to elicit true values of what the tests measure....

  16. Use of Proficiency Testing as a Tool to Improve Quality in Microbiology Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Stang, Heather L.; Anderson, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Proficiency testing (PT) is a valuable tool for assessing laboratory performance and verifying the accuracy and reliability of test results. Participation is required by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988 for each of the microbiology subspecialties (bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology, and virology), and the regulations include specific PT requirements for each subspecialty. To determine the use and perceived value of PT beyond meeting CLIA requir...

  17. Motor proficiency in normal children and with learning difficulty: a comparative and correlational study based on the motor proficiency test of Bruininks-Oseretsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Roberto Moreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to verify the difference between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities through motor proficiency test of Bruininks and Ozeretsky (1978. The sample was constituted by 30 children, with 8-year average age, 15 males and 15 females, subdivided into two groups of 15 children from both sexes: children without learning disabilities attending 3rd grade and children with learning disabilities attending 2nd grade having failed a term once. All of them came from a middle class background, according to Grafar scale (adapted by Fonseca, 1991. All children presenting any other disabilities were excluded from the sample. Intelligence factor “G” was controlled by using a percentile, higher or equal to 50 (middle and high level, measured by Raven’s (1974 progressive combinations test. In motor proficiency, children with learning disabilities showed significant differences when compared with normal children of the same age, in all components of global, composed and fine motricity. The tests administered showed a strong correlation between the variables of the motor proficiency components. The results lead to the conclusion that there were significant differences in motor proficiency between normal children and children with learning disabilities, who showed specific motor difficulties evincing a more vulnerable motor profile and not the presence of neurological dysfunction signs.

  18. IAEA-RML-2014-01 Proficiency Test for Determination of Radionuclides in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) has been providing quality support products and services for the past 50 years. These include the organization of proficiency tests and laboratory comparisons, and the production of certified reference materials, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide levels. As part of these activities, a proficiency test was organized at the request of the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) of Japan to test the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in a seawater sample. This exercise was initiated to support laboratories in seawater analyses of tritium, strontium-90 and caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment

  19. IAEA-RML-2012-01 Proficiency Test for Determination of Radionuclides in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) has been providing quality support products and services for the past 50 years. These include the organization of proficiency tests and laboratory comparisons, and the production of certified reference materials, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide levels. As part of these activities, a new proficiency test was organized in the framework of the technical cooperation project entitled Marine Benchmark Study on the Possible Impact of the Fukushima Radioactive Releases in the Asia-Pacific Region, to test the performance of participating laboratories in the analysis of radionuclides in a seawater sample. This exercise was initiated to support Member States in seawater analyses of caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment

  20. IAEA-RML-2013-01 Proficiency Test for Determination of Radionuclides in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) has been providing quality support products and services for the past 50 years. These include the organization of proficiency tests and laboratory comparisons, and the production of certified reference materials, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide levels. As part of these activities, a second proficiency test was organized in the framework of the technical cooperation project entitled Marine Benchmark Study on the Possible Impact of the Fukushima Radioactive Releases in the Asia-Pacific Region, to test the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in a seawater sample. This exercise was initiated to support Member States in seawater analyses of strontium-90 and caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment

  1. IAEA-RML-2014-02 Proficiency Test for Determination of Radionuclides in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) has been providing quality support products and services for the past 50 years. These include the organization of proficiency tests and laboratory comparisons, and the production of certified reference materials, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide levels. As part of these activities, a third proficiency test was organized in the framework of the technical cooperation project entitled Marine Benchmark Study on the Possible Impact of the Fukushima Radioactive Releases in the Asia-Pacific Region, to test the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in a seawater sample. This exercise was initiated to support Member States in seawater analyses of tritium, strontium-90 and caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment

  2. The added value of proficiency tests: choosing the proper method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, den A.P.M.; Berg, van den W.

    2013-01-01

    To gain insight into the different extraction processes used in laboratories in various European countries and the effect these methods might have on the number of Meloidogyne second-stage juveniles (J2) extracted from soil samples, a ring test with 2 elements was conducted. The first element used

  3. Proficiency Test Program Involvement as a Tool for External Quality Control for Radiochemistry and Environmental Laboratory, Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurrul Assyikeen Mohd Jaffary; Wo, Y.M.; Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Noor Fadzilah Yusof; Jalal Sharib

    2016-01-01

    As the only Laboratory in Malaysia under the IAEA Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) Network, the Radiochemistry and Environmental Laboratory (RAS), Malaysian Nuclear Agency participates in the proficiency test programmes organised by ALMERA to achieve mutual acceptance of analytical data. The ALMERA has been providing quality support of proficiency tests using sets of different samples matrices and radionuclide levels typically encountered in environmental and food monitoring laboratories. The involvement of RAS laboratory in the IAEA proficiency tests gives opportunity to improve the laboratory capability and personnel skills in the field of radioactivity testing. (author)

  4. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Tsui; Xiao Y. Xu; Edmond Venator

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress womens scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: ...

  5. Final report on the proficiency test on the determination of total arsenic concentration in water TC Project BGD/08/018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Trinkl, A.; Rossbach, M.; Benesch, T.; Campbell, M.; Sansone, U.; Will, K.; Schorn, R.; Toervenyi, A.

    2005-02-01

    A proficiency test on the determination of arsenic in drinking water was organised within the frame of the TC project BGD/8/018 to evaluate the analytical performance of laboratories in Bangladesh. This report summarises the performance evaluation of the participating laboratories. Analytical data evaluation showed that 61% of data obtained a 'Passed' final score for both the accuracy and precision criteria applied to this exercise. (author)

  6. Comparing technical proficiency of elite table tennis players with intellectual disability: simulation testing versus game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Mactavish, Jennifer J; Vanlandewijck, Yves C

    2014-04-01

    Technical skill proficiency among elite table tennis players with intellectual disabilities (ID) was investigated in this study using two approaches: an off-court simulation testing protocol and an on-court, standardized observational framework during game play. Participants included 24 players with ID (M age = 25 yr., SD = 6; M IQ = 61, SD = 9), the top 16 performers, 13 men and 11 women, at the International Federation for sport for para-athletes with an intellectual disability (Inas) World Championships. Self-reported table tennis training experience of the players was 13 +/- 5 yr. In the Simulation Testing condition, players were instructed to play five sets of basic and five sets of advanced skills, which were subsequently assessed by experts using a standardized and validated observational protocol. The same protocol was used to assess the same skills during Game Play. Ratings of overall technical proficiency were not significantly different between Simulation Testing and Game Play conditions. There was a strong positive correlation between technical proficiency measured during Game Play vs Simulation Testing for the variables flick, topspin forehand, and topspin backhand. No correlations were found for the variables contra, block, and push. Insight into this relationship is important for future development of classification systems for ID athletes in the Paralympic Games, because comparing competition observation with the athlete's potential shown during the classification session is essential information for classifiers to confirm the athlete's competition class.

  7. Exploring a Source of Uneven Score Equity across the Test Score Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne; Qiu, Yuxi; Penfield, Randall D.

    2018-01-01

    Score equity assessment (SEA) refers to an examination of population invariance of equating across two or more subpopulations of test examinees. Previous SEA studies have shown that score equity may be present for examinees scoring at particular test score ranges but absent for examinees scoring at other score ranges. No studies to date have…

  8. Neutron activation analysis method - international ring test for proficiency assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbos, D.; Bucsa, A. F.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this test is to assess the quality control of analytical procedures for soils and plants which is of utmost importance to produce reliable and reproducible analytical data. For this purpose first, second, and third line quality control measures are taken in analytical laboratories. For first line control certified reference materials (CRM's) are preferred. However, the number and matrix variation in CRM's for environmental analytical research is still very limited. For second line control internal reference samples are often used, but again here the values for many element and parameter concentrations are questionable since almost no check versus CRM's is possible. For third line control participation in laboratory-evaluating exchange programs is recommended. This article contains the results achieved by our neutron activation analysis laboratory after irradiation experiment of soil and vegetation samples in TRIGA Reactor. All the samples were irradiated in the same location of the reactor in roughly similar conditions. (authors)

  9. Determination of Natural Levels of Radionuclides in Proposed Mushroom Reference Material (A Proficiency Test Exercise)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, A.; Siddique, N.; Ahmad, S.; Zaidi, J.H.

    2006-08-01

    A proficiency test (PT) was organized within the framework of international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project INT/1/054, entitled 'Preparation' of Reference Materials and Organization of Proficiency Test Rounds'. This exercise served to estimate the proficiency of the analytical laboratories from participating countries. This report presents the results of the proficiency test exercise on the proposed Mushroom Reference Material for the determination of natural levels of radionuclides. Laboratories from 6 different countries submitted data on the following three radionuclides: /sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K. Results for /sup 134/Cs, 137/sup 137/Cs, and /sup 40/K in the mushroom reference material were reported by three or more participating laboratories and could be subjected to statistical evaluation. The original data of these raionuclides was subjected to a computer program 'Histo Vession 2.1' provided by IAEA. The four outlier tests i.e. Dixon, Grubbs, Skewness and Kurtosis were applied to the data sets. All values for these three radionuclides were accepted by the software. Consensus (overall) mean value, absolute standard deviation, relative standard deviation, standard error, median and range of values for these three radionuclides have been are obtained (at significance level 0.05). the consensus mean values and confidence intervals are given./sup 134/Cs: 4.4 Bq/kg (3.4-5.3 Bq/kg) /sup 137/Cs: 2899 Bq/kg (2740-3058 Bq/kg) /sup 40/K: 1136 Bq/kg (1046-1226 Bq/kg). (author)

  10. Development of reference material for proficiency tests: arsenic in fish tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Luciana Vieira de; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Ulrich, Joao C.; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Proficiency tests (PT) are extensively used to evaluate the analytical competence of laboratories, and are also used as a part of accreditation processes. For this reason are important tool for quality control of laboratories including laboratories that act directly with food exporting companies. In Brazil there are no providers of proficiency testing for toxic metals, such as arsenic in fish tissue. This study presents a protocol to produce reference material to be used in proficiency test for arsenic in fish tissue following the recommendations of the ISO Guide 35. The preparation scheme consisted of: selecting of individuals, cleaning of scale and skin, trituration, homogenization, and spiking with arsenic at two levels of concentration. The mixture was then irradiated in a cyclotron Cyclone 30 Applications ion beam with cobalt 60 at 10.00 ± 1.05 KGy, before being packed into sachets. To verify the efficacy of the irradiation procedure, 26 (randomly selected) irradiated sachets and 26 non-irradiated sachets were assessed for homogeneity and stability. The results indicate that irradiation with cobalt 60 is crucial for ensuring the preservation of the integrity of the material, providing stable material at room temperature for 2 months. The samples can therefore be transported at room temperature. (author)

  11. Development of reference material for proficiency tests: arsenic in fish tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Luciana Vieira de; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Ulrich, Joao C.; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio, E-mail: santana-luciana@ig.com.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br, E-mail: jculrich@ipen.br, E-mail: mahortel@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Proficiency tests (PT) are extensively used to evaluate the analytical competence of laboratories, and are also used as a part of accreditation processes. For this reason are important tool for quality control of laboratories including laboratories that act directly with food exporting companies. In Brazil there are no providers of proficiency testing for toxic metals, such as arsenic in fish tissue. This study presents a protocol to produce reference material to be used in proficiency test for arsenic in fish tissue following the recommendations of the ISO Guide 35. The preparation scheme consisted of: selecting of individuals, cleaning of scale and skin, trituration, homogenization, and spiking with arsenic at two levels of concentration. The mixture was then irradiated in a cyclotron Cyclone 30 Applications ion beam with cobalt 60 at 10.00 ± 1.05 KGy, before being packed into sachets. To verify the efficacy of the irradiation procedure, 26 (randomly selected) irradiated sachets and 26 non-irradiated sachets were assessed for homogeneity and stability. The results indicate that irradiation with cobalt 60 is crucial for ensuring the preservation of the integrity of the material, providing stable material at room temperature for 2 months. The samples can therefore be transported at room temperature. (author)

  12. Proficiency testing as a basis for estimating uncertainty of measurement: application to forensic alcohol and toxicology quantitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jack

    2010-05-01

    While forensic laboratories will soon be required to estimate uncertainties of measurement for those quantitations reported to the end users of the information, the procedures for estimating this have been little discussed in the forensic literature. This article illustrates how proficiency test results provide the basis for estimating uncertainties in three instances: (i) For breath alcohol analyzers the interlaboratory precision is taken as a direct measure of uncertainty. This approach applies when the number of proficiency tests is small. (ii) For blood alcohol, the uncertainty is calculated from the differences between the laboratory's proficiency testing results and the mean quantitations determined by the participants; this approach applies when the laboratory has participated in a large number of tests. (iii) For toxicology, either of these approaches is useful for estimating comparability between laboratories, but not for estimating absolute accuracy. It is seen that data from proficiency tests enable estimates of uncertainty that are empirical, simple, thorough, and applicable to a wide range of concentrations.

  13. Final report on the proficiency test of the Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Radecki, Z.; Trinkl, A.; Sansone, U.; Benesch, T.

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the statistical evaluation of results from the analysis of 12 radionuclides in 8 samples within the frame of the First Proficiency Test of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement Environmental RAdioactivity (ALMERA) organized in 2001-2002 by the Chemistry Unit, Agency's Laboratory in Seibersdorf. The results were evaluated by using appropriate statistical means to assess laboratory analytical performance and to estimate the overall performance for the determination of each radionuclide. Evaluation of the analytical data for gamma emitting radionuclides showed that 68% of data obtained a 'Passed' final score for both the trueness and precision criteria applied to this exercise. However, transuranic radionuclides obtained only 58% for the same criteria. (author)

  14. How much does language proficiency by non-native listeners influence speech audiometric tests in noise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzybok, Anna; Brand, Thomas; Wagener, Kirsten C; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the extent to which the linguistic complexity of three commonly employed speech recognition tests and second language proficiency influence speech recognition thresholds (SRTs) in noise in non-native listeners. SRTs were measured for non-natives and natives using three German speech recognition tests: the digit triplet test (DTT), the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA), and the Göttingen sentence test (GÖSA). Sixty-four non-native and eight native listeners participated. Non-natives can show native-like SRTs in noise only for the linguistically easy speech material (DTT). Furthermore, the limitation of phonemic-acoustical cues in digit triplets affects speech recognition to the same extent in non-natives and natives. For more complex and less familiar speech materials, non-natives, ranging from basic to advanced proficiency in German, require on average 3-dB better signal-to-noise ratio for the OLSA and 6-dB for the GÖSA to obtain 50% speech recognition compared to native listeners. In clinical audiology, SRT measurements with a closed-set speech test (i.e. DTT for screening or OLSA test for clinical purposes) should be used with non-native listeners rather than open-set speech tests (such as the GÖSA or HINT), especially if a closed-set version in the patient's own native language is available.

  15. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  16. Almera Proficiency Test Determination of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Phosphogypsum and Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is generated as a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry. The discharge of phosphogypsum on earth surface deposits is a potential source of enhanced natural radiation and heavy metals, and the resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. A reliable determination of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with the radiation protection and environmental regulations. This proficiency test (PT) is one of the series of the ALMERA network proficiency tests organised on a regular basis by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory. These proficiency tests are designed to identify analytical problems, to support Member States laboratories to maintain their preparedness and to provide rapid and reliable analytical results. In this PT, the test item set consisted of six samples: one phosphogypsum (the IAEA-434 reference material) and five water samples spiked with natural radionuclides. The main task of the participating laboratories was to identify and quantify the activity levels of radionuclides present in these matrices. The tasks of IAEA were to prepare and distribute the samples to the participating laboratories, to collect and interpret analysis results and to compile a comprehensive report. The certified massic activity values of all radionuclides used in this PT were fulfilling the requirements of metrological traceability to international standards of radioactivity. In this PT, 306 test items (reference materials) were prepared and distributed to 52 participants from 40 countries in November 2008. The deadline for receiving the results from the participants was set to15 May 2009. For gross alpha/beta results the deadline was one working day from the date of sample delivery. The participating laboratories were requested to analyse Ra-226, U-234 and U-238 in water

  17. Proficiency tests for evaluation of the 99Tcm measurements in the nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Nicoli, Ieda Gomes; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    This work performs the performance evaluation of 55 Brazilian nuclear medicine services in activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical containing 99 Tc m . Proficiency tests based on the acceptance criteria of the Regulation ISO/IEC Guide 43-1 and on the accuracy of the brazilian Regulation CNEN-NN-3.05 were applied in 63 results of activity measurements in radionuclide calibrators used by those services. The performance services has shown that the criteria of the ISO/IEC 43-1, nevertheless to be more restrictive, presents results very consistent with the accuracy criteria requested by the Brazilian regulation

  18. Proficiency testing criteria for clearance level in solid waste gamma measurement in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Wang, Jeng-Jong; Chiu, Huang-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee the measurement quality for clearance level in solid waste material, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) established the criteria for proficiency testing of clearance level measurement. INER and the Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF) organized the Technique Committee Meeting twice to discuss these criteria in 2011. The participating laboratories must completely conform to the ISO/IEC 17025, and they also must meet the requirements of the criteria. According to the criteria, the participating laboratories analyzed the minimum detectable amount (MDA) and that should be less than 20% of the clearance level (AMDA) given in the Atomic Energy Council's (AEC) “Regulations on Clearance Level for Radioactive Waste Management”. The testing results should conform to the deviation and traceability requirements. - Highlights: • The participating laboratories must completely conform to the ISO/IEC 17025 • The proficiency testing items were basically in two categories, box and barrel types • Analyzed the MDA and that should be less than 20% of the release level given in the AEC. • The are three limitations: MDA< AMDA, -0.25< Bi<+0.5, and En≤1.0 and uncertainty<20%

  19. IAEA-RML-2015-01 Proficiency Test for Determination of Radionuclides in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories has provided quality support services and products to laboratories in Member States for over 50 years. They include the organization of proficiency test exercises and laboratory intercomparisons, and the production of certified reference materials with a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide levels. As part of these activities, a follow-up proficiency test exercise was organized in 2015 at the request of the Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan to continue testing the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in a seawater sample. The exercise was designed to support laboratories in seawater analyses of 3H, 134Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr relating to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in March 2011, and the subsequent contamination of the marine environment. The results of the exercise, which are described in this publication, allow the participating laboratories to evaluate and compare their performance in the analysis of these radionuclides for this sample type. A total of 43 laboratories from 29 Member States participated from August to October 2015. Earlier exercises are described in IAEA Analytical Quality in Nuclear Applications Series Nos 40–43.

  20. Proficiency testing materials for pH and blood gases. The California Thoracic Society experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, J L; Levy, S E; Mohler, J G; Van Kessel, A L

    1986-02-01

    The California Thoracic Society Blood Gas Proficiency Testing Program distributed ampules from three separate lots of quality control products every three months as unknowns to participating clinical (survey) laboratories and ten selected reference laboratories. For eight quarters, aqueous buffers were distributed. For each lot, PCO2 and pH measurements varied within narrow ranges between laboratories. Concurrently, the PO2 measurements varied widely between reference laboratories as well as survey laboratories, but varied minimally when repeatedly assessed on each reference laboratory machine. Change to a fluorocarbon-containing emulsion as a testing medium resulted in a significant reduction in within model and overall variability for PO2. We attribute this reduction in variability to the higher O2 content and decreased temperature sensitivity for PO2 of the fluorocarbon-containing emulsion. Because we have no evidence that the magnitude of the interinstrument differences in PO2 found with these materials would be found with fresh human blood we recommend that regulatory agencies use the results of proficiency testing for PO2 cautiously.

  1. Proficiency Testing for Determination of Water Content in Toluene of Chemical Reagents by iteration robust statistic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Qunwei; He, Ming

    2018-05-01

    In order to investigate and improve the level of detection technology of water content in liquid chemical reagents of domestic laboratories, proficiency testing provider PT0031 (CNAS) has organized proficiency testing program of water content in toluene, 48 laboratories from 18 provinces/cities/municipals took part in the PT. This paper introduces the implementation process of proficiency testing for determination of water content in toluene, including sample preparation, homogeneity and stability test, the results of statistics of iteration robust statistic technique and analysis, summarized and analyzed those of the different test standards which are widely used in the laboratories, put forward the technological suggestions for the improvement of the test quality of water content. Satisfactory results were obtained by 43 laboratories, amounting to 89.6% of the total participating laboratories.

  2. Outcome on EPIZONE Extension on VER/ VNN: Diagnostics, proficiency test and qRT-PCR validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigarré, Laurent; Panzarin, Valentina; Baud, Marine

    2012-01-01

    1 is to bring valuable genetic information on the second genome component of a given isolate. ANSES has developed new DNA probes targeting RNA1 with the goal of detecting all genotypes of nodaviruses. The aim of the project is thus: - To organize, conduct and report an inter-laboratory proficiency...... test for detection of aquatic nodaviruses by real time RT-PCR targeting RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. - To test a newly developed real-time RT-PCR targeting RNA1: sensitivity, specificity, range of detection and genetic information provided by sequencing the PCR product. Materials & methods Primers...... to be extracted by each partner. In the meantime, ANSES produced and distributed RNA extracted from healthy or infected fish (2 genogroups), or cell culture; one sample from cell culture had to be serially diluted to test the sensitivity of each method in partners’ hands. Samples were tested in duplicates...

  3. Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based…

  4. A semi-structured English oral proficiency test for certification of teachers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Puhl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has eleven official languages, but English is by far the most commonly used medium of instruction in schools. It is therefore essential that the English proficiency of preservice teachers be accurately assessed by means of a valid, reliable and feasible assessment instrument. As there are so many tertiary institutions responsible for teacher certification in the country, standards of oral assessment vary widely. This paper describes a semi-structured oral proficiency test, designed to meet these needs. Possibilities for further development of the test are explored Suid-Afrika erken elf amptelike tale, maar Engels is die medium wat verreweg die meeste in skole gebruik word Dit is dus noodsaaklik dat onderwysstudente se taalvaardigheid in Engels akkuraat gemeet moet kan word dm. v. 'n geldige, betroubare en toepaslike meetinstrument. Die feit dat so baie tersiere inrigtings in Suid-Afrika betrokke is by die sertifisering van onderwysers, lei onvermydelik tot groot skommelinge in standaarde. Hierdie artikel beskryf 'n semigestruktureerde mondelinge taalvaardigheidstoets wat ontwikkel is om in die behoeftes te voorsien. Moontlikhede vir die verdere ontwikkeling van die toets word ondersoek.

  5. Visualisation of Proficiency Test Exercise by Means of Kiri Plots. Informatics Application; Metodo de Visualizacion de los Resultados de las Pruebas de Capacitacion por medio de la Grafica de Kiri. Aplicacion Informatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Trinidad, J. A.

    2012-09-13

    This report describes the visualisation procedure of the proficiency tests by means of Kiri Plots, based on three tests: z-score, zeta-score and the relative uncertainty outlier. The results assessment of the intercomparison exercises and proficiency tests among Spanish environmental radioactivity laboratories and Spanish Nuclear Power Plants Laboratories is performed by Environmental Radioactivity and Radiological Surveillance Unit following the ISO-43 e ISO/ IUPAC standards and applying the z-score test. The application of new graphics methods and tests to a better evaluation of uncertainties reported by Labs is described in this paper. An informatics programme has been developed in Visual Basic for applications that allows the graphic representation of Tables and Figures automatically in an excel-sheet and later statistical simulations changing the ratios between the reference value uncertainties and the concentration activities values from the participants laboratories. (Author) 26 refs.

  6. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test: Determination of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Phosphogypsum and Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A reliable determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with the radiation protection and environmental regulations. This proficiency test (PT) is one of the series of the world wide proficiency tests organised every year by the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory. This series of PTs is designed to identify analytical problems, to support Member State laboratories to maintain their accreditation and to provide a forum for discussions regarding the analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides. The range of sample types available for analysis has been mainly at environmental levels. In this PT, the test item set consisted of six samples: one phosphogypsum (the IAEA-434 reference material) and five water samples spiked with natural radionuclides. The main task of the participating laboratories was to identify and traceably quantify the activity levels of radionuclides present in these matrices. The tasks of the IAEA were to prepare and distribute the samples to the participating laboratories, to collect and interpret analysis results and to compile a comprehensive report. The certified massic activity values of all radionuclides used in this PT were traceable to international standards of radioactivity. In this PT, 1800 test items (reference materials) were prepared and distributed to 300 laboratories from 76 countries in November 2008. The deadline for receiving the results from the participants was set at 15 May 2009. The participating laboratories were requested to analyse Ra-226, U-234 and U-238 in water samples 01 and 02, and gross alpha/beta in water samples 03, 04 and 05. In the phosphogypsum sample number 06 the participants were asked to analyse Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238. The analytical results of the participating laboratories were compared with the reference values assigned to the reference materials, and a rating system was applied. Three National Metrology Institutes (NMI) and six expert

  7. Performance of laboratories analysing welding fume on filter samples: results from the WASP proficiency testing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Peter; Butler, Owen

    2008-06-01

    This paper emphasizes the need for occupational hygiene professionals to require evidence of the quality of welding fume data from analytical laboratories. The measurement of metals in welding fume using atomic spectrometric techniques is a complex analysis often requiring specialist digestion procedures. The results from a trial programme testing the proficiency of laboratories in the Workplace Analysis Scheme for Proficiency (WASP) to measure potentially harmful metals in several different types of welding fume showed that most laboratories underestimated the mass of analyte on the filters. The average recovery was 70-80% of the target value and >20% of reported recoveries for some of the more difficult welding fume matrices were welding fume trial filter samples. Consistent rather than erratic error predominated, suggesting that the main analytical factor contributing to the differences between the target values and results was the effectiveness of the sample preparation procedures used by participating laboratories. It is concluded that, with practice and regular participation in WASP, performance can improve over time.

  8. Appeals in gynecologic cytology proficiency testing: review and analysis of data from the 2006 College of American Pathologists gynecologic cytology proficiency testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Barbara A; Moriarty, Ann T; Fatheree, Lisa A; Booth, Christine N; Tench, William D; Wilbur, David C

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, 9643 participants took the initial College of American Pathologists (CAP) Proficiency Test (PT). Failing participants may appeal results on specific test slides. Appeals are granted if 3 referee pathologists do not unanimously agree on the initial reference diagnosis in a masked review process. To investigate causes of PT failures, subsequent appeals, and appeal successes in 2006. Appeals were examined, including patient demographic information, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services category (A, B, C, or D), exact reference diagnosis, examinees per appeal, examinee's Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services category, referee's Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services category, slide preparation type, and slide field validation rate. There was a 94% passing rate for 2006. One hundred fifty-five examinees (1.6%) appealed 86 slides of all preparation types. Forty-five appeals (29%) were granted on 21 slides; 110 appeals (72%) were denied on 65 slides. Reference category D and B slides were most often appealed. The highest percentage of granted appeals occurred in category D (35% slides; 42% of participants) and the lowest occurred in category B (9% slides; 8% of participants). The field validation rate of all appealed slides was greater than 90%. Despite rigorous field validation of slides, 6% of participants failed. Thirty percent of failing participants appealed; most appeals involved misinterpretation of category D as category B. Referees were never unanimous in their agreement with the participant. The participants and referees struggled with the reliability and reproducibility of finding rare cells, "overdiagnosis" of benign changes, and assigning the morphologically dynamic biologic changes of squamous intraepithelial lesions to static categories.

  9. ALMERA Proficiency Test: Determination of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Simulated Air Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The activity concentration of radionuclides in air is a critical factor in assessing the air quality and the potential impact of possible pollutants. Air is in fact one of the main pathways for human exposure to radioactivity. Radioactivity may be present in the atmosphere due to natural processes; intentional (low level) anthropogenic release; or as a consequence of nuclear or radiological incident. The resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. A reliable determination of radionuclides in air is necessary for regular monitoring of air quality to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. This proficiency test (PT) is one of the series of the ALMERA network proficiency tests organised on regular basis by the Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, designed to assess the technical capacity of ALMERA Members in analysing radionuclides to identify any analytical problems and to support ALMERA laboratories to maintain their preparedness to provide rapid and reliable analytical results. The range of simulated air filters used in this PT for analysis has been mainly at environmental level. The PT set consisted of four filters. The participating laboratories were requested to analyze Mn-54, Co-57, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Cd-109, Ba-133, Cs-134, Cs-137, Eu-152 and Am-241 in filters 01, 02 and 03. The participants were informed that only some of the listed radionuclides were present in the filters and the levels of the radionuclides were such that they could be measured within a 6-hour measurement period using a conventional HPGe gammaspectrometer of 35% relative efficiency. Filter 04, was containing only Co-60 and Ba-133 with known activities to the participants, had to be used as a control for the efficiency calibration. The tasks of IAEA were to prepare and distribute the simulated air filters to the participating laboratories, to collect and interpret

  10. Use of Proficiency Testing as a Tool to Improve Quality in Microbiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Heather L; Anderson, Nancy L

    2013-09-15

    Proficiency testing (PT) is a valuable tool for assessing laboratory performance and verifying the accuracy and reliability of test results. Participation is required by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988 for each of the microbiology subspecialties (bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology, and virology), and the regulations include specific PT requirements for each subspecialty. To determine the use and perceived value of PT beyond meeting CLIA requirements, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded a cooperative agreement with the Association of Public Health Laboratories to convene a series of focus groups to query laboratory professionals responsible for PT. The seven focus groups were comprised of 60 laboratory professionals representing large and small clinical laboratories, microbiology subspecialties, and public health. While participants acknowledged the need to perform PT to meet regulatory requirements, many also cited benefits and challenges beyond regulatory compliance.

  11. Proficiency testing criteria for clearance level in solid waste gamma measurement in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Wang, Jeng-Jong; Chiu, Huang-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    To guarantee the measurement quality for clearance level in solid waste material, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) established the criteria for proficiency testing of clearance level measurement. INER and the Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF) organized the Technique Committee Meeting twice to discuss these criteria in 2011. The participating laboratories must completely conform to the ISO/IEC 17025, and they also must meet the requirements of the criteria. According to the criteria, the participating laboratories analyzed the minimum detectable amount (MDA) and that should be less than 20% of the clearance level (AMDA) given in the Atomic Energy Council's (AEC) "Regulations on Clearance Level for Radioactive Waste Management". The testing results should conform to the deviation and traceability requirements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing oral proficiency: what does pronunciation tell us?DOI:10.5007/2175-8026.2011n60p247

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Borges-Almeida

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we discuss the role of pronunciation in languagetesting and investigate two features of pronunciation of eightcandidates of the Test of Oral Proficiency in English (TEPOLIalong four bands of the test scale. Deviations in vowel segmentsand in syllable structure are analyzed. The results point to theneed for a global assessment of the candidates’ phonologicalsystems.

  13. The Truth about Scores Children Achieve on Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan R.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of using the standard error of measurement (SEm) in determining reliability in test scores is emphasized. The SEm is compared to the hypothetical true score for standardized tests, and procedures for calculation of the SEm are explained. (JDD)

  14. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4th Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,. PMID:21442008

  15. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4 Graders: Evidence from TIMSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,.

  16. Comparison of multianalyte proficiency test results by sum of ranking differences, principal component analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrbić, Biljana; Héberger, Károly; Durišić-Mladenović, Nataša

    2013-10-01

    Sum of ranking differences (SRD) was applied for comparing multianalyte results obtained by several analytical methods used in one or in different laboratories, i.e., for ranking the overall performances of the methods (or laboratories) in simultaneous determination of the same set of analytes. The data sets for testing of the SRD applicability contained the results reported during one of the proficiency tests (PTs) organized by EU Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (EU-RL-PAH). In this way, the SRD was also tested as a discriminant method alternative to existing average performance scores used to compare mutlianalyte PT results. SRD should be used along with the z scores--the most commonly used PT performance statistics. SRD was further developed to handle the same rankings (ties) among laboratories. Two benchmark concentration series were selected as reference: (a) the assigned PAH concentrations (determined precisely beforehand by the EU-RL-PAH) and (b) the averages of all individual PAH concentrations determined by each laboratory. Ranking relative to the assigned values and also to the average (or median) values pointed to the laboratories with the most extreme results, as well as revealed groups of laboratories with similar overall performances. SRD reveals differences between methods or laboratories even if classical test(s) cannot. The ranking was validated using comparison of ranks by random numbers (a randomization test) and using seven folds cross-validation, which highlighted the similarities among the (methods used in) laboratories. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis justified the findings based on SRD ranking/grouping. If the PAH-concentrations are row-scaled, (i.e., z scores are analyzed as input for ranking) SRD can still be used for checking the normality of errors. Moreover, cross-validation of SRD on z scores groups the laboratories similarly. The SRD technique is general in nature, i.e., it can

  17. An inter- laboratory proficiency testing exercise for rabies diagnosis in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Clavijo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA, is performed in all rabies reference laboratories across Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. Despite DFA being a critical capacity in the control of rabies, there is not a standardized protocol in the region. We describe the results of the first inter-laboratory proficiency exercise of national rabies laboratories in LAC countries as part of the regional efforts towards dog-maintained rabies elimination in the American region. Twenty three laboratories affiliated to the Ministries of Health and Ministries of Agriculture participated in this exercise. In addition, the laboratories completed an online questionnaire to assess laboratory practices. Answers to the online questionnaire indicated large variability in the laboratories throughput, equipment used, protocols availability, quality control standards and biosafety requirements. Our results will inform actions to improve and harmonize laboratory rabies capacities across LAC in support for the regional efforts towards elimination of dog-maintained rabies.

  18. Clinical pharmacology quality assurance program: models for longitudinal analysis of antiretroviral proficiency testing for international laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFrancesco, Robin; Rosenkranz, Susan L; Taylor, Charlene R; Pande, Poonam G; Siminski, Suzanne M; Jenny, Richard W; Morse, Gene D

    2013-10-01

    Among National Institutes of Health HIV Research Networks conducting multicenter trials, samples from protocols that span several years are analyzed at multiple clinical pharmacology laboratories (CPLs) for multiple antiretrovirals. Drug assay data are, in turn, entered into study-specific data sets that are used for pharmacokinetic analyses, merged to conduct cross-protocol pharmacokinetic analysis, and integrated with pharmacogenomics research to investigate pharmacokinetic-pharmacogenetic associations. The CPLs participate in a semiannual proficiency testing (PT) program implemented by the Clinical Pharmacology Quality Assurance program. Using results from multiple PT rounds, longitudinal analyses of recovery are reflective of accuracy and precision within/across laboratories. The objectives of this longitudinal analysis of PT across multiple CPLs were to develop and test statistical models that longitudinally: (1) assess the precision and accuracy of concentrations reported by individual CPLs and (2) determine factors associated with round-specific and long-term assay accuracy, precision, and bias using a new regression model. A measure of absolute recovery is explored as a simultaneous measure of accuracy and precision. Overall, the analysis outcomes assured 97% accuracy (±20% of the final target concentration of all (21) drug concentration results reported for clinical trial samples by multiple CPLs). Using the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act acceptance of meeting criteria for ≥2/3 consecutive rounds, all 10 laboratories that participated in 3 or more rounds per analyte maintained Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act proficiency. Significant associations were present between magnitude of error and CPL (Kruskal-Wallis P Kruskal-Wallis P < 0.001).

  19. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test for X Ray Fluorescence Laboratories PTXRFIAEA/06: Determination of Minor and Trace Elements in Grass Mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The IAEA assists its Member States laboratories to maintain their readiness by producing reference materials, by developing standardized analytical methods, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To ensure a reliable worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the IAEA Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria organises tests. This summary report presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test IAEA-PTXRF-06 on the determination of minor and trace elements in a grass mixture. Methodologies, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each element and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. The test was carried out under IAEA Project 1.4.3.4 (D.3.03), Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of this project is to enhance the capability of interested Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health, agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluation of environmental pollution. This proficiency test was designed to identify analytical problems, to support IAEA Member States laboratories to improve the quality of their analytical results, to maintain their accreditation and to provide a regular forum for discussion and technology transfer in this area. The type of sample and the concentration levels of the analytes were designed in a way to enable identification of potential analytical problems. The next proficiency test exercise is expected to be organized in 2010

  20. Issues in Vertical Scaling of a K-12 English Language Proficiency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Dorry M.; MacGregor, David; Li, Dongyang; Cook, H. Gary

    2011-01-01

    One of the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act is that states show adequate yearly progress in their English language learners' (ELLs) acquisition of English language proficiency. States are required to assess ELLs' English language proficiency annually in four language domains (listening, reading, writing, and speaking) to measure their…

  1. A Measure of Proficiency or Short-Term Memory? Validation of an Elicited Imitation Test for SLA Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youjin; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Jung, Yeonjoo

    2016-01-01

    Elicited imitation requires listeners to listen and repeat sentences as accurately as possible. In second language acquisition (SLA) research it has been used for a variety of purposes. Recently, versions of the same elicited imitation test (EIT) have been created in 6 languages with the purpose of measuring second language proficiency (Ortega…

  2. Worldwide open proficiency test IAEA-CU-2007-09/A: Determination of Po-210 in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA helps the Member States' laboratories to maintain their readiness by coordination activities, by development of standardized methods for sample collection and analysis, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as a tool for external quality control. The Chemistry Unit of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratories in Austria, has the programmatic responsibility to support global radionuclide measurement systems. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the Chemistry Unit organises interlaboratory studies and proficiency tests. The Po-210 poisoning event which occurred in November 2006 brought into focus a number of issues, including the capacity of laboratories to rapidly and accurately determine this radionuclide in environmental samples. A number of requests were received from Member States to address this issue. Responding to these requests, the Chemistry Unit of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory in the Agency's Laboratories, conducted a world wide proficiency test on the determination of Po-210 in water. The aim was to gather information on the current state of practice for Po-210 measurements at various levels in aqueous samples. This report describes the methodology employed and the results obtained in this proficiency test

  3. Rasch Analysis of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency--Second Edition in Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition (BOT-2) is widely used to assess motor skills for both clinical and research purposes; however, its validity has not been adequately assessed in intellectual disabilities (ID). This study used partial credit Rasch model to examine the measurement properties of the BOT-2 among 446…

  4. Quality control in diagnostic molecular pathology in the Netherlands; proficiency testing for patient identification in tissue samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunnissen, F. B. J. M.; Tilanus, M. G. J.; Ligtenberg, M. J. L.; Nederlof, P. M.; Dinjens, W. N. M.; Meulemans, E.; van den Brule, A. J. C.; van Noesel, C. J. M.; de Leeuw, W. J. F.; Schuuring, E.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To describe the evolution of proficiency testing for molecular diagnostic pathology with respect to determining unambiguously the patient identity of tissue samples by microsatellite analysis. Method: Four rounds of quality control exchanges of samples from different patients were sent with

  5. Effectiveness of Item Response Theory (IRT) Proficiency Estimation Methods under Adaptive Multistage Testing. Research Report. ETS RR-15-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim; Yoo, Hanwook Henry

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to investigate the effectiveness of item response theory (IRT) proficiency estimators in terms of estimation bias and error under multistage testing (MST). We chose a 2-stage MST design in which 1 adaptation to the examinees' ability levels takes place. It includes 4 modules (1 at Stage 1, 3 at Stage 2) and 3 paths…

  6. Proficiency testing program for the determination of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in seawater shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Mei-Fung; Chan, Serena; Wong, Yiu-Chung

    2008-01-01

    The proficiency testing (PT) program for 97 worldwide laboratories for determining total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in seawater shrimp under the auspices of the Asia-Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (APLAC) is discussed. The program is one of the APLAC PT series whose primary purposes are to establish mutual agreement on the equivalence of the operation of APLAC member laboratories and to take corrective actions if testing deficiencies are identified. Pooled data for Cd and Pb were normally distributed with interlaboratory variations of 21.9 and 34.8%, respectively. The corresponding consensus mean values estimated by robust statistics were in good agreement with those obtained in the homogeneity tests. However, a bimodal distribution was observed from the determination of total As, in which 14 out of 74 participants reported much smaller values (0.482-6.4 mg/kg) as compared with the mean values of 60.9 mg/kg in the homogeneity test. The use of consensus mean is known to have significant deviation from the true value in bi- or multimodal distribution. Therefore, the mode value, a better estimate of central tendency, was chosen to assess participants' performance for total As. Estimates of the overall uncertainty from participants varied in this program, and some were recommended to acquire more comprehensive exposure toward important criteria as stipulated in ISO/IEC 17025.

  7. Data-driven efficient score tests for deconvolution hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langovoy, M.

    2008-01-01

    We consider testing statistical hypotheses about densities of signals in deconvolution models. A new approach to this problem is proposed. We constructed score tests for the deconvolution density testing with the known noise density and efficient score tests for the case of unknown density. The

  8. Emergency Response Proficiency Test for Japanese Laboratories: Determination of Selected Radionuclides in Water, Soil, Vegetation and Aerosol Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Reliable determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples is necessary for compliance with radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA assists Member State laboratories in maintaining and improving their readiness in this regard by producing reference materials, by developing standardized analytical methods, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable, rapid and consistent worldwide response, the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria, organizes interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests. In addition, the IAEA coordinates the worldwide network of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA). After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, Japan requested the IAEA to organize an emergency response proficiency test for Japanese laboratories with the aim of assessing their capacity to rapidly and accurately measure radionuclides in environmental samples. The IAEA responded to the request by assembling a special sample set covering the main environmental samples and radionuclides of interest in the case of a nuclear emergency situation. Water, soil, vegetation and aerosol filter samples were made available to Japanese laboratories for analysis by gamma ray spectrometry. This report presents the results of the IAEA-TEL-2011-08 emergency response proficiency test for Japanese laboratories on the determination of selected radionuclides in water, soil, vegetation and aerosol filters. The report includes descriptions of the methodologies and data evaluation approach used, as well as summary evaluations of each radionuclide and individual evaluation reports of each laboratory. This proficiency test was designed to identify analytical problems and to support Member State laboratories in their efforts to improve the quality of

  9. Analytical performances of food microbiology laboratories - critical analysis of 7 years of proficiency testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Massih, M; Planchon, V; Polet, M; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2016-02-01

    Based on the results of 19 food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) schemes, this study aimed to assess the laboratory performances, to highlight the main sources of unsatisfactory analytical results and to suggest areas of improvement. The 2009-2015 results of REQUASUD and IPH PT, involving a total of 48 laboratories, were analysed. On average, the laboratories failed to detect or enumerate foodborne pathogens in 3·0% of the tests. Thanks to a close collaboration with the PT participants, the causes of outliers could be identified in 74% of the cases. The main causes of erroneous PT results were either pre-analytical (handling of the samples, timing of analysis), analytical (unsuitable methods, confusion of samples, errors in colony counting or confirmation) or postanalytical mistakes (calculation and encoding of results). PT schemes are a privileged observation post to highlight analytical problems, which would otherwise remain unnoticed. In this perspective, this comprehensive study of PT results provides insight into the sources of systematic errors encountered during the analyses. This study draws the attention of the laboratories to the main causes of analytical errors and suggests practical solutions to avoid them, in an educational purpose. The observations support the hypothesis that regular participation to PT, when followed by feed-back and appropriate corrective actions, can play a key role in quality improvement and provide more confidence in the laboratory testing results. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Development of the KOSHA Proficiency Testing Scheme on Asbestos Analysis in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwoon Kwon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary presents the regulatory backgrounds and development of the national proficiency testing (PT scheme on asbestos analysis in the Republic of Korea. Since 2009, under the amended Occupational Safety and Health Act, the survey of asbestos in buildings and clearance test of asbestos removal works have been mandated to be carried out by the laboratories designated by the Ministry of Employment and Labor (MOEL in the Republic of Korea. To assess the performance of asbestos laboratories, a PT scheme on asbestos analysis was launched by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA on behalf of the MOEL in 2007. Participating laboratories are evaluated once a year for fiber counting and bulk asbestos analysis by phase contrast microscopy and polarized light microscopy, respectively. Currently, the number of laboratory enrollments is > 200, and the percentage of passed laboratories is > 90. The current status and several significant changes in operation, sample preparations, and statistics of assigning the reference values of the KOSHA PT scheme on asbestos analysis are presented. Critical retrospect based on the experiences of operating the KOSHA PT scheme suggests considerations for developing a new national PT scheme for asbestos analysis.

  11. Analysis of CCRL proficiency cements 151 and 152 using the Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullard, Jeffrey W.; Stutzman, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    To test the ability of the Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory (VCCTL) software to predict cement hydration properties, characterization of mineralogy and phase distribution is necessary. Compositional and textural characteristics of Cement and Concrete Reference Laboratory (CCRL) cements 151 and 152 were determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis followed by computer modeling of hydration properties. The general procedure to evaluate a cement is as follows: (1) two-dimensional SEM backscattered electron and X-ray microanalysis images of the cement are obtained, along with a measured particle size distribution (PSD); (2) based on analysis of these images and the measured PSD, three-dimensional microstructures of various water-to-cement ratios are created and hydrated using VCCTL, and (3) the model predictions for degree of hydration under saturated conditions, heat of hydration (ASTM C186), setting time (ASTM C191), and strength development of mortar cubes (ASTM C109) are compared to experimental measurements either performed at NIST or at the participating CCRL proficiency sample evaluation laboratories. For both cements, generally good agreement is observed between the model predictions and the experimental data

  12. The Effects of Specific Reading Interventions on Elementary Students' Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jacqueline Laverne Meeks

    2016-01-01

    Many students in third, fourth and fifth grades struggle at the lowest levels of reading proficiency. In fact, fewer than 40% of fourth graders in the United States read at or above the "proficient" level on state standardized tests in 2009 (D'Ardenne, Barnes, Hightower, Lamason, Mason, Patterson, Stephens, Wilson, Smith & Erickson,…

  13. Adaptive testing with equated number-correct scoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained CAT algorithm is presented that automatically equates the number-correct scores on adaptive tests. The algorithm can be used to equate number-correct scores across different administrations of the same adaptive test as well as to an external reference test. The constraints are derived

  14. Improving personality facet scores with multidimensional computer adaptive testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A W

    2013-01-01

    personality tests contain many highly correlated facets. This article investigates the possibility of increasing the precision of the NEO PI-R facet scores by scoring items with multidimensional item response theory and by efficiently administering and scoring items with multidimensional computer adaptive...

  15. Improving Scores on the IELTS Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issitt, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…

  16. Gross α/β analysis of spiked qater for IAEA 2008 world-wide open proficiency test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yaoling; Zhao Feng; Wu Meigui; Du Jinzhou

    2010-01-01

    The gross α/β analysis of the IAEA 2008 world-wide open proficiency test on the determination of natural radionuclides in spiked water was conducted. The Sample 03, Sample 04 and Sample 05 were tested for the gross α/β radioactivity according to the requirement of IAEA. The feedback statistics showed that the values of gross α/β of all of the three samples fell in the acceptable range of IAEA. (authors)

  17. Proficiency testing to detect Trichinella larvae in meat in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci, G; Tonanzi, D; Cherchi, S; Galati, F; Bella, A; Interisano, M; Ludovisi, A; Amati, A; Pozio, E

    2016-11-15

    According to the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/1375 (replacing the Commission Regulation (EC) No 2075/2005), all animals, which are potential carriers of Trichinella spp. larvae, should be tested at the slaughterhouse or game-handling establishments according to one of the approved tests. One of the core duties of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Parasites is to organize proficiency testing (PT), as stated in the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The aim of this work was to evaluate the results of PTs of the digestion method carried out by the National Reference Laboratories for Parasites (NRLPs) over a nine year period (2007-2015). Participating laboratories received a panel of samples consisting in 35g or 100g of minced pork or horse meat spiked with Trichinella spiralis live larvae. The number of spiked samples varied from 2 to 9 over the years. A negative control was also included in the panel, except during the 2015 PT, when only positive samples were used. The percentage of NRLPs, which passed the PT, increased from 83.3% in 2007 to 100% in 2014. Considering the number of recovered larvae, the heterogeneity in participant's results reduced overtime. The values of the overall mean difference between spiked and recovered larvae decreased during the study period, witnessing a general improvement of NRLPs performance and confirming the effectiveness of PT for a good performance of this test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A study of production of radioactive environmental reference materials used for proficiency testing program in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, En-Chi; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-01-01

    To realise radioactive environmental reference materials in Taiwan, seven environmental materials of soil, water, vegetation, meat, airborne particles (filter paper), milk and mushroom samples that are frequently encountered were used to establish the preparation of the reference materials. These seven environmental materials were collected, checked for freedom from radioactivity and prepared according to their properties. The preparation was carried out by using activity about 10–100 times that of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) in routine measurements in the radioactive standard used to spike the inactive material and this standard is traceable to national ionising radioactivity standards (TAF, 2004). To demonstrate sample traceability to the added standard, each sample was carefully measured and its uncertainty evaluated. Based on the recommendations of ISO Guide 35 for evaluation of reference materials and with the above assessment and verification procedures, the uncertainties (k=1) of the spike activity used in making reference materials were: 60 Co≤4.6%, 134 Cs≤4.7%, 137 Cs≤5.0%, total β≤0.6% and 3 H≤1.3%. - Highlights: • Seven kinds environmental materials were used to establish the production of the RMs. • Spiking the traceable standard radioactive source to the blank substance. • Each sample was carefully evaluated for its uncertainty. • The performance of the RMs was estimated with the Proficiency Testing program report. • The ability of the environment RMs in the configuration is quite good

  19. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A saxitoxin (STX proficiency test (PT was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  20. The FAA's postmortem forensic toxicology self-evaluated proficiency test program: the second seven years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Craft, Kristi J; Cardona, Patrick S; Rogers, Paul B; Canfield, Dennis V

    2009-05-01

    During toxicological evaluations of samples from fatally injured pilots involved in civil aviation accidents, a high degree of quality control/quality assurance (QC/QA) is maintained. Under this philosophy, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) started a forensic toxicology proficiency-testing (PT) program in July 1991. In continuation of the first seven years of the PT findings reported earlier, PT findings of the next seven years are summarized herein. Twenty-eight survey samples (12 urine, 9 blood, and 7 tissue homogenate) with/without alcohols/volatiles, drugs, and/or putrefactive amine(s) were submitted to an average of 31 laboratories, of which an average of 25 participants returned their results. Analytes in survey samples were correctly identified and quantitated by a large number of participants, but some false positives of concern were reported. It is anticipated that the FAA's PT program will continue to serve the forensic toxicology community through this important part of the QC/QA for laboratory accreditations.

  1. Examining the Impact of L2 Proficiency and Keyboarding Skills on Scores on TOEFL-iBT Writing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    A major concern with computer-based (CB) tests of second-language (L2) writing is that performance on such tests may be influenced by test-taker keyboarding skills. Poor keyboarding skills may force test-takers to focus their attention and cognitive resources on motor activities (i.e., keyboarding) and, consequently, other processes and aspects of…

  2. Worldwide proficiency test for X ray fluorescence laboratories PTXRFIAEA/05 determination of minor and trace elements in marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The proficiency test (code PTXRFIAEA05) was the fifth worldwide exercise organized by the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratories in order to assist X ray fluorescence laboratories in assessment and improvement of their analytical performance. The test was carried out within the IAEA Project 1.4.3.4 (D.3.03) on Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of the project was to enhance capability of interested Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health, agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluation of environmental pollution. Marine sediment test samples with established homogeneity and well characterized known target values of the mass fractions of analytes were distributed to participating laboratories. The laboratories were requested to analyze the sample using established techniques following their analytical procedures. Based on the results of the proficiency test presented in the report each participating laboratory should assess its analytical performance results by using the specified criteria and, if appropriate, to identify discrepancies, and to correct relevant analytical procedures. The next proficiency test exercise will be executed in 2009

  3. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test for X ray Fluorescence Laboratories PTXRFIAEA08: Determination of Minor and Trace Elements in Natural Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The IAEA assists Member State laboratories to maintain their readiness by producing reference materials, developing standardized analytical methods, and conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To ensure a reliable, worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the IAEA Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory organizes tests for Member State laboratories. This publication presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test PTXRFIAEA08 on the determination of minor and trace elements in natural soil. Methodologies, a data evaluation approach, a summary evaluation of each element and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. The test was carried out within the IAEA project Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of the project was to enhance the capability of interested Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health and agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluating environmental pollution. This proficiency test was designed to identify analytical problems and to support Member State laboratories in improving the quality of their analytical results, maintaining their accreditation and providing a regular forum for discussion and technology transfer in this area. The type of sample and the concentration levels of the analytes were designed to enable the identification of potential analytical problems

  4. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, L V; Sarkis, J E S; Ulrich, J C; Hortellani, M A

    2015-01-01

    We provide an uncertainty estimates for homogeneity and stability studies of reference material used in proficiency test for determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue. Stability was estimated by linear regression and homogeneity by ANOVA. The results indicate that the reference material is both homogeneous and chemically stable over the short term. Total mercury concentration of the muscle tissue, with expanded uncertainty, was 0.294 ± 0.089 μg g −1

  5. ALMERA Proficiency Test: Determination of Natural and Artificial Radionuclides in Soil and Water. IAEA-TEL-2011-04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network is a cooperative effort of analytical laboratories worldwide. Members of the network are nominated by their respective Member States on the expectation of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. The ALMERA network consists of 131 laboratories representing 81 Member States at December 2012. The IAEA's Environment Laboratories in Seibersdorf and Monaco are the central coordinators of the ALMERA network activities. The IAEA helps the ALMERA network to maintain their readiness by coordinating activities, including the organization of meetings, development of standardized methods of sample collection and analysis, and organization of interlaboratory comparison exercises and proficiency tests as tools for external quality control. IAEA proficiency tests and interlaboratory comparison exercises are organized on a regular basis specifically for the members of the ALMERA network. At least one exercise is organized per year by the IAEA for the ALMERA network. These exercises are designed to monitor and to demonstrate the performance and analytical capabilities of the network members, and to identify gaps and problem areas where further development is needed. The ALMERA proficiency tests enable ALMERA members to report their results on gamma emitting radionuclides in a very short time frame, i.e. three days, which is what would be required for emergency response. This publication presents the results of the ALMERA proficiency test IAEA-TEL-2011-04 on the determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in water and soil. The methodologies, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each radionuclide and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described

  6. Participation in IAEA proficiency test exercise on major, minor and trace elements in ancient Chinese ceramic (IAEA-CU-2006-06) using low power research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Zaidi, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    A proficiency test (PT) exercise was offered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for major, minor and trace elements in Chinese ceramic reference material (IAEA-CU-2006-06). Neutron activation analysis (NAA) laboratory at PINSTECH, Pakistan participated in the exercise and submitted the results for 28 elements. The aim of participation was to develop a suitable methodology for accurate measurement of as many elements as possible in ceramic material using a low power reactor (PARR-2) as this would help future investigation in a project on the authenticity of art objects, for provenance, conservation and management of ancient cultural heritage of the country. After receiving the final report of the PT exercise, a critical review of our data and final scoring of each element is made to check the suitability of our methodology and reliability of the acquired data. Most of the reported results passed different statistical evaluation criterion such as relative bias, z-score and u-scores and ratio of our results and IAEA target values. One element (Yb) falls in the unacceptable range of relative bias and z-scores. Hf and Tb showed slightly high z-scores within the questionable range. Ho, Mo and Sn were determined during this study but their results were not submitted to the IAEA. The confidence of accuracy observed for most of the elements in ceramic material has made it mandatory to report their results as information values. (author)

  7. English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…

  8. A Human Capital Model of Educational Test Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55 and tested in 1968. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. The bulk of unobservable effects are uncorrelated...... with observable parental attributes and, thus, are environmental rather than genetic in origin. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has evolved over the life of the respondent and is, thus, more a product of the human capital formation process than some latent or fundamental...... measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture, attitudes...

  9. Standardization of HER2 testing: results of an international proficiency-testing ring study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowsett, Mitch; Hanna, Wedad M.; Kockx, Mark; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Rüschoff, Josef; Gutjahr, Thorsten; Habben, Kai; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2007-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity in breast cancer is a prognostic factor regarding tumor aggressiveness and a predictive factor for response to trastuzumab (Herceptin). Early and accurate HER2 testing of all breast cancer patients at primary diagnosis is essential for

  10. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Johnson, W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups

  11. Testing the applicability of the SASS5 scoring procedure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken between 29th January and 17th February 2004 to test the applicability of the South African Scoring System Version 5 (SASS5) scoring and calculation procedure in nutrient-enriched palustrine wetlands in the midlands of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Four reference wetlands and three dairy-effluent ...

  12. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…

  13. Relative Merits of Four Methods for Scoring Cloze Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1980-01-01

    Describes study comparing merits of exact answer, acceptable answer, clozentropy and multiple choice methods for scoring tests. Results show differences among reliability, mean item facility, discrimination and usability, but not validity. (BK)

  14. Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-05-01

    In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®). In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Evaluation of food emergency response laboratories' capability for 210Po analysis using proficiency test material with verifiable traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhongyu Wu; Zhichao Lin; Mackill, P.; Cong Wei; Noonan, J.; Cherniack, J.; Gillis-Landrum, D.

    2009-01-01

    Measurement capability and data comparability are essential for emergency response when analytical data from cooperative laboratories are used for risk assessment and post incident decision making. In this study, the current capability of food emergency response laboratories for the analysis of 210 Po in water was evaluated using a proficiency test scheme in compliance with ISO-43 and ILAC G13 guidelines, which comprises a test sample preparation and verification protocol and an insightful statistical data evaluation. The results of performance evaluations on relative bias, value trueness, precision, false positive detection, minimum detection limit, and limit of quantification, are presented. (author)

  16. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Koretz, Daniel; Yu, C; Mbekeani, Preeya Pandya; Langi, M.; Dhaliwal, Tasminda Kaur; Braslow, David Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA) from high school GPA an...

  17. High Test Scores: The Wrong Road to National Economic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A widely held view is that good schools are essential to a nation's international economic success and that high test scores on international tests of academic skills and knowledge indicate how good a nation's schools are. The widespread belief that good schools are an important contributor to a nation's economic success in the world is supported…

  18. Mediterranean Region proficiency test on the determination of radionuclides in air filters. IAEA-CU--2008-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA helps the Member States laboratories to maintain their readiness and improving the quality of the analytical results by producing reference materials, by development of standardized methods for sample collection and analysis, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as a tool for external quality control of analytical results. The Chemistry Unit of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratories in Austria, has the programmatic responsibility to support global radionuclide measurement systems. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the Chemistry Unit organises interlaboratory studies and proficiency tests. The activity concentration of radionuclides in the air is a critical factor in assessing the air quality and the potential impact of possible pollutants. Air is in fact one of the main pathways for human exposure to pollutants. Radioactivity may be present in the atmosphere due to natural processes; intentional (low level) anthropogenic release; or as a consequence of nuclear or radiological incident. Within the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation project RER/8/009 'Air Pollution Monitoring in the Mediterranean Region', several Member States expressed their interest in establishing close cooperation among Mediterranean countries in the field of harmonization of air pollution monitoring systems and creation of a common database, since they share geographical position and mutual interest in the environmental conditions of the Mediterranean region. Such cooperation will also promote and enhance the exchange of experience/information. This report summarizes the results of the IAEA-CU-2008-02 Mediterranean Region proficiency test on the determination of radionuclides in air filters

  19. Accountancy, teaching methods, sex, and American College Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, J; Harper, B S; Harper, J P

    1990-10-01

    This study examines the significance of sex, methodology, academic preparation, and age as related to development of judgmental and problem-solving skills. Sex, American College Test (ACT) Mathematics scores, Composite ACT scores, grades in course work, grade point average (GPA), and age were used in studying the effects of teaching method on 96 students' ability to analyze data in financial statements. Results reflect positively on accounting students compared to the general college population and the women students in particular.

  20. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Koretz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA from high school GPA and both college admissions and high school tests in mathematics and English. In both systems, the choice of tests had only trivial effects on the aggregate prediction of FGPA. Adding either test to an equation that included the other had only trivial effects on prediction. Although the findings suggest that the choice of test might advantage or disadvantage different students, it had no substantial effect on the over- and underprediction of FGPA for students classified by race-ethnicity or poverty.

  1. EFL Speech Production: Exploring the relationship between working memory capacity and proficiency level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicele Vergine Vieira PREBIANCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC and proficiency level in EFL1 speech production. Forty-one participants performed two WMC tests – the Speaking Span Test in L1 and in L2. The statistical analysis indicated both a variation on WMC scores in L2 as a function of proficiency as well as a difference between WMC scores in L1 and in L2. Findings are explained mainly in respect to the interplay between automatic and controlled processes on memory retrieval and on the development of L2 proficiency.

  2. Assessment of the uncertainty and the proficiency test for accrediting KOLAS of ISO 17025 for a neutron radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.; Sim, C.M.; Lim, I.C.; Hong, K.P.; Choi, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    KOLAS(Korea of Lab Accreditation Scheme) is the charter member of ILAS (International Lab Accreditation Scheme) and APLAS (Asia Pacific Lab Accreditation Scheme), which originates from ISO 17025. KATS (Korea Agent of Technology Standard) governs the KOLAS. The KOLAS describes the basis of satisfying those issues related to a quality assurance and management system. The requirements specify an organization, the accommodation and environmental conditions, an uncertainty in the measurement and an inter-laboratory comparison or proficiency test program. The evaluation process of the requirements of certifying KOLAS for HANARO NRF has been proceeded by a neutron radiography laboratory, NRT level II course of SNT-TC-1A II is opened, with 20 persons attending for certification. An inter-laboratory comparison or proficiency test program is conducted through with Kyoto University in accordance with ASTM method for determining the imaging quality in direct thermal neutron radiographic testing (E545-91). In order to determine the uncertainty, dimensional measurements for the calibration fuel pin of the RISO using a profile project is performed with the ASTM practice for thermal neutron radiography of materials (E748-95) (orig.)

  3. Preparation, characterization and use of a reference material to proficiency testing for determination of metals in fish tissue in natura; Preparo, caracterizacao e uso de um material de referencia para ensaios de proficiencia para determinacao de metais em tecido de peixe in natura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Luciana Vieira de

    2013-07-01

    The proficiency tests are widely used to evaluate the analytical capacity of laboratories and also as part of the accreditation process. For this reason, are important tools for the control of the quality of the analytical results obtained in the laboratories that work directly with seafood companies. In Brazil there are no providers of proficiency testing for metals potentially toxic in fish tissues. In this work will be described all steps used for the production of reference materials to be used in a proficiency testing pilot study for As, Cd, Pb and Hg in fish tissue following the recommendations of the ISO Guide 35. He preparation scheme consisted in selecting the individuals, cleaning, grinding, homogenization and fortification with As, Cd and Pb in two concentration levels. The preparation resulted in 164 sachets of 10 g each. In order to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation in the samples conservation 52 sachets were irradiated with {sup 60}Co (10.00 {+-} 1.05 kGy) in a gamma cell. This material with others non irradiated 52 sachets were used for the homogeneity and stability studies. The remaining 60 were used for the proficiency testing. The results demonstrated that both materials were homogeneous and presented good stability (during a period of 45 days). However, the irradiated material present better integrity, concerning biological degradation, when stored in ambient temperature. For this reason they were used to the proficiency testing pilot program. Ten laboratories participated in the proficiency testing pilot study and the results were evaluated using the following tests: z-score, confidence ellipse and En numbers. This work demonstrates the capability of the laboratory to produce reference materials as well as to organize and conduct proficiency testing. (author)

  4. Worldwide open proficiency test on the determination of radionuclides in spinach, soil and water. IAEA-CU-2007-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The results of analytical measurements play a vital role in our daily lives. Analytical data may be the basis upon which economic, legal or environmental management decisions are made, and they are essential in international trade, environmental protection, safe transportation, law enforcement, consumer safety and the preservation of human health. This summary report presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test (PT) on the determination of radionuclides in spinach, soil and water. Methodologies, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. This proficiency test was mainly focused on the assessment of the analytical performance in the determination of nuclides in different matrices. Therefore, the property values of the PT samples were traceable to international standards. Additionally, the evaluation of the data focused also on the uncertainty estimations reported by participants. The number of samples, their matrix interferences and concentration levels of the analytes were designed in a way to enable enhancing identification of potential analytical problems. Finally, every participant received an individual report shortly after the deadline to provide quick feedback to the participants

  5. Proficiency Testing by Interlaboratory Comparison Performed in 2010-2015 for Neutron Activation Analysis and Other Analytical Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-12-01

    The IAEA supports its Member States to increase the utilization of their research reactors. Small and medium sized reactors are mostly used for neutron activation analysis (NAA). Although the markets for NAA laboratories have been identified, demonstration of valid analytical results and organizational quality of the work process are preconditions for expanding the stakeholder community, particularly in commercial routine application of this powerful technique. The IAEA has implemented a new mechanism for supporting NAA laboratories in demonstrating their analytical performance by participation in proficiency testing schemes by interlaboratory comparison. This activity makes possible the identification of deviations and non-conformities, their causes and the process to implement effective approaches to eliminate them. Over 30 laboratories participated between 2010 and 2015 in consecutive proficiency tests organized by the IAEA in conjunction with the Wageningen Evaluating Programmes for Analytical Laboratories (WEPAL) to assess their analytical performances. This publication reports the findings and includes lessons learned of this activity. An attached CD-ROM contains many individual participating laboratory papers sharing their individual results and experience gained through this participation.

  6. ALMERA proficiency test on the determination of radionuclides in spinach, soil and water. IAEA-CU-2007-04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network established by the IAEA in 1995 makes available to Member States a world-wide network of analytical laboratories capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. The network is a technical collaboration of existing institutions. It provides an operational framework to link expertise and resources, in particular when a boundary-transgressing contamination is expected or when an event is of international significance. A primary requirement of the ALMERA members is participation in the IAEA interlaboratory comparisons which are specifically organized for ALMERA on a regular basis. These exercises are designed to monitor and demonstrate the performance and analytical capabilities of the network members, and to identify gaps and problem areas where further development is needed. Continued membership has benefits in training and educational opportunities, enhanced mutual trust in results and methodology and objective evidence for accreditation purposes. The performance evaluation results of the proficiency tests performed in the frame of the ALMERA network are not anonymous for those laboratories nominating to participate as ALMERA members. The Chemistry Unit of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory in the IAEA Laboratory, Seibersdorf in Austria, has the programmatic responsibility to support activities in Member States laboratories, including coordination of ALMERA network. This report describes the methodology employed and the results obtained in the IAEA-CU- 2009-04 proficiency test on determination of radionuclides in spinach, soil and water

  7. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all pstatistic of 0.81 before and 0.88 after adjustment for significant demographic and clinical covariates. Arm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77-0.79 before and 0.82-0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64-0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise.

  8. Analysis of a provider of proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons for dosimetry in function of guides ISO/IEC 43 and ILAC G13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.; Zaretzky, Alba; Stefanic, Amalia M.; Saravi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ionising Radiation Dosimetry Group (CNEA) has participated of the last intercomparison scheme organized by EUROMET. This intercomparison was held starting 2005 until 2008.The objective of this paper is to analyze this Association as a proficiency test provider according to the ISO/IEC Guide 43 (1997) 'Proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons' and ILAC G13 Guide (2007) 'Guidelines for the Requirements for the Competence of Providers of Proficiency Testing Schemes'. The analysis of EURAMET (so called since 2007) as the provider of this dosimetric comparison was made taking into account the following sections of the ILAC G13 Guide: Conduct of proficiency testing schemes; Statistical design, Communication with participants and Reports, taking them as essential parameters of the compliance of a proficiency test provider with the general requirements set by the Guides. This intercomparison had special characteristics coming from the participants and the primary objective of the scheme. It is remarkable the important degree of agreement of the organization with Guides ISO/IEC 43 and ILAC G13. (author)

  9. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

  10. Source Country Differences in Test Score Gaps: Evidence from Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2010-01-01

    We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…

  11. Racial Differences in Mathematics Test Scores for Advanced Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Elizabeth Covay

    2016-01-01

    Research on achievement gaps has found that achievement gaps are larger for students who take advanced mathematics courses compared to students who do not. Focusing on the advanced mathematics student achievement gap, this study found that African American advanced mathematics students have significantly lower test scores and are less likely to be…

  12. Manual for Scoring the Test of Directed Imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Donald J.; And Others

    A scoring manual for the Directed Imagination Test, a projective technique wherein the subject is instructed to write four fictional stories (four minutes are allowed for each) about teachers and their experiences, is presented. The manual provides detailed instructions for rating each story by fifteen dimensions relevant to teacher education…

  13. America's Mediocre Test Scores: Education Crisis or Poverty Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Michael J.; Wright, Brandon L.

    2016-01-01

    At a time when the national conversation is focused on lagging upward mobility, it is no surprise that many educators point to poverty as the explanation for mediocre test scores among U.S. students compared to those of students in other countries. If American teachers in struggling U.S. schools taught in Finland, says Finnish educator Pasi…

  14. Southeast Asian Languages Proficiency Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    The design, administration, revision, and validation of the Southeast Asian Summer Studies Institute proficiency examinations are reported. The examinations were created as parallel language proficiency tests in each of five languages: Indonesian, Khmer, Tagalog, Thai, and Vietnamese. Four tests were developed in each language: multiple-choice…

  15. IRSN's radiological proficiency testings: a key for managing the quality of test laboratories in charge of the environmental radioactivity survey in France?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameon, R.; Gleizes, M.; Maulard, A.; Moine, J.; Vignaud, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    In France, many actors are involved in environmental monitoring (IRSN, operators of nuclear facilities, State services, approved air quality monitoring associations, environmental protection associations, private environmental laboratories...). The French National Network for Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring (RNM) federates all these entities. RNM brings together the environmental measurement results made in a regulatory framework on the French territory and make them available to the public through a web site. The quality of these measurements is guaranteed by subjecting the test laboratories to an approval procedure under the control of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN). The approval procedure includes administrative requirements (the laboratory shall meet ISO 17025 requirements) and the participation to proficiency testings (PT) provided by IRSN in order to demonstrate their technical competence. As approvals cover all components of the environment, the five-year PT program is defined on a combination of: - 6 types of environmental matrices: water, soil/sediments, biological matrices (tea, tobacco, fish, milk,...), aerosols on filters, gas-air (activated charcoal cartridge) and ambient air (RPL dosimeters), - 17 categories of radioactive measurements: g-emitters, gross a, gross b, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, pure b-emitters, U isotopes and U content, Th isotopes, {sup 226}Ra and decay products, {sup 228}Ra and decay products, Pu/Am, {sup 129}I/{sup 131}I, noble gases, g-dose rate. Following ISO/CEI 17043 requirements, IRSN, as an accredited PT provider is in charge of: - Preparation and dispatch of test items, - Control of the homogeneity and stability of produced test items, - Determination of the assigned values, - Analysis of the results transmitted by participants in terms of relative bias, En number and z-score, - Publication of the report. PT program managed by IRSN groups 6 to 7 interlaboratory comparisons per year. Each of

  16. The Weighted Airman Promotion System: Standardizing Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    u th o ri ze d Top 3/E6 ratio, inventory 1401206040 100 70 130 5R 2F 2G 3N 2M 2A 4J 4C 4P 4T 4B 1W 2T 3P 1T 4A 2S 5J 1A 1S1C 6F 4N 7S 4R 4E 1N 3A 3V...System: Standardizing Test Scores AFHRL convened a panel to identify the relevant factors to consider, and then sit as a promotion board and rank...Costs If the Air Force decided to standardize test scores, there would be three basic types of costs: implementation costs, marketing costs, and

  17. "To Whom It May Concern": A Study on the Use of Lexical Bundles in Email Writing Tasks in an English Proficiency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Volkov, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Lexical bundles are worthy of attention in both teaching and testing writing as they function as basic building blocks of discourse. This corpus-based study focuses on the rated writing responses to the email tasks in the Canadian English Language Proficiency Index Program® General test (CELPIP-General) and explores the extent to which lexical…

  18. Spinal appearance questionnaire: factor analysis, scoring, reliability, and validity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Sanders, James O; Polly, David W; Sucato, Daniel J; Parent, Stefan; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Hopkins, Jeffrey; McClung, Anna; Bratcher, Kelly R; Diamond, Beverly E

    2011-08-15

    Cross sectional. This study presents the factor analysis of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and its psychometric properties. Although the SAQ has been administered to a large sample of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated surgically, its psychometric properties have not been fully evaluated. This study presents the factor analysis and scoring of the SAQ and evaluates its psychometric properties. The SAQ and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) were administered to AIS patients who were being observed, braced or scheduled for surgery. Standard demographic data and radiographic measures including Lenke type and curve magnitude were also collected. Of the 1802 patients, 83% were female; with a mean age of 14.8 years and mean initial Cobb angle of 55.8° (range, 0°-123°). From the 32 items of the SAQ, 15 loaded on two factors with consistent and significant correlations across all Lenke types. There is an Appearance (items 1-10) and an Expectations factor (items 12-15). Responses are summed giving a range of 5 to 50 for the Appearance domain and 5 to 20 for the Expectations domain. The Cronbach's α was 0.88 for both domains and Total score with a test-retest reliability of 0.81 for Appearance and 0.91 for Expectations. Correlations with major curve magnitude were higher for the SAQ Appearance and SAQ Total scores compared to correlations between the SRS Appearance and SRS Total scores. The SAQ and SRS-22 Scores were statistically significantly different in patients who were scheduled for surgery compared to those who were observed or braced. The SAQ is a valid measure of self-image in patients with AIS with greater correlation to curve magnitude than SRS Appearance and Total score. It also discriminates between patients who require surgery from those who do not.

  19. Motor Proficiency in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Venetsanou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine motor proficiency in young children, focusing on potential gender differences. For that purpose, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP-LF was administered to 540 children (272 boys, 4½ to 6 years old. First, the 2 (sex × 4 (age groups ANOVA computed on children’s total BOTMP-LF scores showed that age had a statistically significant effect, whereas gender did not. Second, the one-way MANCOVA applied on subtest scores, with age as covariate, revealed statistical significant gender differences; however, η2 values were found to be small or moderate. Finally, the MANCOVA applied on items where significant gender differences have been reported showed a significant effect of gender. Nonetheless, η2 values exceeded the limit of practical significance only on two items (“standing on preferred leg on floor”, “throwing a ball at a target with preferred hand” that are associated with gender-stereotyped activities. It can be concluded that (a besides statistical significance, effect sizes should be examined for the results of a study to be adequately interpreted; (b young boys’ and girls’ motor proficiency is similar rather than different. Gender differences in specific skills should be used for movement programs to be individualized.

  20. The Education Consequences of Language Proficiency for Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5-6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys' language test scores. In

  1. The educational consequences of language proficiency for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5–6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys’ language test scores. In

  2. Allele-sharing models: LOD scores and accurate linkage tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A; Cox, N J

    1997-11-01

    Starting with a test statistic for linkage analysis based on allele sharing, we propose an associated one-parameter model. Under general missing-data patterns, this model allows exact calculation of likelihood ratios and LOD scores and has been implemented by a simple modification of existing software. Most important, accurate linkage tests can be performed. Using an example, we show that some previously suggested approaches to handling less than perfectly informative data can be unacceptably conservative. Situations in which this model may not perform well are discussed, and an alternative model that requires additional computations is suggested.

  3. Proficiency Testing for Bacterial Whole Genome Sequencing: An End-User Survey of Current Capabilities, Requirements and Priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Sintchenko, Vitali; Karlsmose Pedersen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionised public health microbiology. Given the potential impact of NGS, it is paramount to ensure standardisation of ‘wet’ laboratory and bioinformatic protocols and promote comparability of methods employed by different laboratories...... and their outputs. Therefore, one of the ambitious goals of the Global Microbial Identifier (GMI) initiative (http://​www.​globalmicrobiali​dentifier.​org/​) has been to establish a mechanism for inter-laboratory NGS proficiency testing (PT). This report presents findings from the survey recently conducted...... by Working Group 4 among GMI members in order to ascertain NGS end-use requirements and attitudes towards NGS PT. The survey identified the high professional diversity of laboratories engaged in NGS-based public health projects and the wide range of capabilities within institutions, at a notable range...

  4. Proficiency testing for bacterial whole genome sequencing: an end-user survey of current capabilities, requirements and priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Sintchenko, Vitali; Karlsmose Pedersen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionised public health microbiology. Given the potential impact of NGS, it is paramount to ensure standardisation of 'wet' laboratory and bioinformatic protocols and promote comparability of methods employed by different laboratories...... and their outputs. Therefore, one of the ambitious goals of the Global Microbial Identifier (GMI) initiative (http://www.globalmicrobialidentifier.org/) has been to establish a mechanism for inter-laboratory NGS proficiency testing (PT). This report presents findings from the survey recently conducted by Working...... Group 4 among GMI members in order to ascertain NGS end-use requirements and attitudes towards NGS PT. The survey identified the high professional diversity of laboratories engaged in NGS-based public health projects and the wide range of capabilities within institutions, at a notable range of costs...

  5. Implementation of a reference standard and proficiency testing programme by the World Wide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Karen I

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN is a global collaboration to support the objective that anyone affected by malaria receives effective and safe drug treatment. The Pharmacology module aims to inform optimal anti-malarial drug selection. There is an urgent need to define the drug exposure - effect relationship for most anti-malarial drugs. Few anti-malarials have had their therapeutic blood concentration levels defined. One of the main challenges in assessing safety and efficacy data in relation to drug concentrations is the comparability of data generated from different laboratories. To explain differences in anti-malarial pharmacokinetics in studies with different measurement laboratories it is necessary to confirm the accuracy of the assay methods. This requires the establishment of an external quality assurance process to assure results that can be compared. This paper describes this process. Methods The pharmacology module of WWARN has established a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC programme consisting of two separate components: 1. A proficiency testing programme where blank human plasma spiked with certified reference material (CRM in different concentrations is sent out to participating bioanalytical laboratories. 2. A certified reference standard programme where accurately weighed amounts of certified anti-malarial reference standards, metabolites, and internal standards are sent to participating bioanalytical and in vitro laboratories. Conclusion The proficiency testing programme is designed as a cooperative effort to help participating laboratories assess their ability to carry out drug analysis, resolve any potential problem areas and to improve their results - and, in so doing, to improve the quality of anti-malarial pharmacokinetic data published and shared with WWARN. By utilizing the same source of standards for all laboratories, it is possible to minimize bias arising from poor

  6. ALMERA proficiency test on the determination of Po-210 in water. IAEA-CU-2007-09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network established by the IAEA in 1995 makes available to Member States a worldwide network of analytical laboratories capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. The network is a technical collaboration of existing institutions. It provides an operational framework to link expertise and resources, in particular when a boundary-transgressing contamination is expected or when an event is of international significance. A primary requirement of the ALMERA members is participation in the IAEA interlaboratory comparisons which are specifically organized for ALMERA on a regular basis. These exercises are designed to monitor and demonstrate the performance and analytical capabilities of the network members, and to identify gaps and problem areas where further development is needed. Continued membership has benefits in training and educational opportunities, Enhanced mutual trust in results and methodology and objective evidence for accreditation purposes. The performance evaluation results of the interlaboratory comparisons performed in the frame of the ALMERA network are not anonymous for those laboratories nominated to participate as ALMERA members. The Po-210 poisoning event which occurred in November 2006 brought into focus a number of issues, including the capacity of laboratories to rapidly and accurately determine this radionuclide in environmental samples. A number of requests were received from ALMERA members to address this issue. Responding to these requests, the Chemistry Unit of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory in the IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratory in Austria, conducted a proficiency test in the frame of the ALMERA network on the determination of Po-210 in water. The aim was to gather information on the current state of practice for Po-210 measurements

  7. An Investigation of the Gender Differential Performance on a High-Stakes Language Proficiency Test in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    There has been a growing consensus among the educational measurement experts and psychometricians that test taker characteristics may unduly affect the performance on tests. This may lead to construct-irrelevant variance in the scores and thus render the test biased. Hence, it is incumbent on test developers and users alike to provide evidence…

  8. Biering-Sorensen test scores in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Ortancil, O.; Ankarali, H.; Basaran, A.; Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Biering-Sorensen test is an isometric back endurance test. Biering-Sorensen test scores have varied in different cultural and occupational groups. The aims of this study were to collect normative data on Biering-Sorensen holding times, to determine the discriminative ability of the Biering-Sorensen test in Turkish coal miners, and to examine the association between Biering-Sorensen test result and functional disability. One hundred and fifty male coal miners participated in this study. Trunk extensor muscle strength was measured using the Biering-Sorensen test. Oswestry disability index was used to measure the functional disability level of low back pain. The mean Biering-Sorensen holding time for the total subject group was 107.3 {+-} 22.5 s. The mean time of Biering-Sorensen test of the subjects with and without low back pain were 99.9 {+-} 19.8 and 128.6 {+-} 15.2 s, respectively. The difference between the subjects with and without low back pain was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between Oswestry functional disability score and Biering-Sorensen holding time (R = -0.824, p < 0.001). Turkish coal miners have low mean back extensor endurance holding times. Biering-Sorensen test had a good discriminative ability in our study group. Trunk muscle strength has a significant effect on the disability level of low back pain. Thus trunk muscle endurance training exercise therapy may be effective for the reduction of disability in patients with low back pain.

  9. Parent Ratings of Impulsivity and Inhibition Predict State Testing Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Lundwall

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One principle of cognitive development is that earlier intervention for educational difficulties tends to improve outcomes such as future educational and career success. One possible way to help students who struggle is to determine if they process information differently. Such determination might lead to clues for interventions. For example, early information processing requires attention before the information can be identified, encoded, and stored. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether parent ratings of inattention, inhibition, and impulsivity, and whether error rate on a reflexive attention task could be used to predict child scores on state standardized tests. Finding such an association could provide assistance to educators in identifying academically struggling children who might require targeted educational interventions. Children (N = 203 were invited to complete a peripheral cueing task (which measures the automatic reorienting of the brain’s attentional resources from one location to another. While the children completed the task, their parents completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire gathered information on broad indicators of child functioning, including observable behaviors of impulsivity, inattention, and inhibition, as well as state academic scores (which the parent retrieved online from their school. We used sequential regression to analyze contributions of error rate and parent-rated behaviors in predicting six academic scores. In one of the six analyses (for science, we found that the improvement was significant from the simplified model (with only family income, child age, and sex as predictors to the full model (adding error rate and three parent-rated behaviors. Two additional analyses (reading and social studies showed near significant improvement from simplified to full models. Parent-rated behaviors were significant predictors in all three of these analyses. In the reading score analysis

  10. The Development and Validation of a Spanish Elicited Imitation Test of Oral Language Proficiency for the Missionary Training Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    The Missionary Training Center (MTC), affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, needs a reliable and cost effective way to measure the oral language proficiency of missionaries learning Spanish. The MTC needed to measure incoming missionaries' Spanish language proficiency for training and classroom assignment as well as to…

  11. Validity of GRE General Test scores and TOEFL scores for graduate admission to a technical university in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Judith; von Davier, Alina A.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Heinimann, Hans R.

    2018-01-01

    Graduate admission has become a critical process in tertiary education, whereby selecting valid admissions instruments is key. This study assessed the validity of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test scores for admission to Master's programmes at a technical university in Europe. We investigated the indicative value of GRE scores for the Master's programme grade point average (GGPA) with and without the addition of the undergraduate GPA (UGPA) and the TOEFL score, and of GRE scores for study completion and Master's thesis performance. GRE scores explained 20% of the variation in the GGPA, while additional 7% were explained by the TOEFL score and 3% by the UGPA. Contrary to common belief, the GRE quantitative reasoning score showed only little explanatory power. GRE scores were also weakly related to study progress but not to thesis performance. Nevertheless, GRE and TOEFL scores were found to be sensible admissions instruments. Rigorous methodology was used to obtain highly reliable results.

  12. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-04-13

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries' National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013-2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories.

  13. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Nia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT to evaluate the competency of the European countries’ National Reference Laboratories (NRLs to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013–2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98% and specificity (100% of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories.

  14. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test: Determination of Natural and Artificial Radionuclides in Moss-Soil and Water IAEA-CU-2009-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Reliable determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA assists Member State laboratories in maintaining and improving their readiness by producing reference materials, by developing standardized analytical methods, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable, worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria, organizes interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests. This summary report presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test IAEA-CU-2009- 03 on the determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in moss-soil and spiked water. The methodologies, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. This proficiency test was designed to identify analytical problems, to support Member State laboratories to improve the quality of their analytical results and maintain their accreditation, and to provide a regular forum for discussion and technology transfer in this area. The number of samples, their matrix interferences and the concentration levels of the analytes were designed in a way that enables identification of potential analytical problems.

  15. Final Report of an Expansion of a Model for Development of Proficiency/Equivalency Tests for Clinical Laboratory Personnel, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey Coll. of Medicine and Dentistry, Newark. School of Allied Health Professions.

    A project was conducted to expand a previously developed model for developing proficiency/equivalency tests to evaluate previously acquired knowledge and skill competencies in the areas of clinical microbiology and clinical hematology. Designed for a target group consisting of on-the-job trainees, military personnel, and medical laboratory…

  16. Accuracy in HIV Rapid Testing among Laboratory and Non-laboratory Personnel in Zambia: Observations from the National HIV Proficiency Testing System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mwangala

    Full Text Available Despite rapid task-shifting and scale-up of HIV testing services in high HIV prevalence countries, studies evaluating accuracy remain limited. This study aimed to assess overall accuracy level and factors associated with accuracy in HIV rapid testing in Zambia.Accuracy was investigated among rural and urban HIV testing sites participating in two annual national HIV proficiency testing (PT exercises conducted in 2009 (n = 282 sites and 2010 (n = 488 sites. Testers included lay counselors, nurses, laboratory personnel and others. PT panels of five dry tube specimens (DTS were issued to testing sites by the national reference laboratory (NRL. Site accuracy level was assessed by comparison of reported results to the expected results. Non-parametric rank tests and multiple linear regression models were used to assess variation in accuracy between PT cycles and between tester groups, and to examine factors associated with accuracy respectively.Overall accuracy level was 93.1% (95% CI: 91.2-94.9 in 2009 and 96.9% (95% CI: 96.1-97.8 in 2010. Differences in accuracy were seen between the tester groups in 2009 with laboratory personnel being more accurate than non-laboratory personnel, while in 2010 no differences were seen. In both PT exercises, lay counselors and nurses had more difficulties interpreting results, with more occurrences of false-negative, false-positive and indeterminate results. Having received the standard HIV rapid testing training and adherence to the national HIV testing algorithm were positively associated with accuracy.The study showed an improvement in tester group and overall accuracy from the first PT exercise to the next. Average number of incorrect test results per 1000 tests performed was reduced from 69 to 31. Further improvement is needed, however, and the national HIV proficiency testing system seems to be an important tool in this regard, which should be continued and needs to be urgently strengthened.

  17. Pizza Parties, Pep Rallies, and Practice Tests: Strategies Used by High School Principals to Raise Percent Proficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Liz; Dude, David J.; Shepherd, Julie K.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores ways high school principals are responding to the demands of education reform to raise student test scores on achievement tests used for accountability purposes. Anecdotal evidence suggests administrators have instituted pizza parties and pep rallies to motivate students to do their best and practice tests to prepare students…

  18. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk. Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD.

  19. Proficiency test on determination of radioactivity concentration of 137Cs and 90Ssr in food and environmental samples for Polish radiochemical laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Sypula, M.; Sadowska-Bratek, M.; Fuks, L.

    2007-01-01

    Proficiency testing (PT) on the determination of radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs and 0S r in samples of drinking and surface waters, wheat flour and sand was organized in 2006 by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT). The PT was conducted on the request of the National Atomic Energy Agency, Poland (PAA) and financed by the NAEA President. Report presents statistical evaluation of results obtained by the participants. The PT was provided in accordance with ISO/IEC Guide 43-1:1997. Samples were prepared by spiking the appropriate raw materials separately with known amounts of the certified standard solutions of 137 Cs and 0S r. Ten laboratories from Poland and one from Hungary took part in the PT. The participants were asked to choose which samples they were willing to analyze. the results provided by the participants were statistically evaluated by means of z and zeta-scores in accordance with ISO 13528:2005 and IUPAC protocol. They were evaluated also using the evaluation criteria for trueness and precision usually applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (authors) [pl

  20. Computerized scoring algorithms for the Autobiographical Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Martens, Kris; Salmon, Karen; Raes, Filip

    2018-02-01

    Reduced specificity of autobiographical memories is a hallmark of depressive cognition. Autobiographical memory (AM) specificity is typically measured by the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), in which respondents are asked to describe personal memories in response to emotional cue words. Due to this free descriptive responding format, the AMT relies on experts' hand scoring for subsequent statistical analyses. This manual coding potentially impedes research activities in big data analytics such as large epidemiological studies. Here, we propose computerized algorithms to automatically score AM specificity for the Dutch (adult participants) and English (youth participants) versions of the AMT by using natural language processing and machine learning techniques. The algorithms showed reliable performances in discriminating specific and nonspecific (e.g., overgeneralized) autobiographical memories in independent testing data sets (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > .90). Furthermore, outcome values of the algorithms (i.e., decision values of support vector machines) showed a gradient across similar (e.g., specific and extended memories) and different (e.g., specific memory and semantic associates) categories of AMT responses, suggesting that, for both adults and youth, the algorithms well capture the extent to which a memory has features of specific memories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. School accountability and the black-white test score gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2014-03-01

    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-08 proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Martin, P.; Makarewicz, M.; Mohagheghi, A.

    2007-03-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Centre of Sandia National Laboratories of the United States (SNL) has initiated the Radiation Measurements Cross Calibration (RMCC) project. The RMCC aims to promote regional cooperation in the Middle East for preparedness for radiological emergencies. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is cooperating with Sandia National Laboratories in this project. On a practical level, the initial aim of the RMCC is to establish a network of experts to cooperatively standardize nuclear monitoring and measurement capabilities in the Middle East by applying internationally recognized standards for laboratory radiation measurements. One of the project activities is to assist selected radiation measurement laboratories to participate in a quality assurance program and proficiency tests. During the second Workshop of the RMCC Project, organised by Sandia National Laboratories in Doha, Qatar, 12-17 November 2005, it was agreed to request the Chemistry Unit at the Agency's Seibersdorf laboratories to organise a special Proficiency Test (PT) for participants, for gamma-emitters in sea water. It is well known that proficiency testing is a method for regularly assessing the accuracy of the analytical data produced by the laboratories of particular measurements. According to the requirements of the RMCC project the IAEA-CU-2006-08 proficiency test (PT) on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in sea water was conducted by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA's Laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria). The Chemistry Unit is actively involved in the production and characterization of matrix reference materials of terrestrial origin, widely used for method validation and organization of proficiency tests and intercomparison studies. The Chemistry Unit is a part of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and

  3. ANOVA Analysis of Student Daily Test Scores in Multi-Day Test Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Matthew L.; Davis, Jefferson T.; Jones, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Instructors are often concerned when giving multiple-day tests because students taking the test later in the exam period may have an advantage over students taking the test early in the exam period due to information leakage. However, exam scores seemed to decline as students took the same test later in a multi-day exam period (Mouritsen and…

  4. The Effect of Computer-Based Self-Access Learning on Weekly Vocabulary Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Dreyer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to clarify the effectiveness of using an online vocabulary study tool, Quizlet, in an urban high school language arts class. Previous similar studies have mostly dealt with English Language Learners in college settings (Chui, 2013, and were therefore not directed at the issue self-efficacy that is at the heart of the problem of urban high school students in America entering remedial writing programs (Rose, 1989. The study involves 95 students over the course of 14 weeks. Students were tested weekly and were asked to use the Quizlet program in their own free time. The result of this optional involvement was that many students did not participate in the treatment and therefore acted as an elective control group. The resultant data collected shows a strong correlation between the use of an online vocabulary review program and short-term vocabulary retention. The study also showed that students who paced themselves and spread out their study sessions outperformed those students who used the program only for last minute “cram sessions.” The implications of the study are that students who take advantage of tools outside of the classroom are able to out perform their peers. The results are also in line with the call to include technology in the Basic Writing classroom not simply as a tool, but as a “form of discourse” (Jonaitis, 2012. Weekly vocabulary tests, combined with the daily online activity as reported by Quizlet, show that: 1 utilizing the review software improved the scores of most students, 2 those students who used Quizlet to review more than a single time (i.e., several days before the test outperformed those who only used the product once, and 3 students who professed proficiency with the “notebook” system of vocabulary learning appeared not to need the treatment.

  5. Factor VII assay performance: an analysis of the North American Specialized Coagulation Laboratory Association proficiency testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zantek, N D; Hsu, P; Refaai, M A; Ledford-Kraemer, M; Meijer, P; Van Cott, E M

    2013-06-01

    The performance of factor VII (FVII) assays currently used by clinical laboratories was examined in North American Specialized Coagulation Laboratory Association (NASCOLA) proficiency tests. Data from 12 surveys conducted between 2008 and 2010, involving 20 unique specimens plus four repeat-tested specimens, were analyzed. The number of laboratories per survey was 49-54 with a total of 1224 responses. Numerous reagent/instrument combinations were used. For FVII > 80 or 50 U/dL, among commonly used methods, one thromboplastin and one calibrator produced results 5-6 U/dL higher and another thromboplastin and calibrator produced results 5-6 U/dL lower than all other methods, and human thromboplastin differed from rabbit by +7.6 U/dL. Preliminary evidence suggests these differences could be due to the calibrator. For FVII <50 U/dL, differences among the commonly used reagents and calibrators were generally not significant. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Comparison of standard reading and computer aided detection (CAD) on a national proficiency test of screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciatto, Stefano; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Risso, Gabriella; Catarzi, Sandra; Bonardi, Rita; Viterbo, Valeria; Gnutti, Pierangela; Guglielmoni, Barbara; Pinelli, Lelio; Pandiscia, Anna; Navarra, Francesco; Lauria, Adele; Palmiero, Rosa; Indovina, Pietro Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of computer aided detection (CAD) in improving the interpretation of screening mammograms Material and methods: Ten radiologists underwent a proficiency test of screening mammography first by conventional reading and then with the help of CAD. Radiologists were blinded to test results for the whole study duration. Results of conventional and CAD reading were compared in terms of sensitivity and recall rate. Double reading was simulated combining conventional readings of four expert radiologists and compared with CAD reading. Results: Considering all ten readings, cancer was identified in 146 or 153 of 170 cases (85.8 vs. 90.0%; χ 2 =0.99, df=1, P=0.31) and recalls were 106 or 152 of 1330 cases (7.9 vs. 11.4%; χ 2 =8.69, df=1, P=0.003) at conventional or CAD reading, respectively. CAD reading was essentially the same (sensitivity 97.0 vs. 96.0%; χ 2 =7.1, df=1, P=0.93; recall rate 10.7 vs. 10.6%; χ 2 =1.5, df=1, P=0.96) as compared with simulated conventional double reading. Conclusion: CAD reading seems to improve the sensitivity of conventional reading while reducing specificity, both effects being of limited size. CAD reading had almost the same performance of simulated conventional double reading, suggesting a possible use of CAD which needs to be confirmed by further studies inclusive of cost-effective analysis

  7. NH4NO3 extractable trace element contents of soil samples prepared for proficiency testing--a stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, H; Scharf, H

    2001-06-01

    In view of its intended use as a sample for proficiency testing or as a reference material the stability of the extractable trace element contents of a soil from an irrigation field was tested using the extraction with 1 mol/L ammonium nitrate solution according to DIN 19730. Therefore, changes of the extractability of sterilized and non sterilized soil samples stored at different temperatures were evaluated over a period of 18 months. Sets of bottles were kept at -20 degrees C, +4 degrees C, about +20 degrees C and +40 degrees C, respectively. The NH4NO3 extractable contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined immediately after bottling and then after 3, 6, 12 and 18 months with ICP-AES or ETAAS. Appropriate storage conditions are of utmost importance to prevent deterioration of soil samples prepared for the determination of NH4NO3 extractable trace element contents. Temperatures above +20 degrees C must be avoided. The observed changes in the extractability of the metals (especially for Cr and Cu) most likely could be related to thermal degradation of the organic matter of the soil. There is no need to sterilize dry soil samples, because microbiological activity in soils with a low moisture content appears to be negligible with regard to trace element mobilization.

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Worbs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay. Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as “gold standard” for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay.

  9. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosholm, Michael; Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Gumede, Kamilla

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1-3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students.

  10. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Gumede, Kamilla Trille

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1–3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We...... use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who...... are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students....

  11. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rosholm

    Full Text Available We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1-3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students.

  12. Score Gains on g-loaded Tests: No g

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; van der Flier, H.

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen

  13. Validity of GRE General Test Scores and TOEFL Scores for Graduate Admission to a Technical University in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Judith; von Davier, Alina A.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Heinimann, Hans R.

    2018-01-01

    Graduate admission has become a critical process in tertiary education, whereby selecting valid admissions instruments is key. This study assessed the validity of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test scores for admission to Master's programmes at a technical university in Europe. We investigated the indicative value of GRE scores for the…

  14. Reliability of the k{sub 0}-standardization method using geological sample analysed in a proficiency test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaes, Ana Clara O.; Menezes, Maria Ângela de B.C., E-mail: anacpelaes@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique to determine the elemental chemical composition in samples of several matrices, that has been applied by the Laboratory for Neutron Activation Analysis, located at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear /Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Nuclear Technology Development Center/Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy), CDTN/CNEN, since the starting up of the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor, in 1960. Among the methods of application of the technique, the k{sub 0}-standardization method, which was established at CDTN in 1995, is the most efficient and in 2003 it was reestablished and optimized. In order to verify the reproducibility of the results generated by the application of the k{sub 0}-standardization method at CDTN, aliquots of a geological sample sent by WEPAL (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories) were analysed and its results were compared with the results obtained through the Intercomparison of Results organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2015. WEPAL is an accredited institution for the organisation of interlaboratory studies, preparing and organizing proficiency testing schemes all over the world. Therefore, the comparison with the results provided aims to contribute to the continuous improvement of the quality of the results obtained by the CDTN. The objective of this study was to verify the reliability of the method applied two years after the intercomparison round. (author)

  15. A new certified reference material for benzene measurement in air on a sorbent tube: development and proficiency testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caurant, A. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, Paris (France); Universite Paris 12 et CNRS (UMR 7583), Faculte des Sciences et Technologie, Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, Unite Mixte de Recherche Universite Paris 7 (France); Lalere, B.; Schbath, M.C.; Stumpf, C.; Sutour, C.; Mace, T.; Vaslin-Reimann, S. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, Paris (France); Quisefit, J.P.; Doussin, J.F. [Universite Paris 12 et CNRS (UMR 7583), Faculte des Sciences et Technologie, Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, Unite Mixte de Recherche Universite Paris 7 (France)

    2010-11-15

    A certified matrix reference material (CRM) for the measurement of benzene in ambient air has been developed at Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d'Essais. The production of these CRMs was conducted using a gravimetric method fully traceable to the International System of Units. The CRMs were prepared by sampling an accurate mass of a gaseous primary reference material of benzene, using a high-precision laminar flowmeter and a mass flow controller, with a PerkinElmer sampler filled with Carbopack trademark X sorbent. The relative standard deviations obtained for the preparation of a batch of 20 tubes loaded with 500 ng of benzene were below 0.2%. Each CRM is considered independent from the others and with its own certified value and an expanded uncertainty estimated to be within 0.5%, lower than the uncertainties of benzene CRMs already available worldwide. The stability of these materials was also established up to 12 months. These CRMs were implemented during proficiency testing, to evaluate the analytical performances of seven French laboratories involved in benzene air monitoring. (orig.)

  16. The Impact of Success Maker Software on Grade 4 Math Proficiency on State Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Brandon Terrell

    2014-01-01

    Success Maker is an educational software that differentiates and personalizes K-8 reading and math. Limited research has been conducted on the impact of Success Maker on Grade 4 math state tests. At the research site, located in southeastern United States, 33.7% of fourth grade students did not pass the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards…

  17. Perceptual Learning Style and Learning Proficiency: A Test of the Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzig, Gregory P.; Arbuthnott, Katherine D.

    2006-01-01

    Given the potential importance of using modality preference with instruction, the authors tested whether learning style preference correlated with memory performance in each of 3 sensory modalities: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. In Study 1, participants completed objective measures of pictorial, auditory, and tactile learning and learning…

  18. Identification of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention during an interlaboratory proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Reuver, L.P. de; Krimpen, S.H. van; Baar, B.L.M. van; Wils, E.R.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Brinkman, U.A.Th

    2002-01-01

    In order to test the ability of laboratories to detect and identify chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons, and to designate laboratories for this task, the Technical Secretariat of the

  19. Benefits of a Pharmacology Antimalarial Reference Standard and Proficiency Testing Program Provided by the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, Chris; Lindegardh, Niklas; Barnes, Karen I.; Guerin, Philippe J.; Sibley, Carol H.; White, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of antimalarial drug resistance should include measurements of antimalarial blood or plasma concentrations in clinical trials and in individual assessments of treatment failure so that true resistance can be differentiated from inadequate drug exposure. Pharmacometric modeling is necessary to assess pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships in different populations to optimize dosing. To accomplish both effectively and to allow comparison of data from different laboratories, it is essential that drug concentration measurement is accurate. Proficiency testing (PT) of laboratory procedures is necessary for verification of assay results. Within the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN), the goal of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program is to facilitate and sustain high-quality antimalarial assays. The QA/QC program consists of an international PT program for pharmacology laboratories and a reference material (RM) program for the provision of antimalarial drug standards, metabolites, and internal standards for laboratory use. The RM program currently distributes accurately weighed quantities of antimalarial drug standards, metabolites, and internal standards to 44 pharmacology, in vitro, and drug quality testing laboratories. The pharmacology PT program has sent samples to eight laboratories in four rounds of testing. WWARN technical experts have provided advice for correcting identified problems to improve performance of subsequent analysis and ultimately improved the quality of data. Many participants have demonstrated substantial improvements over subsequent rounds of PT. The WWARN QA/QC program has improved the quality and value of antimalarial drug measurement in laboratories globally. It is a model that has potential to be applied to strengthening laboratories more widely and improving the therapeutics of other infectious diseases. PMID:24777099

  20. The Effect of Mock Tests on Iranian EFL learners’ Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Khodabakhshzadeh; Reza Zardkanloo

    2016-01-01

    The effect of using tests in test preparation courses has been subject to debate. While some scholars such as Yang and Badger (2015) believe it is a cause of positive washback effect, others argue that this issue is tentative and context-bound (Green, 2007). Therefore, this study investigated the effect of using Mock tests in International English Language Testing System (IELTS) preparation courses on students’ overall IELTS scores. Fifty one IELTS students were selected non-randomly through ...

  1. Developing a Soil Aggregate Stability Standard For Use in Laboratory Proficiency Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Mackenzie

    2018-01-01

    Soil health is an important part of agriculture and is becoming an issue to which more and more people are paying attention. In evaluating soil health there are many factors proposed to determine healthy soils, and one of the most reliable indicators, as identified by both academic and soil testing industry experts, is macro-aggregate stability. There is a great need for a method to make standard macro-aggregate stability soil samples for commercial and public labs and other facilities to use...

  2. Test/score/report: Simulation techniques for automating the test process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Barbara H.; Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A Test/Score/Report capability is currently being developed for the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) system which will automate testing of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and Mission Operations Center (MOC) software in three areas: telemetry decommutation, spacecraft command processing, and spacecraft memory load and dump processing. Automated computer control of the acceptance test process is one of the primary goals of a test team. With the proper simulation tools and user interface, the task of acceptance testing, regression testing, and repeatability of specific test procedures of a ground data system can be a simpler task. Ideally, the goal for complete automation would be to plug the operational deliverable into the simulator, press the start button, execute the test procedure, accumulate and analyze the data, score the results, and report the results to the test team along with a go/no recommendation to the test team. In practice, this may not be possible because of inadequate test tools, pressures of schedules, limited resources, etc. Most tests are accomplished using a certain degree of automation and test procedures that are labor intensive. This paper discusses some simulation techniques that can improve the automation of the test process. The TASS system tests the POCC/MOC software and provides a score based on the test results. The TASS system displays statistics on the success of the POCC/MOC system processing in each of the three areas as well as event messages pertaining to the Test/Score/Report processing. The TASS system also provides formatted reports documenting each step performed during the tests and the results of each step. A prototype of the Test/Score/Report capability is available and currently being used to test some POCC/MOC software deliveries. When this capability is fully operational it should greatly reduce the time necessary

  3. Baseline Assessment of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Reference Material and Proficiency Testing/External Quality Assurance Material Commutability: A Vitamin D Standardization Program Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Karen W; Sempos, Christopher T; Tai, Susan S-C; Camara, Johanna E; Wise, Stephen A; Eckfeldt, John H; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Carter, Graham D; Jones, Julia; Myers, Gary L; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Miller, W Greg; Bachmann, Lorin M; Young, Ian S; Pettit, Juanita; Caldwell, Grahame; Liu, Andrew; Brooks, Stephen P J; Sarafin, Kurtis; Thamm, Michael; Mensink, Gert B M; Busch, Markus; Rabenberg, Martina; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead; Galvin, Karen; Zhang, Joy Y; Kinsella, Michael; Oh, Kyungwon; Lee, Sun-Wha; Jung, Chae L; Cox, Lorna; Goldberg, Gail; Guberg, Kate; Meadows, Sarah; Prentice, Ann; Tian, Lu; Brannon, Patsy M; Lucas, Robyn M; Crump, Peter M; Cavalier, Etienne; Merkel, Joyce; Betz, Joseph M

    2017-09-01

    The Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) coordinated a study in 2012 to assess the commutability of reference materials and proficiency testing/external quality assurance materials for total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in human serum, the primary indicator of vitamin D status. A set of 50 single-donor serum samples as well as 17 reference and proficiency testing/external quality assessment materials were analyzed by participating laboratories that used either immunoassay or LC-MS methods for total 25(OH)D. The commutability test materials included National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 972a Vitamin D Metabolites in Human Serum as well as materials from the College of American Pathologists and the Vitamin D External Quality Assessment Scheme. Study protocols and data analysis procedures were in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The majority of the test materials were found to be commutable with the methods used in this commutability study. These results provide guidance for laboratories needing to choose appropriate reference materials and select proficiency or external quality assessment programs and will serve as a foundation for additional VDSP studies.

  4. Undergraduates' intentions to take a second language proficiency test: a comparison of predictions from the theory of planned behavior and social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bih-Jiau; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-06-01

    English competency has become essential for obtaining a better job or succeeding in higher education in Taiwan. Thus, passing the General English Proficiency Test is important for college students in Taiwan. The current study applied Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and the notions of outcome expectancy and self-efficacy from Bandura's social cognitive theory to investigate college students' intentions to take the General English Proficiency Test. The formal sample consisted of 425 undergraduates (217 women, 208 men; M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.3). The theory of planned behavior showed greater predictive ability (R2 = 33%) of intention than the social cognitive theory (R2 = 7%) in regression analysis and made a unique contribution to prediction of actual test-taking behavior one year later in logistic regression. Within-model analyses indicated that subjective norm in theory of planned behavior and outcome expectancy in social cognitive theory are crucial factors in predicting intention. Implications for enhancing undergraduates' intentions to take the English proficiency test are discussed.

  5. Small-scale in-situ burn tests to develop operational proficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    A small-scale hands-on in-situ burning experiment was conducted to prepare members of a response community in the event of an actual full scale in-situ burn. Two different styles of fire booms were deployed in open water and exposed to multiple test tank burns. Residual burned crude oil was recovered and the booms decontaminated. The experiments showed that all the methods used to gauge the depth of oil contained in the booms created an element of doubt in their accuracy. The main lessons learned pertained to pre-combustion volume estimation, oil slick ignition, and residue recovery. It was concluded that in-situ burning was a potential technique in oil spill response, but some refinement is still needed to be done with the oil retention booms. The operational costs associated with the experiment were minimal, given the nature of the project. 1 tab

  6. Method validation and verification in liquid scintillation counting using the long-term uncertainty method (LTUM) on two decades of proficiency test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrezen, F.; Vasile, M.; Loots, H.; Bruggeman, M.

    2017-01-01

    Results from proficiency tests gathered over the past two decades by the laboratory for low level radioactivity measurements for liquid scintillation counting of 3 H (184 results) and 14 C (74 results) are used to verify the validated measurement methods used by the laboratory, in particular the estimated uncertainty budget of the method and its reproducibility and stability. A linear regression approach is used for the analysis of the results, described in the literature as the long term uncertainty in measurement method. The present study clearly indicates the advantages of using proficiency test results in identifying possible constant or proportional bias effects as well as the possibility to compare the laboratory performance with the performance of peer laboratories. (author)

  7. Cause analysis for unsatisfactory results in proficiency testing activities: a case study of Brazilian calibration laboratories accredited under ISO/IEC 17025:2005⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a survey carried out among Brazilian calibration laboratories accredited under ISO/IEC 17025:2005 with the objective to identify how these laboratories investigate the root causes of unsatisfactory results in proficiency testing. The survey was coordinated by the Brazilian accreditation body, the General Coordination for Accreditation (Cgcre, of the Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro.

  8. Reporting Diagnostic Scores in Educational Testing: Temptations, Pitfalls, and Some Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip; Puhan, Gautam; Haberman, Shelby J.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic scores are of increasing interest in educational testing due to their potential remedial and instructional benefit. Naturally, the number of educational tests that report diagnostic scores is on the rise, as are the number of research publications on such scores. This article provides a critical evaluation of diagnostic score reporting…

  9. ¿Exito en California? A Validity Critique of Language Program Evaluations and Analysis of English Learner Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Thompson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several states have recently faced ballot initiatives that propose to functionally eliminate bilingual education in favor of English-only approaches. Proponents of these initiatives have argued an overall rise in standardized achievement scores of California's limited English proficient (LEP students is largely due to the implementation of English immersion programs mandated by Proposition 227 in 1998, hence, they claim Exito en California (Success in California. However, many such arguments presented in the media were based on flawed summaries of these data. We first discuss the background, media coverage, and previous research associated with California's Proposition 227. We then present a series of validity concerns regarding use of Stanford-9 achievement data to address policy for educating LEP students; these concerns include the language of the test, alternative explanations, sample selection, and data analysis decisions. Finally, we present a comprehensive summary of scaled-score achievement means and trajectories for California's LEP and non-LEP students for 1998-2000. Our analyses indicate that although scores have risen overall, the achievement gap between LEP and EP students does not appear to be narrowing.

  10. The Apgar score has survived the test of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Mieczyslaw; Wood, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    In 1953, Virginia Apgar, M.D. published her proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. The avowed purpose of this paper was to establish a simple and clear classification of newborn infants which can be used to compare the results of obstetric practices, types of maternal pain relief and the results of resuscitation. Having considered several objective signs pertaining to the condition of the infant at birth she selected five that could be evaluated and taught to the delivery room personnel without difficulty. These signs were heart rate, respiratory effort, reflex irritability, muscle tone and color. Sixty seconds after the complete birth of the baby a rating of zero, one or two was given to each sign, depending on whether it was absent or present. Virginia Apgar reviewed anesthesia records of 1025 infants born alive at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center during the period of this report. All had been rated by her method. Infants in poor condition scored 0-2, infants in fair condition scored 3-7, while scores 8-10 were achieved by infants in good condition. The most favorable score 1 min after birth was obtained by infants delivered vaginally with the occiput the presenting part (average 8.4). Newborns delivered by version and breech extraction had the lowest score (average 6.3). Infants delivered by cesarean section were more vigorous (average score 8.0) when spinal was the method of anesthesia versus an average score of 5.0 when general anesthesia was used. Correlating the 60 s score with neonatal mortality, Virginia found that mature infants receiving 0, 1 or 2 scores had a neonatal death rate of 14%; those scoring 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 had a death rate of 1.1%; and those in the 8-10 score group had a death rate of 0.13%. She concluded that the prognosis of an infant is excellent if he receives one of the upper three scores, and poor if one of the lowest three scores.

  11. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide open proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Trinkl, A.; Makarewicz, M.; Yonezawa, C.; Kim, C.K.; Kis-Benedek, G.; Benesch, T.; Schorn, R.

    2007-05-01

    The results of analytical measurements play a vital role in our daily lives. Analytical data may be the basis upon which economic, legal or environmental management decisions are made, and they are essential in international trade, environmental protection, safe transportation, law enforcement, consumer safety and the preservation of human health. As an incorrect decision can be extremely costly and detrimental, it is essential that such measurements are accurate, reliable, cost effective and defensible. In addition, measurements performed by laboratories located worldwide should yield traceable and comparable results. Proficiency testing is a method for regularly assessing the accuracy of the analytical data produced by the laboratories of particular measurements. The IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide proficiency test (PT) on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in water grass and soil is conducted by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA's Laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria), which is actively involved in the production and characterization of matrix reference materials of terrestrial origin, widely used for method validation and organization of proficiency tests and intercomparison studies. The Chemistry Unit is a part of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation report for each laboratory

  12. Generation and Characterization of Six Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxins as Reference Material to Serve in an International Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Weisemann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection and identification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT is complex due to the existence of seven serotypes, derived mosaic toxins and more than 40 subtypes. Expert laboratories currently use different technical approaches to detect, identify and quantify BoNT, but due to the lack of (certified reference materials, analytical results can hardly be compared. In this study, the six BoNT/A1–F1 prototypes were successfully produced by recombinant techniques, facilitating handling, as well as improving purity, yield, reproducibility and biosafety. All six BoNTs were quantitatively nicked into active di-chain toxins linked by a disulfide bridge. The materials were thoroughly characterized with respect to purity, identity, protein concentration, catalytic and biological activities. For BoNT/A1, B1 and E1, serotypes pathogenic to humans, the catalytic activity and the precise protein concentration were determined by Endopep-mass spectrometry and validated amino acid analysis, respectively. In addition, BoNT/A1, B1, E1 and F1 were successfully detected by immunological assays, unambiguously identified by mass spectrometric-based methods, and their specific activities were assigned by the mouse LD50 bioassay. The potencies of all six BoNT/A1–F1 were quantified by the ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm assay, allowing a direct comparison. In conclusion, highly pure recombinant BoNT reference materials were produced, thoroughly characterized and employed as spiking material in a worldwide BoNT proficiency test organized by the EQuATox consortium.

  13. ISSUE PAPER: What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    ...) about possible unintended consequences of these programs. We conducted several analyses to examine the issue of whether TAAS scores can be trusted to provide an accurate index of student skills and abilities...

  14. Computer proficiency questionnaire: assessing low and high computer proficient seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D; Mitzner, Tracy; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran

    2015-06-01

    Computers and the Internet have the potential to enrich the lives of seniors and aid in the performance of important tasks required for independent living. A prerequisite for reaping these benefits is having the skills needed to use these systems, which is highly dependent on proper training. One prerequisite for efficient and effective training is being able to gauge current levels of proficiency. We developed a new measure (the Computer Proficiency Questionnaire, or CPQ) to measure computer proficiency in the domains of computer basics, printing, communication, Internet, calendaring software, and multimedia use. Our aim was to develop a measure appropriate for individuals with a wide range of proficiencies from noncomputer users to extremely skilled users. To assess the reliability and validity of the CPQ, a diverse sample of older adults, including 276 older adults with no or minimal computer experience, was recruited and asked to complete the CPQ. The CPQ demonstrated excellent reliability (Cronbach's α = .98), with subscale reliabilities ranging from .86 to .97. Age, computer use, and general technology use all predicted CPQ scores. Factor analysis revealed three main factors of proficiency related to Internet and e-mail use; communication and calendaring; and computer basics. Based on our findings, we also developed a short-form CPQ (CPQ-12) with similar properties but 21 fewer questions. The CPQ and CPQ-12 are useful tools to gauge computer proficiency for training and research purposes, even among low computer proficient older adults. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Recurrent Word Combinations in EAP Test-Taker Writing: Differences between High- and Low-Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Randy; Wood, David

    2016-01-01

    The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…

  16. Cytology Proficiency Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations at Section 493.855(a) state The laboratory must ensure that each individual engaged in the...

  17. Effects of white noise on Callsign Acquisition Test and Modified Rhyme Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue-Terry, Misty; Letowski, Tomasz

    2011-02-01

    The Callsign Acquisition Test (CAT) is a speech intelligibility test developed by the US Army Research Laboratory. The test has been used to evaluate speech transmission through various communication systems but has not been yet sufficiently standardised and validated. The aim of this study was to compare CAT and Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) performance in the presence of white noise across a range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). A group of 16 normal-hearing listeners participated in the study. The speech items were presented at 65 dB(A) in the background of white noise at SNRs of -18, -15, -12, -9 and -6 dB. The results showed a strong positive association (75.14%) between the two tests, but significant differences between the CAT and MRT absolute scores in the range of investigated SNRs. Based on the data, a function to predict CAT scores based on existing MRT scores and vice versa was formulated. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work compares performance data of a common speech intelligibility test (MRT) with a new test (CAT) in the presence of white noise. The results here can be used as a part of the standardisation procedures and provide insights to the predictive capabilities of the CAT to quantify speech intelligibility communication in high-noise military environments.

  18. Assessment practices of third- and fifth-grade science teachers: A comparison to the style/format, process, and content of Ohio's proficiency tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, David C.

    This descriptive study is addressed to policy-makers, textbook publisher, teachers, principals, and curriculum directors. It compares the assessment practices of ten elementary teachers over a period of 11 weeks with Ohio's fourth and sixth grade science Proficiency Tests. Results show that the teachers' assessment practices were not aligned with Ohio's Proficiency Test. The tests used in the participants' classroom contained a disproportionate number of items characterized as low-level in terms of their cognitive function. Classroom test items generally fell into three categories---true/false, completion, and matching. The remaining items were predominantly low-level multiple-choice items requiring simple recall of information. The teachers in this study showed a heavy reliance on the packaged assessments that accompanied their adopted textbook series with little use of teacher-designed instruments. This differs from the findings of previous researchers who reported that most teacher assessments were done with teacher-made tests. The lack of alignment between classroom tests and Ohio's Proficiency Test is a concern because previous researchers and the teachers in this study believe that aligning classroom tests with high-stakes assessment improves student performance. Other research shows teachers teach what they test suggesting that the curriculum would be better aligned with State expectations if classroom tests were more in line with the proficiency tests. This study found that textbooks and their assessment packages are not aligned to most state standards and that teachers need help developing better assessments. The results of this study suggest directions school administrators might take to facilitate inservice training for current teachers and could be helpful to textbook publishers as well as educators serving on adoption committees. Since high-stakes testing of students in the nation's public schools and school accountability seem destined to remain a

  19. Implementation of Cell Samples as Controls in National Proficiency Testing for Clopidogrel Therapy-Related CYP2C19 Genotyping in China: A Novel Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guigao Lin

    Full Text Available Laboratories are increasingly requested to perform CYP2C19 genetic testing when managing clopidogrel therapy, especially in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. To ensure high quality molecular testing and ascertain that the referring clinician has the correct information for CYP2C19 genotype-directed antiplatelet therapy, a proficiency testing scheme was set up to evaluate the laboratory performance for the entire testing process. Proficiency panels of 10 cell samples encompassing the common CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms were distributed to 62 participating laboratories for routine molecular testing and the responses were analyzed for accuracy of genotyping and the reporting of results. Data including the number of samples tested, the accreditation/certification status, and test methodology of each individual laboratory were also reviewed. Fifty-seven of the 62 participants correctly identified the CYP2C19 variants in all samples. There were six genotyping errors, with a corresponding analytical sensitivity of 98.5% (333/338 challenges; 95% confidence interval: 96.5-99.5% and an analytic specificity of 99.6% (281/282; 95% confidence interval: 98.0-99.9%. Reports of the CYP2C19 genotyping results often lacked essential information. In conclusion, clinical laboratories demonstrated good analytical sensitivity and specificity; however, the pharmacogenetic testing community requires additional education regarding the correct reporting of CYP2C19 genetic test results.

  20. A influência do sistema de gestão de laboratórios nos resultados dos ensaios de proficiência da construção civil The influence of the laboratory management system on the results of civil construction proficiency testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Pizzolato

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A participação de laboratórios em atividades de ensaio de proficiência (EP é uma das formas de avaliar e demonstrar a confiabilidade das suas atividades de medição. Isso significa dizer que, por intermédio dos ensaios de proficiência (EP, pode-se avaliar a habilidade do laboratório de realizar ensaios e calibrações de forma competente. Os ensaios de proficiência fornecem informações importantes para avaliação de laboratórios, postulantes à acreditação, acreditados, notificados ou designados por agências reguladoras e para os laboratórios em geral. Este artigo teve por objetivo verificar se o tipo de sistema de gestão dos laboratórios de ensaio da construção civil do Brasil influencia nos resultados dos ensaios de proficiência (EP. Objetiva ainda discutir como contemplar o resultado dos ensaios de proficiência no cálculo da incerteza de medição dos ensaios. Como resultado do estudo, conclui-se que não existe efeito dos tipos de sistema de gestão sobre os resultados dos ensaios de proficiência (EP. Logo, foi sugerido o uso do desvio padrão dos resultados de um grupo representativo de ensaios de proficiência de determinados ensaios (químico, físico, etc. para gerar um cálculo genérico da incerteza de medição para o setor de atuação do laboratório. Esta abordagem, além de simplificar o cálculo da incerteza de medição contempla um maior número de fontes de incerteza de medição.Laboratories participation in proficiency testing is one way to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of their measurement results. That is to say, through the proficiency testing, the laboratory ability of accomplishing tests and calibrations successfully can be evaluated. The proficiency testing supplies important information for the evaluation of laboratories, candidates to accreditation, accredited laboratories, notified or designated laboratories by regulatory bodies, and laboratories in general. This paper aims at

  1. The Formalization of Fairness: Issues in Testing for Measurement Invariance Using Subtest Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Borsboom, Denny

    2013-01-01

    Measurement invariance is an important prerequisite for the adequate comparison of group differences in test scores. In psychology, measurement invariance is typically investigated by means of linear factor analyses of subtest scores. These subtest scores typically result from summing the item scores. In this paper, we discuss 4 possible problems…

  2. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test for X Ray Fluorescence Laboratories PTXRFIAEA09: Determination of Major, Minor and Trace Elements in a River Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test PTXRFIAEA09 on the determination of major, minor and trace elements in river clay. Methodologies, a data evaluation approach, a summary evaluation of each element and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. The test was carried out within the IAEA project Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of the project was to enhance the capability of interest Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health and agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluating environmental pollution

  3. Quality improvement in determination of chemical oxygen demand in samples considered difficult to analyze, through participation in proficiency-testing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a critical analytical parameter in waste and wastewater treatment, more specifically in anaerobic digestion, although little is known about the quality of measuring COD of anaerobic digestion samples. Proficiency testing (PT) is a powerful tool that can be used...... to test the performance achievable in the participants laboratories, so we carried out a second PT of COD determination in samples considered ‘‘difficult’’ to analyze (i.e. solid samples and liquid samples with high concentrations of suspended solids). The results obtained (based on acceptable z...

  4. The Effect of Mock Tests on Iranian EFL learners’ Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khodabakhshzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of using tests in test preparation courses has been subject to debate. While some scholars such as Yang and Badger (2015 believe it is a cause of positive washback effect, others argue that this issue is tentative and context-bound (Green, 2007. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of using Mock tests in International English Language Testing System (IELTS preparation courses on students’ overall IELTS scores. Fifty one IELTS students were selected non-randomly through the quota sampling approach out of 76 students at Mahan Language Institute in Birjand, Iran.  These participants were distributed into Group 1 (n=25 and Group 2 (n=26. A complete IELTS test was administered to ensure that the Groups were homogeneous and to serve as pretest. After 10 sessions of intervention, a different IELTS test was administered as posttest. The results of between subject analysis through independent samples t-test revealed that using Mock tests in the IELTS preparation courses can positively affect the participants scores on IELTS exam. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  5. A summary of EPA radon chamber tests and results for rounds 3 and 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.M.; Sensintaffar, E.L.

    1993-02-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) established the National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program in 1986. Through this voluntary program, participants can demonstrate their ability to measure radon and/or radon decay products by submitting their detection devices to a blind test in a designated radon chamber. In this report, two EPA radon and radon decay products test chambers (chambers A and C) located at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory in Montgomery, Alabama are described. These chambers were used to expose detectors submitted for testing in Round 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program and are used routinely for calibration purposes. Also described are the measurement and calibration procedures which were used to establish the official target values for radon and radon decay products concentrations during RMP Round 4 testing. The results for RMP Round 3 (conducted at the US DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory radon chamber in New York) and RMP Round 4 (conducted in the two NAREL chambers) are discussed and compared. Following Round 4, the NAREL staff analyzed the collective performance for each measurement method tested in these rounds and found that all methods agreed with the target values within expected limits except for RPISU's and charcoal adsorbers. After analyzing the RMP4 results, NAREL staff spent several months evaluating the difference in charcoal adsorber response between Round 3 and 4 by performing radon chamber tests using EPA 4-inch, open-faced charcoal adsorbers

  6. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-11 proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in air filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Kim, C.-K.; Sansone, U.; Ferrari, M.; Sill, D.

    2006-10-01

    This report summarises the results of the IAEA-CU-2006-11 proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in air filters, organised within the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation project RER/8/009 ''Air Pollution Monitoring in the Mediterranean Region''. The proficiency test was conducted by the Reference Materials Group of the Chemistry Unit (Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory) of the IAEA's analytical laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria) in cooperation with the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Department of Energy in the United States of America. The objective of TC project RER/8/009 is to contribute to air quality improvement through the establishment of a network for air monitoring and the design of a remedial strategy where the monitoring shows poor air quality. A spiked air filter with known activities of gamma emitting radionuclides prepared by the Department of Energy of the United States of America was used in this proficiency test. 14 spiked filters were distributed to the participating laboratories in April 2006. The deadline for receiving the results from the participants was set at 31 July 2006. The participating laboratories were requested to analyse the samples employing the methods used in their routine work, so that their performance on the test samples could be directly related to the real performance of the laboratory. Each laboratory was given a confidential code to assure the anonymity of the evaluation results. From the 14 initially registered, 11 laboratories reported their results back to the IAEA. The analytical results of the participating laboratories were evaluated against the reference values assigned to the reference air filter, and a rating system was applied

  7. Relationship between motor proficiency and body composition in 6- to 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, José; Veiga, Guida; Cansado, Hugo; Raimundo, Armando

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between motor skill competence and body composition of 6- to 10-year-old children. Seventy girls and 86 boys participated. Body composition was measured by body mass index and skinfold thickness. Motor proficiency was evaluated through the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form, which included measures of gross motor skills and fine motor skills. Significant associations were found for both sexes between the percentage of body fat and (i) the performance in each gross motor task, (ii) the composite score for gross motor skills and (iii) the motor proficiency score. The percentage of body fat was not significantly associated with the majority of the fine motor skills items and with the respective composite score. Considering body weigh categories, children with normal weight had significantly higher scores than their peers with overweight or with obesity in gross motor skills and in overall motor proficiency. Children's motor proficiency is negatively associated with body fat, and normal weight children show better motor competence than those who are overweight or obese. The negative impact of excessive body weight is stronger for gross motor skills that involve dynamic body movements than for stationary object control skills; fine motor skills appear to be relatively independent of the constraints imposed by excessive body weight. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. The correlation between motor proficiency and physical activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lizl-Louise van Niekerk

    eOseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 (BOT-2) for motor proficiency, and the International. Physical Activity ... Pienaar, 2007; Malina, 2012). ..... sults of Hardy, Reinten-Reynolds, Espinel, Zask, and Okely .... Journal of Psychiatric and Mental.

  9. Recent advances in ratio primary reference measurement procedures (definitive methods) and their use in certification of reference materials and controlling assigned values in proficiency testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Pyszynska, M.

    2014-01-01

    Three very accurate (definitive) methods by RNAA for the determination of Se, As and Fe respectively, which were recently elaborated in our laboratory, are reviewed and their use in certification of reference materials and in checking the assigned values in proficiency tests is demonstrated on several examples. According to VIM 3 nomenclature these methods may be called: ratio primary reference measurement procedures (RPRMPs). RPRMPs with their expanded uncertainties of 2.7-3.6 % are comparable to ID-MS methods and are the only methods of such high metrological quality which can be used for the determination of trace amounts of monoisotopic elements. (author)

  10. Language proficiency and nursing registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    This discussion paper focuses on English proficiency standards for nursing registration in Australia, how Australia has dealt with the issue of language proficiency, and the factors which have led to the establishment of the current language standards. Also, this paper will provide a comparison of the two language tests that are currently accepted in Australia (OET and IELTS), including the appropriateness of these tests and the minimum standards used. The paper will also examine the use of educational background as an indicator of language proficiency. Finally, communication-based complaints in the post-registration environment will be explored, and some discussion will be provided about why pre-registration measures might have failed to prevent such problematic situations from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Study of the Use of the "TOEFL iBT"® Test Speaking and Listening Scores for International Teaching Assistant Screening. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-27. ETS Research Report. RR-16-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Elvis

    2016-01-01

    Although the speaking section of the "TOEFL iBT"® test is used by many universities to determine if international teaching assistants (ITAs) have the oral proficiency necessary to be classroom instructors, relatively few studies have investigated the validity of using TOEFL iBT scores for ITA screening. The primary purpose of this study…

  12. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: The Longitudinal Value of Local Cut Scores Using State Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M.; Van Norman, Ethan R.; VanDerHeyden, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    We used existing reading (n = 1,498) and math (n = 2,260) data to evaluate state test scores for screening middle school students. In Phase 1, state test data were used to create a research-derived cut score that was optimal for predicting state test performance the following year. In Phase 2, those cut scores were applied with future cohorts.…

  13. The Effect of Black Peers on Black Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armor, David J.; Duck, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have used increasingly complex methodologies to estimate the effect of peer characteristics--race, poverty, and ability--on student achievement. A paper by Hanushek, Kain, and Rivkin using Texas state testing data has received particularly wide attention because it found a large negative effect of school percent black on black math…

  14. The Effects of Listening to Music Just Before Reading Test on Students’ Test Score

    OpenAIRE

    MAHDAVI, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In this study the researcher  examined  the  effect  of  music  on  reading  comprehension played just before the test .  Because the emotional consequences of music listening are evident in stress and anxiety removal, it was used as a tool to pacify the mind of the tastes and boost their memory and the related cognitive processes. Experimental group did well with the mean score of) and control group (). This study confirmed that using multimedia devices such as music can not only i...

  15. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  16. The Effects of Type and Quantity of Input on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Language Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hassanzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the written texts on foreign language learning, a group of studies has stressed the function of learning context and learning chances for learners’ language input. The present thesis had two main goals: on the one hand, different types of input to which Iranian grade four high school EFL learners’ are exposed were looked at; on the other hand, the possible relationship between types and quantity of input and Iranian EFL learners’ oral proficiency was investigated. It was supposed that EFL learners who have access to more input will show better oral proficiency than those who do not have. Instruments used in the present study for the purpose of data collation included  PET test, researcher- made questionnaire, oral language proficiency test and face- to -face interview. Data were gathered from 50 Iranian female grade four high school foreign language learners who were selected from among 120 students whose score on PET test were +1SD from the mean score. The results of the Spearman rank –order correlation test for the types of input and oral language proficiency scores, showed that the participants’ oral proficiency score significantly correlated with the intended four sources of input including spoken (rho= 0.416, sig=0.003, written (rho= 0.364, sig=0.009, aural (rho= 0.343, sig=0.015 and visual or audio-visual types of input (rho= 0.47, sig=0.00. The findings of Spearman rank –order correlation test for the quantity of input and oral language proficiency scores also showed a significant relationship between quantity of input and oral language proficiency (rho= 0.543, sig= 0.00. The findings showed that EFL learners’ oral proficiency is significantly correlated with efficient and effective input. The findings may also suggest  answers to the question why most Iranian English learners fail to speak English fluently, which might be due to  lack of effective input. This may emphasize the importance of the types and quantity of

  17. Continuous Analytical Performances Monitoring at the On-Site Laboratory through Proficiency, Inter-Laboratory Testing and Inter-Comparison Analytical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhamel, G.; Decaillon, J.-G.; Dashdondog, S.; Kim, C.-K.; Toervenyi, A.; Hara, S.; Kato, S.; Kawaguchi, T.; Matsuzawa, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, as one measure to strengthen its quality management system, the On-Site Laboratory for nuclear safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, has increased its participation in domestic and international proficiency and inter-laboratory testing for the purpose of determining analytical method accuracy, precision and robustness but also to support method development and improvement. This paper provides a description of the testing and its scheduling. It presents the way the testing was optimized to cover most of the analytical methods at the OSL. The paper presents the methodology used for the evaluation of the obtained results based on Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results are discussed with respect to random, systematic and long term systematic error. (author)

  18. A Validation Study of the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lynn E.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study validated the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA), an oral proficiency instrument designed for students in elementary foreign language programs. Elementary students who were tested with the SOPA were also administered other instruments designed to measure proficiency. These instruments included the Stanford Foreign Language Oral…

  19. Investigating Robustness of Item Response Theory Proficiency Estimators to Atypical Response Behaviors under Two-Stage Multistage Testing. ETS GRE® Board Research Report. ETS GRE®-16-03. ETS Research Report No. RR-16-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which item response theory (IRT) proficiency estimation methods are robust to the presence of aberrant responses under the "GRE"® General Test multistage adaptive testing (MST) design. To that end, a wide range of atypical response behaviors affecting as much as 10% of the test items…

  20. Comparing the Effects of Elementary Music and Visual Arts Lessons on Standardized Mathematics Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Molly Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to compare the effect elementary music and visual arts lessons had on third through sixth grade standardized mathematics test scores. Inferential statistics were used to compare the differences between test scores of students who took in-school, elementary, music instruction during the…

  1. The Implications of Family Size and Birth Order for Test Scores and Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…

  2. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  3. AP Trends: Tests Soar, Scores Slip--Gaps between Groups Spur Equity Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    More students are taking Advanced Placement tests, but the proportion of tests receiving what is deemed a passing score has dipped, and the mean score is down for the fourth year in a row. Data released here this week by the New York City-based nonprofit organization that owns the AP brand shows that a greater-than-ever proportion of students…

  4. Fine motor skill proficiency in typically developing children: On or off the maturation track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, David; Issartel, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Fine motor skill proficiency is an essential component of numerous daily living activities such as dressing, feeding or playing. Poor fine motor skills can lead to difficulties in academic achievement, increased anxiety and poor self-esteem. Recent findings have shown that children's gross motor skill proficiency tends to fall below established developmental norms. A question remains: do fine motor skill proficiency levels also fall below developmental norms? The aim of this study was to examine the current level of fine motor skill in Irish children. Children (N=253) from 2nd, 4th and 6th grades (mean age=7.12, 9.11 and 11.02 respectively) completed the Fine Motor Composite of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd Edition (BOT-2). Analysis revealed that only 2nd grade children met the expected level of fine motor skill proficiency. It was also found that despite children's raw scores improving with age, children's fine motor skill proficiency was not progressing at the expected rate given by normative data. This leads us to question the role and impact of modern society on fine motor skills development over the past number of decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Do "TOEFL iBT"® Scores Reflect Improvement in English-Language Proficiency? Extending the TOEFL iBT Validity Argument. Research Report. ETS RR-14-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guangming; Powers, Donald E.; Adler, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    One fundamental way to determine the validity of standardized English-language test scores is to investigate the extent to which they reflect anticipated learning effects in different English-language programs. In this study, we investigated the extent to which the "TOEFL iBT"® practice test reflects the learning effects of students at…

  6. Concurrent and construct validation of the short form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and the Movement-ABC when administered under field conditions: implications for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spironello, C; Hay, J; Missiuna, C; Faught, B E; Cairney, J

    2010-07-01

    Among the most widely used instruments to assess developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) in children are the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC). However, there is little research on agreement between these tests, when administered to children in field-based settings by trained non-clinicians. Ten of 75 schools participating in a larger study were randomly selected. All children in grade 4 (n= 340) in each of these schools were assessed at the same time using both the BOTMP-SF and the M-ABC in May of 2005. The order of tests was balanced, with an average gap in time between tests of 10-15 min. All tests were administered by trained research assistants. The correlation between tests was moderate (r= 0.50, P motor tests, as well as on only the BOTMP-SF, had higher body mass index, poorer physical fitness and lower levels of teacher-reported physical ability than those positive for DCD on the M-ABC only or those who scored negatively on both tests. In general, the agreement between tests, even after adjustment for RIOC, was poor. Children identified with poor motor competence by both tests or by the BOTMP-SF only are at particular risk for poor physical fitness, overweight/obesity and physical inactivity. It appears that each assessment measures different dimensions of motor ability but that under field-based conditions the M-ABC may be less useful when applied by non-clinicians.

  7. PISA Proficiency Scores Predict Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Antoine; Keller, Ulrich; Preckel, Franzis; Brunner, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA) examines the extent to which 15-year-old students who are near the end of compulsory education have acquired some of the competencies essential for participation in the labor market and society. Given that this participation hinges on educational attainment, it is crucial to…

  8. A process dissociation approach to objective-projective test score interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2002-02-01

    Even when self-report and projective measures of a given trait or motive both predict theoretically related features of behavior, scores on the 2 tests correlate modestly with each other. This article describes a process dissociation framework for personality assessment, derived from research on implicit memory and learning, which can resolve these ostensibly conflicting results. Research on interpersonal dependency is used to illustrate 3 key steps in the process dissociation approach: (a) converging behavioral predictions, (b) modest test score intercorrelations, and (c) delineation of variables that differentially affect self-report and projective test scores. Implications of the process dissociation framework for personality assessment and test development are discussed.

  9. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-06 proficiency test on the determination of major, minor and trace elements in ancient Chinese ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Trinkl, A.; Toervenyi, A.; Zeiller, E.; Benesch, T.; Sansone, U.

    2006-10-01

    The report summarises the results of a proficiency test conducted under the IAEA co-ordinated research project (CRP) F.2.30.23, ''Applications of nuclear analytical techniques to investigate the authenticity of art objects''. The proficiency test was organized and conducted by the Reference Materials Group of the Chemistry Unit (Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory) of the IAEA's analytical laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria). The objective of the CRP is to explore new fields of application for nuclear analytical techniques in art and archaeology. It will help to foster collaboration between museum conservators and analytical researchers. The dissemination of information on applications of advanced analytical techniques to art objects will stimulate the use of these techniques in developing Member States and help in conservation and recovery of national heritage. Historical artefacts and art objects are traded world wide and represent a potential source for forgery and false labelling. The market is huge and a large part of the trade is going from developing countries to the developed world where strict regulations can only be applied if convenient methods for checking the authenticity were available. Portable XRF (X-ray fluorescence) instruments for rapid screening analysis and PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) portable systems based on neutron sources for field work, as well as laboratory based techniques such as PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) have been applied non-destructively to investigate the provenience of archaeological objects and to determine different layers of precious paintings. The results of the CRP will be provided to member states for preservation of national heritage and secure legal enforcement. In the frame of the co-ordinated research project it was foreseen to conduct a proficiency test on the determination of major, minor and trace elements in an

  10. Assessment of performance of professionals in immunohematology proficiency tests of the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Stela; Ferreira, Angela Melgaço; de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Souza, Helio Moraes

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advances, the practice of blood transfusion is still a complex process and subject to risks. Factors that influence the safety of blood transfusion include technical skill and knowledge in hemotherapy mainly obtained by the qualification and training of teams. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between professional categories working in transfusion services of the public blood bank network in the State of Minas Gerais and their performance in proficiency tests. This was an observational cross-sectional study (2007-2008) performed using a specific instrument, based on evidence and the results of immunohematology proficiency tests as mandated by law. The error rates in ABO and RhD phenotyping, irregular antibody screening and cross-matching were 12.5%, 9.6%, 43.8% and 20.1%, respectively. When considering the number of tests performed, the error rates were 4.6%, 4.2%, 26.7% and 11.0%, respectively. The error rates varied for different professional categories: biochemists, biologists and biomedical scientists (65.0%), clinical pathology technicians (44.1%) and laboratory assistants, nursing technicians and assistant nurses (74.6%). A statistically significant difference was observed when the accuracy of clinical pathology technicians was compared with those of other professionals with only high school education (p-value < 0.001). This was not seen for professionals with university degrees (p-value = 0.293). These results reinforce the need to invest in training, improvement of educational programs, new teaching methods and tools for periodic evaluations, contributing to increase transfusion safety and improve hemotherapy in Brazil.

  11. Assessment of performance of professionals in immunohematology proficiency tests of the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Brener

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite significant advances, the practice of blood transfusion is still a complex process and subject to risks. Factors that influence the safety of blood transfusion include technical skill and knowledge in hemotherapy mainly obtained by the qualification and training of teams. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between professional categories working in transfusion services of the public blood bank network in the State of Minas Gerais and their performance in proficiency tests. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study (2007-2008 performed using a specific instrument, based on evidence and the results of immunohematology proficiency tests as mandated by law. RESULTS: The error rates in ABO and RhD phenotyping, irregular antibody screening and cross-matching were 12.5%, 9.6%, 43.8% and 20.1%, respectively. When considering the number of tests performed, the error rates were 4.6%, 4.2%, 26.7% and 11.0%, respectively. The error rates varied for different professional categories: biochemists, biologists and biomedical scientists (65.0%, clinical pathology technicians (44.1% and laboratory assistants, nursing technicians and assistant nurses (74.6%. A statistically significant difference was observed when the accuracy of clinical pathology technicians was compared with those of other professionals with only high school education (p-value < 0.001. This was not seen for professionals with university degrees (p-value = 0.293. CONCLUSION: These results reinforce the need to invest in training, improvement of educational programs, new teaching methods and tools for periodic evaluations, contributing to increase transfusion safety and improve hemotherapy in Brazil.

  12. Evaluating the spoken English proficiency of graduates of foreign medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, J R; van Zanten, M; McKinley, D W; Gary, N E

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather additional evidence for the validity and reliability of spoken English proficiency ratings provided by trained standardized patients (SPs) in high-stakes clinical skills examination. Over 2500 candidates who took the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates' (ECFMG) Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) were studied. The CSA consists of 10 or 11 timed clinical encounters. Standardized patients evaluate spoken English proficiency and interpersonal skills in every encounter. Generalizability theory was used to estimate the consistency of spoken English ratings. Validity coefficients were calculated by correlating summary English ratings with CSA scores and other external criterion measures. Mean spoken English ratings were also compared by various candidate background variables. The reliability of the spoken English ratings, based on 10 independent evaluations, was high. The magnitudes of the associated variance components indicated that the evaluation of a candidate's spoken English proficiency is unlikely to be affected by the choice of cases or SPs used in a given assessment. Proficiency in spoken English was related to native language (English versus other) and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The pattern of the relationships, both within assessment components and with external criterion measures, suggests that valid measures of spoken English proficiency are obtained. This result, combined with the high reproducibility of the ratings over encounters and SPs, supports the use of trained SPs to measure spoken English skills in a simulated medical environment.

  13. A comparison of likelihood ratio tests and Rao's score test for three separable covariance matrix structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Katarzyna; Klein, Daniel; Roy, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    The problem of testing the separability of a covariance matrix against an unstructured variance-covariance matrix is studied in the context of multivariate repeated measures data using Rao's score test (RST). The RST statistic is developed with the first component of the separable structure as a first-order autoregressive (AR(1)) correlation matrix or an unstructured (UN) covariance matrix under the assumption of multivariate normality. It is shown that the distribution of the RST statistic under the null hypothesis of any separability does not depend on the true values of the mean or the unstructured components of the separable structure. A significant advantage of the RST is that it can be performed for small samples, even smaller than the dimension of the data, where the likelihood ratio test (LRT) cannot be used, and it outperforms the standard LRT in a number of contexts. Monte Carlo simulations are then used to study the comparative behavior of the null distribution of the RST statistic, as well as that of the LRT statistic, in terms of sample size considerations, and for the estimation of the empirical percentiles. Our findings are compared with existing results where the first component of the separable structure is a compound symmetry (CS) correlation matrix. It is also shown by simulations that the empirical null distribution of the RST statistic converges faster than the empirical null distribution of the LRT statistic to the limiting χ 2 distribution. The tests are implemented on a real dataset from medical studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Recent advances in ratio primary reference measurement procedures (definitive methods) and their use in certification of reference materials and controlling assigned values in proficiency testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczyñski, R.S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Pyszynska, M.

    2014-01-01

    The idea of definitive methods based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA), consists in combination of neutron activation with the highly selective and quantitative post-irradiation isolation of the desired radionuclide by column chromatography followed by γ-ray spectrometric measurement. The principles of construction of such methods, which were devised in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, are reminded and the significance of these methods for analytical quality assurance is emphasized. According to VIM 3 nomenclature these methods may be called: ratio primary reference measurement procedures (RPRMPs). RPRMP for the determination of Se is briefly presented and its use for checking the accuracy of 'assigned values' established by expert laboratories in some proficiency tests, is demonstrated

  15. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  16. Effects of Analytical and Holistic Scoring Patterns on Scorer Reliability in Biology Essay Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuoh, Casmir N.

    2018-01-01

    Literature revealed that the patterns/methods of scoring essay tests had been criticized for not being reliable and this unreliability is more likely to be more in internal examinations than in the external examinations. The purpose of this study is to find out the effects of analytical and holistic scoring patterns on scorer reliability in…

  17. Optimal Scoring Methods of Hand-Strength Tests in Patients with Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring methods…

  18. Individual Differences in Digit Span, Susceptibility to Proactive Interference, and Aptitude/Achievement Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Frank N.; Cooney, John B.

    1982-01-01

    Individual differences in digit span, susceptibility to proactive interference, and various aptitude/achievement test scores were investigated in two experiments with college students. Results indicated that digit span was strongly correlated with aptitude/achievement scores, but did not indicate that susceptibility to proactive interference…

  19. The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

  20. Use of Standardized Test Scores to Predict Success in a Computer Applications Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert V.; King, Stephanie B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if a relationship existed between American College Testing (ACT) scores (i.e., English, reading, mathematics, science reasoning, and composite) and student success in a computer applications course at a Mississippi community college. The study showed that while the ACT scores were excellent predictors of…

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and the Hip Outcome Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Hon, Shirley D; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D; Aoki, Stephen K; Anderson, Mike B; Kapron, Ashley L; Peters, Christopher L; Pelt, Christopher E

    2014-12-01

    The applicability and validity of many patient-reported outcome measures in the high-functioning population are not well understood. To compare the psychometric properties of the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale (HOS-ADL) and sports (HOS-sports), and the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test (LE CAT). The hypotheses was that all instruments would perform well but that the LE CAT would show superiority psychometrically because a combination of CAT and a large item bank allows for a high degree of measurement precision. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Data were collected from 472 advanced-age, active participants from the Huntsman World Senior Games in 2012. Validity evidences were examined through item fit, dimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, differential item functioning, person raw score to measure correlation, and instrument coverage (ie, ceiling and floor effects), and reliability evidences were examined through Cronbach alpha and person separation index. All instruments demonstrated good item fit, unidimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, and person raw score to measure correlations. The HOS-ADL had high ceiling effects of 36.02%, and the mHHS had ceiling effects of 27.54%. The LE CAT had ceiling effects of 8.47%, and the HOS-sports had no ceiling effects. None of the instruments had any floor effects. The mHHS had a very low Cronbach alpha of 0.41 and an extremely low person separation index of 0.08. Reliabilities for the LE CAT were excellent and for the HOS-ADL and HOS-sports were good. The LE CAT showed better psychometric properties overall than the HOS-ADL, HOS-sports, and mHHS for the senior population. The mHHS demonstrated pronounced ceiling effects and poor reliabilities that should be of concern. The high ceiling effects for the HOS-ADL were also of concern. The LE CAT was superior in all psychometric aspects examined in this study. Future

  2. Contributions of Hamstring Stiffness to Straight-Leg-Raise and Sit-and-Reach Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Kimura, Noriko; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri

    2018-02-01

    The passive straight-leg-raise (PSLR) and the sit-and-reach (SR) tests have been widely used to assess hamstring extensibility. However, it remains unclear to what extent hamstring stiffness (a measure of material properties) contributes to PSLR and SR test scores. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the relationship between hamstring stiffness and PSLR and SR scores using ultrasound shear wave elastography. Ninety-eight healthy subjects completed the study. Each subject completed PSLR testing, and classic and modified SR testing of the right leg. Muscle shear modulus of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus was quantified as an index of muscle stiffness. The relationships between shear modulus of each muscle and PSLR or SR scores were calculated using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients. Shear modulus of the semitendinosus and semimembranosus showed negative correlations with the two PSLR and two SR scores (absolute r value≤0.484). Shear modulus of the biceps femoris was significantly correlated with the PSLR score determined by the examiner and the modified SR score (absolute r value≤0.308). The present findings suggest that PSLR and SR test scores are strongly influenced by factors other than hamstring stiffness and therefore might not accurately evaluate hamstring stiffness. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

    2005-06-01

    Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores.

  4. A Maturing Global Testing Regime Meets the World Economy: Test Scores and Economic Growth, 1960-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the growth of the international testing regime. It discusses sources of growth and empirically examines two related sets of issues: (1) the stability of countries' achievement scores, and (2) the influence of those national scores on subsequent economic development over different time lags. The article suggests that…

  5. Identifying genetic marker sets associated with phenotypes via an efficient adaptive score test

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, T.; Lin, X.; Carroll, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    the overall effect of a marker-set have been actively studied in recent years. For example, score tests derived under an Empirical Bayes (EB) framework (Liu and others, 2007. Semiparametric regression of multidimensional genetic pathway data: least

  6. Explaining the black-white gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Jonathan M; Newman, Daniel A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-11-01

    In understanding the causes of adverse impact, a key parameter is the Black-White difference in cognitive test scores. To advance theory on why Black-White cognitive ability/knowledge test score gaps exist, and on how these gaps develop over time, the current article proposes an inductive explanatory model derived from past empirical findings. According to this theoretical model, Black-White group mean differences in cognitive test scores arise from the following racially disparate conditions: family income, maternal education, maternal verbal ability/knowledge, learning materials in the home, parenting factors (maternal sensitivity, maternal warmth and acceptance, and safe physical environment), child birth order, and child birth weight. Results from a 5-wave longitudinal growth model estimated on children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development from ages 4 through 15 years show significant Black-White cognitive test score gaps throughout early development that did not grow significantly over time (i.e., significant intercept differences, but not slope differences). Importantly, the racially disparate conditions listed above can account for the relation between race and cognitive test scores. We propose a parsimonious 3-Step Model that explains how cognitive test score gaps arise, in which race relates to maternal disadvantage, which in turn relates to parenting factors, which in turn relate to cognitive test scores. This model and results offer to fill a need for theory on the etiology of the Black-White ethnic group gap in cognitive test scores, and attempt to address a missing link in the theory of adverse impact. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.

  8. The Effects of Open Enrollment, Curriculum Alignment, and Data-Driven Instruction on the Test Performance of English Language Learners (ELLs) and Re-Designated Fluent English Proficient Students (RFEPs) at Shangri-La High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of open enrollment, curriculum alignment, and data-driven instruction on the test performance of English Language Learners (ELLs) and Re-designated Fluent English Proficient students (RFEPs) at Shangri-la High School. Participants of this study consisted of the student population enrolled in…

  9. Does breastfeeding contribute to the racial gap in reading and math test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kristen E; Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G; Witko, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of divergent breastfeeding practices between Caucasian and African American mothers on the lingering achievement test gap between Caucasian and African American children. The Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, beginning in 1997, followed a cohort of 3563 children aged 0-12 years. Reading and math test scores from 2002 for 1928 children were linked with breastfeeding history. Regression analysis was used to examine associations between ever having been breastfed and duration of breastfeeding and test scores, controlling for characteristics of child, mother, and household. African American students scored significantly lower than Caucasian children by 10.6 and 10.9 points on reading and math tests, respectively. After accounting for the impact of having been breastfed during infancy, the racial test gap decreased by 17% for reading scores and 9% for math scores. Study findings indicate that breastfeeding explains 17% and 9% of the observed gaps in reading and math scores, respectively, between African Americans and Caucasians, an effect larger than most recent educational policy interventions. Renewed efforts around policies and clinical practices that promote and remove barriers for African American mothers to breastfeed should be implemented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Depressive status explains a significant amount of the variance in COPD assessment test (CAT) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Molina, Jesús; Quintano, José Antonio; Campuzano, Anna; Pérez, Joselín; Roncero, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    COPD assessment test (CAT) is a short, easy-to-complete health status tool that has been incorporated into the multidimensional assessment of COPD in order to guide therapy; therefore, it is important to understand the factors determining CAT scores. This is a post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional, observational study conducted in respiratory medicine departments and primary care centers in Spain with the aim of identifying the factors determining CAT scores, focusing particularly on the cognitive status measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and levels of depression measured by the short Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A total of 684 COPD patients were analyzed; 84.1% were men, the mean age of patients was 68.7 years, and the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%) was 55.1%. Mean CAT score was 21.8. CAT scores correlated with the MMSE score (Pearson's coefficient r =-0.371) and the BDI ( r =0.620), both p CAT scores and explained 45% of the variability. However, a model including only MMSE and BDI scores explained up to 40% and BDI alone explained 38% of the CAT variance. CAT scores are associated with clinical variables of severity of COPD. However, cognitive status and, in particular, the level of depression explain a larger percentage of the variance in the CAT scores than the usual COPD clinical severity variables.

  11. An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2013-01-01

    Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

  12. Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J; Brooks, Lyndon O; Beard, John R

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether childhood fundamental motor skill proficiency predicts subsequent adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness. In 2000, children's proficiency in a battery of skills was assessed as part of an elementary school-based intervention. Participants were followed up during 2006/2007 as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study, and cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the Multistage Fitness Test. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between childhood fundamental motor skill proficiency and adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness controlling for gender. Composite object control (kick, catch, throw) and locomotor skill (hop, side gallop, vertical jump) were constructed for analysis. A separate linear regression examined the ability of the sprint run to predict cardiorespiratory fitness. Of the 928 original intervention participants, 481 were in 28 schools, 276 (57%) of whom were assessed. Two hundred and forty-four students (88.4%) completed the fitness test. One hundred and twenty-seven were females (52.1%), 60.1% of whom were in grade 10 and 39.0% were in grade 11. As children, almost all 244 completed each motor assessments, except for the sprint run (n = 154, 55.8%). The mean composite skill score in 2000 was 17.7 (SD 5.1). In 2006/2007, the mean number of laps on the Multistage Fitness Test was 50.5 (SD 24.4). Object control proficiency in childhood, adjusting for gender (P = 0.000), was associated with adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness (P = 0.012), accounting for 26% of fitness variation. Children with good object control skills are more likely to become fit adolescents. Fundamental motor skill development in childhood may be an important component of interventions aiming to promote long-term fitness.

  13. The Nevada Proficiency Examination Program: Evaluating the Writing Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Edward H.

    Writing tests are part of the mandated statewide proficiency examination in Nevada. The ninth-grade screening test and the eleventh-grade diploma-certifying test require that a student write a paragraph and a business letter, each on an assigned topic and each at an acceptable level of proficiency. Pilot tests, extended discussion, and statistical…

  14. Relationship between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency in first-grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibe Soltaninejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Phonological awareness (consisting of phoneme, syllable and intra-syllable awareness is an important part of receptive and expressive language; it facilitates reading and writing skills through phonological re-coding. Multiple studies in several languages have studied the relationship between phonological awareness and dictation. This research is based on a study of the relationship between phonological skill and spelling score in first-grade Persian students.Methods: Four hundred first-grade students participated in the study, including 209 girls and 191 boys. A phonological awareness test was individually administered for each student and then a spelling exam was administered in groups. The correlation between the two tests was studied using a simple regression model. The comparison of mean scores of girls and boys was evaluated employing an independent t-test.Results: A correlation coefficient of 0.82 was obtained between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency (p<0.001. Phonological skill sub-tests also showed a significant correlation with spelling proficiency (highest for phoneme awareness r=0.34 and lowest for rhyme awareness r=0.12. The mean scores of girls and boys differed significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: There is a strong positive association between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency. Therefore, if phonological skill is improved, spelling score can be enhanced.

  15. Tactical proficiency among table tennis players with and without intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Mactavish, Jennifer; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2014-01-01

    The effect of intellectual impairment on sports performance has received limited attention by researchers. As a contribution to closing this gap, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine the differences in tactical proficiency between table tennis players with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). These groups were matched for training-volume and experience and consisted of 41 male (age = 27±8) and 30 female (age= 28±8) elite players with ID and a reference group of 12 male (age= 24±12) and 5 female (age= 20±9) players without ID. In two different test settings - one a World Championship and the other a training camp - the players in each group performed 60 semi-standardised rallies against the same opponent. Players were told that 12 sets of five identical services would be delivered, and their goal was to return the service with the intention of 'winning the point'. The test results were validated for this study, to compute tactical proficiency scores (maximal score of eight points) for each player. A two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower proficiency scores for players with ID than for those without ID. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that within each series of five rallies, starting with identical services, all participants were able to significantly improve their tactical proficiency gradually, but players without ID scored 4.3±0.5 from the first ball on, and while athletes with ID only 3.3±0.7 after five balls. The results of this study indicate that ID is associated with decreased tactical proficiency in table tennis.

  16. CIEMAT Interlaboratories Comparison of the Results obtained in the Proficiency Test Run by IAEA; Comparacion Interlaboratorios del CIEMAT de los Resultados Obtenidos en la Prueba de Capacitacion de Analisis de Transuranicos en Cenizas propocionadas por el OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs.

  17. Comparison of proficiency in an anesthesiology course across distinct medical student cohorts: Psychometric approaches to test equating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wei Liao

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Although both the chained linear equating method and Rasch analysis can be readily applied to practical test-equating issues in medical education, Rasch analysis exhibited more versatility in test parameter estimation and item bank development for clinical curriculums.

  18. The Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests and the American College Testing Program Tests as Predictors of Scores on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenbecker, Sueann; Wood, Peter H.

    1984-01-01

    Scores from the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE) served as the criterion variable in a comparison of the predictive validity of the Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests (DHAT) and the ACT Assessment tests. The DHAT-Science and Verbal tests combined to produce the highest multiple correlation with NBDHE scores. (Author/DWH)

  19. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Constant Score (CS), developed as a scoring system to evaluate overall functionality of patients with shoulder disorders, is widely used but has been criticised for relying on an imprecise terminology and for lack of a standardised methodology. A modified guideline was therefore...... differences. One of the authors of the modified CS approved both the English and the Danish test protocol. CONCLUSION: A simple test protocol of the modified CS was developed in both English and Danish. With precise terminology and definitions, the test protocol is the first of its kind. We suggest its use...

  20. The detection of problem analytes in a single proficiency test challenge in the absence of the Health Care Financing Administration rule violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrowski, G S; Hackney, J R; Carey, N

    1993-04-01

    The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1988 (CLIA 88) has dramatically changed proficiency testing (PT) practices having mandated (1) satisfactory PT for certain analytes as a condition of laboratory operation, (2) fixed PT limits for many of these "regulated" analytes, and (3) an increased number of PT specimens (n = 5) for each testing cycle. For many of these analytes, the fixed limits are much broader than the previously employed Standard Deviation Index (SDI) criteria. Paradoxically, there may be less incentive to identify and evaluate analytically significant outliers to improve the analytical process. Previously described "control rules" to evaluate these PT results are unworkable as they consider only two or three results. We used Monte Carlo simulations of Kodak Ektachem analyzers participating in PT to determine optimal control rules for the identification of PT results that are inconsistent with those from other laboratories using the same methods. The analysis of three representative analytes, potassium, creatine kinase, and iron was simulated with varying intrainstrument and interinstrument standard deviations (si and sg, respectively) obtained from the College of American Pathologists (Northfield, Ill) Quality Assurance Services data and Proficiency Test data, respectively. Analytical errors were simulated in each of the analytes and evaluated in terms of multiples of the interlaboratory SDI. Simple control rules for detecting systematic and random error were evaluated with power function graphs, graphs of probability of error detected vs magnitude of error. Based on the simulation results, we recommend screening all analytes for the occurrence of two or more observations exceeding the same +/- 1 SDI limit. For any analyte satisfying this condition, the mean of the observations should be calculated. For analytes with sg/si ratios between 1.0 and 1.5, a significant systematic error is signaled by the mean exceeding 1.0 SDI. Significant random error

  1. Decision making under internal uncertainty: the case of multiple-choice tests with different scoring rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Meyer, Joachim; Budescu, David V

    2003-02-01

    This paper assesses framing effects on decision making with internal uncertainty, i.e., partial knowledge, by focusing on examinees' behavior in multiple-choice (MC) tests with different scoring rules. In two experiments participants answered a general-knowledge MC test that consisted of 34 solvable and 6 unsolvable items. Experiment 1 studied two scoring rules involving Positive (only gains) and Negative (only losses) scores. Although answering all items was the dominating strategy for both rules, the results revealed a greater tendency to answer under the Negative scoring rule. These results are in line with the predictions derived from Prospect Theory (PT) [Econometrica 47 (1979) 263]. The second experiment studied two scoring rules, which allowed respondents to exhibit partial knowledge. Under the Inclusion-scoring rule the respondents mark all answers that could be correct, and under the Exclusion-scoring rule they exclude all answers that might be incorrect. As predicted by PT, respondents took more risks under the Inclusion rule than under the Exclusion rule. The results illustrate that the basic process that underlies choice behavior under internal uncertainty and especially the effect of framing is similar to the process of choice under external uncertainty and can be described quite accurately by PT. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Construction of an Exome-Wide Risk Score for Schizophrenia Based on a Weighted Burden Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David

    2018-01-01

    Polygenic risk scores obtained as a weighted sum of associated variants can be used to explore association in additional data sets and to assign risk scores to individuals. The methods used to derive polygenic risk scores from common SNPs are not suitable for variants detected in whole exome sequencing studies. Rare variants, which may have major effects, are seen too infrequently to judge whether they are associated and may not be shared between training and test subjects. A method is proposed whereby variants are weighted according to their frequency, their annotations and the genes they affect. A weighted sum across all variants provides an individual risk score. Scores constructed in this way are used in a weighted burden test and are shown to be significantly different between schizophrenia cases and controls using a five-way cross-validation procedure. This approach represents a first attempt to summarise exome sequence variation into a summary risk score, which could be combined with risk scores from common variants and from environmental factors. It is hoped that the method could be developed further. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  3. The Impact of the Use of Hierarchical Teaching on Test Scores of Students’ Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guorong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Test scores of students’ technology is the main basis for physical examination of college students’ physical, fitness evaluation based on test results. To change the view by the stratified teaching method consistent system of teaching mode, special movement technical level of students is improved significantly.

  4. How Well Does the Sum Score Summarize the Test? Summability as a Measure of Internal Consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeman, J.J.; De, Jong N.H.

    2018-01-01

    Many researchers use Cronbach's alpha to demonstrate internal consistency, even though it has been shown numerous times that Cronbach's alpha is not suitable for this. Because the intention of questionnaire and test constructers is to summarize the test by its overall sum score, we advocate

  5. The Disaggregation of Value-Added Test Scores to Assess Learning Outcomes in Economics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Wagner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study disaggregates posttest, pretest, and value-added or difference scores in economics into four types of economic learning: positive, retained, negative, and zero. The types are derived from patterns of student responses to individual items on a multiple-choice test. The micro and macro data from the "Test of Understanding in College…

  6. From Test Scores to Language Use: Emergent Bilinguals Using English to Accomplish Academic Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mojica, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Prominent discourses about emergent bilinguals' academic abilities tend to focus on performance as measured by test scores and perpetuate the message that emergent bilinguals trail far behind their peers. When we remove the constraints of formal testing situations, what can emergent bilinguals do in English as they engage in naturally occurring…

  7. Proficiency tests for evaluation of the {sup 99}Tc{sup m} measurements in the nuclear medicine; Aplicacao de teste de proficiencia para avaliacao da medicao de {sup 99}Tc{sup m} na medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de, E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.b, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.b, E-mail: aedu@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nicoli, Ieda Gomes, E-mail: ieda@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/DF), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Escritorio de Brasilia; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria, E-mail: falabarse@ird.gov.b, E-mail: axavier@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (ESPOA/CNEN-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escritorio de Porto Alegre

    2009-07-01

    This work performs the performance evaluation of 55 Brazilian nuclear medicine services in activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical containing {sup 99}Tc{sup m}. Proficiency tests based on the acceptance criteria of the Regulation ISO/IEC Guide 43-1 and on the accuracy of the brazilian Regulation CNEN-NN-3.05 were applied in 63 results of activity measurements in radionuclide calibrators used by those services. The performance services has shown that the criteria of the ISO/IEC 43-1, nevertheless to be more restrictive, presents results very consistent with the accuracy criteria requested by the Brazilian regulation

  8. A weighted generalized score statistic for comparison of predictive values of diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Andrzej S

    2013-03-15

    Positive and negative predictive values are important measures of a medical diagnostic test performance. We consider testing equality of two positive or two negative predictive values within a paired design in which all patients receive two diagnostic tests. The existing statistical tests for testing equality of predictive values are either Wald tests based on the multinomial distribution or the empirical Wald and generalized score tests within the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework. As presented in the literature, these test statistics have considerably complex formulas without clear intuitive insight. We propose their re-formulations that are mathematically equivalent but algebraically simple and intuitive. As is clearly seen with a new re-formulation we presented, the generalized score statistic does not always reduce to the commonly used score statistic in the independent samples case. To alleviate this, we introduce a weighted generalized score (WGS) test statistic that incorporates empirical covariance matrix with newly proposed weights. This statistic is simple to compute, always reduces to the score statistic in the independent samples situation, and preserves type I error better than the other statistics as demonstrated by simulations. Thus, we believe that the proposed WGS statistic is the preferred statistic for testing equality of two predictive values and for corresponding sample size computations. The new formulas of the Wald statistics may be useful for easy computation of confidence intervals for difference of predictive values. The introduced concepts have potential to lead to development of the WGS test statistic in a general GEE setting. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The Effect of Pretest Exercise on Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlukiewicz, Alec; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary

    2017-10-01

    Baseline neurocognitive assessment plays a critical role in return-to-play decision making following sport-related concussions. Prior studies have assessed the effect of a variety of modifying factors on neurocognitive baseline test scores. However, relatively little investigation has been conducted regarding the effect of pretest exercise on baseline testing. The aim of our investigation was to determine the effect of pretest exercise on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores in adolescent and young adult athletes. We hypothesized that athletes undergoing self-reported strenuous exercise within 3 hours of baseline testing would perform more poorly on neurocognitive metrics and would report a greater number of symptoms than those who had not completed such exercise. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The ImPACT records of 18,245 adolescent and young adult athletes were retrospectively analyzed. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, participants were dichotomized into groups based on a positive (n = 664) or negative (n = 6609) self-reported history of strenuous exercise within 3 hours of the baseline test. Participants with a positive history of exercise were then randomly matched, based on age, sex, education level, concussion history, and hours of sleep prior to testing, on a 1:2 basis with individuals who had reported no pretest exercise. The baseline ImPACT composite scores of the 2 groups were then compared. Significant differences were observed for the ImPACT composite scores of verbal memory, visual memory, reaction time, and impulse control as well as for the total symptom score. No significant between-group difference was detected for the visual motor composite score. Furthermore, pretest exercise was associated with a significant increase in the overall frequency of invalid test results. Our results suggest a statistically significant difference in ImPACT composite scores between

  10. The Impact of Correction for Guessing Formula on MC and Yes/No Vocabulary Tests' Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdollah baradaran

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A standard correction for random guessing (cfg formula on multiple-choice and Yes/Noexaminations was examined retrospectively in the scores of the intermediate female EFL learners in an English language school. The correctionwas a weighting formula for points awarded for correct answers,incorrect answers, and unanswered questions so that the expectedvalue of the increase in test score due to guessing was zero. The researcher compared uncorrected and corrected scores on examinationsusing multiple-choice and Yes/No formats. These short-answer formats eliminatedor at least greatly reduced the potential for guessing the correctanswer. The expectation for students to improve their grade by guessingon multiple-choice and Yes/No format examinations is well known. The researcher examined a method for correcting for random guessing (cfg " no knowledge" on multiple- choice and Yes/No vocabulary examinations by comparing application and non-application of correction for guessing (cfg formula on scores on these examinations. It was done to determine whether the test takers really knew the correct answer, or they had resorted to a kind of guessing. This study represented a unique opportunity to compare scores from multiple-choice and Yes/No examinations in a settingin which students were given the same number of questions ineach of the two format types testing their knowledge over thesame subject matter. The results of this study indicated that the significant differences were highlighted between the subjects' scores when cfg formula was applied and when it was not.

  11. Validation of new prognostic and predictive scores by sequential testing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, Carsten; Haukland, Ellinor; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: For practitioners, the question arises how their own patient population differs from that used in large-scale analyses resulting in new scores and nomograms and whether such tools actually are valid at a local level and thus can be implemented. A recent article proposed an easy-to-use method for the in-clinic validation of new prediction tools with a limited number of patients, a so-called sequential testing approach. The present study evaluates this approach in scores related to radiation oncology. Material and Methods: Three different scores were used, each predicting short overall survival after palliative radiotherapy (bone metastases, brain metastases, metastatic spinal cord compression). For each scenario, a limited number of consecutive patients entered the sequential testing approach. The positive predictive value (PPV) was used for validation of the respective score and it was required that the PPV exceeded 80%. Results: For two scores, validity in the own local patient population could be confirmed after entering 13 and 17 patients, respectively. For the third score, no decision could be reached even after increasing the sample size to 30. Conclusion: In-clinic validation of new predictive tools with sequential testing approach should be preferred over uncritical adoption of tools which provide no significant benefit to local patient populations. Often the necessary number of patients can be reached within reasonable time frames even in small oncology practices. In addition, validation is performed continuously as the data are collected. (orig.)

  12. Validation of new prognostic and predictive scores by sequential testing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Carsten [Radiation Oncology Unit, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway); Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Haukland, Ellinor; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid [Radiation Oncology Unit, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Background and Purpose: For practitioners, the question arises how their own patient population differs from that used in large-scale analyses resulting in new scores and nomograms and whether such tools actually are valid at a local level and thus can be implemented. A recent article proposed an easy-to-use method for the in-clinic validation of new prediction tools with a limited number of patients, a so-called sequential testing approach. The present study evaluates this approach in scores related to radiation oncology. Material and Methods: Three different scores were used, each predicting short overall survival after palliative radiotherapy (bone metastases, brain metastases, metastatic spinal cord compression). For each scenario, a limited number of consecutive patients entered the sequential testing approach. The positive predictive value (PPV) was used for validation of the respective score and it was required that the PPV exceeded 80%. Results: For two scores, validity in the own local patient population could be confirmed after entering 13 and 17 patients, respectively. For the third score, no decision could be reached even after increasing the sample size to 30. Conclusion: In-clinic validation of new predictive tools with sequential testing approach should be preferred over uncritical adoption of tools which provide no significant benefit to local patient populations. Often the necessary number of patients can be reached within reasonable time frames even in small oncology practices. In addition, validation is performed continuously as the data are collected. (orig.)

  13. The relationship between fundamental movement skill proficiency and physical self-confidence among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Bronagh; Belton, Sarahjane; Powell, Danielle; Issartel, Johann

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to assess fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency, physical self-confidence levels, and the relationship between these variables and gender differences among adolescents. Three hundred and ninety five adolescents aged 13.78 years (SD = ±1.2) from 20 schools were involved in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD), TGMD-2 and Victorian Skills Manual were used to assess 15 FMS. Participants' physical self-confidence was also assessed using a valid skill-specific scale. A significant correlation was observed between FMS proficiency and physical self-confidence for females only (r = 0.305, P < 0.001). Males rated themselves as having significantly higher physical self-confidence levels than females (P = 0.001). Males scored significantly higher than females in FMS proficiency (P < 0.05), and the lowest physical self-confidence group were significantly less proficient at FMS than the medium (P < 0.001) and high physical self-confidence groups (P < 0.05). This information not only highlights those in need of assistance to develop their FMS but will also facilitate in the development of an intervention which aims to improve physical self-confidence and FMS proficiency.

  14. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  15. Exploring the Effect of Teaching Test-Taking Strategies on Intermediate Level Learners on Reading Section of IELTS; Learners' Attitude in Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshsima, Hooshang; Saed, Amin; Mousaei, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Language proficiency tests have become common instruments to judge people based on their performance. Thus, the scores on language proficiency tests, such as the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) or Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), play a crucial role in the test-takers' lives. Because of increasing demands on…

  16. Do Standardized Tests Penalize Deep-Thinking, Creative, or Conscientious Students?: Some Personality Correlates of Graduate Record Examinations Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.; Kaufman, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to explore the relationship of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test scores to selected personality traits--conscientiousness, rationality, ingenuity, quickness, creativity, and depth. A sample of 342 GRE test takers completed short personality inventory scales for each trait. Analyses…

  17. Online pre-race education improves test scores for volunteers at a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Shane; Renier, Colleen; Sikka, Robby; Widstrom, Luke; Paulson, William; Christensen, Trent; Olson, David; Nelson, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether an online course would lead to increased knowledge about the medical issues volunteers encounter during a marathon. Health care professionals who volunteered to provide medical coverage for an annual marathon were eligible for the study. Demographic information about medical volunteers including profession, specialty, education level and number of marathons they had volunteered for was collected. A 15-question test about the most commonly encountered medical issues was created by the authors and administered before and after the volunteers took the online educational course and compared to a pilot study the previous year. Seventy-four subjects completed the pre-test. Those who participated in the pilot study last year (N = 15) had pre-test scores that were an average of 2.4 points higher than those who did not (mean ranks: pilot study = 51.6 vs. non-pilot = 33.9, p = 0.004). Of the 74 subjects who completed the pre-test, 54 also completed the post-test. The overall post-pre mean score difference was 3.8 ± 2.7 (t = 10.5 df = 53 p online education demonstrated a long-term (one-year) increase in test scores. Testing also continued to show short-term improvement in post-course test scores, compared to pre-course test scores. In general, marathon medical volunteers who had no volunteer experience demonstrated greater improvement than those who had prior volunteer experience.

  18. Development and validation of a theoretical test of proficiency for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savran, Mona M; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Horsleben Petersen, René

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Testing stimulates learning, improves long-term retention, and promotes technical performance. No purpose-orientated test of competence in the theoretical aspects of VATS lobectomy has previously been presented. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to develop and gather validity...... performed significantly better than the novices (p better than the novices (p

  19. Opportunity to learn: Investigating possible predictors for pre-course Test Of Astronomy STandards TOAST scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Katie J.

    As astronomy education researchers become more interested in experimentally testing innovative teaching strategies to enhance learning in introductory astronomy survey courses ("ASTRO 101"), scholars are placing increased attention toward better understanding factors impacting student gain scores on the widely used Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST). Usually used in a pre-test and post-test research design, one might naturally assume that the pre-course differences observed between high- and low-scoring college students might be due in large part to their pre-existing motivation, interest, experience in science, and attitudes about astronomy. To explore this notion, 11 non-science majoring undergraduates taking ASTRO 101 at west coast community colleges were interviewed in the first few weeks of the course to better understand students' pre-existing affect toward learning astronomy with an eye toward predicting student success. In answering this question, we hope to contribute to our understanding of the incoming knowledge of students taking undergraduate introductory astronomy classes, but also gain insight into how faculty can best meet those students' needs and assist them in achieving success. Perhaps surprisingly, there was only weak correlation between students' motivation toward learning astronomy and their pre-test scores. Instead, the most fruitful predictor of TOAST pre-test scores was the quantity of pre-existing, informal, self-directed astronomy learning experiences.

  20. Gender Gaps in High School GPA and ACT Scores: High School Grade Point Average and ACT Test Score by Subject and Gender. Information Brief 2014-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    Female students who graduated from high school in 2013 averaged higher grades than their male counterparts in all subjects, but male graduates earned higher scores on the math and science sections of the ACT. This information brief looks at high school grade point average and ACT test score by subject and gender

  1. [Japanese learners' processing time for reading English relative clauses analyzed in relation to their English listening proficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Yoshinori

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined Japanese university students' processing time for English subject and object relative clauses in relation to their English listening proficiency. In Analysis 1, the relation between English listening proficiency and reading span test scores was analyzed. The results showed that the high and low listening comprehension groups' reading span test scores do not differ. Analysis 2 investigated English listening proficiency and processing time for sentences with subject and object relative clauses. The results showed that reading the relative clause ending and the main verb section of a sentence with an object relative clause (such as "attacked" and "admitted" in the sentence "The reporter that the senator attacked admitted the error") takes less time for learners with high English listening scores than for learners with low English listening scores. In Analysis 3, English listening proficiency and comprehension accuracy for sentences with subject and object relative clauses were examined. The results showed no significant difference in comprehension accuracy between the high and low listening-comprehension groups. These results indicate that processing time for English relative clauses is related to the cognitive processes involved in listening comprehension, which requires immediate processing of syntactically complex audio information.

  2. L'evaluation de la competence linguistique des membres des ordres professionnels au Quebec (The Quebec Region Evaluation of Professional Personnel's Language Proficiency).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, Claude

    1981-01-01

    Describes a testing program designed to assess the French language proficiency of professionals desiring to practice in the Quebec region. Discusses the criteria used for the construction, administration, and scoring of the tests in compliance with the 1977 French language legislation. (MES)

  3. The Rating of Direct and Semi-Direct Oral Proficiency Interviews: Comparing Performance at Lower Proficiency Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Dorry M.; Tschirner, Erwin

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a study comparing student performances and test reliabilities for the German Speaking Test, a semi-direct tape-mediated oral proficiency test (GST) developed by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Oral Proficiency Interviews. (Author/VWL)

  4. First Language Proficiency and Successful Foreign Language Learning: The Case of High School Students Learning French as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnintedem, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a correlation between first language proficiency as measured by the Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT II) Reading and Language Arts and foreign language proficiency as measured by the French Language Proficiency Test. Data for the independent variable, first language proficiency, was collected from the…

  5. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p strength (r = 0.34, p strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities.

  6. Association between the gait pattern characteristics of older people and their two-step test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Toru

    2018-04-27

    The Two-Step test is one of three official tests authorized by the Japanese Orthopedic Association to evaluate the risk of locomotive syndrome (a condition of reduced mobility caused by an impairment of the locomotive organs). It has been reported that the Two-Step test score has a good correlation with one's walking ability; however, its association with the gait pattern of older people during normal walking is still unknown. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the associations between the gait patterns of older people observed during normal walking and their Two-Step test scores. We analyzed the whole waveforms obtained from the lower-extremity joint angles and joint moments of 26 older people in various stages of locomotive syndrome using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA was conducted using a 260 × 2424 input matrix constructed from the participants' time-normalized pelvic and right-lower-limb-joint angles along three axes (ten trials of 26 participants, 101 time points, 4 angles, 3 axes, and 2 variable types per trial). The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between the scores of the principal component vectors (PCVs) and the scores of the Two-Step test revealed that only one PCV (PCV 2) among the 61 obtained relevant PCVs is significantly related to the score of the Two-Step test. We therefore concluded that the joint angles and joint moments related to PCV 2-ankle plantar-flexion, ankle plantar-flexor moments during the late stance phase, ranges of motion and moments on the hip, knee, and ankle joints in the sagittal plane during the entire stance phase-are the motions associated with the Two-Step test.

  7. Water-level representation by men and women as a function of rod-and-frame test proficiency and visual and postural information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, M; Ohlmann, T

    1994-01-01

    In the water-level task, it has been repeatedly shown that, compared with men, women more often fail to represent the surface of a liquid as horizontal regardless of the tilt of the container. An attempt was made to reduce this robust gender gap through the manipulation of relevant upright references conveyed both by the position of the stimuli and the posture of the subject. It was reasoned that bringing the women to focus on such gravitational references through postural adjustment might help their performance equal that of men, thus shedding some light on the nature of the difficulty they experience in the standard setting. A lesser effect was anticipated among men. However, the results showed that, even after controlling for proficiency in the correlated visuospatial situation of the rod-and-frame test, the performance of men always surpassed that of women. Irrespective of gender, water-level representation on vertical sheets was unaffected by the subject's posture, whereas it improved when horizontal sheets were coupled with the most unstable posture. Whereas the persistence of the yet-unaccounted-for gender difference was underscored, the contributions of visual and postural cues issued at arm and full-body levels were discussed.

  8. External quality assurance of fibrinogen assays using normal plasma: results of the 2008 College of American Pathologists proficiency testing program in coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Mark T; Olson, John D; Chandler, Wayne L; Van Cott, Elizabeth M; Eby, Charles S; Teruya, Jun; Hollensead, Sandra C; Adcock, Dorothy M; Allison, Paul M; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice K; Smith, Marc D

    2012-07-01

    Proper diagnosis and therapy of fibrinogen deficiency requires high-quality fibrinogen assays. To assess the interlaboratory bias, precision, and grading of fibrinogen assays used by laboratories participating in the United States College of American Pathologists proficiency testing program in coagulation. Two identical vials of normal plasma were sent to more than 3500 laboratories. Participants measured fibrinogen levels using local methods. Fifty different fibrinogen methods were evaluated. All-method bias was 8.3% (range of method-specific biases, 0.0%-27.0%) and all-method coefficient of variation was 7.7% (range of method-specific coefficients of variation, 0.7%-25.8%). After controlling for reagent/instrument type, mean fibrinogen levels were 11.6% higher for prothrombin time-based reagents compared to Clauss (P graded as pass or fail using a target range of ±20% from the method mean (total pass rate, 98.8%). Total fail rate was 3.0-fold lower for mechanical instruments compared to photo-optical (0.5% versus 1.5%, P  =  .001). Nonetheless many photo-optical methods had very high precision and very low fail rates. Fibrinogen assays showed highly variable methodology and performance characteristics. Bias, precision, and grading were affected by the type of reagent or instrument used.

  9. Robust joint score tests in the application of DNA methylation data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Fu, Yuejiao; Wang, Xiaogang; Qiu, Weiliang

    2018-05-18

    Recently differential variability has been showed to be valuable in evaluating the association of DNA methylation to the risks of complex human diseases. The statistical tests based on both differential methylation level and differential variability can be more powerful than those based only on differential methylation level. Anh and Wang (2013) proposed a joint score test (AW) to simultaneously detect for differential methylation and differential variability. However, AW's method seems to be quite conservative and has not been fully compared with existing joint tests. We proposed three improved joint score tests, namely iAW.Lev, iAW.BF, and iAW.TM, and have made extensive comparisons with the joint likelihood ratio test (jointLRT), the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, and the AW test. Systematic simulation studies showed that: 1) the three improved tests performed better (i.e., having larger power, while keeping nominal Type I error rates) than the other three tests for data with outliers and having different variances between cases and controls; 2) for data from normal distributions, the three improved tests had slightly lower power than jointLRT and AW. The analyses of two Illumina HumanMethylation27 data sets GSE37020 and GSE20080 and one Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC data set GSE107080 demonstrated that three improved tests had higher true validation rates than those from jointLRT, KS, and AW. The three proposed joint score tests are robust against the violation of normality assumption and presence of outlying observations in comparison with other three existing tests. Among the three proposed tests, iAW.BF seems to be the most robust and effective one for all simulated scenarios and also in real data analyses.

  10. Using Standards and Empirical Evidence to Develop Academic English Proficiency Test Items in Reading. CSE Technical Report 664

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alison L.; Stevens, Robin; Butler, Frances A.; Huang, Becky; Miyoshi, Judy N.

    2005-01-01

    The work we report focuses on utilizing linguistic profiles of mathematics, science and social studies textbook selections for the creation of reading test specifications. Once we determined that a text and associated tasks fit within the parameters established in Butler et al. (2004), they underwent both internal and external review by language…

  11. The Relationships between Social Class, Listening Test Anxiety and Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Talebi Rezaabadi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening Anxiety Scale and a newly developed Foreign Language Social Anxiety Scale. The potential correlation between social anxiety and listening-test perfor...

  12. Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

  13. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  14. International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Stanford education professor Martin Carnoy examines four main critiques of how international test results are used in policymaking. Of particular interest are critiques of the policy analyses published by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Using average PISA scores as a comparative measure of student achievement is misleading…

  15. Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

  16. Changes in Student Populations and Average Test Scores of Dutch Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean…

  17. Evaluation of Two Methods for Modeling Measurement Errors When Testing Interaction Effects with Observed Composite Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Lai, Mark H. C.

    2018-01-01

    Path models with observed composites based on multiple items (e.g., mean or sum score of the items) are commonly used to test interaction effects. Under this practice, researchers generally assume that the observed composites are measured without errors. In this study, we reviewed and evaluated two alternative methods within the structural…

  18. Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnroe, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

  19. Test Score Gaps between Private and Government Sector Students at School Entry Age in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhijeet

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have noted that students enrolled in private schools in India perform better on average than students in government schools. In this paper, I show that large gaps in the test scores of children in private and public sector education are evident even at the point of initial enrollment in formal schooling and are associated with…

  20. Classroom Organizational Structure in Fifth Grade Math Classrooms and the Effect on Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Dallas Marie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the classroom organizational structure and MCT2 test scores of fifth-grade math students. The researcher gained insight regarding which structure teachers believe is most beneficial to them and students, and whether or not their belief of classroom organizational…

  1. Using College Admission Test Scores to Clarify High School Placement. Leading Indicator Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flug, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take…

  2. Validating Score Interpretations and Uses: Messick Lecture, Language Testing Research Colloquium, Cambridge, April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The argument-based approach to validation involves two steps; specification of the proposed interpretations and uses of the test scores as an interpretive argument, and the evaluation of the plausibility of the proposed interpretive argument. More ambitious interpretations and uses tend to involve an extended network of inferences and assumptions…

  3. Virginia tech freshman class becoming more competitive; Rise in grades and test scores noted

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech News

    2004-01-01

    Admission to Virginia Tech continues to become more competitive as applicants report higher grade point averages and test scores than previous years. The incoming class of 4,975 students has an average grade point average (GPA) of 3.68 and SAT 1203, up from 3.60 GPA and 1197 SAT in 2003.

  4. Specific algorithm method of scoring the Clock Drawing Test applied in cognitively normal elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Chaves Mendes-Santos

    Full Text Available The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is an inexpensive, fast and easily administered measure of cognitive function, especially in the elderly. This instrument is a popular clinical tool widely used in screening for cognitive disorders and dementia. The CDT can be applied in different ways and scoring procedures also vary. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to analyze the performance of elderly on the CDT and evaluate inter-rater reliability of the CDT scored by using a specific algorithm method adapted from Sunderland et al. (1989. METHODS: We analyzed the CDT of 100 cognitively normal elderly aged 60 years or older. The CDT ("free-drawn" and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE were administered to all participants. Six independent examiners scored the CDT of 30 participants to evaluate inter-rater reliability. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A score of 5 on the proposed algorithm ("Numbers in reverse order or concentrated", equivalent to 5 points on the original Sunderland scale, was the most frequent (53.5%. The CDT specific algorithm method used had high inter-rater reliability (p<0.01, and mean score ranged from 5.06 to 5.96. The high frequency of an overall score of 5 points may suggest the need to create more nuanced evaluation criteria, which are sensitive to differences in levels of impairment in visuoconstructive and executive abilities during aging.

  5. The Relationships between Social Class, Listening Test Anxiety and Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaabadi, Omid Talebi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening…

  6. Effects of Classroom Ventilation Rate and Temperature on Students' Test Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Haverinen-Shaughnessy

    Full Text Available Using a multilevel approach, we estimated the effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on academic achievement. The analysis is based on measurement data from a 70 elementary school district (140 fifth grade classrooms from Southwestern United States, and student level data (N = 3109 on socioeconomic variables and standardized test scores. There was a statistically significant association between ventilation rates and mathematics scores, and it was stronger when the six classrooms with high ventilation rates that were indicated as outliers were filtered (> 7.1 l/s per person. The association remained significant when prior year test scores were included in the model, resulting in less unexplained variability. Students' mean mathematics scores (average 2286 points were increased by up to eleven points (0.5% per each liter per second per person increase in ventilation rate within the range of 0.9-7.1 l/s per person (estimated effect size 74 points. There was an additional increase of 12-13 points per each 1°C decrease in temperature within the observed range of 20-25°C (estimated effect size 67 points. Effects of similar magnitude but higher variability were observed for reading and science scores. In conclusion, maintaining adequate ventilation and thermal comfort in classrooms could significantly improve academic achievement of students.

  7. Effects of Classroom Ventilation Rate and Temperature on Students' Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla; Shaughnessy, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Using a multilevel approach, we estimated the effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on academic achievement. The analysis is based on measurement data from a 70 elementary school district (140 fifth grade classrooms) from Southwestern United States, and student level data (N = 3109) on socioeconomic variables and standardized test scores. There was a statistically significant association between ventilation rates and mathematics scores, and it was stronger when the six classrooms with high ventilation rates that were indicated as outliers were filtered (> 7.1 l/s per person). The association remained significant when prior year test scores were included in the model, resulting in less unexplained variability. Students' mean mathematics scores (average 2286 points) were increased by up to eleven points (0.5%) per each liter per second per person increase in ventilation rate within the range of 0.9-7.1 l/s per person (estimated effect size 74 points). There was an additional increase of 12-13 points per each 1°C decrease in temperature within the observed range of 20-25°C (estimated effect size 67 points). Effects of similar magnitude but higher variability were observed for reading and science scores. In conclusion, maintaining adequate ventilation and thermal comfort in classrooms could significantly improve academic achievement of students.

  8. Effects of Classroom Ventilation Rate and Temperature on Students’ Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Using a multilevel approach, we estimated the effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on academic achievement. The analysis is based on measurement data from a 70 elementary school district (140 fifth grade classrooms) from Southwestern United States, and student level data (N = 3109) on socioeconomic variables and standardized test scores. There was a statistically significant association between ventilation rates and mathematics scores, and it was stronger when the six classrooms with high ventilation rates that were indicated as outliers were filtered (> 7.1 l/s per person). The association remained significant when prior year test scores were included in the model, resulting in less unexplained variability. Students’ mean mathematics scores (average 2286 points) were increased by up to eleven points (0.5%) per each liter per second per person increase in ventilation rate within the range of 0.9–7.1 l/s per person (estimated effect size 74 points). There was an additional increase of 12–13 points per each 1°C decrease in temperature within the observed range of 20–25°C (estimated effect size 67 points). Effects of similar magnitude but higher variability were observed for reading and science scores. In conclusion, maintaining adequate ventilation and thermal comfort in classrooms could significantly improve academic achievement of students. PMID:26317643

  9. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD, thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50 and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43 in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  10. Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test Scores and Lower Extremity Injury in NCAA Division I Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wilson C; Wang, Dean; Chen, James B; Vail, Jeremy; Rugg, Caitlin M; Hame, Sharon L

    2017-08-01

    Functional movement tests that are predictive of injury risk in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes are useful tools for sports medicine professionals. The Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-LQ) measures single-leg balance and reach distances in 3 directions. To assess whether the YBT-LQ predicts the laterality and risk of sports-related lower extremity (LE) injury in NCAA athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. The YBT-LQ was administered to 294 NCAA Division I athletes from 21 sports during preparticipation physical examinations at a single institution. Athletes were followed prospectively over the course of the corresponding season. Correlation analysis was performed between the laterality of reach asymmetry and composite scores (CS) versus the laterality of injury. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal asymmetry cutoff score for YBT-LQ. A multivariate regression analysis adjusting for sex, sport type, body mass index, and history of prior LE surgery was performed to assess predictors of earlier and higher rates of injury. Neither the laterality of reach asymmetry nor the CS correlated with the laterality of injury. ROC analysis found optimal cutoff scores of 2, 9, and 3 cm for anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral reach, respectively. All of these potential cutoff scores, along with a cutoff score of 4 cm used in the majority of prior studies, were associated with poor sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, none of the asymmetric cutoff scores were associated with earlier or increased rate of injury in the multivariate analyses. YBT-LQ scores alone do not predict LE injury in this collegiate athlete population. Sports medicine professionals should be cautioned against using the YBT-LQ alone to screen for injury risk in collegiate athletes.

  11. Effects of correcting for prematurity on cognitive test scores in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Ching, Michelle; Pascoe, Leona; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that test scores should be corrected for prematurity up to 3 years of age, but this practice varies greatly in both clinical and research settings. The aim of this study was to contrast the effects of using chronological age and those of using corrected age on measures of cognitive outcome across childhood. A theoretical model was constructed using norms from the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition; the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition Australian; and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, Fourth Edition Australian. Baseline scores representing different levels of functioning (70, below average; 85, borderline; and 100, average) were recalculated using the normative data for ages 6 months to 16 years to account for 1, 2, 3 and 4 months of prematurity. The model created depicted the difference in standardised scores between chronological and corrected age. Compared with scores corrected for prematurity, the absolute reduction in scores using chronological age was greater for increasing degree of prematurity, younger ages at assessment and higher baseline scores and was substantial even beyond 3 years of age. However, the pattern was erratic, with considerable fluctuation evident across different ages and baseline scores. Chronological age results in a lowering of scores at all ages for preterm-born subjects that is greater in the first few years and in those born at earlier gestational ages. Whether or not to correct for prematurity depends upon the context of the assessment. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Identifying genetic marker sets associated with phenotypes via an efficient adaptive score test

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, T.

    2012-06-25

    In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene-expression profiling have generated a large number of valuable datasets for assessing how genetic variations are related to disease outcomes. With such datasets, it is often of interest to assess the overall effect of a set of genetic markers, assembled based on biological knowledge. Genetic marker-set analyses have been advocated as more reliable and powerful approaches compared with the traditional marginal approaches (Curtis and others, 2005. Pathways to the analysis of microarray data. TRENDS in Biotechnology 23, 429-435; Efroni and others, 2007. Identification of key processes underlying cancer phenotypes using biologic pathway analysis. PLoS One 2, 425). Procedures for testing the overall effect of a marker-set have been actively studied in recent years. For example, score tests derived under an Empirical Bayes (EB) framework (Liu and others, 2007. Semiparametric regression of multidimensional genetic pathway data: least-squares kernel machines and linear mixed models. Biometrics 63, 1079-1088; Liu and others, 2008. Estimation and testing for the effect of a genetic pathway on a disease outcome using logistic kernel machine regression via logistic mixed models. BMC bioinformatics 9, 292-2; Wu and others, 2010. Powerful SNP-set analysis for case-control genome-wide association studies. American Journal of Human Genetics 86, 929) have been proposed as powerful alternatives to the standard Rao score test (Rao, 1948. Large sample tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters with applications to problems of estimation. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 44, 50-57). The advantages of these EB-based tests are most apparent when the markers are correlated, due to the reduction in the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we propose an adaptive score test which up- or down-weights the contributions from each member of the marker-set based on the Z-scores of

  13. Effect on intelligence test score of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, Masanori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses of intelligence test scores (Koga) at 10-11 years of age of individuals exposed prenatally to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki using estimates of the uterine absorbed dose based on the recently introduced system of dosimetry, the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), reveal the following: 1) there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on intelligence among those individuals exposed within 0-7 weeks after fertilization or in the 26th or subsequent weeks; 2) for individuals exposed at 8-15 weeks after fertilization, and to a lesser extent those exposed at 16-25 weeks, the mean tests scores but not the variances are significantly heterogeneous among exposure categories; 3) the cumulative distribution of test scores suggests a progressive shift downwards in individual scores with increasing exposure; and 4) within the group most sensitive to the occurrence of clinically recognizable severe mental retardation, individuals exposed 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, the regression of intelligence score on estimated DS86 uterine absorbed dose is more linear than with T65DR fetal dose, the diminution in intelligence score under the linear model is 21-29 points at 1Gy. The effect is somewhat greater when the controls receiving less than 0.01 Gy are excluded, 24-33 points at 1 Gy. These findings are discussed in the light of the earlier analysis of the frequency of occurrence of mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is suggested that both are the consequences of the same underlying biological process or processes. (author)

  14. A Study on Variables that Affect Class Scores of Primary Education Students in Placement Test

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the variables that predict class scores which are obtained by adding 70 % of the Placement Test (PT) scores of the primary education sixth and seventh grade students who took it for the first time in the 2007-2008 academic year within the framework of the system of passing to secondary education reorganized by the MNE, 25 % of their end-of-the-year passing grades. The study is of general survey model. The study group consists of students who took the PT in the 200...

  15. ACER Mathematics Profile Series: Number Test. (Test Booklet, Answer and Record Sheet, Score Key, and Teachers Handbook).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Greg; Wines, Robin

    The Number Test of the ACER Mathematics Profile Series, contains 30 items, for each of three suggested grade levels: 7-8, 8-9, and 9-10. Raw scores on all tests in the ACER Mathematics Profile Series (Number, Operations, Space and Measurement) are converted to a common scale called MAPS, a major feature of the Series. Based on the Rasch Model,…

  16. Association of Health Sciences Reasoning Test scores with academic and experiential performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Wendy C; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E

    2014-05-15

    To assess the association of scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) with academic and experiential performance in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. The HSRT was administered to 329 first-year (P1) PharmD students. Performance on the HSRT and its subscales was compared with academic performance in 29 courses throughout the curriculum and with performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Significant positive correlations were found between course grades in 8 courses and HSRT overall scores. All significant correlations were accounted for by pharmaceutical care laboratory courses, therapeutics courses, and a law and ethics course. There was a lack of moderate to strong correlation between HSRT scores and academic and experiential performance. The usefulness of the HSRT as a tool for predicting student success may be limited.

  17. Testing statistical significance scores of sequence comparison methods with structure similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leunissen Jack AM

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past years the Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing computing power. However, the quality and sensitivity of a database search is not only determined by the algorithm but also by the statistical significance testing for an alignment. The e-value is the most commonly used statistical validation method for sequence database searching. The CluSTr database and the Protein World database have been created using an alternative statistical significance test: a Z-score based on Monte-Carlo statistics. Several papers have described the superiority of the Z-score as compared to the e-value, using simulated data. We were interested if this could be validated when applied to existing, evolutionary related protein sequences. Results All experiments are performed on the ASTRAL SCOP database. The Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm with both e-value and Z-score statistics is evaluated, using ROC, CVE and AP measures. The BLAST and FASTA algorithms are used as reference. We find that two out of three Smith-Waterman implementations with e-value are better at predicting structural similarities between proteins than the Smith-Waterman implementation with Z-score. SSEARCH especially has very high scores. Conclusion The compute intensive Z-score does not have a clear advantage over the e-value. The Smith-Waterman implementations give generally better results than their heuristic counterparts. We recommend using the SSEARCH algorithm combined with e-values for pairwise sequence comparisons.

  18. Student Test Scores: How the Sausage Is Made and Why You Should Care. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, modern cognitive assessments--including the new Common Core tests--produce test scores based on sophisticated statistical models rather than the simple percent of items a student answers correctly. While there are good reasons for this, it means that reported test scores depend on many decisions made by test designers,…

  19. High-Stakes and Non-Stakes Testing States and the Transfer of Knowledge to Students' Advanced Placement Test, Advanced Placement U.S. History Test, and SAT Exam Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessler, Karen Jean

    2010-01-01

    The Federal education policy No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has initiated high-stakes testing among U.S. public schools. The premise of the NCLB initiative is that all students reach proficiency in reading and math by 2014. Under NCLB, individual state education departments were required to implement annual assessments in grades two through eight…

  20. Pediatric residents' learning styles and temperaments and their relationships to standardized test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuli, Sanjeev Y; Thompson, Lindsay A; Saliba, Heidi; Black, Erik W; Ryan, Kathleen A; Kelly, Maria N; Novak, Maureen; Mellott, Jane; Tuli, Sonal S

    2011-12-01

    Board certification is an important professional qualification and a prerequisite for credentialing, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) assesses board certification rates as a component of residency program effectiveness. To date, research has shown that preresidency measures, including National Board of Medical Examiners scores, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society membership, or medical school grades poorly predict postresidency board examination scores. However, learning styles and temperament have been identified as factors that 5 affect test-taking performance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the learning styles and temperaments of pediatric residents and to evaluate their relationships to yearly in-service and postresidency board examination scores. This cross-sectional study analyzed the learning styles and temperaments of current and past pediatric residents by administration of 3 validated tools: the Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, and the Felder-Silverman Learning Style test. These results were compared with known, normative, general and medical population data and evaluated for correlation to in-service examination and postresidency board examination scores. The predominant learning style for pediatric residents was converging 44% (33 of 75 residents) and the predominant temperament was guardian 61% (34 of 56 residents). The learning style and temperament distribution of the residents was significantly different from published population data (P  =  .002 and .04, respectively). Learning styles, with one exception, were found to be unrelated to standardized test scores. The predominant learning style and temperament of pediatric residents is significantly different than that of the populations of general and medical trainees. However, learning styles and temperament do not predict outcomes on standardized in-service and board examinations in pediatric residents.

  1. [Relationship between unipedal stance test score and center of pressure velocity in elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Antonio, Guzmán; Rony, Silvestre; Francisco Aniceto, Rodríguez; David Andrés, Arriagada; Pablo Andrés, Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Frequent falls are one of the most important health problems in the elderly population. The unipedal stance test (UPST), asses postural stability and is used in fall risk measures. Despite this, there is little information about its relationship with posturographic parameters (PP) that characterizes postural stability. Center of pressure velocity (CoPV) is one of the best PP that describes postural stability. The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between UST score and CoPV in elderly population. A sample of 38 healthy elderly subjects where divided in two groups according to their UPST score, low performance (LP, n=11) and high performance (HP, n=27). The correlation between UPST score and COP mean velocity (CoPmV), recorded from a posturographic test, was analyzed between both groups. An inverse correlation between UPST score and CoPmV was found in both groups. However, this was higher in the LP group (r=-0.69, P=.02) compared to the HP (r=-0.39, P=.04). Based on the results of this investigation, it may be concluded that the achievement on UPST has an inverse relationship with CoPmV, especially in subjects with low performance in the UPST. Copyright © 2010 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  3. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, Shobitha; Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-04-01

    Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (pwomen. The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy.

  4. A knowledge-based theory of rising scores on "culture-free" tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2013-08-01

    Secular gains in intelligence test scores have perplexed researchers since they were documented by Flynn (1984, 1987). Gains are most pronounced on abstract, so-called culture-free tests, prompting Flynn (2007) to attribute them to problem-solving skills availed by scientifically advanced cultures. We propose that recent-born individuals have adopted an approach to analogy that enables them to infer higher level relations requiring roles that are not intrinsic to the objects that constitute initial representations of items. This proposal is translated into item-specific predictions about differences between cohorts in pass rates and item-response patterns on the Raven's Matrices (Flynn, 1987), a seemingly culture-free test that registers the largest Flynn effect. Consistent with predictions, archival data reveal that individuals born around 1940 are less able to map objects at higher levels of relational abstraction than individuals born around 1990. Polytomous Rasch models verify predicted violations of measurement invariance, as raw scores are found to underestimate the number of analogical rules inferred by members of the earlier cohort relative to members of the later cohort who achieve the same overall score. The work provides a plausible cognitive account of the Flynn effect, furthers understanding of the cognition of matrix reasoning, and underscores the need to consider how test-takers select item responses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English ... battery may negatively impact the test-takers' performance. ..... examples. The major finding is that raising learners' awareness constitutes the best way forward ..... Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Green, R.

  6. The Analysis of a Teacher Test Preparation Tutorial to Learner Test Scores: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild, Toni L. Hittle

    2014-01-01

    Many Pennsylvania colleges and universities require that teacher candidates pass a standardized assessment in order to gain formal entry in to their education programs. Standardized tests are also required for Level I teacher certification within Pennsylvania. The initial assessment required of all Pennsylvania preservice teachers for…

  7. An analysis of aviation test scores to characterize Student Naval Aviator disqualification

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Erich J.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. Navy uses the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTh) to identify those Student Naval Aviator (SNA) applicants most likely to succeed in flight training. Using classification and regression trees, this thesis concludes that individual answers to an ASTh subtest, the Biographical Inventory, are not good predictors of SNA primary flight grades. It also concludes that those SNA who score less than a 6 on the Pilot Biographical Inv...

  8. The correlation between motor proficiency and physical activity in Senior Phase learners in the Potchefstroom area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizl-Louise van Niekerk

    2016-10-01

    Objectives: To determine the relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity levels in adolescent Senior Phase learners in Potchefstroom, South Africa. No literature exists on the relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity levels among South African adolescents. Method: A total of 239 13- to 14-year-old learners were assessed using the Bruininkse Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 (BOT-2 for motor proficiency, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ for physical activity levels. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Spearman correlation coefficients and effect sizes. Results: Statistically and practically significant correlations were found between the total BOT-2 score and the physical activity levels of the total group, as well as the boys and the girls respectively. Fine motor coordination correlated with physical activity levels in the girls, while manipulation coordination correlated with the physical activity levels of the total group and the boys. The body coordination skill of jumping in place and the strength test items showed strong correlations with physical activity in all the groups. Conclusion: The motor skills of Senior Phase learners, especially coordination and strength skills, should be developed and maintained in the Physical Education curriculum to enhance physical activity levels.

  9. Impact of Answer-Switching Behavior on Multiple-Choice Test Scores in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan BAŞTÜRK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The multiple- choice format is one of the most popular selected-response item formats used in educational testing. Researchers have shown that Multiple-choice type test is a useful vehicle for student assessment in core university subjects that usually have large student numbers. Even though the educators, test experts and different test recourses maintain the idea that the first answer should be retained, many researchers argued that this argument is not dependent with empirical findings. The main question of this study is to examine how the answer switching behavior affects the multiple-choice test score. Additionally, gender differences and relationship between number of answer switching behavior and item parameters (item difficulty and item discrimination were investigated. The participants in this study consisted of 207 upper-level College of Education students from mid-sized universities. A Midterm exam consisted of 20 multiple-choice questions was used. According to the result of this study, answer switching behavior statistically increase test scores. On the other hand, there is no significant gender difference in answer-switching behavior. Additionally, there is a significant negative relationship between answer switching behavior and item difficulties.

  10. Are students' impressions of improved learning through active learning methods reflected by improved test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, Marcee C

    2013-02-01

    To report the transformation from lecture to more active learning methods in a maternity nursing course and to evaluate whether student perception of improved learning through active-learning methods is supported by improved test scores. The process of transforming a course into an active-learning model of teaching is described. A voluntary mid-semester survey for student acceptance of the new teaching method was conducted. Course examination results, from both a standardized exam and a cumulative final exam, among students who received lecture in the classroom and students who had active learning activities in the classroom were compared. Active learning activities were very acceptable to students. The majority of students reported learning more from having active-learning activities in the classroom rather than lecture-only and this belief was supported by improved test scores. Students who had active learning activities in the classroom scored significantly higher on a standardized assessment test than students who received lecture only. The findings support the use of student reflection to evaluate the effectiveness of active-learning methods and help validate the use of student reflection of improved learning in other research projects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Validity and reliability of Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS) among older Iranian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughan, Mahshid; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Jafari, Zahra; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Farahani, Ida G; Rashedi, Vahid

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive impairment is common among older people and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Persian version of the Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS) as a screening tool for dementia. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study. One hundred and one older adults who were members of Iranian Alzheimer Association and 101 of their siblings were entered into this study by convenient sampling. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, criteria for diagnosing dementia and the Mini-Mental State Examination were used as the study tools. The gathered data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and the receiver-operating characteristic. The AMTS could successfully differentiate the dementia group from the non-dementia group. Scores were significantly correlated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnosis for dementia and Mini-Mental State Examination scores (P < 0.001). Educational level (P < 0.001) and male sex (P = 0.015) were positively associated with AMTS, whereas (P < 0.001) was negatively associated with AMTS. Total Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.90. The scores 6 and 7 showed the optimum balance between sensitivity (99% and 94%, respectively) and specificity (85% and 86%, respectively). The Persian version of the AMTS is a valid cognitive assessment tool for older Iranian adults and can be used for dementia screening in Iran. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  12. Comparison of physical therapy anatomy performance and anxiety scores in timed and untimed practical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sarah M; Evans, Cathy; Agur, Anne M R

    2015-01-01

    Students in health care professional programs face many stressful tests that determine successful completion of their program. Test anxiety during these high stakes examinations can affect working memory and lead to poor outcomes. Methods of decreasing test anxiety include lengthening the time available to complete examinations or evaluating students using untimed examinations. There is currently no consensus in the literature regarding whether untimed examinations provide a benefit to test performance in clinical anatomy. This study aimed to determine the impact of timed versus untimed practical tests on Master of Physical Therapy student anatomy performance and test anxiety. Test anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Differences in performance, anxiety scores, and time taken were compared using paired sample Student's t-tests. Eighty-one of the 84 students completed the study and provided feedback. Students performed significantly higher on the untimed test (P = 0.005), with a significant reduction in test anxiety (P anxiety. If the intended goal of evaluating health care professional students is to determine fundamental competencies, these factors should be considered when designing future curricula. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Development of a train-to-proficiency curriculum for the technical skills component of the fundamentals of endoscopic surgery exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Susan; Marohn, Michael; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Adrales, Gina; Owodunni, Oluwafemi; Duncan, Kim; Petrusa, Emil; Lipsett, Pamela

    2018-01-08

    The demonstration of competency in endoscopy is required prior to obtaining American Board of Surgery Certification. To demonstrate competency, the resident must pass a national high-stakes cognitive test and a technical skills exam on a virtual reality simulator. The purpose of this preliminary study was to design a proficiency-based endoscopy simulation curriculum to meet this competency requirement. This is a mixed methods prospective cohort study at a single academic medical institution. Prior to taking the national exam, surgery residents were required to participate in a skills lab and demonstrate proficiency on 10 simulation tasks. Proficiency was based on time and percent of objects targeted/mucosa seen. Simulation practice time, number of task repetitions to proficiency, and prior endoscopic experience were recorded. Resident's self-reported confidence scores in endoscopic skills prior to and following simulation lab training were obtained. From January 1, 2016 through August 1, 2017, 20 surgical residents (8 PGY2, 8 PGY3, 4 PGY4) completed both a faculty-supervised endoscopy skills lab and independent learning with train-to-proficiency simulation tasks. Median overall simulator time per resident was 306 min (IQR: 247-405 min). Median overall time to proficiency in all tasks was 235 min (IQR: 208-283 min). The median time to proficiency decreased with increasing PGY status (r = 0.4, P = 0.05). There was no correlation between prior real-time endoscopic experience and time to proficiency. Reported confidence in endoscopic skills increased significantly from mean of 5.75 prior to 7.30 following the faculty-supervised endoscopy skills lab (P = 0.0002). All 20 residents passed the national exam. In this preliminary study, a train-to-proficiency curriculum in endoscopy improved surgical resident's confidence in their endoscopic skills and 100% of residents passed the FES technical skills test on their first attempt. Our findings also indicate

  14. Trainee-Associated Factors and Proficiency at Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Kazem Aghamir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is a complicated procedure for urology trainees. This study was designed to investigate the effect of trainees’ ages and previous experience, as well as the number of operated cases, on proficiency at PNL by using patient outcomes. A cross sectional observational study was designed during a five-year period. Trainees in PNL fellowship programs were included. At the end of the program, the trainees’ performance in PNL was assessed regarding five competencies and scored 1-5. If the overall score was 4 or above, the trainee was considered as proficient. The trainees’ age at the beginning of the program and the years passed from their residency graduation were asked and recorded. Also, the number of PNL cases operated by each trainee was obtained via their logbooks. The age, years passed from graduation, and number of operated cases were compared between two groups of proficient and non-proficient trainees. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the effect of aforementioned variables on the occurrence of the proficiency. Forty-two trainees were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation for the overall score were 3.40 (out of 5 and 0.67, respectively. Eleven trainees (26.2% recognized as proficient in performing PNL. Univariate regression analysis indicated that each of three variables (age, years passed from graduation and number of operated cases had statistically significant effect on proficiency. However, the multivariate regression analysis revealed that just the number of cases had significant effect on achieving proficiency. Although it might be assumed that trainees’ age negatively correlates with their scores, in fact, it is their amount of practice that makes a difference. A certain number of cases is required to be operated by a trainee in order to reach the desired competency in PNL.

  15. Trainee-Associated Factors and Proficiency at Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamir, Seyed Mohammad Kazem; Behtash, Negar; Hamidi, Morteza; Farahmand, Hasan; Salavati, Alborz; Mortaz Hejri, Sara

    2017-07-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is a complicated procedure for urology trainees. This study was designed to investigate the effect of trainees' ages and previous experience, as well as the number of operated cases, on proficiency at PNL by using patient outcomes. A cross sectional observational study was designed during a five-year period. Trainees in PNL fellowship programs were included. At the end of the program, the trainees' performance in PNL was assessed regarding five competencies and scored 1-5. If the overall score was 4 or above, the trainee was considered as proficient. The trainees' age at the beginning of the program and the years passed from their residency graduation were asked and recorded. Also, the number of PNL cases operated by each trainee was obtained via their logbooks. The age, years passed from graduation, and number of operated cases were compared between two groups of proficient and non-proficient trainees. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the effect of aforementioned variables on the occurrence of the proficiency. Forty-two trainees were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation for the overall score were 3.40 (out of 5) and 0.67, respectively. Eleven trainees (26.2%) recognized as proficient in performing PNL. Univariate regression analysis indicated that each of three variables (age, years passed from graduation and number of operated cases) had statistically significant effect on proficiency. However, the multivariate regression analysis revealed that just the number of cases had significant effect on achieving proficiency. Although it might be assumed that trainees' age negatively correlates with their scores, in fact, it is their amount of practice that makes a difference. A certain number of cases is required to be operated by a trainee in order to reach the desired competency in PNL.

  16. The Performance of the Upper Limb scores correlate with pulmonary function test measures and Egen Klassifikation scores in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ha Neul; Sawnani, Hemant; Horn, Paul S; Rybalsky, Irina; Relucio, Lani; Wong, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    The Performance of the Upper Limb scale was developed as an outcome measure specifically for ambulant and non-ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and is implemented in clinical trials needing longitudinal data. The aim of this study is to determine whether this novel tool correlates with functional ability using pulmonary function test, cardiac function test and Egen Klassifikation scale scores as clinical measures. In this cross-sectional study, 43 non-ambulatory Duchenne males from ages 10 to 30 years and on long-term glucocorticoid treatment were enrolled. Cardiac and pulmonary function test results were analyzed to assess cardiopulmonary function, and Egen Klassifikation scores were analyzed to assess functional ability. The Performance of the Upper Limb scores correlated with pulmonary function measures and had inverse correlation with Egen Klassifikation scores. There was no correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular dysfunction. Body mass index and decreased joint range of motion affected total Performance of the Upper Limb scores and should be considered in clinical trial designs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Core stability exercise is as effective as task-oriented motor training in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Mei K; Chan, Wai M; Lee, Lin; Chen, Tracy Mk; Chau, Rosanna Mw; Pang, Marco Yc

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a core stability program with a task-oriented motor training program in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Randomized controlled pilot trial. Outpatient unit in a hospital. Twenty-two children diagnosed with DCD aged 6-9 years were randomly allocated to the core stability program or the task-oriented motor program. Both groups underwent their respective face-to-face training session once per week for eight consecutive weeks. They were also instructed to carry out home exercises on a daily basis during the intervention period. Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Second Edition) and Sensory Organization Test at pre- and post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant between-group difference in the change of motor proficiency standard score (P=0.717), and composite equilibrium score derived from the Sensory Organization Test (P=0.100). Further analysis showed significant improvement in motor proficiency in both the core stability (mean change (SD)=6.3(5.4); p=0.008) and task-oriented training groups (mean change(SD)=5.1(4.0); P=0.007). The composite equilibrium score was significantly increased in the task-oriented training group (mean change (SD)=6.0(5.5); P=0.009), but not in the core stability group (mean change(SD) =0.0(9.6); P=0.812). In the task-oriented training group, compliance with the home program was positively correlated with change in motor proficiency (ρ=0.680, P=0.030) and composite equilibrium score (ρ=0.638, P=0.047). The core stability exercise program is as effective as task-oriented training in improving motor proficiency among children with DCD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Beyond English Proficiency: Rethinking Immigrant Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S.; Frank, Reanne

    2014-01-01

    We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. PMID:24576636

  19. Association testing for next-generation sequencing data using score statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skotte, Line; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    computationally feasible due to the use of score statistics. As part of the joint likelihood, we model the distribution of the phenotypes using a generalized linear model framework, which works for both quantitative and discrete phenotypes. Thus, the method presented here is applicable to case-control studies...... of genotype calls into account have been proposed; most require numerical optimization which for large-scale data is not always computationally feasible. We show that using a score statistic for the joint likelihood of observed phenotypes and observed sequencing data provides an attractive approach...... to association testing for next-generation sequencing data. The joint model accounts for the genotype classification uncertainty via the posterior probabilities of the genotypes given the observed sequencing data, which gives the approach higher power than methods based on called genotypes. This strategy remains...

  20. A high COPD assessment test score may predict anxiety in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harryanto H

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hilman Harryanto,1 Sally Burrows,2 Yuben Moodley1,2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, AustraliaThe prevalence of anxiety is 55% in patients with COPD,1 and it is associated with worse disease control. Therefore, early recognition and institution of treatment of this comorbidity significantly improve patient’s quality of life. Recently, a questionnaire called the COPD assessment test (CAT has been incorporated into the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines for the management of COPD, and a higher score is associated with increased COPD symptoms.2 Considering the regular use of CAT, it was evaluated whether this tool can also be used to identify anxiety. The CAT score was correlated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS to determine the level at which CAT may predict anxiety.

  1. Test Scores, Class Rank and College Performance: Lessons for Broadening Access and Promoting Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Sunny X; Tienda, Marta

    2012-04-01

    Using administrative data for five Texas universities that differ in selectivity, this study evaluates the relative influence of two key indicators for college success-high school class rank and standardized tests. Empirical results show that class rank is the superior predictor of college performance and that test score advantages do not insulate lower ranked students from academic underperformance. Using the UT-Austin campus as a test case, we conduct a simulation to evaluate the consequences of capping students admitted automatically using both achievement metrics. We find that using class rank to cap the number of students eligible for automatic admission would have roughly uniform impacts across high schools, but imposing a minimum test score threshold on all students would have highly unequal consequences by greatly reduce the admission eligibility of the highest performing students who attend poor high schools while not jeopardizing admissibility of students who attend affluent high schools. We discuss the implications of the Texas admissions experiment for higher education in Europe.

  2. COMPARISON BETWEEN WOOD DRYING DEFECT SCORES: SPECIMEN TESTING X ANALYSIS OF KILN-DRIED BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is important to develop drying technologies for Eucalyptus grandis lumber, which is one of the most planted species of this genus in Brazil and plays an important role as raw material for the wood industry. The general aim of this work was to assess the conventional kiln drying of juvenile wood of three clones of Eucalyptus grandis. The specific aims were to compare the behavior between: i drying defects indicated by tests with wood specimens and conventional kiln-dried boards; and ii physical properties and the drying quality. Five 11-year-old trees of each clone were felled, and only flatsawn boards of the first log were used. Basic density and total shrinkage were determined, and the drying test with wood specimens at 100 °C was carried out. Kiln drying of boards was performed, and initial and final moisture content, moisture gradient in thickness, drying stresses and drying defects were assessed. The defect scoring method was used to verify the behavior between the defects detected by specimen testing and the defects detected in kiln-dried boards. As main results, the drying schedule was too severe for the wood, resulting in a high level of boards with defects. The behavior between the defects in the drying test with specimens and the defects of kiln-dried boards was different, there was no correspondence, according to the defect scoring method.

  3. Application of Statistics to Evaluate Iranian Analytical Laboratories Proficiency: Case of Aflatoxins in Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fotouhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a proficiency testing program among limited number of local laboratories as an alternative to the IUPAC/CITAC guide on proficiency testing with a limited number of participants, specially where international schemes are not accessible. As a sample scheme we planned to determine aflatoxins (B1, G1, B2, G2, total in Iranian pistachio matrix. A part of naturally contaminated pistachio sample was tested for sufficient homogeneity by a competent laboratory and then homogenized sub-samples were distributed among participants all across the country. The median of participants’ results was selected as assigned value. Student t-test was applied to show there is no significant difference between assigned and mean values of homogeneity test results obtained by the competent laboratory. Calculated z-scores showed that 6 out of 8 results in aflatoxin B1, 7 out of 8 results in aflatoxin B2, 5 out of 8 results in aflatoxin G1, 7 out of 8 results in aflatoxin G2 and 6 out of 9 results in aflatoxin total were in satisfactory range. Together our studies indicate that the approach described here is highly cost efficient and applicable for quality assurance of test results when there is no access to international proficiency testing providers.

  4. Foreign language proficiency and working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hugdahl, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that working memory capacity interacts with (foreign) language proficiency was tested on multilinguals, who were native (L1) Dutch speakers, were fluent in their second (L2) language, German, and had recently started the acquisition of their third (L3) language,

  5. The Oral Proficiency Interview: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Fulcher, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    Many researchers and practitioners maintain that ACTFL's efforts to improve instructional practices and promote proficiency assessments tied to descriptors of what learners can do in real life have contributed significantly to second language teaching and testing. Similar endeavors in the area of research, however, are critically needed. Focusing…

  6. Clock Drawing Test and the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: can more detailed scoring systems do the work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubínová, Eva; Nikolai, Tomáš; Marková, Hana; Siffelová, Kamila; Laczó, Jan; Hort, Jakub; Vyhnálek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test is a frequently used cognitive screening test with several scoring systems in elderly populations. We compare simple and complex scoring systems and evaluate the usefulness of the combination of the Clock Drawing Test with the Mini-Mental State Examination to detect patients with mild cognitive impairment. Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 48) and age- and education-matched controls (n = 48) underwent neuropsychological examinations, including the Clock Drawing Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Clock drawings were scored by three blinded raters using one simple (6-point scale) and two complex (17- and 18-point scales) systems. The sensitivity and specificity of these scoring systems used alone and in combination with the Mini-Mental State Examination were determined. Complex scoring systems, but not the simple scoring system, were significant predictors of the amnestic mild cognitive impairment diagnosis in logistic regression analysis. At equal levels of sensitivity (87.5%), the Mini-Mental State Examination showed higher specificity (31.3%, compared with 12.5% for the 17-point Clock Drawing Test scoring scale). The combination of Clock Drawing Test and Mini-Mental State Examination scores increased the area under the curve (0.72; p Drawing Test did not differentiate between healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment in our sample. Complex scoring systems were slightly more efficient, yet still were characterized by high rates of false-positive results. We found psychometric improvement using combined scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing Test when complex scoring systems were used. The results of this study support the benefit of using combined scores from simple methods.

  7. Micronucleus test for radiation biodosimetry in mass casualty events: Evaluation of visual and automated scoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.bolognesi@istge.i [Environmental Carcinogenesis Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Balia, Cristina; Roggieri, Paola [Environmental Carcinogenesis Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Cardinale, Francesco [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Bruzzi, Paolo [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Sorcinelli, Francesca [Environmental Carcinogenesis Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Laboratory of Genetics, Histology and Molecular Biology Section, Army Medical and Veterinary, Research Center, Via Santo Stefano Rotondo 4, 00184 Roma (Italy); Lista, Florigio [Laboratory of Genetics, Histology and Molecular Biology Section, Army Medical and Veterinary, Research Center, Via Santo Stefano Rotondo 4, 00184 Roma (Italy); D' Amelio, Raffaele [Sapienza, Universita di Roma II Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia and Ministero della Difesa, Direzione Generale Sanita Militare (Italy); Righi, Enzo [Frascati National Laboratories, National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    In the case of a large-scale nuclear or radiological incidents a reliable estimate of dose is an essential tool for providing timely assessment of radiation exposure and for making life-saving medical decisions. Cytogenetics is considered as the 'gold standard' for biodosimetry. The dicentric analysis (DA) represents the most specific cytogenetic bioassay. The micronucleus test (MN) applied in interphase in peripheral lymphocytes is an alternative and simpler approach. A dose-effect calibration curve for the MN frequency in peripheral lymphocytes from 27 adult donors was established after in vitro irradiation at a dose range 0.15-8 Gy of {sup 137}Cs gamma rays (dose rate 6 Gy min{sup -1}). Dose prediction by visual scoring in a dose-blinded study (0.15-4.0 Gy) revealed a high level of accuracy (R = 0.89). The scoring of MN is time consuming and requires adequate skills and expertise. Automated image analysis is a feasible approach allowing to reduce the time and to increase the accuracy of the dose estimation decreasing the variability due to subjective evaluation. A good correlation (R = 0.705) between visual and automated scoring with visual correction was observed over the dose range 0-2 Gy. Almost perfect discrimination power for exposure to 1-2 Gy, and a satisfactory power for 0.6 Gy were detected. This threshold level can be considered sufficient for identification of sub lethally exposed individuals by automated CBMN assay.

  8. The English Proficiency of the Academics of the Teacher Training and Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saukah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing the general English proficiency level of the academics of Teacher Training and Education Institutions (LPTK's as indicated by their TOEFL scores. Specifically, the study is focused on finding out whether there is any difference among the academics' English proficiencies when they are grouped in terms of the geographic regions of their institutions and their fields of study. This study is also intended to reveal any possible relationship between the academics' English proficiency and their age. The results indicate that the English proficiency of the academics on the average is far below the average of that of the international students. The academics in West Java are the highest in their English proficiency, and the English group, as expected, has the best English proficiency. In addition, there is a negative correlation between English proficiency and age

  9. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heethal Jaiprakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group’s tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group’s tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors’ performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors’ scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001 and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001. The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  10. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash, Heethal; Min, Aung Ko Ko; Ghosh, Sarmishtha

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group's tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group's tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors' performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors' scores in group 1 was 0.099 (pcorrelation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  11. A Comparison of the Approaches of Generalizability Theory and Item Response Theory in Estimating the Reliability of Test Scores for Testlet-Composed Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guemin; Park, In-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Previous assessments of the reliability of test scores for testlet-composed tests have indicated that item-based estimation methods overestimate reliability. This study was designed to address issues related to the extent to which item-based estimation methods overestimate the reliability of test scores composed of testlets and to compare several…

  12. REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE MODIFIED STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST COMPOSITE AND SPECIFIC REACH DIRECTION SCORES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Remko; Reijneveld, Elja A E; van den Berg, Sandra M; Haerkens, Gijs M; Koenders, Niek H; de Leeuw, Arina J; van Oorsouw, Roel G; Paap, Davy; Scheffer, Else; Weterings, Stijn; Stukstette, Mirelle J

    2016-06-01

    The mSEBT is a screening tool used to evaluate dynamic balance. Most research investigating measurement properties focused on intrarater reliability and was done in small samples. To know whether the mSEBT is useful to discriminate dynamic balance between persons and to evaluate changes in dynamic balance, more research into intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change (synonymous with minimal detectable change) is needed. To estimate intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change of the mSEBT in adults at risk for ankle sprain. Cross-sectional, test-retest design. Fifty-five healthy young adults participating in sports at risk for ankle sprain participated (mean ± SD age, 24.0 ± 2.9 years). Each participant performed three test sessions within one hour and was rated by two physical therapists (session 1, rater 1; session 2, rater 2; session 3, rater 1). Participants and raters were blinded for previous measurements. Normalized composite and reach direction scores for the right and left leg were collected. Analysis of variance was used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra- and interrater reliability. Smallest detectable change values were calculated based on the standard error of measurement. Intra- and interrater reliability for both legs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.87 to 0.94). The intrarater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 7.2% and for the left 6.2%. The interrater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 6.9% and for the left 5.0%. The mSEBT is a reliable measurement instrument to discriminate dynamic balance between persons. Most smallest detectable change values of the mSEBT appear to be large. More research is needed to investigate if the mSEBT is usable for evaluative purposes. Level 2.

  13. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Uno

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. METHODS: The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQ<70 was performed. In addition, stratum-specific likelihood ratios for detection of intellectual disability were calculated. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha for the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale IQ (BIQ was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96. In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9, and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4. Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  14. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQIntelligence Scale IQ (BIQ) was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96). In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9), and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4). Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  15. English Language Proficiency Tests and Academic Achievement: A Study on the Malaysian University English Test as a Predictor of Technical Programme Undergraduates Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, Nurhazlini; Min, Lau Sing; Sungif, Nur Atiqah Md.; Yusup, Farah Nabillah Mior

    2015-01-01

    In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET) has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role. MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to…

  16. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  17. SYNCHRONOUS CMC, WORKING MEMORY, AND L2 ORAL PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Payne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002. Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989 model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC and second language (L2 speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002 with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

  18. The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness between Test-Taking Motivation and Listening Test Score: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating effect of listening metacognitive awareness on the relationship between expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score. According to the results, test takers' listening scores can be predicted by expectancy, interest, and listening anxiety significantly. The relationship between expectancy, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score was mediated by listening metacognitive awareness. The findings have implications for test takers to improve their test taking motivation and listening metacognitive awareness, as well as for L2 teachers to intervene in L2 listening classrooms.

  19. The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness between Test-Taking Motivation and Listening Test Score: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating effect of listening metacognitive awareness on the relationship between expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score. According to the results, test takers’ listening scores can be predicted by expectancy, interest, and listening anxiety significantly. The relationship between expectancy, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score was mediated by listening metacognitive awareness. The findings have implications for test takers to improve their test taking motivation and listening metacognitive awareness, as well as for L2 teachers to intervene in L2 listening classrooms.

  20. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Zakiyah, E-mail: zac@uum.edu.my; Ahmad, Yuhaniz, E-mail: yuhaniz@uum.edu.my [School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, UUM Sintok 06010, Kedah (Malaysia); Azwan, Zairul, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Raduan, Farhana, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Sagap, Ismail, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com [Surgery Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, 56000 Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aziz, Nazrina, E-mail: nazrina@uum.edu.my

    2014-12-04

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  1. The relationship between language proficiency and attentional control in Cantonese-English bilingual children: Evidence from Simon, Simon switching, and working memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shing eTse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By administering Simon, Simon switching, and operation-span working memory tasks to Cantonese-English bilingual children who varied in their first-language (L1, Cantonese and second-language (L2, English proficiencies, as quantified by standardized vocabulary test performance, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiency on attentional control performance. Apart from mean performance, we conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants’ reaction time distributions in the Simon task. Bilinguals’ L2 proficiency was associated with higher scores in the operation span task, and a shift of reaction time distributions in incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials (Simon effect in µ, and the tail size of reaction time distributions (τ regardless of trial types. Bilinguals’ L1 proficiency, which was strongly associated with participants’ age, showed similar results, except that it was not associated with the Simon effect in µ. In contrast, neither bilinguals’ L1 nor L2 proficiency modulated the global switch cost or local switch cost in the Simon switching task. After taking into account potential cognitive maturation by partialling out the participants’ age, only (a scores in the working memory task and (b RT in incongruent trials and (c Simon effect in µ in the Simon task could still be predicted by bilinguals’ L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings suggest that bilingual children’s L2 proficiency was associated with their conflict resolution and working memory capacity, but not goal maintenance or task-set switching, when they performed the cognitive tasks that demanded attentional control. This was not entirely consistent with the findings of college-age bilinguals reported in previous studies.

  2. Genome scan for linkage to asthma using a linkage disequilibrium-lod score test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Slager, S L; Huang, J

    2001-01-01

    We report a genome-wide linkage study of asthma on the German and Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA) data. Using a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium test and the nonparametric linkage score, we identified 13 markers from the German data, 1 marker from the African American (CSGA) data, and 7 markers from the Caucasian (CSGA) data in which the p-values ranged between 0.0001 and 0.0100. From our analysis and taking into account previous published linkage studies of asthma, we suggest that three regions in chromosome 5 (around D5S418, D5S644, and D5S422), one region in chromosome 6 (around three neighboring markers D6S1281, D6S291, and D6S1019), one region in chromosome 11 (around D11S2362), and two regions in chromosome 12 (around D12S351 and D12S324) especially merit further investigation.

  3. Applying cognitive acuity theory to the development and scoring of situational judgment tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, J Peter

    2017-11-09

    The theory of cognitive acuity (TCA) treats the response options within items as signals to be detected and uses psychophysical methods to estimate the respondents' sensitivity to these signals. Such a framework offers new methods to construct and score situational judgment tests (SJT). Leeds (2012) defined cognitive acuity as the capacity to discern correctness and distinguish between correctness differences among simultaneously presented situation-specific response options. In this study, SJT response options were paired in order to offer the respondent a two-option choice. The contrast in correctness valence between the two options determined the magnitude of signal emission, with larger signals portending a higher probability of detection. A logarithmic relation was found between correctness valence contrast (signal stimulus) and its detectability (sensation response). Respondent sensitivity to such signals was measured and found to be related to the criterion variables. The linkage between psychophysics and elemental psychometrics may offer new directions for measurement theory.

  4. Poisson Approximation-Based Score Test for Detecting Association of Rare Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongyan; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has achieved great success in identifying genetic variants, but the nature of GWAS has determined its inherent limitations. Under the common disease rare variants (CDRV) hypothesis, the traditional association analysis methods commonly used in GWAS for common variants do not have enough power for detecting rare variants with a limited sample size. As a solution to this problem, pooling rare variants by their functions provides an efficient way for identifying susceptible genes. Rare variant typically have low frequencies of minor alleles, and the distribution of the total number of minor alleles of the rare variants can be approximated by a Poisson distribution. Based on this fact, we propose a new test method, the Poisson Approximation-based Score Test (PAST), for association analysis of rare variants. Two testing methods, namely, ePAST and mPAST, are proposed based on different strategies of pooling rare variants. Simulation results and application to the CRESCENDO cohort data show that our methods are more powerful than the existing methods. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  5. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  6. Utilizing the Six Realms of Meaning in Improving Campus Standardized Test Scores through Team Teaching and Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Rosnisha D.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2009-01-01

    This article will seek to utilize Dr. William Allan Kritsonis' book "Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning" (2007) as a framework to improve a campus's standardized test scores, more specifically, their TAKS (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills) scores. Many campuses have an improvement plan, also known as a Campus…

  7. Implications of Deployed and Nondeployed Fathers on Seventh Graders' California Achievement Test Scores during a Military Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Mark C.

    The differences in California Achievement Test (CAT) scores from 1990 to 1991 in seventh graders, currently enrolled in Albritton Junior High School in the Fort Bragg Schools, of deployed and nondeployed fathers were analyzed. CAT percentile scores from 1990 and 1991 (1991 being the year of "Desert Storm") were obtained in reading, math…

  8. Talking to Score: Impression Management in L2 Oral Assessment and the Co-Construction of a Test Discourse Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jasmine

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the emphasis in second language (L2) oral proficiency assessment has shifted from linguistic accuracy to discourse strategies such as the ability to initiate, respond, and negotiate meaning. This has resulted in a growing interest in the discourse analysis of students' performance in different oral proficiency assessment formats.…

  9. Clinical Wisdom among Proficient Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Hall, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    This paperexamines clinical wisdom which has emerged from a broader study anout nurse managers´influence on proficient registered nurse turnover and retention. The purpose of the study was to increase understanding of proficient nurses´experience and clinical practice by giving voice to the nurses...

  10. More Proficient vs. Less Proficient EFL Learners’ Perceptions of Teachers ‘Motivation Raising Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Yousefi

    2022-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivation raising strategies are frequently used in English as a Foreign Language (EFL classes; nevertheless, learners’ perceptions of such strategies used by language teachers have not sufficiently been explored. Also, there are not enough studies on differences and similarities between more and less proficient EFL learners regarding this issue. To scrutinize this topic, a groups of more (No=50 and less proficient EFL learners (No=50 participated in this study by completing to a validated, researcher-made questionnaire with a five-point Likert type format. Non-parametric Mann-Whiteny U test was run in the SPSS ver. 23 to check the differences between the two groups. The results of the study verified that, regardless of each individual scale in the utilized questionnaire, overall, the more proficient ones manifested significantly less perceptions on teachers’ motivation raising strategies based on the total estimated mean ranks compared with the less proficient learners.  However, within the surveyed scales, only in the classroom atmosphere scale, the results showed that the less proficient learners were more mindful of teacher strategies for motivation raising. The findings from this study have implications for motivation raising strategy instructions for a language classroom.

  11. English language proficiency and academic performance: A study of a medical preparatory year program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad

    2015-01-01

    All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level.

  12. HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods for determination of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in food and beverages: performances of local accredited laboratories via proficiency tests in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gören, Ahmet C; Bilsel, Gökhan; Şimşek, Adnan; Bilsel, Mine; Akçadağ, Fatma; Topal, Kevser; Ozgen, Hasan

    2015-05-15

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography LC-UV and LC-MS/MS methods were developed and validated for quantitative analyses of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in foods and beverages. HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS methods were compared for quantitative analyses of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in a representative ketchup sample. Optimisation of the methods enabled the chromatographic separation of the analytes in less than 4 min. A correlation coefficient of 0.999 was achieved over the measured calibration range for both compounds and methods (HPLC and LC-MS/MS). The uncertainty values of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate were found as 0.199 and 0.150 mg/L by HPLC and 0.072 and 0.044 mg/L by LC-MS/MS, respectively. Proficiency testing performance of Turkish accredited laboratories between the years 2005 and 2013 was evaluated and reported herein. The aim of the proficiency testing scheme was to evaluate the performance of the laboratories, analysing benzoate and sorbate in tomato ketchup. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Case Study About Why It Can Be Difficult To Test Whether Propensity Score Analysis Works in Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Shadish

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peikes, Moreno and Orzol (2008 sensibly caution researchers that propensity score analysis may not lead to valid causal inference in field applications. But at the same time, they made the far stronger claim to have performed an ideal test of whether propensity score matching in quasi-experimental data is capable of approximating the results of a randomized experiment in their dataset, and that this ideal test showed that such matching could not do so. In this article we show that their study does not support that conclusion because it failed to meet a number of basic criteria for an ideal test. By implication, many other purported tests of the effectiveness of propensity score analysis probably also fail to meet these criteria, and are therefore questionable contributions to the literature on the effects of propensity score analysis. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v3i2.16475

  14. A Case Study About Why It Can Be Difficult To Test Whether Propensity Score Analysis Works in Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Cook

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peikes, Moreno and Orzol (2008 sensibly caution researchers that propensity score analysis may not lead to valid causal inference in field applications. But at the same time, they made the far stronger claim to have performed an ideal test of whether propensity score matching in quasi-experimental data is capable of approximating the results of a randomized experiment in their dataset, and that this ideal test showed that such matching could not do so. In this article we show that their study does not support that conclusion because it failed to meet a number of basic criteria for an ideal test. By implication, many other purported tests of the effectiveness of propensity score analysis probably also fail to meet these criteria, and are therefore questionable contributions to the literature on the effects of propensity score analysis.

  15. Similar predictions of etravirine sensitivity regardless of genotypic testing method used: comparison of available scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoets, Johan; Nijs, Steven; Tambuyzer, Lotke; Hoogstoel, Annemie; Anderson, David; Picchio, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare various genotypic scoring systems commonly used to predict virological outcome to etravirine, and examine their concordance with etravirine phenotypic susceptibility. Six etravirine genotypic scoring systems were assessed: Tibotec 2010 (based on 20 mutations; TBT 20), Monogram, Stanford HIVdb, ANRS, Rega (based on 37, 30, 27 and 49 mutations, respectively) and virco(®)TYPE HIV-1 (predicted fold change based on genotype). Samples from treatment-experienced patients who participated in the DUET trials and with both genotypic and phenotypic data (n=403) were assessed using each scoring system. Results were retrospectively correlated with virological response in DUET. κ coefficients were calculated to estimate the degree of correlation between the different scoring systems. Correlation between the five scoring systems and the TBT 20 system was approximately 90%. Virological response by etravirine susceptibility was comparable regardless of which scoring system was utilized, with 70-74% of DUET patients determined as susceptible to etravirine by the different scoring systems achieving plasma viral load <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. In samples classed as phenotypically susceptible to etravirine (fold change in 50% effective concentration ≤3), correlations with genotypic score were consistently high across scoring systems (≥70%). In general, the etravirine genotypic scoring systems produced similar results, and genotype-phenotype concordance was high. As such, phenotypic interpretations, and in their absence all genotypic scoring systems investigated, may be used to reliably predict the activity of etravirine.

  16. The relationship between automatic assessment of oral proficiency and other indicators of first year students' linguistic abilities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Febe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Academic literacy proficiency is key to the success of a student at university. Currently, the large-scale assessment of language proficiency, particularly at higher education levels, is dominated by reading and writing tests because listening...

  17. The TSCA interagency testing committee`s approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups: 1977-1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper describes the TSCA interagency testing committee`s (ITC) approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups between 1977 and 1983. During this time the ITC conducted five scoring exercises to select chemicals and chemical groups for detailed review and to determine which of these chemicals and chemical groups should be added to the TSCA Section 4(e) Priority Testing List. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. The Dysexecutive Questionnaire advanced: item and test score characteristics, 4-factor solution, and severity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenburg, Sebastian; Dopslaff, Nina

    2008-01-01

    The Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX, , Behavioral assessment of the dysexecutive syndrome, 1996) is a standardized instrument to measure possible behavioral changes as a result of the dysexecutive syndrome. Although initially intended only as a qualitative instrument, the DEX has also been used increasingly to address quantitative problems. Until now there have not been more fundamental statistical analyses of the questionnaire's testing quality. The present study is based on an unselected sample of 191 patients with acquired brain injury and reports on the data relating to the quality of the items, the reliability and the factorial structure of the DEX. Item 3 displayed too great an item difficulty, whereas item 11 was not sufficiently discriminating. The DEX's reliability in self-rating is r = 0.85. In addition to presenting the statistical values of the tests, a clinical severity classification of the overall scores of the 4 found factors and of the questionnaire as a whole is carried out on the basis of quartile standards.

  19. The use of test scores from large-scale assessment surveys: psychometric and statistical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Braun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economists are making increasing use of measures of student achievement obtained through large-scale survey assessments such as NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA. The construction of these measures, employing plausible value (PV methodology, is quite different from that of the more familiar test scores associated with assessments such as the SAT or ACT. These differences have important implications both for utilization and interpretation. Although much has been written about PVs, it appears that there are still misconceptions about whether and how to employ them in secondary analyses. Methods We address a range of technical issues, including those raised in a recent article that was written to inform economists using these databases. First, an extensive review of the relevant literature was conducted, with particular attention to key publications that describe the derivation and psychometric characteristics of such achievement measures. Second, a simulation study was carried out to compare the statistical properties of estimates based on the use of PVs with those based on other, commonly used methods. Results It is shown, through both theoretical analysis and simulation, that under fairly general conditions appropriate use of PV yields approximately unbiased estimates of model parameters in regression analyses of large scale survey data. The superiority of the PV methodology is particularly evident when measures of student achievement are employed as explanatory variables. Conclusions The PV methodology used to report student test performance in large scale surveys remains the state-of-the-art for secondary analyses of these databases.

  20. Hippocampal dose volume histogram predicts Hopkins Verbal Learning Test scores after brain irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Okoukoni, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Radiation-induced cognitive decline is relatively common after treatment for primary and metastatic brain tumors; however, identifying dosimetric parameters that are predictive of radiation-induced cognitive decline is difficult due to the heterogeneity of patient characteristics. The memory function is especially susceptible to radiation effects after treatment. The objective of this study is to correlate volumetric radiation doses received by critical neuroanatomic structures to post–radiation therapy (RT memory impairment. Methods and materials: Between 2008 and 2011, 53 patients with primary brain malignancies were treated with conventionally fractionated RT in prospectively accrued clinical trials performed at our institution. Dose-volume histogram analysis was performed for the hippocampus, parahippocampus, amygdala, and fusiform gyrus. Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised scores were obtained at least 6 months after RT. Impairment was defined as an immediate recall score ≤15. For each anatomic region, serial regression was performed to correlate volume receiving a given dose (VD(Gy with memory impairment. Results: Hippocampal V53.4Gy to V60.9Gy significantly predicted post-RT memory impairment (P < .05. Within this range, the hippocampal V55Gy was the most significant predictor (P = .004. Hippocampal V55Gy of 0%, 25%, and 50% was associated with tumor-induced impairment rates of 14.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2%-28.7%, 45.9% (95% CI, 24.7%-68.6%, and 80.6% (95% CI, 39.2%-96.4%, respectively. Conclusions: The hippocampal V55Gy is a significant predictor for impairment, and a limiting dose below 55 Gy may minimize radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

  1. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  2. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  3. Simple shoulder test and Oxford Shoulder Score: Persian translation and cross-cultural validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Soofia; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Rustaie, Nilufar; Akbari, Mohammad; Ebadi, Safoora; Senobari, Maryam; Hasson, Scott

    2015-12-01

    To translate, culturally adapt, and validate the simple shoulder test (SST) and Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) into Persian language using a cross-sectional and prospective cohort design. A standard forward and backward translation was followed to culturally adapt the SST and the OSS into Persian language. Psychometric properties of floor and ceiling effects, construct convergent validity, discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, standard error of the measurement (SEM), smallest detectable change (SDC), and factor structure were determined. One hundred patients with shoulder disorders and 50 healthy subjects participated in the study. The PSST and the POSS showed no missing responses. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. Both the PSST and POSS detected differences between patients and healthy subjects supporting their discriminant validity. Construct convergent validity was confirmed by a very good correlation between the PSST and POSS (r = 0.68). There was high internal consistency for both the PSST (α = 0.73) and the POSS (α = 0.91 and 0.92). Test-retest reliability with 1-week interval was excellent (ICCagreement = 0.94 for PSST and 0.90 for POSS). Factor analyses demonstrated a three-factor solution for the PSST (49.7 % of variance) and a two-factor solution for the POSS (61.6 % of variance). The SEM/SDC was satisfactory for PSST (5.5/15.3) and POSS (6.8/18.8). The PSST and POSS are valid and reliable outcome measures for assessing functional limitations in Persian-speaking patients with shoulder disorders.

  4. Sequential Neighborhood Effects: The Effect of Long-Term Exposure to Concentrated Disadvantage on Children's Reading and Math Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Andrew L; Handcock, Mark S; Sastry, Narayan; Pebley, Anne R

    2018-02-01

    Prior research has suggested that children living in a disadvantaged neighborhood have lower achievement test scores, but these studies typically have not estimated causal effects that account for neighborhood choice. Recent studies used propensity score methods to account for the endogeneity of neighborhood exposures, comparing disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged neighborhoods. We develop an alternative propensity function approach in which cumulative neighborhood effects are modeled as a continuous treatment variable. This approach offers several advantages. We use our approach to examine the cumulative effects of neighborhood disadvantage on reading and math test scores in Los Angeles. Our substantive results indicate that recency of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods may be more important than average exposure for children's test scores. We conclude that studies of child development should consider both average cumulative neighborhood exposure and the timing of this exposure.

  5. Linkage analysis in nuclear families. 2: Relationship between affected sib-pair tests and lod score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, M; Seuchter, S A; Baur, M P

    1994-01-01

    It is believed that the main advantage of affected sib-pair tests is that their application requires no information about the underlying genetic mechanism of the disease. However, here it is proved that the mean test, which can be considered the most prominent of the affected sib-pair tests, is equivalent to lod score analysis for an assumed recessive mode of inheritance, irrespective of the true mode of the disease. Further relationships of certain sib-pair tests and lod score analysis under specific assumed genetic modes are investigated.

  6. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version Score of Schizophrenic Patients in a Japanese Clinical Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Koide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia strongly relates to social outcome and is a good candidate for endophenotypes. When we accurately measure drug efficacy or effects of genes or variants relevant to schizophrenia on cognitive impairment, clinical factors that can affect scores on cognitive tests, such as age and severity of symptoms, should be considered. To elucidate the effect of clinical factors, we conducted multiple regression analysis using scores of the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version (CPT-IP, which is often used to measure attention/vigilance in schizophrenia. Methods. We conducted the CPT-IP (4-4 digit and examined clinical information (sex, age, education years, onset age, duration of illness, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS scores in 126 schizophrenia patients in Japanese population. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical factors. Results. Age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and PANSS-negative symptom score were associated with mean d′ score in patients. These three clinical factors explained about 28% of the variance in mean d′ score. Conclusions. As conclusion, CPT-IP score in schizophrenia patients is influenced by age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose and PANSS negative symptom score.

  7. The Sinonasal Outcome Test 22 score in persons without chronic rhinosinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Bibi; Thilsing, T; Baelum, J

    2016-01-01

    -67 with a mean score of 10.5 (CI: 9.1 - 11.9) and the median score was 7. Persons with allergic rhinitis and blue collar workers had a significant higher score. CONCLUSION: The median value of 7 is taken as the normal SNOT 22 score in persons without CRS and can be used as a reference in clinical settings...... and research. Allergic rhinitis and occupation affects SNOT 22 in persons without CRS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  8. Exploration of analysis methods for diagnostic imaging tests: problems with ROC AUC and confidence scores in CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Susan; Halligan, Steve; Collins, Gary S; Altman, Doug G

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC) for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests.

  9. National radon measurement-proficiency program: Individual proficiency report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    In February 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program to assist the public in identifying organizations capable of providing reliable radon measurement services. In December 1991, EPA announced the new individual proficiency listing category in the RMP Program. Individuals applying for this new listing status must demonstrate knowledge of radon measurement fundamentals by passing a written proficiency examination, maintain affiliation with an RMP listed organization, and meet other program requirements. This report lists those individuals who have met the requirements of the RMP Program as of April 30, 1992. These requirements are designed to provide minimum proficiency criteria for individuals who provide radon measurement services on-site in a residential environment

  10. National Radon Contractor Proficiency Program. Proficiency report: Supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The report, a supplement to the RCP Proficiency Report, will further assist governmental officials in providing advice to the public on the selection of proficient radon mitigation contractors. These reports list 1,123 contractors who have met the requirements of the RCP Program as of December 15, 1990. The Proficiency Report provides information on each contractor's name, RCP identification number, company name, address, phone number, and geographic service area. The report provides two additional tables, indexed by company name and by RCP identification number. The report is intended to help users quickly identify a proficient contractor if only the company name is known, or to verify which contractor is associated with a particular ID number

  11. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency report, June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in periodic RCP Proficiency Reports

  12. Correlation between knowledge on transmission and prevention of HIV/STI and proficiency in condom use among male migrants from Africa and Middle East evaluated by a Condom Use Skills score using a wooden penile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoboli, Fabio; Martinelli, Domenico; Di Stefano, Mariantonietta; Fasano, Massimo; Prato, Rosa; Santantonio, Teresa Antonia; Fiore, Jose' Ramòn

    2017-06-19

    Migrants in Italy are prevalently young adults, with a higher risk of sexual transmitted infections (STI) and HIV infection. Promoting consistent as well as correct use of condoms could reduce failure rate due to their improper use. The aim of our study was to evaluate Condom Use Skills among a migrant population recently landed in Italy, hosted in a government center for asylum seekers. The study sample was composed of 80 male migrants. Sanitary trained interviewers submitted a questionnaire to participants to investigate age, provenience, marital status, educational level and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/STI. Then, we assessed participants' level of condom use skill with the Condom Use Skills (CUS) measure by using a wooden penile model. The interviewer filled in a checklist and assigned 1 point for correct demonstration of each behavior that may prevent condom failure during sex. Participants' median age was 26 years and the sample was composed of 54 migrants from sub-Saharan Africa and 26 from Middle East. Most of them were married, with a lower middle level of education, up to 8 or 5 years. Half of the sample achieved the highest score in the questionnaire and our CUS showed a large number of people with middle high score classes. The Spearman's rho was 0.30, therefore answers to the questionnaire and CUS score appeared correlated (p migrants of the sample. Our study shows that educational level influences the quality of knowledge and awareness about STI/AIDS and contribute to correct condom use. Since the half of participants had a low educational level and linguistic problems, the risk of missing campaigns messages or misunderstanding informative materials increases. Direct observation of condom-application on penile model may offer realistic assessment of application skills in these individuals.

  13. Conceptual Scoring and Classification Accuracy of Vocabulary Testing in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Jissel B.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of single-language and conceptual scoring on the vocabulary performance of bilingual children with and without specific language impairment. We assessed classification accuracy across 3 scoring methods. Method: Participants included Spanish-English bilingual children (N = 247) aged 5;1 (years;months) to…

  14. Predicting Lexical Proficiency in Language Learner Texts Using Computational Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a model of lexical proficiency based on lexical indices related to vocabulary size, depth of lexical knowledge, and accessibility to core lexical items. The lexical indices used in this study come from the computational tool Coh-Metrix and include word length scores, lexical diversity values, word frequency counts, hypernymy…

  15. Not Just Numbers: Creating a Partnership Climate to Improve Math Proficiency in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Steven B.; Epstein, Joyce L.; Galindo, Claudia L.

    2009-01-01

    Although we know that family involvement is associated with stronger math performance, little is known about what educators are doing to effectively involve families and community members, and whether this measurably improves math achievement at their schools. This study used data from 39 schools to assess the effects of family and community involvement activities on school levels of math achievement. The study found that better implementation of math-related practices of family and community involvement predicted stronger support from parents for schools’ partnership programs, which, in turn, helped estimate the percentage of students scoring proficient on math achievement tests. PMID:20200592

  16. Visual-Constructional Ability in Individuals with Severe Obesity: Rey Complex Figure Test Accuracy and the Q-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna L. Sargénius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate visual-construction and organizational strategy among individuals with severe obesity, as measured by the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT, and to examine the validity of the Q-score as a measure for the quality of performance on the RCFT. Ninety-six non-demented morbidly obese (MO patients and 100 healthy controls (HC completed the RCFT. Their performance was calculated by applying the standard scoring criteria. The quality of the copying process was evaluated per the directions of the Q-score scoring system. Results revealed that the MO did not perform significantly lower than the HC on Copy accuracy (mean difference −0.302, CI −1.374 to 0.769, p = 0.579. In contrast, the groups did statistically differ from each other, with MO performing poorer than the HC on the Q-score (mean −1.784, CI −3.237 to −0.331, p = 0.016 and the Unit points (mean −1.409, CI −2.291 to −0.528, p = 0.002, but not on the Order points score (mean −0.351, CI −0.994 to 0.293, p = 0.284. Differences on the Unit score and the Q-score were slightly reduced when adjusting for gender, age, and education. This study presents evidence supporting the presence of inefficiency in visuospatial constructional ability among MO patients. We believe we have found an indication that the Q-score captures a wider range of cognitive processes that are not described by traditional scoring methods. Rather than considering accuracy and placement of the different elements only, the Q-score focuses more on how the subject has approached the task.

  17. The Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores: A Summary of Studies Conducted from 1997 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2008-01-01

    The validity of Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) scores is examined by summarizing 273 studies conducted between 1997 and 2004. Each of the studies was conducted through the Validity Study Service of the test sponsor and contained identical variables and statistical methods. Validity coefficients from each of the studies were corrected…

  18. The Effects of Video Game Experience on Computer-Based Air Traffic Controller Specialist, Air Traffic Scenario Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    application with a strong resemblance to a video game , concern has been raised that prior video game experience might have a moderating effect on scores. Much...such as spatial ability. The effects of computer or video game experience on work sample scores have not been systematically investigated. The purpose...of this study was to evaluate the incremental validity of prior video game experience over that of general aptitude as a predictor of work sample test

  19. Power and sample size evaluation for the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel mean score (Wilcoxon rank sum) test and the Cochran-Armitage test for trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachin, John M

    2011-11-10

    The power of a chi-square test, and thus the required sample size, are a function of the noncentrality parameter that can be obtained as the limiting expectation of the test statistic under an alternative hypothesis specification. Herein, we apply this principle to derive simple expressions for two tests that are commonly applied to discrete ordinal data. The Wilcoxon rank sum test for the equality of distributions in two groups is algebraically equivalent to the Mann-Whitney test. The Kruskal-Wallis test applies to multiple groups. These tests are equivalent to a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel mean score test using rank scores for a set of C-discrete categories. Although various authors have assessed the power function of the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests, herein it is shown that the power of these tests with discrete observations, that is, with tied ranks, is readily provided by the power function of the corresponding Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel mean scores test for two and R > 2 groups. These expressions yield results virtually identical to those derived previously for rank scores and also apply to other score functions. The Cochran-Armitage test for trend assesses whether there is an monotonically increasing or decreasing trend in the proportions with a positive outcome or response over the C-ordered categories of an ordinal independent variable, for example, dose. Herein, it is shown that the power of the test is a function of the slope of the response probabilities over the ordinal scores assigned to the groups that yields simple expressions for the power of the test. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A general equation to obtain multiple cut-off scores on a test from multinomial logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersabé, Rosa; Rivas, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The authors derive a general equation to compute multiple cut-offs on a total test score in order to classify individuals into more than two ordinal categories. The equation is derived from the multinomial logistic regression (MLR) model, which is an extension of the binary logistic regression (BLR) model to accommodate polytomous outcome variables. From this analytical procedure, cut-off scores are established at the test score (the predictor variable) at which an individual is as likely to be in category j as in category j+1 of an ordinal outcome variable. The application of the complete procedure is illustrated by an example with data from an actual study on eating disorders. In this example, two cut-off scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores are obtained in order to classify individuals into three ordinal categories: asymptomatic, symptomatic and eating disorder. Diagnoses were made from the responses to a self-report (Q-EDD) that operationalises DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders. Alternatives to the MLR model to set multiple cut-off scores are discussed.

  1. Designing Proficiency Tests to Accredit Previous Knowledge in American and British Literature in a Bilingual Education Program (Diseño de exámenes de suficiencia para acreditar el conocimiento previo en literatura americana y británica en un programa de educación bilingüe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Chica, César Julio; D'Costa Martínez, Catalina; Franco Jácome, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    This article aims at identifying the kind of American and British literature tests that can be designed to allow students who enter a bilingual education program at a private university in Colombia to have their previous knowledge in these two subjects accredited through a proficiency test. Students' needs, opinions, beliefs, existing commercial…

  2. The Effects of Teaching Descriptive Geometry in General Engineering 103 on Spatial Relations Tests Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.

    It was hypothesized that instruction in descriptive geometry produces an increase in SRT scores. The resultant data do not firmly support this hypothesis. It is suggested that this study be replicated with the use of randomly selected control groups. (MS)

  3. Produção de material de referência para ensaio de proficiência de enumeração de Bacillus cereus em leite / Preparation of reference material for proficiency test for enumeration of Bacillus cereus in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luiz Lima Brandão

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A participação em ensaios de proficiência é essencial para que um laboratório de ensaio possa ter seu desempenho avaliado por meio de uma comparação interlaboratorial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir um material de referência (MR quantitativo para EP contendo Bacillus cereus em leite em pó. Uma solução estéril de leite desnatado a 10% contendo 100 mM de sacarose foi contaminada com uma cepa de B. cereus em uma concentração previamente determinada. A matriz foi homogeneizada, distribuída em frascos e liofilizada. O lote produzido foi considerado suficientemente homogêneo atribuindo-se um desvio-padrão alvo de 0,25 log10 UFC/mL. O MR apresentou-se estável a ≤ -70 ºC e (-20 ± 4 ºC durante 1.058 e 60 dias, respectivamente. Na avaliação da influência de diferentes temperaturas para o transporte deste material, o MR se apresentou estável a 4 ºC, 25 ºC e 35 ºC durante o período de quatro dias de estudo. Conclui-se que o lote produzido apresentou todos os requisitos necessários para ser utilizado como itens de EP. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- The participation in proficiency testing (PT is essential for testing laboratories to prove their technical competence. The aim of this study was to produce a quantitative reference material (RM for PT containing Bacillus cereus in milk powder. A sterile solution of 10% skim milk containing 100 mM sucrose was contaminated with a B. cereus strain in a specific concentration. The homogenized matrix was distributed into vials and freeze- -drying. The batch produced was considered sufficiently homogeneous assigning a target standard deviation of 0.25. The RM was stable at ≤ -70 ºC and (-20 ± 4 ºC for 1,058 and 60 days, respectively. In the evaluation of temperatures for the transport of material, the RM was stable at 4, 25 and 35 ºC during four days. It is concluded that the batch produced had all the necessary requirements to be

  4. Individual sensitivity to radiations and DNA repair proficiency: the comet assay contribution; Sensibilite individuelle aux radiations et reparation de l`ADN: apport du test des cometes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapetite, C. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-09-01

    Some are hereditary syndromes demonstrate high cancer risk and hypersensitivity in response to exposures to agents such as ultraviolet or ionising radiation, and are characterized by a defective processing of DNA damage. They highlight the importance of the individual risk associated to exposures. The comet assay, a simple technique that detects DNA strand breaks, requires few cells and allows examination of DNA repair capacities in established cell lines, in blood samples or biopsies. The assay has been validated on cellular systems with known repair defects such as xeroderma pigmentosum defective in nucleotide excision repair, on mutant rodent cell lines defective in DNA single strand breaks rejoining (XRCC5/Ku80 and XRCC7/DNAPKcs) (neutral conditions). This assay does not allow to distinguish a defective phenotype in ataxia telangiectasia cells. It shows in homozygous mouse embryo fibroblasts Brca2-/- an impaired DNA double strand break rejoining. Simplicity, rapidity and sensitivity of the alkaline comet assay allow to examine the response of lymphocytes. It has been applied to the analysis of the role of DNA repair in the pathogenesis of collagen diseases, and the involvement of individual DNA repair proficiency in the thyroid tumorigenesis induced in some patients after therapeutic irradiation at childhood has been questioned. Preliminary results of these studies suggest that this type of approach could help for adapting treatment modalities and surveillance in subgroups of patients defective in DNA repair process. It could also have some incidence in the radioprotection field. (author)

  5. Lead exposure and the 2010 achievement test scores of children in New York counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strayhorn Jillian C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead is toxic to cognitive and behavioral functioning in children even at levels well below those producing physical symptoms. Continuing efforts in the U.S. since about the 1970s to reduce lead exposure in children have dramatically reduced the incidence of elevated blood lead levels (with elevated levels defined by the current U.S. Centers for Disease Control threshold of 10 μg/dl. The current study examines how much lead toxicity continues to impair the academic achievement of children of New York State, using 2010 test data. Methods This study relies on three sets of data published for the 57 New York counties outside New York City: school achievement data from the New York State Department of Education, data on incidence of elevated blood lead levels from the New York State Department of Health, and data on income from the U.S. Census Bureau. We studied third grade and eighth grade test scores in English Language Arts and mathematics. Using the county as the unit of analysis, we computed bivariate correlations and regression coefficients, with percent of children achieving at the lowest reported level as the dependent variable and the percent of preschoolers in the county with elevated blood lead levels as the independent variable. Then we repeated those analyses using partial correlations to control for possible confounding effects of family income, and using multiple regressions with income included. Results The bivariate correlations between incidence of elevated lead and number of children in the lowest achievement group ranged between 0.38 and 0.47. The partial correlations ranged from 0.29 to 0.40. The regression coefficients, both bivariate and partial (both estimating the increase in percent of children in the lowest achievement group for every percent increase in the children with elevated blood lead levels, ranged from 0.52 to 1.31. All regression coefficients, when rounded to the nearest integer, were

  6. Longitudinal analysis of standardized test scores of students in the Science Writing Heuristic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanlen, Niphon

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal impacts of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach on student science achievement measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). A number of studies have reported positive impact of an inquiry-based instruction on student achievement, critical thinking skills, reasoning skills, attitude toward science, etc. So far, studies have focused on exploring how an intervention affects student achievement using teacher/researcher-generated measurement. Only a few studies have attempted to explore the long-term impacts of an intervention on student science achievement measured by standardized tests. The students' science and reading ITBS data was collected from 2000 to 2011 from a school district which had adopted the SWH approach as the main approach in science classrooms since 2002. The data consisted of 12,350 data points from 3,039 students. The multilevel model for change with discontinuity in elevation and slope technique was used to analyze changes in student science achievement growth trajectories prior and after adopting the SWH approach. The results showed that the SWH approach positively impacted students by initially raising science achievement scores. The initial impact was maintained and gradually increased when students were continuously exposed to the SWH approach. Disadvantaged students who were at risk of having low science achievement had bigger benefits from experience with the SWH approach. As a result, existing problematic achievement gaps were narrowed down. Moreover, students who started experience with the SWH approach as early as elementary school seemed to have better science achievement growth compared to students who started experiencing with the SWH approach only in high school. The results found in this study not only confirmed the positive impacts of the SWH approach on student achievement, but also demonstrated additive impacts found when students had longitudinal experiences

  7. A Comparison of Scores on the WISC-R and Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test for Disadvantaged Black Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, James D.; Karnes, Frances A.

    1976-01-01

    It is indicated that, although the scores [obtained on both tests] are significantly correlated, the tests yield significantly different scores with the Lorge-Thorndike consistently overestimating the WISC-R full scale I.Q. (Author)

  8. Recommending a minimum English proficiency standard for entry-level nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Thomas R; Tannenbaum, Richard J; Tiffen, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    When nurses who are educated internationally immigrate to the United States, they are expected to have English language proficiency in order to function as a competent nurse. The purpose of this research was to provide sufficient information to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) to make a defensible recommended passing standard for English proficiency. This standard was based upon the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A large panel of nurses and nurse regulators (N = 25) was convened to determine how much English proficiency is required to be minimally competent as an entry-level nurse. Two standard setting procedures, the Simulated Minimally Competent Candidate (SMCC) procedure and the Examinee Paper Selection Method, were combined to produce recommendations for each panelist. In conjunction with collateral information, these recommendations were reviewed by the NCSBN Examination Committee, which decided upon an NCSBN recommended standard, a TOEFL score of 220. Because the adoption of this standard rests entirely with the individual state, NCSBN has little more to do with implementing the standard, other than answering questions and providing documentation about the standard.

  9. Critique of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Test: The More You Know, the Lower Your Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Possin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Test is one of the oldest, most frequently used, multiple-choice critical-thinking tests on the market in business, government, and legal settings for purposes of hiring and promotion. I demonstrate, however, that the test has serious construct-validity issues, stemming primarily from its ambiguous, unclear, misleading, and sometimes mysterious instructions, which have remained unaltered for decades. Erroneously scored items further diminish the test’s validity. As a result, having enhanced knowledge of formal and informal logic could well result in test subjects receiving lower scores on the test. That’s not how things should work for a CT assessment test.

  10. A physical function test for use in the intensive care unit: validity, responsiveness, and predictive utility of the physical function ICU test (scored).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Linda; de Morton, Natalie A; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Edbrooke, Lara; Haines, Kimberley; Warrillow, Stephen; Berney, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Several tests have recently been developed to measure changes in patient strength and functional outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). The original Physical Function ICU Test (PFIT) demonstrates reliability and sensitivity. The aims of this study were to further develop the original PFIT, to derive an interval score (the PFIT-s), and to test the clinimetric properties of the PFIT-s. A nested cohort study was conducted. One hundred forty-four and 116 participants performed the PFIT at ICU admission and discharge, respectively. Original test components were modified using principal component analysis. Rasch analysis examined the unidimensionality of the PFIT, and an interval score was derived. Correlations tested validity, and multiple regression analyses investigated predictive ability. Responsiveness was assessed using the effect size index (ESI), and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated. The shoulder lift component was removed. Unidimensionality of combined admission and discharge PFIT-s scores was confirmed. The PFIT-s displayed moderate convergent validity with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (r=-.60), the Six-Minute Walk Test (r=.41), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score (rho=.49). The ESI of the PFIT-s was 0.82, and the MCID was 1.5 points (interval scale range=0-10). A higher admission PFIT-s score was predictive of: an MRC score of ≥48, increased likelihood of discharge home, reduced likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation, and reduced acute care hospital length of stay. Scoring of sit-to-stand assistance required is subjective, and cadence cutpoints used may not be generalizable. The PFIT-s is a safe and inexpensive test of physical function with high clinical utility. It is valid, responsive to change, and predictive of key outcomes. It is recommended that the PFIT-s be adopted to test physical function in the ICU.

  11. Preparo de Itens de Ensaio de Proficiência em Matriz Queijo para a Pesquisa de Salmonella spp. | Preparation of Proficienc Test Items for Salmonella spp. Detection in Cheese Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Castro Beltrão da Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A participação de laboratórios analíticos em ensaio de proficiência permite a verificação da confiabilidade dos resultados gerados nas análises de controle da qualidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi produzir um lote de itens de ensaio (IE a ser utilizado em ensaio de proficiência (EP para pesquisa de Salmonella spp. em matriz queijo. Queijo Minas Frescal (QMF Ultrafiltrado foi utilizado como matriz e fortificado com uma cepa de Salmonella Enteritidis. A trealose foi utilizada como crioprotetor e a liofilização como técnica de preservação. O lote foi avaliado quanto a verificação do vácuo, teste da homogeneidade, estudo da estabilidade em longo prazo nas temperaturas de -70oC (referência e -20oC (armazenamento e em curto prazo nas temperaturas de 4, 25 e 35ºC (transporte. O lote apresentou presença de vácuo em 95,6% dos frascos e foi considerado suficientemente homogêneo. Os IE apresentaram estabilidade a -70ºC superior a 360 dias e a -20ºC superior a 160 dias. Os IE demonstraram ser estáveis por até seis dias nas temperaturas de 4 e 25ºC, mas não a 35ºC. Conclui-se que a metodologia utilizada foi satisfatória para produção de IE para o ensaio de pesquisa de Salmonella spp. em matriz queijo. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The participation of analytical laboratories in proficiency testing allows the verification of the reliability of results in analysis of quality control. The aim of this study was to produce a batch of test items (TI to be used in a proficiency assay for Salmonella spp. research in a cheese matrix. Ultrafiltered Minas cheese was used as the matrix and spiked with a strain of Salmonella Enteritidis. Trehalose was used as cryoprotectant, and freeze-drying was used as the preservation technique. The batch was evaluated for vacuum verification, homogeneity study, and long-term stability testing at temperatures of -70ºC (reference

  12. Classifying and scoring of molecules with the NGN: new datasets, significance tests, and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Christopher JF

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper demonstrates how a Neural Grammar Network learns to classify and score molecules for a variety of tasks in chemistry and toxicology. In addition to a more detailed analysis on datasets previously studied, we introduce three new datasets (BBB, FXa, and toxicology to show the generality of the approach. A new experimental methodology is developed and applied to both the new datasets as well as previously studied datasets. This methodology is rigorous and statistically grounded, and ultimately culminates in a Wilcoxon significance test that proves the effectiveness of the system. We further include a complete generalization of the specific technique to arbitrary grammars and datasets using a mathematical abstraction that allows researchers in different domains to apply the method to their own work. Background Our work can be viewed as an alternative to existing methods to solve the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR problem. To this end, we review a number approaches both from a methodological and also a performance perspective. In addition to these approaches, we also examined a number of chemical properties that can be used by generic classifier systems, such as feed-forward artificial neural networks. In studying these approaches, we identified a set of interesting benchmark problem sets to which many of the above approaches had been applied. These included: ACE, AChE, AR, BBB, BZR, Cox2, DHFR, ER, FXa, GPB, Therm, and Thr. Finally, we developed our own benchmark set by collecting data on toxicology. Results Our results show that our system performs better than, or comparatively to, the existing methods over a broad range of problem types. Our method does not require the expert knowledge that is necessary to apply the other methods to novel problems. Conclusions We conclude that our success is due to the ability of our system to: 1 encode molecules losslessly before presentation to the learning system, and 2

  13. Evaluating Gifted Identification Practice: Aptitude Testing and Linguistically Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael S.; Kirsch, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined individually administered IQ scores from an entire K-5 population (N = 432) of Limited English Proficient students referred for gifted program eligibility determination in a single large urban district in the southeastern United States. Of 8 IQ tests compared, only 1, the Stanford-Binet V, had scores appreciably lower than…

  14. Performance of ESL Students on a State Minimal Competency Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1991-01-01

    Differences between scores of Limited-English-Proficient (LEP) and non-LEP ninth grade students on the Hawaii State Test of Essential Competencies were studied. The LEP population scored significantly lower than the control group; results are discussed in terms of language training needs. (15 references) (Author/LB)

  15. CaPTHUS scoring model in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it eliminate the need for ioPTH testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfenbein, Dawn M; Weber, Sara; Schneider, David F; Sippel, Rebecca S; Chen, Herbert

    2015-04-01

    The CaPTHUS model was reported to have a positive predictive value of 100 % to correctly predict single-gland disease in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, thus obviating the need for intraoperative parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) testing. We sought to apply the CaPTHUS scoring model in our patient population and assess its utility in predicting long-term biochemical cure. We retrospective reviewed all parathyroidectomies for primary hyperparathyroidism performed at our university hospital from 2003 to 2012. We routinely perform ioPTH testing. Biochemical cure was defined as a normal calcium level at 6 months. A total of 1,421 patients met the inclusion criteria: 78 % of patients had a single adenoma at the time of surgery, 98 % had a normal serum calcium at 1 week postoperatively, and 96 % had a normal serum calcium level 6 months postoperatively. Using the CaPTHUS scoring model, 307 patients (22.5 %) had a score of ≥ 3, with a positive predictive value of 91 % for single adenoma. A CaPTHUS score of ≥ 3 had a positive predictive value of 98 % for biochemical cure at 1 week as well as at 6 months. In our population, where ioPTH testing is used routinely to guide use of bilateral exploration, patients with a preoperative CaPTHUS score of ≥ 3 had good long-term biochemical cure rates. However, the model only predicted adenoma in 91 % of cases. If minimally invasive parathyroidectomy without ioPTH testing had been done for these patients, the cure rate would have dropped from 98 % to an unacceptable 89 %. Even in these patients with high CaPTHUS scores, multigland disease is present in almost 10 %, and ioPTH testing is necessary.

  16. Testing measurement invariance of the schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ortuño-Sierra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B, the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. METHODS: The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M = 16.04 years and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M = 15.94 years. RESULTS: The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. DISCUSSION: The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures.

  17. Differences in distribution of T-scores and Z-scores among bone densitometry tests in postmenopausal women (a comparative study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendlova, J.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the character of T-score and Z-score value distribution in individually selected methods of bone densitometry and to compare them using statistical analysis. We examined 56 postmenopausal women with an age between 43 and 68 years with osteopenia or osteoporosis according to the WHO classification. The following measurements were made in each patient: T-score and Z-score for: 1) Stiffness index (S) of the left heel bone, USM (index). 2) Bone mineral density of the left heel bone (BMDh), DEXA (g of Ca hydroxyapatite per cm 2 ). 3) Bone mineral density of trabecular bone of the L1 vertebra (BMDL1). QCT (mg of Ca hydroxyapatite per cm 3 ). The densitometers used in the study were: ultrasonometer to measure heel bone, Achilles plus LUNAR, USA: DEXA to measure heel bone, PIXl, LUNAR, USA: QCT to measure the L1 vertebra, CT, SOMATOM Plus, Siemens, Germany. Statistical analysis: differences between measured values of T-scores (Z-scores) were evaluated by parametric or non-parametric methods of determining the 95 % confidence intervals (C.I.). Differences between Z-score and T-score values for compared measurements were statistically significant; however, these differences were lower for Z-scores. Largest differences in 95 % C.I., characterizing individual measurements of T-score values (in comparison with Z-scores), were found for those densitometers whose age range of the reference groups of young adults differed the most, and conversely, the smallest differences in T-score values were found when the differences between the age ranges of reference groups were smallest. The higher variation in T-score values in comparison to Z-scores is also caused by a non-standard selection of the reference groups of young adults for the QCT, PIXI and Achilles Plus densitometers used in the study. Age characteristics of the reference group for T-scores should be standardized for all types of densitometers. (author)

  18. The Health Professions Admission Test (HPAT) score and leaving certificate results can independently predict academic performance in medical school: do we need both tests?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2010-11-01

    A recent study raised concerns regarding the ability of the health professions admission test (HPAT) Ireland to improve the selection process in Irish medical schools. We aimed to establish whether performance in a mock HPAT correlated with academic success in medicine. A modified HPAT examination and a questionnaire were administered to a group of doctors and medical students. There was a significant correlation between HPAT score and college results (r2: 0.314, P = 0.018, Spearman Rank) and between leaving cert score and college results (r2: 0.306, P = 0.049, Spearman Rank). There was no correlation between leaving cert points score and HPAT score. There was no difference in HPAT score across a number of other variables including gender, age and medical speciality. Our results suggest that both the HPAT Ireland and the leaving certificate examination could act as independent predictors of academic achievement in medicine.

  19. Ky. Road-Tests Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Results from new state tests in Kentucky--the first in the nation explicitly tied to the Common Core State Standards--show that the share of students scoring "proficient" or better in reading and math dropped by roughly a third or more in both elementary and middle school the first year the tests were given. Kentucky in 2010 was the…

  20. STRATEGIES OF MAINTAINING PROFICIENCY BY TEACHERS OF ENGLISH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.

  1. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) program. Proficiency report, September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving this objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide this information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under this voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report

  2. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency report, January 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report

  3. The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness between Test-Taking Motivation and Listening Test Score: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating...

  4. The Effect of English Language on Multiple Choice Question Scores of Thai Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Muangkaew, Wayuda; Assanasen, Jintana; Kunavisarut, Tada; Thongngarm, Torpong; Ruchutrakool, Theera; Kobwanthanakun, Surapon; Dejsomritrutai, Wanchai

    2016-04-01

    Universities in Thailand are preparing for Thailand's integration into the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by increasing the number of tests in English language. English language is not the native language of Thailand Differences in English language proficiency may affect scores among test-takers, even when subject knowledge among test-takers is comparable and may falsely represent the knowledge level of the test-taker. To study the impact of English language multiple choice test questions on test scores of medical students. The final examination of fourth-year medical students completing internal medicine rotation contains 120 multiple choice questions (MCQ). The languages used on the test are Thai and English at a ratio of 3:1. Individual scores of tests taken in both languages were collected and the effect of English language on MCQ was analyzed Individual MCQ scores were then compared with individual student English language proficiency and student grade point average (GPA). Two hundred ninety five fourth-year medical students were enrolled. The mean percentage of MCQ scores in Thai and English were significantly different (65.0 ± 8.4 and 56.5 ± 12.4, respectively, p English was fair (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.41, p English than in Thai language. Students were classified into six grade categories (A, B+, B, C+, C, and D+), which cumulatively measured total internal medicine rotation performance score plus final examination score. MCQ scores from Thai language examination were more closely correlated with total course grades than were the scores from English language examination (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.73 (p English proficiency score was very high, at 3.71 ± 0.35 from a total of 4.00. Mean student GPA was 3.40 ± 0.33 from a possible 4.00. English language MCQ examination scores were more highly associated with GPA than with English language proficiency. The use of English language multiple choice question test may decrease scores

  5. Deaf college students' mathematical skills relative to morphological knowledge, reading level, and language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ronald R; Gaustad, Martha G

    2007-01-01

    This study of deaf college students examined specific relationships between their mathematics performance and their assessed skills in reading, language, and English morphology. Simple regression analyses showed that deaf college students' language proficiency scores, reading grade level, and morphological knowledge regarding word segmentation and meaning were all significantly correlated with both the ACT Mathematics Subtest and National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) Mathematics Placement Test scores. Multiple regression analyses identified the best combination from among these potential independent predictors of students' performance on both the ACT and NTID mathematics tests. Additionally, the participating deaf students' grades in their college mathematics courses were significantly and positively associated with their reading grade level and their knowledge of morphological components of words.

  6. Differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults : Consequences for norm-based classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Stevens, M.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.

    This study investigated differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults and the consequences thereof for norm-based classification of individuals. Walking endurance, grip strength, hip flexibility, balance, manual dexterity, and reaction time were

  7. The Score Reliability of Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability Test (DAP: IQ) for Rural Malawi Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasu, Denis S.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, the reliability of scores for the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ; Reynolds & Hickman, 2004) was examined through several analyses with a sample of 147 children from rural Malawi, Africa using a Chichewa translation of instructions. Cronbach alpha coefficients for…

  8. Differential Predictive Validity of High School GPA and College Entrance Test Scores for University Students in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali Dawod

    2012-01-01

    High school grade point average and college entrance test scores are two admission criteria that are currently used by most colleges in Yemen to select their prospective students. Given their widespread use, it is important to investigate their predictive validity to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these institutions. This study…

  9. Automated Scoring for the "TOEFL Junior"® Comprehensive Writing and Speaking Test. Research Report. ETS RR-15-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanini, Keelan; Heilman, Michael; Wang, Xinhao; Blanchard, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the initial automated scoring results that were obtained using the constructed responses from the Writing and Speaking sections of the pilot forms of the "TOEFL Junior"® Comprehensive test administered in late 2011. For all of the items except one (the edit item in the Writing section), existing automated scoring…

  10. Predicting Pre-Service Classroom Teachers' Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's Educational Sciences Test Scores Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Metin

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts the number of correct answers given by pre-service classroom teachers in Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's (CSRE) educational sciences test based on their high school grade point averages, university entrance scores, and grades (mid-term and final exams) from their undergraduate educational courses. This study was…

  11. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  12. Non-Discriminatory Assessment: Formal and Informal Assessment of Limited English Proficient Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sharon

    PEOPLE (Pruebas de Expresion Oral y Percepcion de la Lengua Espanol) was developed as a test to help distinguish between a language difference and a language deficit in non English proficient (NEP) and limited English proficient (LEP) elementary Hispanic students. PEOPLE was developed, pilot tested in 14 school districts in Los Angeles County with…

  13. Pulmonary Exacerbation Score in Cystlc Fibrosis Patients: Reliability and Validity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by recurrent pulmonary exacerbations (PEs), but consensus on diagnostic criteria for PE is lacking. The use of a consistent definition of PE as an outcome measure in CF clinical trials would allow meaningful comparison across centers. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a simplified version of the Seattle Pulmonary Exacerbation Score (SPEX). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational ...

  14. Are WISC IQ scores in children with mathematical learning disabilities underestimated? The influence of a specialized intervention on test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Katharina; Spinath, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    Intelligence measures play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Probably as a result of math-related material in IQ tests, children with MLD often display reduced IQ scores. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of math remediation extend to IQ scores. The present study investigated the impact of a special remediation program compared to a control group receiving private tutoring (PT) on the WISC IQ scores of children with MLD. We included N=45 MLD children (7-12 years) in a study with a pre- and post-test control group design. Children received remediation for two years on average. The analyses revealed significantly greater improvements in the experimental group on the Full-Scale IQ, and the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Working Memory indices, but not Processing Speed, compared to the PT group. Children in the experimental group showed an average WISC IQ gain of more than ten points. Results indicate that the WISC IQ scores of MLD children might be underestimated and that an effective math intervention can improve WISC IQ test performance. Taking limitations into account, we discuss the use of IQ measures more generally for defining MLD in research and practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. National Radon Contractor Proficiency Program. Proficiency report, October 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The report lists those individual contractors in the United States who have met the requirements of the Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program as of August 18, 1990. These requirements are designed to provide minimum proficiency criteria for individuals who design and supervise the installation of radon mitigation systems in buildings. (Some States have more stringent requirements as part of their radon certification programs. The States should be consulted directly for details on their programs; see Section 5 for a list of State radon contacts). The RCP Program measures the proficiency of an individual contractor, not their company. Therefore, users of the report who select a mitigation firm should ensure that the services are provided by the listed contractor. The National RCP Program does not accredit mitigation contractors, nor does it certify, recommend, or endorse participating companies. Only the listed contractor, not their company of affilation, are deemed proficient. The inclusion of a contractor in the report should not be interpreted as a certification or accreditation of the individual or affiliated company

  16. Learning Strategies in Proficient and Less Proficient Readers in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Majid; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Ashrafzadeh, Anis

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to diagnose the probable significant differences in the use of language learning strategies among medical-text readers of opposite sex from different levels of proficiency. 120 (N = 120) participants were randomly selected from Azad Medical University of Mashhad: 60 medical students (age range 23-25; 30 = male and 30 =…

  17. Timed up & go test score in patients with hip fracture is related to the type of walking aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten T; Bandholm, Thomas; Holm, Bente

    2009-01-01

    Kristensen MT, Bandholm T, Holm B, Ekdahl C, Kehlet H. Timed Up & Go test score in patients with hip fracture is related to the type of walking aid. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between Timed Up & Go (TUG) test scores and type of walking aid used during the test, and to determine...... the feasibility of using the rollator as a standardized walking aid during the TUG in patients with hip fracture who were allowed full weight-bearing (FWB). DESIGN: Prospective methodological study. SETTING: An acute orthopedic hip fracture unit at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=126; 90 women......, 36 men) with hip fracture with a mean age +/- SD of 74.8+/-12.7 years performed the TUG the day before discharge from the orthopedic ward. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The TUG was performed with the walking aid the patient was to be discharged with: a walker (n=88) or elbow...

  18. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency. This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency. These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency.

  19. Comparison of Physical Therapy Anatomy Performance and Anxiety Scores in Timed and Untimed Practical Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sarah M.; Evans, Cathy; Agur, Anne M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Students in health care professional programs face many stressful tests that determine successful completion of their program. Test anxiety during these high stakes examinations can affect working memory and lead to poor outcomes. Methods of decreasing test anxiety include lengthening the time available to complete examinations or evaluating…

  20. Relationship Between Broiler Body Weights, Eimeria maxima Gross Lesion Scores, and Microscores in Three Anticoccidial Sensitivity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Miguel A; Da Costa, Manuel; Kimminau, Emily; Fuller, Lorraine; Clark, Steven; Pesti, Gene; Beckstead, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Anticoccidial sensitivity tests (ASTs) serve to determine the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against Eimeria field isolates in a controlled laboratory setting. The most commonly measured parameters are body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gross intestinal lesion scores, and mortality. Due to the difficulty in reliably scoring gross lesion scores of Eimeria maxima , microscopic analysis of intestinal scrapings (microscores) can be used in the field to indicate the presence of this particular Eimeria. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between E. maxima microscores and broiler body weights and gross E. maxima lesion scores in three ASTs. Day-old broiler chicks were raised for 12 days on a standard corn-soy diet. On Day 12, chicks were placed in Petersime batteries and treatment diets were provided. There were six birds per pen, four pens per treatment, and 12 treatments, for a total of 288 chicks per AST. The treatments were as follows: 1) nonmedicated, noninfected; 2) nonmedicated, infected; 3) lasalocid, infected; 4) salinomycin, infected; 5) diclazuril, infected; 6) monensin, infected; 7) decoquinate, infected; 8) narasin + nicarbazin, infected; 9) narasin, infected; 10) nicarbazin, infected; 11) robenidine, infected; and 12) zoalene, infected. On Day 14, chicks were challenged with an Eimeria field isolate by oral gavage. On Day 20, broilers were weighed, and gross lesion scores and microscores were classified from 0 to 4 depending on the severity of the gross lesion scores and E. maxima microscores. Data from three trials using different field isolates were statistically analyzed using a logarithmic regression model. There was no relationship (P = 0.1224) between microscores and body weight gain. There was a positive relationship between microscores and gross lesion scores (P = 0.004). However, there was also an interaction between isolate and treatment (P Eimeria or the amount of E. maxima in the inoculum.