WorldWideScience

Sample records for proficiency test scores

  1. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  2. Motivating High School Students to Score Proficient on State Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah Lee

    2015-01-01

    The researcher interviewed two groups of eleventh grade students, in a rural Appalachian setting, who tended to score low on the state mandated high stakes/low stakes test to discover their efforts on the test, specifically in reading, and to obtain their opinions concerning the effects of a specific incentive or consequence. Before the eleventh…

  3. Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

    1986-01-01

    Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

  4. Scoring in genetically modified organism proficiency tests based on log-transformed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Ellison, Stephen L R; Owen, Linda; Mathieson, Kenneth; Powell, Joanne; Key, Pauline; Wood, Roger; Damant, Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    The study considers data from 2 UK-based proficiency schemes and includes data from a total of 29 rounds and 43 test materials over a period of 3 years. The results from the 2 schemes are similar and reinforce each other. The amplification process used in quantitative polymerase chain reaction determinations predicts a mixture of normal, binomial, and lognormal distributions dominated by the latter 2. As predicted, the study results consistently follow a positively skewed distribution. Log-transformation prior to calculating z-scores is effective in establishing near-symmetric distributions that are sufficiently close to normal to justify interpretation on the basis of the normal distribution.

  5. Are Score Comparisons across Language Proficiency Test Batteries Justified?: An IELTS-TOEFL Comparability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geranpayeh, Ardeshir

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted to determine if comparisons between scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing Service (IELTS) are justifiable. The test scores of 216 Iranian graduate students who took the TOEFL and IELTS, as well as the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Higher…

  6. TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

  7. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  8. Measuring English Language Workplace Proficiency across Subgroups: Using CFA Models to Validate Test Score Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hanwook; Manna, Venessa F.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the factor structure of the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC®) Listening and Reading test, and its invariance across subgroups of test-takers. The subgroups were defined by (a) gender, (b) age, (c) employment status, (d) time spent studying English, and (e) having lived in a country where English is the…

  9. A French Speaking Proficiency Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimsleur, Paul

    An attempt to test students objectively in a five-part, French, speaking proficiency test is described and discussed. Concrete nouns, abstract words, pronunciation, syntax, and fluency are tested with a combination of tape and picture stimuli. Reliability, validity, and practical questions are raised; and previous aural-oral testing procedures are…

  10. Examining the Relationship between Math Scores and English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Denfield L.; Nistor, Nicolae; Baltes, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies propose that English proficiency dictates English language learners' (ELLs) performances on mathematics assessments. The current study investigates the predictive power of English proficiency on mathematics scores, while controlling for gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and grade level among ELLs at a south Florida elementary…

  11. Automated Assembly of Pre-equated Language Proficiency Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Grant; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an automated language proficiency test assembly system at an air force base English Language Center. The study focuses on the equivalence of mean score difficulty, total score variance, and intercorrelation covariance across test norms and finds a high level of test-form equivalence and internal consistency. (nine…

  12. Proficiency test for aflatoxin in pig feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  13. Segmentation and accuracy-based scores for the automatic assessment of oral proficiency for proficient L2 speakers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Febe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available . Results indicate that, both for segmentation as well as accuracy-based scores, the most simple scores correlate best with the humans’ opinion on the students’ proficiency. Combining different scores using multiple linear regression leads to marginally...

  14. Segmentation and accuracy-based scores for the automatic assessment of oral proficiency for proficient L2 speakers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Febe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the automatic assessment of oral proficiency for advanced second language speakers. A spoken dialogue system is used to guide students through an oral test and to record their answers. Indicators of oral proficiency...

  15. Measuring Task Proficiency with Tailored Response Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Herbert George; And Others

    Tailored Response Testing (TRT) is a new type of test that has demonstrated its applicability to the evaluation of human performance in a wide variety of occupations and work settings. The Navy is using TRT to measure the technical proficiency of job incumbents in three of its jobs. The methodology holds great promise for testing aboard ships as…

  16. SYKE Proficiency Test 10/2014 Phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorio, Kristiina; Björklöf, Katarina; Kuosa, Harri; Jokipii, Reija; Järvinen, Marko; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Leivuori, Mirja; Niemelä, Maija; Väisänen, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) organized in 2014 the fourth virtual phytoplankton proficiency test based on filmed material. A total of 39 analysts from 27 organizations and eight countries took part the test. The test material represented phytoplankton that typically occurs in boreal lakes and in the northern Baltic Sea. The test included three components: 1) phytoplankton species identification test, 2) phytoplankton counting test and 3) phytoplankton measurement of cell dimens...

  17. Current Proficiency Testing: A Reflection of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine-Niakaris, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Looks at the washback effect in language testing, using as an example the new University of Michigan Examination for Certificate of Competency (ECCE), designed for intermediate- to upper-intermediate level learners. The ECCE can be considered an example of the movement toward achievement-oriented proficiency tests. (Author/VWL)

  18. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) decreased in grade 4 reading. In grade 4 math, the percentage scoring proficient on the state test decreased…

  19. Test Reviews: GEPT--General English Proficiency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Carsten; Pan, Yi-Ching

    2008-01-01

    The General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) was developed in 1999, commissioned by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan. The purpose of the test is to provide individuals with a gauge of their English language proficiency and assist employers and educational institutions in selection and placement. Also, it aims to encourage the study of English…

  20. Crime Laboratory Proficiency Testing Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph L.; And Others

    A three-year research effort was conducted to design a crime laboratory proficiency testing program encompassing the United States. The objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility of preparation and distribution of different classes of physical evidence; (2) assess the accuracy of criminalistics laboratories in the processing of selected…

  1. Does Wechsler Intelligence Scale administration and scoring proficiency improve during assessment training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Tyson L; Zachar, Peter; Ray, Glen E; Lobello, Steven G; Underhill, Andrea T

    2007-04-01

    Studies have found that Wechsler scale administration and scoring proficiency is not easily attained during graduate training. These findings may be related to methodological issues. Using a single-group repeated measures design, this study documents statistically significant, though modest, error reduction on the WAIS-III and WISC-III during a graduate course in assessment. The study design does not permit the isolation of training factors related to error reduction, or assessment of whether error reduction is a function of mere practice. However, the results do indicate that previous study findings of no or inconsistent improvement in scoring proficiency may have been the result of methodological factors. Implications for teaching individual intelligence testing and further research are discussed.

  2. Evaluation of Mycology Laboratory Proficiency Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Andrew A.; Salkin, Ira F.; McGinnis, Michael R.; Gromadzki, Sally; Pasarell, Lester; Kemna, Maggi; Higgins, Nancy; Salfinger, Max

    1999-01-01

    Changes over the last decade in overt proficiency testing (OPT) regulations have been ostensibly directed at improving laboratory performance on patient samples. However, the overt (unblinded) format of the tests and regulatory penalties associated with incorrect values allow and encourage laboratorians to take extra precautions with OPT analytes. As a result OPT may measure optimal laboratory performance instead of the intended target of typical performance attained during routine patient testing. This study addresses this issue by evaluating medical mycology OPT and comparing its fungal specimen identification error rates to those obtained in a covert (blinded) proficiency testing (CPT) program. Identifications from 188 laboratories participating in the New York State mycology OPT from 1982 to 1994 were compared with the identifications of the same fungi recovered from patient specimens in 1989 and 1994 as part of the routine procedures of 88 of these laboratories. The consistency in the identification of OPT specimens was sufficient to make accurate predictions of OPT error rates. However, while the error rates in OPT and CPT were similar for Candida albicans, significantly higher error rates were found in CPT for Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and other common pathogenic fungi. These differences may, in part, be due to OPT’s use of ideal organism representatives cultured under optimum growth conditions. This difference, as well as the organism-dependent error rate differences, reflects the limitations of OPT as a means of assessing the quality of routine laboratory performance in medical mycology. PMID:10364601

  3. Proficiency test in the accreditation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.

    2008-08-01

    In the accreditation process of a radioactivity measurements laboratory, according to ISO standard 17025, proficiency tests play a fundamental role. These PTs constitute an irreplaceable tool for the validation of measuring methods. In the case of Spain, ENAC, which is the Spanish accreditation national body, requires that the laboratory has to take part in a PT for each one of the accredited measuring methods in the period of time between two reassessments of the accreditation, what happens every 4-5 years. In specific areas of determination procedures, among which radioactive measurements could be included, the number of methods which can be accredited is very large. The purpose of the present work is to establish a classification into families of the different radioactivity measurement procedures, as well as to establish complementary actions that guarantee that carrying out periodically proficiency-tests on any of the included procedures in each family, every measurement procedure include in that family is controlled, complying with the criteria established by ENAC.

  4. A retrospective evaluation of proficiency testing, and rapid HIV test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proficiency testing (PT) has been implemented as a form of External Quality Assurance (EQA) by the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Kenya since 2007 in order to monitor and improve on the quality of HIV testing and counselling HTC services. Objective: To compare concordance between National HIV ...

  5. Proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Jong, de J.; Lee, van der M.K.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The here described proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed was organised by RIKILT, Wageningen UR in accordance with ISO 17043. RIKILT Wageningen UR has an ISO/IEC 17043 accreditation for proficiency tests of residues in products of animal origin. However, this specific test is not part

  6. Proficiency test for tropane alkaloids in food en feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  7. Score test variable screening

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this paper makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient...

  8. Score test variable screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi

    2014-12-01

    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this article makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient, and relatively simple to justify. Secondly, we propose a resampling-based procedure for selecting the number of variables to retain after screening according to the principle of reproducibility. Finally, we propose a new iterative score test screening method which is closely related to sparse regression. In simulations we apply our methods to four different regression models and show that they can outperform existing procedures. We also apply score test screening to an analysis of gene expression data from multiple myeloma patients using a censored quantile regression model to identify high-risk genes. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  9. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  10. Proficiency test of gamma spectrometry laboratories in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelic, G., E-mail: gpantelic@nadlanu.co [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health Dr Dragomir Karajovic, Deligradska 29, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia, Autoput 3, 11070 Belgrade (Serbia); Vuletic, V. [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health Dr Dragomir Karajovic, Deligradska 29, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrovic, R. [Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia, Autoput 3, 11070 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents the statistical evaluation of results from the analysis of 8 radionuclides in water samples within the frame of the First Proficiency Test of gamma spectrometry Laboratories in Serbia organized in 2008. The water samples used in this proficiency test were prepared using certified radioactive solution containing gamma emitting radionuclides. This solution was diluted and used as a master solution for preparation of test samples. The overall performance evaluation showed that 64.7% of all reported results met the individual proficiency test criteria, where 26.5% of all reported results did not pass the overall PT acceptance criterion.

  11. Proficiency testing for psychoactive substances in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, S D; Brusini, G; Maietti, S; Frison, G; Castagna, F; Allevi, S; Menegus, A M; Tedeschi, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the general design and main results of the Italian proficiency testing program for the analysis of psychoactive substances in urine, a long-term initiative created in 1995 on an educational basis and characterized by an innovative internet-based service for data exchange between laboratories and the organizing body. Batches of six urine samples, validated by reference laboratories, are sent every 3 months to participating laboratories, which may choose which classes of substances to test from those planned by the program panel and, within those classes, which type of analytical commitment to work on: identification of just one class (Option 1), identification of single substances (Option 2), or identification and quantification of single substances (Option 3). Comprehensive periodical reports and annual reports are provided to participants with evaluation of their performance and an annual workshop is organized to discuss technical-scientific topics related to clinical, forensic and analytical toxicology. About 200 laboratories currently participate in the program and a total of 67,059 analyses have been carried out since 1995. The mean percentage of correct results was 96.8%, with a yearly improvement of about 0.4%. The best average false positive and false negative rates were obtained for methadone (0.2% and 2.1% respectively) and cocaine (0.3% and 2.2%). The worst average false positive rates were obtained for amphetamines and opiates (3.2% and 5.0%) and worst average false negative rates for amphetamines, barbiturates and cannabinoids (17.4%, 30.7% and 19.9%).

  12. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  13. Setting Language Proficiency Score Requirements for English-as-a-Second-Language Placement Decisions in Secondary Education. Research Report. ETS RR-16-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patricia A.; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect recommendations for minimum score requirements (cut scores) on the "TOEFL Junior"® English language proficiency test in order to guide decisions on the placement of learners into English as a second language (ESL) support classes. The TOEFL Junior test, intended primarily for students ages 11 and…

  14. Incremental Validity of Multidimensional Proficiency Scores from Diagnostic Classification Models: An Illustration for Elementary School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunina-Habenicht, Olga; Rupp, André A.; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic classification models (DCMs) hold great potential for applications in summative and formative assessment by providing discrete multivariate proficiency scores that yield statistically driven classifications of students. Using data from a newly developed diagnostic arithmetic assessment that was administered to 2032 fourth-grade students…

  15. Understanding the High School Proficiency Test and the Early Warning Test in Relation to HCCC Enrollment Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffy, Fred

    The Grade 11 High School Proficiency Test (HSPT) and the New Jersey Early Warning Test (EWT) are two key standardized tests that indicate academic ability of county high school graduates which colleges will need to address. While HSPT scores for county high school districts reflect a range of competency in reading, math, and writing, the majority…

  16. Quality control of the analysis of histamine in fish by proficiency test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Warlley P.; Tette, Patrícia A. S.; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of histamine is required by the European Union for the importation of tuna and other Scombroid fish. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of the analysis of histamine in fish, by means of reference material (RM) and of proficiency test (PT). Sample analysis carried out using RM provided 89.4% recovery. During the proficiency test, the histamine content of the sample was 311.9 mg/kg and the z-score was zero. These results assure the good performance of the laboratory in the analysis of histamine in fish, asuring reliability of results to clients.

  17. The proficiency testing of determination of dioxins in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, R.; Tsutsumi, T.; Maitani, T. [National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Jissen Womens Univ., Hino (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Food intake is the main route of human dioxin exposure, making the determination of dioxins in food indispensable for risk assessment and risk management of dioxins. The uncertainty of analytical results, however, can be very great because of the low concentration of the analytes and complicated cleanup procedures. The risk assessment of dioxins based on analytical results also suffers from a similar degree of uncertainty. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan has published ''Guideline for the Determination of Dioxins in Food'' to standardize the analytical procedures. The guideline contains the quality assurance procedures to obtain reliable analytical results and recommends participation in the relevant proficiency testing scheme. The proficiency testing provides the fair evaluation of the analytical results. The central science laboratory in England and the food and drug safety center in Japan offer the proficiency testing on food. The National Institute of Health Sciences of Japan (NIHS) also has carried out proficiency testing of dioxins in food since 1998 to assure the quality of analytical results for dioxins. In this presentation we will show the results of 5 rounds of proficiency testing.

  18. Convergent and Discriminant Validation of Oral Language Proficiency Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; Palmer, Adrian S.

    In a study designed to validate oral language proficiency tests, it is planned to administer a series of tests to 100 native Mandarin Chinese-speaking subjects (foreign students and their spouses). The tests will measure communicative competence in speaking (ability to speak, exhibiting control of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and pragmatic rules;…

  19. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  20. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Texas' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in reading at grades 4 and 8 and in math at grade 8. In grade 4 math, however, the percentage scoring…

  1. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Herrmann, Susan Strange

    2009-01-01

    A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos-methyl,...

  2. Are antibiotic screening approaches sufficiently adequate? A proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A proficiency test including the screening analysis of antibiotics in beef using cryogenicly minced materials was organized by RIKILT in 2009. The test included blank beef samples and beef samples spiked with either flumequine or a combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin around the maximum

  3. Predicting occupational personality test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Drakeley, R

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between students' actual test scores and their self-estimated scores on the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI; R. Hogan & J. Hogan, 1992), an omnibus personality questionnaire, was examined. Despite being given descriptive statistics and explanations of each of the dimensions measured, the students tended to overestimate their scores; yet all correlations between actual and estimated scores were positive and significant. Correlations between self-estimates and actual test scores were highest for sociability, ambition, and adjustment (r = .62 to r = .67). The results are discussed in terms of employers' use and abuse of personality assessment for job recruitment.

  4. Factors Affecting Result in Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK Level 6: Reading Section and Preparation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the author’s personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  5. The 15-item version of the Boston Naming Test as an index of English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Jongsma, Katherine A; Issa, Meriam

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the potential of the Boston Naming Test - Short Form (BNT-15) to provide an objective estimate of English proficiency. A secondary goal was to examine the effect of limited English proficiency (LEP) on neuropsychological test performance. A brief battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 79 bilingual participants (40.5% male, MAge = 26.9, MEducation = 14.2). The majority (n = 56) were English dominant (EN), and the rest were Arabic dominant (AR). The BNT-15 was further reduced to 10 items that best discriminated between EN and AR (BNT-10). Participants were divided into low, intermediate, and high English proficiency subsamples based on BNT-10 scores (≤6, 7-8, and ≥9). Performance across groups was compared on neuropsychological tests with high and low verbal mediation. The BNT-15 and BNT-10 respectively correctly identified 89 and 90% of EN and AR participants. Level of English proficiency had a large effect (partial η2 = .12-.34; Cohen's d = .67-1.59) on tests with high verbal mediation (animal fluency, sentence comprehension, word reading), but no effect on tests with low verbal mediation (auditory consonant trigrams, clock drawing, digit-symbol substitution). The BNT-15 and BNT-10 can function as indices of English proficiency and predict the deleterious effect of LEP on neuropsychological tests with high verbal mediation. Interpreting low scores on such measures as evidence of impairment in examinees with LEP would likely overestimate deficits.

  6. The TOEFL: Incomplete Test of English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Siew Chee; Davenport, Betty M.

    1986-01-01

    The ability to think in a foreign language is reflected more accurately in the ability to speak and write the language. Colleges and universities need to supplement the Test of English as a Foreign Language with tests of English conversation, specialized vocabulary, and written composition. (MLW)

  7. Performance of Clinical Laboratories in South African Parasitology Proficiency Testing Surveys between 2004 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Leigh; Frean, John

    2012-01-01

    Performance in proficiency testing (PT) schemes is an objective measure of a laboratory's best performance. We examined the performance of participants in two parasitology PT schemes in South Africa from 2004 through 2010. The average rates of acceptable scores over the period were 58% and 66% for the stool and blood parasite schemes, respectively. In our setting, participation in PT alone is insufficient to improve performance; a policy that provides additional resources and training seems necessary. PMID:22814470

  8. High school science teacher perceptions of the science proficiency testing as mandated by the State of Ohio Board of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Samuel Shird

    There is a correlation between the socioeconomic status of secondary schools and scores on the State of Ohio's mandated secondary science proficiency tests. In low scoring schools many reasons effectively explain the low test scores as a result of the low socioeconomics. For example, one reason may be that many students are working late hours after school to help with family finances; parents may simply be too busy providing family income to realize the consequences of the testing program. There are many other personal issues students face that may cause them to score poorly an the test. The perceptions of their teachers regarding the science proficiency test program may be one significant factor. These teacher perceptions are the topic of this study. Two sample groups ware established for this study. One group was science teachers from secondary schools scoring 85% or higher on the 12th grade proficiency test in the academic year 1998--1999. The other group consisted of science teachers from secondary schools scoring 35% or less in the same academic year. Each group of teachers responded to a survey instrument that listed several items used to determine teachers' perceptions of the secondary science proficiency test. A significant difference in the teacher' perceptions existed between the two groups. Some of the ranked items on the form include teachers' opinions of: (1) Teaching to the tests; (2) School administrators' priority placed on improving average test scores; (3) Teacher incentive for improving average test scores; (4) Teacher teaching style change as a result of the testing mandate; (5) Teacher knowledge of State curriculum model; (6) Student stress as a result of the high-stakes test; (7) Test cultural bias; (8) The tests in general.

  9. Using Heteroskedastic Ordered Probit Models to Recover Moments of Continuous Test Score Distributions from Coarsened Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.; Shear, Benjamin R.; Castellano, Katherine E.; Ho, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Test score distributions of schools or demographic groups are often summarized by frequencies of students scoring in a small number of ordered proficiency categories. We show that heteroskedastic ordered probit (HETOP) models can be used to estimate means and standard deviations of multiple groups' test score distributions from such data. Because…

  10. Test Anxiety and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety in a Reading-Proficiency Test

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Chin Tsai; Yi-Chih Li

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assesse...

  11. Scientific issues related to the cytology proficiency testing regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The member organizations of the CETC feel strongly that there are significant flaws associated with the proposed proficiency test and its implementation. The most immediate modifications include lengthening the required testing interval, utilizing stringently validated and continuously monitored slides, changing the grading scheme and changing the focus of the test from individuals to laboratory level testing, as described above. Integration of new computer-assisted and location-guided screening technologies into the testing protocol is necessary for the testing program to be compliant with the current CLIA law. The regulation also needs to be flexible enough to accommodate new technologies that are implemented in laboratory practice, education and administration of the test. The changes recommended in this document address the most immediate technical and scientific concerns with the current implementation of PT for gynecologic cytology. The CETC will be submitting a subsequent document, following full review of the current regulations, with recommendations for changes, justifications and impact.

  12. Automatic failure in gynecologic cytology proficiency testing. Results from the College of American Pathologists proficiency testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Ann T; Crothers, Barbara A; Bentz, Joel S; Souers, Rhona J; Fatheree, Lisa A; Wilbur, David C

    2009-11-01

    Automatic failure in gynecologic cytology proficiency testing occurs when a high-grade lesion or carcinoma (HSIL+, Category D) is misinterpreted as negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (Category B). To document the automatic failure rate in 2006 and 2007 from the College of American Pathologists proficiency testing program (PAP PT) and compare them to projected values from 2004. Identify automatic failures from PAP PT in 2006 and 2007 and compare the rates of failure regarding participant and preparation type to validated slides in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in 2004. There were 65 264 participant responses for HSIL+ slides included in this analysis from 2006 and 2007. Overall, 1% (666 of 65 264) of the HSIL+ responses were classified as negative, resulting in automatic failure for the participant. There were significantly fewer automatic failures in 2007 as compared with either 2006 or projected from 2004 data (P < .001). Conventional preparations had a lower automatic failure rate than liquid-based preparations but only for 2006. Both pathologists and cytotechnologists interpreting liquid-based preparations faired better than projected from 2004 data. The automatic failure rate in PAP PT is lower than expected based on 2004 data from the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program. Automatic failures are a relatively small component (1% or less) of proficiency testing failures. The rate of automatic failure decreased from 2006 to 2007 and may be due to loss of poor performers in the testing pool, the test-taking environment, or removal of less robust slides from the program.

  13. The role of proficiency testing in ensuring quality: findings from the College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytopathology Quality Consensus Conference working group 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Lydia Pleotis; Nayar, Ritu; Savaloja, Lynnette; Tabbara, Sana; Thomas, Nicole; Winkler, Barbara; Tworek, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Implementation of proficiency testing for gynecologic cytology was delayed 20 years because of challenges addressing the subjective nature of cytologic interpretation and replicating normal working conditions. Concern remains regarding test scoring, slide validation, test environment, and other issues. How these test results are, or should be, used in quality management has never been explored. To provide information on good laboratory practices for gynecologic cytology proficiency testing based on findings from the College of American Pathologists' survey-based project funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. An expert working group evaluated results from a Web-based, national laboratory survey plus responses from follow-up questions and findings from the literature. The group created statements on good laboratory practices pertinent to proficiency testing and its role in quality management, which were discussed and voted on at a consensus conference. Two-thirds of laboratories report having an individual with an unsuccessful proficiency testing score. More than 90% did not initiate any remedial action for 1 or 2 unsuccessful tests; 84% of laboratories reported they actively monitored results from proficiency testing, but most laboratories did not initiate any remedial action for cytotechnologists (81.4%; 376 of 462) or pathologists (87.7%; 405 of 462) who passed a proficiency test but who did not score 100%. Proficiency testing pass-fail rates should be monitored globally for the laboratory and for each individual. Proficiency testing slides should be prescreened by cytotechnologists for pathologists who are not primary screeners. Remedial action should not be required for a passed, but imperfect, test. No remedial action is required for an unsuccessful, first proficiency test result before retesting.

  14. Developing and scoring essay tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oermann, M

    1999-01-01

    The need to prepare nursing students for the licensing examination has resulted in a predominance of multiple-choice testing in nursing courses. But what about evaluating students' ability to present ideas in their own words and develop creative responses to questions posed by the teacher? Essay items provide an effective means of assessing higher levels of learning and ability to organize and present ideas in writing. The author describes how to develop essay items and score responses.

  15. 42 CFR 493.901 - Approval of proficiency testing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... gynecologic cytology and on individual laboratory performance on testing events, cumulative reports and scores... when possible and that samples are homogeneous, except for specific subspecialties such as cytology...

  16. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests to detect viral fish diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahns, Søren; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Skall, Helle Frank

    An inter-laboratory proficiency test has ben provided by the European Community Laboratory (CRL) for Fish Diseases every year since 1996. The test is provided to all European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) that are obliged to participate and to a limited number of non-European NRLs, making...... the total number of participating laboratories 35. The test is primarily designed to assess the ability of participating laboratories to identify and quantify the notifiable non-exotic fish pathogenic viruses: Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious haematopietic necrosis virus (IHNV......) but also to assess their ability to differentiate other fish viruses as spring viraemia of carp virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, perch rhabdovirus etc. Five coded ampoules are provided to participants containing lyophilised supernatant from infected cell cultures. The CRL collect the data...

  17. The Relationship between Scores on the Graduate Management Admission Test and the Test of English as a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.

    In addition to scores on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), which are required of applicants to a substantial number of graduate management schools, foreign candidates may also be required to submit scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) as an indication of English language proficiency. The present study provides…

  18. Proficiency test for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Nícoli, Ieda Gomes; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho dos calibradores de radionuclídeos de 55 serviços de medicina nuclear brasileiros em medição de atividade de radiofármaco contendo 99Tc m. Testes de proficiência foram aplicados em 63 resultados originados do programa de comparação promovido pelo Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes do Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O desempenho foi avaliado em relação ao critério de aceitação de ±10% de exatidão exigido pela...

  19. An Examination of Some Language Proficiency Tests from a Communicative Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.

    A theoretical framework that distinguishes the knowledge, or competence, aspect of language proficiency from the skills aspect is outlined, and the factors in the language testing situation that affect performance on language tests are examined. The model is intended for use in assessing the construct validity of tests of language proficiency and…

  20. Toward an English Proficiency Test for Postgraduates in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Saidatul Akmar Zainal Abidin; Asiah Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is fast becoming a major attraction for candidates from all over the world to pursue their higher education. Currently students (local and international) who pursue postgraduate (hereafter, PG) education in Malaysia use the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores as indicators of their English ability. These are tests from the United States ...

  1. Empirical Profiles of Academic Oral English Proficiency from an International Teaching Assistant Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikkyu

    2017-01-01

    Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…

  2. Generalization of the Lord-Wingersky Algorithm to Computing the Distribution of Summed Test Scores Based on Real-Number Item Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghoon

    2013-01-01

    With known item response theory (IRT) item parameters, Lord and Wingersky provided a recursive algorithm for computing the conditional frequency distribution of number-correct test scores, given proficiency. This article presents a generalized algorithm for computing the conditional distribution of summed test scores involving real-number item…

  3. Results of the Proficiency Test, PT1 and PT2, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Christophersen, Maj-Britt

    A comparative test of diagnostic procedures was provided by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Fish Diseases. The test was divided into proficiency test 1 (PT1) and proficiency test 2 (PT2). The number of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) participating in PT1 and PT2 was 43. ....... The tests were sent from the EURL in the beginning of September 2012. Both PT1 and PT2 are accredited by DANAK under registration number 515 for proficiency testing according to the quality assurance standard DS/EN ISO/IEC 17043....

  4. Proficiency testing for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria diagnosis in clinical laboratories in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A. Audu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proficiency testing (PT is a means of verifying the reliability of laboratory results, but such programmes are not readily available to laboratories in developing countries. This project provided PT to laboratories in Nigeria. Objectives: To assess the proficiency of laboratories in the diagnosis of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Methods: This was a prospective study carried out between 2009 and 2011. A structured questionnaire was administered to 106 randomly-selected laboratories. Forty-four indicated their interest in participation and were enrolled. Four rounds of pre-characterised plasma panels for HIV, sputum films for tuberculosis and blood films for malaria were distributed quarterly by courier over the course of one year. The results were returned within two weeks and scores of ≥ 80% were reported as satisfactory. Mentoring was offered after the first and second PT rounds. Results: Average HIV PT scores increased from 74% to 95% from the first round to the third round, but decreased in the fourth round. For diagnosis of tuberculosis, average scores increased from 42% in the first round to 78% in the second round; but a decrease to 34% was observed in the fourth round. Malaria PT performance was 2% at first, but average scores increased between the second and fourth rounds, culminating in a fourth-round score of 39%. Many participants requested training and mentoring. Conclusions: There were gross deficiencies in the quality of laboratory services rendered across Nigeria. In-country PT programmes, implemented in conjunction with mentoring, will improve coverage and diagnosis of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria.

  5. Proficiency testing for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria diagnosis in clinical laboratories in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onubogu, Catherine C.; Okoye, Rosemary N.; Nwokoye, Nkiru N.; Onwuamah, Chika K.; Musa, Adesola Z.; Raheem, Toyosi Y.; Aniedobe, Maureen N.; Nduaga, Samuel J.; Essien, Ini-Obong; Idigbe, Emmanuel O.

    2014-01-01

    Background Proficiency testing (PT) is a means of verifying the reliability of laboratory results, but such programmes are not readily available to laboratories in developing countries. This project provided PT to laboratories in Nigeria. Objectives To assess the proficiency of laboratories in the diagnosis of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Methods This was a prospective study carried out between 2009 and 2011. A structured questionnaire was administered to 106 randomly-selected laboratories. Forty-four indicated their interest in participation and were enrolled. Four rounds of pre-characterised plasma panels for HIV, sputum films for tuberculosis and blood films for malaria were distributed quarterly by courier over the course of one year. The results were returned within two weeks and scores of ≥ 80% were reported as satisfactory. Mentoring was offered after the first and second PT rounds. Results Average HIV PT scores increased from 74% to 95% from the first round to the third round, but decreased in the fourth round. For diagnosis of tuberculosis, average scores increased from 42% in the first round to 78% in the second round; but a decrease to 34% was observed in the fourth round. Malaria PT performance was 2% at first, but average scores increased between the second and fourth rounds, culminating in a fourth-round score of 39%. Many participants requested training and mentoring. Conclusions There were gross deficiencies in the quality of laboratory services rendered across Nigeria. In-country PT programmes, implemented in conjunction with mentoring, will improve coverage and diagnosis of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. PMID:29043176

  6. The application of data from proficiency testing to laboratory accreditation according to ISO 17025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    Current methods of testing laboratories for their proficiency in reporting correct measurement results are liable to substantial errors of the 2nd kind. This means that laboratories with deflated uncertainties are accepted as proficient, even though their reported measurement results pave the way...

  7. Approaches to Learning and Hispanic Children's Math Scores: The Moderating Role of English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgarner, Erin; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that children's approaches to learning (ATL) at kindergarten entry predict their academic achievement years later. However, the gains associated with ATL may be diminished for Hispanic immigrant children, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). We tested whether ATL predicted math scores in a sample of…

  8. Diagnostic Utility of WISC-IV General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index Difference Scores among Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devena, Sarah E.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index have been advanced as possible diagnostic markers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This hypothesis was tested with a hospital sample with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 78), a referred but nondiagnosed…

  9. Proficiency test for gamma spectroscopic analysis with a simulated fission product reference spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhu, P; De Geer, L-E; McWilliams, E; Plenteda, R; Werzi, R

    2006-01-01

    Within the proficiency test programme for the radionuclide laboratories supporting the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, a simulated gamma spectrum with the characteristics of an atmospheric nuclear test was used as reference material. The spectrum was produced by the MCNP-based Virtual Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory (VGSL), using analysis results of a historical measurement of nuclear weapons debris as input. The method was found suitable for a proficiency test assessing laboratories' gamma spectroscopic analysis.

  10. Proficiency test on the determination of pesticide residues in grapes with multi-residue methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehouck, Pieter; Grimalt, Susana; Dabrio, Marta; Cordeiro, Fernando; Fiamegos, Yiannis; Robouch, Piotr; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; de la Calle, Beatriz

    2015-05-22

    This manuscript presents the results of the International Measurement Evaluation Programme 37 (IMEP-37) study, a proficiency test (PT) which was organised to assess the world-wide performance of food control laboratories on the determination of pesticide residues in grapes. This PT supports the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 on maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin. Eighty-one participants reported results, forty from EU Member States and forty-one from outside the EU. The test item was a grape sample spiked with 20 selected pesticides. The results of the participants were rated with z- and zeta (ζ-) scores in accordance with ISO 13528 and ISO 17043. The standard deviation for the proficiency assessment, σˆ, of this PT was set at 25% for the 20 measured pesticides based on previous experience with similar measurands. The results reported to IMEP-37 showed that the participants performed satisfactorily, ranging from 81% (carbendazim) to 97% (azoxystrobin, penconazole, pyrimethanil) of the participating laboratories. However, only 30% of the participants managed to analyze all pesticides satisfactorily. Overall, the performance of the participants in this PT was good but there is room for improvement in the development of multi-residue methods for the simultaneous analysis of a large number of pesticides with an increased accuracy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Computer Proficiency for Online Learning: Factorial Invariance of Scores among Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Amy L.; Reeves, Todd D.; Smith, Thomas J.; Walker, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Online learning is variously employed in K-12 education, including for teacher professional development. However, the use of computer-based technologies for learning purposes assumes learner computer proficiency, making this construct an important domain of procedural knowledge in formal and informal online learning contexts. Addressing this…

  12. Five year results of an international proficiency testing programme for measurement of antifungal drug concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lempers, V.J.C.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Touw, D.J.; Burger, D.M.; Uges, D.R.A.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Brüggemann, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since 2007 the Dutch Association for Quality Assessment in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (KKGT) has organized an international interlaboratory proficiency testing (PT) programme for measurement of antifungal drugs in plasma. We describe the 5 year results of the laboratories' performance.

  13. Toward an English Proficiency Test for Postgraduates in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidatul Akmar Zainal Abidin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is fast becoming a major attraction for candidates from all over the world to pursue their higher education. Currently students (local and international who pursue postgraduate (hereafter, PG education in Malaysia use the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL or International English Language Testing System (IELTS scores as indicators of their English ability. These are tests from the United States and the United Kingdom, respectively, tailor-made for university education in those countries. Recent literature in testing and evaluation describes the need for more localized tests, developed for the “local” context of a particular country. Thus, the need for a test that could be utilized and customized to the needs of the students studying in Malaysia is foreseeable. This is in line with the concept of test localization. It stipulates that for a test to be valid, its design and development must take into consideration the population, context, and the domain in which the test is used. A project was undertaken where a new English test named Graduate Admission Test of English (GATE was developed for PG admission into universities in Malaysia. This article describes the process of developing a new test that measures English language competency of PG students who intend to pursue their studies in Malaysia. It includes the use of a test specification/blueprint that contains validity elements adopted from a test validation framework developed by Weir. The article emphasizes the rigor of developing such a test, which includes aspects of test development, operation, analysis, and validation.

  14. IELTS as a Literacy-Based Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Purwanto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory case study aimed at investigating whether or not International English Language Testing Systems (IELTS scores correspond with literacy levels. During the 2011-2012 academic year, 20 first semester students in the English Literature Program in the Faculty of Language and Cultural Studies (Fakultas Bahasa dan Ilmu Budaya at Universitas Stikubank (UNISBANK were randomly selected to take the IELTS. Results were matched against predetermined criteria for literacy levels (Hammond, et al. 1992 in order to classify them into the appropriate levels of literacy. Findings indicate that all students (100 percent were at the performative level of literacy with respect to their overall IELTS scores. Only 25 percent of the students on the speaking subtest and 20 percent of the students on the reading subtest managed to test at the functional level. It is therefore recommended that action research be conducted in Central Java level to upgrade the level of literacy from the performative level up to the informative level. As well, similar research may be conducted with a multi-disciplinary approach employing a correlational study between IELTS band scores with literacy levels.

  15. What do educational test scores really measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture, attitudes......, and possible incentive problems make it more difficult to elicit true values of what the tests measure....

  16. The Fight's Not Always Fixed: Using Literary Response to Transcend Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, JuliAnna

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) concluded that "literature reading is fading as a meaningful activity, especially among younger people." How can educators continue to teach students about the power of literary response when the priority is for them to achieve proficiency on standardized tests, whose scores can only be narrowly…

  17. Do proficiency testing participants learn from their mistakes? Experience from the EXCEL throat culture module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Robert W

    2002-02-01

    Participation in proficiency testing is required under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988. Although the primary purpose of this testing is evaluation of current laboratory performance, a major secondary benefit of such testing is postulated to be progressive improvement in laboratory performance over time as laboratories learn from their previous experiences and feedback. To test the hypothesis that a secondary result of proficiency testing is improvement over time of laboratory performance. The performance of participants in a large proficiency testing program (EXCEL), designed for clinic and office laboratories, on a specific problematic competence, the ability to differentiate group A streptococcus from group C streptococci, was monitored during a 6-year period (1996-2001) for changes in participant performance. With each testing cycle, feedback on performance relative to peers and an educational discussion analyzing performance and suggesting best practices was submitted to participants. Despite consistent feedback, there was no significant change in participant performance throughout the period studied. In a large, stable proficiency testing program, a significant throat culture competence, which demonstrated less than optimal performance, did not improve over time, suggesting that current utilization of proficiency testing results in laboratory improvement programs is suboptimal.

  18. Results of LLNL's Participation in the 16th OPCW Proficiency Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, H R; Alcaraz, A

    2005-01-24

    The Sixteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test started in October 2004. The samples were prepared by scientists affiliated with the Forensic Science Center at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, USA. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy. The test scenario and the spiking and background chemicals were discussed and agreed in advance with the OPCW. The samples were prepared in accordance with ''Work Instruction for the Preparation of Test Samples for OPCW Proficiency Tests'' (Document No.: QDOC/LAB/WI/PT2). The preparation of the test samples and their analysis are described in this report.

  19. Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL[R] Internet-Based and Paper-Based Tests. January 2008-December 2008 Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Testing Service, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM], better known as TOEFL[R], is designed to measure the English-language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 130 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and…

  20. Proficiency test for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Traag, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The test provides an evaluation of the methods applied for quantification of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fat by the laboratories. The proficiency test was organised according to ISO 17043. For this test, four samples were prepared: - sunflower oil spiked with dioxins and PCBs; - sunflower oil

  1. Gynecologic cytology proficiency testing failures: what have we learned?: observations from the college of american pathologists gynecologic cytology proficiency testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatman, Barbara S; Bentz, Joel S; Fatheree, Lisa A; Souers, Rhona; Ostrowski, Saula; Moriarty, Ann T; Henry, Michael; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Booth, Christine N; Wilbur, David C

    2011-11-01

    In 2006, the first gynecologic cytology proficiency tests were offered by the College of American Pathologists. Four years of data are now available using field-validated slides, including conventional and liquid-based Papanicolaou tests. To characterize the pattern of error types that resulted in initial proficiency-test failure for cytotechnologists, primary screening pathologists, and secondary pathologists (those whose slides are prescreened by cytotechnologists). The results of 37 029 initial College of American Pathologists Papanicolaou proficiency tests were reviewed from 4 slide-set modules: conventional, ThinPrep, SurePath, or a module containing all 3 slide types. During this 4-year period, cytotechnologists were least likely to fail the initial test (3.4%; 614 of 18 264), followed by secondary pathologists (ie, those reviewing slides already screened by a cytotechnologist) with a failure rate of 4.2% (728 of 17 346), and primary pathologists (ie, those screening their own slides) having the highest level of failure (13.7%; 194 of 1419). Failure rates have fallen for all 3 groups over time. Pathologists are graded more stringently on proficiency tests, and more primary pathologists would have passed if they had been graded as cytotechnologists. There were no significant differences among performances using different types of slide sets. False-positive errors were common for both primary (63.9%; 124 of 194 errors) and secondary (55.6%; 405 of 728 errors) pathologists, whereas automatic failures were most common for cytotechnologists (75.7%; 465 of 614 errors). The failure rate is decreasing for all participants. The failures for primary pathologist screeners are due to false-positive responses. Primary screening cytotechnologists and secondary pathologists have automatic failures more often than do primary screening pathologists.

  2. Association Between Transient Newborn Hypoglycemia and Fourth-Grade Achievement Test Proficiency: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jeffrey R; Bai, Shasha; Gibson, Neal; Holland, Greg; Lin, Tsai Mei; Swearingen, Christopher J; Mehl, Jennifer K; ElHassan, Nahed O

    2015-10-01

    Prolonged neonatal hypoglycemia is associated with poor long-term neurocognitive function. However, little is known about an association between early transient newborn hypoglycemia and academic achievement. To determine if early (within the first 3 hours of life) transient hypoglycemia (a single initial low glucose concentration, followed by a second value above a cutoff) is associated with subsequent poor academic performance. A retrospective population-based cohort study of all infants born between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 1998, at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences who had at least 1 recorded glucose concentration (a universal newborn glucose screening policy was in effect) was conducted. Medical record data from newborns with normoglycemia or transient hypoglycemia were matched with their student achievement test scores in 2008 from the Arkansas Department of Education and anonymized. Logistic regression models were developed to evaluate the association between transient hypoglycemia and school-age achievement test proficiency based on perinatal factors. Common hypoglycemia cutoffs of a glucose level less than 35 mg/dL (primary) and less than 40 and 45 mg/dL (secondary) were investigated. All 1943 normoglycemic and transiently hypoglycemic infants (23-42 weeks' gestation) were eligible for inclusion in the study. Infants with prolonged hypoglycemia, congenital anomalies, or chromosomal abnormalities were excluded from the study. Hypoglycemia as a newborn. The primary outcome was proficiency on fourth-grade literacy and mathematics achievement tests at age 10 years. We hypothesized a priori that newborns with early transient hypoglycemia would be less proficient on fourth-grade achievement tests compared with normoglycemic newborns. Perinatal data were matched with fourth-grade achievement test scores in 1395 newborn-student pairs (71.8%). Transient hypoglycemia (glucose level group, race, sex, multifetal gestation, insurance status

  3. Proficiency testing in the light of a new rationale in metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The novel proposed definition of measurement result in the international metrology vocabulary requires a revision of standards and guidelines for proficiency testing (PT), and a new approach to processing proficiency data is needed to test the ability of laboratories to present not only unbiased...... to an accepted reference value that fully reflects the uncertainties reported by participants in a PT scheme and permits calculation of En-numbers to distinguish whether or not measurement results are consistent with the accepted definition of the measurand. The strategy is applied to PT data from a recent...

  4. A review of the TAEA proficiency test on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides activities in black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeltepe, E; Şahin, N K; Aslan, N; Hult, M; Özçayan, G; Wershofen, H; Yücel, Ü

    2017-10-07

    A proficiency test amongst 15 Turkish laboratories with participation of 5 non-Turkish laboratories was organized to determine the 137 Cs, 40 K and 90 Sr massic activities in black tea powder samples. The bulk material, consisting of tea produced in 2014, was mixed with contaminated tea that was withdrawn from the market after the Chernobyl accident. Nineteen laboratories reported 41 results. The evaluation of the results was based on the accuracy and precision criteria adopted by the IAEA Proficiency Testing Group and resulted in 49% acceptable results, 19% acceptable with warning and 32% were found to be not acceptable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. English Language Proficiency Tests and Academic Achievement: A Study on the Malaysian University English Test as a Predictor of Technical Programme Undergraduates Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhazlini Rahmat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role.  MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to examine the relationship between English language proficiency test (as measured by MUET bands to predict the undergraduates academic achievement (as measured by Cumulative Grade Point Average score. It also aims to determine the recommended MUET band as an entry requirement for prospective technical programme undergraduates in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM. The study was carried out among 225 final year undergraduates of five different faculties in UPM, namely Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.  The data used were obtained by administering a brief questionnaire and were quantitatively analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 19.  The study revealed that there is a medium positive correlation between English language proficiency and academic achievement where students who have scored higher bands for MUET are the ones who obtained higher CGPA in their study. Based on the findings, it is recommended that UPM and other local universities make changes towards the minimum MUET entry requirement to help prospective undergraduates excel in their academic study. Keywords: English language proficiency, academic achievement, technical programme, MUET, CGPA

  6. Procedures and reasoning for skill proficiency testing in physical education teacher education programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Baghurst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine how the testing of skill proficiency is being conducted in physical education teacher education (PETE programs in the USA and how fitness or skill proficiencies, as attributes of a physical educator, are perceived. Participants were 312 college PETE program coordinators who completed an online survey about skill testing in their program. The eligible respondents yielded a 52.7% total response rate. Most participants believed that skill proficiency for PETE students was important, but only 46% of programs reported testing within their program. Many participants stated it was possible for their students to graduate without demonstrating proficiency in skill technique, yet were confident their students would pass an independent skill test. Only 46.2% of respondents indicated their students needed to demonstrate proper skill technique in order to graduate, and there was no consistent method of assessment. Responses were evenly split regarding the importance of a physical educator being able to demonstrate proper skill technique or be physically fit. The lack of skill testing in programs, combined with the variation in assessment, is concerning, and the development of a standardized skill-based test may provide more rigor to this important area of teacher credibility and effectiveness.

  7. Proficiency testing schemes as a quality rating in industrial hygiene laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Dobecki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication presents the principles of organization, implementation, assessment and exploitation of proficiency testing results in the work environmental laboratory based on basic requirements included in standard PN-EN ISO/IEC 17043 and ISO 13528. The basis for the proper functioning of the laboratory is to use and observe the basic requirements for the competence to carry out the tests and the guidelines on ensuring reliable and accurate results, specified e.g., according to the guidelines described in the standard PN-EN ISO/IEC 17043. The confirmation of the laboratory competence is the obtained accreditation. To obtain this certificate several conditions, including proficiency testing (PT should be met. The main aspects of this paper is to show the role of proficiency testing in the process of assuring a properly functioning quality system in the laboratory. The accreditation requirements, the types of proficiency testing schemes, methods of statistical analysis and interpretation of results are also discussed by the authors. Med Pr 2016;67(2:267–283

  8. A Comparison of IRT Proficiency Estimation Methods under Adaptive Multistage Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim; Yoo, Hanwook

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry is an investigation of item response theory (IRT) proficiency estimators' accuracy under multistage testing (MST). We chose a two-stage MST design that includes four modules (one at Stage 1, three at Stage 2) and three difficulty paths (low, middle, high). We assembled various two-stage MST panels (i.e., forms) by manipulating two…

  9. Interactional Competence across Proficiency Levels: How Do Learners Manage Interaction in Paired Speaking Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaczi, Evelina D.

    2014-01-01

    Paired speaking tasks are now commonly used in both pedagogic and assessment contexts, as they elicit a wide range of interactional skills. The current study aims to offer an investigation of the interaction co-constructed by learners at different proficiency levels who are engaged in a paired speaking test, and to provide insights into the…

  10. A CEFR-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing System for Chinese Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsuan-Po; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Tsai, Ya-Hsun; Liao, Chen-Huei

    2012-01-01

    In the era of globalization, the trend towards learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) has become increasingly popular worldwide. The increasing demand in learning CFL has raised the profile of the Chinese proficiency test (CPT). This study will analyze in depth the inadequacy of current CPT's utilizing the common European framework of…

  11. Proficiency testing of skin prick testers as part of a quality assurance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Allesen-Holm, Pernille; Karved, Lisbeth Sys

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test is an important diagnostic procedure in clinical allergy but documentation of the quality is often missing. METHODS: We describe a proficiency system to evaluate staff members in relation to the international recommended reproducibility in terms of coefficient...

  12. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Tsui; Xu, Xiao Y.; Edmond Venator

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress womens scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: ...

  13. The Impact of Gender in Oral Proficiency Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Kieran

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of gender in speaking tests and suggests that in oral interviews it is possible that both interviewing and rating may be highly gendered processes. Audiotaped female and male test-takers who undertook practice IELTS interviews, one with a female interviewer and once with a male interviewer. Results from discourse and test score…

  14. Normative adductor squeeze tests scores in rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Lisa; Hignett, Tom; Edwards, Kim

    2015-05-01

    Groin pain is a common problem. Adductor squeeze tests are used to diagnose, monitor and prophylactically determine the risk of developing groin pain. This study defines normative adductor squeeze scores in professional rugby that will facilitate strength monitoring during screening. Using a sphygnamometer, squeeze scores were collected, at one professional rugby club as part of the pre-season screening for two seasons. Scores were collected in four positions. For all positions mean strength and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Data were collected for 81 athletes. Mean strength for adduction at 60° was 220.1 (212.2-228.1); 0° 211.1 (201.7-220.5); 90°90° 198.8 (190.0-207.7); 90°90° supported 224.9 (214.9-234.9). Backs had lower squeeze scores than forwards for 0°, 90°:90° and 90°:90° supported (p > 0.05 for all four tests); older players had lower scores, as did shorter and lighter players (p > 0.05 except for height with test 60° p = 0.048 and test 90°:90° supported p = 0.035). This study establishes references ranges for adductor squeeze tests for normative pre-season data in non-injured rugby players. This information will enable evaluation and inform return to play judgements following adductor related injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. OPCW Proficiency Test: A Practical Approach Also for Interlaboratory Test on Detection and Identification of Pesticides in Environmental Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Konopski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of general strategy, standard procedures, and critical points, which may be found during carrying out an OPCW Proficiency Test concerning detection and identification of scheduled compounds relevant to Chemical Weapon Convention, has been presented. The observations have been illustrated following the case of the Eight OPCW Designated Laboratories Proficiency Test, which was performed in the OPCW Laboratory in Rijswijk in November and December 2000. Various useful hints, comments, and practical observations concerning the case study have been included as well. The same methodology and procedures may be also applied for detection, identification, and environmental analyses of pesticides and biocides, especially organophosphorus compounds.

  16. Differential Item Functioning on Two Tests of EFL Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Katherine E.; Bachman, Lyle F.

    1992-01-01

    The extent to which items from the Test of English as a Foreign Language and the First Certificate in English function differently for test-takers of equal ability from different native language and curricular backgrounds was investigated. Results suggest a need for methods like logistic regression to examine nonuniform differential item…

  17. The assessment of Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düger, T; Bumin, G; Uyanik, M; Aki, E; Kayihan, H

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective is to research the relationship between motor abilities and demographic characteristics such as age and sex, in healthy children aged 4-11 years. One hundred and twenty children in kindergarten (n = 30) and primary school (n = 90) were included in the study and evaluated by the Occupational Therapy Unit. All children were divided into four groups according to age, 4-5, 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years. The primary school children were classified according to academic learning, being successful or unsuccessful. In this study, Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency was used to assess the gross motor skills and fine motor skills. These tests are running speed and agility (subtest 1/item 1), balance/walking forward heel-to-toe on walking line (subtest 2/item 6), bilateral coordination/tapping-foot and finger on same side synchronized (subtest 3/item 2), strength/standing broad jump (subtest 4/item 1), response speed (subtest 6/item 1), visual motor control/cutting out a circle with preferred hand (subtest 7/item 1), upper-limb speed and dexterity/pacing pennies in two boxes with both hands (subtest 8/item 2). When the children were classified according to sex, there were significant differences in subtests 6 and 7. According to academic learning, there were significant differences in subtests 2 and 8. When the results were evaluated due to age, important differences were found in subtests 1, 2, 4 and 8. It was seen that gross and fine motor skills in early childhood showed variety between age, sex and academic learning. The scores of motor abilities were better in successful children than unsuccessful children. The outcome of this study revealed that the Bruininks-Oseretsky test can be useful to investigate unexplored aspects of motor development.

  18. Summary of the 2006 College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytology Proficiency Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Joel S; Hughes, Jonathan H; Fatheree, Lisa A; Schwartz, Mary R; Souers, Rhona J; Soures, Rhona J; Wilbur, David C

    2008-05-01

    Creating a tool that assesses professional proficiency in gynecologic cytology is challenging. A valid proficiency test (PT) must reflect practice conditions, evaluate locator and interpretive skills, and discriminate between those practitioners who are competent and those who need more education. The College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytology Proficiency Testing Program (PAPPT) was approved to enroll participants in a nationwide PT program in 2006. Report results from the 2006 PAPPT program. Summarize PT results by pass/fail rate, participant type, and slide-set modules. Nine thousand sixty-nine participants showed initial PT failure rates of 5%, 16%, and 6% for cytotechnologists, primary screening pathologists, and secondary screening pathologist, respectively. The overall initial test failure rate was 6%. After 3 retests, 9029 (99.6%) of the participants were able to achieve compliance with the PT requirement. No participant "tested out"; however, 40 individuals "dropped out" of the testing sequence (8 cytotechnologists, 9 primary screening pathologists, 23 secondary screening pathologists). Initial failure rates by slide-set modules were 6% conventional, 6% ThinPrep, 6% SurePath, and 5% mixture of all 3 slide types. A total of 99.6% of individuals enrolled in the 2006 PAPPT program achieved satisfactory results. The data confirm that cytotechnologists have higher initial pass rates than pathologists and pathologists who are secondary screeners perform better than those who are primary screeners. There was no difference identified in overall pass rates between the slide-set modules. Further analysis of data should help define the results and ongoing challenges of providing a nationwide federally mandated proficiency testing program in gynecologic cytology.

  19. Self-efficacy, foreign language anxiety as predictors of academic performance among professional program students in a general English proficiency writing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M C; Lin, Huey-Ju

    2009-10-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 120 students. Cluster analysis was used to examine whether specific groups could be described by a writing self-efficacy scale, English writing anxiety scale, and a written General English Proficiency Test. Three clusters were observed. Demographic variables were compared for each cluster, including age, sex, program of study, years of English instruction, native language, and number of English speaking acquaintances. Efforts to reduce writing anxiety and promote writing self-efficacy could enhance writing scores of participants.

  20. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  1. What Do Test Scores Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; McIntosh, James

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scor...

  2. A typical proficiency testing programmes sample design for electrical and electronic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. T.; Zhang, H.; Xie, L. L.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2017-04-01

    Creepage distance and clearance testing are the basic testing items in the safety standards for almost all electrical and electronic products. A typical sample group is designed in this paper for the purpose of proficiency testing programmes. The sample group is composed of two kinds of circuit board. The length of the creepage distance of the two circuit boards in pollution degree 2 and 3 are the same but with different paths. This sample group includes three testing points. This sample group is designed beneficial for numerical statistics and avoiding the data complicity in the laboratory. It can be used for effective laboratory monitoring.

  3. How much does language proficiency by non-native listeners influence speech audiometric tests in noise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzybok, Anna; Brand, Thomas; Wagener, Kirsten C; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the extent to which the linguistic complexity of three commonly employed speech recognition tests and second language proficiency influence speech recognition thresholds (SRTs) in noise in non-native listeners. SRTs were measured for non-natives and natives using three German speech recognition tests: the digit triplet test (DTT), the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA), and the Göttingen sentence test (GÖSA). Sixty-four non-native and eight native listeners participated. Non-natives can show native-like SRTs in noise only for the linguistically easy speech material (DTT). Furthermore, the limitation of phonemic-acoustical cues in digit triplets affects speech recognition to the same extent in non-natives and natives. For more complex and less familiar speech materials, non-natives, ranging from basic to advanced proficiency in German, require on average 3-dB better signal-to-noise ratio for the OLSA and 6-dB for the GÖSA to obtain 50% speech recognition compared to native listeners. In clinical audiology, SRT measurements with a closed-set speech test (i.e. DTT for screening or OLSA test for clinical purposes) should be used with non-native listeners rather than open-set speech tests (such as the GÖSA or HINT), especially if a closed-set version in the patient's own native language is available.

  4. Results of the Proficiency Test, PT1 and PT2, 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahns, Søren; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Christophersen, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    A comparative test of diagnostic procedures was provided by the EU Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Fish Diseases to 41 National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) in the start of middle of October 2011. The test was prepared and tested according to protocols accredited by DANAK under registration numb...... 515 to proficiency testing according to the quality assurance standard DS/EN ISO/IEC 17043. The test consisted of 2 tests: PT1 and PT2.......A comparative test of diagnostic procedures was provided by the EU Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Fish Diseases to 41 National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) in the start of middle of October 2011. The test was prepared and tested according to protocols accredited by DANAK under registration number...

  5. Discrepancies between perceptions of English proficiency and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical data that indicate a discrepancy between perceptions and scores on English tests among South African participants (1998-2011) are reported. A discrepancy between perceptions of English proficiency and scores on English tests is important because of its potential impact on language learner motivation. It will be ...

  6. Integrated Test Scoring, Performance Rating and Assessment Records Keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Gerald J.; And Others

    The Objective Test Scoring and Performance Rating (OTS-PR) system is a fully integrated set of 70 modular FORTRAN programs run on a VAX-8530 computer. Even with no knowledge of computers, the user can implement OTS-PR to score multiple-choice tests, include scores from external sources such as hand-scored essays or scores from nationally…

  7. Test Review: Review of the Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE) Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macqueen, Susy; Harding, Luke

    2009-01-01

    In 2002 the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES) implemented a revised version of the Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE). CPE, which is the highest level of the Main Suite of Cambridge ESOL exams, comprises five modules, "Reading," "Writing," "Use of English," "Listening" and "Speaking," the latter of which is the…

  8. The Relationship between Testing Condition and Student Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Ronald L.; Aagaard, Lola

    2004-01-01

    Active student engagement with course materials, such as note-taking and cooperative learning, is associated with greater performance. This study investigated the relationship between scores achieved by students in an undergraduate course and active engagement during testing, whether using a cheat sheet or engaging in a form of cooperative…

  9. The Effect of Full-Day Kindergarten on the Reading Scores of Limited English-Proficient Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    One public school district developed a full-day kindergarten program for at-risk students, including those who are limited English-proficient (LEP), as a strategy to close the achievement gap. Not all LEP students in this district attended the full-day program due to limited space. The district administrators were looking for research-based…

  10. The contribution of proficiency testing to improving laboratory performance and ensuring quality patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul R

    2004-01-01

    The idea of comparing laboratories' test results against one another predated federal regulations by decades (1) and was initially used as an educational tool. The introduction of federal regulations altered the proficiency testing (PT) environment (2,3) and today there is concern that the regulatory requirements do not address extraneous factors that may adversely affect a laboratory's PT performance (6). This article aims to address these concerns and hopes to convince the reader that while the scope of PT has expanded beyond its original intent as an educational tool for the laboratory, PT can still function in that capacity. Improvements in laboratory performance and laboratory medicine as a whole continue to be supported by proficiency testing for numerous reasons. Several mistakes laboratories have made in the past are addressed and suggestions for improvement are given. Laboratory managers who take proactive steps to ensure quality patient test results should experience fewer PT failures, and in turn can focus more attention on the educational benefits that participating in PT can offer.

  11. Enhancing the Interpretability of the Overall Results of an International Test of English-Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spiros; Morgan, Rick; Becker, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the meaning of the scores of an English-language test by developing performance levels and descriptors for reporting overall test performance. The levels and descriptors were intended to accompany the total scale scores of TOEFL Junior® Standard, an international test of English as a second/foreign…

  12. Visualisation of Proficiency Test Exercise by Means of Kiri Plots. Informatics Application; Metodo de Visualizacion de los Resultados de las Pruebas de Capacitacion por medio de la Grafica de Kiri. Aplicacion Informatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Trinidad, J. A.

    2012-09-13

    This report describes the visualisation procedure of the proficiency tests by means of Kiri Plots, based on three tests: z-score, zeta-score and the relative uncertainty outlier. The results assessment of the intercomparison exercises and proficiency tests among Spanish environmental radioactivity laboratories and Spanish Nuclear Power Plants Laboratories is performed by Environmental Radioactivity and Radiological Surveillance Unit following the ISO-43 e ISO/ IUPAC standards and applying the z-score test. The application of new graphics methods and tests to a better evaluation of uncertainties reported by Labs is described in this paper. An informatics programme has been developed in Visual Basic for applications that allows the graphic representation of Tables and Figures automatically in an excel-sheet and later statistical simulations changing the ratios between the reference value uncertainties and the concentration activities values from the participants laboratories. (Author) 26 refs.

  13. Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ∑ |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Central Line Proficiency Test Outcomes after Simulation Training versus Traditional Training to Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaad, Ali A; Bhide, Vandana Y; Moss, Jimmy L; Silvers, Scott M; Johnson, Margaret M; Maniaci, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Studies have shown the importance of simulation-based training on the outcomes of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion by trainees. To compare the performance of internal medicine trainees who underwent standardized simulation training of CVC insertion with that of internal medicine trainees who had traditional CVC training and were already deemed competent to perform the procedure during a proficiency evaluation using a training mannequin. Trainees who perform CVC insertion were enrolled in the institutional Central Line Workshop, which includes both an online and an experiential simulation component. The training is followed by a certification station proficiency assessment. Residents and fellows previously certified competent to perform CVC placement without supervision completed the online module, but they could opt out of the experiential component and proceed directly to the evaluation. Forty-eight trainees participated in the study. Twenty-one (44%), 15 (31%), 6 (13%), 1 (2%), 2 (4%), and 3 (6%) were in postgraduate year 1 (PGY1), PGY2, PGY3, PGY4, PGY5, and PGY6, respectively. Twenty-nine completed the hands-on instruction, 28 (97%) of whom successfully passed the simulation-based assessment on their first attempt. Nineteen trainees previously credentialed to perform CVC placement without supervision opted out of the simulation-based experiential training. Of these, five (26%) failed in their first attempt (P = 0.02 vs. trainees who completed the simulation training). Standardized simulation-based training can improve CVC insertion proficiency, even among trainees with previous experience sufficient to have been deemed competent in the procedure. Improved performance at simulation-based testing may translate to improved outcomes of CVC placement by trainees.

  15. Accreditation of analytical laboratories and proficiency testing: experiences from Thailand on the issues of pesticide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongbuddhapitak, A; Pavittranon, S; Tayaputch, N; Issaravanich, S; Sinhaseni, P

    1999-03-01

    Thailand, the economic growth of which largely depends on agriculture-based industry, recognizes the importance of international standards for harmonization of international food trade and for protection of human health from chemicals used as food additives or those present as contaminants. Pesticides which are widely used in Thailand are the anticholinesterase pesticides, pyrethroids, coumarin derivatives, bipyridinium salts, and to some extent organochlorine compounds such as DDT in malaria control. Proficiency testing and accreditation of laboratories are recognized as effective means to ensure quality and validity of data and to enable adequate risk assessment of pesticide residues in food, work environment and environment in general. The paper is a synthesis of relevant local reviews and in-depth interviews with experts in the area of pesticide laboratory accreditation and proficiency testing. The paper refers to other schemes for quality assurance such as ISO guide 25, ISO 9000, and ISO 14000, and addresses future prospects of ongoing activities such as accreditation of inspection bodies in the area of industrial chemicals and occupational safety and health.

  16. Reliability and Responsiveness of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition in Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    We examined the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and the responsiveness of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition (BOT-2) for children with intellectual disabilities (ID). One hundred children with ID aged 4-12 years tested on 3 separate occasions: two baseline measurements with a 2-week interval before the…

  17. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4 Graders: Evidence from TIMSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,.

  18. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4th Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,. PMID:21442008

  19. Appeals in gynecologic cytology proficiency testing: review and analysis of data from the 2006 College of American Pathologists gynecologic cytology proficiency testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Barbara A; Moriarty, Ann T; Fatheree, Lisa A; Booth, Christine N; Tench, William D; Wilbur, David C

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, 9643 participants took the initial College of American Pathologists (CAP) Proficiency Test (PT). Failing participants may appeal results on specific test slides. Appeals are granted if 3 referee pathologists do not unanimously agree on the initial reference diagnosis in a masked review process. To investigate causes of PT failures, subsequent appeals, and appeal successes in 2006. Appeals were examined, including patient demographic information, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services category (A, B, C, or D), exact reference diagnosis, examinees per appeal, examinee's Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services category, referee's Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services category, slide preparation type, and slide field validation rate. There was a 94% passing rate for 2006. One hundred fifty-five examinees (1.6%) appealed 86 slides of all preparation types. Forty-five appeals (29%) were granted on 21 slides; 110 appeals (72%) were denied on 65 slides. Reference category D and B slides were most often appealed. The highest percentage of granted appeals occurred in category D (35% slides; 42% of participants) and the lowest occurred in category B (9% slides; 8% of participants). The field validation rate of all appealed slides was greater than 90%. Despite rigorous field validation of slides, 6% of participants failed. Thirty percent of failing participants appealed; most appeals involved misinterpretation of category D as category B. Referees were never unanimous in their agreement with the participant. The participants and referees struggled with the reliability and reproducibility of finding rare cells, "overdiagnosis" of benign changes, and assigning the morphologically dynamic biologic changes of squamous intraepithelial lesions to static categories.

  20. Teste de proficiência para medições de radioatividade na medicina nuclear Proficiency test for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Iwahara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho dos calibradores de radionuclídeos de 55 serviços de medicina nuclear brasileiros em medição de atividade de radiofármaco contendo 99Tc m. Testes de proficiência foram aplicados em 63 resultados originados do programa de comparação promovido pelo Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes do Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O desempenho foi avaliado em relação ao critério de aceitação de ±10% de exatidão exigido pela norma brasileira e também aos critérios estabelecidos pela ISO/IEC Guide 43-1, e classificado como "aceitável" ou "não aceitável". Amostras de 99Tc m usadas nas comparações foram fornecidas por alguns dos participantes e calibradas no Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes para determinar o valor de referência da atividade. RESULTADOS: Esta comparação com o 99Tc m mostrou que o desempenho aceitável atendendo à exigência da norma regulatória foi de 82,5%, enquanto pelos critérios estabelecidos pela norma ISO/IEC 43-1 foi de 81,0%. Por outro lado, calibradores de radionuclídeos com detector Geiger-Müller apresentaram desempenho inferior quando comparados com os dotados com câmara de ionização. CONCLU-SÃO: Nesta comparação, a avaliação do desempenho baseada nos critérios da ISO/IEC 43-1, os quais são aplicados a laboratórios analíticos, apesar de serem mais restritivas, foi bastante consistente com o critério de exatidão exigido pela norma nacional.OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of radionuclide calibrators in 55 Brazilian nuclear medicine services in the measurement of 99Tc m radiopharmaceutical activity. Proficiency tests were applied to data sets with 63 results originated from the comparison program developed by Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes of Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The calibrators' performance was

  1. Testing oral proficiency: what does pronunciation tell us?DOI:10.5007/2175-8026.2011n60p247

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Borges-Almeida

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we discuss the role of pronunciation in languagetesting and investigate two features of pronunciation of eightcandidates of the Test of Oral Proficiency in English (TEPOLIalong four bands of the test scale. Deviations in vowel segmentsand in syllable structure are analyzed. The results point to theneed for a global assessment of the candidates’ phonologicalsystems.

  2. How Are Spoken Skills Assessed in Proficiency Tests of General English as a Foreign Language? A Preliminary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Varela, Mª Luisa; Palacios, Ignacio M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines some of the best known proficiency tests in English, with particular focus on the oral component. Attention is paid to the following issues, among others: the weighting of oral elements in testing, the criteria used for the assessment of oral skills and the relation of these to the general guidelines in the "Common…

  3. Data Mining Techniques for Identifying Students at Risk of Failing a Computer Proficiency Test Required for Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chih-Fong; Tsai, Ching-Tzu; Hung, Chia-Sheng; Hwang, Po-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Enabling undergraduate students to develop basic computing skills is an important issue in higher education. As a result, some universities have developed computer proficiency tests, which aim to assess students' computer literacy. Generally, students are required to pass such tests in order to prove that they have a certain level of computer…

  4. Testing Intelligently Includes Double-Checking Wechsler IQ Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuentzel, Jeffrey G.; Hetterscheidt, Lesley A.; Barnett, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The rigors of standardized testing make for numerous opportunities for examiner error, including simple computational mistakes in scoring. Although experts recommend that test scoring be double-checked, the extent to which independent double-checking would reduce scoring errors is not known. A double-checking procedure was established at a…

  5. An inter- laboratory proficiency testing exercise for rabies diagnosis in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, Alfonso; Freire de Carvalho, Mary H; Orciari, Lillian A; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Ellison, James A; Greenberg, Lauren; Yager, Pamela A; Green, Douglas B; Vigilato, Marco A; Cosivi, Ottorino; Del Rio-Vilas, Victor J

    2017-04-01

    The direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA), is performed in all rabies reference laboratories across Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Despite DFA being a critical capacity in the control of rabies, there is not a standardized protocol in the region. We describe the results of the first inter-laboratory proficiency exercise of national rabies laboratories in LAC countries as part of the regional efforts towards dog-maintained rabies elimination in the American region. Twenty three laboratories affiliated to the Ministries of Health and Ministries of Agriculture participated in this exercise. In addition, the laboratories completed an online questionnaire to assess laboratory practices. Answers to the online questionnaire indicated large variability in the laboratories throughput, equipment used, protocols availability, quality control standards and biosafety requirements. Our results will inform actions to improve and harmonize laboratory rabies capacities across LAC in support for the regional efforts towards elimination of dog-maintained rabies.

  6. Teste de proficiência para medições de radioatividade na medicina nuclear

    OpenAIRE

    Iwahara,Akira; Tauhata,Luiz; Oliveira,Antonio Eduardo de; Nícoli,Ieda Gomes; Alabarse,Frederico Gil; Xavier,Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho dos calibradores de radionuclídeos de 55 serviços de medicina nuclear brasileiros em medição de atividade de radiofármaco contendo 99Tc m. Testes de proficiência foram aplicados em 63 resultados originados do programa de comparação promovido pelo Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes do Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O desempenho foi avaliado em relação ao critério de aceitação de ±10% de exatidão exigido pela...

  7. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, 3rd, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    ...% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals...

  8. Matrix Effects in Proficiency Testing Materials Influence the Accurate Measurement of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Wang, Jianbing; Huang, Xianzhang; Zeng, Ruili; Zhang, Qiaoxuan; Lin, Haibiao; Han, Liqiao; Ke, Peifeng; Zhuang, Junhua

    2016-10-01

    A consensus on an accurate method to measure γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity for clinical purposes has not been achieved among practicing clinical laboratories. To improve analytical trueness, we evaluated the influences of matrix effects in proficiency testing (PT) materials on the measurement of GGT activity in human serum samples. Five fresh frozen human samples (FFS1-5) and five lyophilized proficiency testing materials (Lyo1-5) were distributed to 23 participating clinical laboratories for the measurement of GGT activity. Target GGT activity values for the samples were obtained by using previously approved reference methods. The results obtained by the Beckman Coulter Unicel DxC 800 Synchron analyzer were compared to the target values assigned by two reference laboratories, and the commutability of the lyophilized materials was evaluated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline EP14-A2. The relative bias between the results obtained by the Beckman Coulter analyzer and the reference target values ranged from -27.2% to -18.0% for FFS1-5 and from 9.1% to 2.5% for Lyo1-5. Non-commutability of all lyophilized samples falling outside of the 95% prediction interval was observed. The results obtained for the lyophilized PT materials were deemed acceptable within the total allowable errors, suggesting that matrix effects may impart a false sense of confidence that clinical analytical systems are performing very well. A primary reference measurement procedure on fresh frozen serum provides a valuable method for evaluating the trueness of results measured by PT.

  9. Proficiency Tests for Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Organized by an Accredited Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Cédric; Osmond, Mélanie

    2008-08-01

    For 40 years, STEME (Environmental Sample Processing and Metrology Department) organized international proficiency testing (PT) exercises formerly for WHO (World Health Organization) and EC (European Community) and currently for ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authority). Five PT exercises are organized each year for the measurement of radionuclides (alpha, beta and gamma) in different matrixes (water, soil, biological and air samples) at environmental levels. ASN can deliver a French ministerial agreement to participate on environmental radioactivity measurements French network for laboratories asking it [1]. Since 2006, November, STEME is the first French entity obtaining a COFRAC (French Committee of Accreditation) accreditation as "Interlaboratory Comparisons" for the organization of proficiency tests for environmental radioactivity measurement according to standard International Standard Organization (ISO) 17025 and guide ISO 43-1. STEME has in charge to find, as far as possible, real sample or to create, by radionuclide adding, an adapted sample. STEME realizes the sampling, the samples preparation and the dispatching. STEME is also accredited according to Standard 17025 for radioactivity measurements in environmental samples and determines homogeneity, stability and reference values. After the reception of participating laboratories results, STEME executes statistical treatments in order to verify the normal distribution, to eliminate outliers and to evaluate laboratories performance. Laboratories participate with several objectives, to obtain French agreement, to prove the quality of their analytical performance in regards to standard 17025 or to validate new methods or latest developments. For 2 years, in addition to usual PT exercises, new PT about alpha or beta measurement in air filters, radioactive iodine in carbon cartridges or measurement of environmental dosimeters are organized. These PT exercises help laboratories to improve radioactive measurements

  10. Clinical pharmacology quality assurance program: models for longitudinal analysis of antiretroviral proficiency testing for international laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFrancesco, Robin; Rosenkranz, Susan L; Taylor, Charlene R; Pande, Poonam G; Siminski, Suzanne M; Jenny, Richard W; Morse, Gene D

    2013-10-01

    Among National Institutes of Health HIV Research Networks conducting multicenter trials, samples from protocols that span several years are analyzed at multiple clinical pharmacology laboratories (CPLs) for multiple antiretrovirals. Drug assay data are, in turn, entered into study-specific data sets that are used for pharmacokinetic analyses, merged to conduct cross-protocol pharmacokinetic analysis, and integrated with pharmacogenomics research to investigate pharmacokinetic-pharmacogenetic associations. The CPLs participate in a semiannual proficiency testing (PT) program implemented by the Clinical Pharmacology Quality Assurance program. Using results from multiple PT rounds, longitudinal analyses of recovery are reflective of accuracy and precision within/across laboratories. The objectives of this longitudinal analysis of PT across multiple CPLs were to develop and test statistical models that longitudinally: (1) assess the precision and accuracy of concentrations reported by individual CPLs and (2) determine factors associated with round-specific and long-term assay accuracy, precision, and bias using a new regression model. A measure of absolute recovery is explored as a simultaneous measure of accuracy and precision. Overall, the analysis outcomes assured 97% accuracy (±20% of the final target concentration of all (21) drug concentration results reported for clinical trial samples by multiple CPLs). Using the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act acceptance of meeting criteria for ≥2/3 consecutive rounds, all 10 laboratories that participated in 3 or more rounds per analyte maintained Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act proficiency. Significant associations were present between magnitude of error and CPL (Kruskal-Wallis P < 0.001) and antiretroviral (Kruskal-Wallis P < 0.001).

  11. Test anxiety and United States Medical Licensing Examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael; Angoff, Nancy; Encandela, John

    2016-04-01

    Many medical students experience test anxiety, which may impair their performance in examinations. We examined the relationship between test anxiety and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step-1 scores and determined the effect of a test-taking course on anxiety and USMLE scores. We randomly chose second-year students to take a test-taking strategies course (cases) from among volunteers. The remainder of the class served as controls. We measured test anxiety with the Westside Test Anxiety Scale (with possible scores of 1-5). The cases completed the Westside Test Anxiety scale at baseline, after completing the course (4 weeks) and again after taking the USLME step 1 (10 weeks). The controls completed the instrument at baseline and after taking the USMLE step 1 (10 weeks). Ninety-three of 101 (92%) students participated in the study. The baseline test anxiety score for all students was 2.48 (SD 0.63). Test anxiety was inversely correlated with USMLE step 1 (β = -0.24, p = 0.01), adjusting for Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores. The test anxiety score of the participants decreased from 2.79 to 2.61 after the course (p = 0.09), and decreased further to 2.53 after the USMLE (p = 0.02), whereas the scores of the controls increased. The mean USMLE step-1 score was 234 for the cases and 243 for the controls (p = 0.03). Many medical students experience test anxiety, which may impair their performance in examinations Test anxiety is modestly inversely correlated with USMLE step-1 scores. A test-taking strategy course modestly reduced anxiety, but did not improve USMLE scores. More robust interventions that achieve greater reductions in text anxiety may improve test scores. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A Measure of Proficiency or Short-Term Memory? Validation of an Elicited Imitation Test for SLA Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youjin; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Jung, Yeonjoo

    2016-01-01

    Elicited imitation requires listeners to listen and repeat sentences as accurately as possible. In second language acquisition (SLA) research it has been used for a variety of purposes. Recently, versions of the same elicited imitation test (EIT) have been created in 6 languages with the purpose of measuring second language proficiency (Ortega…

  13. English Proficiency Tests and Communication Skills Training for Overseas-Qualified Health Professionals in Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This commentary reviews recent literature on a number of problematic issues arising from the use of English proficiency tests by registration bodies as the sole assessment of the professional communication skills of overseas qualified health professionals from non-English-speaking backgrounds. It discusses differences between the assessment…

  14. Quality control in diagnostic molecular pathology in the Netherlands; proficiency testing for patient identification in tissue samples.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunnissen, F.B.J.M.; Tilanus, M.G.J.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Nederlof, P.M.; Dinjens, W.N.; Meulemans, E.; Brule, A.J. van den; Noesel, C.J. van; Leeuw, W. de; Schuuring, E.

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To describe the evolution of proficiency testing for molecular diagnostic pathology with respect to determining unambiguously the patient identity of tissue samples by microsatellite analysis. METHOD: Four rounds of quality control exchanges of samples from different patients were sent with

  15. Rasch Analysis of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency--Second Edition in Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition (BOT-2) is widely used to assess motor skills for both clinical and research purposes; however, its validity has not been adequately assessed in intellectual disabilities (ID). This study used partial credit Rasch model to examine the measurement properties of the BOT-2 among 446…

  16. A Human Capital Model of Educational Test Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture, attitudes......, and possible incentive problems make it more difficult to elicit true values of what the tests measure....

  17. Adaptive testing with equated number-correct scoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained CAT algorithm is presented that automatically equates the number-correct scores on adaptive tests. The algorithm can be used to equate number-correct scores across different administrations of the same adaptive test as well as to an external reference test. The constraints are derived

  18. The Trait Structure of Cloze Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.

    1982-01-01

    Presents study designed to examine trait structure of a cloze test using confirmatory factor analysis. Results suggest that a modified cloze passage, using rational deletions, is capable of measuring syntactic- and discourse-level relationships in a text, and this advantage may outweigh considerations of reduced redundancy which underlie random…

  19. Improving Scores on the IELTS Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issitt, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…

  20. Accountability Is More than a Test Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Stephan; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The number one quality business leaders look for in employees is creativity and yet the U.S. education system undermines the development of the higher-order skills that promote creativity by its dogged focus on multiple-choice tests. Stephan Turnipseed and Linda DarlingHammond discuss the kind of rich accountability system that will help students…

  1. Motor Proficiency in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Fotini Venetsanou; Antonis Kambas

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine motor proficiency in young children, focusing on potential gender differences. For that purpose, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP-LF) was administered to 540 children (272 boys), 4½ to 6 years old. First, the 2 (sex) × 4 (age groups) ANOVA computed on children’s total BOTMP-LF scores showed that age had a statistically significant effect, whereas gender did ...

  2. Improved evaluation of measurement uncertainty from sampling by inclusion of between-sampler bias using sampling proficiency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Michael H; Geelhoed, Bastiaan; Wood, Roger; Damant, Andrew P

    2011-04-07

    A realistic estimate of the uncertainty of a measurement result is essential for its reliable interpretation. Recent methods for such estimation include the contribution to uncertainty from the sampling process, but they only include the random and not the systematic effects. Sampling Proficiency Tests (SPTs) have been used previously to assess the performance of samplers, but the results can also be used to evaluate measurement uncertainty, including the systematic effects. A new SPT conducted on the determination of moisture in fresh butter is used to exemplify how SPT results can be used not only to score samplers but also to estimate uncertainty. The comparison between uncertainty evaluated within- and between-samplers is used to demonstrate that sampling bias is causing the estimates of expanded relative uncertainty to rise by over a factor of two (from 0.39% to 0.87%) in this case. General criteria are given for the experimental design and the sampling target that are required to apply this approach to measurements on any material. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  3. Do Background Variables Predict Students Scores on a Japanese Placement Test? Implications for Placing Heritage Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimi Kondo-Brown

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how well heritage language background and other background variables predict the variability of students' performances on Japanese placement tests. Nine hundred thirty-two students participated in the study. The results showed that the parental language variable alone can predict the variability of incoming students' performances to a considerable degree on three proficiency measures adopted in the present study. Follow-up analyses of distributions of student scores on these proficiency measures wherein the parental language variable had the strongest predictive power were also conducted. The results suggested: some multiplechoice Japanese placement tests that may effectively discriminate among students without a Japanese parent may not necessarily be effective for discriminating among heritage language students with Japanese parents; however, a simple writing performance test proved to be an effective placement tool for discriminating among students with any parental background.

  4. The Effects of Specific Reading Interventions on Elementary Students' Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jacqueline Laverne Meeks

    2016-01-01

    Many students in third, fourth and fifth grades struggle at the lowest levels of reading proficiency. In fact, fewer than 40% of fourth graders in the United States read at or above the "proficient" level on state standardized tests in 2009 (D'Ardenne, Barnes, Hightower, Lamason, Mason, Patterson, Stephens, Wilson, Smith & Erickson,…

  5. Analytical performances of food microbiology laboratories - critical analysis of 7 years of proficiency testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Massih, M; Planchon, V; Polet, M; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2016-02-01

    Based on the results of 19 food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) schemes, this study aimed to assess the laboratory performances, to highlight the main sources of unsatisfactory analytical results and to suggest areas of improvement. The 2009-2015 results of REQUASUD and IPH PT, involving a total of 48 laboratories, were analysed. On average, the laboratories failed to detect or enumerate foodborne pathogens in 3·0% of the tests. Thanks to a close collaboration with the PT participants, the causes of outliers could be identified in 74% of the cases. The main causes of erroneous PT results were either pre-analytical (handling of the samples, timing of analysis), analytical (unsuitable methods, confusion of samples, errors in colony counting or confirmation) or postanalytical mistakes (calculation and encoding of results). PT schemes are a privileged observation post to highlight analytical problems, which would otherwise remain unnoticed. In this perspective, this comprehensive study of PT results provides insight into the sources of systematic errors encountered during the analyses. This study draws the attention of the laboratories to the main causes of analytical errors and suggests practical solutions to avoid them, in an educational purpose. The observations support the hypothesis that regular participation to PT, when followed by feed-back and appropriate corrective actions, can play a key role in quality improvement and provide more confidence in the laboratory testing results. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Accuracy-based proficiency testing for testosterone measurements with immunoassays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhimin Tim; Botelho, Julianne Cook; Rej, Robert; Vesper, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    Accurate testosterone measurements are needed to correctly diagnose and treat patients. Proficiency Testing (PT) programs using modified specimens for testing can be limited because of matrix effects and usage of non-reference measurement procedure (RMP)-defined targets for evaluation. Accuracy-based PT can overcome such limitations; however, there is a lack of information on accuracy-based PT and feasibility of its implementation in evaluation for testosterone measurements. Unaltered, single-donor human serum from 2 male and 2 female adult donors were analyzed for testosterone by 142 NYSDH-certified clinical laboratories using 16 immunoassays and LC-MS/MS methods. Testosterone target values were determined using an RMP. The testosterone target concentrations for the 4 specimens were 15.5, 30.0, 402 and 498ng/dl. The biases ranged from -17.8% to 73.1%, 3.1% to 21.3%, -24.8% to 8.6%, and -22.1% to 6.8% for the 4 specimens, respectively. Using a total error target of ±25.1%, which was calculated using the minimum allowable bias and imprecision, 73% of participating laboratories had ≥3 of the 4 results within these limits. The variability in total testosterone measurements can affect clinical decisions. Accuracy-based PT can significantly contribute to improving testosterone testing by providing reliable data on accuracy in patient care to laboratories, assay manufacturers, and standardization programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Factors contributing to variability of quantitative viral PCR results in proficiency testing samples: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, R T; Yan, X; Wick, M T; Rodriguez, A B; Xiong, X; Ginocchio, C C; Mitchell, M J; Caliendo, A M

    2012-02-01

    While viral load testing has gained widespread acceptance, a primary limitation remains the variability of results, particularly between different laboratories. While some work has demonstrated the importance of standardized quantitative control material in reducing this variability, little has been done to explore other important factors in the molecular amplification process. Results of 185 laboratories enrolled in the College of American Pathologists (CAP) 2009 viral load proficiency testing (PT) survey (VLS) were examined. This included 165 labs (89.2%) testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV), 99 (53.5%) for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and 64 (34.6%) for BK virus (BKV). At the time of PT, laboratories were asked a series of questions to characterize their testing methods. The responses to these questions were correlated to mean viral load (MVL) and result variability (RV). Contribution of individual factors to RV was estimated through analysis of variance (ANOVA) modeling and the use of backward selection of factors to fit those models. Selection of the quantitative calibrator, commercially prepared primers and probes, and amplification target gene were found most prominently associated with changes in MVL or RV for one or more of the viruses studied. Commercially prepared primers and probes and amplification target gene made the largest contribution to overall variability. Factors contributing to MVL and RV differed among viruses, as did relative contribution of each factor to overall variability. The marked variability seen in clinical quantitative viral load results is associated with multiple aspects of molecular testing design and performance. The reduction of such variability will require a multifaceted approach to improve the accuracy, reliability, and clinical utility of these important tests.

  8. Chloramphenicol stereoisomers need to be distinguished: consequences observed from a proficiency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Mark; Czymai, Tobias; Hektor, Thomas; Sharman, Matthew; Knaggs, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Although the use of chloramphenicol (CAP) as a veterinary drug is banned in the European Union and many other countries, monitoring for CAP residues in food is routine. Positive detections are few, but taken extremely seriously. European Union laboratories analysing for CAP should validate methods according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, must be accredited to ISO 17025, and will generally participate in proficiency testing (PT) schemes, such as those offered by the Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS®). The FAPAS PTs aim to cover a wide range of relevant matrices including honey, prawns, fish, milk and kidney. Test materials are prepared either by animal dosing studies or by spiking raw matrix. The most common method reported by FAPAS participants used to screen for CAP residues is LC-MS/MS, but ELISA kits are increasingly being used. A recent PT round highlighted that the result obtained might be correlated with the type of analytical method being employed. Follow-up investigations have demonstrated that some of these variations in data are a function of the different stereoisomeric forms of CAP. This paper discusses the implication of this research on method validation requirements and European Union legislation.

  9. Bilingual Education and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, California instituted a statewide test measuring English proficiency for English learners, students who are not proficient in English. In 2003 and 2004, nearly 500,000 English learners in grades 1-5 took this test each year. The relationship between bilingual education receipt and English proficiency is estimated using value-added…

  10. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Proficiency Testing on Small-Scale Safety and Thermal Testing of Improvised Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John; Sandstrom, Mary; Brown, Geoffrey; Warner, Kirstin; Phillips, Jason; Shelley, Timothy; Reyes, Jose; Hsu, Peter

    2013-06-01

    One of the first steps in establishing safe handling procedures for explosives is small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing. To better understand the response of improvised materials or HMEs to SSST testing, 18 HME materials were compared to 3 standard military explosives in a proficiency-type round robin study among five laboratories--2 DoD and 3 DOE--sponsored by DHS. The testing matrix has been designed to address problems encountered with improvised materials--powder mixtures, liquid suspensions, partially wetted solids, immiscible liquids, and reactive materials. Over 30 issues have been identified that indicate standard test methods may require modification when applied to HMEs to derive accurate sensitivity assessments needed for development safe handling and storage practices. This presentation will discuss experimental difficulties encountered when testing these problematic samples, show inter-laboratory testing results, show some statistical interpretation of the results, and highlight some of the testing issues. Some of the work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-617519 (721812).

  11. Improving personality facet scores with multidimensional computer adaptive testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A W

    2013-01-01

    personality tests contain many highly correlated facets. This article investigates the possibility of increasing the precision of the NEO PI-R facet scores by scoring items with multidimensional item response theory and by efficiently administering and scoring items with multidimensional computer adaptive...... testing (MCAT). The increase in the precision of personality facet scores is obtained from exploiting the correlations between the facets. Results indicate that the NEO PI-R could be substantially shorter without attenuating precision when the MCAT methodology is used. Furthermore, the study shows...

  12. Proficiency testing to detect Trichinella larvae in meat in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci, G; Tonanzi, D; Cherchi, S; Galati, F; Bella, A; Interisano, M; Ludovisi, A; Amati, A; Pozio, E

    2016-11-15

    According to the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/1375 (replacing the Commission Regulation (EC) No 2075/2005), all animals, which are potential carriers of Trichinella spp. larvae, should be tested at the slaughterhouse or game-handling establishments according to one of the approved tests. One of the core duties of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Parasites is to organize proficiency testing (PT), as stated in the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The aim of this work was to evaluate the results of PTs of the digestion method carried out by the National Reference Laboratories for Parasites (NRLPs) over a nine year period (2007-2015). Participating laboratories received a panel of samples consisting in 35g or 100g of minced pork or horse meat spiked with Trichinella spiralis live larvae. The number of spiked samples varied from 2 to 9 over the years. A negative control was also included in the panel, except during the 2015 PT, when only positive samples were used. The percentage of NRLPs, which passed the PT, increased from 83.3% in 2007 to 100% in 2014. Considering the number of recovered larvae, the heterogeneity in participant's results reduced overtime. The values of the overall mean difference between spiked and recovered larvae decreased during the study period, witnessing a general improvement of NRLPs performance and confirming the effectiveness of PT for a good performance of this test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecological validity of the German Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinçon, Sabine; Green, Dido; Blank, Rainer; Jenetzky, Ekkehart

    2017-06-01

    The diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is based on poor motor coordination in the absence of other neurological disorders. In order to identify the presence of movement difficulties, a standardised motor assessment is recommended to determine the extent of movement problems which may contribute to deficits in daily task performance. A German version of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (German BOT-2) was recently published. This study aimed to determine the ecological validity of the German BOT-2 by considering the relationship between assessment of fundamental motor skills with the BOT-2 and performance of everyday motor activities as evaluated by parents. This study used data obtained from the German BOT-2 standardisation study (n=1.177). Subtests were compared with theoretically corresponding tasks via parental ratings of overall fine and gross motor abilities and performance in six typical motor activities. Non-parametric Jonckheere Terpstra test was used to identify differences in ordered contrasts. Subtests reflecting 'Strength', 'Running Speed and Agility', 'Upper-Limb Coordination', 'Balance', and 'Fine Motor Precision' were associated with parental evaluation of gross motor skills (parts and crafts (p<0.001). Gross motor subtests of 'Bilateral Coordination' and 'Balance' showed no relationship to bike riding or performance in sports. Subtests of 'Upper-Limb Coordination' and 'Strength' showed significant correlations with sports, ball games and cycling. The results of this study suggest that the closer the proximity in the nature of the motor skills assessed in the German BOT-2 to daily motor tasks, the stronger the relationship between the clinical test and parental report of everyday performance of their child. The body functions tested in the German BOT-2, and hypothesized to underpin certain skills, were not automatically relevant for specific activities undertaken by German children. Future research

  14. Development in harmonisation of proficiency testing (for vapours, gasses, and dusts) in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, P; Tylee, B

    1998-12-01

    A network has been established of the 11 major proficiency schemes in the European Union concerned with the occupational hygiene and environmental analyses of chemicals and dusts in the air. A comparison of all the schemes was carried out and a compendium is being produced. This will allow users of the schemes such as testing laboratories, customers, and regulatory bodies to choose the scheme that is most suited to their purpose. All schemes have been compared with the revised ISO Guide 43, published in 1997. The performance statistics in most schemes conform to the criteria in European Standard EN 482 that define the acceptability limits for overall uncertainty in measurement. However, the performance statistics and assessment strategies of the different schemes vary. While many of the schemes supply similar sample material such as lead on filters and benzene on charcoal, there are a number of sample types that many schemes would like to introduce. However, it would be uneconomic to do this on a national basis and the network is developing procedures to introduce them throughout the member countries. Additionally, there are countries that have no schemes at present and may wish to introduce them. The network will provide a framework to help set up schemes in these areas.

  15. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A saxitoxin (STX proficiency test (PT was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  16. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Luginbühl, Werner; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Burrell, Stephen; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-11-25

    A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories' capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  17. Scoring systems for the Clock Drawing Test: A historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Spenciere

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is a simple neuropsychological screening instrument that is well accepted by patients and has solid psychometric properties. Several different CDT scoring methods have been developed, but no consensus has been reached regarding which scoring method is the most accurate. This article reviews the literature on these scoring systems and the changes they have undergone over the years. Historically, different types of scoring systems emerged. Initially, the focus was on screening for dementia, and the methods were both quantitative and semi-quantitative. Later, the need for an early diagnosis called for a scoring system that can detect subtle errors, especially those related to executive function. Therefore, qualitative analyses began to be used for both differential and early diagnoses of dementia. A widely used qualitative method was proposed by Rouleau et al. (1992. Tracing the historical path of these scoring methods is important for developing additional scoring systems and furthering dementia prevention research.

  18. Examining the Impact of L2 Proficiency and Keyboarding Skills on Scores on TOEFL-iBT Writing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    A major concern with computer-based (CB) tests of second-language (L2) writing is that performance on such tests may be influenced by test-taker keyboarding skills. Poor keyboarding skills may force test-takers to focus their attention and cognitive resources on motor activities (i.e., keyboarding) and, consequently, other processes and aspects of…

  19. Interlaboratory reproducibility and proficiency testing within the human papillomavirus cervical cancer screening program in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, R; Félez-Sánchez, M; Godínez, J M; Guardià, C; Caballero, E; Juve, R; Combalia, N; Bellosillo, B; Cuevas, D; Moreno-Crespi, J; Pons, L; Autonell, J; Gutierrez, C; Ordi, J; de Sanjosé, S; Bravo, I G

    2014-05-01

    In Catalonia, a screening protocol for cervical cancer, including human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing using the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay, was implemented in 2006. In order to monitor interlaboratory reproducibility, a proficiency testing (PT) survey of the HPV samples was launched in 2008. The aim of this study was to explore the repeatability of the HC2 assay's performance. Participating laboratories provided 20 samples annually, 5 randomly chosen samples from each of the following relative light unit (RLU) intervals: <0.5, 0.5 to 0.99, 1 to 9.99, and ≥10. Kappa statistics were used to determine the agreement levels between the original and the PT readings. The nature and origin of the discrepant results were calculated by bootstrapping. A total of 946 specimens were retested. The kappa values were 0.91 for positive/negative categorical classification and 0.79 for the four RLU intervals studied. Sample retesting yielded systematically lower RLU values than the original test (P<0.005), independently of the time elapsed between the two determinations (median, 53 days), possibly due to freeze-thaw cycles. The probability for a sample to show clinically discrepant results upon retesting was a function of the RLU value; samples with RLU values in the 0.5 to 5 interval showed 10.80% probability to yield discrepant results (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.86 to 14.33) compared to 0.85% probability for samples outside this interval (95% CI, 0.17 to 1.69). Globally, the HC2 assay shows high interlaboratory concordance. We have identified differential confidence thresholds and suggested the guidelines for interlaboratory PT in the future, as analytical quality assessment of HPV DNA detection remains a central component of the screening program for cervical cancer prevention.

  20. Proficiency testing for conducted immunity with a new round robin test device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Emrah; Cakir, Soydan; Cetintas, Mustafa; Hamouz, Pavel; Mandaris, Dwi; Isbring, Thomas; Kokalj, Miha; Lopez, Daniel; Lundgren, Urban; Pinter, Borut; Poriz, Martin; Pous, Marc; Pythoud, Frederic; Sen, Osman; Silva, Ferran; Svoboda, Marek; Trincaz, Braise; Zhao, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Last year, a new round robin test device was proposed for inter-laboratory comparisons in conducted immunity testing according to IEC 61000-4-6[1]. The device has recently been successfully evaluated among all EMRP Project partners. The device is able to confirm or to deny the testing capability of

  1. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…

  2. Testing the applicability of the SASS5 scoring procedure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken between 29th January and 17th February 2004 to test the applicability of the South African Scoring System Version 5 (SASS5) scoring and calculation procedure in nutrient-enriched palustrine wetlands in the midlands of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Four reference wetlands and three dairy-effluent ...

  3. An interlaboratory study as useful tool for proficiency testing of chemical oxygen demand measurements using solid substrates and liquid samples with high suspended solid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, F; de la Rubia, M A; Borja, R; Alaiz, M; Beltrán, J; Cavinato, C; Clinckspoor, M; Demirer, G; Diamadopoulos, E; Helmreich, B; Jenicek, P; Martí, N; Méndez, R; Noguerol, J; Pereira, F; Picard, S; Torrijos, M

    2009-11-15

    In 2008, the first Proficiency Testing Scheme of Chemical Oxygen Demand (1(st)COD-PT(ADG)) was conducted to assess the results obtained for different research groups whose field work is mainly anaerobic digestion. This study was performed using four samples, two solid samples as raw materials and two solid samples to prepare high concentration suspended solid solutions. Invitations were sent to a large number of laboratories, mainly to anaerobic digestion research groups. Finally, thirty labs from sixteen countries agreed to participate, but for different reasons four participants could not send any data. In total, twenty-six results were reported to the COD-PT coordinator. This study showed the importance of continuous participation in proficiency testing (PT) schemes in order to compare the results obtained. Taking into account the lack of a general standard method and high quality certified reference materials (CRMs), the traceability of COD determination is not currently easy to check. In addition, the spread of participants' results obtained was high and pointed to the advisability of using consensus values due to their unreliability. Therefore, the theoretical oxygen demand (ThOD) values were considered as assigned values for all the samples analysed. On the other hand, in this PT the established standard deviation (ESD) has been determined by the Horwitz modified function. Participants of this 1(st)COD-PT(ADG) were asked to give a short report on the analytical method used. Although all the participants used potassium dichromate as their oxidant reagent, their experimental procedures were very different. With the purpose of comparing the results obtained, the different experimental conditions used were classified into five methods, corresponding to two main categories, open and closed reflux. The performance of laboratories was expressed by the z-score, whose value is considered satisfactory when z-score

  4. The Use of Test Method Characteristics in the Content Analysis and Design of EFL Proficiency Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the value of content considerations in the design of language tests and the implications of the findings of various investigations of content analysis. The article argues that content analysis can be viewed as the application of a model of test design to a particular measurement instrument, using judgments of trained analysts. (26…

  5. The increasing impact of socioeconomics and race on standardized academic test scores across elementary, middle, and high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gwyne W; Stepney, Cesalie T; Hatchimonji, Danielle Ryan; Moceri, Dominic C; Linsky, Arielle V; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin A; Elias, Maurice J

    2016-01-01

    For students and schools, the current policy is to measure success via standardized testing. Yet the immutable factors of socioeconomic status (SES) and race have, consistently, been implicated in fostering an achievement gap. The current study explores, at the school-level, the impact of these factors on test scores. Percentage of students proficient for Language and Math was analyzed from 452 schools across the state of New Jersey. By high school, 52% of the variance in Language and 59% in Math test scores can be accounted for by SES and racial factors. At this level, a 1% increase in school minority population corresponds to a 0.19 decrease in percent Language proficient and 0.33 decrease for Math. These results have significant implications as they suggest that school-level interventions to improve academic achievement scores will be stymied by socioeconomic and racial factors and efforts to improve the achievement gap via testing have largely measured it. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Machine-Scored Testing, Part II: Creativity and Item Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuba, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Explains how multiple choice test items can be devised to measure higher-order learning, including engineering problem solving. Discusses the value and information provided in item analysis procedures with machine-scored tests. Suggests elements to consider in test design. (ML)

  7. Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-05-01

    In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®). In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  8. General score tests for regression models incorporating 'robust' variance estimates

    OpenAIRE

    David Clayton; Joanna Howson

    2002-01-01

    Stata incorporates commands for carrying out two of the three general approaches to asymptotic significance testing in regression models, namely likelihood ratio (lrtest) and Wald tests (testparms). However, the third approach, using "score" tests, has no such general implementation. This omission is particularly serious when dealing with "clustered" data using the Huber-White approach. Here the likelihood ratio test is lost, leaving only the Wald test. This has relatively poor asymptotic pro...

  9. English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…

  10. Standardization of HER2 testing: results of an international proficiency-testing ring study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowsett, Mitch; Hanna, Wedad M.; Kockx, Mark; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Rüschoff, Josef; Gutjahr, Thorsten; Habben, Kai; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2007-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity in breast cancer is a prognostic factor regarding tumor aggressiveness and a predictive factor for response to trastuzumab (Herceptin). Early and accurate HER2 testing of all breast cancer patients at primary diagnosis is essential for

  11. Formulaic Sequences and Perceived Oral Proficiency: Putting a Lexical Approach to the Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Frank; Eyckmans, June; Kappel, Jenny; Stengers, Helene; Demecheleer, Murielle

    2006-01-01

    This study reports a small-scale experiment that was set up to estimate the extent to which (i) the use of formulaic sequences (standardized phrases such as collocations and idiomatic expressions) can help learners come across as proficient L2 speakers and (ii) an instructional method that emphasizes "noticing" of L2 formulaic sequences can help…

  12. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Koretz; Carol Yu; Preeya P. Mbekeani; Meredith Langi; Tasmin Dhaliwal; David Braslow

    2016-01-01

    The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA) from high school GPA an...

  13. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all pArm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77-0.79 before and 0.82-0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64-0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise.

  14. Linking English-Language Test Scores onto the Common European Framework of Reference: An Application of Standard-Setting Methodology. TOEFL iBT Research Report TOEFL iBt-06. ETS RR-08-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Wylie, E. Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) describes language proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and listening on a 6-level scale. In this study, English-language experts from across Europe linked CEFR levels to scores on three tests: the TOEFL® iBT test, the TOEIC® assessment, and the TOEIC "Bridge"™ test.…

  15. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Koretz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA from high school GPA and both college admissions and high school tests in mathematics and English. In both systems, the choice of tests had only trivial effects on the aggregate prediction of FGPA. Adding either test to an equation that included the other had only trivial effects on prediction. Although the findings suggest that the choice of test might advantage or disadvantage different students, it had no substantial effect on the over- and underprediction of FGPA for students classified by race-ethnicity or poverty.

  16. Test-retest nasalance score variability in hypernasal speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Thomas; Lewis, Kerry E

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate test-retest nasalance score variability in subjects with hypernasal resonance. Two groups of subjects with hypernasal speech recited both the Turtle Passage and the Mouse Passage two times each. For one group, the Nasometer headgear was not changed between repetitions of each stimulus (NCHG; n = 17); and for the other group, the headgear was changed between repetitions (CHG; n = 18). Three subjects in the CHG group would not recite the Mouse Passage two times. The subjects were 35 patients with hypernasal speech followed by a cleft palate team. The outcome measures were the four nasalance scores obtained for each subject. There was no significant difference between first and second repetitions for either stimulus in either the NCHG group or in the CHG group. Cumulative frequency tables showed that for the Turtle Passage-NCHG condition, 15 of the 17 (88%) repeated nasalance scores were within 5 nasalance points of each other. For the CHG condition, however, only 9 of 18 (50%) repeated nasalance scores were within 5 points. For the Mouse Passage-NCHG condition, 15 of the 17 (88%) repeated nasalance scores were within 5 points. For the CHG condition, however, only 11 of 15 (73%) repeated scores were within 5 points. Test-retest variability was greater in a population of hypernasal patients than that reported in other studies for normal speakers, and headgear change increased test-retest variability.

  17. Which Test? Whose Scores? Comparing Standardized Critical Thinking Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, after describing one approach for teaching critical thinking (CT) that was in place at Baker University from 1990 to 2008, the author describes their experience assessing CT using three standardized exams and shows why the choice of a standardized CT test can be problematic and the results misleading. These results can be…

  18. What Can Go Wrong With the Score Test?

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeke, Geert; Molenberghs, Geert

    2007-01-01

    The score test presents a number of issues. There are four dimensions of concern: (1) Is the parameter space constrained? (2) Is observed information used, or some form of expected information? (3) Are size and power computed under the null hypothesis, a correctly specified alternative, or a misspecified alternative? (4) Are computations asymptotic or small sample? boundary condition; constrained parameter; expected information; likelihood ratio test; observed information; one-sided test; ...

  19. Fatores a serem levados em consideração para o desenvolvimento de testes de proficiência oral em contexto virtual Aspects to be considered in the development of oral proficiency tests in virtual contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Biondo Salomão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Novos contextos de aprendizagem virtual de línguas estrangeiras vêm surgindo com o desenvolvimento das novas tecnologias. Há a necessidade agora de se pensar em como a competência linguística poderá ser também avaliada em meio virtual. Este artigo traz uma retrospectiva da origem e desenvolvimento das provas de proficiência oral para falantes de línguas estrangeiras, buscando também levantar e discutir os aspectos a serem levados em consideração para a formulação deste tipo de teste em ambiente virtual.New virtual contexts for learning foreign languages have been arising from the development of new communication technologies. Now, there is the necessity to think about how the students' communicative competence may be evaluated in such virtual contexts. This article aims at presenting a retrospective of the origin and development of oral proficiency tests for speakers of foreign languages, as well as pointing out and discussing the aspects that should be taken into account when designing this kind of tests for virtual environments.

  20. Proficiency Descriptors Based on a Scale-Anchoring Study of the New TOEFL iBT Reading Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Pablo Garcia; Noah, Aris; Schedl, Mary; Wright, Christine; Yolkut, Aline

    2007-01-01

    Providing information to test takers and test score users about the abilities of test takers at different score levels has been a persistent problem in educational and psychological measurement (Carroll, 1993). Since the 1990s Educational Testing Service has been investigating solutions to this problem through the development of proficiency…

  1. America's Mediocre Test Scores: Education Crisis or Poverty Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Michael J.; Wright, Brandon L.

    2016-01-01

    At a time when the national conversation is focused on lagging upward mobility, it is no surprise that many educators point to poverty as the explanation for mediocre test scores among U.S. students compared to those of students in other countries. If American teachers in struggling U.S. schools taught in Finland, says Finnish educator Pasi…

  2. Source Country Differences in Test Score Gaps: Evidence from Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2010-01-01

    We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…

  3. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

  4. Student Laptop Use and Scores on Standardized Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kposowa, Augustine J.; Valdez, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between ubiquitous laptop use and academic achievement. It was hypothesized that students with ubiquitous laptops would score on average higher on standardized tests than those without such computers. Methods: Data were obtained from two sources. First, demographic…

  5. Racial Differences in Mathematics Test Scores for Advanced Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Elizabeth Covay

    2016-01-01

    Research on achievement gaps has found that achievement gaps are larger for students who take advanced mathematics courses compared to students who do not. Focusing on the advanced mathematics student achievement gap, this study found that African American advanced mathematics students have significantly lower test scores and are less likely to be…

  6. Changes in participant performance in the "test-taking" environment: observations from the 2006 College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytology Proficiency Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jonathan H; Bentz, Joel S; Fatheree, Lisa; Souers, Rhona J; Wilbur, David C

    2009-02-01

    Because the consequences of making an interpretive error on a proficiency test are more severe than those made on an educational challenge, the same slide may exhibit different performance characteristics in the 2 different settings. The results of the 2006 College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytology Proficiency Testing Program (PAP PT) provide the opportunity to compare the performance characteristics of the field-validated slides in the PAP PT environment with those of the same graded slides in the College of American Pathologists Educational Program (formerly known as the PAP Program). All participant responses for negative (category B) and positive (categories C and D) validated slides in the 2006 PAP PT were used to determine the error rates of participants. These data were compared with the historical error rates observed on the same validated slides in the graded PAP Program. The performance characteristics of the slides in the PAP PT environment were statistically different from those in the Educational PAP Program. In proficiency testing both cytotechnologists (P < .001) and pathologists (P = .002) were more likely to interpret validated category B slides as category C or D and less likely to interpret category C slides as category B (P < .001). These differences were more pronounced among cytotechnologists than among pathologists. In the test-taking environment, both cytotechnologists and pathologists appear to use a defensive strategy that results in "upgrading" of category B slides. This trend is more pronounced among cytotechnologists.

  7. EFL Speech Production: Exploring the relationship between working memory capacity and proficiency level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicele Vergine Vieira Prebianca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available : The present study explores the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC and proficiency level in EFL1 speech production. Forty-one participants performed two WMC tests – the Speaking Span Test in L1 and in L2. The statistical analysis indicated both a variation on WMC scores in L2 as a function of proficiency as well as a difference between WMC scores in L1 and in L2. Findings are explained mainly in respect to the interplay between automatic and controlled processes on memory retrieval and on the development of L2 proficiency

  8. EFL Speech Production: Exploring the relationship between working memory capacity and proficiency level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicele Vergine Vieira PREBIANCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC and proficiency level in EFL1 speech production. Forty-one participants performed two WMC tests – the Speaking Span Test in L1 and in L2. The statistical analysis indicated both a variation on WMC scores in L2 as a function of proficiency as well as a difference between WMC scores in L1 and in L2. Findings are explained mainly in respect to the interplay between automatic and controlled processes on memory retrieval and on the development of L2 proficiency.

  9. The IAEA's 'ALMERA Network' proficiency test on the determination of gamma-emitting radionuclides: A test of results comparability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhashiro, Abdulghani [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: a.shakhashiro@iaea.org; Trinkl, Alexander; Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-11-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coordinates the work of a world-wide network of analytical laboratories, the Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network. A proficiency test for ALMERA members was organized in 2006 based on the determination of gamma-emitting radionuclides ({sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and {sup 210}Pb) in three matrices: water, soil and grass. This paper presents the methodology applied in this proficiency test and discusses the results of the analytical performance evaluation for 38 participating laboratories. The paper also addresses some technical root causes, which could explain low performances in the determination of {sup 109}Cd and {sup 210}Pb.

  10. Preparation, characterization and use of a reference material to proficiency testing for determination of metals in fish tissue in natura; Preparo, caracterizacao e uso de um material de referencia para ensaios de proficiencia para determinacao de metais em tecido de peixe in natura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Luciana Vieira de

    2013-07-01

    The proficiency tests are widely used to evaluate the analytical capacity of laboratories and also as part of the accreditation process. For this reason, are important tools for the control of the quality of the analytical results obtained in the laboratories that work directly with seafood companies. In Brazil there are no providers of proficiency testing for metals potentially toxic in fish tissues. In this work will be described all steps used for the production of reference materials to be used in a proficiency testing pilot study for As, Cd, Pb and Hg in fish tissue following the recommendations of the ISO Guide 35. He preparation scheme consisted in selecting the individuals, cleaning, grinding, homogenization and fortification with As, Cd and Pb in two concentration levels. The preparation resulted in 164 sachets of 10 g each. In order to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation in the samples conservation 52 sachets were irradiated with {sup 60}Co (10.00 {+-} 1.05 kGy) in a gamma cell. This material with others non irradiated 52 sachets were used for the homogeneity and stability studies. The remaining 60 were used for the proficiency testing. The results demonstrated that both materials were homogeneous and presented good stability (during a period of 45 days). However, the irradiated material present better integrity, concerning biological degradation, when stored in ambient temperature. For this reason they were used to the proficiency testing pilot program. Ten laboratories participated in the proficiency testing pilot study and the results were evaluated using the following tests: z-score, confidence ellipse and En numbers. This work demonstrates the capability of the laboratory to produce reference materials as well as to organize and conduct proficiency testing. (author)

  11. IRSN's radiological proficiency testings: a key for managing the quality of test laboratories in charge of the environmental radioactivity survey in France?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameon, R.; Gleizes, M.; Maulard, A.; Moine, J.; Vignaud, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    In France, many actors are involved in environmental monitoring (IRSN, operators of nuclear facilities, State services, approved air quality monitoring associations, environmental protection associations, private environmental laboratories...). The French National Network for Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring (RNM) federates all these entities. RNM brings together the environmental measurement results made in a regulatory framework on the French territory and make them available to the public through a web site. The quality of these measurements is guaranteed by subjecting the test laboratories to an approval procedure under the control of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN). The approval procedure includes administrative requirements (the laboratory shall meet ISO 17025 requirements) and the participation to proficiency testings (PT) provided by IRSN in order to demonstrate their technical competence. As approvals cover all components of the environment, the five-year PT program is defined on a combination of: - 6 types of environmental matrices: water, soil/sediments, biological matrices (tea, tobacco, fish, milk,...), aerosols on filters, gas-air (activated charcoal cartridge) and ambient air (RPL dosimeters), - 17 categories of radioactive measurements: g-emitters, gross a, gross b, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, pure b-emitters, U isotopes and U content, Th isotopes, {sup 226}Ra and decay products, {sup 228}Ra and decay products, Pu/Am, {sup 129}I/{sup 131}I, noble gases, g-dose rate. Following ISO/CEI 17043 requirements, IRSN, as an accredited PT provider is in charge of: - Preparation and dispatch of test items, - Control of the homogeneity and stability of produced test items, - Determination of the assigned values, - Analysis of the results transmitted by participants in terms of relative bias, En number and z-score, - Publication of the report. PT program managed by IRSN groups 6 to 7 interlaboratory comparisons per year. Each of

  12. The validity of self-reported physical fitness test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah B; Knapik, Joseph J; Sharp, Marilyn A; Darakjy, Salima; Jones, Bruce H

    2007-02-01

    Epidemiological studies often have to rely on a participant's self-reporting of information. The validity of the self-report instrument is an important consideration in any study. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the validity of self-reported Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores. The APFT is administered to all soldiers in the U.S. Army twice a year and consists of the maximum number of push-ups completed in 2 minutes, the maximum number of sit-ups completed in 2 minutes, and a 2-mile run for time. Army mechanics responded to a questionnaire in March and June 2004 asking them to report the exact scores of each event on their most recent APFT. Actual APFT scores were obtained from the soldier's military unit. The mean +/- standard deviation (SD) of actual and self-reported numbers of push-ups was 61 +/- 14 and 65 +/- 13, respectively. The mean +/- SD of actual and self-reported numbers of sit-ups were 66 +/- 10 and 68 +/- 10, respectively. The mean +/- SD of actual and self-reported run times (minutes) were 14.8 +/- 1.4 and 14.6 +/- 1.4, respectively. Correlations between actual and self-reported push-ups, sit-ups, and run were 0.83, 0.71, and 0.85, respectively. On average, soldiers tended to slightly over-report performance on all APFT events and individual self-reported scores could vary widely from actual scores based on Bland-Altman plots. Despite this, the close correlations between the actual and self-reported scores suggest that self-reported values are adequate for most epidemiological military studies involving larger sample sizes.

  13. Champion lineman scores unprecedented 100 on written test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-01-15

    The 27th annual international lineman's rodeo saw a lineman from Duke Energy Distribution named World Champion Apprentice. He was also the first competitor to score 100 % in the written test and finished first in the apprentice category in the investor owned utility (IOU) division. The apprentice division is made up of linemen within their first four years of trade. Events include a hurt man rescue, pole climb, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), mystery event and a written test. The rodeo began in 1984, and this year more than 650 men competed.

  14. Score-based tests of measurement invariance: Use in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting eWang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a family of recently-proposed measurement invariance tests that are based on the scores of a fitted model. This family can be used to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. a continuous auxiliary variable, without pre-specification of subgroups. Moreover, the family can be used when one wishes to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. an ordinal auxiliary variable, yielding test statistics that are sensitive to violations that are monotonically related to the ordinal variable (and less sensitive to non-monotonic violations. The paper is specifically aimed at potential users of the tests who may wish to know (i how the tests can be employed for their data, and (ii whether the tests can accurately identify specific models parameters that violate measurement invariance (possibly in the presence of model misspecification. After providing an overview of the tests, we illustrate their general use via the R packages lavaan and strucchange. We then describe two novel simulations that provide evidence of the tests' practical abilities. As a whole, the paper provides researchers with the tools and knowledge needed to apply these tests to general measurement invariance scenarios.

  15. Biering-Sorensen test scores in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Ortancil, O.; Ankarali, H.; Basaran, A.; Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Biering-Sorensen test is an isometric back endurance test. Biering-Sorensen test scores have varied in different cultural and occupational groups. The aims of this study were to collect normative data on Biering-Sorensen holding times, to determine the discriminative ability of the Biering-Sorensen test in Turkish coal miners, and to examine the association between Biering-Sorensen test result and functional disability. One hundred and fifty male coal miners participated in this study. Trunk extensor muscle strength was measured using the Biering-Sorensen test. Oswestry disability index was used to measure the functional disability level of low back pain. The mean Biering-Sorensen holding time for the total subject group was 107.3 {+-} 22.5 s. The mean time of Biering-Sorensen test of the subjects with and without low back pain were 99.9 {+-} 19.8 and 128.6 {+-} 15.2 s, respectively. The difference between the subjects with and without low back pain was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between Oswestry functional disability score and Biering-Sorensen holding time (R = -0.824, p < 0.001). Turkish coal miners have low mean back extensor endurance holding times. Biering-Sorensen test had a good discriminative ability in our study group. Trunk muscle strength has a significant effect on the disability level of low back pain. Thus trunk muscle endurance training exercise therapy may be effective for the reduction of disability in patients with low back pain.

  16. Developing a nanoparticle test for prostate cancer scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Qun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over-diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer has been a major problem in prostate cancer care and management. Currently the most relevant prognostic factor to predict a patient's risk of death due to prostate cancer is the Gleason score of the biopsied tissue samples. However, pathological analysis is subjective, and the Gleason score is only a qualitative estimate of the cancer malignancy. Molecular biomarkers and diagnostic tests that can accurately predict prostate tumor aggressiveness are rather limited. Method We report here for the first time the development of a nanoparticle test that not only can distinguish prostate cancer from normal and benign conditions, but also has the potential to predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer quantitatively. To conduct the test, a prostate tissue lysate sample is spiked into a blood serum or human IgG solution and the spiked sample is incubated with a citrate-protected gold nanoparticle solution. IgG is known to adsorb to citrate-protected gold nanoparticles to form a "protein corona" on the nanoparticle surface. From this study, we discovered that certain tumor-specific molecules can interact with IgG and change the adsorption behavior of IgG to the gold nanoparticles. This change is reflected in the nanoparticle size of the assay solution and detected by a dynamic light scattering technique. Assay data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA for multiple variant analysis, and using the Student t-test or nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-tests for pairwise analyses. Results An inverse, quantitative correlation of the average nanoparticle size of the assay solution with tumor status and histological diagnostic grading was observed from the nanoparticle test. IgG solutions spiked with prostate tumor tissue exhibit significantly smaller nanoparticle size than the solutions spiked with normal and benign tissues. The higher grade the tumor is, the smaller the nanoparticle size is. The test

  17. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Johnson, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups differ in mean ability, the functioning of items at different ability levels may result in group differences in the heritability of items, even when these items function equivalently across groups and the heritability of the underlying ability is equal across groups. We illustrate this graphically, by computer simulation, and by focusing on several problems associated with a recent study by Rushton et al. who argued that the heritability estimates of items of Raven's Progressive Matrices test in North-American twin samples generalized to other population groups, and hence that the population group differences on this test of general mental ability (or intelligence) had a substantial genetic component. Our results show that item heritabilities are strongly dependent on the group on which the heritabilities were based. Rushton et al.'s results were artefactual and do not speak to the nature of population group differences in intelligence test performance. PMID:19403538

  18. When Is a Test Score Fair for the Individual Who Is Being Tested? Effects of Different Scoring Procedures across Multiple Attempts When Testing a Motor Skill Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arve Vorland Pedersen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tests or test batteries used for assessing motor skills, either in research studies or in clinical settings, apply a variety of procedures for scoring performances, including everything from one to ten attempts, of which the best is scored or an average is computed. The rationale behind scoring procedures is rarely stated, and it seems that the number of attempts allowed is decided without much qualification from research. It is uncertain whether procedures fairly capture an individual’s skill level. Thus, the validity of the tests may be compromised. The present study tested 24 young female soccer players on the juggling of a soccer ball. They were given 10 attempts, and trials were scored according to nine different procedures including the ‘best of’ or ‘mean of’ either one, two, three, five, or ten attempts. Individual raw scores differed widely across trials, but no general effect of trials was found. The mean (SD percentage difference between the lowest and highest scores was 27.7(9.9%, with 17 players (71% demonstrating a significant change from lowest to highest score. Correlations between raw scores were low across trials, while they were generally higher across scoring procedures. The first trial was significantly different from the remaining both as a raw score and as scoring procedure. The mean percentage difference between best-of-two and best-of-ten scores was 95%, with 50 % of the players demonstrating a significant difference between the two scoring procedures. No significant differences were found across mean-of-rule scorings. Best-of-rule and mean-of-rule scorings were significantly different except for the best-of-two vs. mean-of-two. The mean difference between highest and lowest rank across players was 6.7 (3.6, with individual rankings within the group varying 33% on average across procedures. One player moved from 3rd to 23rd place because of procedural differences. Therefore, it is concluded that scoring

  19. Generation of GHS Scores from TEST and online sources ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternatives assessment frameworks such as DfE (Design for the Environment) evaluate chemical alternatives in terms of human health effects, ecotoxicity, and fate. T.E.S.T. (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool) can be utilized to evaluate human health in terms of acute oral rat toxicity, developmental toxicity, endocrine activity, and mutagenicity. It can be used to evaluate ecotoxicity (in terms of acute fathead minnow toxicity) and fate (in terms of bioconcentration factor). It also be used to estimate a variety of key physicochemical properties such as melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure, water solubility, and bioconcentration factor. A web-based version of T.E.S.T. is currently being developed to allow predictions to be made from other web tools. Online data sources such as from NCCT’s Chemistry Dashboard, REACH dossiers, or from ChemHat.org can also be utilized to obtain GHS (Global Harmonization System) scores for comparing alternatives. The purpose of this talk is to show how GHS (Global Harmonization Score) data can be obtained from literature sources and from T.E.S.T. (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool). This data will be used to compare chemical alternatives in the alternatives assessment dashboard (a 2018 CSS product).

  20. The Test Score Decline: A Review and Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Camp 1 4 1’Camiprtenens~ve Tists it 169681973 24 200.000 INaticisal C mrp -0 1 103 Basic Skils ýCrS; 5 3 Comv 12 9 10 Camp -3.3 I iwa T4 its ot 1965...competency testing as a cure for falling SAT scores. They alh. point out that "there is no evidence of widespread lack of basic literacy tor !high school upper...classmten)." They emphasize that the NAEP results support this point.of-view in the areas of basic literacy skills and practical verbal tasks. They

  1. Generation of dried tube specimen for HIV-1 viral load proficiency test panels: a cost-effective alternative for external quality assessment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Artur; Nguyen, Shon; Garcia, Albert; Subbarao, Shambavi; Nkengasong, John N; Ellenberger, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Participation in external quality assessment programs is critical to ensure quality clinical laboratory testing. Commercially available proficiency test panels for HIV-1 virus load testing that are used commonly in external quality assessment programs remain a financial obstacle to resource-limited countries. Maintaining cold-chain transportation largely contributes to the cost of traditional liquid proficiency test panels. Therefore, we developed and evaluated a proficiency test panel using dried tube specimens that can be shipped and stored at ambient temperature. This dried tube specimens panel consisted of 20 μl aliquots of a HIV-1 stock that were added to 2 ml tubes and left uncapped for drying, as a preservation method. The stability of dried tube specimens at concentrations ranging from 10² to 10⁶·⁵ RNA copies/ml was tested at different temperatures over time, showing no viral load reduction at 37 °C and a decrease in viral load smaller than 0.5 Log₁₀ at 45 °C for up to eight weeks when compared to initial results. Eight cycles of freezing-thawing had no effect on the stability of the dried tube specimens. Comparable viral load results were observed when dried tube specimen panels were tested on Roche CAPTAQ, Abbott m2000, and Biomerieux easyMAG viral load systems. Preliminary test results of dried proficiency test panels shipped to four African countries at ambient temperature demonstrated a low inter assay variation (SD range: 0.29-0.41 Log₁₀ RNA copies/ml). These results indicated that HIV-1 proficiency test panels generated by this methodology might be an acceptable alternative for laboratories in resource-limited countries to participate in external quality assessment programs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Oral proficiency assessment: the use of automatic speech ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and assessment of oral proficiency and listening comprehension is one of the most problematic aspects in language teaching, especially when the majority of testtakers are non-standard users of English. The main problems concern the feasibility of such testing and the need for reliable scoring. As far as ...

  3. The educational consequences of language proficiency for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5–6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys’ language test scores. In

  4. The Education Consequences of Language Proficiency for Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5-6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys' language test scores. In

  5. Computerized Scoring Algorithms for the Autobiographical Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Martens, Kris; Salmon, Karen; Raes, Filip

    2017-04-03

    Reduced specificity of autobiographical memories is a hallmark of depressive cognition. Autobiographical memory (AM) specificity is typically measured by the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), in which respondents are asked to describe personal memories in response to emotional cue words. Due to this free descriptive responding format, the AMT relies on experts' hand scoring for subsequent statistical analyses. This manual coding potentially impedes research activities in big data analytics such as large epidemiological studies. Here, we propose computerized algorithms to automatically score AM specificity for the Dutch (adult participants) and English (youth participants) versions of the AMT by using natural language processing and machine learning techniques. The algorithms showed reliable performances in discriminating specific and nonspecific (e.g., overgeneralized) autobiographical memories in independent testing data sets (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > .90). Furthermore, outcome values of the algorithms (i.e., decision values of support vector machines) showed a gradient across similar (e.g., specific and extended memories) and different (e.g., specific memory and semantic associates) categories of AMT responses, suggesting that, for both adults and youth, the algorithms well capture the extent to which a memory has features of specific memories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. ANOVA Analysis of Student Daily Test Scores in Multi-Day Test Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Matthew L.; Davis, Jefferson T.; Jones, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Instructors are often concerned when giving multiple-day tests because students taking the test later in the exam period may have an advantage over students taking the test early in the exam period due to information leakage. However, exam scores seemed to decline as students took the same test later in a multi-day exam period (Mouritsen and…

  7. The Development and Validation of a Spanish Elicited Imitation Test of Oral Language Proficiency for the Missionary Training Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    The Missionary Training Center (MTC), affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, needs a reliable and cost effective way to measure the oral language proficiency of missionaries learning Spanish. The MTC needed to measure incoming missionaries' Spanish language proficiency for training and classroom assignment as well as to…

  8. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-04-13

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries' National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013-2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories.

  9. Accuracy in HIV Rapid Testing among Laboratory and Non-laboratory Personnel in Zambia: Observations from the National HIV Proficiency Testing System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mwangala

    Full Text Available Despite rapid task-shifting and scale-up of HIV testing services in high HIV prevalence countries, studies evaluating accuracy remain limited. This study aimed to assess overall accuracy level and factors associated with accuracy in HIV rapid testing in Zambia.Accuracy was investigated among rural and urban HIV testing sites participating in two annual national HIV proficiency testing (PT exercises conducted in 2009 (n = 282 sites and 2010 (n = 488 sites. Testers included lay counselors, nurses, laboratory personnel and others. PT panels of five dry tube specimens (DTS were issued to testing sites by the national reference laboratory (NRL. Site accuracy level was assessed by comparison of reported results to the expected results. Non-parametric rank tests and multiple linear regression models were used to assess variation in accuracy between PT cycles and between tester groups, and to examine factors associated with accuracy respectively.Overall accuracy level was 93.1% (95% CI: 91.2-94.9 in 2009 and 96.9% (95% CI: 96.1-97.8 in 2010. Differences in accuracy were seen between the tester groups in 2009 with laboratory personnel being more accurate than non-laboratory personnel, while in 2010 no differences were seen. In both PT exercises, lay counselors and nurses had more difficulties interpreting results, with more occurrences of false-negative, false-positive and indeterminate results. Having received the standard HIV rapid testing training and adherence to the national HIV testing algorithm were positively associated with accuracy.The study showed an improvement in tester group and overall accuracy from the first PT exercise to the next. Average number of incorrect test results per 1000 tests performed was reduced from 69 to 31. Further improvement is needed, however, and the national HIV proficiency testing system seems to be an important tool in this regard, which should be continued and needs to be urgently strengthened.

  10. Visually impaired children and haptic intelligence test scores: intelligence test for visually impaired children (ITVIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, R

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports the results of verbal and haptic intelligence tests for the whole population of the visually impaired, braille-educated Dutch children and Dutch-speaking children in Belgium. The scores of children with and without usable vision generally confirmed expectations. Children with usable vision had higher spatial test scores. Those without usable vision did better on verbal memory tests and school-achievement tests for writing accuracy and technical reading. Children in regular or integrated education scored higher on verbal, reasoning and school-achievement tests. Evaluation of the effect of systematically varied task factors in four spatial tests indicated that, for two of the tests, having usable vision interacted with the task factors.

  11. Quality improvement in determination of chemical oxygen demand in samples considered difficult to analyze, through participation in proficiency-testing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a critical analytical parameter in waste and wastewater treatment, more specifically in anaerobic digestion, although little is known about the quality of measuring COD of anaerobic digestion samples. Proficiency testing (PT) is a powerful tool that can be used...

  12. The Effect of Computer-Based Self-Access Learning on Weekly Vocabulary Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Dreyer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to clarify the effectiveness of using an online vocabulary study tool, Quizlet, in an urban high school language arts class. Previous similar studies have mostly dealt with English Language Learners in college settings (Chui, 2013, and were therefore not directed at the issue self-efficacy that is at the heart of the problem of urban high school students in America entering remedial writing programs (Rose, 1989. The study involves 95 students over the course of 14 weeks. Students were tested weekly and were asked to use the Quizlet program in their own free time. The result of this optional involvement was that many students did not participate in the treatment and therefore acted as an elective control group. The resultant data collected shows a strong correlation between the use of an online vocabulary review program and short-term vocabulary retention. The study also showed that students who paced themselves and spread out their study sessions outperformed those students who used the program only for last minute “cram sessions.” The implications of the study are that students who take advantage of tools outside of the classroom are able to out perform their peers. The results are also in line with the call to include technology in the Basic Writing classroom not simply as a tool, but as a “form of discourse” (Jonaitis, 2012. Weekly vocabulary tests, combined with the daily online activity as reported by Quizlet, show that: 1 utilizing the review software improved the scores of most students, 2 those students who used Quizlet to review more than a single time (i.e., several days before the test outperformed those who only used the product once, and 3 students who professed proficiency with the “notebook” system of vocabulary learning appeared not to need the treatment.

  13. Reliability and validity of a dual-task test for skill proficiency in roundhouse kicks in elite taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Dai, Jing; Chen, I-Fan; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2015-01-01

    The dual-task methodology, conducting two tasks simultaneously, may provide better validity than the traditional single-task tests in the environment that is closely related to real sport competitions. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability and validity of a dual-task test that aims to measure the reaction time and skill proficiency in roundhouse kicks in elite and sub-elite taekwondo athletes. The dual-task results were compared to those in the single-task movements with various levels of complexity. The single-task movements A, B, and C were composed of one, three, and five roundhouse kicks, respectively. The dual-task movement D was composed of movement C and a push of a button in response to a light stimulus as the secondary task. The subjects were 12 elite and 12 sub-elite male taekwondo athletes. The test included four movements with five repeats of each movement in a randomized order. Each subject conducted the same test on two consecutive days. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed moderate-to-high correlation in the premotor time (ICC =0.439-0.634 in elite and ICC =0.681-0.824 in sub-elite), motor time (ICC =0.861-0.956 in elite and ICC =0.721-0.931 in sub-elite), and reaction time (ICC =0.692 in elite and ICC =0.676 in sub-elite) in the secondary task in both groups. The elite athletes had significantly faster premotor time than their sub-elite counterparts in all the four movements (all Pelite group (0.248±0.026 seconds) was 33.0% faster than the sub-elite group (0.370±0.081 seconds) (P<0.001). This study shows that the test developed in this study has reasonable reliability and validity in both single- and dual-task methods. In addition, the dual-task method may be a more appropriate way to assess the reaction time and skill proficiency in taekwondo athletes.

  14. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rosholm

    Full Text Available We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1-3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students.

  15. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Gumede, Kamilla Trille

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1–3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We...... use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who...... are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students....

  16. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosholm, Michael; Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Gumede, Kamilla

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1-3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students.

  17. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk. Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD.

  18. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Burrell, Stephen; Luginbühl, Werner; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-11-25

    Saxitoxin (STX) and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT) within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk). Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD).

  19. The Graduate Management Admission Test: Technical Report on Test Development and Score Interpretation for GMAT Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, William B.

    This report provides information on test development, test administration, and score interpretation for the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT). The GMAT, first administered in 1954, provides objective measures of an applicant's abilities for use in admissions decisions by graduate management schools. It is currently composed of five…

  20. Score Gains on g-loaded Tests: No g

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; van der Flier, H.

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen

  1. The relationship between fundamental movement skill proficiency and physical self-confidence among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Bronagh; Belton, Sarahjane; Powell, Danielle; Issartel, Johann

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to assess fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency, physical self-confidence levels, and the relationship between these variables and gender differences among adolescents. Three hundred and ninety five adolescents aged 13.78 years (SD = ±1.2) from 20 schools were involved in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD), TGMD-2 and Victorian Skills Manual were used to assess 15 FMS. Participants' physical self-confidence was also assessed using a valid skill-specific scale. A significant correlation was observed between FMS proficiency and physical self-confidence for females only (r = 0.305, P self-confidence levels than females (P = 0.001). Males scored significantly higher than females in FMS proficiency (P self-confidence group were significantly less proficient at FMS than the medium (P self-confidence groups (P self-confidence and FMS proficiency.

  2. Chromosome microarray proficiency testing and analysis of quality metric data trends through an external quality assessment program for Australasian laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D C; Adayapalam, N; Bain, N; Bain, S M; Brown, A; Buzzacott, N; Carey, L; Cross, J; Dun, K; Joy, C; McCarthy, C; Moore, S; Murch, A R; O'Malley, F; Parker, E; Watt, J; Wilkin, H; Fagan, K; Pertile, M D; Peters, G B

    2016-10-01

    Chromosome microarrays are an essential tool for investigation of copy number changes in children with congenital anomalies and intellectual deficit. Attempts to standardise microarray testing have focused on establishing technical and clinical quality criteria, however external quality assessment programs are still needed. We report on a microarray proficiency testing program for Australasian laboratories. Quality metrics evaluated included analytical accuracy, result interpretation, report completeness, and laboratory performance data: sample numbers, success and abnormality rate and reporting times. Between 2009 and 2014 nine samples were dispatched with variable results for analytical accuracy (30-100%), correct interpretation (32-96%), and report completeness (30-92%). Laboratory performance data (2007-2014) showed an overall mean success rate of 99.2% and abnormality rate of 23.6%. Reporting times decreased from >90 days to 102 days to quality metrics, however only 'report completeness' and reporting times reached statistical significance. Whether the overall improvement in laboratory performance was due to participation in this program, or from accumulated laboratory experience over time, is not clear. Either way, the outcome is likely to assist referring clinicians and improve patient care. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Commutability of proficiency testing material containing tobramycin: a study within the framework of the Dutch Calibration 2.000 project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robijns, Karen; Boone, Niels W; Jansen, Rob T P; Kuypers, Aldy W H M; Neef, Cees; Touw, Daan J

    2017-02-01

    Results from external quality assessment schemes (EQASs) can provide information about accuracy and comparability of different measurement methods, provided that the material used in these schemes behave identical to patient samples among the different methods, a characteristic also known as commutability. The aim of this study was to assess the commutability of different matrices for the material used in an EQAS for tobramycin. Proficiency testing material (PTM) and patient samples containing tobramycin were prepared, collected, pooled, and distributed to participating laboratories for analysis. Low, medium, and high tobramycin concentrations in liquid human, liquid bovine and lyophilized bovine serum were tested in this study. The patient serum results of every laboratory were plotted against each of the other laboratories, and the distances of the PTM results to the patient serum regression line were calculated. For comparison, these distances were divided by the average within-laboratory standard deviation (SDwl) of the results reported in the official EQAS for tobramycin, resulting in a relative residual. The commutability decision limit was set at 3 SDwl. With 10 laboratories participating in this study, 45 laboratory couples were formed. For human serum, only one relative residual for high concentrations of tobramycin was found outside the commutability decision limit. For liquid and lyophilized bovine sera, the number of relative residuals outside the decision limit was between 15 and 18 for low, medium, and high tobramycin concentrations. The PTM used for tobramycin is preferably prepared with human serum.

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Worbs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay. Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as “gold standard” for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay.

  5. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Fiebig, Uwe; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Rummel, Andreas; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-11-26

    In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT) on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay). Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as "gold standard" for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay.

  6. Applying the Writing Scales of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" to the New HSK Test of Proficiency in Chinese: Realities, Problems and Some Suggestions for Chinese Language Teachers and Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya Ping; Broeder, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article explores levels of proficiency in Chinese with reference to the new HSK (Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi) Chinese Proficiency Test and the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR). Special attention is given to learning and teaching the writing of Chinese characters and the use of Pinyin, a phonetic Romanization…

  7. Vocational Relevance and Estimated and Measured Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Milton E.; James, Leonard E.

    1969-01-01

    Study of accuracy in estimating scores on the Kuder, Edwards Personal Preference Schedule, and the Strong Vocational Interest Blank when scales were, and were not, categorized by levels of vocational relevance, indicates that relationships between scores increase as a function of vocational relevance. Discusses implications in terms of outcome…

  8. "Old paradigm" Language proficiency tests as predictors of long-term academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Gamaroff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A dictation test, a cloze test and an error recognition test were given to a group of Grade 7 pupils at Mmabatho High School from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds, about half of whom had originated from former DET schools. These tests were subsequently examined ~possible predictors of long-term academic achievement. The best predictor was the dictation test, followed by the error recognition test. The cloze test was not a strong predictor of academic potential of long-term success. The research also showed that many learners from former DET schools did not perform well in a school that uses a Joint Matriculation Board syllabus or its equivalent. This has implications for current policy in education where the distinction between LI and L2 is eschewed in favour of "multicultural settings".In Dikteertoets, Inclozetoets en 'n foutherkenningstoets is aan ‘n groep graad 7-leerlinge van die Mbabatho Hoerskool gegee. Hierdie leerlinge is van verskillende taal- en kultuuragtergronde; bykans die helfte van hulle is afkomstig van die eertydse DOO-skole. Hierdie toetse is gevolglik ontleed as moontlike aanduiers van langtermyn-prestasie. Die beste aanduier was die dikteertoets, met die foutherkenningstoets in die tweede plek Die clozetoets was nie 'n sterk aanduier van akademiese vermoe oflangtermyn-sukses nie. Die navorsing het verder getoon dat baie leerders van voormalige DOO-skole nie so goed gevaar het in 'n skool wat gebruik maak van 'n leerplan van die Gesamentlike Matrikulasieraad of ekwivalent daarvan nie. Dit hou implikasies in vir die huidige opvoedingsbeleid waar die onderskeid tussen T1 en T2 ter syde gestel word ten gunste van "multikulturele omgewings".

  9. Reliability of the k{sub 0}-standardization method using geological sample analysed in a proficiency test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaes, Ana Clara O.; Menezes, Maria Ângela de B.C., E-mail: anacpelaes@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique to determine the elemental chemical composition in samples of several matrices, that has been applied by the Laboratory for Neutron Activation Analysis, located at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear /Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Nuclear Technology Development Center/Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy), CDTN/CNEN, since the starting up of the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor, in 1960. Among the methods of application of the technique, the k{sub 0}-standardization method, which was established at CDTN in 1995, is the most efficient and in 2003 it was reestablished and optimized. In order to verify the reproducibility of the results generated by the application of the k{sub 0}-standardization method at CDTN, aliquots of a geological sample sent by WEPAL (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories) were analysed and its results were compared with the results obtained through the Intercomparison of Results organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2015. WEPAL is an accredited institution for the organisation of interlaboratory studies, preparing and organizing proficiency testing schemes all over the world. Therefore, the comparison with the results provided aims to contribute to the continuous improvement of the quality of the results obtained by the CDTN. The objective of this study was to verify the reliability of the method applied two years after the intercomparison round. (author)

  10. Proficiency Testing of Feed Constituents: A Comparative Evaluation of European and Developing Country Laboratories and Its Implications for Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, H P S; Strnad, I; Mittendorfer, J

    2016-10-06

    Proficiency tests, with two feed samples each year, for various constituents (proximate, macro- and microminerals, feed additives, and amino acids) were conducted in 2014 and 2015. A total of 40 and 50 European and 73 and 63 developing country feed analysis laboratories participated in the study in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The data obtained from these two sets of laboratories in each year enabled a comparison of the performance of the European and developing country laboratories. Higher standard deviation and several-fold higher coefficients of variation were obtained for the developing country laboratories. The coefficients of variation for chemical composition parameters, macrominerals, microminerals, and amino acids were higher by up to 9-fold, 14-fold, 10-fold, and 14-fold, respectively, for the developing country laboratories compared with the European laboratories in 2014, while the corresponding values for 2015 were 4.6-fold, 4.4-fold, 9-fold, and 14-fold higher for developing county laboratories. Also, higher numbers of outliers were observed for developing countries (2014, 7.6-8.7% vs 2.9-3.0%; 2015, 7.7-9.5% vs 4.2-7.0%). The results suggest higher need for developing country feed analysis laboratories to improve the quality of data being generated. The likely impact of higher variability of the data generated in developing countries toward safe and quality preparation of animal diets, their impact on animal productivity, and possible ways to improve the quality of data from developing countries are discussed.

  11. Rasch analysis of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition in intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition (BOT-2) is widely used to assess motor skills for both clinical and research purposes; however, its validity has not been adequately assessed in intellectual disabilities (ID). This study used partial credit Rasch model to examine the measurement properties of the BOT-2 among 446 children and adolescents with ID aged 4-18 years. Seventeen items were identified as problematic in the Rasch modeling. After removal of these items, the appropriateness of the response categories was examined in the 36 remaining items. Where the item response categories failed to express an increasing level of the trait (disordered thresholds), collapsing adjacent categories was performed to address this issue. After rescoring most items, items in each composite of the revised BOT-2 showed good fit to the Rasch model and demonstrated excellent reliability (range 0.90-0.97). No differential item functioning was detected with respect to age and gender. The ability of the revised composites to differentiate between mild versus moderate to severe ID was better than those of the original BOT-2. Items from the manual coordination and strength and agility composites were well targeted to the sample, whereas items from fine manual control and body coordination composites were mostly targeted at the lower levels of ability in these domains. Items of higher difficulty may be supplemented to increase the range of ability levels of the people to whom these two composites can be applied with precision.

  12. The Apgar score has survived the test of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Mieczyslaw; Wood, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    In 1953, Virginia Apgar, M.D. published her proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. The avowed purpose of this paper was to establish a simple and clear classification of newborn infants which can be used to compare the results of obstetric practices, types of maternal pain relief and the results of resuscitation. Having considered several objective signs pertaining to the condition of the infant at birth she selected five that could be evaluated and taught to the delivery room personnel without difficulty. These signs were heart rate, respiratory effort, reflex irritability, muscle tone and color. Sixty seconds after the complete birth of the baby a rating of zero, one or two was given to each sign, depending on whether it was absent or present. Virginia Apgar reviewed anesthesia records of 1025 infants born alive at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center during the period of this report. All had been rated by her method. Infants in poor condition scored 0-2, infants in fair condition scored 3-7, while scores 8-10 were achieved by infants in good condition. The most favorable score 1 min after birth was obtained by infants delivered vaginally with the occiput the presenting part (average 8.4). Newborns delivered by version and breech extraction had the lowest score (average 6.3). Infants delivered by cesarean section were more vigorous (average score 8.0) when spinal was the method of anesthesia versus an average score of 5.0 when general anesthesia was used. Correlating the 60 s score with neonatal mortality, Virginia found that mature infants receiving 0, 1 or 2 scores had a neonatal death rate of 14%; those scoring 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 had a death rate of 1.1%; and those in the 8-10 score group had a death rate of 0.13%. She concluded that the prognosis of an infant is excellent if he receives one of the upper three scores, and poor if one of the lowest three scores.

  13. A proficiency test system to improve performance of milk analysis methods and produce reference values for component calibration samples for infrared milk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to determine the feasibility of combining proficiency testing, analytical method quality-assurance system, and production of reference samples for calibration of infrared milk analyzers to achieve a more efficient use of resources and reduce costs while maximizing analytical accuracy within and among milk payment-testing laboratories. To achieve this, we developed and demonstrated a multilaboratory combined proficiency testing and analytical method quality-assurance system as an approach to evaluate and improve the analytical performance of methods. A set of modified milks was developed and optimized to serve multiple purposes (i.e., proficiency testing, quality-assurance and method improvement, and to provide reference materials for calibration of secondary testing methods). Over a period of years, the approach has enabled the group of laboratories to document improved analytical performance (i.e., reduced within- and between-laboratory variation) of chemical reference methods used as the primary reference for calibration of high-speed electronic milk-testing equipment. An annual meeting of the laboratory technicians allows for review of results and discussion of each method and provides a forum for communication of experience and techniques that are of value to new analysts in the group. The monthly proficiency testing sample exchanges have the added benefit of producing all-laboratory mean reference values for a set of 14 milks that can be used for calibration, evaluation, and troubleshooting of calibration adjustment issues on infrared milk analyzers. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship of Scores on Elizur's Hostility System on the Rorschach to the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between Elizur's Hostility Scoring on the Rorschach Test and the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test was examined. Correlations between the two measures (using several scoring procedures) ranged from .40 to .64. (JKS)

  15. Identification of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention during an interlaboratory proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Reuver, L.P. de; Krimpen, S.H. van; Baar, B.L.M. van; Wils, E.R.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Brinkman, U.A.Th

    2002-01-01

    In order to test the ability of laboratories to detect and identify chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons, and to designate laboratories for this task, the Technical Secretariat of the

  16. Quality assurance of intracellular cytokine staining assays: analysis of multiple rounds of proficiency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, Maria C; Maecker, Holden T; Yan, Ming; Maino, Vernon C; Hanley, Mary Beth; Greer, Angela; Darden, Janice M; D'Souza, M Patricia

    2011-01-05

    When evaluating candidate prophylactic HIV and cancer vaccines, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays that measure the frequency and magnitude of antigen-specific T-cell subsets are one tool to monitor immunogen performance and make product advancement decisions. To assess the inter-laboratory assay variation among multiple laboratories testing vaccine candidates, the NIH/NIAID/DAIDS in collaboration with BD Biosciences implemented an ICS Quality Assurance Program (QAP). Seven rounds of testing have been conducted in which 16 laboratories worldwide participated. In each round, IFN-γ, IL-2 and/or TNF-α responses in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells to CEF or CMV pp65 peptide mixes were tested using cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from CMV seropositive donors. We found that for responses measured above 0.2%, inter-laboratory %CVs were, on average, 35%. No differences in inter-laboratory variation were observed if a 4-color antibody cocktail or a 7-color combination was used. Moreover, the data allowed identification of important sources of variability for flow cytometry-based assays, including: number of collected events, gating strategy and instrument setup and performance. As a consequence, in this multi-site study we were able to define pass and fail criteria for ICS assays, which will be adopted in the subsequent rounds of testing and could be easily extrapolated to QAP for other flow cytometry-based assays. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ISSUE PAPER: What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    ...) about possible unintended consequences of these programs. We conducted several analyses to examine the issue of whether TAAS scores can be trusted to provide an accurate index of student skills and abilities...

  18. Effects of white noise on Callsign Acquisition Test and Modified Rhyme Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue-Terry, Misty; Letowski, Tomasz

    2011-02-01

    The Callsign Acquisition Test (CAT) is a speech intelligibility test developed by the US Army Research Laboratory. The test has been used to evaluate speech transmission through various communication systems but has not been yet sufficiently standardised and validated. The aim of this study was to compare CAT and Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) performance in the presence of white noise across a range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). A group of 16 normal-hearing listeners participated in the study. The speech items were presented at 65 dB(A) in the background of white noise at SNRs of -18, -15, -12, -9 and -6 dB. The results showed a strong positive association (75.14%) between the two tests, but significant differences between the CAT and MRT absolute scores in the range of investigated SNRs. Based on the data, a function to predict CAT scores based on existing MRT scores and vice versa was formulated. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work compares performance data of a common speech intelligibility test (MRT) with a new test (CAT) in the presence of white noise. The results here can be used as a part of the standardisation procedures and provide insights to the predictive capabilities of the CAT to quantify speech intelligibility communication in high-noise military environments.

  19. The Effect of Test Instructions and Attitude toward School on Scores of an Intelligence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Joseph R.; Bauer, David H.

    Two hundred-sixteen fifth- and sixth-graders were dichotomized on attitude toward school (positive or negative) and randomly assigned to three conditions in which they were instructed that they were about to take either an Intelligence, Achievement, or a Routine test. Results of analysis of variance on Kuhlmann-Anderson scores revealed significant…

  20. Cause analysis for unsatisfactory results in proficiency testing activities: a case study of Brazilian calibration laboratories accredited under ISO/IEC 17025:2005⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a survey carried out among Brazilian calibration laboratories accredited under ISO/IEC 17025:2005 with the objective to identify how these laboratories investigate the root causes of unsatisfactory results in proficiency testing. The survey was coordinated by the Brazilian accreditation body, the General Coordination for Accreditation (Cgcre, of the Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro.

  1. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents' Adherence to Dietary Recommendations-Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-07-29

    Assessment of adolescents' dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents' adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen's Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14-15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines.

  2. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  3. Testing the applicability of the SASS5 scoring procedure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are a number of possible reasons for the low SASS5 scores: the lack of biotopes present in wetlands compared to rivers (most notably the absence of the stones-in-current biotope), lower levels of dissolved oxygen present compared to rivers, limited habitat availability due to low rainfall during the sampling season, ...

  4. The Effect of Mock Tests on Iranian EFL learners’ Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khodabakhshzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of using tests in test preparation courses has been subject to debate. While some scholars such as Yang and Badger (2015 believe it is a cause of positive washback effect, others argue that this issue is tentative and context-bound (Green, 2007. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of using Mock tests in International English Language Testing System (IELTS preparation courses on students’ overall IELTS scores. Fifty one IELTS students were selected non-randomly through the quota sampling approach out of 76 students at Mahan Language Institute in Birjand, Iran.  These participants were distributed into Group 1 (n=25 and Group 2 (n=26. A complete IELTS test was administered to ensure that the Groups were homogeneous and to serve as pretest. After 10 sessions of intervention, a different IELTS test was administered as posttest. The results of between subject analysis through independent samples t-test revealed that using Mock tests in the IELTS preparation courses can positively affect the participants scores on IELTS exam. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  5. Recurrent Word Combinations in EAP Test-Taker Writing: Differences between High- and Low-Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Randy; Wood, David

    2016-01-01

    The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…

  6. Large-Scale Assessment of Language Proficiency: Theoretical and Pedagogical Reflections on the Use of Multiple-Choice Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles Álvarez, Irina

    2013-01-01

    The new requirement placed on students in tertiary settings in Spain to demonstrate a B1 or a B2 proficiency level of English, in accordance with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL), has led most Spanish universities to develop a program of certification or accreditation of the required level. The first part of this…

  7. The Weighted Airman Promotion System: Standardizing Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Imagery Analysis 1N2X1 Communications Signals Intelligence 1N3X0 Cryptologic Linguist (Superintendent) 1N3X1 Germanic Cryptologic Linguist 1N3X2 Romance ...different scoring method would also need to be developed. Such a plan would have to consider the psychological and perceived sensi- tivities to changing... Psychological Association, 1997. Shore, C. Wayne, and R. Bruce Gould, Revalidation of WAPS and SNCOPP, Volume I: Background, Procedure, and Statistical

  8. External quality assessment/proficiency testing and internal quality control for the PFA-100 and PFA-200: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Bonar, Roslyn

    2014-03-01

    Platelet function testing is an essential component of comprehensive hemostasis evaluation within the framework of bleeding and/or bruising investigations, and it may also be performed to evaluate antiplatelet medication effects. Globally, the platelet function analyzer (PFA)-100 (Siemens Healthcare, Marburg, Germany) is the most used primary hemostasis-screening instrument and has also been recently remodeled/upgraded to the PFA-200. The PFA-100 is sensitive to a wide range of associated disorders, including platelet function defects and von Willebrand disease (VWD), as well as to various antiplatelet medications. The PFA-100 is also useful in therapy monitoring, especially in VWD. External quality assessment (EQA) (or proficiency testing) and internal quality control (IQC) are critical to ensuring quality of test practice, inclusive of all hemostasis tests. However, both EQA and IQC for platelet function testing, including the PFA-100, is logistically challenging, given theoretical requirements for production, storage, and shipment of large volumes of "stabilized" normal and pathological blood/platelets covering both normal function plus a wide variety of potential defects. We accordingly describe the development and testing of novel feasible approaches to both EQA and IQC of PFA-100/PFA-200 instruments, whereby a range of formulated "platelet function antagonist" materials are utilized. For EQA purposes, these are distributed to participants, and citrated normal whole blood collected on site is then added locally, thereby creating test material that can be locally evaluated. Several exercises have been conducted by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPAQAP) over the past 6 years. A total of 26 challenges, with most designed to mimic moderate to severe primary hemostasis defects, have been tested in 26 to 50 laboratories depending on the year of dispatch. Numerical results for PFA-100/PFA-200 closure times (CTs) and

  9. Cytology Proficiency Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations at Section 493.855(a) state The laboratory must ensure that each individual engaged in the...

  10. The relationship between motor proficiency and mental health outcomes in young adults: A test of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, D; Kane, R T; Mancini, V; Thornton, A; Licari, M; Hands, B; McIntyre, F; Piek, J

    2017-06-01

    Growing evidence has highlighted the importance of motor proficiency in relation to psychosocial outcomes including self-perceived competence in various domains, perceived social support, and emotional areas such as anxiety and depression. The Environmental Stress Hypothesis-elaborated (Cairney, Rigoli, & Piek, 2013) is a proposed theoretical framework for understanding these relationships and recent studies have begun examining parts of this model using child and adolescent populations. However, the extent to which the relationships between these areas exist, persist or change during early adulthood is currently unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the Environmental Stress Hypothesis in a sample of 95 young adults aged 18-30years and examined the mediating role of physical self-worth and perceived social support in the relationship between motor proficiency and internalising symptoms. The McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (McCarron, 1997) was used to assess motor proficiency, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) provided a measure of internalising symptoms, and the Physical Self Perceptions Profile (Fox & Corbin, 1989) and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet, & Farley, 1988) were used to investigate the possible mediating role of physical self-worth and perceived social support respectively. Potential confounding variables such as age, gender and BMI were also considered in the analysis. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that perceived social support mediated the relationship between motor proficiency and internalising symptoms, whereas, the mediating role of physical self-worth was non-significant. The current results provide support for part of the model pathways as described in the Environmental Stress Hypothesis and suggest an important relationship between motor proficiency and psychosocial outcomes in young adults. Specifically, the results support previous

  11. Improving Test Score Reporting: Perspectives from the ETS Score Reporting Conference. Research Report. ETS RR-11-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Diego, Ed.; Zwick, Rebecca, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume includes 3 papers based on presentations at a workshop on communicating assessment information to particular audiences, held at Educational Testing Service (ETS) on November 4th, 2010, to explore some issues that influence score reports and new advances that contribute to the effectiveness of these reports. Jessica Hullman, Rebecca…

  12. Norm Scores of the Box and Block Test for Children Ages 3-10 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  13. Norm scores of the box and block test for children ages 3-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  14. A "Rearrangement Procedure" for Scoring Adaptive Tests with Review Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Elena C.; Reckase, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    Because of the increased popularity of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), many admissions tests, as well as certification and licensure examinations, have been transformed from their paper-and-pencil versions to computerized adaptive versions. A major difference between paper-and-pencil tests and CAT from an examinee's point of view is that in…

  15. Implementation of Cell Samples as Controls in National Proficiency Testing for Clopidogrel Therapy-Related CYP2C19 Genotyping in China: A Novel Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guigao Lin

    Full Text Available Laboratories are increasingly requested to perform CYP2C19 genetic testing when managing clopidogrel therapy, especially in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. To ensure high quality molecular testing and ascertain that the referring clinician has the correct information for CYP2C19 genotype-directed antiplatelet therapy, a proficiency testing scheme was set up to evaluate the laboratory performance for the entire testing process. Proficiency panels of 10 cell samples encompassing the common CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms were distributed to 62 participating laboratories for routine molecular testing and the responses were analyzed for accuracy of genotyping and the reporting of results. Data including the number of samples tested, the accreditation/certification status, and test methodology of each individual laboratory were also reviewed. Fifty-seven of the 62 participants correctly identified the CYP2C19 variants in all samples. There were six genotyping errors, with a corresponding analytical sensitivity of 98.5% (333/338 challenges; 95% confidence interval: 96.5-99.5% and an analytic specificity of 99.6% (281/282; 95% confidence interval: 98.0-99.9%. Reports of the CYP2C19 genotyping results often lacked essential information. In conclusion, clinical laboratories demonstrated good analytical sensitivity and specificity; however, the pharmacogenetic testing community requires additional education regarding the correct reporting of CYP2C19 genetic test results.

  16. Computer proficiency questionnaire: assessing low and high computer proficient seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D; Mitzner, Tracy; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran

    2015-06-01

    Computers and the Internet have the potential to enrich the lives of seniors and aid in the performance of important tasks required for independent living. A prerequisite for reaping these benefits is having the skills needed to use these systems, which is highly dependent on proper training. One prerequisite for efficient and effective training is being able to gauge current levels of proficiency. We developed a new measure (the Computer Proficiency Questionnaire, or CPQ) to measure computer proficiency in the domains of computer basics, printing, communication, Internet, calendaring software, and multimedia use. Our aim was to develop a measure appropriate for individuals with a wide range of proficiencies from noncomputer users to extremely skilled users. To assess the reliability and validity of the CPQ, a diverse sample of older adults, including 276 older adults with no or minimal computer experience, was recruited and asked to complete the CPQ. The CPQ demonstrated excellent reliability (Cronbach's α = .98), with subscale reliabilities ranging from .86 to .97. Age, computer use, and general technology use all predicted CPQ scores. Factor analysis revealed three main factors of proficiency related to Internet and e-mail use; communication and calendaring; and computer basics. Based on our findings, we also developed a short-form CPQ (CPQ-12) with similar properties but 21 fewer questions. The CPQ and CPQ-12 are useful tools to gauge computer proficiency for training and research purposes, even among low computer proficient older adults. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms.

  18. NCES Finds States Lowered "Proficiency" Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    With 2014 approaching as the deadline by which states must get all their students up to "proficient" levels on state tests, a study released last week by the U.S. Department of Education's top statistics agency suggests that some states may have lowered student-proficiency standards on such tests in recent years. For the 47-state study,…

  19. Computerized training and proficiency testing. International Academy of Cytology Task Force summary. Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century: An International Expert Conference and Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooijs, G P; Davey, D D; Somrak, T M; Goodell, R M; Grohs, D H; Knesel, E A; Mango, L J; Mui, K K; Nielsen, M L; Wilbur, D C

    1998-01-01

    Computerized technologies probably will revolutionize the field of gynecologic cytology in the next century. Such technologies will be useful in both training and evaluating proficiency. However, manual screening/review of gynecologic cytology preparations is the current "gold standard" for both training and assessment of proficiency. Training programs for cytotechnologists and pathologists should provide instruction and experience in new technologies, but their introduction may depend on the availability of equipment and staff. Advantages of digital images for training include standardization of teaching sets and interactive capabilities, allowing educational feedback. Computerized support/assistance devices aid in complete screening of the slide during training and provide feedback to cytologists on screening techniques. Liquid-based cytopreparatory instruments facilitate multiple glass slides for teaching or testing. Proficiency testing (PT) in cytology has similar quality assurance goals as in other areas of the laboratory, but the subjective nature of cytologic analysis poses many challenges for implementation. There is consensus that all cytology practitioners would like to know the proficiency of the laboratory. However, the majority question the value and validity of any large-scale formal testing programs. Locator and diagnostic skills are both critical in cytology, but assessment of each skill may occur in different ways using computerized technologies. Any type of assessment should provide educational feedback to participants. Psychometric issues in PT include the consideration of different types of validity, including face, content, construct and criterion related. The reliability or consistency of the testing event is also critical. A valid and reliable correlation between work performance and performance on a PT needs to be established. The goal is to ensure that PT will identify submarginal practitioners and that persons successful on PT are in fact

  20. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: The Longitudinal Value of Local Cut Scores Using State Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M.; Van Norman, Ethan R.; VanDerHeyden, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    We used existing reading (n = 1,498) and math (n = 2,260) data to evaluate state test scores for screening middle school students. In Phase 1, state test data were used to create a research-derived cut score that was optimal for predicting state test performance the following year. In Phase 2, those cut scores were applied with future cohorts.…

  1. Stability of scores for the Slosson Full-Range Intelligence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas O; Eaves, Ronald C; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Mariano, Gina

    2007-08-01

    The test-retest stability of the Slosson Full-Range Intelligence Test by Algozzine, Eaves, Mann, and Vance was investigated with test scores from a sample of 103 students. With a mean interval of 13.7 mo. and different examiners for each of the two test administrations, the test-retest reliability coefficients for the Full-Range IQ, Verbal Reasoning, Abstract Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, and Memory were .93, .85, .80, .80, and .83, respectively. Mean differences from the test-retest scores were not statistically significantly different for any of the scales. Results suggest that Slosson scores are stable over time even when different examiners administer the test.

  2. Comparison of a Class of Rank-Score Tests in Two-Factor Designs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The empirical Type I error rate and power of these test statistics on the rank scores were determined using Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the robustness of the tests. The results show that there are problems of inflation in the Type I error rate using asymptotic ƒÓ2 test for all the rank score functions, especially for small ...

  3. Allometric Scaling of Wingate Anaerobic Power Test Scores in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data that are reflective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAnT. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for peak (PP)…

  4. Examining the Effect of Proctoring on Online Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, Helaine M.; Malay, Nancy; Maurer, Karsten; Bailer, A. John; Rubin, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Online education continues to grow, bringing opportunities and challenges for students and instructors. One challenge is the perception that academic integrity associated with online tests is compromised due to undetected cheating that yields artificially higher grades. To address these concerns, proctoring software has been developed to address…

  5. Comparing Graphical and Verbal Representations of Measurement Error in Test Score Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each…

  6. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  7. A Study of the Use of the "TOEFL iBT"® Test Speaking and Listening Scores for International Teaching Assistant Screening. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-27. ETS Research Report. RR-16-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Elvis

    2016-01-01

    Although the speaking section of the "TOEFL iBT"® test is used by many universities to determine if international teaching assistants (ITAs) have the oral proficiency necessary to be classroom instructors, relatively few studies have investigated the validity of using TOEFL iBT scores for ITA screening. The primary purpose of this study…

  8. Clinical Importance of the Heel Drop Test and a New Clinical Score for Adult Appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Shin; Lee, Hyeji; Choi, Wookjin; Ahn, Ryeok; Hong, Jung-Suk; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Seo, Dong Woo; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Lim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We tried to evaluate the accuracy of the heel drop test in patients with suspected appendicitis and tried to develop a new clinical score, which incorporates the heel drop test and other parameters, for the diagnosis of this condition. Methods We performed a prospective observational study on adult patients with suspected appendicitis at two academic urban emergency departments between January and August 2015. The predictive characteristics of each parameter, along with heel drop test results were calculated. A composite score was generated by logistic regression analysis. The performance of the generated score was compared to that of the Alvarado score. Results Of the 292 enrolled patients, 165 (56.5%) had acute appendicitis. The heel drop test had a higher predictive value than rebound tenderness. Variables and their points included in the new (MESH) score were pain migration (2), elevated white blood cell (WBC) >10,000/μL (3), shift to left (2), and positive heel drop test (3). The MESH score had a higher AUC than the Alvarado score (0.805 vs. 0.701). Scores of 5 and 11 were chosen as cut-off values; a MESH score ≥5 compared to an Alvarado score ≥5, and a MESH score ≥8 compared to an Alvarado score ≥7 showed better performance in diagnosing appendicitis. Conclusion MESH (migration, elevated WBC, shift to left, and heel drop test) is a simple clinical scoring system for assessing patients with suspected appendicitis and is more accurate than the Alvarado score. Further validation studies are needed. PMID:27723842

  9. Are Increasing Test Scores in Texas Really a Myth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Toenjes

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Pass rates by Texas tenth-graders on the high school exit exam improved from 52 percent in 1994 to 72 percent in 1998. In his article "The Myth of the Texas Miracle in Education" (EPAA, August 2000 Professor Walt Haney argued that some part of this increased pass rate was, as he put it, an illusion. Haney contended that the combined effects of students dropping out of school prior to taking the 10th grade TAAS and special education exemptions accounted for much of the increase in TAAS pass rates. Relying on the same methodology and data that Haney used, we demonstrate that his conclusion is incorrect. None of the 20 percent improvement in the TAAS exit test pass rate between 1994 and 1998 is explained by combined increases in dropout rates or special education exemptions.

  10. Do TOEFL iBT® Scores Reflect Improvement in English‐Language Proficiency? Extending the TOEFL iBT Validity Argument

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ling, Guangming; Powers, Donald E; Adler, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    .... In this study, we investigated the extent to which the TOEFL iBT ® practice test reflects the learning effects of students at intensive English programs in the United States and China, as well as extracurricular English...

  11. Language proficiency and nursing registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    This discussion paper focuses on English proficiency standards for nursing registration in Australia, how Australia has dealt with the issue of language proficiency, and the factors which have led to the establishment of the current language standards. Also, this paper will provide a comparison of the two language tests that are currently accepted in Australia (OET and IELTS), including the appropriateness of these tests and the minimum standards used. The paper will also examine the use of educational background as an indicator of language proficiency. Finally, communication-based complaints in the post-registration environment will be explored, and some discussion will be provided about why pre-registration measures might have failed to prevent such problematic situations from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Individual Part Score Profiles of Children with Intellectual Disability: A Descriptive Analysis across Three Intelligence Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Renee; Floyd, Randy G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the group- and individual-level part score profiles of children with intellectual disability (ID) who participated in clinical validity studies supporting three individually administered intelligence tests. Across tests, children with ID produced group-level profiles comprising mean part scores that fell in the Low to Very Low…

  13. AP Trends: Tests Soar, Scores Slip--Gaps between Groups Spur Equity Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    More students are taking Advanced Placement tests, but the proportion of tests receiving what is deemed a passing score has dipped, and the mean score is down for the fourth year in a row. Data released here this week by the New York City-based nonprofit organization that owns the AP brand shows that a greater-than-ever proportion of students…

  14. Beyond Correlations: Usefulness of High School GPA and Test Scores in Making College Admissions Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Correlational evidence suggests that high school GPA is better than admission test scores in predicting first-year college GPA, although test scores have incremental predictive validity. The usefulness of a selection variable in making admission decisions depends in part on its predictive validity, but also on institutions' selectivity and…

  15. The Implications of Family Size and Birth Order for Test Scores and Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…

  16. Comparing the Effects of Elementary Music and Visual Arts Lessons on Standardized Mathematics Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Molly Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to compare the effect elementary music and visual arts lessons had on third through sixth grade standardized mathematics test scores. Inferential statistics were used to compare the differences between test scores of students who took in-school, elementary, music instruction during the…

  17. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  18. The Dynamics of the Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2012-01-01

    We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however,…

  19. Partial Dictation as a Measure of EFL Listening Proficiency: Evidence from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongwen

    2013-01-01

    Partial dictation is a measure of EFL listening proficiency that can be easily constructed, administered, and scored by EFL teachers. However, it is controversial whether this form of test measures lower-order abilities exclusively or involves both lower- and higher-order abilities. In order to answer this question, a study was designed to examine…

  20. Does IQ = IQ? Comparability of Intelligence Test Scores in Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2016-08-05

    Numerous intelligence tests are available to psychological diagnosticians to assess children's intelligence, but whether they yield comparable test results has been little studied. We examined test scores of 206 typically developing children aged 6 to 11 years on five German intelligence tests (Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales; Snijders Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test; Intelligence and Development Scales; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition; Culture Fair Intelligence Test Scale 2), which were individually administered. On a sample level, the test scores showed strong correlation and little or no mean difference. These results indicate that the tests measure a similar underlying construct, which is interpreted as general intelligence. On an individual level, however, test scores significantly differed across tests for 12% to 38% of the children. Differences did not depend on which test was used but rather on unexplained error. Implications for the application of intelligence assessment in psychological practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

  2. Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…

  3. Desenvolvimento de itens de ensaio de proficiência para pesquisa de Salmonella spp. em matriz chocolate | Development of proficiency test items for Salmonella spp. research in chocolate matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Cabral da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi desenvolver itens de ensaio (IE liofilizados contendo Salmonella spp., em matriz chocolate, para utilização em ensaio de proficiência (EP. Foi realizada a análise microbiológica de uma amostra de chocolate granulado para verificar se estava livre do micro-organismo alvo. Para monitoramento da qualidade dos IE, realizou-se estudos de homogeneidade e estabilidade em longo e curto prazo, bem como verificou-se a presença de vácuo nas amostras garantindo a eficiência do processo de liofilização. A análise microbiológica do chocolate indicou ausência de contaminação por Salmonella spp., estando apto para ser utilizado como matriz. A técnica de liofilização, com uso de trealose como crioprotetor, se mostrou eficaz para dessecação dos IE produzidos. O lote produzido se apresentou suficientemente homogêneo, pois o micro-organismo estava presente em todos os frascos analisados. O lote se apresentou estável à temperatura de -20ºC (em cinco semanas e -70ºC (em 26 semanas; na estabilidade de transporte, foi considerado estável a 4ºC (em quatro dias. O lote de IE produzido nesse estudo apresentou qualidade que o torna apto para uso em EP, o que visou contribuir para o aumento da confiabilidade dos resultados das análises dos laboratórios e propiciar subsídios para a identificação e solução de problemas. ================================================ The aim of this study was to develop lyophilized test items (TI containing Salmonella spp., in chocolate matrix to be used in proficiency testing programs (PTP. Microbial analysis was conducted on samples of granulated chocolate to verify that the sample was free of the target microorganisms. Homogeneity and stability studies in long and short term were carried out to monitor TI quality; the presence of vacuum in the samples was also verified, to ensure the efficiency of the lyophilization process. The results of the microbial testing indicated no

  4. The Effects of Type and Quantity of Input on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Language Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hassanzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the written texts on foreign language learning, a group of studies has stressed the function of learning context and learning chances for learners’ language input. The present thesis had two main goals: on the one hand, different types of input to which Iranian grade four high school EFL learners’ are exposed were looked at; on the other hand, the possible relationship between types and quantity of input and Iranian EFL learners’ oral proficiency was investigated. It was supposed that EFL learners who have access to more input will show better oral proficiency than those who do not have. Instruments used in the present study for the purpose of data collation included  PET test, researcher- made questionnaire, oral language proficiency test and face- to -face interview. Data were gathered from 50 Iranian female grade four high school foreign language learners who were selected from among 120 students whose score on PET test were +1SD from the mean score. The results of the Spearman rank –order correlation test for the types of input and oral language proficiency scores, showed that the participants’ oral proficiency score significantly correlated with the intended four sources of input including spoken (rho= 0.416, sig=0.003, written (rho= 0.364, sig=0.009, aural (rho= 0.343, sig=0.015 and visual or audio-visual types of input (rho= 0.47, sig=0.00. The findings of Spearman rank –order correlation test for the quantity of input and oral language proficiency scores also showed a significant relationship between quantity of input and oral language proficiency (rho= 0.543, sig= 0.00. The findings showed that EFL learners’ oral proficiency is significantly correlated with efficient and effective input. The findings may also suggest  answers to the question why most Iranian English learners fail to speak English fluently, which might be due to  lack of effective input. This may emphasize the importance of the types and quantity of

  5. Comparing Test Scores Using Information From Criterion-Related Validity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujean, A Alexander; McGlaughlin, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    There is frequently a need to compare a client's test scores from different instruments. If the scores come from instruments that use the same scale, it is tempting to compare the scores directly. Unfortunately, this method can lead clinicians to believe that there is a large difference between scores when the difference is minimal. As an alternative, we outline a method for score comparison that uses information from criterion-related validity studies. Using three examples, we show why this method is more psychometrically sound, produces more accurate comparison scores, and requires little extra work for clinicians than the direct comparison approach. To make the score comparison process easy for clinicians to use, we include an appendix that demonstrates how to implement this method in Microsoft Excel and the free R program.

  6. Using Microcomputer Software to Score Placement Tests--An Example from the University of California, Irvine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Judith S.; And Others

    This article describes the placement testing program, the use of microcomputer software for scoring and analyzing test results, and the integration of the computerized test results into a comprehensive microcomputer-based student information system at the University of California, Irvine (UCI). UCI offers placement tests in five academic fields:…

  7. Loanwords and Vocabulary Size Test Scores: A Case of Different Estimates for Different L1 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Batia; McLean, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The article investigated how the inclusion of loanwords in vocabulary size tests affected the test scores of two L1 groups of EFL learners: Hebrew and Japanese. New BNC- and COCA-based vocabulary size tests were constructed in three modalities: word form recall, word form recognition, and word meaning recall. Depending on the test modality, the…

  8. The Effect of Test Speededness on the Validity of Reading Comprehension Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, S. J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examined irregularities in reading comprehension (RC) test results at both the individual and aggregate levels, focusing on the effect of test speededness on test scores. Data were taken from results of the Stanford Achievement Test--Seventh Edition (SAT/7), administered during April of 1983 to about 50,000 Palm Beach County (Florida)…

  9. Correlation Between Students' Dental Admission Test Scores and Performance on a Dental School's Competency Exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Alexander M; Schuster, Gregory M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a statistically significant positive correlation between dental students' Dental Admission Test (DAT) scores, particularly on the Perceptual Ability Test (PAT), and their performance on a dental school's competency exam. Scores from the written and clinical competency exam administered in the fall quarter of the fourth year of the curriculum at Midwestern University College of Dental Medicine-Arizona were compared to DAT scores of all 216 members of the graduating classes of 2012 and 2013. It was hypothesized that students who performed highly on one or more sections of the DAT would perform highly on the competency exam. Backward stepwise regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the PAT scores were most strongly correlated with the competency exam scores and were a positive predictor for all three clinical sections of the exam (operative dentistry, periodontics, and endodontics). Positive predictors for the written portion of the exam were total DAT score for patient assessment and treatment planning and the DAT reading comprehension score for prosthodontics; there were no predictors for periodontics. The total variance explained by the results ranged from 4% to 15%. While statistically significant relationships were found between the students' PAT scores and clinical performance, DAT scores explained relatively little variance in the competency exam scores. According to these findings, neither the PAT nor any of the DAT components contributed to predicting these students' clinical performance.

  10. Estimating the Relationship between Use of Test-Preparation Methods and Scores on the Graduate Management Admission Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Linda F.; Wightman, Lawrence E.

    This study sought to examine the relationship between five methods of test preparation and test performance as measured by Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) Verbal, Quantitative and Total scores. Data on method of test preparation were obtained through voluntary examinee response to five questions which appeared on the answer sheets. One…

  11. Use of Standardized Test Scores to Predict Success in a Computer Applications Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert V.; King, Stephanie B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if a relationship existed between American College Testing (ACT) scores (i.e., English, reading, mathematics, science reasoning, and composite) and student success in a computer applications course at a Mississippi community college. The study showed that while the ACT scores were excellent predictors of…

  12. See It, Be It, Write It: Using Performing Arts to Improve Writing Skills and Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher-Sass, Hope Sara; Moffitt, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Improve students' writing skills and boost their assessment scores while adding arts education, creativity, and fun to your writing curriculum. With this vibrant resource, improving writing skills goes hand-in-hand with improving test scores. Students learn how to use acting and visualization as prewriting activities to help them connect writing…

  13. The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

  14. Do "TOEFL iBT"® Scores Reflect Improvement in English-Language Proficiency? Extending the TOEFL iBT Validity Argument. Research Report. ETS RR-14-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guangming; Powers, Donald E.; Adler, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    One fundamental way to determine the validity of standardized English-language test scores is to investigate the extent to which they reflect anticipated learning effects in different English-language programs. In this study, we investigated the extent to which the "TOEFL iBT"® practice test reflects the learning effects of students at…

  15. Fine motor skill proficiency in typically developing children: On or off the maturation track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, David; Issartel, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Fine motor skill proficiency is an essential component of numerous daily living activities such as dressing, feeding or playing. Poor fine motor skills can lead to difficulties in academic achievement, increased anxiety and poor self-esteem. Recent findings have shown that children's gross motor skill proficiency tends to fall below established developmental norms. A question remains: do fine motor skill proficiency levels also fall below developmental norms? The aim of this study was to examine the current level of fine motor skill in Irish children. Children (N=253) from 2nd, 4th and 6th grades (mean age=7.12, 9.11 and 11.02 respectively) completed the Fine Motor Composite of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd Edition (BOT-2). Analysis revealed that only 2nd grade children met the expected level of fine motor skill proficiency. It was also found that despite children's raw scores improving with age, children's fine motor skill proficiency was not progressing at the expected rate given by normative data. This leads us to question the role and impact of modern society on fine motor skills development over the past number of decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

    2005-06-01

    Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores.

  17. A Maturing Global Testing Regime Meets the World Economy: Test Scores and Economic Growth, 1960-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the growth of the international testing regime. It discusses sources of growth and empirically examines two related sets of issues: (1) the stability of countries' achievement scores, and (2) the influence of those national scores on subsequent economic development over different time lags. The article suggests that…

  18. Scoring Divergent Thinking Tests by Computer With a Semantics-Based Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenes Beketayev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Divergent thinking (DT tests are useful for the assessment of creative potentials. This article reports the semantics-based algorithmic (SBA method for assessing DT. This algorithm is fully automated: Examinees receive DT questions on a computer or mobile device and their ideas are immediately compared with norms and semantic networks. This investigation compared the scores generated by the SBA method with the traditional methods of scoring DT (i.e., fluency, originality, and flexibility. Data were collected from 250 examinees using the “Many Uses Test” of DT. The most important finding involved the flexibility scores from both scoring methods. This was critical because semantic networks are based on conceptual structures, and thus a high SBA score should be highly correlated with the traditional flexibility score from DT tests. Results confirmed this correlation (r = .74. This supports the use of algorithmic scoring of DT. The nearly-immediate computation time required by SBA method may make it the method of choice, especially when it comes to moderate- and large-scale DT assessment investigations. Correlations between SBA scores and GPA were insignificant, providing evidence of the discriminant and construct validity of SBA scores. Limitations of the present study and directions for future research are offered.

  19. Evaluation of the proficiency of trained non-laboratory health staffs and laboratory technicians using a rapid and simple HIV antibody test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanal, Koum; Chou, Thai Leang; Sovann, Ly; Morikawa, Yasuo; Mukoyama, Yumi; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro

    2005-05-20

    In Cambodia, nearly half of pregnant women attend antenatal care (ANC), which is an entry point of services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). However, most of ANC services are provided in health centres or fields, where laboratory services by technicians are not available. In this study, those voluntary confidential counselling and testing (VCCT) counsellors involved in PMTCT were trained by experienced laboratory technicians in our centre on HIV testing using Determine (Abbot Laboratories) HIV1/2 test kits through a half-day training course, which consisted of use of a pipette, how to process whole blood samples, and how to read test result. The trained counsellors were midwives working for ANC and delivery ward in our centre without any experience on laboratory works. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of the training by evaluating the proficiency of the trained non-laboratory staffs. The trained counsellors withdrew blood sample after pre-test counselling following ANC, and performed the rapid test. Laboratory technicians routinely did the same test and returned reports of the test results to counsellors. Reports by the counsellors and the laboratory technicians were compared, and discordant reports in two groups were re-tested with the same rapid test kit using the same blood sample. Cause of discordance was detected in discussion with both groups. Of 563 blood samples tested by six trained VCCT counsellors and three laboratory technicians, 11 samples (2.0%) were reported positive in each group, however four discordant reports (0.7%) between the groups were observed, in which two positive reports and two negative reports by the counsellors were negative and positive by the laboratory technicians, respectively. Further investigation confirmed that all the reports by the counsellors were correct, and that human error in writing reports in the laboratory was a cause of these discordant reports. These findings

  20. Evaluation of the proficiency of trained non-laboratory health staffs and laboratory technicians using a rapid and simple HIV antibody test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukoyama Yumi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Cambodia, nearly half of pregnant women attend antenatal care (ANC, which is an entry point of services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT. However, most of ANC services are provided in health centres or fields, where laboratory services by technicians are not available. In this study, those voluntary confidential counselling and testing (VCCT counsellors involved in PMTCT were trained by experienced laboratory technicians in our centre on HIV testing using Determine (Abbot Laboratories HIV1/2 test kits through a half-day training course, which consisted of use of a pipette, how to process whole blood samples, and how to read test result. The trained counsellors were midwives working for ANC and delivery ward in our centre without any experience on laboratory works. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of the training by evaluating the proficiency of the trained non-laboratory staffs. The trained counsellors withdrew blood sample after pre-test counselling following ANC, and performed the rapid test. Laboratory technicians routinely did the same test and returned reports of the test results to counsellors. Reports by the counsellors and the laboratory technicians were compared, and discordant reports in two groups were re-tested with the same rapid test kit using the same blood sample. Cause of discordance was detected in discussion with both groups. Of 563 blood samples tested by six trained VCCT counsellors and three laboratory technicians, 11 samples (2.0% were reported positive in each group, however four discordant reports (0.7% between the groups were observed, in which two positive reports and two negative reports by the counsellors were negative and positive by the laboratory technicians, respectively. Further investigation confirmed that all the reports by the counsellors were correct, and that human error in writing reports in the laboratory was a cause of these discordant

  1. Online pre-race education improves test scores for volunteers at a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Shane; Renier, Colleen; Sikka, Robby; Widstrom, Luke; Paulson, William; Christensen, Trent; Olson, David; Nelson, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether an online course would lead to increased knowledge about the medical issues volunteers encounter during a marathon. Health care professionals who volunteered to provide medical coverage for an annual marathon were eligible for the study. Demographic information about medical volunteers including profession, specialty, education level and number of marathons they had volunteered for was collected. A 15-question test about the most commonly encountered medical issues was created by the authors and administered before and after the volunteers took the online educational course and compared to a pilot study the previous year. Seventy-four subjects completed the pre-test. Those who participated in the pilot study last year (N = 15) had pre-test scores that were an average of 2.4 points higher than those who did not (mean ranks: pilot study = 51.6 vs. non-pilot = 33.9, p = 0.004). Of the 74 subjects who completed the pre-test, 54 also completed the post-test. The overall post-pre mean score difference was 3.8 ± 2.7 (t = 10.5 df = 53 p test scores. Testing also continued to show short-term improvement in post-course test scores, compared to pre-course test scores. In general, marathon medical volunteers who had no volunteer experience demonstrated greater improvement than those who had prior volunteer experience.

  2. Fast-food consumption and educational test scores in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, K J

    2013-01-01

      Children in the USA are experiencing obesity and overweight at epidemic rates. Schools have started to make policy decisions based on a popularly presumed connection between nutrition and academic achievement. This study aimed to determine whether such a relationship exists, and if so, its nature.   Data from the Food Consumption Questionnaire administered to approximately 12 000 fifth graders as part of the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort was analysed using regression analysis. The analysis used propensity score matching to examine the relationship between students' reported fast-food consumption and their test scores in reading and mathematics. Propensity score matching attempts to control for a host of background characteristics that might be correlated with both fast-food consumption and test scores.   Standard ordinary least squares regression showed that test scores decreased as reported fast-food consumption increased. In the propensity-score-matched analysis, which controlled for 25 student background characteristics, higher-than-average fast-food consumption ('four to six times in the last 7 days' or more) was associated with significantly lower test scores in both reading (-11.15 points or 0.48 SD) and math (-11.13 points or 0.52 SD), even when teacher experience, school poverty level and school urbanicity were also included in the model.   Although this study is preliminary, its results indicate that the relationship between poor nutrition and test scores may in fact be quite negative, strengthening the impetus for schools to consider policies that support students' healthy eating. In order to strengthen these findings and investigate possible mechanisms through which poor nutrition might affect test scores, there is a need for further research. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Association between the Medical College Admission Test scores and Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honors Society membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauer, Jacqueline L; Jackson, J Brooks

    2017-01-01

    Medical schools worldwide are faced with the challenge of selecting from among many qualified applicants. One factor that might help admissions committees identify future exceptional medical students is scores on standardized entrance exams. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between scores on the most commonly used standardized medical school entrance exam in the USA, the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), and election to the US medical honors society, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA). MCAT scores and AOA membership data were analyzed for all the students pursuing Doctor of Medicine degrees at the University of Minnesota Medical School and who graduated between 2012-2016 (n=1,309). An independent-samples t-test found a significant difference (t=6.132, pmedical school was significantly associated with higher MCAT scores. Admissions committees should carefully consider the role of standardized entrance exam scores, in the context of a holistic review, when selecting for exceptional medical students.

  4. Assessment of performance of professionals in immunohematology proficiency tests of the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Stela; Ferreira, Angela Melgaço; de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Souza, Helio Moraes

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advances, the practice of blood transfusion is still a complex process and subject to risks. Factors that influence the safety of blood transfusion include technical skill and knowledge in hemotherapy mainly obtained by the qualification and training of teams. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between professional categories working in transfusion services of the public blood bank network in the State of Minas Gerais and their performance in proficiency tests. This was an observational cross-sectional study (2007-2008) performed using a specific instrument, based on evidence and the results of immunohematology proficiency tests as mandated by law. The error rates in ABO and RhD phenotyping, irregular antibody screening and cross-matching were 12.5%, 9.6%, 43.8% and 20.1%, respectively. When considering the number of tests performed, the error rates were 4.6%, 4.2%, 26.7% and 11.0%, respectively. The error rates varied for different professional categories: biochemists, biologists and biomedical scientists (65.0%), clinical pathology technicians (44.1%) and laboratory assistants, nursing technicians and assistant nurses (74.6%). A statistically significant difference was observed when the accuracy of clinical pathology technicians was compared with those of other professionals with only high school education (p-value < 0.001). This was not seen for professionals with university degrees (p-value = 0.293). These results reinforce the need to invest in training, improvement of educational programs, new teaching methods and tools for periodic evaluations, contributing to increase transfusion safety and improve hemotherapy in Brazil.

  5. Commentary: Student Cognition, the Situated Learning Context, and Test Score Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Paul M.

    2006-01-01

    Although it is assumed that student cognition contributes to student performance on achievement tests, it may be that current testing models lack the degree of specification necessary to warrant such inferences. With test score interpretations as the referent, the authors in this special issue address the role of student cognition in learning and…

  6. Relation between subjective and objective scores on the active straight leg raising test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Mens, Jan M A; Beekmans, RE; Tijhuis, MT

    2010-01-01

    DESIGN: Cross sectional. OBJECTIVE: To fill a gap in the validation of the active straight leg raising (ASLR) test concerning the relation between a patient's subjective score on the ASLR test and the objective measured force. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ASLR test is used to classify patients

  7. A Modification to Angoff and Bookmarking Cut Scores to Account for the Imperfect Reliability of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the Angoff and bookmarking cut scores are examples of true score equating that in the real world must be applied to observed scores. In the context of defining minimal competency, the percentage "failed" by such methods is a function of the length of the measuring instrument. It is argued that this length is largely…

  8. A comparison of the Kjeldahl and Dumas methods for the determination of protein in foods, using data from a proficiency testing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Owen, Linda; Wilkinson, Kate; Wood, Roger; Damant, Andrew

    2002-12-01

    Both the Kjeldahl and the Dumas methods for the determination of protein in foodstuffs are currently in use, but the empirical nitrogen factors used to convert the determined nitrogen content to protein content are based on the Kjeldahl method alone. Non-equivalence between the two methods could therefore result in some laboratories reporting an incorrect protein content. We report here a study using data accumulated over several years in the results of a proficiency testing scheme. On average the Dumas method provided results that were relatively higher by about 1.4% than the Kjeldahl method, but the difference between the methods depended on the type of foodstuff. The methodology of looking for bias between analytical methods is critically discussed.

  9. Recommending a minimum English proficiency standard for entry-level nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Thomas R; Marks, Casey; Wendt, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to provide sufficient information to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) to make a defensible recommended passing standard for English proficiency. This standard was based upon the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A large panel of nurses and nurse regulators (N = 25) was convened to determine how much English proficiency is required to be minimally competent as an entry-level nurse. Two standard setting procedures were combined to produce recommendations for each panelist. In conjunction with collateral information, these recommendations were reviewed by the NCSBN Examination Committee, which decided upon an NCSBN recommended standard, a TOEFL score of 220.

  10. The relationship between uncinate fasciculus white matter integrity and verbal memory proficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, David J; Krafft, Cynthia E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Chi, Lingxi; Rodrigue, Amanda L; Pierce, Jordan E; Allison, Jerry D; Yanasak, Nathan E; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2014-08-20

    During childhood, verbal learning and memory are important for academic performance. Recent functional MRI studies have reported on the functional correlates of verbal memory proficiency, but few have reported the underlying structural correlates. The present study sought to test the relationship between fronto-temporal white matter integrity and verbal memory proficiency in children. Diffusion weighted images were collected from 17 Black children (age 8-11 years) who also completed the California Verbal Learning Test. To index white matter integrity, fractional anisotropy values were calculated for bilateral uncinate fasciculus. The results revealed that low anisotropy values corresponded to poor verbal memory, whereas high anisotropy values corresponded to significantly better verbal memory scores. These findings suggest that a greater degree of myelination and cohesiveness of axonal fibers in uncinate fasciculus underlie better verbal memory proficiency in children.

  11. Evaluating the spoken English proficiency of graduates of foreign medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, J R; van Zanten, M; McKinley, D W; Gary, N E

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather additional evidence for the validity and reliability of spoken English proficiency ratings provided by trained standardized patients (SPs) in high-stakes clinical skills examination. Over 2500 candidates who took the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates' (ECFMG) Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) were studied. The CSA consists of 10 or 11 timed clinical encounters. Standardized patients evaluate spoken English proficiency and interpersonal skills in every encounter. Generalizability theory was used to estimate the consistency of spoken English ratings. Validity coefficients were calculated by correlating summary English ratings with CSA scores and other external criterion measures. Mean spoken English ratings were also compared by various candidate background variables. The reliability of the spoken English ratings, based on 10 independent evaluations, was high. The magnitudes of the associated variance components indicated that the evaluation of a candidate's spoken English proficiency is unlikely to be affected by the choice of cases or SPs used in a given assessment. Proficiency in spoken English was related to native language (English versus other) and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The pattern of the relationships, both within assessment components and with external criterion measures, suggests that valid measures of spoken English proficiency are obtained. This result, combined with the high reproducibility of the ratings over encounters and SPs, supports the use of trained SPs to measure spoken English skills in a simulated medical environment.

  12. Improvement in intelligence test scores from 6 to 10 years in children of teenage mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; De Genna, Natacha M; Richardson, Gale A; Leech, Sharon L; Day, Richard

    2010-06-01

    This study investigates change in IQ scores among 290 children born to teenage mothers and identifies social, economic, and environmental variables that may be associated with change in intelligence test performance. The children of 290 teenage mothers (72% African-American and 28% European American) were assessed with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-4th Edition at ages 6 and 10. The mean composite score at age 6 was 84.8 and 91.2 at age 10, an improvement of 6.4 points. Significant cross-sectional predictors at both ages 6 and 10 of higher Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale scores were maternal cognitive ability, school grade, white ethnicity, and caregiver education. Having more children in the household significantly predicted lower Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale scores at age 6. Higher satisfaction with maternal social support predicted higher Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale scores at age 10. Change in IQ scores was not related to maternal socioeconomic status, social support, home environment, ethnicity, or family interactions. Custodial stability was associated with an improvement in IQ scores, whereas increase in caregiver depression was related to decline in IQ scores. Our findings suggest that improvement in IQ scores of offspring of teenage mothers may be related to stability of maternal custody. More research is needed to determine the impact of the maturation of adolescent mothers' parenting and the role of early education on improvement in cognitive abilities.

  13. The reciprocal internal/external frame of reference model using grades and test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Jens; Zimmermann, Friederike; Köller, Olaf

    2014-12-01

    The reciprocal I/E model (RI/EM) combines the internal/external frame of reference model (I/EM) with the reciprocal effects model (REM). The RI/EM extends the I/EM longitudinally and the REM across domains. The model predicts that, within domains, mathematics and verbal achievement (VACH) and academic self-concept have positive effects on subsequent mathematics and VACH and academic self-concept within domains but have negative effects across domains. The main purpose is to validate the RI/EM and extend it using objective achievement indicators and grades. Two waves of data collection from grade 5 to grade 9 with N = 1,045 secondary school students were used. Test scores, grades, and self-concept data were obtained. The main analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modelling. The positive longitudinal effects of grades and test scores on subsequent grades, test scores and academic self-concept within domains and the negative effects of grades and test scores on subsequent academic self-concept across domains supported the RI/EM. The effects of academic self-concept on subsequent grades and test scores across domains were near zero when prior achievement indicators were controlled for. Overall, the results using school grades as achievement measures were replicated using standardized achievement test scores. The results serve to highlight the importance of the combination of common theories, which are mostly investigated individually, to enhance our understanding of the complexity of within- and across-domain relations between academic self-concepts and achievement using grades as well as test scores. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  14. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Test Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimy, Ramin; Shams, Kiana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary test score. To achieve this aim, fifty Intermediate level students from Kish English Institute were randomly selected from among fifteen classes after administering the Oxford Placement Test (OPT). Then, an intermediate level…

  15. Investigation and Treatment of Missing Item Scores in Test and Questionnaire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Klaas; van der Ark, L. Andries

    2003-01-01

    This article first discusses a statistical test for investigating whether or not the pattern of missing scores in a respondent-by-item data matrix is random. Since this is an asymptotic test, we investigate whether it is useful in small but realistic sample sizes. Then, we discuss two known simple imputation methods, person mean (PM) and two-way…

  16. From Test Scores to Language Use: Emergent Bilinguals Using English to Accomplish Academic Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mojica, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Prominent discourses about emergent bilinguals' academic abilities tend to focus on performance as measured by test scores and perpetuate the message that emergent bilinguals trail far behind their peers. When we remove the constraints of formal testing situations, what can emergent bilinguals do in English as they engage in naturally occurring…

  17. The Disaggregation of Value-Added Test Scores to Assess Learning Outcomes in Economics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Wagner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study disaggregates posttest, pretest, and value-added or difference scores in economics into four types of economic learning: positive, retained, negative, and zero. The types are derived from patterns of student responses to individual items on a multiple-choice test. The micro and macro data from the "Test of Understanding in College…

  18. Stochastic Processes as True-Score Models for Highly Speeded Mental Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William E.

    The previous theoretical development of the Poisson process as a strong model for the true-score theory of mental tests is discussed, and additional theoretical properties of the model from the standpoint of individual examinees are developed. The paper introduces the Erlang process as a family of test theory models and shows in the context of…

  19. Setting Specific Criteria for Scoring Word Problems in Mathematics: Effects on Test Validity and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Milagros D.

    1983-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of specific criteria for marking a test on its reliability and validity. Eight algebra word problems were administered to grade 10 students. The objectivity of scoring criteria improved the reliability of the test, but did not affect its validity. (MNS)

  20. Investigating Score Dependability in English/Chinese Interpreter Certification Performance Testing: A Generalizability Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao

    2016-01-01

    As a property of test scores, reliability/dependability constitutes an important psychometric consideration, and it underpins the validity of measurement results. A review of interpreter certification performance tests (ICPTs) reveals that (a) although reliability/dependability checking has been recognized as an important concern, its theoretical…

  1. Are Raw Scores on Memory Tests Better than Age- and Education- Adjusted Scores for Predicting Progression from Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer Disease ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Davide; Gainotti, Guido; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Lacidogna, Giordano; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Piccininni, Chiara; Marra, Camillo

    2016-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study, conducted in a large sample of amnestic MCI patients over a three-year period, we investigated the recently advanced proposal that unadjusted test scores obtained at baseline on long-term memory tests are more reliable than age- and education-corrected scores in predicting progression from aMCI to AD. Our experimental sample consisted of 270 aMCI patients who underwent extensive neurological and neuropsychological examinations both at baseline and at the follow-up, conducted at least 3 years later. At the follow-up 80 patients had converted to overt dementia. The predictive capacity of raw, age-corrected, education-corrected and fully corrected scores on RAVLT immediate and delayed recall was compared by examining the area under the ROC curves (AUCs) of all of these scores to assess which (raw or corrected) scores achieves the better reliability in predicting conversion to dementia. The condition (aMCI stable vs converted) was analyzed to assess the odds ratios resulting from a logistic regression on the corrected and uncorrected scores of RAVLT immediate and delayed recall. Even if both in immediate and in delayed recall the ROCs of 'raw scores' were generally higher than the other ROCs on corrected scores, these differences did not reach the level of statistical significance, failing to support the claim that unadjusted test scores are superior to age- and education-corrected scores in predicting progression from aMCI to AD.

  2. Correlation of Simulation Examination to Written Test Scores for Advanced Cardiac Life Support Testing: Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L. Strom

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditional Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS courses are evaluated using written multiple-choice tests. High-fidelity simulation is a widely used adjunct to didactic content, and has been used in many specialties as a training resource as well as an evaluative tool. There are no data to our knowledge that compare simulation examination scores with written test scores for ACLS courses. Objective: To compare and correlate a novel high-fidelity simulation-based evaluation with traditional written testing for senior medical students in an ACLS course. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study to determine the correlation between simulationbased evaluation and traditional written testing in a medical school simulation center. Students were tested on a standard acute coronary syndrome/ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest scenario. Our primary outcome measure was correlation of exam results for 19 volunteer fourth-year medical students after a 32-hour ACLS-based Resuscitation Boot Camp course. Our secondary outcome was comparison of simulation-based vs. written outcome scores. Results: The composite average score on the written evaluation was substantially higher (93.6% than the simulation performance score (81.3%, absolute difference 12.3%, 95% CI [10.6-14.0%], p<0.00005. We found a statistically significant moderate correlation between simulation scenario test performance and traditional written testing (Pearson r=0.48, p=0.04, validating the new evaluation method. Conclusion: Simulation-based ACLS evaluation methods correlate with traditional written testing and demonstrate resuscitation knowledge and skills. Simulation may be a more discriminating and challenging testing method, as students scored higher on written evaluation methods compared to simulation.

  3. Deriving utility scores for co-morbid conditions: a test of the multiplicative model for combining individual condition scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Petit Christel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The co-morbidity of health conditions is becoming a significant health issue, particularly as populations age, and presents important methodological challenges for population health research. For example, the calculation of summary measures of population health (SMPH can be compromised if co-morbidity is not taken into account. One popular co-morbidity adjustment used in SMPH computations relies on a straightforward multiplicative combination of the severity weights for the individual conditions involved. While the convenience and simplicity of the multiplicative model are attractive, its appropriateness has yet to be formally tested. The primary objective of the current study was therefore to examine the empirical evidence in support of this approach. Methods The present study drew on information on the prevalence of chronic conditions and a utility-based measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL, namely the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3, available from Cycle 1.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS; 2000–01. Average HUI3 scores were computed for both single and co-morbid conditions, and were also purified by statistically removing the loss of functional health due to health problems other than the chronic conditions reported. The co-morbidity rule was specified as a multiplicative combination of the purified average observed HUI3 utility scores for the individual conditions involved, with the addition of a synergy coefficient s for capturing any interaction between the conditions not explained by the product of their utilities. The fit of the model to the purified average observed utilities for the co-morbid conditions was optimized using ordinary least squares regression to estimate s. Replicability of the results was assessed by applying the method to triple co-morbidities from the CCHS cycle 1.1 database, as well as to double and triple co-morbidities from cycle 2.1 of the CCHS (2003–04. Results

  4. Blood test values and Community Periodontal Index scores in medical checkup recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Yuko; Nakagaki, Haruo; Morita, Ichizo; Tsuboi, Shinji; Takami, Shuji; Suzuki, Noriko; Niwa, Hisae; Ogura, Yukio

    2003-12-01

    We examined the blood test values of people who received general medical checkups and their Community Periodontal Index (CPI) score. A total of 7,452 persons (5,742 males and 1,710 females), who had general medical and dental checkups, were the subjects of the study. Many were people who worked for companies in and around Nagoya and their family members, ranging in age from 16 to 80 years. The blood test in our study consisted of 37 items used in general blood tests. Partial-mouth recordings were used to measure CPI scores. The highest CPI score for each subject was used for analysis. Odds ratios and confidence interval values were obtained using the Mantel-Haenszel method to analyze the results. CPI scores of 3 and 4 were related to the test values of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, serum iron, white blood cell count, fasting blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin A1, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and C-reactive protein. Blood test values tended to show correlations with CPI scores, more clearly seen in males than in females.

  5. Semi-quantitative scoring of an immunochromatographic test for circulating filarial antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Missamou, François; Pion, Sébastien D S; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Majewski, Andrew C; Weil, Gary J; Boussinesq, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Abstract. The value of a semi-quantitative scoring of the filarial antigen test (Binax Now Filariasis card test, ICT) results was evaluated during a field survey in the Republic of Congo. One hundred and thirty-four (134) of 774 tests (17.3%) were clearly positive and were scored 1, 2, or 3; and 11 (1.4%) had questionable results. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae (mf) were detected in 41 of those 133 individuals with an ICT test score ≥ 1 who also had a night blood smear; none of the 11 individuals with questionable ICT results harbored night mf. Cuzick's test showed a significant trend for higher microfilarial densities in groups with higher ICT scores (P < 0.001). The ICT scores were also significantly correlated with blood mf counts. Because filarial antigen levels provide an indication of adult worm infection intensity, our results suggest that semi-quantitative reading of the ICT may be useful for grading the intensity of filarial infections in individuals and populations.

  6. Effects of Summary Writing on Oral Proficiency Performance within a Computer-Based Test for Integrated Listening-Speaking Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhihong; Wang, Yanfei

    2014-01-01

    The effective design of test items within a computer-based language test (CBLT) for developing English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' listening and speaking skills has become an increasingly challenging task for both test users and test designers compared with that of pencil-and-paper tests in the past. It needs to fit integrated oral…

  7. The Impact of Correction for Guessing Formula on MC and Yes/No Vocabulary Tests' Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdollah baradaran

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A standard correction for random guessing (cfg formula on multiple-choice and Yes/Noexaminations was examined retrospectively in the scores of the intermediate female EFL learners in an English language school. The correctionwas a weighting formula for points awarded for correct answers,incorrect answers, and unanswered questions so that the expectedvalue of the increase in test score due to guessing was zero. The researcher compared uncorrected and corrected scores on examinationsusing multiple-choice and Yes/No formats. These short-answer formats eliminatedor at least greatly reduced the potential for guessing the correctanswer. The expectation for students to improve their grade by guessingon multiple-choice and Yes/No format examinations is well known. The researcher examined a method for correcting for random guessing (cfg " no knowledge" on multiple- choice and Yes/No vocabulary examinations by comparing application and non-application of correction for guessing (cfg formula on scores on these examinations. It was done to determine whether the test takers really knew the correct answer, or they had resorted to a kind of guessing. This study represented a unique opportunity to compare scores from multiple-choice and Yes/No examinations in a settingin which students were given the same number of questions ineach of the two format types testing their knowledge over thesame subject matter. The results of this study indicated that the significant differences were highlighted between the subjects' scores when cfg formula was applied and when it was not.

  8. Validation of new prognostic and predictive scores by sequential testing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Carsten [Radiation Oncology Unit, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway); Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Haukland, Ellinor; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid [Radiation Oncology Unit, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Background and Purpose: For practitioners, the question arises how their own patient population differs from that used in large-scale analyses resulting in new scores and nomograms and whether such tools actually are valid at a local level and thus can be implemented. A recent article proposed an easy-to-use method for the in-clinic validation of new prediction tools with a limited number of patients, a so-called sequential testing approach. The present study evaluates this approach in scores related to radiation oncology. Material and Methods: Three different scores were used, each predicting short overall survival after palliative radiotherapy (bone metastases, brain metastases, metastatic spinal cord compression). For each scenario, a limited number of consecutive patients entered the sequential testing approach. The positive predictive value (PPV) was used for validation of the respective score and it was required that the PPV exceeded 80%. Results: For two scores, validity in the own local patient population could be confirmed after entering 13 and 17 patients, respectively. For the third score, no decision could be reached even after increasing the sample size to 30. Conclusion: In-clinic validation of new predictive tools with sequential testing approach should be preferred over uncritical adoption of tools which provide no significant benefit to local patient populations. Often the necessary number of patients can be reached within reasonable time frames even in small oncology practices. In addition, validation is performed continuously as the data are collected. (orig.)

  9. Proficiency test in clinical mammography. Results of a consecutive series of volunteer italian radiologists; Impiego di una casistica campione per la valutazione dell'accuratezza diagnostica nella mammografia classica: analisi dei risultati ottenuti da 130 radiologi italiani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciatto, S.; Andreoli, C. [Centro per lo Studio e la Prevenzione Oncologica, Florence (Italy); Di Maggio, C. [Padua Policlinico, Padua (Italy). Scuola Italiana di Senologia

    1999-10-01

    Purpose of this report is to evaluate the results obtained by 130 Italian radiologists undergoing a proficiency test of clinical mammography. [Italian] Sono stati analizzati i risultati ottenuti da 130 radiologi italiani che si sono volontariamente sottoposti alla valutazione dell'accuratezza diagnostica nella mammografia clinica su una casistica campione.

  10. Examining alternative scoring rubrics on a statewide test: The impact of different scoring methods on science and social studies performance assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Susan Dabney

    There is no consensus regarding the most reliable and valid scoring methods for the assessment of higher order thinking skills. Most of the research on alternative formats has focused on the scoring of writing ability. This study examined the value of different types of performance assessment scoring guides on state mandated science and social studies tests. A proportional stratified sample of raters were randomly assigned to one of four scoring groups: checklist, analytic rubric, holistic rubric, and generic rubrics. A fifth method, the weighted analytic rubric, was included by applying an algorithmic formula to the scores assigned by raters using the analytic rubric. A comparison of the mean scores for the five scoring groups suggests that there may be a difference in the way raters applied the rubric for each group. Although the literature suggests that it is possible to achieve high levels of inter-rater reliability, across forms of scoring, phi coefficients of moderate strength were obtained for three of the four constructed-response items. Results for each scoring group were compared indicating that item complexity may impact the level of inter-rate, reliability and the selection of the most reliable rubric for each discipline. Analytic rubrics appear to achieve more reliable results with less complex items. A multitrait-multimethod approach was utilized to investigate the external validity of the social studies and science tasks. As expected, there tended to be a stronger association between the PACT science constructed-response scores with scores based on science multiple-choice scores than between the science constructed-response scores and the writing ability subtest scores. A similar pattern was seen with social studies items. These results provide some evidence for the validity of the performance assessments. A post study survey completed by raters provided qualitative information regarding their thought processes and their primary focus during the

  11. The Effect of School Poverty on Racial Gaps in Tests Scores: The Case of the Minnesota Basic Standards Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel L.; Kim, Hyeoneui; Mandala, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    A data from 1996,1998 and 1999 Minnesota comprehensive statewide testing on eight graders is used to analyze whether African American students perform worse than the white students who attend the poverty schools. The analyses conclude that African American-White test score gap is attributed more to the racial discriminations and racial treatments…

  12. Testing the proficiency to distinguish locations with elevated plantar pressure within and between professional groups of foot therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaper Nicolaas C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of locations with elevated plantar pressures is important in daily foot care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, metatarsalgia and diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the proficiency of podiatrists, pedorthists and orthotists, to distinguish locations with elevated plantar pressure in patients with metatarsalgia. Methods Ten podiatrists, ten pedorthists and ten orthotists working in The Netherlands were asked to identify locations with excessively high plantar pressure in three patients with forefoot complaints. Therapists were instructed to examine the patients according to the methods used in their everyday clinical practice. Regions could be marked through hatching an illustration of a plantar aspect. A pressure sensitive platform was used to quantify the dynamic bare foot plantar pressures and was considered as 'Gold Standard' (GS. A pressure higher than 700 kPa was used as cut-off criterion for categorizing peak pressure into elevated or non-elevated pressure. This was done for both patient's feet and six separate forefoot regions: big toe and metatarsal one to five. Data were analysed by a mixed-model ANOVA and Generalizability Theory. Results The proportions elevated/non-elevated pressure regions, based on clinical ratings of the therapists, show important discrepancies with the criterion values obtained through quantitative plantar pressure measurement. In general, plantar pressures in the big toe region were underrated and those in the metatarsal regions were overrated. The estimated method agreement on clinical judgement of plantar pressures with the GS was below an acceptable level: i.e. all intraclass correlation coefficient's equal or smaller than .60. The inter-observer agreement for each discipline demonstrated worrisome results: all below .18. The estimated mutual agreements showed that there was virtually no mutual agreement between the professional groups studied

  13. Online and Face-to-Face Language Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Oral Proficiency in Introductory Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Burke Moneypenny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary resistance to online foreign language teaching often involves questions of spoken mastery of second language. In order to address this concern, this research comparatively assesses undergraduate students’ oral proficiency in online and face-to-face Spanish classes, while taking into account students’ previous second language experience. The sample consisted of 90 undergraduate students, both online and face-to-face, who completed the Versant test at the end of the two semester sequence of Introductory Spanish. The Versant test assessed pronunciation, vocabulary, sentence formation, and fluency as factors of oral proficiency and calculated an overall oral proficiency score. T-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to determine whether there were any significant differences between online and face-to-face students’ proficiency scores. The results indicate that there were no statistically significant differences in oral proficiency at the introductory level between students who completed Spanish online and those that participated in face-to-face courses.

  14. Do We Really Become Smarter When Our Fluid-Intelligence Test Scores Improve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Taylor R; Petrov, Alexander A; Sederberg, Per B

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports of training-induced gains on fluid intelligence tests have fueled an explosion of interest in cognitive training-now a billion-dollar industry. The interpretation of these results is questionable because score gains can be dominated by factors that play marginal roles in the scores themselves, and because intelligence gain is not the only possible explanation for the observed control-adjusted far transfer across tasks. Here we present novel evidence that the test score gains used to measure the efficacy of cognitive training may reflect strategy refinement instead of intelligence gains. A novel scanpath analysis of eye movement data from 35 participants solving Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices on two separate sessions indicated that one-third of the variance of score gains could be attributed to test-taking strategy alone, as revealed by characteristic changes in eye-fixation patterns. When the strategic contaminant was partialled out, the residual score gains were no longer significant. These results are compatible with established theories of skill acquisition suggesting that procedural knowledge tacitly acquired during training can later be utilized at posttest. Our novel method and result both underline a reason to be wary of purported intelligence gains, but also provide a way forward for testing for them in the future.

  15. Task and Ability Analysis as a Basis for Examining Content and Construct Comparability in Two EFL Proficiency Test Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory analysis comparing two test batteries for English-as-a-Foreign-Language reading comprehension used a single framework of communicative language ability and test method facets to investigate construct validity. The framework's use in the content analysis of communicative language tests, and for the comparison of content across tests,…

  16. Opportunity to learn: Investigating possible predictors for pre-course Test Of Astronomy STandards TOAST scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Katie J.

    As astronomy education researchers become more interested in experimentally testing innovative teaching strategies to enhance learning in introductory astronomy survey courses ("ASTRO 101"), scholars are placing increased attention toward better understanding factors impacting student gain scores on the widely used Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST). Usually used in a pre-test and post-test research design, one might naturally assume that the pre-course differences observed between high- and low-scoring college students might be due in large part to their pre-existing motivation, interest, experience in science, and attitudes about astronomy. To explore this notion, 11 non-science majoring undergraduates taking ASTRO 101 at west coast community colleges were interviewed in the first few weeks of the course to better understand students' pre-existing affect toward learning astronomy with an eye toward predicting student success. In answering this question, we hope to contribute to our understanding of the incoming knowledge of students taking undergraduate introductory astronomy classes, but also gain insight into how faculty can best meet those students' needs and assist them in achieving success. Perhaps surprisingly, there was only weak correlation between students' motivation toward learning astronomy and their pre-test scores. Instead, the most fruitful predictor of TOAST pre-test scores was the quantity of pre-existing, informal, self-directed astronomy learning experiences.

  17. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.

  18. A Comparison of Standardized Achievement Test Scores on Right and Left Brain Dominant Fourth-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael L.; Roubinek, Darrell L.

    1989-01-01

    Compares fourth-graders' subtest scores on the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT), the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS), and the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). Finds right-brain dominant students scored better on four SAT subtests, and left-brain dominant students scored better on four ITBS subtests and two MAT subtests. (NH)

  19. Relationship between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency in first-grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibe Soltaninejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Phonological awareness (consisting of phoneme, syllable and intra-syllable awareness is an important part of receptive and expressive language; it facilitates reading and writing skills through phonological re-coding. Multiple studies in several languages have studied the relationship between phonological awareness and dictation. This research is based on a study of the relationship between phonological skill and spelling score in first-grade Persian students.Methods: Four hundred first-grade students participated in the study, including 209 girls and 191 boys. A phonological awareness test was individually administered for each student and then a spelling exam was administered in groups. The correlation between the two tests was studied using a simple regression model. The comparison of mean scores of girls and boys was evaluated employing an independent t-test.Results: A correlation coefficient of 0.82 was obtained between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency (p<0.001. Phonological skill sub-tests also showed a significant correlation with spelling proficiency (highest for phoneme awareness r=0.34 and lowest for rhyme awareness r=0.12. The mean scores of girls and boys differed significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: There is a strong positive association between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency. Therefore, if phonological skill is improved, spelling score can be enhanced.

  20. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash, Heethal; Min, Aung Ko Ko; Ghosh, Sarmishtha

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group's tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group's tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors' performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors' scores in group 1 was 0.099 (ptraining reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  1. CIEMAT Interlaboratories Comparison of the Results obtained in the Proficiency Test Run by IAEA; Comparacion Interlaboratorios del CIEMAT de los Resultados Obtenidos en la Prueba de Capacitacion de Analisis de Transuranicos en Cenizas propocionadas por el OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs.

  2. Proficiency tests for evaluation of the {sup 99}Tc{sup m} measurements in the nuclear medicine; Aplicacao de teste de proficiencia para avaliacao da medicao de {sup 99}Tc{sup m} na medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de, E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.b, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.b, E-mail: aedu@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nicoli, Ieda Gomes, E-mail: ieda@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/DF), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Escritorio de Brasilia; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria, E-mail: falabarse@ird.gov.b, E-mail: axavier@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (ESPOA/CNEN-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escritorio de Porto Alegre

    2009-07-01

    This work performs the performance evaluation of 55 Brazilian nuclear medicine services in activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical containing {sup 99}Tc{sup m}. Proficiency tests based on the acceptance criteria of the Regulation ISO/IEC Guide 43-1 and on the accuracy of the brazilian Regulation CNEN-NN-3.05 were applied in 63 results of activity measurements in radionuclide calibrators used by those services. The performance services has shown that the criteria of the ISO/IEC 43-1, nevertheless to be more restrictive, presents results very consistent with the accuracy criteria requested by the Brazilian regulation

  3. The FCE Speaking Test: Using rater Reports To Help Interpret Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Reports research using oral examiner verbal reports that attempts to gain insights into the rating process in the Cambridge First Certificate in English Speaking Test. Raters' verbal reports of the decision-making process were analyzed and heeded aspects of the test performances were identified, with a view to better understanding how test scores…

  4. The Relationships between Social Class, Listening Test Anxiety and Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaabadi, Omid Talebi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening…

  5. Investigating elementary school pupils’ proficiency in mastering English vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Achmad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available English has been taught at elementary schools as one of the local content subjects. It is necessary to study English from an early age in order to achieve good mastery in it. To master English means to master the four skills in it and also the language aspects, including vocabulary. As one of the language aspects, vocabulary plays an important role in language learning. This study reports on pupils’ proficiency in mastering English vocabulary after three years of studying in elementary school. The writer chose 55 grade-four pupils of SD Methodist Banda Aceh as a sample for this study. They were given a vocabulary test related to reading and writing skills consisting of 26 items. The test was to be done in 20 minutes. After calculating the data, it was found that the mean score (x of the pupils was 69.5, with the highest score at 92.3 and the lowest score at 26.9. More than 50% of the pupils could answer the questions correctly in less than 20 minutes. Only 4 out of the 55 pupils answered the questions less than 50% correctly and no one answered 100% correct. According to these results, this study showed that the pupils achieved good proficiency in vocabulary.

  6. Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

  7. Development and Validation of Scores from an Instrument Measuring Student Test-Taking Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklof, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Using the expectancy-value model of achievement motivation as a basis, this study's purpose is to develop, apply, and validate scores from a self-report instrument measuring student test-taking motivation. Sampled evidence of construct validity for the present sample indicates that a number of the items in the instrument could be used as an…

  8. The Sinonasal Outcome Test 22 score in persons without chronic rhinosinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Bibi; Thilsing, T; Baelum, J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the Sino Nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT 22) score in persons without chronic rhinosinusitis. DESIGN AND SETTING: As part of a trans-European study selected respondents to a survey questionnaire were invited for a clinical visit. Subjective symptoms and rhinoscopy were used f...

  9. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  10. Methods for Improving Test Scores: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB 2001) has the faculties of every public and charter school scrambling to drive test scores of seven identified groups of children (African-American children, Anglo-White children, children with disabilities, Hispanic children, children of poverty, children with English language limitations, and Native-American…

  11. Multiple Imputation of Item Scores in Test and Questionnaire Data, and Influence on Psychometric Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Joost R.; van der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2007-01-01

    The performance of five simple multiple imputation methods for dealing with missing data were compared. In addition, random imputation and multivariate normal imputation were used as lower and upper benchmark, respectively. Test data were simulated and item scores were deleted such that they were either missing completely at random, missing at…

  12. Classroom Organizational Structure in Fifth Grade Math Classrooms and the Effect on Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Dallas Marie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the classroom organizational structure and MCT2 test scores of fifth-grade math students. The researcher gained insight regarding which structure teachers believe is most beneficial to them and students, and whether or not their belief of classroom organizational…

  13. Comparison of a Class of Rank-Score Tests in Two-Factor Designs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Mathematics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto ... The empirical Type I error rate and power of these test statistics on the rank scores were ... INTRODUCTION. When analyzing data from a two-factor design, usually a linear model is assumed and the hypotheses are formulated by the parameters of this ...

  14. International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Stanford education professor Martin Carnoy examines four main critiques of how international test results are used in policymaking. Of particular interest are critiques of the policy analyses published by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Using average PISA scores as a comparative measure of student achievement is misleading…

  15. Contributions of biological tests and the 4 Ts score in the diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an adverse drug reaction caused by antibodies to the heparin/platelet factor 4 (PF4) complexes. HIT diagnosis is challenging and depends on clinical presentation and laboratory tests. We investigated the interest of the combined use of 4 Ts score and the functional ...

  16. Test Score Gaps between Private and Government Sector Students at School Entry Age in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhijeet

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have noted that students enrolled in private schools in India perform better on average than students in government schools. In this paper, I show that large gaps in the test scores of children in private and public sector education are evident even at the point of initial enrollment in formal schooling and are associated with…

  17. Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

  18. Virginia tech freshman class becoming more competitive; Rise in grades and test scores noted

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech News

    2004-01-01

    Admission to Virginia Tech continues to become more competitive as applicants report higher grade point averages and test scores than previous years. The incoming class of 4,975 students has an average grade point average (GPA) of 3.68 and SAT 1203, up from 3.60 GPA and 1197 SAT in 2003.

  19. Selected Demographic Variables, School Music Participation, and Achievement Test Scores of Urban Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Daryl W.

    2008-01-01

    Nontransient 6th- and 8th-grade urban middle school students' achievement test scores were examined before (4th grade) and during (6th or 8th grade) enrollment in a performing ensemble. Ensemble participation (band, choir, none) and subject variables of socioeconomic status (SES) and home environment were considered. Fourth- and 6th-grade…

  20. Using College Admission Test Scores to Clarify High School Placement. Leading Indicator Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flug, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take…

  1. Testing Vegetation Flammability: The Problem of Extremely Low Ignition Frequency and Overall Flammability Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Kauf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades changes in fire regimes led to higher vulnerability of fire prone ecosystems, with vegetation being the only component influencing fire regime which can be managed in order to reduce probability of extreme fire events. For these management practices to be effective reliable information on the vegetation flammability is being crucial. Epiradiator based testing methods are one of the methods commonly used to investigate vegetation flammability and decrease in ignition frequency is always interpreted as a decrease in flammability. Furthermore, gathered information is often combined into a single flammability score. Here we present results of leaf litter testing which, together with previously conducted research on similar materials, show that material with very low ignition frequency under certain testing conditions can be extremely flammable if testing conditions are slightly changed. Additionally, our results indicate that combining measured information into one single flammability score, even though sometimes useful, is not always meaningful and should be performed with caution.

  2. CK-MM Polymorphism is Associated With Physical Fitness Test Scores in Military Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Courtney; Tosi, Laura L; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Abdel-Ghani, Mai S; Panchapakesan, Karuna; Niederberger, Brenda; Devaney, Joseph M; Kelly, Karen R

    2015-09-01

    Muscle-specific creatine kinase is thought to play an integral role in maintaining energy homeostasis by providing a supply of creatine phosphate. The genetic variant, rs8111989, contributes to individual differences in physical performance, and thus the purpose of this study was to determine if rs8111989 variant is predictive of Physical Fitness Test (PFT) scores in male, military infantry recruits. DNA was extracted from whole blood, and genotyping was performed in 176 Marines. Relationships between PFT measures (run, sit-ups, and pull-ups) and genotype were determined. Participants with 2 copies of the T allele for rs8111989 variant had higher PFT scores for run time, pull-ups, and total PFT score. Specifically, participants with 2 copies of the TT allele (variant) (n = 97) demonstrated an overall higher total PFT score as compared with those with one copy of the C allele (n = 79) (TT: 250 ± 31 vs. 238 ± 31; p = 0.02), run score (TT: 82 ± 10 vs. 78 ± 11; p = 0.04) and pull-up score (TT: 78 ± 11 vs. 65 ± 21; p = 0.04) or those with the CC/CT genotype. These results demonstrate an association between physical performance measures and genetic variation in the muscle-specific creatine kinase gene (rs8111989). Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. Verbal fluency tests: Developing a new model of administration and scoring for Spanish language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarrieta-Landa, Laiene; Torre, Esther Landa; López-Mugartza, Juan Carlos; Bialystok, Ellen; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    To conduct a literature review of the administration and scoring criteria used in normative studies of verbal fluency tests (VFT), and to propose a new model for the administration and scoring of phonological, semantic, and action VFT for use in Spanish-speakers. A literature search was performed using four databases Dialnet, ProQuest (PsycINFO, PsycArticles), Science Direct (Elsevier), and PubMed and 47 articles met the following criteria: 1) articles which contained normative data of phonological, semantic, or action VFT, 2) published between 2000 and 2015, 3) published in English or Spanish, 4) used healthy population. Of 2087 citations retrieved, 47 eligible studies were reviewed. The majority of the studies have been conducted in the USA, and with English and Spanish speakers. Only 12 studies provided the instruction, and 23 clearly describe the scoring guidelines. Moreover, among the studies that provided these information important discrepancies were found. Therefore, a new administration and scoring guidelines are presented, which may resolve this problem and be utilized in Spanish speaking countries. This review showed that still there is no consensus regarding the administration and scoring of VFT. A new method of administration and scoring is presented that can be use with Spanish-speakers.

  4. THE FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREEN (FMS™) IN ELITE YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS BETWEEN 14 AND 20 YEARS: COMPOSITE SCORE, INDIVIDUAL-TEST SCORES AND ASYMMETRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Vanessa Bernardes; Medeiros, Thales Menezes; de Souza Stigger, Felipe; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2017-11-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) is a widely used seven-test battery used by practitioners working in sport medicine. The FMS™ composite score (sum of seven tests) in soccer athletes from different competitive levels has been well explored in literature, but the specific movement deficits presented by young high competitive level players remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to provide a detailed description of the performance of elite young soccer players (age 14-20 years) on the FMS™ testing battery. Cross-sectional observational study. One-hundred and three young soccer players (14-20 years) from a premier league club were assessed by two experienced raters using the FMS™ testing battery. FMS™ composite score, individual-test scores and asymmetries were considered for analysis, and comparisons between age categories were performed. FMS™ composite scores ranged from 9 to 16 points (median=13 points). 82% of the athletes had a composite score ≤14 points, and 91% were classified into the "Fail" group (score 0 or 1 in at least one test). Almost half of athletes (48%) had poor performance (i.e., individual score functional deficits, especially in tasks involving deep squat and trunk stability, as well as high prevalence of asymmetry between right and left body side. 3a.

  5. The reliability and validity of qualitative scores for the Controlled Oral Word Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Thomas P; Calhoun, Emily; Cox, Tara; Wenner, Carolyn; Kono, Whitney; Pleasant, Morgan

    2007-05-01

    The reliability and validity of two qualitative scoring systems for the Controlled Oral Word Association Test [Benton, A. L., Hamsher, de S. K., & Sivan, A. B. (1983). Multilingual aplasia examination (2nd ed.). Iowa City, IA: AJA Associates] were examined in 108 healthy young adults. The scoring systems developed by Troyer et al. [Troyer, A. K., Moscovich, M., & Winocur, G. (1997). Clustering and switching as two components of verbal fluency: Evidence from younger and older healthy adults. Neuropsychology, 11, 138-146] and by Abwender et al. [Abwender, D. A., Swan, J. G., Bowerman, J. T., & Connolly, S. W. (2001a). Qualitative analysis of verbal fluency output: Review and comparison of several scoring methods. Assessment, 8, 323-336] each demonstrated excellent interrater reliability (all indices at or above r(icc)=.9). Consistent with previous research [e.g., Ross, T. P. (2003). The reliability of cluster and switch scores for the COWAT. Archives of Clinical Psychology, 18, 153-164), test-retest reliability coefficients (N=53; M interval 44.6 days) for the qualitative scores were modest to poor (r(icc)=.6 to .4 range). Correlations among COWAT scores, measures of executive functioning, verbal learning, working memory, and vocabulary were examined. The idea that qualitative scores represent distinct executive functions such as cognitive flexibility or strategy utilization was not supported. We offer the interpretation that COWAT performance may require the ability to retrieve words in a non-routine manner while suppressing habitual responses and associated processing interference, presumably due to a spread of activation across semantic or lexical networks. This interpretation, though speculative at present, implies that clustering and switching on the COWAT may not be entirely deliberate, but rather an artifact of a passive (i.e., state-dependent) process. Ideas for future research, most noticeably experimental studies using cognitive methods (e.g., priming), are

  6. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Elaheh; Hallikainen, Ilona; Hänninen, Tuomo; Tohka, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting) and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50) and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43) in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  7. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD, thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50 and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43 in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  8. Effects of correcting for prematurity on cognitive test scores in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Ching, Michelle; Pascoe, Leona; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that test scores should be corrected for prematurity up to 3 years of age, but this practice varies greatly in both clinical and research settings. The aim of this study was to contrast the effects of using chronological age and those of using corrected age on measures of cognitive outcome across childhood. A theoretical model was constructed using norms from the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition; the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition Australian; and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, Fourth Edition Australian. Baseline scores representing different levels of functioning (70, below average; 85, borderline; and 100, average) were recalculated using the normative data for ages 6 months to 16 years to account for 1, 2, 3 and 4 months of prematurity. The model created depicted the difference in standardised scores between chronological and corrected age. Compared with scores corrected for prematurity, the absolute reduction in scores using chronological age was greater for increasing degree of prematurity, younger ages at assessment and higher baseline scores and was substantial even beyond 3 years of age. However, the pattern was erratic, with considerable fluctuation evident across different ages and baseline scores. Chronological age results in a lowering of scores at all ages for preterm-born subjects that is greater in the first few years and in those born at earlier gestational ages. Whether or not to correct for prematurity depends upon the context of the assessment. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Identifying genetic marker sets associated with phenotypes via an efficient adaptive score test

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, T.

    2012-06-25

    In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene-expression profiling have generated a large number of valuable datasets for assessing how genetic variations are related to disease outcomes. With such datasets, it is often of interest to assess the overall effect of a set of genetic markers, assembled based on biological knowledge. Genetic marker-set analyses have been advocated as more reliable and powerful approaches compared with the traditional marginal approaches (Curtis and others, 2005. Pathways to the analysis of microarray data. TRENDS in Biotechnology 23, 429-435; Efroni and others, 2007. Identification of key processes underlying cancer phenotypes using biologic pathway analysis. PLoS One 2, 425). Procedures for testing the overall effect of a marker-set have been actively studied in recent years. For example, score tests derived under an Empirical Bayes (EB) framework (Liu and others, 2007. Semiparametric regression of multidimensional genetic pathway data: least-squares kernel machines and linear mixed models. Biometrics 63, 1079-1088; Liu and others, 2008. Estimation and testing for the effect of a genetic pathway on a disease outcome using logistic kernel machine regression via logistic mixed models. BMC bioinformatics 9, 292-2; Wu and others, 2010. Powerful SNP-set analysis for case-control genome-wide association studies. American Journal of Human Genetics 86, 929) have been proposed as powerful alternatives to the standard Rao score test (Rao, 1948. Large sample tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters with applications to problems of estimation. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 44, 50-57). The advantages of these EB-based tests are most apparent when the markers are correlated, due to the reduction in the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we propose an adaptive score test which up- or down-weights the contributions from each member of the marker-set based on the Z-scores of

  10. The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST): Test-Retest Reliability in a High Scoring Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Carrie; Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a 37-item parental self-completion questionnaire designed to screen for high-functioning autism spectrum conditions in epidemiological research. The CAST has previously demonstrated good accuracy for use as a screening test, with high sensitivity in studies with primary school aged children in…

  11. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2013-04-01

    The Constant Score (CS), developed as a scoring system to evaluate overall functionality of patients with shoulder disorders, is widely used but has been criticised for relying on an imprecise terminology and for lack of a standardised methodology. A modified guideline was therefore published in 2008 with several new recommendations, but a standardised test protocol was not included. Also, this new version has not been translated into Danish. The aims of the present study were to develop a standardised English test protocol for the newly modified CS, and to translate and cross-culturally adapt this version into Danish. An English test protocol was developed and translated into Danish at two independent centres according to international recommendations. Consensus on a preliminary version was achieved. The subjective part was tested on six patients, while two physiotherapists gave feedback on the objective part. Relevant items were culturally adapted and rephrased, and a simple standardised test protocol was developed. Only minor inconsistencies in the translations were found. A few questions and words had to be rephrased due to cultural and linguistic differences. One of the authors of the modified CS approved both the English and the Danish test protocol. A simple test protocol of the modified CS was developed in both English and Danish. With precise terminology and definitions, the test protocol is the first of its kind. We suggest its use internationally for standardised assessment of the CS. Testing of validity, reliability and responsiveness of both versions needs to be done in future research. not relevant. not relevant.

  12. Scoring method of a Situational Judgment Test: influence on internal consistency reliability, adverse impact and correlation with personality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. de Leng (Wendy); K.M. Stegers-Jager (Karen); Husbands, A.; Dowell, J.S.; M.Ph. Born (Marise); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSituational Judgment Tests (SJTs) are increasingly used for medical school selection. Scoring an SJT is more complicated than scoring a knowledge test, because there are no objectively correct answers. The scoring method of an SJT may influence the construct and concurrent validity and

  13. Scoring Method of a Situational Judgment Test: Influence on Internal Consistency Reliability, Adverse Impact and Correlation with Personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leng, W. E.; Stegers-Jager, K. M.; Husbands, A.; Dowell, J. S.; Born, M. Ph.; Themmen, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) are increasingly used for medical school selection. Scoring an SJT is more complicated than scoring a knowledge test, because there are no objectively correct answers. The scoring method of an SJT may influence the construct and concurrent validity and the adverse impact with respect to non-traditional students.…

  14. The relationship between the ability to identify evaluation criteria and integrity test scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIUS J. KÖNIG

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that applicants who have the ability to identify what kind of behavior is evaluated positively in a personnel selection situation can use this information to adapt their behavior accordingly. Although this idea has been tested for assessment centers and structured interviews, it has not been studied with regard to integrity tests (or other personality tests. Therefore, this study tested whether candidates’ ability to identify evaluation criteria (ATIC correlates with their integrity test scores. Candidates were tested in an application training setting (N = 92. The results supported the idea that ATIC also plays an important role for integrity tests. New directions for future research are suggested based on this finding.

  15. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Constant Score (CS), developed as a scoring system to evaluate overall functionality of patients with shoulder disorders, is widely used but has been criticised for relying on an imprecise terminology and for lack of a standardised methodology. A modified guideline was therefore......-culturally adapt this version into Danish. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An English test protocol was developed and translated into Danish at two independent centres according to international recommendations. Consensus on a preliminary version was achieved. The subjective part was tested on six patients, while two...... physiotherapists gave feedback on the objective part. Relevant items were culturally adapted and rephrased, and a simple standardised test protocol was developed. RESULTS: Only minor inconsistencies in the translations were found. A few questions and words had to be rephrased due to cultural and linguistic...

  16. Mental health matters in elementary school: first-grade screening predicts fourth grade achievement test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Maria Paz; Jellinek, Michael; George, Myriam; Hartley, Marcela; Squicciarini, Ana Maria; Canenguez, Katia M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Yucel, Recai; White, Gwyne W; Guzman, Javier; Murphy, J Michael

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether mental health problems identified through screens administered in first grade are related to poorer academic achievement test scores in the fourth grade. The government of Chile uses brief teacher- and parent-completed measures [Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised (TOCA-RR) and Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-Cl)] to screen for mental health problems in about one-fifth of the country's elementary schools. In fourth grade, students take the national achievement tests (SIMCE) of language, mathematics and science. This study examined whether mental health problems identified through either or both screens predicted achievement test scores after controlling for student and family risk factors. A total of 17,252 students had complete first grade teacher forms and these were matched with fourth grade SIMCE data for 11,185 students, 7,903 of whom also had complete parent form data from the first grade. Students at risk on either the TOCA-RR or the PSC-Cl or both performed significantly worse on all SIMCE subtests. Even after controlling for covariates and adjusting for missing data, students with mental health problems on one screen in first grade had fourth grade achievement scores that were 14-18 points (~1/3 SD) lower than students screened as not at risk. Students at risk on both screens had scores that were on average 33 points lower than students at risk on either screen. Mental health problems in first grade were one of the strongest predictors of lower achievement test scores 3 years later, supporting the premise that for children mental health matters in the real world.

  17. Update: potential exposures to attenuated vaccine strain Brucella abortus RB51 during a laboratory proficiency test--United States and Canada, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-18

    In November 2007, New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) officials notified CDC of potential exposures to attenuated vaccine strain Brucella abortus RB51 (RB51) in multiple clinical laboratories that participated in a Laboratory Preparedness Survey (LPS) proficiency test. NYSDOH conducted a survey of participating laboratories and identified 17 laboratories that reported handling the RB51 sample in a manner placing lab workers at potential risk for exposure. Subsequently, CDC recommended that public health officials conduct a review of biosafety practices at all LPS-participating laboratories to identify any additional RB51 exposures. This report summarizes the results of investigations in 36 states, two cities, one county, and the District of Columbia. As of January 14, 2008, follow-up by public health officials with LPS-participating laboratories throughout the United States identified a total of 916 laboratory workers in 254 laboratories with potential RB51 exposure. The results highlight the need for routine adherence to recommended biosafety practices when working with infectious organisms, particularly during widespread infectious-disease events, including bioterrorism attacks.

  18. What's in a Teacher Test? Assessing the Relationship between Teacher Test Scores and Student Secondary STEM Achievement. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2016-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Gratz, Trevor; Theobald, Roddy

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the predictive validity of teacher credential test scores for student performance in secondary STEM classrooms in Washington state. After replicating earlier findings that teacher basic skills licensure test scores are a modest and statistically significant predictor of student math test score gains in elementary grades, we focus on…

  19. Relationship Among Tasks in a Speaking Test : In a Case of Eiken Speaking Test

    OpenAIRE

    籔田, 由己子; 飯野, 厚; 中村, 洋一

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated Eiken Speaking Test and examined the following three relationships: 1) Relationships between test tasks and total score of speaking test, 2) Relationships among test tasks, and 3) Relationships between test tasks and overall English proficiency. Regarding the relationship between the test tasks and the total score of the speaking test, we found that reading aloud and open-ended questions are related to the total score of the speaking test. As for the relationships amon...

  20. Testing statistical significance scores of sequence comparison methods with structure similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leunissen Jack AM

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past years the Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing computing power. However, the quality and sensitivity of a database search is not only determined by the algorithm but also by the statistical significance testing for an alignment. The e-value is the most commonly used statistical validation method for sequence database searching. The CluSTr database and the Protein World database have been created using an alternative statistical significance test: a Z-score based on Monte-Carlo statistics. Several papers have described the superiority of the Z-score as compared to the e-value, using simulated data. We were interested if this could be validated when applied to existing, evolutionary related protein sequences. Results All experiments are performed on the ASTRAL SCOP database. The Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm with both e-value and Z-score statistics is evaluated, using ROC, CVE and AP measures. The BLAST and FASTA algorithms are used as reference. We find that two out of three Smith-Waterman implementations with e-value are better at predicting structural similarities between proteins than the Smith-Waterman implementation with Z-score. SSEARCH especially has very high scores. Conclusion The compute intensive Z-score does not have a clear advantage over the e-value. The Smith-Waterman implementations give generally better results than their heuristic counterparts. We recommend using the SSEARCH algorithm combined with e-values for pairwise sequence comparisons.

  1. A comparison of six clock-drawing test scoring methods in a nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhui; Xu, Shanhu; Jin, Xiaoqing; Lu, Xingjiao; Liu, Lu; Lou, Yue; Wang, Yanwen; Li, Yaguo; Jin, Yu

    2017-10-11

    Clock-drawing test (CDT) is widely used but lack of a suitable scoring method. To compare the validity of six common CDT scoring methods and to find out the best one. The drawing CDT was administered in a Chinese nursing-home inhabitants living on the mainland including 110 dementia, 118 MCI (mild cognitive impairment), and 133 random normal. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of six scoring methods and applied the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve statistic, including determining the area under the curve (AUC). (1) All six CDT scoring methods had a value of sensitivity higher than 80% and a specificity of 60% except Jouk and Tuokko. Freund got the highest sensitivity (92.73%) of that five for the testing of dementia and high sensitivity (82.20%) for MCI with an acceptable specificity (70.68%). (2) The AUC (area under the ROC curve) of all six CDT methods was over 0.8 for dementia, and for MCI, only Jouk and Tuokko were lower than 0.8. Mendez had the largest AUC of 0.872 for MCI, which closely followed by Freund with 0.859. (3) Freund predicted dementia best but had no significant difference (p > 0.05); it only had significant difference with Jouk and Tuokko (p < 0.001) and the method in MoCA (p < 0.05) for both MCI and cognitive impairment. Our study suggests that Freund scoring method could be the best one among the six evaluated scoring methods within our setting.

  2. First Language Proficiency and Successful Foreign Language Learning: The Case of High School Students Learning French as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnintedem, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a correlation between first language proficiency as measured by the Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT II) Reading and Language Arts and foreign language proficiency as measured by the French Language Proficiency Test. Data for the independent variable, first language proficiency, was collected from the…

  3. Development and validation of a theoretical test of proficiency for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savran, Mona M; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Horsleben Petersen, René

    2015-01-01

    with existing guidelines for multiple-choice questions (step 2). The experts rated the relevance of the items to confirm content validity in a modified Delphi approach (step 3). Finally, the test was administered to physicians, who were categorised into different experience levels based on their experience...

  4. Rater Effects in ITA Testing: ESL Teachers' versus American Undergraduates' Judgments of Accentedness, Comprehensibility, and Oral Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching-Ni

    2011-01-01

    Second language (L2) oral performance assessment always involves raters' subjective judgments and is thus subject to rater variability. The variability due to rater characteristics has important consequential impacts on decision-making processes, particularly in high-stakes testing situations (Bachman, Lynch, & Mason, 1995; A. Brown, 1995;…

  5. The Relationship between Academic Averages of Primary School Science and Technology Class and Test Sub-Test Scores of Placement Test of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeller, Cem Oktay

    2012-01-01

    In this research, the relationship between written exam scores of science and technology class of 6th, 7th, and 8th grades, project, participation in class activities and performance work, year-end academic success point averages and sub-test raw scores of LDT science of 6th, 7th and 8th grades. Academic success point averages were used as…

  6. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  7. A knowledge-based theory of rising scores on "culture-free" tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2013-08-01

    Secular gains in intelligence test scores have perplexed researchers since they were documented by Flynn (1984, 1987). Gains are most pronounced on abstract, so-called culture-free tests, prompting Flynn (2007) to attribute them to problem-solving skills availed by scientifically advanced cultures. We propose that recent-born individuals have adopted an approach to analogy that enables them to infer higher level relations requiring roles that are not intrinsic to the objects that constitute initial representations of items. This proposal is translated into item-specific predictions about differences between cohorts in pass rates and item-response patterns on the Raven's Matrices (Flynn, 1987), a seemingly culture-free test that registers the largest Flynn effect. Consistent with predictions, archival data reveal that individuals born around 1940 are less able to map objects at higher levels of relational abstraction than individuals born around 1990. Polytomous Rasch models verify predicted violations of measurement invariance, as raw scores are found to underestimate the number of analogical rules inferred by members of the earlier cohort relative to members of the later cohort who achieve the same overall score. The work provides a plausible cognitive account of the Flynn effect, furthers understanding of the cognition of matrix reasoning, and underscores the need to consider how test-takers select item responses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Traditional and Reverse-Algorithm Syphilis Screening in Laboratory Practice: A Survey of Participants in the College of American Pathologists Syphilis Serology Proficiency Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Genzen, Jonathan R; Bashleben, Christine P; Faix, James D; Ansari, M Qasim

    2017-01-01

    -Syphilis serology screening in laboratory practice is evolving. Traditionally, the syphilis screening algorithm begins with a nontreponemal immunoassay, which is manually performed by a laboratory technologist. In contrast, the reverse algorithm begins with a treponemal immunoassay, which can be automated. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recognized both approaches, but little is known about the current state of laboratory practice, which could impact test utilization and interpretation. -To assess the current state of laboratory practice for syphilis serologic screening. -In August 2015, a voluntary questionnaire was sent to the 2360 laboratories that subscribe to the College of American Pathologists syphilis serology proficiency survey. -Of the laboratories surveyed, 98% (2316 of 2360) returned the questionnaire, and about 83% (1911 of 2316) responded to at least some questions. Twenty-eight percent (378 of 1364) reported revision of their syphilis screening algorithm within the past 2 years, and 9% (170 of 1905) of laboratories anticipated changing their screening algorithm in the coming year. Sixty-three percent (1205 of 1911) reported using the traditional algorithm, 16% (304 of 1911) reported using the reverse algorithm, and 2.5% (47 of 1911) reported using both algorithms, whereas 9% (169 of 1911) reported not performing a reflex confirmation test. Of those performing the reverse algorithm, 74% (282 of 380) implemented a new testing platform when introducing the new algorithm. -The majority of laboratories still perform the traditional algorithm, but a significant minority have implemented the reverse-screening algorithm. Although the nontreponemal immunologic response typically wanes after cure and becomes undetectable, treponemal immunoassays typically remain positive for life, and it is important for laboratorians and clinicians to consider these assay differences when implementing, using, and interpreting serologic syphilis screening

  9. Predicting First-Quarter Test Scores from the New Medical College Admission Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Thomas J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The predictive validity of the new Medical College Admission Test as it relates to end-of-quarter examinations in anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, and "ages of man" is presented. Results indicate that the Science Knowledge assessment areas of chemistry and physics and the Science Problems subtest were most useful in…

  10. Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Psychometrics of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannick, Michael T; Wahi, Monika M; Goldin, Steven B

    2011-08-01

    A sample of 183 medical students completed the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT V2.0). Scores on the test were examined for evidence of reliability and factorial validity. Although Cronbach's alpha for the total scores was adequate (.79), many of the scales had low internal consistency (scale alphas ranged from .34 to .77; median = .48). Previous factor analyses of the MSCEIT are critiqued and the rationale for the current analysis is presented. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the MSCEIT item parcels are reported. Pictures and faces items formed separate factors rather than loading on a Perception factor. Emotional Management appeared as a factor, but items from Blends and Facilitation failed to load consistently on any factor, rendering factors for Emotional Understanding and Emotional Facilitation problematic.

  12. Multiple imputation for item scores when test data are factorially complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Joost R; van der Ark, L Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2007-11-01

    Multiple imputation under a two-way model with error is a simple and effective method that has been used to handle missing item scores in unidimensional test and questionnaire data. Extensions of this method to multidimensional data are proposed. A simulation study is used to investigate whether these extensions produce biased estimates of important statistics in multidimensional data, and to compare them with lower benchmark listwise deletion, two-way with error and multivariate normal imputation. The new methods produce smaller bias in several psychometrically interesting statistics than the existing methods of two-way with error and multivariate normal imputation. One of these new methods clearly is preferable for handling missing item scores in multidimensional test data.

  13. Determining Change in Students' Writing Apprehension Scores in a Writing Intensive Course: A Pre-Test, Post-Test Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Laura M.; Meyers, Courtney

    2017-01-01

    Writing skills are one of the most important skills college graduates need to possess; however, college graduates struggle to complete written communications proficiently in the workforce. Previous researchers have explained that college instructors must understand the students' fears with writing in order to create effective writing curriculum.…

  14. Are students' impressions of improved learning through active learning methods reflected by improved test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, Marcee C

    2013-02-01

    To report the transformation from lecture to more active learning methods in a maternity nursing course and to evaluate whether student perception of improved learning through active-learning methods is supported by improved test scores. The process of transforming a course into an active-learning model of teaching is described. A voluntary mid-semester survey for student acceptance of the new teaching method was conducted. Course examination results, from both a standardized exam and a cumulative final exam, among students who received lecture in the classroom and students who had active learning activities in the classroom were compared. Active learning activities were very acceptable to students. The majority of students reported learning more from having active-learning activities in the classroom rather than lecture-only and this belief was supported by improved test scores. Students who had active learning activities in the classroom scored significantly higher on a standardized assessment test than students who received lecture only. The findings support the use of student reflection to evaluate the effectiveness of active-learning methods and help validate the use of student reflection of improved learning in other research projects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Restructuring a Traditional Foreign Language Program for Oral Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara-Norman, Filisha; And Others

    The restructuring of the Romance language program at Howard University to improve oral proficiency involved modification of goals, syllabi, classroom activities, and testing. Goals were adapted to American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)/Educational Testing Service (ETS) guidelines for oral proficiency. Assessment of French…

  16. The relationship between interview-based schizotypal personality dimension scores and the continuous performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Jeffrey S; Kamath, Vidyulata; Compton, Michael T

    2009-03-01

    The existing research that has examined cognitive performance in samples with subclinical schizotypal personality features has been largely limited to psychometric self-report questionnaires, which may be biased by distorted self-awareness of symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between performance on a degraded-AX continuous performance test (CPT) and continuous dimension scores created from a structured clinical interview for schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), which reflected both the breadth and severity of schizotypal personality symptoms, in 52 undergraduate students. Only one participant met full diagnostic criteria for SPD. The overall dimension score from the SPD clinical interview showed a positive correlation with both omission (r(s)=.47) and false alarm (r(s)=.41) errors on the CPT. Interpersonal symptoms were positively correlated with omission errors (r(s)=.47), while Disorganized symptoms were positively correlated with false alarm errors (r(s)=.40). Results suggest that higher SPD interview-based dimension scores are associated with lower levels of performance on the CPT, even when examining a relatively subclinical sample of young adults. In contrast, scores from the psychometric Abbreviated Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the same sample did not correlate with accuracy measures on the CPT, suggesting that the interview-based measure of schizotypal personality may have a stronger relationship with CPT accuracy. Findings also add to a growing literature suggesting that Interpersonal SPD symptoms are primarily related to omission errors, while Disorganized SPD symptoms are primarily related to false alarm errors.

  17. Generalizing Terwilliger's likelihood approach: a new score statistic to test for genetic association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Li

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: In this paper, we propose a one degree of freedom test for association between a candidate gene and a binary trait. This method is a generalization of Terwilliger's likelihood ratio statistic and is especially powerful for the situation of one associated haplotype. As an alternative to the likelihood ratio statistic, we derive a score statistic, which has a tractable expression. For haplotype analysis, we assume that phase is known. Results: By means of a simulation study, we compare the performance of the score statistic to Pearson's chi-square statistic and the likelihood ratio statistic proposed by Terwilliger. We illustrate the method on three candidate genes studied in the Leiden Thrombophilia Study. Conclusion: We conclude that the statistic follows a chi square distribution under the null hypothesis and that the score statistic is more powerful than Terwilliger's likelihood ratio statistic when the associated haplotype has frequency between 0.1 and 0.4 and has a small impact on the studied disorder. With regard to Pearson's chi-square statistic, the score statistic has more power when the associated haplotype has frequency above 0.2 and the number of variants is above five.

  18. Validation, test-retest reliability and norm scores for the Dutch Catquest-9SF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Martijn S; Dieleman, Myrthe; Klijn, Stijn; Timman, Reinier; Lundström, Mats; Busschbach, Jan J V; Reus, Nicolaas J

    2017-05-01

    The Catquest-9SF questionnaire is a unidimensional, reliable, valid and short patient-reported outcome measure for quantifying benefits in visual functioning from cataract surgery. Our aim was to develop a formal Dutch translation, calculate norm scores, assess its validity and test-retest reliability and provide an easy way for use in clinical practice. Translation of the questionnaire was performed according to guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. Catquest-9SF was obtained in 657 patients pre- and postcataract surgery. We applied Rasch and classical analyses to determine the questionnaire performance with characteristics such as unidimensionality, reliability, separation and differential item functioning. Test-retest reliability was assessed in another group of 145 patients. A cut-off value to discriminate between people with and without cataract, norm scores and a reliable change index (RCI) were calculated using data from a sample of 916 'healthy' persons from the normal population. The Dutch Catquest-9SF was unidimensional, and both person and item reliability were high; 0.87 and 0.99, respectively. Cronbach's alpha was 0.94, test-retest reliability was 0.85 and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93. Catquest-9SF showed to be responsive to the effect of cataract surgery (effect size = 1.27; p reliability of the Dutch Catquest-9SF as well as norm scores and a new tool to facilitate the clinical interpretation of patient scores. This makes Catquest-9SF suitable for routine use in clinical practice. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Pulmonary Embolism is Enigmatic Problem in Emergency Service: Performance of Wells Score, Geneva Score and Other Test for PE

    OpenAIRE

    Tatlı, Mehmet; Altintop, Ismail; Yurtseven, Aynur

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundPulmonaryembolism which is an mysterious and difficult disease to diagnose is the thirdmost common cause of death from cardiovascular disease. Despite recent clinicalstudies and technological development, pulmonary embolism diagnosing is hardand complicated. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism starts with physcianssuspicion. Firstly, assessment of clinical pre-test probability is important. Clinicalpre-test probability is based on assessment of whether symptoms and signs aretypical for ...

  20. An Investigation of School Psychologists' Assessment Practices of Language Proficiency with Bilingual and Limited-English-Proficient Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Salvador Hector; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of the language proficiency assessment practices of 859 school psychologists, when working with bilingual or limited English proficient students, found that 62 percent of school psychologists conducted their own assessments and most often used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised or the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody.…

  1. Priming competence diminishes the link between cognitive test anxiety and test performance. Implications for the interpretation of test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jonas W B; Lang, Jessica

    2010-06-01

    Researchers disagree whether the correlation between cognitive test anxiety and test performance is causal or explainable by skill deficits, which lead to both cognitive test anxiety and lower test performance. Most causal theories of test anxiety assume that individual differences in cognitive test anxiety originate from differences in self-perceived competence. Accordingly, in the present research, we sought to temporarily heighten perceptions of competence using a priming intervention. Two studies with secondary- and vocational-school students (Ns = 219 and 232, respectively) contrasted this intervention with a no-priming control condition. Priming competence diminished the association between cognitive test anxiety and test performance by heightening the performance of cognitively test-anxious students and by lowering the performance of students with low levels of cognitive test anxiety. The findings suggest that cognitively test-anxious persons have greater abilities than they commonly show. Competency priming may offer a way to improve the situation of people with cognitive test anxiety.

  2. Validation of a reference method for total cholesterol measurement in human serum and assignation of reference values to proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuillet, Maud; Lalere, Beatrice; Peignaux, Maryline; De Graeve, Jacques; Vaslin-Reimann, Sophie; Pais De Barros, Jean-Paul; Gambert, Philippe; Duvillard, Laurence; Delatour, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Our objective was to develop a reference method to measure total cholesterol in human serum, in order to assign values and assess the accuracy of field methods in French clinical laboratories. A reference method based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and isotope dilution (GC-IDMS) was developed and validated. It was then used to assign reference values to five frozen serum samples from voluntary proficiency testing schemes gathering 170 French clinical laboratories. Three peer groups were defined and bias against the reference method target value was calculated. Accuracy of the reference method was assessed against NIST SRM 1951b. Bias of the reference method was less than 0.5% and imprecision was less than 1.0%. Our study indicated that field methods tended to overestimate total cholesterol concentration, mean bias being +5.02% ± 1.02%. The most popular methods (phenolic chromogen with spectrophotometric detection, 80% of participants) exhibited the highest bias (peer group mean bias: +5.51 ± 1.24%). Neither these methods nor those using a non-phenolic chromogen with reflectometric detection (10% of participants, peer group mean bias: +4.20 ± 1.44%) met NCEP recommendations according to which bias should be less than 3%. Only the methods using a non phenolic chromogen with a spectrophotometric detection met these recommendations (10% of participants, peer group mean bias: +1.39 ± 2.75%). As all three peer groups provided positively biased results, the consensus mean usually used to assess the trueness of routine methods is biased as well, which results in an erroneous estimation of method bias. Therefore, this study highlights the value added by reference method target values to assess trueness of field methods and monitor performance of clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The National Early Warning Score: Translation, testing and prediction in a Swedish setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spångfors, Martin; Arvidsson, Lisa; Karlsson, Victoria; Samuelson, Karin

    2016-12-01

    The National Early Warning Score - NEWS is a "track and trigger" scale designed to assess in-hospital patients' vital signs and detect clinical deterioration. In this study the NEWS was translated into Swedish and its association with the need of intensive care was investigated. A total of 868 patient charts, recorded by the medical emergency team at a university hospital, containing the parameters needed to calculate the NEWS were audited. The NEWS was translated into Swedish and tested for inter-rater reliability with a perfect agreement (weighted κ=1.0) among the raters. The median score for patients admitted to the ICU were higher than for those who were not (10 vs. 8, pscores for the parameters oxygen saturation and level of consciousness in the NEWS may predict admission to the ICU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Can the external masculinization score predict the success of genetic testing in 46,XY DSD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthie Su

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic testing is judiciously applied to individuals with Disorders of Sex Development (DSD and so it is necessary to identify those most likely to benefit from such testing. We hypothesized that the external masculinization score (EMS is inversely associated with the likelihood of finding a pathogenic genetic variant. Patients with 46,XY DSD from a single institution evaluated from 1994-2014 were included. Results of advanced cytogenetic and gene sequencing tests were recorded. An EMS score (range 0-12 was assigned to each patient according to the team's initial external genitalia physical examination. During 1994-2011, 44 (40% patients with 46,XY DSD were evaluated and underwent genetic testing beyond initial karyotype; 23% (10/44 had a genetic diagnosis made by gene sequencing or array. The median EMS score of those with an identified pathogenic variant was significantly different from those in whom no confirmed genetic cause was identified [median 3 (95% CI, 2-6 versus 6 (95% CI, 5-7, respectively (p = 0.02], but limited to diagnoses of complete or partial androgen insensitivity (8/10 or 5-reductase deficiency (2/10. In the modern cohort (2012-2014, the difference in median EMS in whom a genetic cause was or was not identified approached significance (p = 0.05, median 3 (95% CI, 0-7 versus 7 (95% CI, 6-9, respectively. When all patients from 1994-2014 are pooled, the EMS is significantly different amongst those with compared to those without a genetic cause (median EMS 3 vs. 6, p < 0.02. We conclude that an EMS of 3 or less may indicate a higher likelihood of identifying a genetic cause of 46,XY DSD and justify genetic screening, especially when androgen insensitivity is suspected.

  5. A robust method using propensity score stratification for correcting verification bias for binary tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua; McDermott, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity and specificity are common measures of the accuracy of a diagnostic test. The usual estimators of these quantities are unbiased if data on the diagnostic test result and the true disease status are obtained from all subjects in an appropriately selected sample. In some studies, verification of the true disease status is performed only for a subset of subjects, possibly depending on the result of the diagnostic test and other characteristics of the subjects. Estimators of sensitivity and specificity based on this subset of subjects are typically biased; this is known as verification bias. Methods have been proposed to correct verification bias under the assumption that the missing data on disease status are missing at random (MAR), that is, the probability of missingness depends on the true (missing) disease status only through the test result and observed covariate information. When some of the covariates are continuous, or the number of covariates is relatively large, the existing methods require parametric models for the probability of disease or the probability of verification (given the test result and covariates), and hence are subject to model misspecification. We propose a new method for correcting verification bias based on the propensity score, defined as the predicted probability of verification given the test result and observed covariates. This is estimated separately for those with positive and negative test results. The new method classifies the verified sample into several subsamples that have homogeneous propensity scores and allows correction for verification bias. Simulation studies demonstrate that the new estimators are more robust to model misspecification than existing methods, but still perform well when the models for the probability of disease and probability of verification are correctly specified.

  6. Linking Composite Scores: Effects of Anchor Test Length and Content Representativeness. Research Report. ETS RR-16-36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Dorans, Neil; Weeks, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design is frequently used in test score equating or linking. One important assumption of the NEAT design is that the anchor test is a miniversion of the 2 tests to be equated/linked. When the content of the 2 tests is different, it is not possible for the anchor test to be adequately representative…

  7. A Comment on Early Student Blunders on Computer-Based Adaptive Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bert F.

    2011-01-01

    This article refutes a recent claim that computer-based tests produce biased scores for very proficient test takers who make mistakes on one or two initial items and that the "bias" can be reduced by using a four-parameter IRT model. Because the same effect occurs with pattern scores on nonadaptive tests, the effect results from IRT scoring, not…

  8. Guided-Inquiry Lessons Raise Scores on the Sixth Grade Georgia Science Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Purlie M.

    At the local level, G Middle School has the highest district-wide percentage of 6th grade science students who are not meeting standards. It is imperative that G middle school take corrective action to reduce the number of students failing to meet state science standards. Dewey's theory of conceptual framework, which involves knowledge constructed on a person's personal experience and mind activity through active forms of learning, guided this study. The goal of the study was to determine whether inquiry-based science modules produce greater 6th grade science achievement, as measured by an equivalent instrument of the science section of the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test, when compared to traditional instruction among eastern Georgia 6th graders. The sample consisted of 230 students in the nonintervention group and 119 students in the intervention group. All students were from intact classes. At the end of the intervention, an independent t test was conducted to analyze the scores. According to the study t test, (t = 12.33, df = 304.56, p project's potential impact on social change includes increasing student motivation towards, comprehension of, and interest in science concepts. At the local level, these inquiry lessons can be shared with science teachers across grade levels and within the district to improve county-wide science scores. An increase in student interest and comprehension of science concepts could ultimately lead to the United States producing more students in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education.

  9. Facets of Speaking Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants--181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch--performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel of judges and formed the dependent variable in…

  10. Evaluation by Proficiency Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerby, Dale

    1977-01-01

    Albuquerque Technical-Vocational Institute's system for grading business courses by proficiency certification in place of the traditional A through F system is described. A certificate is developed for each course, with evaluation of student performance in each area. This system requires a greater volume of paper work and skill analysis but it is…

  11. Facets of speaking proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N.H.; Steinel, M.P.; Florijn, A.F.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants—181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch—performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel

  12. Army Physical Fitness Test scores predict coronary heart disease risk in Army National Guard soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A; Weinstein, Ali A; Fleg, Jerome L

    2009-03-01

    An increased rate of cardiac symptoms at combat theater hospitals brings concerns about the predeployment health of Army National Guard (ARNG) soldiers on the basis of older age, lower fitness level, and sedentary lifestyle than active duty troops. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of physical fitness, reported physical activity (PA), and coronary risk factors to calculated 10-year hard coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in 136 ARNG soldiers, aged 18-53 years, who failed the 2-mile run of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). The APFT score, derived from a composite of 2-mile run time, sit-ups, and push-ups, related inversely to 10-year CHD risk (r = -0.23, p APFT scores were positively associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and inversely with triglycerides, total cholesterol:HDL ratio, diastolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI). No relationship existed between PA and any of the CHD risk factors. We conclude that a higher APFT score is associated with a healthier CHD risk factor profile and is a predictor of better predeployment cardiovascular health.

  13. A toxicity scoring system for the 10-day whole sediment test with Corophium insidiosum (Crawford).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Ermelinda; Biandolino, Francesca; Libralato, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    This study developed a tool able to evaluate the potential contamination of marine sediments detecting the presence or absence of toxicity supporting environmental decision-making processes. When the sample is toxic, it is important to classify its level of toxicity to understand its subsequent effects and management practices. Corophium insidiosum is a widespread and frequently recorded species along the Mediterranean Sea, North Sea and western Baltic Sea with records also in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. This amphipod is found in high abundance in shallow brackish inshore areas and estuaries also with high turbidity. At Italian level, C. insidiosum is more frequently collectable than Corophium orientale, making routine toxicity tests easier to be performed. Moreover, according to the international scientific literature, C. insidiosum is more sensitive than C. orientale. Whole sediment toxicity data (10 days) with C. insidiosum were organised in a species-specific toxicity score on the basis of the minimum significance difference (MSD) approach. Thresholds to rank samples as non-toxic and toxic were based on sediment samples (n=84) from the Gulf of Taranto (Italy). A five-class toxicity score (absent, low, medium, high and very high toxicity) was developed, considering the distribution of the 90th percentile of the MSD normalised to the effects on the negative controls (samples from reference sites). This toxicity score could be useful for interpreting sediment potential impacts and providing quick responsive management information.

  14. The Quantitative LOD Score: Test Statistic and Sample Size for Exclusion and Linkage of Quantitative Traits in Human Sibships

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Grier P.; Amos, Christopher I.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    1998-01-01

    We present a test statistic, the quantitative LOD (QLOD) score, for the testing of both linkage and exclusion of quantitative-trait loci in randomly selected human sibships. As with the traditional LOD score, the boundary values of 3, for linkage, and -2, for exclusion, can be used for the QLOD score. We investigated the sample sizes required for inferring exclusion and linkage, for various combinations of linked genetic variance, total heritability, recombination distance, and sibship size, ...

  15. Clock Drawing Test and the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: can more detailed scoring systems do the work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubínová, Eva; Nikolai, Tomáš; Marková, Hana; Siffelová, Kamila; Laczó, Jan; Hort, Jakub; Vyhnálek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test is a frequently used cognitive screening test with several scoring systems in elderly populations. We compare simple and complex scoring systems and evaluate the usefulness of the combination of the Clock Drawing Test with the Mini-Mental State Examination to detect patients with mild cognitive impairment. Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 48) and age- and education-matched controls (n = 48) underwent neuropsychological examinations, including the Clock Drawing Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Clock drawings were scored by three blinded raters using one simple (6-point scale) and two complex (17- and 18-point scales) systems. The sensitivity and specificity of these scoring systems used alone and in combination with the Mini-Mental State Examination were determined. Complex scoring systems, but not the simple scoring system, were significant predictors of the amnestic mild cognitive impairment diagnosis in logistic regression analysis. At equal levels of sensitivity (87.5%), the Mini-Mental State Examination showed higher specificity (31.3%, compared with 12.5% for the 17-point Clock Drawing Test scoring scale). The combination of Clock Drawing Test and Mini-Mental State Examination scores increased the area under the curve (0.72; p Drawing Test did not differentiate between healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment in our sample. Complex scoring systems were slightly more efficient, yet still were characterized by high rates of false-positive results. We found psychometric improvement using combined scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing Test when complex scoring systems were used. The results of this study support the benefit of using combined scores from simple methods.

  16. Interpreting the "g" Loadings of Intelligence Test Composite Scores in Light of Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor ("g") have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the "g" loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of…

  17. 285 Teachers‟ Experience and Students‟ Numerical Proficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... Five null hypotheses were formed and tested at 5% level of significance. Results show that numerical proficiency of students taught by experienced teachers were better than those taught by less experienced teachers. There was no significant difference in the numerical proficiency of male and female ...

  18. A score test for determining sample size in matched case-control studies with categorical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Samiran; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2006-02-01

    The paper considers the problem of determining the number of matched sets in 1 : M matched case-control studies with a categorical exposure having k + 1 categories, k > or = 1. The basic interest lies in constructing a test statistic to test whether the exposure is associated with the disease. Estimates of the k odds ratios for 1 : M matched case-control studies with dichotomous exposure and for 1 : 1 matched case-control studies with exposure at several levels are presented in Breslow and Day (1980), but results holding in full generality were not available so far. We propose a score test for testing the hypothesis of no association between disease and the polychotomous exposure. We exploit the power function of this test statistic to calculate the required number of matched sets to detect specific departures from the null hypothesis of no association. We also consider the situation when there is a natural ordering among the levels of the exposure variable. For ordinal exposure variables, we propose a test for detecting trend in disease risk with increasing levels of the exposure variable. Our methods are illustrated with two datasets, one is a real dataset on colorectal cancer in rats and the other a simulated dataset for studying disease-gene association.

  19. What's in a Teacher Test? Assessing the Relationship between Teacher Licensure Test Scores and Student STEM Achievement and Course-Taking. Working Paper 158

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Gratz, Trevor; Theobald, Roddy

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between teacher licensure test scores and student test achievement and high school course-taking. We focus on three subject/grade combinations--middle school math, ninth-grade algebra and geometry, and ninth-grade biology--and find evidence that a teacher's basic skills test scores are modestly predictive of student…

  20. What's in a Teacher Test? Assessing the Relationship between Teacher Licensure Test Scores and Student STEM Achievement and Course-Taking. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2016-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Gratz, Trevor; Theobald, Roddy

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between teacher licensure test scores and student test achievement and high school course-taking. We focus on three subject/grade combinations-- middle school math, ninth-grade algebra and geometry, and ninth-grade biology--and find evidence that a teacher's basic skills test scores are modestly predictive of…

  1. A Comparison of the Approaches of Generalizability Theory and Item Response Theory in Estimating the Reliability of Test Scores for Testlet-Composed Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guemin; Park, In-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Previous assessments of the reliability of test scores for testlet-composed tests have indicated that item-based estimation methods overestimate reliability. This study was designed to address issues related to the extent to which item-based estimation methods overestimate the reliability of test scores composed of testlets and to compare several…

  2. The Bender Gestalt Test with the Human Figure Drawing Test for Young School Children. A Manual for Use with the Koppitz Scoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppitz, Elizabeth Munsterberg

    Presented is a manual for scoring the Bender Gestalt Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test for screening and diagnostic uses with emotionally disturbed, brain damaged, or perceptually handicapped 5- to 11-year-old children. Given are suggestions for administering and scoring the Bender test which examines distortion of shape, rotation,…

  3. REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE MODIFIED STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST COMPOSITE AND SPECIFIC REACH DIRECTION SCORES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Remko; Reijneveld, Elja A E; van den Berg, Sandra M; Haerkens, Gijs M; Koenders, Niek H; de Leeuw, Arina J; van Oorsouw, Roel G; Paap, Davy; Scheffer, Else; Weterings, Stijn; Stukstette, Mirelle J

    2016-06-01

    The mSEBT is a screening tool used to evaluate dynamic balance. Most research investigating measurement properties focused on intrarater reliability and was done in small samples. To know whether the mSEBT is useful to discriminate dynamic balance between persons and to evaluate changes in dynamic balance, more research into intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change (synonymous with minimal detectable change) is needed. To estimate intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change of the mSEBT in adults at risk for ankle sprain. Cross-sectional, test-retest design. Fifty-five healthy young adults participating in sports at risk for ankle sprain participated (mean ± SD age, 24.0 ± 2.9 years). Each participant performed three test sessions within one hour and was rated by two physical therapists (session 1, rater 1; session 2, rater 2; session 3, rater 1). Participants and raters were blinded for previous measurements. Normalized composite and reach direction scores for the right and left leg were collected. Analysis of variance was used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra- and interrater reliability. Smallest detectable change values were calculated based on the standard error of measurement. Intra- and interrater reliability for both legs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.87 to 0.94). The intrarater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 7.2% and for the left 6.2%. The interrater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 6.9% and for the left 5.0%. The mSEBT is a reliable measurement instrument to discriminate dynamic balance between persons. Most smallest detectable change values of the mSEBT appear to be large. More research is needed to investigate if the mSEBT is usable for evaluative purposes. Level 2.

  4. The relationship between selected standardized test scores and performance in advanced placement math and science exams: Analyzing the differential effectiveness of scores for course identification and placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Josue N.

    There is a national need to increase the STEM-related workforce. Among factors leading towards STEM careers include the number of advanced high school mathematics and science courses students complete. Florida's enrollment patterns in STEM-related Advanced Placement (AP) courses, however, reveal that only a small percentage of students enroll into these classes. Therefore, screening tools are needed to find more students for these courses, who are academically ready, yet have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which scores from a national standardized test, Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/ National Merit Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), in conjunction with and compared to a state-mandated standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), are related to selected AP exam performance in Seminole County Public Schools. An ex post facto correlational study was conducted using 6,189 student records from the 2010 - 2012 academic years. Multiple regression analyses using simultaneous Full Model testing showed differential moderate to strong relationships between scores in eight of the nine AP courses (i.e., Biology, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics B, Physics C Electrical, Physics C Mechanical, Statistics, Calculus AB and BC) examined. For example, the significant unique contribution to overall variance in AP scores was a linear combination of PSAT Math (M), Critical Reading (CR) and FCAT Reading (R) for Biology and Environmental Science. Moderate relationships for Chemistry included a linear combination of PSAT M, W (Writing) and FCAT M; a combination of FCAT M and PSAT M was most significantly associated with Calculus AB performance. These findings have implications for both research and practice. FCAT scores, in conjunction with PSAT scores, can potentially be used for specific STEM-related AP courses, as part of a systematic approach towards AP course identification and placement. For courses with

  5. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heethal Jaiprakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group’s tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group’s tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors’ performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors’ scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001 and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001. The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  6. Manual muscle test score and force comparisons after cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham-Shropshire, B M; Klose, K J; Tucker, M E; Thomas, C K

    1997-07-01

    Manual muscle test scores (MMTS) and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force measurements were made from triceps brachii muscles of 70 individuals with chronic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Both MMTS and strength assessments showed that asymmetrical motor deficits were common. Muscles with MMTS of 3 generated an average of nine percent MVC force produced by control muscles. In this SCI population, little residual voluntary force is apparently needed for triceps brachii to work against gravity. Only 24 percent of muscles tested had this strength, however, indicating the need to develop strategies to alleviate this muscle weakness. MMTS and force were related positively but each MMTS was not associated with a unique force range. MVC force generating capacity is therefore only one factor that determines whether or not a muscle can work with or against gravity and against resistance.

  7. Core stability exercise is as effective as task-oriented motor training in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Mei K; Chan, Wai M; Lee, Lin; Chen, Tracy Mk; Chau, Rosanna Mw; Pang, Marco Yc

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a core stability program with a task-oriented motor training program in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Randomized controlled pilot trial. Outpatient unit in a hospital. Twenty-two children diagnosed with DCD aged 6-9 years were randomly allocated to the core stability program or the task-oriented motor program. Both groups underwent their respective face-to-face training session once per week for eight consecutive weeks. They were also instructed to carry out home exercises on a daily basis during the intervention period. Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Second Edition) and Sensory Organization Test at pre- and post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant between-group difference in the change of motor proficiency standard score (P=0.717), and composite equilibrium score derived from the Sensory Organization Test (P=0.100). Further analysis showed significant improvement in motor proficiency in both the core stability (mean change (SD)=6.3(5.4); p=0.008) and task-oriented training groups (mean change(SD)=5.1(4.0); P=0.007). The composite equilibrium score was significantly increased in the task-oriented training group (mean change (SD)=6.0(5.5); P=0.009), but not in the core stability group (mean change(SD) =0.0(9.6); P=0.812). In the task-oriented training group, compliance with the home program was positively correlated with change in motor proficiency (ρ=0.680, P=0.030) and composite equilibrium score (ρ=0.638, P=0.047). The core stability exercise program is as effective as task-oriented training in improving motor proficiency among children with DCD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Uno

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. METHODS: The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQ<70 was performed. In addition, stratum-specific likelihood ratios for detection of intellectual disability were calculated. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha for the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale IQ (BIQ was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96. In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9, and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4. Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  9. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQIntelligence Scale IQ (BIQ) was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96). In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9), and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4). Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  10. Trainee-Associated Factors and Proficiency at Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Kazem Aghamir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is a complicated procedure for urology trainees. This study was designed to investigate the effect of trainees’ ages and previous experience, as well as the number of operated cases, on proficiency at PNL by using patient outcomes. A cross sectional observational study was designed during a five-year period. Trainees in PNL fellowship programs were included. At the end of the program, the trainees’ performance in PNL was assessed regarding five competencies and scored 1-5. If the overall score was 4 or above, the trainee was considered as proficient. The trainees’ age at the beginning of the program and the years passed from their residency graduation were asked and recorded. Also, the number of PNL cases operated by each trainee was obtained via their logbooks. The age, years passed from graduation, and number of operated cases were compared between two groups of proficient and non-proficient trainees. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the effect of aforementioned variables on the occurrence of the proficiency. Forty-two trainees were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation for the overall score were 3.40 (out of 5 and 0.67, respectively. Eleven trainees (26.2% recognized as proficient in performing PNL. Univariate regression analysis indicated that each of three variables (age, years passed from graduation and number of operated cases had statistically significant effect on proficiency. However, the multivariate regression analysis revealed that just the number of cases had significant effect on achieving proficiency. Although it might be assumed that trainees’ age negatively correlates with their scores, in fact, it is their amount of practice that makes a difference. A certain number of cases is required to be operated by a trainee in order to reach the desired competency in PNL.

  11. Trainee-Associated Factors and Proficiency at Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamir, Seyed Mohammad Kazem; Behtash, Negar; Hamidi, Morteza; Farahmand, Hasan; Salavati, Alborz; Mortaz Hejri, Sara

    2017-07-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is a complicated procedure for urology trainees. This study was designed to investigate the effect of trainees' ages and previous experience, as well as the number of operated cases, on proficiency at PNL by using patient outcomes. A cross sectional observational study was designed during a five-year period. Trainees in PNL fellowship programs were included. At the end of the program, the trainees' performance in PNL was assessed regarding five competencies and scored 1-5. If the overall score was 4 or above, the trainee was considered as proficient. The trainees' age at the beginning of the program and the years passed from their residency graduation were asked and recorded. Also, the number of PNL cases operated by each trainee was obtained via their logbooks. The age, years passed from graduation, and number of operated cases were compared between two groups of proficient and non-proficient trainees. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the effect of aforementioned variables on the occurrence of the proficiency. Forty-two trainees were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation for the overall score were 3.40 (out of 5) and 0.67, respectively. Eleven trainees (26.2%) recognized as proficient in performing PNL. Univariate regression analysis indicated that each of three variables (age, years passed from graduation and number of operated cases) had statistically significant effect on proficiency. However, the multivariate regression analysis revealed that just the number of cases had significant effect on achieving proficiency. Although it might be assumed that trainees' age negatively correlates with their scores, in fact, it is their amount of practice that makes a difference. A certain number of cases is required to be operated by a trainee in order to reach the desired competency in PNL.

  12. Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2010-04-01

    Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

  13. Application of Statistics to Evaluate Iranian Analytical Laboratories Proficiency: Case of Aflatoxins in Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fotouhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a proficiency testing program among limited number of local laboratories as an alternative to the IUPAC/CITAC guide on proficiency testing with a limited number of participants, specially where international schemes are not accessible. As a sample scheme we planned to determine aflatoxins (B1, G1, B2, G2, total in Iranian pistachio matrix. A part of naturally contaminated pistachio sample was tested for sufficient homogeneity by a competent laboratory and then homogenized sub-samples were distributed among participants all across the country. The median of participants’ results was selected as assigned value. Student t-test was applied to show there is no significant difference between assigned and mean values of homogeneity test results obtained by the competent laboratory. Calculated z-scores showed that 6 out of 8 results in aflatoxin B1, 7 out of 8 results in aflatoxin B2, 5 out of 8 results in aflatoxin G1, 7 out of 8 results in aflatoxin G2 and 6 out of 9 results in aflatoxin total were in satisfactory range. Together our studies indicate that the approach described here is highly cost efficient and applicable for quality assurance of test results when there is no access to international proficiency testing providers.

  14. A Subgroup Analysis of the Impact of Self-testing Frequency on Examination Scores in a Pathophysiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panus, Peter C; Stewart, David W; Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Thigpen, Jim C; Brooks, Lauren

    2014-11-15

    To determine if the frequency of self-testing of course material prior to actual examination improves examination scores, regardless of the actual scores on the self-testing. Practice quizzes were randomly generated from a total of 1342 multiple-choice questions in pathophysiology and made available online for student self-testing. Intercorrelations, 2-way repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc tests, and 2-group comparisons following rank ordering, were conducted. During each of 4 testing blocks, more than 85% of students took advantage of the self-testing process for a total of 7042 attempts. A consistent significant correlation (p≤0.05) existed between the number of practice quiz attempts and the subsequent examination scores. No difference in the number of quiz attempts was demonstrated compared to the first testing block. Exam scores for the first and second testing blocks were both higher than those for third and fourth blocks. Although self-testing strategies increase retrieval and retention, they are uncommon in pharmacy education. The results suggested that the number of self-testing attempts alone improved subsequent examination scores, regardless of the score for self-tests.

  15. Beyond English proficiency: rethinking immigrant integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S; Frank, Reanne

    2014-05-01

    We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond English Proficiency: Rethinking Immigrant Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S.; Frank, Reanne

    2014-01-01

    We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. PMID:24576636

  17. [Information Concerning Mean Test Scores for the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) for the National Commission on Excellence in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Robert J.

    Data are provided to the National Commission on Excellence in Education on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Statistics are provided on the following: yearly GMAT mean scores 1965-1966…

  18. The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness between Test-Taking Motivation and Listening Test Score: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating effect of listening metacognitive awareness on the relationship between expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score. According to the results, test takers’ listening scores can be predicted by expectancy, interest, and listening anxiety significantly. The relationship between expectancy, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score was mediated by listening metacognitive awareness. The findings have implications for test takers to improve their test taking motivation and listening metacognitive awareness, as well as for L2 teachers to intervene in L2 listening classrooms.

  19. ESL Proficiency and a Word Frequency Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlech-Jones, Brian

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)

  20. One Hundred Percent Proficiency: A Mission Impossible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Eric; Wilson, Glen; Cobb, Casey; Rallis, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Applying microeconomic theory to No Child Left Behind predicts that its use of significant consequences for schools that do not reach 100% proficiency on rigorous standardized tests by 2014 will likely prevent most, if not all schools, from providing a high-quality education for their students. The central problem is cost. Quality assurance models…

  1. Ohio District Tests Performance Pay--for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2007-01-01

    Coshocton district in Ohio takes part in an unusual experiment that pays students who pass or scores high in the state exams. Pupils here in grades 3 through 6 earn $15 for every "proficient" score and $20 for "accelerated" or "advanced" scores. With annual tests given in five subjects, students can earn up to $100 if…

  2. 25 CFR 39.134 - How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient....134 How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student? A student is identified as limited English proficient (LEP) by using a nationally recognized scientifically research-based test. ...

  3. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nazrina; Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul; Raduan, Farhana; Sagap, Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  4. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Zakiyah, E-mail: zac@uum.edu.my; Ahmad, Yuhaniz, E-mail: yuhaniz@uum.edu.my [School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, UUM Sintok 06010, Kedah (Malaysia); Azwan, Zairul, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Raduan, Farhana, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Sagap, Ismail, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com [Surgery Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, 56000 Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aziz, Nazrina, E-mail: nazrina@uum.edu.my

    2014-12-04

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  5. A Brief Look at: Test Scores and the Standard Error of Measurement. E&R Report No. 10.13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdzkom, David; Sumner, Brian; McMillen, Brad

    2010-01-01

    In the context of standardized testing, the standard error of measurement (SEM) is a measure of the factors other than the student's actual knowledge of the tested material that may affect the student's test score. Such factors may include distractions in the testing environment, fatigue, hunger, or even luck. This means that a student's observed…

  6. Applying cognitive acuity theory to the development and scoring of situational judgment tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, J Peter

    2017-11-09

    The theory of cognitive acuity (TCA) treats the response options within items as signals to be detected and uses psychophysical methods to estimate the respondents' sensitivity to these signals. Such a framework offers new methods to construct and score situational judgment tests (SJT). Leeds (2012) defined cognitive acuity as the capacity to discern correctness and distinguish between correctness differences among simultaneously presented situation-specific response options. In this study, SJT response options were paired in order to offer the respondent a two-option choice. The contrast in correctness valence between the two options determined the magnitude of signal emission, with larger signals portending a higher probability of detection. A logarithmic relation was found between correctness valence contrast (signal stimulus) and its detectability (sensation response). Respondent sensitivity to such signals was measured and found to be related to the criterion variables. The linkage between psychophysics and elemental psychometrics may offer new directions for measurement theory.

  7. Educational test scores among adolescents in three-generational households in 20 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Olavi Tanskanen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grandparental presence is often found to associate with improved grandchild wellbeing. However, studies have shown that the effect is not always positive. This could be explained by the fact that in some circumstances grandparents compete with grandchildren over parental time resources. We studied the assumption using data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA from 20 Western countries (n=73,346 children at age 15. According to the results grandparental presence was associated with lower levels of parental involvement and decreased educational test scores among adolescents. Moreover, the results indicate that when the parental involvement is lower at the first place the grandparental presence tends to be associated with even weaker child outcomes. Finally, we found support that grandparental co-residence is a mediator of the association between parental involvement and child outcomes. These results are discussed with reference to the local resource competition model.

  8. Can Lextale-Esp discriminate between groups of highly proficient Catalan-Spanish bilinguals with different language dominances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Pilar; Brysbaert, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Researchers have recently introduced various LexTALE-type word recognition tests in order to assess vocabulary size in a second language (L2) mastered by participants. These tests correlate well with other measures of language proficiency in unbalanced bilinguals whose second language ability is well below the level of their native language. In the present study, we investigated whether LexTALE-type tests also discriminate at the high end of the proficiency range. In several regions of Spain, people speak both the regional language (e.g., Catalan or Basque) and Spanish to very high degrees. Still, because of their living circumstances, some consider themselves as either Spanish-dominant or regional-language dominant. We showed that these two groups perform differently on the recently published Spanish Lextale-Esp: The Spanish-dominant group had significantly higher scores than the Catalan-dominant group. We also showed that the noncognate words of the test have the highest discrimination power. This indicates that the existing Lextale-Esp can be used to estimate proficiency differences in highly proficient bilinguals with Spanish as an L2, and that a more sensitive test could be built by replacing the cognates.

  9. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  10. Examination of Substance Use, Risk Factors, and Protective Factors on Student Academic Test Score Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Michael W; Brown, Eric C; Briney, John S; Hawkins, J David; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F; Becker, Linda; Langer, Michael; Mueller, Martin T

    2015-08-01

    School administrators and teachers face difficult decisions about how best to use school resources to meet academic achievement goals. Many are hesitant to adopt prevention curricula that are not focused directly on academic achievement. Yet, some have hypothesized that prevention curricula can remove barriers to learning and, thus, promote achievement. We examined relationships among school levels of student substance use and risk and protective factors that predict adolescent problem behaviors and achievement test performance. Hierarchical generalized linear models were used to predict associations involving school-averaged levels of substance use and risk and protective factors and students' likelihood of meeting achievement test standards on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning, statistically controlling for demographic and economic factors known to be associated with achievement. Levels of substance use and risk/protective factors predicted the academic test score performance of students. Many of these effects remained significant even after controlling for model covariates. Implementing prevention programs that target empirically identified risk and protective factors has the potential to have a favorable effect on students' academic achievement. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  11. The English Proficiency of the Academics of the Teacher Training and Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saukah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing the general English proficiency level of the academics of Teacher Training and Education Institutions (LPTK's as indicated by their TOEFL scores. Specifically, the study is focused on finding out whether there is any difference among the academics' English proficiencies when they are grouped in terms of the geographic regions of their institutions and their fields of study. This study is also intended to reveal any possible relationship between the academics' English proficiency and their age. The results indicate that the English proficiency of the academics on the average is far below the average of that of the international students. The academics in West Java are the highest in their English proficiency, and the English group, as expected, has the best English proficiency. In addition, there is a negative correlation between English proficiency and age

  12. Global risk scores and exercise testing for predicting all-cause mortality in a preventive medicine program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Mehmet K; Ozduran, Volkan; Pothier, Claire E; Lang, Richard; Lauer, Michael S

    2004-09-22

    The usefulness of exercise stress test results and global cardiovascular risk systems for predicting all-cause mortality in asymptomatic individuals seen in clinical settings is unclear. To determine the validity for prediction of all-cause mortality of the Framingham Risk Score and of a recently described European global scoring system Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) for cardiovascular mortality among asymptomatic individuals evaluated in a clinical setting and to determine the potential prognostic value of exercise stress testing once these baseline risks are known. Prospective cohort study of 3554 asymptomatic adults between the ages of 50 and 75 years who underwent exercise stress testing as part of an executive health program between October 1990 and December 2002; participants were followed up for a mean of 8 years. Global risk based on the Framingham Risk Score and the European SCORE. Prospectively recorded exercise stress test result abnormalities included impaired physical fitness, abnormal heart rate recovery, ventricular ectopy, and ST-segment abnormalities. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. There were 114 deaths. The c-index, which corresponds to receiver operating characteristic curve values, and the Akaike Information Criteria found that the European SCORE was superior to the Framingham Risk Score in estimating global mortality risk. In a multivariable model, independent predictors of death were a higher SCORE (for 1% predicted increase in absolute risk, relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09; Pmortality. Among patients in the highest tertile from the SCORE, an abnormal exercise stress test result, defined as either impaired functional capacity or an abnormal heart rate recovery, identified a mortality risk of more than 1% per year. Exercise stress testing when combined with the European global risk SCORE may be useful for stratifying risk in asymptomatic individuals in a comprehensive executive

  13. Exploring Validity of Computer-Based Test Scores with Examinees' Response Behaviors and Response Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Füsun

    2017-01-01

    Examining the testing processes, as well as the scores, is needed for a complete understanding of validity and fairness of computer-based assessments. Examinees' rapid-guessing and insufficient familiarity with computers have been found to be major issues that weaken the validity arguments of scores. This study has three goals: (a) improving…

  14. Improving Personality Facet Scores with Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Testing: An Illustration with the Neo Pi-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated…

  15. An Investigation of Possible Test Floor Effects By Comparing Score Distributions for Students Tested With Two Different Levels of a Test Battery at Four Different Times Over a Two-Year Interval. Iowa Testing Programs Occasional Papers. Number 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Scott A.

    When a program evaluation is conducted on the basis of gains made in standardized achievement test scores between a pretest and a posttest, serious bias can result where a floor effect exists on one or both of the test levels. Based upon the expanded standard scores on the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills from three successive regular spring…

  16. Talking to Score: Impression Management in L2 Oral Assessment and the Co-Construction of a Test Discourse Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jasmine

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the emphasis in second language (L2) oral proficiency assessment has shifted from linguistic accuracy to discourse strategies such as the ability to initiate, respond, and negotiate meaning. This has resulted in a growing interest in the discourse analysis of students' performance in different oral proficiency assessment formats.…

  17. Medicare program; prospective payment system for federally qualified health centers; changes to contracting policies for rural health clinics; and changes to Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 enforcement actions for proficiency testing referral. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-02

    This final rule with comment period implements methodology and payment rates for a prospective payment system (PPS) for federally qualified health center (FQHC) services under Medicare Part B beginning on October 1, 2014, in compliance with the statutory requirement of the Affordable Care Act. In addition, it establishes a policy which allows rural health clinics (RHCs) to contract with nonphysician practitioners when statutory requirements for employment of nurse practitioners and physician assistants are met, and makes other technical and conforming changes to the RHC and FQHC regulations. Finally, this final rule with comment period implements changes to the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations regarding enforcement actions for proficiency testing (PT) referrals.

  18. The use of test scores from large-scale assessment surveys: psychometric and statistical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Braun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economists are making increasing use of measures of student achievement obtained through large-scale survey assessments such as NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA. The construction of these measures, employing plausible value (PV methodology, is quite different from that of the more familiar test scores associated with assessments such as the SAT or ACT. These differences have important implications both for utilization and interpretation. Although much has been written about PVs, it appears that there are still misconceptions about whether and how to employ them in secondary analyses. Methods We address a range of technical issues, including those raised in a recent article that was written to inform economists using these databases. First, an extensive review of the relevant literature was conducted, with particular attention to key publications that describe the derivation and psychometric characteristics of such achievement measures. Second, a simulation study was carried out to compare the statistical properties of estimates based on the use of PVs with those based on other, commonly used methods. Results It is shown, through both theoretical analysis and simulation, that under fairly general conditions appropriate use of PV yields approximately unbiased estimates of model parameters in regression analyses of large scale survey data. The superiority of the PV methodology is particularly evident when measures of student achievement are employed as explanatory variables. Conclusions The PV methodology used to report student test performance in large scale surveys remains the state-of-the-art for secondary analyses of these databases.

  19. Association testing for next-generation sequencing data using score statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotte, Line; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2012-07-01

    The advances in sequencing technology have made large-scale sequencing studies for large cohorts feasible. Often, the primary goal for large-scale studies is to identify genetic variants associated with a disease or other phenotypes. Even when deep sequencing is performed, there will be many sites where there is not enough data to call genotypes accurately. Ignoring the genotype classification uncertainty by basing subsequent analyses on called genotypes leads to a loss in power. Additionally, using called genotypes can lead to spurious association signals. Some methods taking the uncertainty of genotype calls into account have been proposed; most require numerical optimization which for large-scale data is not always computationally feasible. We show that using a score statistic for the joint likelihood of observed phenotypes and observed sequencing data provides an attractive approach to association testing for next-generation sequencing data. The joint model accounts for the genotype classification uncertainty via the posterior probabilities of the genotypes given the observed sequencing data, which gives the approach higher power than methods based on called genotypes. This strategy remains computationally feasible due to the use of score statistics. As part of the joint likelihood, we model the distribution of the phenotypes using a generalized linear model framework, which works for both quantitative and discrete phenotypes. Thus, the method presented here is applicable to case-control studies as well as mapping of quantitative traits. The model allows additional covariates that enable correction for confounding factors such as population stratification or cohort effects. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The TSCA interagency testing committee`s approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups: 1977-1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper describes the TSCA interagency testing committee`s (ITC) approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups between 1977 and 1983. During this time the ITC conducted five scoring exercises to select chemicals and chemical groups for detailed review and to determine which of these chemicals and chemical groups should be added to the TSCA Section 4(e) Priority Testing List. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  2. The Effect of English Language on Multiple Choice Question Scores of Thai Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Muangkaew, Wayuda; Assanasen, Jintana; Kunavisarut, Tada; Thongngarm, Torpong; Ruchutrakool, Theera; Kobwanthanakun, Surapon; Dejsomritrutai, Wanchai

    2016-04-01

    Universities in Thailand are preparing for Thailand's integration into the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by increasing the number of tests in English language. English language is not the native language of Thailand Differences in English language proficiency may affect scores among test-takers, even when subject knowledge among test-takers is comparable and may falsely represent the knowledge level of the test-taker. To study the impact of English language multiple choice test questions on test scores of medical students. The final examination of fourth-year medical students completing internal medicine rotation contains 120 multiple choice questions (MCQ). The languages used on the test are Thai and English at a ratio of 3:1. Individual scores of tests taken in both languages were collected and the effect of English language on MCQ was analyzed Individual MCQ scores were then compared with individual student English language proficiency and student grade point average (GPA). Two hundred ninety five fourth-year medical students were enrolled. The mean percentage of MCQ scores in Thai and English were significantly different (65.0 ± 8.4 and 56.5 ± 12.4, respectively, p language. Students were classified into six grade categories (A, B+, B, C+, C, and D+), which cumulatively measured total internal medicine rotation performance score plus final examination score. MCQ scores from Thai language examination were more closely correlated with total course grades than were the scores from English language examination (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.73 (p languages was higher in borderline students than in the excellent student group (11.2 ± 11.2 and 7.1 ± 8.2, respectively, p language MCQ examination scores were more highly associated with GPA than with English language proficiency. The use of English language multiple choice question test may decrease scores of the fourth-year internal medicine post-rotation final examination, especially those of borderline

  3. Development of new risk score for pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease based on coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Tarutani, Yasuhiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Urabe, Yoji; Konno, Kumiko; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Kihara, Yasuki; Daida, Hiroyuki; Isshiki, Takaaki; Takase, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    Existing methods to calculate pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) have been established using selected high-risk patients who were referred to conventional coronary angiography. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate our new method for pre-test probability of obstructive CAD using patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), which could be applicable to a wider range of patient population. Using consecutive 4137 patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary CTA at our institution, a multivariate logistic regression model including clinical factors as covariates calculated the pre-test probability (K-score) of obstructive CAD determined by coronary CTA. The K-score was compared with the Duke clinical score using the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. External validation was performed by an independent sample of 319 patients. The final model included eight significant predictors: age, gender, coronary risk factor (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking), history of cerebral infarction, and chest symptom. The AUC of the K-score was significantly greater than that of the Duke clinical score for both derivation (0.736 vs. 0.699) and validation (0.714 vs. 0.688) data sets. Among patients who underwent coronary CTA, newly developed K-score had better pre-test prediction ability of obstructive CAD compared to Duke clinical score in Japanese population.

  4. Simple shoulder test and Oxford Shoulder Score: Persian translation and cross-cultural validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Soofia; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Rustaie, Nilufar; Akbari, Mohammad; Ebadi, Safoora; Senobari, Maryam; Hasson, Scott

    2015-12-01

    To translate, culturally adapt, and validate the simple shoulder test (SST) and Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) into Persian language using a cross-sectional and prospective cohort design. A standard forward and backward translation was followed to culturally adapt the SST and the OSS into Persian language. Psychometric properties of floor and ceiling effects, construct convergent validity, discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, standard error of the measurement (SEM), smallest detectable change (SDC), and factor structure were determined. One hundred patients with shoulder disorders and 50 healthy subjects participated in the study. The PSST and the POSS showed no missing responses. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. Both the PSST and POSS detected differences between patients and healthy subjects supporting their discriminant validity. Construct convergent validity was confirmed by a very good correlation between the PSST and POSS (r = 0.68). There was high internal consistency for both the PSST (α = 0.73) and the POSS (α = 0.91 and 0.92). Test-retest reliability with 1-week interval was excellent (ICCagreement = 0.94 for PSST and 0.90 for POSS). Factor analyses demonstrated a three-factor solution for the PSST (49.7 % of variance) and a two-factor solution for the POSS (61.6 % of variance). The SEM/SDC was satisfactory for PSST (5.5/15.3) and POSS (6.8/18.8). The PSST and POSS are valid and reliable outcome measures for assessing functional limitations in Persian-speaking patients with shoulder disorders.

  5. SYNCHRONOUS CMC, WORKING MEMORY, AND L2 ORAL PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Payne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002. Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989 model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC and second language (L2 speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002 with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

  6. Apgar Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Apgar Scores Page Content Article Body As soon as ... baby's general condition at birth. What Does the Apgar Test Measure? The test measures your baby's: Heart ...

  7. The relationship between language proficiency and attentional control in Cantonese-English bilingual children: Evidence from Simon, Simon switching, and working memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shing eTse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By administering Simon, Simon switching, and operation-span working memory tasks to Cantonese-English bilingual children who varied in their first-language (L1, Cantonese and second-language (L2, English proficiencies, as quantified by standardized vocabulary test performance, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiency on attentional control performance. Apart from mean performance, we conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants’ reaction time distributions in the Simon task. Bilinguals’ L2 proficiency was associated with higher scores in the operation span task, and a shift of reaction time distributions in incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials (Simon effect in µ, and the tail size of reaction time distributions (τ regardless of trial types. Bilinguals’ L1 proficiency, which was strongly associated with participants’ age, showed similar results, except that it was not associated with the Simon effect in µ. In contrast, neither bilinguals’ L1 nor L2 proficiency modulated the global switch cost or local switch cost in the Simon switching task. After taking into account potential cognitive maturation by partialling out the participants’ age, only (a scores in the working memory task and (b RT in incongruent trials and (c Simon effect in µ in the Simon task could still be predicted by bilinguals’ L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings suggest that bilingual children’s L2 proficiency was associated with their conflict resolution and working memory capacity, but not goal maintenance or task-set switching, when they performed the cognitive tasks that demanded attentional control. This was not entirely consistent with the findings of college-age bilinguals reported in previous studies.

  8. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version Score of Schizophrenic Patients in a Japanese Clinical Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Koide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia strongly relates to social outcome and is a good candidate for endophenotypes. When we accurately measure drug efficacy or effects of genes or variants relevant to schizophrenia on cognitive impairment, clinical factors that can affect scores on cognitive tests, such as age and severity of symptoms, should be considered. To elucidate the effect of clinical factors, we conducted multiple regression analysis using scores of the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version (CPT-IP, which is often used to measure attention/vigilance in schizophrenia. Methods. We conducted the CPT-IP (4-4 digit and examined clinical information (sex, age, education years, onset age, duration of illness, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS scores in 126 schizophrenia patients in Japanese population. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical factors. Results. Age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and PANSS-negative symptom score were associated with mean d′ score in patients. These three clinical factors explained about 28% of the variance in mean d′ score. Conclusions. As conclusion, CPT-IP score in schizophrenia patients is influenced by age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose and PANSS negative symptom score.

  9. Using the EZ-Diffusion Model to Score a Single-Category Implicit Association Test of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Amanda L; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E

    2015-03-01

    The Single-Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) has been used as a method for assessing automatic evaluations of physical activity, but measurement artifact or consciously-held attitudes could be confounding the outcome scores of these measures. The objective of these two studies was to address these measurement concerns by testing the validity of a novel SC-IAT scoring technique. Study 1 was a cross-sectional study, and study 2 was a prospective study. In study 1, undergraduate students (N = 104) completed SC-IATs for physical activity, flowers, and sedentary behavior. In study 2, undergraduate students (N = 91) completed a SC-IAT for physical activity, self-reported affective and instrumental attitudes toward physical activity, physical activity intentions, and wore an accelerometer for two weeks. The EZ-diffusion model was used to decompose the SC-IAT into three process component scores including the information processing efficiency score. In study 1, a series of structural equation model comparisons revealed that the information processing score did not share variability across distinct SC-IATs, suggesting it does not represent systematic measurement artifact. In study 2, the information processing efficiency score was shown to be unrelated to self-reported affective and instrumental attitudes toward physical activity, and positively related to physical activity behavior, above and beyond the traditional D-score of the SC-IAT. The information processing efficiency score is a valid measure of automatic evaluations of physical activity.

  10. Exploration of analysis methods for diagnostic imaging tests: problems with ROC AUC and confidence scores in CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Susan; Halligan, Steve; Collins, Gary S; Altman, Doug G

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC) for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests.

  11. Genetic parameters for test day somatic cell score in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C N; Santos, G G; Cobuci, J A; Thompson, G; Carvalheira, J G V

    2015-12-29

    Selection for lower somatic cell count has been included in the breeding objectives of several countries in order to increase resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters of somatic cell scores (SCS) were estimated from the first lactation test day records of Brazilian Holstein cows using random-regression models with Legendre polynomials (LP) of the order 3-5. Data consisted of 87,711 TD produced by 10,084 cows, sired by 619 bulls calved from 1993 to 2007. Heritability estimates varied from 0.06 to 0.14 and decreased from the beginning of the lactation up to 60 days in milk (DIM) and increased thereafter to the end of lactation. Genetic correlations between adjacent DIM were very high (>0.83) but decreased to negative values, obtained with LP of order four, between DIM in the extremes of lactation. Despite the favorable trend, genetic changes in SCS were not significant and did not differ among LP. There was little benefit of fitting an LP of an order >3 to model animal genetic and permanent environment effects for SCS. Estimates of variance components found in this study may be used for breeding value estimation for SCS and selection for mastitis resistance in Holstein cattle in Brazil.

  12. Reconstructing, Investigating the Reliability and Validity and Scoring the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Saleh Sedghpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to reconstruct determining validity, and score The Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test fourth edition (SDRT4 in the sixth grade students. Methods: The population of the study was all sixth grades of the 19 educational districts from Tehran, 571 students (255 boys and 316 girls were selected by using a random multi-cluster sampling. The data were analyzed. The techniques were item analysis (difficulty index, discriminative index, and loop techniques. Validity, translation validity, content validity, and construct validity (factorial analysis, and reliability (Kuder-Richardson. Results: The exploratory factor analysis determined five factors: declarative knowledge, inferential knowledge, procedural knowledge and visualization knowledge. The reliability of the Stanford diagnostic Reading Test’s subtests by computing the Kuder-Richardson coefficient were 0.778, 0.732 and 0.748 for comprehension subtest, vocabulary subtest and scanning subtest in order. Discussion: By considering the results of present study, SDRT4 has good reliability and validity and can appropriately diagnose the reading disabled students in the sixth grade.

  13. [Influence of hearing aids on monosyllabic test score and subjective everyday hearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thümmler, R; Liebscher, T; Hoppe, U

    2016-08-01

    Pure tone and speech audiometry are essential methods for examining the indication for hearing aids, as well as for hearing aid evaluation. Additionally, the subjective benefit of hearing aids has to be evaluated with appropriate questionnaires. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between speech audiometry data and the results of a simple and user-friendly questionnaire, as well as to provide normative data for subjective benefit. Data from 136 hearing aid users with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were analyzed retrospectively. Pure tone thresholds and Freiburg monosyllabic speech perception in the binaural situation were measured at 65 dB in quiet and in noise (signal-to-noise ratio, SNR = +5 dB), with and without hearing aids. Additionally, subjective hearing in everyday life was recorded using the 12-item Oldenburg Inventory. Improvement of speech perception with hearing aids for the Freiburg monosyllabic test in quiet was 32.0 percentage points on average; in noise, there was an average improvement of 16.4 percentage points. There was a strong correlation between the results of pure tone and speech audiometry. With hearing aids, patients scored their everyday hearing using the Oldenburg Inventory on average 1.4 scale points better than without hearing aids. Results of the Oldenburg Inventory correlate with both pure tone and speech audiometry. Hearing aid evaluation should include both speech audiometry and systematic measurement of the subjective benefit using a suitable questionnaire. In combination, the Freiburg monosyllabic test and the Oldenburg Inventory allow for quick and comprehensive evaluation.

  14. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Constant Score (CS), developed as a scoring system to evaluate overall functionality of patients with shoulder disorders, is widely used but has been criticised for relying on an imprecise terminology and for lack of a standardised methodology. A modified guideline was therefore...

  15. Classroom Attributes and Achievement Test Scores for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Judith

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of data from approximately 58,000 deaf and hard of hearing students (ages 6 through 21) analyzed relationships among reading comprehension and mathematics computation achievement scores, classroom attributes, and demographic factors associated with achievement. Adjustment of scores for demographic factors suggested higher performance for…

  16. English language proficiency and academic performance: A study of a medical preparatory year program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad

    2015-01-01

    All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level.

  17. The Effect of Fatigue on Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test Scores in Recreational Weightlifters: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Trenton D; Chaconas, Eric

    2017-04-01

    A paucity of research currently exists for upper extremity return to sport testing. The Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-UQ) is a clinical test of closed kinetic chain performance with demonstrated reliability. Prior investigations of the YBT-UQ were conducted with individuals in a resting state and no comparison to performance in a fatigued state has been conducted. To examine the effect of upper extremity fatigue on the performance of the YBT-UQ in recreational weightlifters. Randomized controlled trial. 24 participants who participated in recreational weight training three days per week were randomly allocated to a control or experimental group. Individuals in the control group were tested using the YBT-UQ and re-tested after a 20-minute rest period. Participants in the experimental group were tested with the YBT-UQ, performed an upper extremity exercise fatigue protocol, and immediately re-tested. Examiners were blinded to participant allocation. Differences from pre- to post-fatigue YBT-UQ testing revealed score reductions between 2.04cm - 12.16cm for both composite scores and individual reach directions. The repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences when comparing the pre- and post-testing results between the fatigue and non-fatigue groups for all individual directions (p ≤ .006) and composite scores both limbs (p<.035). The performance of an upper body fatigue protocol significantly reduces YBT-UQ scores in recreational weightlifters. 1b.

  18. SEX DIFFERENCES IN SCORES on THE DRAW-A-PERSON TEST ACROSS CHILDHOOD: DO THEY RELATE TO GRAPHIC FLUENCY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Delphine

    2015-02-01

    Girls are said to outperform boys in the human figure drawing, but some disagreement exists among studies regarding such sex differences, and the reasons for these sex differences are unclear. The study examined how sex, age, and graphic fluency affect scores at the human figure drawing in large sample of children aged five to 12 years. To that end, the Draw-a-Person Test was administered to 336 boys and girls from kindergarten to Grade 6, using Goodenough's scoring method. Graphic fluency was measured using Torrance's Parallel Lines Test. Results showed a sex by age interaction on scores at the Draw-a-Person test, with girls outperforming boys at Grades 3 and 6. Split-sample regression analyses indicated that for boys both age and graphic fluency were relevant predictors for scores on the Draw-a-Person test; by contrast, for girls age, but not fluency, predicted the drawing scores. It was concluded that graphic fluency differently affected boys' and girls' scores.

  19. Clinical Wisdom among Proficient Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Hall, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    This paperexamines clinical wisdom which has emerged from a broader study anout nurse managers´influence on proficient registered nurse turnover and retention. The purpose of the study was to increase understanding of proficient nurses´experience and clinical practice by giving voice to the nurses...

  20. The relationship between automatic assessment of oral proficiency and other indicators of first year students' linguistic abilities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Febe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Academic literacy proficiency is key to the success of a student at university. Currently, the large-scale assessment of language proficiency, particularly at higher education levels, is dominated by reading and writing tests because listening...

  1. Visual-Constructional Ability in Individuals with Severe Obesity: Rey Complex Figure Test Accuracy and the Q-Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargénius, Hanna L; Bylsma, Frederick W; Lydersen, Stian; Hestad, Knut

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate visual-construction and organizational strategy among individuals with severe obesity, as measured by the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT), and to examine the validity of the Q-score as a measure for the quality of performance on the RCFT. Ninety-six non-demented morbidly obese (MO) patients and 100 healthy controls (HC) completed the RCFT. Their performance was calculated by applying the standard scoring criteria. The quality of the copying process was evaluated per the directions of the Q-score scoring system. Results revealed that the MO did not perform significantly lower than the HC on Copy accuracy (mean difference -0.302, CI -1.374 to 0.769, p = 0.579). In contrast, the groups did statistically differ from each other, with MO performing poorer than the HC on the Q-score (mean -1.784, CI -3.237 to -0.331, p = 0.016) and the Unit points (mean -1.409, CI -2.291 to -0.528, p = 0.002), but not on the Order points score (mean -0.351, CI -0.994 to 0.293, p = 0.284). Differences on the Unit score and the Q-score were slightly reduced when adjusting for gender, age, and education. This study presents evidence supporting the presence of inefficiency in visuospatial constructional ability among MO patients. We believe we have found an indication that the Q-score captures a wider range of cognitive processes that are not described by traditional scoring methods. Rather than considering accuracy and placement of the different elements only, the Q-score focuses more on how the subject has approached the task.

  2. Visual-Constructional Ability in Individuals with Severe Obesity: Rey Complex Figure Test Accuracy and the Q-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna L. Sargénius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate visual-construction and organizational strategy among individuals with severe obesity, as measured by the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT, and to examine the validity of the Q-score as a measure for the quality of performance on the RCFT. Ninety-six non-demented morbidly obese (MO patients and 100 healthy controls (HC completed the RCFT. Their performance was calculated by applying the standard scoring criteria. The quality of the copying process was evaluated per the directions of the Q-score scoring system. Results revealed that the MO did not perform significantly lower than the HC on Copy accuracy (mean difference −0.302, CI −1.374 to 0.769, p = 0.579. In contrast, the groups did statistically differ from each other, with MO performing poorer than the HC on the Q-score (mean −1.784, CI −3.237 to −0.331, p = 0.016 and the Unit points (mean −1.409, CI −2.291 to −0.528, p = 0.002, but not on the Order points score (mean −0.351, CI −0.994 to 0.293, p = 0.284. Differences on the Unit score and the Q-score were slightly reduced when adjusting for gender, age, and education. This study presents evidence supporting the presence of inefficiency in visuospatial constructional ability among MO patients. We believe we have found an indication that the Q-score captures a wider range of cognitive processes that are not described by traditional scoring methods. Rather than considering accuracy and placement of the different elements only, the Q-score focuses more on how the subject has approached the task.

  3. The Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores: A Summary of Studies Conducted from 1997 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2008-01-01

    The validity of Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) scores is examined by summarizing 273 studies conducted between 1997 and 2004. Each of the studies was conducted through the Validity Study Service of the test sponsor and contained identical variables and statistical methods. Validity coefficients from each of the studies were corrected…

  4. A Review of Methods for Evaluating the Fit of Item Score Patterns on a Test. Research Report 99-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    Methods are discussed that can be used to investigate the fit of an item score pattern to a test model. Model-based tests and personality inventories are administered to more than 100 million people a year and, as a result, individual fit is of great concern. Item Response Theory (IRT) modeling and person-fit statistics that are formulated in the…

  5. Language Learner Strategies and Linguistic Competence as Factors Affecting Achievement Test Scores in English for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, Violeta

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the effect of two factors on achievement test scores in English as a foreign language for specific purposes in higher education: preexisting linguistic competence and frequency of use of language learner strategies. The rationale for the analysis of language learner strategies as a factor affecting achievement test outcomes is…

  6. Prevalence of Two-Syllable Digits Affecting Forward Digit Span Test Score: A Potential Reliability Factor in Digit Span Tests and New Light to the Word Length Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egner, Lars E; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lugo, Ricardo G

    2016-01-01

    .... The study examined the effect of amount of syllables on Norwegian digit span test scores by altering the prevalence of two-syllable digits using three conditions in a repeated measures design (N = 54...

  7. An Exploration of Academic Reading Proficiency at the University Level: A Cross-Sectional Study of 848 Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzycki, Meg; Howard, Pamela; Allen, Diane; Desa, Geoffrey; Rosegard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Academic reading proficiently is characterized by the ability to perform cognitive tasks associated with interpreting text. Researchers developed an externally validated Informal Academic Reading Proficiency Test to gauge undergraduates' academic reading proficiency. A cross-sectional study of 23 classes completed the reading test in 2014. This…

  8. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  9. The Influence of Textbook Format on Postsecondary Proficient and Remedial Readers: Designing Information Using Visual Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetlan, W. Lou

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the design of textbook material affects comprehension and memory of textbook material under certain cognitive conditions for proficient and remedial readers. Using quantitative and qualitative research methods, format was found to significantly affect comprehension and memory. Proficient Male scored significantly…

  10. A general equation to obtain multiple cut-off scores on a test from multinomial logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersabé, Rosa; Rivas, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The authors derive a general equation to compute multiple cut-offs on a total test score in order to classify individuals into more than two ordinal categories. The equation is derived from the multinomial logistic regression (MLR) model, which is an extension of the binary logistic regression (BLR) model to accommodate polytomous outcome variables. From this analytical procedure, cut-off scores are established at the test score (the predictor variable) at which an individual is as likely to be in category j as in category j+1 of an ordinal outcome variable. The application of the complete procedure is illustrated by an example with data from an actual study on eating disorders. In this example, two cut-off scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores are obtained in order to classify individuals into three ordinal categories: asymptomatic, symptomatic and eating disorder. Diagnoses were made from the responses to a self-report (Q-EDD) that operationalises DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders. Alternatives to the MLR model to set multiple cut-off scores are discussed.

  11. Child Abuse: Its Relationship to Birthweight, Apgar Score, and Developmental Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, Edward; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship of child abuse to birthweight, five-minute Apgar score, and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development was studied in 75 low socioeconomic infants (ages 2-30 months). Journal availability: see EC 111 042. (Author)

  12. Lead exposure and the 2010 achievement test scores of children in New York counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strayhorn Jillian C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead is toxic to cognitive and behavioral functioning in children even at levels well below those producing physical symptoms. Continuing efforts in the U.S. since about the 1970s to reduce lead exposure in children have dramatically reduced the incidence of elevated blood lead levels (with elevated levels defined by the current U.S. Centers for Disease Control threshold of 10 μg/dl. The current study examines how much lead toxicity continues to impair the academic achievement of children of New York State, using 2010 test data. Methods This study relies on three sets of data published for the 57 New York counties outside New York City: school achievement data from the New York State Department of Education, data on incidence of elevated blood lead levels from the New York State Department of Health, and data on income from the U.S. Census Bureau. We studied third grade and eighth grade test scores in English Language Arts and mathematics. Using the county as the unit of analysis, we computed bivariate correlations and regression coefficients, with percent of children achieving at the lowest reported level as the dependent variable and the percent of preschoolers in the county with elevated blood lead levels as the independent variable. Then we repeated those analyses using partial correlations to control for possible confounding effects of family income, and using multiple regressions with income included. Results The bivariate correlations between incidence of elevated lead and number of children in the lowest achievement group ranged between 0.38 and 0.47. The partial correlations ranged from 0.29 to 0.40. The regression coefficients, both bivariate and partial (both estimating the increase in percent of children in the lowest achievement group for every percent increase in the children with elevated blood lead levels, ranged from 0.52 to 1.31. All regression coefficients, when rounded to the nearest integer, were

  13. Longitudinal analysis of standardized test scores of students in the Science Writing Heuristic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanlen, Niphon

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal impacts of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach on student science achievement measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). A number of studies have reported positive impact of an inquiry-based instruction on student achievement, critical thinking skills, reasoning skills, attitude toward science, etc. So far, studies have focused on exploring how an intervention affects student achievement using teacher/researcher-generated measurement. Only a few studies have attempted to explore the long-term impacts of an intervention on student science achievement measured by standardized tests. The students' science and reading ITBS data was collected from 2000 to 2011 from a school district which had adopted the SWH approach as the main approach in science classrooms since 2002. The data consisted of 12,350 data points from 3,039 students. The multilevel model for change with discontinuity in elevation and slope technique was used to analyze changes in student science achievement growth trajectories prior and after adopting the SWH approach. The results showed that the SWH approach positively impacted students by initially raising science achievement scores. The initial impact was maintained and gradually increased when students were continuously exposed to the SWH approach. Disadvantaged students who were at risk of having low science achievement had bigger benefits from experience with the SWH approach. As a result, existing problematic achievement gaps were narrowed down. Moreover, students who started experience with the SWH approach as early as elementary school seemed to have better science achievement growth compared to students who started experiencing with the SWH approach only in high school. The results found in this study not only confirmed the positive impacts of the SWH approach on student achievement, but also demonstrated additive impacts found when students had longitudinal experiences

  14. Life Orientation Test- Revised (LOT-R) Versus Academic Score in Various First Year Health Professional Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, Puja; Vedi, Neeraj; Gandotra, Achleshwar

    2016-10-01

    Health field per se requires mental, physical and psychological steadiness and wellbeing. In modern times decline in psychological and physical health has been observed in student after admission in health education program. Factors like perfectionism, self-esteem, personal and professional consequence have affected their academic score directly or indirectly. Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) instrument measures optimism in relation to self-esteem of individual. A better score will show more confidence level of the student. To find an association of LOT-R with the academic score of health professional students and assess gender variation. A total of 350 students enrolled for academic year 2015-16 in health professional program of medicine, dental and physiotherapy institutes of Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University were considered. Non-randomized and purposive study was done by providing LOT-R questionnaire to students. Average academic score of Anatomy and Physiology course was used for analysis excluding the biochemistry due to non-availability of tangible data at the time of study. Data was collected, analysed statistically using independent t-test, ANOVA with post-hoc and correlation analysis. Statistical significant for one-way ANOVA was assessed for academic score between the group of health professional students. While no statistical correlation of significance was observed for LOT-R score with that of academic score. As per gender distribution there was no statistical significant observation for LOT-R score within the groups. The present study highlighted the need of student's counseling for their approach towards health education; as their career. Psychological self-reliance and optimism improves the academic score. A study needs to be compared with the socio-economic status of the student to have a better understanding of the LOT-R.

  15. A physical function test for use in the intensive care unit: validity, responsiveness, and predictive utility of the physical function ICU test (scored).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Linda; de Morton, Natalie A; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Edbrooke, Lara; Haines, Kimberley; Warrillow, Stephen; Berney, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Several tests have recently been developed to measure changes in patient strength and functional outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). The original Physical Function ICU Test (PFIT) demonstrates reliability and sensitivity. The aims of this study were to further develop the original PFIT, to derive an interval score (the PFIT-s), and to test the clinimetric properties of the PFIT-s. A nested cohort study was conducted. One hundred forty-four and 116 participants performed the PFIT at ICU admission and discharge, respectively. Original test components were modified using principal component analysis. Rasch analysis examined the unidimensionality of the PFIT, and an interval score was derived. Correlations tested validity, and multiple regression analyses investigated predictive ability. Responsiveness was assessed using the effect size index (ESI), and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated. The shoulder lift component was removed. Unidimensionality of combined admission and discharge PFIT-s scores was confirmed. The PFIT-s displayed moderate convergent validity with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (r=-.60), the Six-Minute Walk Test (r=.41), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score (rho=.49). The ESI of the PFIT-s was 0.82, and the MCID was 1.5 points (interval scale range=0-10). A higher admission PFIT-s score was predictive of: an MRC score of ≥48, increased likelihood of discharge home, reduced likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation, and reduced acute care hospital length of stay. Scoring of sit-to-stand assistance required is subjective, and cadence cutpoints used may not be generalizable. The PFIT-s is a safe and inexpensive test of physical function with high clinical utility. It is valid, responsive to change, and predictive of key outcomes. It is recommended that the PFIT-s be adopted to test physical function in the ICU.

  16. Medical training and English language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, S C; Farnill, D

    1993-01-01

    Concern is often expressed about the English language proficiency (ELP) of students engaged in professional training. This report assesses the ELP of the 1990 and 1991 intakes into medicine at the University of Sydney. A quick screening test and individual in-depth tests were used in a two-stage design. Admission to the course is highly competitive and most students are selected from the top 0.75% of Higher School Certificate results but 15% and 19% of the year cohorts were found to be below average in ELP. English proficiency was found to be consistently correlated with first- and second-year university results. Initiatives taken to support students with language disadvantages and to ensure that graduates will be able to communicate effectively with patients are outlined.

  17. WiiFit™ Plus balance test scores for the assessment of balance and mobility in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Reed-Jones, Rebecca J.; Dorgo, Sandor; Hitchings, Maija K; Bader, Julia O.

    2012-01-01

    The Nintendo Wii™ is becoming an increasingly popular technology for the training and assessment of balance in older adults. Recent studies have shown promising results for its use in fall prevention. However, it is not clear how scores on the WiiFit™ balance games relate to current standardized tests of balance and mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between WiiFit™ Plus balance tests, and standardized tests of older adult fitness, balance, mobility, self-rep...

  18. Correlation between knowledge on transmission and prevention of HIV/STI and proficiency in condom use among male migrants from Africa and Middle East evaluated by a Condom Use Skills score using a wooden penile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoboli, Fabio; Martinelli, Domenico; Di Stefano, Mariantonietta; Fasano, Massimo; Prato, Rosa; Santantonio, Teresa Antonia; Fiore, Jose' Ramòn

    2017-06-19

    Migrants in Italy are prevalently young adults, with a higher risk of sexual transmitted infections (STI) and HIV infection. Promoting consistent as well as correct use of condoms could reduce failure rate due to their improper use. The aim of our study was to evaluate Condom Use Skills among a migrant population recently landed in Italy, hosted in a government center for asylum seekers. The study sample was composed of 80 male migrants. Sanitary trained interviewers submitted a questionnaire to participants to investigate age, provenience, marital status, educational level and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/STI. Then, we assessed participants' level of condom use skill with the Condom Use Skills (CUS) measure by using a wooden penile model. The interviewer filled in a checklist and assigned 1 point for correct demonstration of each behavior that may prevent condom failure during sex. Participants' median age was 26 years and the sample was composed of 54 migrants from sub-Saharan Africa and 26 from Middle East. Most of them were married, with a lower middle level of education, up to 8 or 5 years. Half of the sample achieved the highest score in the questionnaire and our CUS showed a large number of people with middle high score classes. The Spearman's rho was 0.30, therefore answers to the questionnaire and CUS score appeared correlated (p older than 26 years (p < 0.05), with a higher level of education (p = 0.001), and a higher score in the questionnaire (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the level of CUS between single or married men and between African and Middle Asian migrants of the sample. Our study shows that educational level influences the quality of knowledge and awareness about STI/AIDS and contribute to correct condom use. Since the half of participants had a low educational level and linguistic problems, the risk of missing campaigns messages or misunderstanding informative materials increases. Direct

  19. Can Motor Proficiency in Preschool Age Affect Physical Activity in Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated if motor proficiency (MP) in preschool age associate with physical activity (PA) in adolescence. In 2004, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form (BOTMP-SF) (7) was administered to 413 children, aged 4-6 years, who were classified to MP groups according to their BOTMP-SF total score (TS). In 2014, the PA of 106 former participants (47 boys, 59 girls) was measured with Omron pedometers. MP [three (high; above average; average)] × gender (two) ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were computed on average of steps/week. A significant interaction between the two factors was revealed (F = 15.27, p Only in average MP group, males presented higher PA than females, whereas there were no differences between the two genders in the higher MP groups. Moreover, the only significant difference in PA among male groups was that between high and above average MP groups, while in females there were significant differences among all groups. High MP at preschool age positively associated with the PA in adolescence, especially in females. Emphasis on the development of proficient young movers might be beneficial for lifelong PA.

  20. Validation of undergraduate medical student script concordance test (SCT) scores on the clinical assessment of the acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, Matthias; Schubach, Fabian; Seifert, Gabriel; Boeker, Martin

    2016-08-17

    Health professionals often manage medical problems in critical situations under time pressure and on the basis of vague information. In recent years, dual process theory has provided a framework of cognitive processes to assist students in developing clinical reasoning skills critical especially in surgery due to the high workload and the elevated stress levels. However, clinical reasoning skills can be observed only indirectly and the corresponding constructs are difficult to measure in order to assess student performance. The script concordance test has been established in this field. A number of studies suggest that the test delivers a valid assessment of clinical reasoning. However, different scoring methods have been suggested. They reflect different interpretations of the underlying construct. In this work we want to shed light on the theoretical framework of script theory and give an idea of script concordance testing. We constructed a script concordance test in the clinical context of "acute abdomen" and compared previously proposed scores with regard to their validity. A test comprising 52 items in 18 clinical scenarios was developed, revised along the guidelines and administered to 56 4(th) and 5(th) year medical students at the end of a blended-learning seminar. We scored the answers using five different scoring methods (distance (2×), aggregate (2×), single best answer) and compared the scoring keys, the resulting final scores and Cronbach's α after normalization of the raw scores. All scores except the single best answers calculation achieved acceptable reliability scores (>= 0.75), as measured by Cronbach's α. Students were clearly distinguishable from the experts, whose results were set to a mean of 80 and SD of 5 by the normalization process. With the two aggregate scoring methods, the students' means values were between 62.5 (AGGPEN) and 63.9 (AGG) equivalent to about three expert SD below the experts' mean value (Cronbach's α : 0.76 (AGGPEN