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Sample records for proficiency scaling based

  1. Proficiency-based cervical cancer brachytherapy training.

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    Zhao, Sherry; Francis, Louise; Todor, Dorin; Fields, Emma C

    2018-04-25

    Although brachytherapy increases the local control rate for cervical cancer, there has been a progressive decline in its use. Furthermore, the training among residency programs for gynecologic brachytherapy varies considerably, with some residents receiving little to no training. This trend is especially concerning given the association between poor applicator placement and decline in local control. Considering the success of proficiency-based training in other procedural specialties, we developed and implemented a proficiency-based cervical brachytherapy training curriculum for our residents. Each resident placed tandem and ovoid applicators with attending guidance and again alone 2 weeks later using a pelvic model that was modified to allow for cervical brachytherapy. Plain films were taken of the pelvic model, and applicator placement quality was evaluated. Other evaluated metrics included retention of key procedural details, the time taken for each procedure and presession and postsession surveys to assess confidence. During the initial session, residents on average met 4.5 of 5 placement criteria, which improved to 5 the second session. On average, residents were able to remember 7.6 of the 8 key procedural steps. Execution time decreased by an average of 10.5%. Resident confidence with the procedure improved dramatically, from 2.6 to 4.6 of 5. Residents who had previously never performed a tandem and ovoid procedure showed greater improvements in these criteria than those who had. All residents strongly agreed that the training was helpful and wanted to participate again the following year. Residents participating in this simulation training had measurable improvements in the time to perform the procedure, applicator placement quality, and confidence. This curriculum is easy to implement and is of great value for training residents, and would be particularly beneficial in programs with low volume of cervical brachytherapy cases. Simulation programs could

  2. Development and Validation of the Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS)

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    Smyk, Ekaterina; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gorin, Joanna S.; Gray, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development and validation of a criterion-referenced Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS) that was designed to assess the oral language skills of sequential bilingual children ages 4-8. This article reports results for the English proficiency portion of the scale. Method: The SELPS assesses syntactic…

  3. The Minnesota Articulation Project and Its Proficiency-Based Assessments.

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    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the Minnesota Articulation Project, providing an overview of the projects' three principal working groups: political action, curriculum, and assessment. The article then outlines the theoretical underpinnings of the proficiency-based assessment instruments developed in French, German, and Spanish and describes in detail the content and…

  4. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

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    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  5. Cognitive Proficiency Index for the Canadian Edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition

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    Saklofske, Donald H.; Zhu, Jianjun; Coalson, Diane L.; Raiford, Susan E.; Weiss, Lawrence G.

    2010-01-01

    The Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) developed for the most recent Wechsler intelligence scales comprises the working memory and processing speed subtests. It reflects the proficiency and efficiency of cognitive processing and provides another lens for analyzing children's abilities assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth…

  6. Does Wechsler Intelligence Scale administration and scoring proficiency improve during assessment training?

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    Platt, Tyson L; Zachar, Peter; Ray, Glen E; Lobello, Steven G; Underhill, Andrea T

    2007-04-01

    Studies have found that Wechsler scale administration and scoring proficiency is not easily attained during graduate training. These findings may be related to methodological issues. Using a single-group repeated measures design, this study documents statistically significant, though modest, error reduction on the WAIS-III and WISC-III during a graduate course in assessment. The study design does not permit the isolation of training factors related to error reduction, or assessment of whether error reduction is a function of mere practice. However, the results do indicate that previous study findings of no or inconsistent improvement in scoring proficiency may have been the result of methodological factors. Implications for teaching individual intelligence testing and further research are discussed.

  7. Gaining Proficiency through Task-Based Activities in the Portuguese Classroom (Beginning and Intermediate Year Case Studies)

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    Jones-Kellogg, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a task-based activity used at the United States Military Academy, in their first- through third-semester Portuguese language sequence "Proficiencies" (Proficiências). The stand-alone task-based activity can be an effective tool in gaining foreign-language proficiency at even the lowest levels of classroom instruction…

  8. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Iranian EFL Learners’ Speaking Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loghman Ansarian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of problem-based learning through cognition-based tasks on speaking proficiency of Iranian intermediate EFL learners in comparison to the effect of objective-based tasks. To this end, a true experimental research design was employed. Ninety five (N=95 language learners studying at a language institute in the city of Esfahan, Iran were given an IELTS listening and speaking test as the proficiency test and 75 learners were selected. In the next phase of the study, a second IELTS speaking test was administered as the homogeneity test and the pre-test to seventy five (N=75 learners chosen from the population and forty-eight (N=48 homogeneous intermediate learners were selected for the study (i.e., 24 learners in control group and 24 in experimental one. The results of an independent-sample t-test gained from the study proved that not only does implementation of problem-based learning through cognition-based tasks significantly increased intermediate participants’ speaking proficiency, but also it had more positive effect in comparison to objective-based tasks on participants’ speaking proficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that problem-based learning ought to be taken into account by educational scholars, those in charge of syllabus, material producers, language teachers and language learners. Keywords: Cognition-Based Tasks, Objective-Based Tasks, EFL Learners, Speaking Proficiency, Problem-Based Learning

  9. Issues in Vertical Scaling of a K-12 English Language Proficiency Test

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    Kenyon, Dorry M.; MacGregor, David; Li, Dongyang; Cook, H. Gary

    2011-01-01

    One of the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act is that states show adequate yearly progress in their English language learners' (ELLs) acquisition of English language proficiency. States are required to assess ELLs' English language proficiency annually in four language domains (listening, reading, writing, and speaking) to measure their…

  10. WEB-BASED LANGUAGE CLUB AFFECTING EFL LEARNERS’ PROFICIENCY: A CASE OF IRANIAN LEARNERS

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    Hamid Ashraf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Language clubs have been reported to be effective in learning languages, increasing motivation and independence (Gao, 2009. The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of a web-based language club on the language proficiency of Iranian EFL learners. A number of pre-intermediate learners form two universities (118 were selected among 154 through a test of proficiency (TOEFL PBL, then they were put into experimental and control groups. The participants in experimental group got on line and acted as a member of a virtual language club for a period of 6 months. They got involved with activities like emailing, chatting, and weblogging. Data were collected through TOEFL PBL. The analyzed data from the test of proficiency indicated the outperformance of those in experimental group. Consequently, it might be proposed that web-based language clubs can make language learning easier and more efficient.

  11. Motor proficiency in normal children and with learning difficulty: a comparative and correlational study based on the motor proficiency test of Bruininks-Oseretsky

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    Nilson Roberto Moreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to verify the difference between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities through motor proficiency test of Bruininks and Ozeretsky (1978. The sample was constituted by 30 children, with 8-year average age, 15 males and 15 females, subdivided into two groups of 15 children from both sexes: children without learning disabilities attending 3rd grade and children with learning disabilities attending 2nd grade having failed a term once. All of them came from a middle class background, according to Grafar scale (adapted by Fonseca, 1991. All children presenting any other disabilities were excluded from the sample. Intelligence factor “G” was controlled by using a percentile, higher or equal to 50 (middle and high level, measured by Raven’s (1974 progressive combinations test. In motor proficiency, children with learning disabilities showed significant differences when compared with normal children of the same age, in all components of global, composed and fine motricity. The tests administered showed a strong correlation between the variables of the motor proficiency components. The results lead to the conclusion that there were significant differences in motor proficiency between normal children and children with learning disabilities, who showed specific motor difficulties evincing a more vulnerable motor profile and not the presence of neurological dysfunction signs.

  12. Predictive Validity of Curriculum-Based Measures for English Learners at Varying English Proficiency Levels

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    Kim, Jennifer Sun; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of curriculum-based measures in reading for Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) at various levels of English proficiency. Third-grade Spanish-speaking EL students were screened during the fall using DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) and Daze. Predictive validity was examined in relation to spring…

  13. "Kulturexkurse": A Model for Teaching Deeper German Culture in a Proficiency-Based Curriculum

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    Peters, George F.

    2003-01-01

    The cognitive skills of beginning German students in high school and college outstrip their linguistic ability in the target language. In a proficiency-based curriculum, students communicate about familiar matters and everyday culture although they are intellectually prepared to consider more complex cultural issues. As a result, deeper culture is…

  14. Operating Room Performance Improves after Proficiency-Based Virtual Reality Cataract Surgery Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Kjærbo, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of virtual reality proficiency-based training on actual cataract surgery performance. The secondary purpose of the study was to define which surgeons benefit from virtual reality training. DESIGN: Multicenter masked clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen cataract...... surgeons with different levels of experience. METHODS: Cataract surgical training on a virtual reality simulator (EyeSi) until a proficiency-based test was passed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Technical performance in the operating room (OR) assessed by 3 independent, masked raters using a previously validated...... task-specific assessment tool for cataract surgery (Objective Structured Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill). Three surgeries before and 3 surgeries after the virtual reality training were video-recorded, anonymized, and presented to the raters in random order. RESULTS: Novices (non...

  15. Development of a proficiency-based virtual reality simulation training curriculum for laparoscopic appendicectomy.

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    Sirimanna, Pramudith; Gladman, Marc A

    2017-10-01

    Proficiency-based virtual reality (VR) training curricula improve intraoperative performance, but have not been developed for laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA). This study aimed to develop an evidence-based training curriculum for LA. A total of 10 experienced (>50 LAs), eight intermediate (10-30 LAs) and 20 inexperienced (<10 LAs) operators performed guided and unguided LA tasks on a high-fidelity VR simulator using internationally relevant techniques. The ability to differentiate levels of experience (construct validity) was measured using simulator-derived metrics. Learning curves were analysed. Proficiency benchmarks were defined by the performance of the experienced group. Intermediate and experienced participants completed a questionnaire to evaluate the realism (face validity) and relevance (content validity). Of 18 surgeons, 16 (89%) considered the VR model to be visually realistic and 17 (95%) believed that it was representative of actual practice. All 'guided' modules demonstrated construct validity (P < 0.05), with learning curves that plateaued between sessions 6 and 9 (P < 0.01). When comparing inexperienced to intermediates to experienced, the 'unguided' LA module demonstrated construct validity for economy of motion (5.00 versus 7.17 versus 7.84, respectively; P < 0.01) and task time (864.5 s versus 477.2 s versus 352.1 s, respectively, P < 0.01). Construct validity was also confirmed for number of movements, path length and idle time. Validated modules were used for curriculum construction, with proficiency benchmarks used as performance goals. A VR LA model was realistic and representative of actual practice and was validated as a training and assessment tool. Consequently, the first evidence-based internationally applicable training curriculum for LA was constructed, which facilitates skill acquisition to proficiency. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. A Proficiency Based Stepwise Endovascular Curricular Training (PROSPECT) Program Enhances Operative Performance in Real Life: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

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    Maertens, H; Aggarwal, R; Moreels, N; Vermassen, F; Van Herzeele, I

    2017-09-01

    Healthcare evolution requires optimisation of surgical training to provide safe patient care. Operating room performance after completion of proficiency based training in vascular surgery has not been investigated. A randomised controlled trial evaluated the impact of a Proficiency based Stepwise Endovascular Curricular Training program (PROSPECT) on the acquisition of endovascular skills and the transferability of these skills to real life interventions. All subjects performed two endovascular interventions treating patients with symptomatic iliac and/or superficial femoral artery stenosis under supervision. Primary outcomes were technical performances (Global Rating Scale [GRS]; Examiner Checklist), operative metrics, and patient outcomes, adjusted for case difficulty and trainee experience. Secondary outcomes included knowledge and technical performance after 6 weeks and 3 months. Thirty-two general surgical trainees were randomised into three groups. Besides traditional training, the first group (n = 11) received e-learning and simulation training (PROSPECT), the second group (n = 10) only had access to e-learning, while controls (n = 11) did not receive supplementary training. Twenty-nine trainees (3 dropouts) performed 58 procedures. Trainees who completed PROSPECT showed superior technical performance (GRS 39.36 ± 2.05; Checklist 63.51 ± 3.18) in real life with significantly fewer supervisor takeovers compared with trainees receiving e-learning alone (GRS 28.42 ± 2.15; p = .001; Checklist 53.63 ± 3.34; p = .027) or traditional education (GRS 23.09 ± 2.18; p = .001; Checklist 38.72 ± 3.38; p = .001). Supervisors felt more confident in allowing PROSPECT trained physicians to perform basic (p = .006) and complex (p = .003) procedures. No differences were detected in procedural parameters (such as fluoroscopy time, DAP, procedure time, etc.) or complications. Proficiency levels were maintained up to 3 months. A structured

  17. Global Rating Scales and Motion Analysis Are Valid Proficiency Metrics in Virtual and Benchtop Knee Arthroscopy Simulators.

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    Chang, Justues; Banaszek, Daniel C; Gambrel, Jason; Bardana, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Work-hour restrictions and fatigue management strategies in surgical training programs continue to evolve in an effort to improve the learning environment and promote safer patient care. In response, training programs must reevaluate how various teaching modalities such as simulation can augment the development of surgical competence in trainees. For surgical simulators to be most useful, it is important to determine whether surgical proficiency can be reliably differentiated using them. To our knowledge, performance on both virtual and benchtop arthroscopy simulators has not been concurrently assessed in the same subjects. (1) Do global rating scales and procedure time differentiate arthroscopic expertise in virtual and benchtop knee models? (2) Can commercially available built-in motion analysis metrics differentiate arthroscopic expertise? (3) How well are performance measures on virtual and benchtop simulators correlated? (4) Are these metrics sensitive enough to differentiate by year of training? A cross-sectional study of 19 subjects (four medical students, 12 residents, and three staff) were recruited and divided into 11 novice arthroscopists (student to Postgraduate Year [PGY] 3) and eight proficient arthroscopists (PGY 4 to staff) who completed a diagnostic arthroscopy and loose-body retrieval in both virtual and benchtop knee models. Global rating scales (GRS), procedure times, and motion analysis metrics were used to evaluate performance. The proficient group scored higher on virtual (14 ± 6 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 10-18] versus 36 ± 5 [95% CI, 32-40], p virtual scope (579 ±169 [95% CI, 466-692] versus 358 ± 178 [95% CI, 210-507] seconds, p = 0.02) and benchtop knee scope + probe (480 ± 160 [95% CI, 373-588] versus 277 ± 64 [95% CI, 224-330] seconds, p = 0.002). The built-in motion analysis metrics also distinguished novices from proficient arthroscopists using the self-generated virtual loose body retrieval task scores (4 ± 1 [95% CI, 3

  18. Mastery-Based Virtual Reality Robotic Simulation Curriculum: The First Step Toward Operative Robotic Proficiency.

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    Hogg, Melissa E; Tam, Vernissia; Zenati, Mazen; Novak, Stephanie; Miller, Jennifer; Zureikat, Amer H; Zeh, Herbert J

    Hepatobiliary surgery is a highly complex, low-volume specialty with long learning curves necessary to achieve optimal outcomes. This creates significant challenges in both training and measuring surgical proficiency. We hypothesize that a virtual reality curriculum with mastery-based simulation is a valid tool to train fellows toward operative proficiency. This study evaluates the content and predictive validity of robotic simulation curriculum as a first step toward developing a comprehensive, proficiency-based pathway. A mastery-based simulation curriculum was performed in a virtual reality environment. A pretest/posttest experimental design used both virtual reality and inanimate environments to evaluate improvement. Participants self-reported previous robotic experience and assessed the curriculum by rating modules based on difficulty and utility. This study was conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (Pittsburgh, PA), a tertiary care academic teaching hospital. A total of 17 surgical oncology fellows enrolled in the curriculum, 16 (94%) completed. Of 16 fellows who completed the curriculum, 4 fellows (25%) achieved mastery on all 24 modules; on average, fellows mastered 86% of the modules. Following curriculum completion, individual test scores improved (p < 0.0001). An average of 2.4 attempts was necessary to master each module (range: 1-17). Median time spent completing the curriculum was 4.2 hours (range: 1.1-6.6). Total 8 (50%) fellows continued practicing modules beyond mastery. Survey results show that "needle driving" and "endowrist 2" modules were perceived as most difficult although "needle driving" modules were most useful. Overall, 15 (94%) fellows perceived improvement in robotic skills after completing the curriculum. In a cohort of board-certified general surgeons who are novices in robotic surgery, a mastery-based simulation curriculum demonstrated internal validity with overall score improvement. Time to complete the

  19. Proficiency-based laparoscopic and endoscopic training with virtual reality simulators: a comparison of proctored and independent approaches.

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    Snyder, Christopher W; Vandromme, Marianne J; Tyra, Sharon L; Hawn, Mary T

    2009-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators for laparoscopy and endoscopy may be valuable tools for resident education. However, the cost of such training in terms of trainee and instructor time may vary depending upon whether an independent or proctored approach is employed. We performed a randomized controlled trial to compare independent and proctored methods of proficiency-based VR simulator training. Medical students were randomized to independent or proctored training groups. Groups were compared with respect to the number of training hours and task repetitions required to achieve expert level proficiency on laparoscopic and endoscopic simulators. Cox regression modeling was used to compare time to proficiency between groups, with adjustment for appropriate covariates. Thirty-six medical students (18 independent, 18 proctored) were enrolled. Achievement of overall simulator proficiency required a median of 11 hours of training (range, 6-21 hours). Laparoscopic and endoscopic proficiency were achieved after a median of 11 (range, 6-32) and 10 (range, 5-27) task repetitions, respectively. The number of repetitions required to achieve proficiency was similar between groups. After adjustment for covariates, trainees in the independent group achieved simulator proficiency with significantly fewer hours of training (hazard ratio, 2.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-6.85; p = 0.048). Our study quantifies the cost, in instructor and trainee hours, of proficiency-based laparoscopic and endoscopic VR simulator training, and suggests that proctored instruction does not offer any advantages to trainees. The independent approach may be preferable for surgical residency programs desiring to implement VR simulator training.

  20. Psychomotor testing predicts rate of skill acquisition for proficiency-based laparoscopic skills training.

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    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Korndorffer, James R; Black, F William; Dunne, J Bruce; Sierra, Rafael; Touchard, Cheri L; Rice, David A; Markert, Ronald J; Kastl, Peter R; Scott, Daniel J

    2006-08-01

    Laparoscopic simulator training translates into improved operative performance. Proficiency-based curricula maximize efficiency by tailoring training to meet the needs of each individual; however, because rates of skill acquisition vary widely, such curricula may be difficult to implement. We hypothesized that psychomotor testing would predict baseline performance and training duration in a proficiency-based laparoscopic simulator curriculum. Residents (R1, n = 20) were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective study at the beginning of the academic year. All completed the following: a background information survey, a battery of 12 innate ability measures (5 motor, and 7 visual-spatial), and baseline testing on 3 validated simulators (5 videotrainer [VT] tasks, 12 virtual reality [minimally invasive surgical trainer-virtual reality, MIST-VR] tasks, and 2 laparoscopic camera navigation [LCN] tasks). Participants trained to proficiency, and training duration and number of repetitions were recorded. Baseline test scores were correlated to skill acquisition rate. Cutoff scores for each predictive test were calculated based on a receiver operator curve, and their sensitivity and specificity were determined in identifying slow learners. Only the Cards Rotation test correlated with baseline simulator ability on VT and LCN. Curriculum implementation required 347 man-hours (6-person team) and 795,000 dollars of capital equipment. With an attendance rate of 75%, 19 of 20 residents (95%) completed the curriculum by the end of the academic year. To complete training, a median of 12 hours (range, 5.5-21), and 325 repetitions (range, 171-782) were required. Simulator score improvement was 50%. Training duration and repetitions correlated with prior video game and billiard exposure, grooved pegboard, finger tap, map planning, Rey Figure Immediate Recall score, and baseline performance on VT and LCN. The map planning cutoff score proved most specific in identifying slow learners

  1. Scoring in genetically modified organism proficiency tests based on log-transformed results.

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    Thompson, Michael; Ellison, Stephen L R; Owen, Linda; Mathieson, Kenneth; Powell, Joanne; Key, Pauline; Wood, Roger; Damant, Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    The study considers data from 2 UK-based proficiency schemes and includes data from a total of 29 rounds and 43 test materials over a period of 3 years. The results from the 2 schemes are similar and reinforce each other. The amplification process used in quantitative polymerase chain reaction determinations predicts a mixture of normal, binomial, and lognormal distributions dominated by the latter 2. As predicted, the study results consistently follow a positively skewed distribution. Log-transformation prior to calculating z-scores is effective in establishing near-symmetric distributions that are sufficiently close to normal to justify interpretation on the basis of the normal distribution.

  2. Next generation of procedural skills curriculum development: Proficiency-based progression

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    Richard M. Satava

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The FRS use a new process (full life-cycle curriculum development with proficiency-based progression which can be used in order to develop any quantitative procedural curriculum, through generic templates that have been developed. Such an approach will dramatically decrease the cost, time and effort to develop a new specific curriculum, while producing uniformity in approach, inter-operability among different curricula and consistency in objective assessment. This process is currently online, open source and freely available, to encourage the adoption of a scholarly and rigorous approach to curriculum development which is flexible enough to be adopted and adapted to most technical skills curriculum needs.

  3. German National Proficiency Scales in Biology: Internal Structure, Relations to General Cognitive Abilities and Verbal Skills

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    KÖLLER, OLAF

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT National and international large‐scale assessments (LSA) have a major impact on educational systems, which raises fundamental questions about the validity of the measures regarding their internal structure and their relations to relevant covariates. Given its importance, research on the validity of instruments specifically developed for LSA is still sparse, especially in science and its subdomains biology, chemistry, and physics. However, policy decisions for the improvement of educational quality based on LSA can only be helpful if valid information on students’ achievement levels is provided. In the present study, the nature of the measurement instruments based on the German Educational Standards in Biology is examined. On the basis of data from 3,165 students in Grade 10, we present dimensional analyses and report the relationship between different subdimensions of biology literacy and cognitive covariates such as general cognitive abilities and verbal skills. A theory‐driven two‐dimensional model fitted the data best. Content knowledge and scientific inquiry, two subdimensions of biology literacy, are highly correlated and show differential correlational patterns to the covariates. We argue that the underlying structure of biology should be incorporated into curricula, teacher training and future assessments. PMID:27818532

  4. Development of a PROficiency-Based StePwise Endovascular Curricular Training (PROSPECT) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Heidi; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Desender, Liesbeth; Vermassen, Frank; Van Herzeele, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Focus on patient safety, work-hour limitations, and cost-effective education is putting pressure to improve curricula to acquire minimally invasive techniques during surgical training. This study aimed to design a structured training program for endovascular skills and validate its assessment methods. A PROficiency-based StePwise Endovascular Curricular Training (PROSPECT) program was developed, consisting of e-learning and hands-on simulation modules, focusing on iliac and superficial femoral artery atherosclerotic disease. Construct validity was investigated. Performances were assessed using multiple-choice questionnaires, valid simulation parameters, global rating scorings, and examiner checklists. Feasibility was assessed by passage of 2 final-year medical students through this PROSPECT program. Ghent University Hospital, a tertiary clinical care and academic center in Belgium with general surgery residency program. Senior-year medical students were recruited at Ghent University Hospital. Vascular surgeons were invited to participate during conferences and meetings if they had performed at least 100 endovascular procedures as the primary operator during the last 2 years. Overall, 29 medical students and 20 vascular surgeons participated. Vascular surgeons obtained higher multiple-choice questionnaire scores (median: 24.5-22.0 vs. 15.0-12.0; p train cognitive, technical, and nontechnical endovascular skills was developed. A structured, stepwise, proficiency-based valid endovascular program to train cognitive, technical, and human factor skills has been developed and proven to be feasible. A randomized controlled trial has been initiated to investigate its effect on performances in real life, patient outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comprehensive proficiency-based inanimate training for robotic surgery: reliability, feasibility, and educational benefit.

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    Arain, Nabeel A; Dulan, Genevieve; Hogg, Deborah C; Rege, Robert V; Powers, Cathryn E; Tesfay, Seifu T; Hynan, Linda S; Scott, Daniel J

    2012-10-01

    We previously developed a comprehensive proficiency-based robotic training curriculum demonstrating construct, content, and face validity. This study aimed to assess reliability, feasibility, and educational benefit associated with curricular implementation. Over an 11-month period, 55 residents, fellows, and faculty (robotic novices) from general surgery, urology, and gynecology were enrolled in a 2-month curriculum: online didactics, half-day hands-on tutorial, and self-practice using nine inanimate exercises. Each trainee completed a questionnaire and performed a single proctored repetition of each task before (pretest) and after (post-test) training. Tasks were scored for time and errors using modified FLS metrics. For inter-rater reliability (IRR), three trainees were scored by two raters and analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Data from eight experts were analyzed using ICC and Cronbach's α to determine test-retest reliability and internal consistency, respectively. Educational benefit was assessed by comparing baseline (pretest) and final (post-test) trainee performance; comparisons used Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Of the 55 trainees that pretested, 53 (96 %) completed all curricular components in 9-17 h and reached proficiency after completing an average of 72 ± 28 repetitions over 5 ± 1 h. Trainees indicated minimal prior robotic experience and "poor comfort" with robotic skills at baseline (1.8 ± 0.9) compared to final testing (3.1 ± 0.8, p reliability was 0.91 (p training for all nine tasks and according to composite scores (548 ± 176 vs. 914 ± 81, p reliability measures, demonstrated feasibility for a large cohort of trainees, and yielded significant educational benefit. Further studies and adoption of this curriculum are encouraged.

  6. The Effectiveness of Internet-Based Peer Feedback Training on Chinese EFL College Students' Writing Proficiency

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    Jiang, Jiahong; Yu, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    English writing, an indispensable skill in English learning, plays an important role in improving learners' language proficiency. With the wide spread and use of wired or wireless internet, EFL students can easily help and be helped with English writing. Therefore, the application of internet-based peer feedback training on writing to foreign or…

  7. Designing a proficiency-based, content validated virtual reality curriculum for laparoscopic colorectal surgery: A Delphi approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palter, Vanessa N.; Graafland, Maurits; Schijven, Marlies P.; Grantcharov, Teodor P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Although task training on virtual reality (VR) simulators has been shown to transfer to the operating room, to date no VR curricula have been described for advanced laparoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a proficiency-based VR technical skills curriculum for

  8. Competitive Team-Based Learning versus Group Investigation with Reference to the Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Intermediate Students

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    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a report on an experimental study which intended to look into the possible effects of Competitive Team-Based Learning (CTBL) vis-à-vis Group Investigation (GI) method of Cooperative Learning (CL) on the language proficiency of Iranian EFL intermediate students. Seventy homogeneous Iranian intermediate students were selected out of a…

  9. Small-scale in-situ burn tests to develop operational proficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    A small-scale hands-on in-situ burning experiment was conducted to prepare members of a response community in the event of an actual full scale in-situ burn. Two different styles of fire booms were deployed in open water and exposed to multiple test tank burns. Residual burned crude oil was recovered and the booms decontaminated. The experiments showed that all the methods used to gauge the depth of oil contained in the booms created an element of doubt in their accuracy. The main lessons learned pertained to pre-combustion volume estimation, oil slick ignition, and residue recovery. It was concluded that in-situ burning was a potential technique in oil spill response, but some refinement is still needed to be done with the oil retention booms. The operational costs associated with the experiment were minimal, given the nature of the project. 1 tab

  10. More Proficient vs. Less Proficient EFL Learners’ Perceptions of Teachers ‘Motivation Raising Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Yousefi

    2022-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivation raising strategies are frequently used in English as a Foreign Language (EFL classes; nevertheless, learners’ perceptions of such strategies used by language teachers have not sufficiently been explored. Also, there are not enough studies on differences and similarities between more and less proficient EFL learners regarding this issue. To scrutinize this topic, a groups of more (No=50 and less proficient EFL learners (No=50 participated in this study by completing to a validated, researcher-made questionnaire with a five-point Likert type format. Non-parametric Mann-Whiteny U test was run in the SPSS ver. 23 to check the differences between the two groups. The results of the study verified that, regardless of each individual scale in the utilized questionnaire, overall, the more proficient ones manifested significantly less perceptions on teachers’ motivation raising strategies based on the total estimated mean ranks compared with the less proficient learners.  However, within the surveyed scales, only in the classroom atmosphere scale, the results showed that the less proficient learners were more mindful of teacher strategies for motivation raising. The findings from this study have implications for motivation raising strategy instructions for a language classroom.

  11. Competitive Team-Based Learning versus Group Investigation with Reference to the Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Intermediate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Hassan Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a report on an experimental study which intended to look into the possible effects of Competitive Team-Based Learning (CTBL vis-à-vis Group Investigation (GI method of Cooperative Learning (CL on the language proficiency of Iranian EFL intermediate students. Seventy homogeneous Iranian intermediate students were selected out of a total population of 110 to serve the present study. The results of the study indicated the advantage of CTBL over GI in terms of its effect on improving the target group’s language proficiency. The results of the study were in contrast to the reports of researchers like Ab-Raza (2007, an Israeli language specialist, who have argued that students in Islamic countries “do not value diversity of ideas, beliefs, and perspectives” (p. 5 and so cannot be taught through modern methods like those of CL.

  12. Meeting the requirements of both classroom-based and systemic assessment of mathematics proficiency: The potential of Rasch measurement theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Dunne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The challenges inherent in assessing mathematical proficiency depend on a number of factors, amongst which are an explicit view of what constitutes mathematical proficiency, an understanding of how children learn and the purpose and function of teaching. All of these factors impact on the choice of approach to assessment. In this article we distinguish between two broad types of assessment, classroom-based and systemic assessment. We argue that the process of assessment informed by Rasch measurement theory (RMT can potentially support the demands of both classroom-based and systemic assessment, particularly if a developmental approach to learning is adopted, and an underlying model of developing mathematical proficiency is explicit in the assessment instruments and their supporting material. An example of a mathematics instrument and its analysis which illustrates this approach, is presented. We note that the role of assessment in the 21st century is potentially powerful. This influential role can only be justified if the assessments are of high quality and can be selected to match suitable moments in learning progress and the teaching process. Users of assessment data must have sufficient knowledge and insight to interpret the resulting numbers validly, and have sufficient discernment to make considered educational inferences from the data for teaching and learning responses.

  13. All for knots: evaluating the effectiveness of a proficiency-driven, simulation-based knot tying and suturing curriculum for medical students during their third-year surgery clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Cianna; Kiselov, Vladimir; Yu, Qingzhao; Mooney, Jennifer; Greiffenstein, Patrick; Paige, John T

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of implementing a proficiency-driven, simulation-based knot tying and suturing curriculum for medical students during their 3rd-year surgery clerkship. Medical students on the 3rd-year surgical clerkship completed a proficiency-driven, simulation-based knot tying and suturing curriculum consisting of 6 tasks. The effectiveness was evaluated by comparing the initial presession scores to the final postsession scores on an 8-item self-efficacy scale and evaluating pass rates on end of clerkship skills testing. A paired t test was used to analyze data. Sixty-five students had matched preintervention and postintervention questionnaires for analysis. Pass rates approached 100% by the 3rd attempt on all tasks. Significant gains on all 8 items of the self-efficacy questionnaire from pretraining to post-training were noted. Timing of the general surgery rotation did not impact results. Implementation of a simulation-based training, proficiency-driven knot tying and suturing curriculum for 3rd-year medical students during the surgery clerkship is feasible and effective in improving student self-efficacy and objective proficiency toward performance of the tasks taught. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance-Based Task Assessment of Higher-Order Proficiencies in Redesigned STEM High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Glennie, Elizabeth; Li, Songze

    2017-01-01

    This study explored student abilities in applying conceptual knowledge when presented with structured performance tasks. Specifically, the study gauged proficiency in higher-order applications of students enrolled in earth and environmental science or biology. The student sample was drawn from a Redesigned STEM high school model where a tested…

  15. Inexpensive Videodisc for Proficiency: A Teaching Model Based on Bruner's Learning Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Richard; Knight, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Describes a German language class in which a videodisk player is used to enhance oral proficiency. The basis for this model of instruction and the structuralist theory of learning developed by Jerome Bruner are discussed. The teaching steps of the model as applied to foreign language instruction are presented. (Author/LMO)

  16. Utility of the General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) with Survivors of Pediatric Brain Tumors: Comparison to Full Scale IQ and Premorbid IQ Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahalley, Lisa S.; Winter-Greenberg, Amanda; Stancel, Heather; Ris, M. Douglas; Gragert, Marsha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric brain tumor survivors are at risk for working memory and processing speed impairment. The General Ability Index (GAI) provides an estimate of intellectual functioning that is less influenced by working memory and processing speed than a Full Scale IQ (FSIQ). The Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) provides a measure of efficient information processing derived from working memory and processing speed tasks. We examined the utility of the GAI and CPI to quantify neurocognitive outcomes in a sample of pediatric brain tumor survivors. Methods GAI, CPI, and FSIQ scores from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) were examined for 57 pediatric brain tumor survivors (ages 6–16) treated with cranial radiation therapy (RT). Results GAI scores were higher than FSIQ and CPI scores, both p < .001. Lower CPI scores were associated with history of craniospinal irradiation and time since RT. Lower FSIQ and GAI scores were associated with higher RT dose and time since RT. The rate of clinically significant GAI-FSIQ discrepancies in our sample was greater than observed in the WISC-IV standardization sample, p < .001. Estimated premorbid IQ scores were higher than GAI, p < .01, and FSIQ scores, p < .001. Conclusions Pediatric brain tumor survivors exhibit weaker cognitive proficiency than expected for age, while general reasoning ability remains relatively spared. The GAI may be useful to quantify the intellectual potential of a survivor when appropriate accommodations are in place for relative cognitive proficiency weaknesses. The CPI may be a particularly sensitive outcome measure of treatment-related cognitive change in this population. PMID:27295192

  17. Comparison of technology-based cooperative learning with technology-based individual learning in enhancing fundamental nursing proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zu-Chun

    2013-05-01

    The aim of nursing education is to prepare students with critical thinking, high interests in profession and high proficiency in patient care. Cooperative learning promotes team work and encourages knowledge building upon discussion. It has been viewed as one of the most powerful learning methods. Technology has been considered an influential tool in teaching and learning. It assists students in gathering more information to solve the problems and master skills better. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of technology-based cooperative learning with technology-based individual learning in nursing students' critical thinking in catheterization knowledge gaining, error discovering, skill acquisitions, and overall scores. This study used a pretest-posttest experimental design. Ninety-eight students were assigned randomly to one of two groups. Questionnaires and tests were collected at baseline and after completion of intervention. The results of this study showed that there was no significant difference in related catheterization skill performance. However, the remaining variables differed greatly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS AND APPLICATIONS: This study's findings guide the researchers and instructors to use technology-based cooperative learning more appropriately. Future research should address the design of the course module and the availability of mobile devices to reach student-centered and learn on the move goals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Attempted establishment of proficiency levels for laparoscopic performance on a national scale using simulation: the results from the 2004 SAGES Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR) learning center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sickle, K R; Ritter, E M; McClusky, D A; Lederman, A; Baghai, M; Gallagher, A G; Smith, C D

    2007-01-01

    The Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR) has been well validated as a training device for laparoscopic skills. It has been demonstrated that training to a level of proficiency on the simulator significantly improves operating room performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The purpose of this project was to obtain a national standard of proficiency using the MIST-VR based on the performance of experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Surgeons attending the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) 2004 Annual Scientific Meeting who had performed more than 100 laparoscopic procedures volunteered to participate. All the subjects completed a demographic questionnaire assessing laparoscopic and MIST-VR experience in the learning center of the SAGES 2004 meeting. Each subject performed two consecutive trials of the MIST-VR Core Skills 1 program at the medium setting. Each trial involved six basic tasks of increasing difficulty: acquire place (AP), transfer place (TP), traversal (TV), withdrawal insert (WI), diathermy task (DT), and manipulate diathermy (MD). Trial 1 was considered a "warm-up," and trial 2 functioned as the test trial proper. Subject performance was scored for time, errors, and economy of instrument movement for each task, and a cumulative total score was calculated. Trial 2 data are expressed as mean time in seconds in Table 2. Proficiency levels for laparoscopic skills have now been established on a national scale by experienced laparoscopic surgeons using the MIST-VR simulator. Residency programs, training centers, and practicing surgeons can now use these data as guidelines for performance criterion during MIST-VR skills training.

  19. On the development of a computer-based handwriting assessment tool to objectively quantify handwriting proficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Tiago H; Tam, Cynthia; Schellnus, Heidi; Chau, Tom

    2011-12-01

    Standardized writing assessments such as the Minnesota Handwriting Assessment (MHA) can inform interventions for handwriting difficulties, which are prevalent among school-aged children. However, these tests usually involve the laborious task of subjectively rating the legibility of the written product, precluding their practical use in some clinical and educational settings. This study describes a portable computer-based handwriting assessment tool to objectively measure MHA quality scores and to detect handwriting difficulties in children. Several measures are proposed based on spatial, temporal, and grip force measurements obtained from a custom-built handwriting instrument. Thirty-five first and second grade students participated in the study, nine of whom exhibited handwriting difficulties. Students performed the MHA test and were subjectively scored based on speed and handwriting quality using five primitives: legibility, form, alignment, size, and space. Several spatial parameters are shown to correlate significantly (phandwriting legibility and speed, respectively. Using only size and space parameters, promising discrimination between proficient and non-proficient handwriting can be achieved. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SPACE BASED INTERCEPTOR SCALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-02-01

    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  1. Proficiency-Based High School Diploma Systems in Maine: Implications for Special Education and Career and Technical Education Programming and Student Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Erika; Johnson, Amy; Jacobs, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Document review and interviews were conducted with college admissions' personnel to gather data regarding alignment of proficiency-based diploma systems and college eligibility and entry requirements. In addition, leaders and representative personnel from and Maine businesses and the U.S. military were interviewed to identify postsecondary career…

  2. Validity and Reliability Dissertation of the Scale Used for Determination of Perceptions and Attitudes of Teacher's Proficiency in Tablet PC-Supported Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugun, Vasfi

    2016-01-01

    It is important to determine the proficiency perceptions and attitudes of the teachers towards Technologies of learning about the tablets in order to integrate the mobile learning technologies and to use the tablet PCs in the educational environments in an efficient way. Therefore, proficiency perceptions and attitudes of the teachers towards the…

  3. Computer proficiency questionnaire: assessing low and high computer proficient seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D; Mitzner, Tracy; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran

    2015-06-01

    Computers and the Internet have the potential to enrich the lives of seniors and aid in the performance of important tasks required for independent living. A prerequisite for reaping these benefits is having the skills needed to use these systems, which is highly dependent on proper training. One prerequisite for efficient and effective training is being able to gauge current levels of proficiency. We developed a new measure (the Computer Proficiency Questionnaire, or CPQ) to measure computer proficiency in the domains of computer basics, printing, communication, Internet, calendaring software, and multimedia use. Our aim was to develop a measure appropriate for individuals with a wide range of proficiencies from noncomputer users to extremely skilled users. To assess the reliability and validity of the CPQ, a diverse sample of older adults, including 276 older adults with no or minimal computer experience, was recruited and asked to complete the CPQ. The CPQ demonstrated excellent reliability (Cronbach's α = .98), with subscale reliabilities ranging from .86 to .97. Age, computer use, and general technology use all predicted CPQ scores. Factor analysis revealed three main factors of proficiency related to Internet and e-mail use; communication and calendaring; and computer basics. Based on our findings, we also developed a short-form CPQ (CPQ-12) with similar properties but 21 fewer questions. The CPQ and CPQ-12 are useful tools to gauge computer proficiency for training and research purposes, even among low computer proficient older adults. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A New Tool for Assessing Mobile Device Proficiency in Older Adults: The Mobile Device Proficiency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Nelson A; Boot, Walter R

    2018-02-01

    Mobile device proficiency is increasingly required to participate in society. Unfortunately, there still exists a digital divide between younger and older adults, especially with respect to mobile devices (i.e., tablet computers and smartphones). Training is an important goal to ensure that older adults can reap the benefits of these devices. However, efficient/effective training depends on the ability to gauge current proficiency levels. We developed a new scale to accurately assess the mobile device proficiency of older adults: the Mobile Device Proficiency Questionnaire (MDPQ). We present and validate the MDPQ and a short 16-question version of the MDPQ (MDPQ-16). The MDPQ, its subscales, and the MDPQ-16 were found to be highly reliable and valid measures of mobile device proficiency in a large sample. We conclude that the MDPQ and MDPQ-16 may serve as useful tools for facilitating mobile device training of older adults and measuring mobile device proficiency for research purposes.

  5. Language proficiency and nursing registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    This discussion paper focuses on English proficiency standards for nursing registration in Australia, how Australia has dealt with the issue of language proficiency, and the factors which have led to the establishment of the current language standards. Also, this paper will provide a comparison of the two language tests that are currently accepted in Australia (OET and IELTS), including the appropriateness of these tests and the minimum standards used. The paper will also examine the use of educational background as an indicator of language proficiency. Finally, communication-based complaints in the post-registration environment will be explored, and some discussion will be provided about why pre-registration measures might have failed to prevent such problematic situations from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Virtual reality simulation for the operating room: proficiency-based training as a paradigm shift in surgical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Ritter, E Matt; Champion, Howard; Higgins, Gerald; Fried, Marvin P; Moses, Gerald; Smith, C Daniel; Satava, Richard M

    2005-02-01

    To inform surgeons about the practical issues to be considered for successful integration of virtual reality simulation into a surgical training program. The learning and practice of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) makes unique demands on surgical training programs. A decade ago Satava proposed virtual reality (VR) surgical simulation as a solution for this problem. Only recently have robust scientific studies supported that vision A review of the surgical education, human-factor, and psychology literature to identify important factors which will impinge on the successful integration of VR training into a surgical training program. VR is more likely to be successful if it is systematically integrated into a well-thought-out education and training program which objectively assesses technical skills improvement proximate to the learning experience. Validated performance metrics should be relevant to the surgical task being trained but in general will require trainees to reach an objectively determined proficiency criterion, based on tightly defined metrics and perform at this level consistently. VR training is more likely to be successful if the training schedule takes place on an interval basis rather than massed into a short period of extensive practice. High-fidelity VR simulations will confer the greatest skills transfer to the in vivo surgical situation, but less expensive VR trainers will also lead to considerably improved skills generalizations. VR for improved performance of MIS is now a reality. However, VR is only a training tool that must be thoughtfully introduced into a surgical training curriculum for it to successfully improve surgical technical skills.

  7. Wii-Based Exercise Program to Improve Physical Fitness, Motor Proficiency and Functional Mobility in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, V.; Campos, C.; Sá, A.; Cavadas, M.; Pinto, J.; Simões, P.; Machado, S.; Murillo-Rodríguez, E.; Barbosa-Rocha, N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with Down syndrome (DS) usually display reduced physical fitness (aerobic capacity, muscle strength and abnormal body composition), motor proficiency impairments (balance and postural control) and physical functional limitations. Exergames can be an appealing alternative to enhance exercise engagement and compliance, whilst…

  8. The Effects of L2 Proficiency on Pragmatics Instruction: A Web-Based Approach to Teaching Chinese Expressions of Gratitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether the effects of pragmatics instruction delivered via a self-access website in a Chinese as a foreign language learning environment vary according to learners' language proficiency. The website provided learners with explicit instruction in how to express gratitude appropriately in Chinese and offered them pragmatic…

  9. Integrating Students of Limited English Proficiency into Standards-Based Reform in the Abbott Districts. Abbott Implementation Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Tamara; Villegas, Ana Maria

    2004-01-01

    In 1999-2000, over one-third of all students in the 30 Abbott districts spoke a native language other than English, and more than one-tenth were considered limited English proficient (LEP). The proportions of LEP students varied considerably across the districts, but they comprised between 5% and 29% of total enrollments in 18 of the districts.…

  10. Proficiency tests, Evaluating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cofino, W.P.; Molenaar, J.; Torfs, P.J.J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Marine monitoring programs provide data that are essential for marine management. The reliability of such data is underpinned by proficiency tests. In the context of Quasimeme, a proficiency testing program for the marine environment, a statistical model has been developed in 2000 to evaluate data

  11. The impact of simulation-based learning on students' English for Nursing Purposes (ENP) reading proficiency: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Yun Annie; Chan, Luke; Siren, Betty

    2013-06-01

    This is a report of a study which evaluated simulation-based learning as a teaching strategy for improving participants' ENP reading proficiency in the senior college program of students whose first language is Chinese, not English. Simulation-based learning is known to be one of most effective teaching strategies in the healthcare professional curricula, which brings a clinical setting into the classroom. However, developing English reading skills for English written nursing journals through simulation-based learning in the nursing curricula, is largely unknown. We used a quasi-experimental approach with nonequivalent control group design to collect the causal connections between intervention and outcomes. 101 students were enrolled in this study (response rate 92.6%) of these 48 students volunteered for the intervention group, and 53 students for the control group. The findings indicated that the intervention group had significantly higher mean scores in ENP reading proficiency with unknown words in the article (p=.004), vocabulary (pdesigned research and a universal method of outcome measurement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Access to Proficy Historian Database Based on SQL Server Linked Server%基于SQL Server链接服务器实现Proficy Historian数据库的访问

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海洲; 尹龙; 李堑

    2017-01-01

    本文主要介绍基于SQL Server链接服务器对Proficy Historian数据库的访问,根据现代粮食物流"管控一体化"系统中设备运行数据的自动生成,介绍这种方法实现的过程.

  13. Numerical Transcoding Proficiency in 10-Year-Old Schoolchildren is Associated with Gray Matter Inter-Individual Differences: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Amélie; Rossi, Sandrine; Simon, Grégory; Lanoë, Céline; Leroux, Gaëlle; Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in gray matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N = 22) whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less gray matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri) and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  14. Numerical transcoding proficiency in 10-year-old schoolchildren is associated with grey-matter interindividual differences: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie eLubin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in grey matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N=22 whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less grey matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  15. Brain responses before and after intensive second language learning: proficiency based changes and first language background effects in adult learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jacquelyn White

    Full Text Available This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2 grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner's first language (L1 background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese. Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1-L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1 higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2 with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., "grammaticalization" are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning.

  16. Brain Responses before and after Intensive Second Language Learning: Proficiency Based Changes and First Language Background Effects in Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner’s first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1–L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., “grammaticalization”) are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning. PMID:23300641

  17. Brain responses before and after intensive second language learning: proficiency based changes and first language background effects in adult learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner's first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1-L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., "grammaticalization") are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning.

  18. The relationship between automatic assessment of oral proficiency and other indicators of first year students' linguistic abilities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Febe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Academic literacy proficiency is key to the success of a student at university. Currently, the large-scale assessment of language proficiency, particularly at higher education levels, is dominated by reading and writing tests because listening...

  19. [Laboratory accreditation and proficiency testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwa, Katsuhiko

    2003-05-01

    ISO/TC 212 covering clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems will issue the international standard for medical laboratory quality and competence requirements, ISO 15189. This standard is based on the ISO/IEC 17025, general requirements for competence of testing and calibration laboratories and ISO 9001, quality management systems-requirements. Clinical laboratory services are essential to patient care and therefore should be available to meet the needs of all patients and clinical personnel responsible for human health care. If a laboratory seeks accreditation, it should select an accreditation body that operates according to this international standard and in a manner which takes into account the particular requirements of clinical laboratories. Proficiency testing should be available to evaluate the calibration laboratories and reference measurement laboratories in clinical medicine. Reference measurement procedures should be of precise and the analytical principle of measurement applied should ensure reliability. We should be prepared to establish a quality management system and proficiency testing in clinical laboratories.

  20. It Really Works: Cultural Communication Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    This paper describes the cultural communication proficiency method of indigenous language instruction, developed at Humboldt State University's Center for Indian Community Development (California), and demonstrates the method with five Hupa lesson plans. The method is based on three principles: that Native American students learn by doing, learn…

  1. Southeast Asian Languages Proficiency Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    The design, administration, revision, and validation of the Southeast Asian Summer Studies Institute proficiency examinations are reported. The examinations were created as parallel language proficiency tests in each of five languages: Indonesian, Khmer, Tagalog, Thai, and Vietnamese. Four tests were developed in each language: multiple-choice…

  2. Clinical Wisdom among Proficient Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Hall, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    This paperexamines clinical wisdom which has emerged from a broader study anout nurse managers´influence on proficient registered nurse turnover and retention. The purpose of the study was to increase understanding of proficient nurses´experience and clinical practice by giving voice to the nurses...

  3. National radon measurement-proficiency program: Individual proficiency report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    In February 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program to assist the public in identifying organizations capable of providing reliable radon measurement services. In December 1991, EPA announced the new individual proficiency listing category in the RMP Program. Individuals applying for this new listing status must demonstrate knowledge of radon measurement fundamentals by passing a written proficiency examination, maintain affiliation with an RMP listed organization, and meet other program requirements. This report lists those individuals who have met the requirements of the RMP Program as of April 30, 1992. These requirements are designed to provide minimum proficiency criteria for individuals who provide radon measurement services on-site in a residential environment

  4. National Radon Contractor Proficiency Program. Proficiency report: Supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The report, a supplement to the RCP Proficiency Report, will further assist governmental officials in providing advice to the public on the selection of proficient radon mitigation contractors. These reports list 1,123 contractors who have met the requirements of the RCP Program as of December 15, 1990. The Proficiency Report provides information on each contractor's name, RCP identification number, company name, address, phone number, and geographic service area. The report provides two additional tables, indexed by company name and by RCP identification number. The report is intended to help users quickly identify a proficient contractor if only the company name is known, or to verify which contractor is associated with a particular ID number

  5. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency report, June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in periodic RCP Proficiency Reports

  6. Differences in Less Proficient and More Proficient ESL College Writing in the Philippine Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustilo, Leah E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at characterizing what skilled or more proficient ESL college writing is in the Philippine setting through a contrastive analysis of three groups of variables identified from previous studies: resources, processes, and performance of ESL writers. Based on Chenoweth and Hayes' (2001; 2003) framework, the resource level…

  7. Environmental Assessment for Explosives Ordnance Disposal Proficiency Training Range at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ANTIOCH UNIVERSITY V1E1N JOE LEASING SPECIALIST EXCEL PM VIEW JOB NEWS PHOTOS & VIDEOS i~.-... --: i\\ ... I ,. j ... ’TouchdoW"n Jesus ’ i n...t Bald Eoglr - Wloll!rwll’/ c::::J Blllllng Star Skm Bom 209 Commttr=t Plrtwav P.D.Bax12B CottageGrovt.WI SJ$27·0128 phone: 606-839~1998 fu...line and the base hospital . The views of the residents of the Brick Quarters were solicited through the public notice put in the Dayton Daily News and

  8. Testing Proficiency in Interpersonal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Burton H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses several hypotheses about the measurement of speech-communication proficiency which are being tested at the University of Hawaii and a testing instrument entitled Dy Comm'' (dyadic communication) which emerged from this research. (DD)

  9. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  10. The effects of types of reflective scaffolding and language proficiency on the acquisition of physics knowledge in a game-based learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsu-Ting

    With the capability of creating a situated and engaging learning environment, video games have been considered as a powerful tool to enhance students' learning outcomes and interest in learning. Yet, little empirical evidence exists to support the effectiveness of video games in learning. Particularly, little attention has been given to the design of specific game elements. Focusing on middle school students, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of representations of reflective scaffolds (verbal and visual) on students' learning outcomes, game performance, and level of engagement in a video game for physics learning. In addition, the role of students' level of English proficiency was examined to understand whether the effects of reflective scaffolds were influenced by students' language proficiency. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 playtested the game with target players and led to game modification for its use in Study 2, which focused on the effects of different types of reflective scaffolds and level of English proficiency. The results of Study 2 showed that students who received both verbal and visual reflective scaffolds completed the most levels compared to the other groups in the given time. No significant effect of type of reflective scaffolds were found on learning outcomes despite the fact that the pattern of the learning outcomes across conditions was close to prediction. Participants' engagement in gameplay was high regardless of the type of scaffolds they received, their interest in learning physics, and their prior knowledge of physics. The results of video analysis also showed that the game used in this study was able to engage students not only in gameplay but also in learning physics. Finally, English proficiency functioned as a significant factor moderating the effects of scaffolds, learning outcomes and game performance. Students with limited English proficiency benefited more from visual reflective scaffolds than

  11. STRATEGIES OF MAINTAINING PROFICIENCY BY TEACHERS OF ENGLISH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.

  12. Task-based incidental vocabulary learning in L2 Arabic: The role of proficiency and task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the claim that word learning in a second language are contingent upon a task’s involvement load (i.e. the amount of need, search, and evaluation it imposes, as proposed by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001. Fifty-three English-speaking learners of Arabic were assigned to one of three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in the degree of involvement: reading comprehension with glosses (low, fill-in-the-gap task (medium, and sentence writing (high. Ten words, selected based on a pretest, were targeted in the tasks. Results showed a main effect of task, with the sentence writing task yielding the highest rates of vocabulary learning, followed by the gap-fill task, and finally the reading comprehension task. A significant correlation was found between accuracy of performance across participants and their subsequent vocabulary acquisition in the immediate posttest. Within groups, only the performance of the writing group correlated significantly with their posttest scores. Results of the present study validate the hypothesis and point to multiple factors at play in incidental vocabulary acquisition. The study provides further arguments to refine the hypothesis and implement pedagogical practices that accommodate incidental learning in foreign language settings.

  13. Study on team evaluation (6). Relationships among technical skill proficiency, leadership, and teamwork behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Ryo; Sasou, Kunihide

    2011-01-01

    To maintain and improve the efficiency and safety of operations in numerous industries, it is necessary to develop programs that enhance teamwork. This can be achieved through empirical investigations that identify influential factors contributing to teamwork. This study focused on technical skill proficiency and leadership as influential factors and examined the relationships among these factors and teamwork behaviors. A series of measurements was performed on 54 operations teams with the cooperation of the training center of thermal power plants. Teamwork behaviors in training under simulated abnormal conditions were evaluated through instructors' observation using a behavior checklist. Technical skill proficiency was measured by conducting a brief survey on instructors. Leadership was measured on the basis of followers' responses on questionnaire scales. Based on the scores of technical skill proficiency and leadership, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three types of teams: (a) F-type - the technical skills of followers are superior to those of leaders; (b) LF-type - both leaders and followers are proficient in technical skills; and (c) L-type - the technical skills of leaders are superior to those of followers. ANOVAs were conducted to examine differences in teamwork behavior for the three types of teams. The main results revealed that LF-type teams actively engaged in information gathering and that leaders played a central role in these activities. In addition, the followers of F-type teams freely exchanged their ideas and opinions regarding problems and actively discussed how to solve them. These findings suggest that teamwork behaviors can vary depending on technical skill proficiency and leadership in teams. Future research is needed to identify additional factors affecting teamwork that are not measured in this study. (author)

  14. SYNCHRONOUS CMC, WORKING MEMORY, AND L2 ORAL PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Payne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002. Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989 model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC and second language (L2 speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002 with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

  15. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) program. Proficiency report, September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving this objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide this information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under this voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report

  16. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency report, January 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report

  17. Examining the Relationship among Reading Curriculum-Based Measures, Level of Language Proficiency, and State Accountability Test Scores with Middle School Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Nicole Osterman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive ability of oral reading fluency (R-CBM) on a sixth grade high-stakes assessment with ELL and non-ELL students, as well as determine the average rate of growth on R-CBM and how that relates to level of English Proficiency. The participants in the current study included 350 sixth grade…

  18. Does a peer model's task proficiency influence children's solution choice and innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lara A; Kendal, Rachel L; Flynn, Emma G

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether 4- to 6-year-old children's task solution choice was influenced by the past proficiency of familiar peer models and the children's personal prior task experience. Peer past proficiency was established through behavioral assessments of interactions with novel tasks alongside peer and teacher predictions of each child's proficiency. Based on these assessments, one peer model with high past proficiency and one age-, sex-, dominance-, and popularity-matched peer model with lower past proficiency were trained to remove a capsule using alternative solutions from a three-solution artificial fruit task. Video demonstrations of the models were shown to children after they had either a personal successful interaction or no interaction with the task. In general, there was not a strong bias toward the high past-proficiency model, perhaps due to a motivation to acquire multiple methods and the salience of other transmission biases. However, there was some evidence of a model-based past-proficiency bias; when the high past-proficiency peer matched the participants' original solution, there was increased use of that solution, whereas if the high past-proficiency peer demonstrated an alternative solution, there was increased use of the alternative social solution and novel solutions. Thus, model proficiency influenced innovation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. National Radon Contractor Proficiency Program. Proficiency report, October 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The report lists those individual contractors in the United States who have met the requirements of the Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program as of August 18, 1990. These requirements are designed to provide minimum proficiency criteria for individuals who design and supervise the installation of radon mitigation systems in buildings. (Some States have more stringent requirements as part of their radon certification programs. The States should be consulted directly for details on their programs; see Section 5 for a list of State radon contacts). The RCP Program measures the proficiency of an individual contractor, not their company. Therefore, users of the report who select a mitigation firm should ensure that the services are provided by the listed contractor. The National RCP Program does not accredit mitigation contractors, nor does it certify, recommend, or endorse participating companies. Only the listed contractor, not their company of affilation, are deemed proficient. The inclusion of a contractor in the report should not be interpreted as a certification or accreditation of the individual or affiliated company

  20. Learning Strategies in Proficient and Less Proficient Readers in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Majid; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Ashrafzadeh, Anis

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to diagnose the probable significant differences in the use of language learning strategies among medical-text readers of opposite sex from different levels of proficiency. 120 (N = 120) participants were randomly selected from Azad Medical University of Mashhad: 60 medical students (age range 23-25; 30 = male and 30 =…

  1. Discrepancies between perceptions of English proficiency and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multilingual awareness pedagogy” embedded in Dörnyei's (2009) L2 Motivational Self System theory. Key words: self-reported perceptions, language proficiency, English proficiency, multilingualism, pedagogy, resilience, L2 Motivational Self System ...

  2. An Accounting Writing Proficiency Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firch, Tim; Campbell, Annhenrie; Filling, Steven; Lindsay, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Although there has been much discussion about improving college student writing with college-level courses, little is known about how accounting programs, in particular, are addressing the writing proficiency challenge. This study surveys the 852 accounting programs in the United States to identify the frequency and types of accounting writing…

  3. The proficiency testing of determination of dioxins in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, R.; Tsutsumi, T.; Maitani, T. [National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Jissen Womens Univ., Hino (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Food intake is the main route of human dioxin exposure, making the determination of dioxins in food indispensable for risk assessment and risk management of dioxins. The uncertainty of analytical results, however, can be very great because of the low concentration of the analytes and complicated cleanup procedures. The risk assessment of dioxins based on analytical results also suffers from a similar degree of uncertainty. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan has published ''Guideline for the Determination of Dioxins in Food'' to standardize the analytical procedures. The guideline contains the quality assurance procedures to obtain reliable analytical results and recommends participation in the relevant proficiency testing scheme. The proficiency testing provides the fair evaluation of the analytical results. The central science laboratory in England and the food and drug safety center in Japan offer the proficiency testing on food. The National Institute of Health Sciences of Japan (NIHS) also has carried out proficiency testing of dioxins in food since 1998 to assure the quality of analytical results for dioxins. In this presentation we will show the results of 5 rounds of proficiency testing.

  4. Digital Games and the US National Research Council's Science Proficiency Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garza, Mario; Clark, Douglas B.; Nelson, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    This review synthesises research on digital games and science learning as it supports the goals for science proficiency outlined in the report by the US National Research Council on science education reform. The review is organised in terms of these research-based goals for science proficiency in light of their alignment with current science…

  5. Knowledge Management and Organizational Proficiency with NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marler, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The pace of new NPP construction, startup, and operation is straining the supply of proficient operators, technicians, and engineers. This technical brief explains an approach implemented by a US nuclear utility to capture and transfer knowledge possessed by proficient workers to new workers using the VISION learning content management system. This approach could also be used to accelerate worker proficiency in new NPP organizations. (author

  6. Planes, Politics and Oral Proficiency: Testing International Air Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the variation in oral proficiency demonstrated by 14 Air Traffic Controllers across two types of testing tasks: work-related radio telephony-based tasks and non-specific English tasks on aviation topics. Their performance was compared statistically in terms of level ratings on the International Civil Aviation Organization…

  7. Predicting Lexical Proficiency in Language Learner Texts Using Computational Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a model of lexical proficiency based on lexical indices related to vocabulary size, depth of lexical knowledge, and accessibility to core lexical items. The lexical indices used in this study come from the computational tool Coh-Metrix and include word length scores, lexical diversity values, word frequency counts, hypernymy…

  8. Maintenance proficiency evaluation test bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Loran

    2003-01-01

    The Maintenance Proficiency Evaluation Test Bank (MPETB) is an Electric Power Research Institute- (EPRJ-) operated, utility-sponsored means of developing, maintaining, and disseminating secure, high-quality written and performance maintenance proficiency tests. EPRTs charter is to ensure that all tests and test items that go into the Test Bank have been validated, screened for reliability, and evaluated to high standards of psychometric excellence. Proficiency tests of maintenance personnel.(mechanics, electricians, and instrumentation and control [I and C] technicians) are most often used to determine if an experienced employee is capable of performing maintenance tasks without further training. Such tests provide objective evidence for decisions to exempt an employee from what, for the employee, is unnecessary training. This leads to considerable savings in training costs and increased productivity because supervisors can assign personnel to tasks at which their competence is proven. The ultimate objective of proficiency evaluation is to ensure that qualified maintenance personnel are available to meet the maintenance requirements of the plant Numerous task-specific MPE tests (both written and performance) have been developed and validated using the EPRI MPE methodology by the utilities participating in the MPETB project A task-specific MPE consists of a multiple-choice written examination and a multi-step performance evaluation that can be used to assess an individual's present knowledge and skill level for a given maintenance task. The MPETB contains MPEs and test items for the mechanical, electrical, and I and C classifications that are readily available to participating utilities. Presently, utilities are placing emphasis on developing MPEs to evaluate outage-related maintenance tasks that demonstrate the competency and qualifications of plant and contractor personnel before the start of outage work. Utilities are also using the MPE methodology and process to

  9. Motor Proficiency in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Venetsanou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine motor proficiency in young children, focusing on potential gender differences. For that purpose, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP-LF was administered to 540 children (272 boys, 4½ to 6 years old. First, the 2 (sex × 4 (age groups ANOVA computed on children’s total BOTMP-LF scores showed that age had a statistically significant effect, whereas gender did not. Second, the one-way MANCOVA applied on subtest scores, with age as covariate, revealed statistical significant gender differences; however, η2 values were found to be small or moderate. Finally, the MANCOVA applied on items where significant gender differences have been reported showed a significant effect of gender. Nonetheless, η2 values exceeded the limit of practical significance only on two items (“standing on preferred leg on floor”, “throwing a ball at a target with preferred hand” that are associated with gender-stereotyped activities. It can be concluded that (a besides statistical significance, effect sizes should be examined for the results of a study to be adequately interpreted; (b young boys’ and girls’ motor proficiency is similar rather than different. Gender differences in specific skills should be used for movement programs to be individualized.

  10. A Computer-Based Visual Analog Scale,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    34 keys on the computer keyboard or other input device. The initial position of the arrow is always in the center of the scale to prevent biasing the...3 REFERENCES 1. Gift, A.G., "Visual Analogue Scales: Measurement of Subjective Phenomena." Nursing Research, Vol. 38, pp. 286-288, 1989. 2. Ltmdberg...3. Menkes, D.B., Howard, R.C., Spears, G.F., and Cairns, E.R., "Salivary THC Following Cannabis Smoking Correlates With Subjective Intoxication and

  11. Proficiency test for aflatoxin in pig feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  12. Proficiency study for quinolones in egg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of quinolones in egg. Furthermore the specificity of the applied methods is evaluated by including possibly interfering compounds in the proficiency study. This

  13. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates (i) English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii) how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as linguistic proficiency develops; and (iii) the extent to which receptive knowledge of ...

  14. Proficiency test for allergens in food 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Alamenou, P.; Elbers, I.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014 a proficiency test for allergens in baby cereal was organized by RIKILT, Wageningen UR. This PT-test enabled laboratories to evaluate their competence for the analysis of allergens in baby cereal. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were accepted. The proficiency test was

  15. Language proficiency: Current strategies, future remedies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language proficiency among young South Africans is low. This is true not only of mother tongue speakers of English and Afrikaans, but also, and especially, of non-mother tongue speakers of English, among whom language proficiency levels raise serious concern. Some examples are given to illustrate the importance of ...

  16. A Contextualized Approach to Describing Oral Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    1995-01-01

    Studies learners' second-language (L2) oral proficiency, incorporating an interview, a narration, and a read-aloud. Results show that the nature of the L2 oral construct is not constant. The article concludes that proficiency researchers should use dimensions empirically derived according to the specific elicitation task and audience. (53…

  17. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  18. Scaling architecture-on-demand based optical networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Hugo; Sancho, Jose Carlos; Mrdakovic, Milica; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra; Miao, Wang; Calabretta, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes methodologies that allow scaling properly Architecture-On-Demand (AoD) based optical networks. As Data Centers and HPC systems are growing in size and complexity, optical networks seem to be the way to scale the bandwidth of current network infrastructures. To scale the number of

  19. Assessment of Proficiency During Simulated Rover Operations Following Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Dean, S. L.; De Dios, Y. E.; MacDougall, H. G.; Moore, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Following long-duration space travel, pressurized rovers will enhance crew mobility to explore Mars and other planetary surfaces. Adaptive changes in sensorimotor function may limit the crew s proficiency when performing some rover operations shortly after transition to the new gravitoinertial environment. The primary goal of this investigation is to quantify postflight decrements in operational proficiency in a motion-based rover simulation after International Space Station (ISS) expeditions. Given that postflight performance will also be influenced by the level of preflight proficiency attained, a ground-based normative study was conducted to characterize the acquisition of skills over multiple sessions.

  20. Fluctuation analysis of proficient and dysgraphic handwriting in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, S.; Roman, H. E.

    2009-03-01

    We analyze handwriting records from several school children with the aim of characterizing the fluctuating behavior of the writing speed. It will be concluded that remarkable differences exist between proficient and dysgraphic handwritings which were unknown so far. It is shown that in the case of proficient handwriting, the variations in handwriting speed are strongly autocorrelated within times corresponding to the completion of a single character or letter, while become uncorrelated at longer times. In the case of dysgraphia, such correlations persist on longer time scales and the autocorrelation function seems to display algebraic time decay, indicating the presence of strong anomalies in the handwriting process. Applications of the results in educational/clinical programs are envisaged.

  1. Aberrant PO2 values in proficiency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzi, C E; Clausen, J L; Mahoney, J

    1993-03-01

    We prospectively determined the frequency of aberrant vials of fluorocarbon/buffer used for proficiency testing of measurements of pH, PCO2, and PO2, using 20 duplicate vials from 12 lots of fluorocarbon/buffer and two arterial blood gas analyzers in eight reference laboratories. We defined aberrant vials as vials for which both duplicate measurements differed from the mean value of repeated measurements for the specific instrument (for each lot of testing materials) by > 0.04 for pH, > 10% of the mean or 3.0 mm Hg, whichever was greater, for PCO2; or > 10% of the mean or 6 mm Hg, whichever was greater, for PO2. Four of 1620 vials (0.25%) were aberrant, all based on PO2 measurements (range of mean values: pH, 7.181-7.631; PCO2, 12.7-65.9; PO2, 32.5-150.1) were 0.0055 for pH, 0.67 mm Hg for PCO2, and 1.65 mm Hg for PO2. Deliberate contamination of the fluorocarbon emulsion with room air, as might occur during sampling from the vial, indicated that only minor increases in PO2 (e.g., 1.0 mm Hg at PO2 of 56 mm Hg) occur when samples are aspirated. Larger increases in PO2 (mean 7.1 mm Hg at a PO2 of 66 mm Hg) occurred when the syringe samples were contaminated with room air. We conclude that isolated aberrant measurements of PO2 in blood gas proficiency testing attributable to vial contents can occur, but the frequency is very low.

  2. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.

  3. Nano-scaled chalcogenide-based memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, Andrea; Pirovano, Agostino

    2011-01-01

    Today phase change memory (PCM) technology has reached product maturity at 90 and 65 nm nodes, while the 45 nm node is under development and is expected to enter in the market soon. The continuous decrease of the cell size with scaling leads to an effective active area as small as 150 nm 2 and an active volume involved in the phase transformation of about 10 4 nm 3 , thus entering definitively into the nanotechnology world. At this extremely reduced dimension, the reliability of the device must be carefully investigated. In this work we show that the cycling performance of the device is well maintained, not being a problem for either the bipolar transistor or the storage element. The phase transition from the amorphous to the crystalline state is, of course, one of the most interesting phenomena, impacting cell retention capability and device performance. The stochastic nature of nano-nuclei percolation in the amorphous matrix is shown as an important ingredient in the retention of PCM devices. The related dispersion in crystallization times is analyzed through a crystallization Monte Carlo model and a physical insight into nucleation and growth mechanisms is provided.

  4. GPU-based large-scale visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus

    2013-11-19

    Recent advances in image and volume acquisition as well as computational advances in simulation have led to an explosion of the amount of data that must be visualized and analyzed. Modern techniques combine the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming to enable the interactive visualization of giga- and terabytes of image and volume data. A major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount of data that is actually visible on screen, decoupling it from the full data size. This leads to powerful display-aware multi-resolution techniques that enable the visualization of data of almost arbitrary size. The course consists of two major parts: An introductory part that progresses from fundamentals to modern techniques, and a more advanced part that discusses details of ray-guided volume rendering, novel data structures for display-aware visualization and processing, and the remote visualization of large online data collections. You will learn how to develop efficient GPU data structures and large-scale visualizations, implement out-of-core strategies and concepts such as virtual texturing that have only been employed recently, as well as how to use modern multi-resolution representations. These approaches reduce the GPU memory requirements of extremely large data to a working set size that fits into current GPUs. You will learn how to perform ray-casting of volume data of almost arbitrary size and how to render and process gigapixel images using scalable, display-aware techniques. We will describe custom virtual texturing architectures as well as recent hardware developments in this area. We will also describe client/server systems for distributed visualization, on-demand data processing and streaming, and remote visualization. We will describe implementations using OpenGL as well as CUDA, exploiting parallelism on GPUs combined with additional asynchronous

  5. Developing Adaptive Proficiency in Special Forces Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Susan S; Mueller-Hanson, Rose A; Dorsey, David W; Pulakos, Elaine D; Wisecarver, Michelle M; Deagle, Edwin A., III; Mendini, Kip G

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive proficiency is critical for operating in the dynamic Special Forces (SF) mission environment and a recent focus on this requirement has resulted in a greater emphasis on adaptability in current training for SF...

  6. Statistical amplitude scale estimation for quantization-based watermarking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shterev, I.D.; Lagendijk, I.L.; Heusdens, R.

    2004-01-01

    Quantization-based watermarking schemes are vulnerable to amplitude scaling. Therefore the scaling factor has to be accounted for either at the encoder, or at the decoder, prior to watermark decoding. In this paper we derive the marginal probability density model for the watermarked and attacked

  7. Organization and ELISA-Based Results of the First Proficiency Testing to Evaluate the Ability of European Union Laboratories to Detect Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type B (SEB in Buffer and Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Nia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to organize the first proficiency test (PT dedicated to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB detection in milk and buffer solutions. This paper describes the organization of the PT trial according to EN ISO 17043 requirements. Characterization of the SEB stock solution was performed using SDS-PAGE and SE-specific ELISA, and amino acid analysis was used to assign its protein concentration. The solution was then used to prepare six PT materials (four milk and two buffer batches at a ng/g toxin level, which included one blank and one SEA-containing milk as specificity control. Suitable material homogeneity and stability were assessed using screening and quantitative ELISAs. Among the methods used by the participants, ELISA-based methods demonstrated their efficiency for the detection of SEB in both simple and complex matrices. The results serve as a basis for further improving the detection capabilities in expert laboratories and can therefore be considered as a contribution to biopreparedness.

  8. Proficiency testing of skin prick testers as part of a quality assurance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Allesen-Holm, Pernille; Karved, Lisbeth Sys

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test is an important diagnostic procedure in clinical allergy but documentation of the quality is often missing. METHODS: We describe a proficiency system to evaluate staff members in relation to the international recommended reproducibility in terms of coefficient...... of variation (CV 0.85) based on blinded octuplicate histamine testing using histamine 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/ml. RESULTS: Fourteen trained allergy nurses participated in the proficiency testing. More than 95 % of the nurses, generated coefficient of variation...

  9. THE OBSERVATION OF TEACHER CANDIDATE RELATED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TEACHER'S PROFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    BAHŞİ, Muammer; TURAN, Mehmet; YILAYAZ, Ömer

    2009-01-01

    In this study it is evaluated science and tecnology teacher's proficiency based on students insights of science and tecnology education students in education faculty. It was used Standarts for Teacher Proficiency which is prepared from Ministry of National Education. The research was conducted on 85 Science and Tecnology students (4th classes) studying at the education faculty of Firat University. Data from results of study was analysed by using SPSS.

  10. SDG and qualitative trend based model multiple scale validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dong; Xu, Xin; Yin, Jianjin; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Beike

    2017-09-01

    Verification, Validation and Accreditation (VV&A) is key technology of simulation and modelling. For the traditional model validation methods, the completeness is weak; it is carried out in one scale; it depends on human experience. The SDG (Signed Directed Graph) and qualitative trend based multiple scale validation is proposed. First the SDG model is built and qualitative trends are added to the model. And then complete testing scenarios are produced by positive inference. The multiple scale validation is carried out by comparing the testing scenarios with outputs of simulation model in different scales. Finally, the effectiveness is proved by carrying out validation for a reactor model.

  11. Unique Contributions of Maternal Reading Proficiency to Predicting Children's Preschool Receptive Vocabulary and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Linda M.; Norris, Stephen P.; Hayward, Denyse V.; Lovell, Meridith A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether mothers' measured reading proficiency and their educational level predict, over and above each other, their children's receptive vocabulary and reading proficiency when confounding factors of speaking a minority language, ethnicity, number of children in the family, and marital and employment status are controlled.…

  12. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  13. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  14. [Modeling continuous scaling of NDVI based on fractal theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hai-Jun; Tian, Qing-Jiu; Yu, Tao; Hu, Xin-Li; Huang, Yan; Du, Ling-Tong; Zhao, Li-Min; Wei, Xi; Han, Jie; Zhang, Zhou-Wei; Li, Shao-Peng

    2013-07-01

    Scale effect was one of the very important scientific problems of remote sensing. The scale effect of quantitative remote sensing can be used to study retrievals' relationship between different-resolution images, and its research became an effective way to confront the challenges, such as validation of quantitative remote sensing products et al. Traditional up-scaling methods cannot describe scale changing features of retrievals on entire series of scales; meanwhile, they are faced with serious parameters correction issues because of imaging parameters' variation of different sensors, such as geometrical correction, spectral correction, etc. Utilizing single sensor image, fractal methodology was utilized to solve these problems. Taking NDVI (computed by land surface radiance) as example and based on Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image, a scheme was proposed to model continuous scaling of retrievals. Then the experimental results indicated that: (a) For NDVI, scale effect existed, and it could be described by fractal model of continuous scaling; (2) The fractal method was suitable for validation of NDVI. All of these proved that fractal was an effective methodology of studying scaling of quantitative remote sensing.

  15. Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J; Brooks, Lyndon O; Beard, John R

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether childhood fundamental motor skill proficiency predicts subsequent adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness. In 2000, children's proficiency in a battery of skills was assessed as part of an elementary school-based intervention. Participants were followed up during 2006/2007 as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study, and cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the Multistage Fitness Test. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between childhood fundamental motor skill proficiency and adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness controlling for gender. Composite object control (kick, catch, throw) and locomotor skill (hop, side gallop, vertical jump) were constructed for analysis. A separate linear regression examined the ability of the sprint run to predict cardiorespiratory fitness. Of the 928 original intervention participants, 481 were in 28 schools, 276 (57%) of whom were assessed. Two hundred and forty-four students (88.4%) completed the fitness test. One hundred and twenty-seven were females (52.1%), 60.1% of whom were in grade 10 and 39.0% were in grade 11. As children, almost all 244 completed each motor assessments, except for the sprint run (n = 154, 55.8%). The mean composite skill score in 2000 was 17.7 (SD 5.1). In 2006/2007, the mean number of laps on the Multistage Fitness Test was 50.5 (SD 24.4). Object control proficiency in childhood, adjusting for gender (P = 0.000), was associated with adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness (P = 0.012), accounting for 26% of fitness variation. Children with good object control skills are more likely to become fit adolescents. Fundamental motor skill development in childhood may be an important component of interventions aiming to promote long-term fitness.

  16. Predictors and Outcomes of Early vs. Later English Language Proficiency Among English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children’s growth and development. PMID:22389551

  17. A Nuclear Scale System Based on LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shixing; Gu Qindong

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear mass scales measure the weight of materials which absorb and attenuate the nuclear radiation when the low energy γ-ray through it and is a non-contact continuous measurement device with simple structure and reliable operation. LabVIEW as a graphical programming language is a standard data acquisition and instrument control software. Based on the principle of nuclear mass scale measuring system, monitoring software for nuclear scale system is designed using LabVIEW programming environment. Software architecture mainly composed of three basic modules which include the monitoring software, databases and Web services. It achieves measurement data acquisition, status monitoring, and data management and has networking functions. (authors)

  18. An allometric scaling relation based on logistic growth of cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An allometric scaling based on logistic process can be used to model urban growth. • The traditional allometry is based on exponential growth instead of logistic growth. • The exponential allometry represents a local scaling of urban growth. • The logistic allometry represents a global scaling of urban growth. • The exponential allometry is an approximation relation of the logistic allometry. - Abstract: The relationships between urban area and population size have been empirically demonstrated to follow the scaling law of allometric growth. This allometric scaling is based on exponential growth of city size and can be termed “exponential allometry”, which is associated with the concepts of fractals. However, both city population and urban area comply with the course of logistic growth rather than exponential growth. In this paper, I will present a new allometric scaling based on logistic growth to solve the above mentioned problem. The logistic growth is a process of replacement dynamics. Defining a pair of replacement quotients as new measurements, which are functions of urban area and population, we can derive an allometric scaling relation from the logistic processes of urban growth, which can be termed “logistic allometry”. The exponential allometric relation between urban area and population is the approximate expression of the logistic allometric equation when the city size is not large enough. The proper range of the allometric scaling exponent value is reconsidered through the logistic process. Then, a medium-sized city of Henan Province, China, is employed as an example to validate the new allometric relation. The logistic allometry is helpful for further understanding the fractal property and self-organized process of urban evolution in the right perspective

  19. Beyond English Proficiency: Rethinking Immigrant Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S.; Frank, Reanne

    2014-01-01

    We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. PMID:24576636

  20. Modal-pushover-based ground-motion scaling procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake engineering is increasingly using nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) to demonstrate the performance of structures. This rigorous method of analysis requires selection and scaling of ground motions appropriate to design hazard levels. This paper presents a modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) procedure to scale ground motions for use in a nonlinear RHA of buildings. In the MPS method, the ground motions are scaled to match to a specified tolerance, a target value of the inelastic deformation of the first-mode inelastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) system whose properties are determined by the first-mode pushover analysis. Appropriate for first-mode dominated structures, this approach is extended for structures with significant contributions of higher modes by considering elastic deformation of second-mode SDF systems in selecting a subset of the scaled ground motions. Based on results presented for three actual buildings-4, 6, and 13-story-the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are established and its superiority over the ASCE/SEI 7-05 scaling procedure is demonstrated.

  1. A Multi-Scale Settlement Matching Algorithm Based on ARG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Han; Zhu, Xinyan; Chen, Di; Liu, Lingjia

    2016-06-01

    Homonymous entity matching is an important part of multi-source spatial data integration, automatic updating and change detection. Considering the low accuracy of existing matching methods in dealing with matching multi-scale settlement data, an algorithm based on Attributed Relational Graph (ARG) is proposed. The algorithm firstly divides two settlement scenes at different scales into blocks by small-scale road network and constructs local ARGs in each block. Then, ascertains candidate sets by merging procedures and obtains the optimal matching pairs by comparing the similarity of ARGs iteratively. Finally, the corresponding relations between settlements at large and small scales are identified. At the end of this article, a demonstration is presented and the results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of handling sophisticated cases.

  2. A Multi-Scale Settlement Matching Algorithm Based on ARG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yue

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Homonymous entity matching is an important part of multi-source spatial data integration, automatic updating and change detection. Considering the low accuracy of existing matching methods in dealing with matching multi-scale settlement data, an algorithm based on Attributed Relational Graph (ARG is proposed. The algorithm firstly divides two settlement scenes at different scales into blocks by small-scale road network and constructs local ARGs in each block. Then, ascertains candidate sets by merging procedures and obtains the optimal matching pairs by comparing the similarity of ARGs iteratively. Finally, the corresponding relations between settlements at large and small scales are identified. At the end of this article, a demonstration is presented and the results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of handling sophisticated cases.

  3. Attitudes and Attained English Language Proficiency of University Students in Thailand: A Sociolinguistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Arsene; Trungamphai, Arunthadee

    English proficiency of Thai university students studying English as a Foreign Language (EFL) was studied in relation to attitudinal scores on social, economic, travel, or prestige scales. Secondarily, the subjects' attitudes toward their native group and toward the target language group, and their motives for learning English were studied in…

  4. The correlation between motor proficiency and physical activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lizl-Louise van Niekerk

    eOseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 (BOT-2) for motor proficiency, and the International. Physical Activity ... Pienaar, 2007; Malina, 2012). ..... sults of Hardy, Reinten-Reynolds, Espinel, Zask, and Okely .... Journal of Psychiatric and Mental.

  5. Information filtering via a scaling-based function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Chen, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Finding a universal description of the algorithm optimization is one of the key challenges in personalized recommendation. In this article, for the first time, we introduce a scaling-based algorithm (SCL) independent of recommendation list length based on a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion, by finding out the scaling function for the tunable parameter and object average degree. The optimal value of the tunable parameter can be abstracted from the scaling function, which is heterogeneous for the individual object. Experimental results obtained from three real datasets, Netflix, MovieLens and RYM, show that the SCL is highly accurate in recommendation. More importantly, compared with a number of excellent algorithms, including the mass diffusion method, the original hybrid method, and even an improved version of the hybrid method, the SCL algorithm remarkably promotes the personalized recommendation in three other aspects: solving the accuracy-diversity dilemma, presenting a high novelty, and solving the key challenge of cold start problem.

  6. Scale-invariant entropy-based theory for dynamic ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahulikar, Shripad P.; Kumari, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Dynamically Ordered self-organized dissipative structure exists in various forms and at different scales. This investigation first introduces the concept of an isolated embedding system, which embeds an open system, e.g., dissipative structure and its mass and/or energy exchange with its surroundings. Thereafter, scale-invariant theoretical analysis is presented using thermodynamic principles for Order creation, existence, and destruction. The sustainability criterion for Order existence based on its structured mass and/or energy interactions with the surroundings is mathematically defined. This criterion forms the basis for the interrelationship of physical parameters during sustained existence of dynamic Order. It is shown that the sufficient condition for dynamic Order existence is approached if its sustainability criterion is met, i.e., its destruction path is blocked. This scale-invariant approach has the potential to unify the physical understanding of universal dynamic ordering based on entropy considerations

  7. Web-based Visual Analytics for Extreme Scale Climate Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Harney, John F [ORNL; Jewell, Brian C [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Smith, Brian E [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Web-based visual analytics framework for democratizing advanced visualization and analysis capabilities pertinent to large-scale earth system simulations. We address significant limitations of present climate data analysis tools such as tightly coupled dependencies, ineffi- cient data movements, complex user interfaces, and static visualizations. Our Web-based visual analytics framework removes critical barriers to the widespread accessibility and adoption of advanced scientific techniques. Using distributed connections to back-end diagnostics, we minimize data movements and leverage HPC platforms. We also mitigate system dependency issues by employing a RESTful interface. Our framework embraces the visual analytics paradigm via new visual navigation techniques for hierarchical parameter spaces, multi-scale representations, and interactive spatio-temporal data mining methods that retain details. Although generalizable to other science domains, the current work focuses on improving exploratory analysis of large-scale Community Land Model (CLM) and Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) simulations.

  8. The relationship between fundamental movement skill proficiency and physical self-confidence among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Bronagh; Belton, Sarahjane; Powell, Danielle; Issartel, Johann

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to assess fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency, physical self-confidence levels, and the relationship between these variables and gender differences among adolescents. Three hundred and ninety five adolescents aged 13.78 years (SD = ±1.2) from 20 schools were involved in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD), TGMD-2 and Victorian Skills Manual were used to assess 15 FMS. Participants' physical self-confidence was also assessed using a valid skill-specific scale. A significant correlation was observed between FMS proficiency and physical self-confidence for females only (r = 0.305, P < 0.001). Males rated themselves as having significantly higher physical self-confidence levels than females (P = 0.001). Males scored significantly higher than females in FMS proficiency (P < 0.05), and the lowest physical self-confidence group were significantly less proficient at FMS than the medium (P < 0.001) and high physical self-confidence groups (P < 0.05). This information not only highlights those in need of assistance to develop their FMS but will also facilitate in the development of an intervention which aims to improve physical self-confidence and FMS proficiency.

  9. The English proficiency and academic language skills of Australian bilingual children during the primary school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennaoui, Kamelia; Nicholls, Ruth Jane; O'Connor, Meredith; Tarasuik, Joanne; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Goldfeld, Sharon

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that early proficiency in the language of school instruction is an important predictor of academic success for bilingual children. This study investigated whether English-proficiency at 4-5 years of age predicts academic language and literacy skills among Australian bilingual children at 10-11 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children ( LSAC, 2012 ). The LSAC comprises a nationally representative clustered cross-sequential sample of Australian children. Data were analysed from a sub-sample of 129 bilingual children from the LSAC Kindergarten cohort (n = 4983), for whom teachers completed the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) checklist (a population measure of early childhood development) and the Academic Rating Scale (ARS) language and literacy subscale. Linear regression analyses revealed that bilingual children who commenced school with stronger English proficiency had higher academic language and literacy scores at the end of primary school (β = 0.45). English proficiency remained a significant predictor, even when accounting for gender and socio-economic disadvantage (β = 0.38). The findings indicate that bilingual children who begin school without English proficiency are at risk of difficulties with academic language and literacy, even after 6 years of schooling. Risk factors need to be identified so early support can be targeted towards the most vulnerable children.

  10. Conformal-Based Surface Morphing and Multi-Scale Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Chun Lam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two algorithms, based on conformal geometry, for the multi-scale representations of geometric shapes and surface morphing. A multi-scale surface representation aims to describe a 3D shape at different levels of geometric detail, which allows analyzing or editing surfaces at the global or local scales effectively. Surface morphing refers to the process of interpolating between two geometric shapes, which has been widely applied to estimate or analyze deformations in computer graphics, computer vision and medical imaging. In this work, we propose two geometric models for surface morphing and multi-scale representation for 3D surfaces. The basic idea is to represent a 3D surface by its mean curvature function, H, and conformal factor function λ, which uniquely determine the geometry of the surface according to Riemann surface theory. Once we have the (λ, H parameterization of the surface, post-processing of the surface can be done directly on the conformal parameter domain. In particular, the problem of multi-scale representations of shapes can be reduced to the signal filtering on the λ and H parameters. On the other hand, the surface morphing problem can be transformed to an interpolation process of two sets of (λ, H parameters. We test the proposed algorithms on 3D human face data and MRI-derived brain surfaces. Experimental results show that our proposed methods can effectively obtain multi-scale surface representations and give natural surface morphing results.

  11. From Universal Access to Universal Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2003-01-01

    Panel of five education experts--Elliot Eisner, John Goodlad, Patricia Graham, Phillip Schlechty, and Warren Simons--answer questions related to recent school reform efforts, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, aimed at achieving universal educational proficiency. (PKP)

  12. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English ... battery may negatively impact the test-takers' performance. ..... examples. The major finding is that raising learners' awareness constitutes the best way forward ..... Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Green, R.

  13. Foreign language proficiency and working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hugdahl, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that working memory capacity interacts with (foreign) language proficiency was tested on multilinguals, who were native (L1) Dutch speakers, were fluent in their second (L2) language, German, and had recently started the acquisition of their third (L3) language,

  14. Proficiency test for paracitides in salmon muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of parasiticides in salmon muscle. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for the quantitative analysis of parasiticides in salmon muscle.

  15. Proficiency Testing in Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abbas; Suhairy Sani; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Abd Nassir Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Department of Standard Malaysia (DSM) launched myPTP programme on 31 December 2013 in accordance to ISO/IC 17043. The standard states the requirements for Proficiency Testing. The provider of these services is called Proficiency Testing Provider (PTP). The role of PTP is to compare the proficiency level between inspection bodies or laboratories. With the assistance of expert panel, the PTP will determine the assigned value as reference to be compared to the values obtained from the inspection bodies or laboratories. Quality wise, this services is important as participation will improve wuality of the inspection quality continuously and increase confidence level of client and improve safety level. Requirement of PT in NDT is mentioned in SC1.5- Specific Criteria for Accreditation of Mechanical Testing and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) for MS ISO/IEC17025 and MTR2- MIBAS Technical Requirements for Accreditation of NDT. This paper explains and discusses the result of this proficiency test done on a number of NDT companies that participated. (author)

  16. The Oral Proficiency Interview: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Fulcher, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    Many researchers and practitioners maintain that ACTFL's efforts to improve instructional practices and promote proficiency assessments tied to descriptors of what learners can do in real life have contributed significantly to second language teaching and testing. Similar endeavors in the area of research, however, are critically needed. Focusing…

  17. 14 CFR 61.98 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.98 Section 61.98 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN...) Navigation; (viii) Slow flight and stalls; (ix) Emergency operations; and (x) Postflight procedures. (2) For...

  18. 14 CFR 61.107 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.107 Section 61.107 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN... reference maneuvers; (vii) Navigation; (viii) Slow flight and stalls; (ix) Basic instrument maneuvers; (x...

  19. 14 CFR 61.127 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.127 Section 61.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN...; (x) High-altitude operations; and (xi) Postflight procedures. (2) For an airplane category rating...

  20. An allometric scaling relation based on logistic growth of cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2014-08-01

    The relationships between urban area and population size have been empirically demonstrated to follow the scaling law of allometric growth. This allometric scaling is based on exponential growth of city size and can be termed "exponential allometry", which is associated with the concepts of fractals. However, both city population and urban area comply with the course of logistic growth rather than exponential growth. In this paper, I will present a new allometric scaling based on logistic growth to solve the abovementioned problem. The logistic growth is a process of replacement dynamics. Defining a pair of replacement quotients as new measurements, which are functions of urban area and population, we can derive an allometric scaling relation from the logistic processes of urban growth, which can be termed "logistic allometry". The exponential allometric relation between urban area and population is the approximate expression of the logistic allometric equation when the city size is not large enough. The proper range of the allometric scaling exponent value is reconsidered through the logistic process. Then, a medium-sized city of Henan Province, China, is employed as an example to validate the new allometric relation. The logistic allometry is helpful for further understanding the fractal property and self-organized process of urban evolution in the right perspective.

  1. 34 CFR 300.27 - Limited English proficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited English proficient. 300.27 Section 300.27... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.27 Limited English proficient. Limited English proficient has the meaning given the term in section 9101(25) of the ESEA. (Authority: 20...

  2. A Validation Study of the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lynn E.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study validated the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA), an oral proficiency instrument designed for students in elementary foreign language programs. Elementary students who were tested with the SOPA were also administered other instruments designed to measure proficiency. These instruments included the Stanford Foreign Language Oral…

  3. Proverb Comprehension as a Function of Reading Proficiency in Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Allen, Melissa M.; Kirsch, Dixon I.

    2001-01-01

    Proverb comprehension through reading was examined in 42 preadolescent students, 24 of whom were identified as "proficient readers," and 18 as "less proficient readers." Comprehension on both unfamiliar concrete and abstract proverbs was associated with reading proficiency, word knowledge, and analogical reasoning. (Contains references.)…

  4. Maximum length scale in density based topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Wang, Fengwen

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this work is on two new techniques for imposing maximum length scale in topology optimization. Restrictions on the maximum length scale provide designers with full control over the optimized structure and open possibilities to tailor the optimized design for broader range...... of manufacturing processes by fulfilling the associated technological constraints. One of the proposed methods is based on combination of several filters and builds on top of the classical density filtering which can be viewed as a low pass filter applied to the design parametrization. The main idea...

  5. Image-based Exploration of Large-Scale Pathline Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2014-05-27

    While real-time applications are nowadays routinely used in visualizing large nu- merical simulations and volumes, handling these large-scale datasets requires high-end graphics clusters or supercomputers to process and visualize them. However, not all users have access to powerful clusters. Therefore, it is challenging to come up with a visualization approach that provides insight to large-scale datasets on a single com- puter. Explorable images (EI) is one of the methods that allows users to handle large data on a single workstation. Although it is a view-dependent method, it combines both exploration and modification of visual aspects without re-accessing the original huge data. In this thesis, we propose a novel image-based method that applies the concept of EI in visualizing large flow-field pathlines data. The goal of our work is to provide an optimized image-based method, which scales well with the dataset size. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathlines segments. With this view-dependent method it is possible to filter, color-code and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination and deferred shading are applied, which further improves the performance and scalability of our approach.

  6. Experiences of Latinos with limited English proficiency with patient registration systems and their interactions with clinic front office staff: an exploratory study to inform community-based translational research in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Calo, William A.; Cubillos, Laura; Breen, James; Hall, Megan; Rojas, Krycya Flores; Mooneyham, Rachel; Schaal, Jennifer; Hardy, Christina Yongue; Dave, Gaurav; Jolles, M?nica P?rez; Garcia, Nacire; Reuland, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health services research of Latinos with limited English proficiency (LEP) have largely focused on studying disparities related to patient-provider communication. Less is known about their non-provider interactions such as those with patient registration systems and clinic front office staff; these interactions precede the encounter with providers and may shape how comfortable patients feel about their overall health services experience. This study explored Latino patients with LEP...

  7. Multi scales based sparse matrix spectral clustering image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongmin; Chen, Zhicai; Li, Zhanming; Hu, Wenjin

    2018-04-01

    In image segmentation, spectral clustering algorithms have to adopt the appropriate scaling parameter to calculate the similarity matrix between the pixels, which may have a great impact on the clustering result. Moreover, when the number of data instance is large, computational complexity and memory use of the algorithm will greatly increase. To solve these two problems, we proposed a new spectral clustering image segmentation algorithm based on multi scales and sparse matrix. We devised a new feature extraction method at first, then extracted the features of image on different scales, at last, using the feature information to construct sparse similarity matrix which can improve the operation efficiency. Compared with traditional spectral clustering algorithm, image segmentation experimental results show our algorithm have better degree of accuracy and robustness.

  8. Formalizing Knowledge in Multi-Scale Agent-Based Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre; Sluka, James P; Glazier, James A

    2016-10-01

    Multi-scale, agent-based simulations of cellular and tissue biology are increasingly common. These simulations combine and integrate a range of components from different domains. Simulations continuously create, destroy and reorganize constituent elements causing their interactions to dynamically change. For example, the multi-cellular tissue development process coordinates molecular, cellular and tissue scale objects with biochemical, biomechanical, spatial and behavioral processes to form a dynamic network. Different domain specific languages can describe these components in isolation, but cannot describe their interactions. No current programming language is designed to represent in human readable and reusable form the domain specific knowledge contained in these components and interactions. We present a new hybrid programming language paradigm that naturally expresses the complex multi-scale objects and dynamic interactions in a unified way and allows domain knowledge to be captured, searched, formalized, extracted and reused.

  9. Measuring Second Language Proficiency with EEG Synchronization: How Functional Cortical Networks and Hemispheric Involvement Differ as a Function of Proficiency Level in Second Language Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterer, Susanne; Pereda, Ernesto; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the question of whether university-based high-level foreign language and linguistic training can influence brain activation and whether different L2 proficiency groups have different brain activation in terms of lateralization and hemispheric involvement. The traditional and prevailing theory of hemispheric involvement in…

  10. The relationship between English language learning strategies and proficiency of pre-university students: A study case of UMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-07-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  11. Perceptual security of encrypted images based on wavelet scaling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Olmos, C.; Murguía, J. S.; Ramírez-Torres, M. T.; Mejía Carlos, M.; Rosu, H. C.; González-Aguilar, H.

    2016-08-01

    The scaling behavior of the pixel fluctuations of encrypted images is evaluated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis based on wavelets, a modern technique that has been successfully used recently for a wide range of natural phenomena and technological processes. As encryption algorithms, we use the Advanced Encryption System (AES) in RBT mode and two versions of a cryptosystem based on cellular automata, with the encryption process applied both fully and partially by selecting different bitplanes. In all cases, the results show that the encrypted images in which no understandable information can be visually appreciated and whose pixels look totally random present a persistent scaling behavior with the scaling exponent α close to 0.5, implying no correlation between pixels when the DFA with wavelets is applied. This suggests that the scaling exponents of the encrypted images can be used as a perceptual security criterion in the sense that when their values are close to 0.5 (the white noise value) the encrypted images are more secure also from the perceptual point of view.

  12. Graph-based linear scaling electronic structure theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Anders M. N., E-mail: amn@lanl.gov; Negre, Christian F. A.; Cawkwell, Marc J.; Swart, Pieter J.; Germann, Timothy C.; Bock, Nicolas [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Mniszewski, Susan M.; Mohd-Yusof, Jamal; Wall, Michael E.; Djidjev, Hristo [Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Rubensson, Emanuel H. [Division of Scientific Computing, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Box 337, SE-751 05 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-06-21

    We show how graph theory can be combined with quantum theory to calculate the electronic structure of large complex systems. The graph formalism is general and applicable to a broad range of electronic structure methods and materials, including challenging systems such as biomolecules. The methodology combines well-controlled accuracy, low computational cost, and natural low-communication parallelism. This combination addresses substantial shortcomings of linear scaling electronic structure theory, in particular with respect to quantum-based molecular dynamics simulations.

  13. Evaluation of the Community Health Nursing Course of First Year Proficiency Certificate Level Nursing in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Shahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Community health is very much important in nursing education. It is essential because it maximizes the health status of individuals, families, groups and the community through direct approach with them. The main purpose of the study was to identify the gap in Community Health Nursing I course in Proficiency Certificate Level first year nursing program in Nepal. METHODS: Mix methods of research having qualitative and quantitative method were used in the study. Data were collected from 12 subject teachers, 35 nursing graduates and 61 Proficiency Certificate Level first year nursing students. The study used structured, five-point rating scale and open ended questions according to Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis for the self-administered questionnaire. FINDINGS: Common view points of the three sector's respondents (student, nursing graduate and teachers regarding the strengths of curriculum are: curriculum is based on Primary Health Care approach and covers preventive and promotive aspects of health. Regarding weaknesses, they said that there is inadequate time for practice, there is lack of innovative methods and materials, the course didn't cover new trends of environmental pollution and changes, global warming, greenhouse effect, climate change and deforestation etc. Similarly, they added that curriculum is not revised regularly and there is insufficient supervision in field. Likewise, regarding opportunities, they said that there is job opportunity in social organization as Community Health Nursing/Public Health Nurse. Moreover, they said that there is lack of employment scope as threats point. CONCLUSION: The paper concludes that new issues and trends of community health nursing should be added, and curriculum should be revised regularly.

  14. Using genre pedagogy to promote student proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jantien; Bakker, Arthur; van Eerde, Dolly; Kuijpers, Maggie

    2016-09-01

    The importance of language in mathematics learning has been widely acknowledged. However, little is known about how to make this insight productive in the design and enactment of language-oriented mathematics education. In a design-based research project, we explored how language-oriented mathematics education can be designed and enacted. We drew on genre pedagogy to promote student proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs. In the intervention, the teacher used scaffolding strategies to focus students' attention on the structure and linguistic features of the language involved in this particular domain. The research question addressed in this paper is how student proficiency in this language may be promoted. The study comprised nine lessons involving 22 students in grades 5 and 6 (aged 10-12); of these students, 19 had a migrant background. In light of the research aim, we first describe the rationale behind our design. Next, we illustrate how the design was enacted by means of a case study focusing on one student in the classroom practice of developing proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs. On the basis of pre- and posttest scores, we conclude that overall their proficiency has increased. Together, the results indicate that and how genre pedagogy may be used to help students become more proficient in the language required in a mathematical domain.

  15. Evaluating the spoken English proficiency of graduates of foreign medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, J R; van Zanten, M; McKinley, D W; Gary, N E

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather additional evidence for the validity and reliability of spoken English proficiency ratings provided by trained standardized patients (SPs) in high-stakes clinical skills examination. Over 2500 candidates who took the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates' (ECFMG) Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) were studied. The CSA consists of 10 or 11 timed clinical encounters. Standardized patients evaluate spoken English proficiency and interpersonal skills in every encounter. Generalizability theory was used to estimate the consistency of spoken English ratings. Validity coefficients were calculated by correlating summary English ratings with CSA scores and other external criterion measures. Mean spoken English ratings were also compared by various candidate background variables. The reliability of the spoken English ratings, based on 10 independent evaluations, was high. The magnitudes of the associated variance components indicated that the evaluation of a candidate's spoken English proficiency is unlikely to be affected by the choice of cases or SPs used in a given assessment. Proficiency in spoken English was related to native language (English versus other) and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The pattern of the relationships, both within assessment components and with external criterion measures, suggests that valid measures of spoken English proficiency are obtained. This result, combined with the high reproducibility of the ratings over encounters and SPs, supports the use of trained SPs to measure spoken English skills in a simulated medical environment.

  16. Evaluation of Mycology Laboratory Proficiency Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Andrew A.; Salkin, Ira F.; McGinnis, Michael R.; Gromadzki, Sally; Pasarell, Lester; Kemna, Maggi; Higgins, Nancy; Salfinger, Max

    1999-01-01

    Changes over the last decade in overt proficiency testing (OPT) regulations have been ostensibly directed at improving laboratory performance on patient samples. However, the overt (unblinded) format of the tests and regulatory penalties associated with incorrect values allow and encourage laboratorians to take extra precautions with OPT analytes. As a result OPT may measure optimal laboratory performance instead of the intended target of typical performance attained during routine patient te...

  17. Information filtering via a scaling-based function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Qiu

    Full Text Available Finding a universal description of the algorithm optimization is one of the key challenges in personalized recommendation. In this article, for the first time, we introduce a scaling-based algorithm (SCL independent of recommendation list length based on a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion, by finding out the scaling function for the tunable parameter and object average degree. The optimal value of the tunable parameter can be abstracted from the scaling function, which is heterogeneous for the individual object. Experimental results obtained from three real datasets, Netflix, MovieLens and RYM, show that the SCL is highly accurate in recommendation. More importantly, compared with a number of excellent algorithms, including the mass diffusion method, the original hybrid method, and even an improved version of the hybrid method, the SCL algorithm remarkably promotes the personalized recommendation in three other aspects: solving the accuracy-diversity dilemma, presenting a high novelty, and solving the key challenge of cold start problem.

  18. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment

    OpenAIRE

    van Beurden Eric; Morgan Philip J; Barnett Lisa M; Beard John R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competenc...

  19. Proficiency testing in the light of a new rationale in metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The novel proposed definition of measurement result in the international metrology vocabulary requires a revision of standards and guidelines for proficiency testing (PT), and a new approach to processing proficiency data is needed to test the ability of laboratories to present not only unbiased...... quantity values, but reliable estimates of their uncertainty. Hence, an accepted reference value with the smallest possible uncertainty is needed to ascertain the proficiency of laboratories reporting results with lower than average uncertainty. A strategy based on the T-statistic is proposed leading...... to an accepted reference value that fully reflects the uncertainties reported by participants in a PT scheme and permits calculation of En-numbers to distinguish whether or not measurement results are consistent with the accepted definition of the measurand. The strategy is applied to PT data from a recent...

  20. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  1. Coordinated SLNR based Precoding in Large-Scale Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Boukhedimi, Ikram; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the downlink of large-scale two-tier heterogeneous networks composed of a macro-cell overlaid by micro-cell networks. Our interest is on the design of coordinated beamforming techniques that allow to mitigate the inter-cell interference. Particularly, we consider the case in which the coordinating base stations (BSs) have imperfect knowledge of the channel state information. Under this setting, we propose a regularized SLNR based precoding design in which the regularization factor is used to allow better resilience with respect to the channel estimation errors. Based on tools from random matrix theory, we provide an analytical analysis of the SINR and SLNR performances. These results are then exploited to propose a proper setting of the regularization factor. Simulation results are finally provided in order to validate our findings and to confirm the performance of the proposed precoding scheme.

  2. Coordinated SLNR based Precoding in Large-Scale Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Boukhedimi, Ikram

    2017-03-06

    This work focuses on the downlink of large-scale two-tier heterogeneous networks composed of a macro-cell overlaid by micro-cell networks. Our interest is on the design of coordinated beamforming techniques that allow to mitigate the inter-cell interference. Particularly, we consider the case in which the coordinating base stations (BSs) have imperfect knowledge of the channel state information. Under this setting, we propose a regularized SLNR based precoding design in which the regularization factor is used to allow better resilience with respect to the channel estimation errors. Based on tools from random matrix theory, we provide an analytical analysis of the SINR and SLNR performances. These results are then exploited to propose a proper setting of the regularization factor. Simulation results are finally provided in order to validate our findings and to confirm the performance of the proposed precoding scheme.

  3. Final report proficiency test on the determination of α, β and γ-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Trinkl, A.; Benesch, T.; Sansone, U.

    2005-06-01

    A proficiency test on the determination of α, β and γ-emitting radionuclides was organised within the frame of the Technical Cooperation project: RAS/9/024 'Environmental Radiation Monitoring and Regional Data Base' to evaluate the analytical performance of 14 laboratories from 12 Asian countries. This report summarises the performance evaluation of the participating laboratories. Analytical data evaluation of this proficiency test showed that 58% of all reported results obtained a 'Passed' final score for both the trueness and precision criteria applied to this exercise. (author)

  4. Scale Invariant Gabor Descriptor-Based Noncooperative Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yingzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new noncooperative iris recognition method is proposed. In this method, the iris features are extracted using a Gabor descriptor. The feature extraction and comparison are scale, deformation, rotation, and contrast-invariant. It works with off-angle and low-resolution iris images. The Gabor wavelet is incorporated with scale-invariant feature transformation (SIFT for feature extraction to better extract the iris features. Both the phase and magnitude of the Gabor wavelet outputs were used in a novel way for local feature point description. Two feature region maps were designed to locally and globally register the feature points and each subregion in the map is locally adjusted to the dilation/contraction/deformation. We also developed a video-based non-cooperative iris recognition system by integrating video-based non-cooperative segmentation, segmentation evaluation, and score fusion units. The proposed method shows good performance for frontal and off-angle iris matching. Video-based recognition methods can improve non-cooperative iris recognition accuracy.

  5. Scale Invariant Gabor Descriptor-based Noncooperative Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new noncooperative iris recognition method is proposed. In this method, the iris features are extracted using a Gabor descriptor. The feature extraction and comparison are scale, deformation, rotation, and contrast-invariant. It works with off-angle and low-resolution iris images. The Gabor wavelet is incorporated with scale-invariant feature transformation (SIFT for feature extraction to better extract the iris features. Both the phase and magnitude of the Gabor wavelet outputs were used in a novel way for local feature point description. Two feature region maps were designed to locally and globally register the feature points and each subregion in the map is locally adjusted to the dilation/contraction/deformation. We also developed a video-based non-cooperative iris recognition system by integrating video-based non-cooperative segmentation, segmentation evaluation, and score fusion units. The proposed method shows good performance for frontal and off-angle iris matching. Video-based recognition methods can improve non-cooperative iris recognition accuracy.

  6. FPGA Based Low Power ROM Design Using Capacitance Scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansal, Meenakshi; Bansal, Neha; Saini, Rishita

    2015-01-01

    An ideal capacitor will not dissipate any power, but a real capacitor wil l have some power dissipation. In this work, we are going to design capacitance scaling based low power ROM design. In order to test the compatibility of this ROM design with latest i7 Processor, we are operating this ROM w...... in I/O Power, saving of 0.2% occur in Leakage Power, there will be a saving of 11.54% occur in Total Power. This design is implemented on Virtex-5 FPGA using Xilinx ISE and Verilog....

  7. Crater ejecta scaling laws: fundamental forms based on dimensional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housen, K.R.; Schmidt, R.M.; Holsapple, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A model of crater ejecta is constructed using dimensional analysis and a recently developed theory of energy and momentum coupling in cratering events. General relations are derived that provide a rationale for scaling laboratory measurements of ejecta to larger events. Specific expressions are presented for ejection velocities and ejecta blanket profiles in two limiting regimes of crater formation: the so-called gravity and strength regimes. In the gravity regime, ejectra velocities at geometrically similar launch points within craters vary as the square root of the product of crater radius and gravity. This relation implies geometric similarity of ejecta blankets. That is, the thickness of an ejecta blanket as a function of distance from the crater center is the same for all sizes of craters if the thickness and range are expressed in terms of crater radii. In the strength regime, ejecta velocities are independent of crater size. Consequently, ejecta blankets are not geometrically similar in this regime. For points away from the crater rim the expressions for ejecta velocities and thickness take the form of power laws. The exponents in these power laws are functions of an exponent, α, that appears in crater radius scaling relations. Thus experimental studies of the dependence of crater radius on impact conditions determine scaling relations for ejecta. Predicted ejection velocities and ejecta-blanket profiles, based on measured values of α, are compared to existing measurements of velocities and debris profiles

  8. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Engineering large-scale agent-based systems with consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokma, A.; Slade, A.; Kerridge, S.; Johnson, K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the consensus method for the development of large-scale agent-based systems. Systems can be developed as networks of knowledge based agents (KBA) which engage in a collaborative problem solving effort. The method provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to the development of this type of system. This includes a systematic analysis of user requirements as well as a structured approach to generating a system design which exhibits the desired functionality. There is a direct correspondence between system requirements and design components. The benefits of this approach are that requirements are traceable into design components and code thus facilitating verification. The use of the consensus method with two major test applications showed it to be successful and also provided valuable insight into problems typically associated with the development of large systems.

  10. A REGION-BASED MULTI-SCALE APPROACH FOR OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kavzoglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the last two decades, object-based image analysis (OBIA considering objects (i.e. groups of pixels instead of pixels has gained popularity and attracted increasing interest. The most important stage of the OBIA is image segmentation that groups spectrally similar adjacent pixels considering not only the spectral features but also spatial and textural features. Although there are several parameters (scale, shape, compactness and band weights to be set by the analyst, scale parameter stands out the most important parameter in segmentation process. Estimating optimal scale parameter is crucially important to increase the classification accuracy that depends on image resolution, image object size and characteristics of the study area. In this study, two scale-selection strategies were implemented in the image segmentation process using pan-sharped Qickbird-2 image. The first strategy estimates optimal scale parameters for the eight sub-regions. For this purpose, the local variance/rate of change (LV-RoC graphs produced by the ESP-2 tool were analysed to determine fine, moderate and coarse scales for each region. In the second strategy, the image was segmented using the three candidate scale values (fine, moderate, coarse determined from the LV-RoC graph calculated for whole image. The nearest neighbour classifier was applied in all segmentation experiments and equal number of pixels was randomly selected to calculate accuracy metrics (overall accuracy and kappa coefficient. Comparison of region-based and image-based segmentation was carried out on the classified images and found that region-based multi-scale OBIA produced significantly more accurate results than image-based single-scale OBIA. The difference in classification accuracy reached to 10% in terms of overall accuracy.

  11. Biomedical device prototype based on small scale hydrodynamic cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghorbani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a biomedical device prototype based on small scale hydrodynamic cavitation. The application of small scale hydrodynamic cavitation and its integration to a biomedical device prototype is offered as an important alternative to other techniques, such as ultrasound therapy, and thus constitutes a local, cheap, and energy-efficient solution, for urinary stone therapy and abnormal tissue ablation (e.g., benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH. The destructive nature of bubbly, cavitating, flows was exploited, and the potential of the prototype was assessed and characterized. Bubbles generated in a small flow restrictive element (micro-orifice based on hydrodynamic cavitation were utilized for this purpose. The small bubbly, cavitating, flow generator (micro-orifice was fitted to a small flexible probe, which was actuated with a micromanipulator using fine control. This probe also houses an imaging device for visualization so that the emerging cavitating flow could be locally targeted to the desired spot. In this study, the feasibility of this alternative treatment method and its integration to a device prototype were successfully accomplished.

  12. Biomedical device prototype based on small scale hydrodynamic cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Morteza; Sozer, Canberk; Alcan, Gokhan; Unel, Mustafa; Ekici, Sinan; Uvet, Huseyin; Koşar, Ali

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a biomedical device prototype based on small scale hydrodynamic cavitation. The application of small scale hydrodynamic cavitation and its integration to a biomedical device prototype is offered as an important alternative to other techniques, such as ultrasound therapy, and thus constitutes a local, cheap, and energy-efficient solution, for urinary stone therapy and abnormal tissue ablation (e.g., benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)). The destructive nature of bubbly, cavitating, flows was exploited, and the potential of the prototype was assessed and characterized. Bubbles generated in a small flow restrictive element (micro-orifice) based on hydrodynamic cavitation were utilized for this purpose. The small bubbly, cavitating, flow generator (micro-orifice) was fitted to a small flexible probe, which was actuated with a micromanipulator using fine control. This probe also houses an imaging device for visualization so that the emerging cavitating flow could be locally targeted to the desired spot. In this study, the feasibility of this alternative treatment method and its integration to a device prototype were successfully accomplished.

  13. Computer Proficiency for Online Learning: Factorial Invariance of Scores among Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Amy L.; Reeves, Todd D.; Smith, Thomas J.; Walker, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Online learning is variously employed in K-12 education, including for teacher professional development. However, the use of computer-based technologies for learning purposes assumes learner computer proficiency, making this construct an important domain of procedural knowledge in formal and informal online learning contexts. Addressing this…

  14. Supporting the Language Development of Limited English Proficient Students through Arts Integration in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Liane

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at how arts integration can boost the language development of limited English proficient students in kindergarten through second grade. I first review existing research on how young children learn and describe the special challenges faced by children who must learn in an unfamiliar language. I then identify arts-based mechanisms…

  15. School Socioeconomic Classification, Funding, and the New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, D. H.; Romeo, George C.; Harvey, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between educational effectiveness, as measured by the New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA), and funding of school districts based on socioeconomic classification. Results indicate there is a strong relationship between performance in HSPA, socioeconomic classification, and the different sources…

  16. Beam walking can detect differences in walking balance proficiency across a range of sensorimotor abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Andrew; Ting, Lena H

    2015-02-01

    The ability to quantify differences in walking balance proficiency is critical to curbing the rising health and financial costs of falls. Current laboratory-based approaches typically focus on successful recovery of balance while clinical instruments often pose little difficulty for all but the most impaired patients. Rarely do they test motor behaviors of sufficient difficulty to evoke failures in balance control limiting their ability to quantify balance proficiency. Our objective was to test whether a simple beam-walking task could quantify differences in walking balance proficiency across a range of sensorimotor abilities. Ten experts, ten novices, and five individuals with transtibial limb loss performed six walking trials across three different width beams. Walking balance proficiency was quantified as the ratio of distance walked to total possible distance. Balance proficiency was not significantly different between cohorts on the wide-beam, but clear differences between cohorts on the mid and narrow-beams were identified. Experts walked a greater distance than novices on the mid-beam (average of 3.63±0.04m verus 2.70±0.21m out of 3.66m; p=0.009), and novices walked further than amputees (1.52±0.20m; p=0.03). Amputees were unable to walk on the narrow-beam, while experts walked further (3.07±0.14m) than novices (1.55±0.26m; p=0.0005). A simple beam-walking task and an easily collected measure of distance traveled detected differences in walking balance proficiency across sensorimotor abilities. This approach provides a means to safely study and evaluate successes and failures in walking balance in the clinic or lab. It may prove useful in identifying mechanisms underlying falls versus fall recoveries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. What Is Lexical Proficiency? Some Answers from Computational Models of Speech Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.; Jarvis, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Lexical proficiency, as a cognitive construct, is poorly understood. However, lexical proficiency is an important element of language proficiency and fluency, especially for second language (L2) learners. Lexical proficiency is also an important attribute of L2 academic achievement. Generally speaking, lexical proficiency comprises breadth of…

  18. Developing English Writing Proficiency in Limited English Proficient College Students through Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden-Jones, Epsey M.; Carrasquillo, Angela L.

    A study followed ten limited-English-proficient (LEP) community college students who were taught English largely using a cooperative learning approach. For four months, the students worked together using brainstorming techniques and collaborative reading and writing tasks. Task emphasis was on development of thinking skills through collaboration…

  19. The role of race and english proficiency on the health of older immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy; Reardon, Leigh J

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the Commission on Social Determinants of Health model to identify the effect of ethnicity/race and English proficiency on the health of older immigrants. California Health Interview Survey data of foreign-born respondents aged 65 and over were used to examine the four outcomes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The study included 1,196 immigrant Latinos, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites. The results show that ethnicity/race-based differences in HRQOL exist. Furthermore, the results indicate that English proficiency has a significant moderating relationship on racial/ethnic background. The likelihood of reporting more Limited Combined Days increased with lower levels of English proficiency for both Latino and Asian-American old adults as compared to non-Hispanic Whites. In addition to focusing on racial disparities, health promotion efforts with older immigrants need to examine language-based stratification. Social work and gerontological advocates need to develop and employ evidence-based interventions that reach limited-English-proficient older immigrants to address the health, psychosocial, and access to health care challenges they face.

  20. Theory-based transport simulation of tokamaks: density scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, E.S.; Kinsey, J.; Singer, C.; Bateman, G.

    1992-01-01

    There has been a sizeable amount of work in the past few years using theoretically based flux-surface-average transport models to simulate various types of experimental tokamak data. Here we report two such studies, concentrating on the response of the plasma to variation of the line averaged electron density. The first study reported here uses a transport model described by Ghanem et al. to examine the response of global energy confinement time in ohmically heated discharges. The second study reported here uses a closely related and more recent transport model described by Bateman to examine the response of temperature profiles to changes in line-average density in neutral-beam-heated discharges. Work on developing a common theoretical model for these and other scaling experiments is in progress. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs

  1. Building lab-scale x-ray tube based irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haff, Ron; Jackson, Eric; Gomez, Joseph; Light, Doug; Follett, Peter; Simmons, Greg; Higbee, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the use of x-ray tube based irradiators as alternatives to gamma sources for laboratory scale irradiation. Irradiators were designed with sample placement in closest possible proximity to the source, allowing high dose rates for small samples. Designs using 1000 W x-ray tubes in single tube, double tube, and four tube configurations are described, as well as various cabinet construction techniques. Relatively high dose rates were achieved for small samples, demonstrating feasibility for laboratory based irradiators for research purposes. Dose rates of 9.76, 5.45, and 1.7 Gy/min/tube were measured at the center of a 12.7 cm container of instant rice at 100 keV, 70 keV, and 40 keV, respectively. Dose uniformity varies dramatically as the distance from source to container. For 2.54 cm diameter sample containers containing adult Navel Orangeworm, dose rates of 50–60 Gy/min were measured in the four tube system. - Highlights: • X-ray is demonstrated as an alternative to gamma for lab-based irradiation. • Cabinets using one, two, and four 1000 W tubes are reported. • Dose rate of 9.8 Gy/min/tube at the center of a 12.7 cm container of instant rice. • Dose uniformity varies dramatically as the distance from source to container.

  2. Evaluation of Mycology Laboratory Proficiency Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Andrew A.; Salkin, Ira F.; McGinnis, Michael R.; Gromadzki, Sally; Pasarell, Lester; Kemna, Maggi; Higgins, Nancy; Salfinger, Max

    1999-01-01

    Changes over the last decade in overt proficiency testing (OPT) regulations have been ostensibly directed at improving laboratory performance on patient samples. However, the overt (unblinded) format of the tests and regulatory penalties associated with incorrect values allow and encourage laboratorians to take extra precautions with OPT analytes. As a result OPT may measure optimal laboratory performance instead of the intended target of typical performance attained during routine patient testing. This study addresses this issue by evaluating medical mycology OPT and comparing its fungal specimen identification error rates to those obtained in a covert (blinded) proficiency testing (CPT) program. Identifications from 188 laboratories participating in the New York State mycology OPT from 1982 to 1994 were compared with the identifications of the same fungi recovered from patient specimens in 1989 and 1994 as part of the routine procedures of 88 of these laboratories. The consistency in the identification of OPT specimens was sufficient to make accurate predictions of OPT error rates. However, while the error rates in OPT and CPT were similar for Candida albicans, significantly higher error rates were found in CPT for Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and other common pathogenic fungi. These differences may, in part, be due to OPT’s use of ideal organism representatives cultured under optimum growth conditions. This difference, as well as the organism-dependent error rate differences, reflects the limitations of OPT as a means of assessing the quality of routine laboratory performance in medical mycology. PMID:10364601

  3. Proficiency test in the accreditation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.

    2008-01-01

    In the accreditation process of a radioactivity measurements laboratory, according to ISO standard 17025, proficiency tests play a fundamental role. These PTs constitute an irreplaceable tool for the validation of measuring methods. In the case of Spain, ENAC, which is the Spanish accreditation national body, requires that the laboratory has to take part in a PT for each one of the accredited measuring methods in the period of time between two reassessments of the accreditation, what happens every 4-5 years. In specific areas of determination procedures, among which radioactive measurements could be included, the number of methods which can be accredited is very large. The purpose of the present work is to establish a classification into families of the different radioactivity measurement procedures, as well as to establish complementary actions that guarantee that carrying out periodically proficiency-tests on any of the included procedures in each family, every measurement procedure include in that family is controlled, complying with the criteria established by ENAC

  4. A New Likert Scale Based on Fuzzy Sets Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheryl Qing

    2010-01-01

    In social science research, the Likert method is commonly used as a psychometric scale to measure responses. This measurement scale has a procedure that facilitates survey construction and administration, and data coding and analysis. However, there are some problems with Likert scaling. This dissertation addresses the information distortion and…

  5. 76 FR 81958 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English Proficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English Proficiency Initiative (LEPI) Program AGENCY... that support the assistance of persons with limited English proficiency in utilizing the services...: Limited English Proficiency Initiative (LEPI) Program. OMB Approval Number: 2529-0051. Form Numbers...

  6. Teaching English through English: Proficiency, Pedagogy and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the world's English language teachers speak English as a second or third language rather than as their first language. For many, their level of proficiency in English may not reach benchmarks established by their employers, raising the issue that is the focus of this article, namely, what kind of proficiency in English is necessary to be…

  7. The Nevada Proficiency Examination Program: Evaluating the Writing Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Edward H.

    Writing tests are part of the mandated statewide proficiency examination in Nevada. The ninth-grade screening test and the eleventh-grade diploma-certifying test require that a student write a paragraph and a business letter, each on an assigned topic and each at an acceptable level of proficiency. Pilot tests, extended discussion, and statistical…

  8. Reconnecting Proficiency, Literacy, and Culture: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warford, Mark K.; White, William L.

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to capably communicate across languages? This article introduces two theoretical models and a lesson plan format designed to facilitate the integration of proficiency, literacy, and culture teaching in foreign language teaching. The Second Symbolic Competencies Model configures proficiency and literacy as subordinate clusters of…

  9. 5 CFR 9901.364 - Foreign language proficiency pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901... NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Premium Pay § 9901.364 Foreign language proficiency pay. (a) General provisions. (1) This section applies to employees who may be paid...

  10. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  11. English Proficiency and Participation in Online Discussion for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Does English proficiency affect participation in online discussion? This study polled 14 students from a postgraduate online course that require online discussion. The students are divided into groups according to their home language spoken and self-assessed English proficiency, and measure against their participation level in the required…

  12. Proficiency test for tropane alkaloids in food en feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  13. The correlation between motor proficiency and physical activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: One of the risks associated with low physical activity levels is the insufficient development of motor proficiency, which in turn has an impact on participation in physical activity and sport during adolescence. Objectives: To determine the relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity levels in ...

  14. Proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Jong, de J.; Lee, van der M.K.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The here described proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed was organised by RIKILT, Wageningen UR in accordance with ISO 17043. RIKILT Wageningen UR has an ISO/IEC 17043 accreditation for proficiency tests of residues in products of animal origin. However, this specific test is not part

  15. Testing oral proficiency: what does pronunciation tell us?DOI:10.5007/2175-8026.2011n60p247

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Borges-Almeida

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we discuss the role of pronunciation in languagetesting and investigate two features of pronunciation of eightcandidates of the Test of Oral Proficiency in English (TEPOLIalong four bands of the test scale. Deviations in vowel segmentsand in syllable structure are analyzed. The results point to theneed for a global assessment of the candidates’ phonologicalsystems.

  16. The Relationship between English Language Proficiency, Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of Non-Native-English-Speaking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Smitha; Qiqieh, Sura

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the relationship between English Language proficiency, self-esteem, and academic achievement of the students in Abu Dhabi University (ADU). The variables were analyzed using "t" test, chi-squire and Pearson's product moment correlation. In addition, Self-rating scale, Self-esteem inventory and Language…

  17. Learning Strategies in Alleviating English Writing Anxiety for English Language Learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Pei; Lin, Huey-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This study utilized the Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English writing anxiety scale to examine the relationship between learning strategies and English writing anxiety in 102 university-level English language learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in a university in Taiwan. Kruskal Wallis Test…

  18. The English Proficiency Test of the Iranian Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Noori

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the serious decisions which every administrator may need to make during his/her professional career is to select or reject applicants based on their general language skills or competence. These significant decisions, which may be of serious consequences not only for the individuals but also for the society in general, are occasionally made based on norm-referenced proficiency tests. Out of internationally available proficiency tests such as the TOEFL test, those which fit the specific local cultural and academic contexts seem of greater prominence. One such test, which has been specifically designed for the Iranian EFL context by the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology, is the MSRT proficiency test. While a few studies have been conducted on the analysis of the reliability and validity of the mentioned test, no study has yet reviewed the test and its component parts. Therefore, the current study aimed at considering the strengths and weaknesses of the test in general and its component items in particular. The results implicated that the MSRT benefits from more efficient general reliability and validity, well planned language items, practicality, ease of administration, objective scoring, ease of accessibility, as well as reasonable fees, while it needs to be more substantiated in terms of the inclusion of the speaking skill assessment, the computerized adaptive assessment procedures, and the correction factor for guessing. In addition, the use of the individual-based listening apparatus for testing listening comprehension as well as the consideration of the integrative communicative tests for its concurrent validity purposes can contribute to more appropriate distinction of proficient and non-proficient applicants.

  19. Development of a train-to-proficiency curriculum for the technical skills component of the fundamentals of endoscopic surgery exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Susan; Marohn, Michael; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Adrales, Gina; Owodunni, Oluwafemi; Duncan, Kim; Petrusa, Emil; Lipsett, Pamela

    2018-01-08

    The demonstration of competency in endoscopy is required prior to obtaining American Board of Surgery Certification. To demonstrate competency, the resident must pass a national high-stakes cognitive test and a technical skills exam on a virtual reality simulator. The purpose of this preliminary study was to design a proficiency-based endoscopy simulation curriculum to meet this competency requirement. This is a mixed methods prospective cohort study at a single academic medical institution. Prior to taking the national exam, surgery residents were required to participate in a skills lab and demonstrate proficiency on 10 simulation tasks. Proficiency was based on time and percent of objects targeted/mucosa seen. Simulation practice time, number of task repetitions to proficiency, and prior endoscopic experience were recorded. Resident's self-reported confidence scores in endoscopic skills prior to and following simulation lab training were obtained. From January 1, 2016 through August 1, 2017, 20 surgical residents (8 PGY2, 8 PGY3, 4 PGY4) completed both a faculty-supervised endoscopy skills lab and independent learning with train-to-proficiency simulation tasks. Median overall simulator time per resident was 306 min (IQR: 247-405 min). Median overall time to proficiency in all tasks was 235 min (IQR: 208-283 min). The median time to proficiency decreased with increasing PGY status (r = 0.4, P = 0.05). There was no correlation between prior real-time endoscopic experience and time to proficiency. Reported confidence in endoscopic skills increased significantly from mean of 5.75 prior to 7.30 following the faculty-supervised endoscopy skills lab (P = 0.0002). All 20 residents passed the national exam. In this preliminary study, a train-to-proficiency curriculum in endoscopy improved surgical resident's confidence in their endoscopic skills and 100% of residents passed the FES technical skills test on their first attempt. Our findings also indicate

  20. Procedures and reasoning for skill proficiency testing in physical education teacher education programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Baghurst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine how the testing of skill proficiency is being conducted in physical education teacher education (PETE programs in the USA and how fitness or skill proficiencies, as attributes of a physical educator, are perceived. Participants were 312 college PETE program coordinators who completed an online survey about skill testing in their program. The eligible respondents yielded a 52.7% total response rate. Most participants believed that skill proficiency for PETE students was important, but only 46% of programs reported testing within their program. Many participants stated it was possible for their students to graduate without demonstrating proficiency in skill technique, yet were confident their students would pass an independent skill test. Only 46.2% of respondents indicated their students needed to demonstrate proper skill technique in order to graduate, and there was no consistent method of assessment. Responses were evenly split regarding the importance of a physical educator being able to demonstrate proper skill technique or be physically fit. The lack of skill testing in programs, combined with the variation in assessment, is concerning, and the development of a standardized skill-based test may provide more rigor to this important area of teacher credibility and effectiveness.

  1. Proficiency testing schemes as a quality rating in industrial hygiene laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Dobecki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication presents the principles of organization, implementation, assessment and exploitation of proficiency testing results in the work environmental laboratory based on basic requirements included in standard PN-EN ISO/IEC 17043 and ISO 13528. The basis for the proper functioning of the laboratory is to use and observe the basic requirements for the competence to carry out the tests and the guidelines on ensuring reliable and accurate results, specified e.g., according to the guidelines described in the standard PN-EN ISO/IEC 17043. The confirmation of the laboratory competence is the obtained accreditation. To obtain this certificate several conditions, including proficiency testing (PT should be met. The main aspects of this paper is to show the role of proficiency testing in the process of assuring a properly functioning quality system in the laboratory. The accreditation requirements, the types of proficiency testing schemes, methods of statistical analysis and interpretation of results are also discussed by the authors. Med Pr 2016;67(2:267–283

  2. The Rating of Direct and Semi-Direct Oral Proficiency Interviews: Comparing Performance at Lower Proficiency Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Dorry M.; Tschirner, Erwin

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a study comparing student performances and test reliabilities for the German Speaking Test, a semi-direct tape-mediated oral proficiency test (GST) developed by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Oral Proficiency Interviews. (Author/VWL)

  3. Associations among dispositional mindfulness, self-compassion, and executive function proficiency in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee-Sung; Black, David S; Shonkoff, Eleanor Tate; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2016-12-01

    The study objective was to examine the effects of two conceptually related constructs, self-compassion and dispositional mindfulness, on executive function (EF) proficiency among early adolescents. Executive function refers to a set of psychological processes governing emotional regulation, organization, and planning. While the benefits of positive psychology appear evident for mental health and wellness, little is known about the etiological relationship between dispositional mindfulness and self-compassion in their associations with EF. Two hundred and ten early adolescents attending middle school (age M=12.5 years; SD=0.5; 21% Hispanic, 18% Mixed/bi-racial, 47% White, and 9% Other/Missing; 37.1% on free lunch program) self-reported levels of dispositional mindfulness (Mindful Attention Awareness Scale; MAAS), self-compassion (Self-Compassion Scale; SCS; self-judgment and self-kindness domains), and EF proficiency (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function; BRIEF-SR). A sequential linear regression stepwise approach was taken entering the independent variables as separate models in the following order: self-kindness, self-judgement, and dispositional mindfulness. All models controlled for participant age and sex. SCS self-kindness was not associated with EF proficiency, but SCS self-judgment (reverse-coded) contributed to the variance in EF (β=0.40, p mindfulness appears to outweigh that of specific self-compassion domains, when independent of contemplative training.

  4. Investigating measurement equivalence of visual analogue scales and Likert-type scales in Internet-based personality questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Tim; Dantlgraber, Michael; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    Visual analogue scales (VASs) have shown superior measurement qualities in comparison to traditional Likert-type response scales in previous studies. The present study expands the comparison of response scales to properties of Internet-based personality scales in a within-subjects design. A sample of 879 participants filled out an online questionnaire measuring Conscientiousness, Excitement Seeking, and Narcissism. The questionnaire contained all instruments in both answer scale versions in a counterbalanced design. Results show comparable reliabilities, means, and SDs for the VAS versions of the original scales, in comparison to Likert-type scales. To assess the validity of the measurements, age and gender were used as criteria, because all three constructs have shown non-zero correlations with age and gender in previous research. Both response scales showed a high overlap and the proposed relationships with age and gender. The associations were largely identical, with the exception of an increase in explained variance when predicting age from the VAS version of Excitement Seeking (B10 = 1318.95, ΔR(2) = .025). VASs showed similar properties to Likert-type response scales in most cases.

  5. Image-Based Fine-Scale Infrastructure Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detchev, Ivan Denislavov

    Monitoring the physical health of civil infrastructure systems is an important task that must be performed frequently in order to ensure their serviceability and sustainability. Additionally, laboratory experiments where individual system components are tested on the fine-scale level provide essential information during the structural design process. This type of inspection, i.e., measurements of deflections and/or cracks, has traditionally been performed with instrumentation that requires access to, or contact with, the structural element being tested; performs deformation measurements in only one dimension or direction; and/or provides no permanent visual record. To avoid the downsides of such instrumentation, this dissertation proposes a remote sensing approach based on a photogrammetric system capable of three-dimensional reconstruction. The proposed system is low-cost, consists of off-the-shelf components, and is capable of reconstructing objects or surfaces with homogeneous texture. The scientific contributions of this research work address the drawbacks in currently existing literature. Methods for in-situ multi-camera system calibration and system stability analysis are proposed in addition to methods for deflection/displacement monitoring, and crack detection and characterization in three dimensions. The mathematical model for the system calibration is based on a single or multiple reference camera(s) and built-in relative orientation constraints where the interior orientation and the mounting parameters for all cameras are explicitly estimated. The methods for system stability analysis can be used to comprehensively check for the cumulative impact of any changes in the system parameters. They also provide a quantitative measure of this impact on the reconstruction process in terms of image space units. Deflection/displacement monitoring of dynamic surfaces in three dimensions is achieved with the system by performing an innovative sinusoidal fitting

  6. The accreditation programs and proficiency test in Taiwan for personnel dosimeter services (1991-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.T.; Hwang, W.S.; Su, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    According to the ionizing radiation safety regulation approved by the ROC Atomic Energy Council (AEC), personnel dosimeter processors shall be accredited by the Chinese National Laboratory Accreditation (CNLA) program before offering dosimeter services and shall be accredited every two years (now has been rescheduled to be every three years since 1996). The aim of this program is to secure quality and technical capability of personnel dosimeters, and to provide systematic improvement for the internal calibration and testing laboratory applying for accreditation by means of assessment procedures. The criteria used to evaluate the capability at laboratories are ISO/IEC 25 (1990) and technical guide in different accreditation fields. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) was entrusted by CNLA as the central laboratory to perform the proficiency test of personnel dosimeters for laboratory accreditation in December 1990. Such proficiency tests, based on ANSI N13.11 (1983), which is mainly separated to accident categories and protection categories which consists of eight parts of tests including single and mixture radiation of x-ray, gamma, beta and neutron, have been conducted four times, in 1991, 1993, 1995 and 1998. This paper deals with the test procedures and results of proficiency tests of personnel dosimeters from 1991 until 1998. The results of the four proficiency tests showed that, for accident categories, the pass rate is about 91%; for protection categories, the pass rate is about 98%. Meanwhile, the central laboratory will adopt a new version of HPS N13.11 (1993) to replace ANSI N13.11 (1983) as new criteria for the next proficiency test to be conducted in 2001. (author)

  7. Remote collaboration system based on large scale simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Sugahara, Akihiro; Li, J.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Large scale simulation using super-computer, which generally requires long CPU time and produces large amount of data, has been extensively studied as a third pillar in various advanced science fields in parallel to theory and experiment. Such a simulation is expected to lead new scientific discoveries through elucidation of various complex phenomena, which are hardly identified only by conventional theoretical and experimental approaches. In order to assist such large simulation studies for which many collaborators working at geographically different places participate and contribute, we have developed a unique remote collaboration system, referred to as SIMON (simulation monitoring system), which is based on client-server system control introducing an idea of up-date processing, contrary to that of widely used post-processing. As a key ingredient, we have developed a trigger method, which transmits various requests for the up-date processing from the simulation (client) running on a super-computer to a workstation (server). Namely, the simulation running on a super-computer actively controls the timing of up-date processing. The server that has received the requests from the ongoing simulation such as data transfer, data analyses, and visualizations, etc. starts operations according to the requests during the simulation. The server makes the latest results available to web browsers, so that the collaborators can monitor the results at any place and time in the world. By applying the system to a specific simulation project of laser-matter interaction, we have confirmed that the system works well and plays an important role as a collaboration platform on which many collaborators work with one another

  8. Extension of landscape-based population viability models to ecoregional scales for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Frank R. III Thompson; Joshua Millspaugh

    2011-01-01

    Landscape-based population models are potentially valuable tools in facilitating conservation planning and actions at large scales. However, such models have rarely been applied at ecoregional scales. We extended landscape-based population models to ecoregional scales for three species of concern in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region and compared model...

  9. Experiences of Latinos with limited English proficiency with patient registration systems and their interactions with clinic front office staff: an exploratory study to inform community-based translational research in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, William A; Cubillos, Laura; Breen, James; Hall, Megan; Rojas, Krycya Flores; Mooneyham, Rachel; Schaal, Jennifer; Hardy, Christina Yongue; Dave, Gaurav; Jolles, Mónica Pérez; Garcia, Nacire; Reuland, Daniel S

    2015-12-23

    Health services research of Latinos with limited English proficiency (LEP) have largely focused on studying disparities related to patient-provider communication. Less is known about their non-provider interactions such as those with patient registration systems and clinic front office staff; these interactions precede the encounter with providers and may shape how comfortable patients feel about their overall health services experience. This study explored Latino patients with LEP experiences with, and expectations for, interactions with patient registration systems and front office staff. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with Latinos with LEP (≥ 18 years of age) who seek health services in the Piedmont Triad region, North Carolina. We analyzed participants' quotes and identified themes by using a constant comparison method. This research was conducted by a community-academic partnership; partners were engaged in study design, instrument development, recruitment, data analysis, and manuscript writing. Qualitative analysis allowed us to identify the following recurring themes: 1) inconsistent registration of multiple surnames may contribute to patient misidentification errors and delays in receiving health care; 2) lack of Spanish language services in front office medical settings negatively affect care coordination and satisfaction with health care; and 3) perceived discrimination generates patients' mistrust in front office staff and discomfort with services. Latino patients in North Carolina experience health services barriers unique to their LEP background. Participants identified ways in which the lack of cultural and linguistic competence of front office staff negatively affect their experiences seeking health services. Healthcare organizations need to support their staff to encourage patient-centered principles.

  10. Teachers’ Beliefs versus Learners’ Beliefs in Grammar Teaching: Harmonizing Teaching and Learning for Adult Learners’ Improved Proficiency in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study tends to explore the possible reforms to raise the proficiency level of the adult English as Foreign Language (EFL learners. With this end in view, it investigates non-native EFL teachers’ beliefs in relation to adult learners’ beliefs in teaching grammar to university students in the Saudi Arabian EFL context. It finds out the harmony and disharmony between the teachers at the giving end and the taught at the receiving end to create a culture of awareness and to build a better teaching-learning environment. The study tries to fill the existing research gap as no previous research has tried to find out the solution to the problem from this angle. The main data collection tools are two five-point Likert-scale questionnaires, administered to 70 non-native EFL teachers and their 80 adult students. Teachers and learners have been selected based on stratified random sampling. Quantitative data have been analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS. The major findings of the study are that there is discrepancy in the grammar teaching beliefs of the EFL teachers and the taught and there is a communication gap between them which result into low English proficiency level of the EFL adult learners.  Eventually, pedagogical implications of the lack of harmony between the teachers’ teaching creeds and the learners’ learning demands/expectations are provided for effective grammar teaching and better EFL classroom environment. The study recommends a better communicative harmony in both the stakeholders to bring reforms in adult education in EFL context.

  11. Development of reference material for proficiency tests: arsenic in fish tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Luciana Vieira de; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Ulrich, Joao C.; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Proficiency tests (PT) are extensively used to evaluate the analytical competence of laboratories, and are also used as a part of accreditation processes. For this reason are important tool for quality control of laboratories including laboratories that act directly with food exporting companies. In Brazil there are no providers of proficiency testing for toxic metals, such as arsenic in fish tissue. This study presents a protocol to produce reference material to be used in proficiency test for arsenic in fish tissue following the recommendations of the ISO Guide 35. The preparation scheme consisted of: selecting of individuals, cleaning of scale and skin, trituration, homogenization, and spiking with arsenic at two levels of concentration. The mixture was then irradiated in a cyclotron Cyclone 30 Applications ion beam with cobalt 60 at 10.00 ± 1.05 KGy, before being packed into sachets. To verify the efficacy of the irradiation procedure, 26 (randomly selected) irradiated sachets and 26 non-irradiated sachets were assessed for homogeneity and stability. The results indicate that irradiation with cobalt 60 is crucial for ensuring the preservation of the integrity of the material, providing stable material at room temperature for 2 months. The samples can therefore be transported at room temperature. (author)

  12. Development of reference material for proficiency tests: arsenic in fish tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Luciana Vieira de; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Ulrich, Joao C.; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio, E-mail: santana-luciana@ig.com.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br, E-mail: jculrich@ipen.br, E-mail: mahortel@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Proficiency tests (PT) are extensively used to evaluate the analytical competence of laboratories, and are also used as a part of accreditation processes. For this reason are important tool for quality control of laboratories including laboratories that act directly with food exporting companies. In Brazil there are no providers of proficiency testing for toxic metals, such as arsenic in fish tissue. This study presents a protocol to produce reference material to be used in proficiency test for arsenic in fish tissue following the recommendations of the ISO Guide 35. The preparation scheme consisted of: selecting of individuals, cleaning of scale and skin, trituration, homogenization, and spiking with arsenic at two levels of concentration. The mixture was then irradiated in a cyclotron Cyclone 30 Applications ion beam with cobalt 60 at 10.00 ± 1.05 KGy, before being packed into sachets. To verify the efficacy of the irradiation procedure, 26 (randomly selected) irradiated sachets and 26 non-irradiated sachets were assessed for homogeneity and stability. The results indicate that irradiation with cobalt 60 is crucial for ensuring the preservation of the integrity of the material, providing stable material at room temperature for 2 months. The samples can therefore be transported at room temperature. (author)

  13. Object detection based on improved color and scale invariant features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengyang; Men, Aidong; Fan, Peng; Yang, Bo

    2009-10-01

    A novel object detection method which combines color and scale invariant features is presented in this paper. The detection system mainly adopts the widely used framework of SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform), which consists of both a keypoint detector and descriptor. Although SIFT has some impressive advantages, it is not only computationally expensive, but also vulnerable to color images. To overcome these drawbacks, we employ the local color kernel histograms and Haar Wavelet Responses to enhance the descriptor's distinctiveness and computational efficiency. Extensive experimental evaluations show that the method has better robustness and lower computation costs.

  14. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  15. A model-based framework for incremental scale-up of wastewater treatment processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Sin, Gürkan

    Scale-up is traditionally done following specific ratios or rules of thumb which do not lead to optimal results. We present a generic framework to assist in scale-up of wastewater treatment processes based on multiscale modelling, multiobjective optimisation and a validation of the model at the new...... large scale. The framework is illustrated by the scale-up of a complete autotropic nitrogen removal process. The model based multiobjective scaleup offers a promising improvement compared to the rule of thumbs based emprical scale up rules...

  16. Scaling earthquake ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.; Hamburger, R.O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of alternate ground-motion scaling procedures on the distribution of displacement responses in simplified structural systems is investigated. Recommendations are provided for selecting and scaling ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings. Four scaling methods are studied, namely, (1)geometric-mean scaling of pairs of ground motions, (2)spectrum matching of ground motions, (3)first-mode-period scaling to a target spectral acceleration, and (4)scaling of ground motions per the distribution of spectral demands. Data were developed by nonlinear response-history analysis of a large family of nonlinear single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillators that could represent fixed-base and base-isolated structures. The advantages and disadvantages of each scaling method are discussed. The relationship between spectral shape and a ground-motion randomness parameter, is presented. A scaling procedure that explicitly considers spectral shape is proposed. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  17. PROFICIENT CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT THROUGH FOCUSED MATHEMATIC TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Samuelsson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A not entirely unusual position among teachers is that they believe that they must first establish a peaceful classroom before they can begin to teach the subject. This research, shows how a proficient mathematics teacher teaches his subject and thereby creates a quiet and focused classroom and exerts effective leadership, just by teaching mathematics. The researchers observed a male mathematics teacher for almost half a year, i.e. one semester. The results of research present several patterns that the researchers saw during the observations of his teaching. The teacher showed an interest in each student’s mathematical thinking and expressed explicitly how students were expected to learn mathematics. He also directed students’ attention to mathematics and established a culture where all solutions were important in the teaching process. In the teaching process, he used multiple representations to motivate students and a lot of supportive expressions that made them feel that they were able to learn mathematics. He worked patiently to establish structures, and there was almost no disruptive behaviour. Students simply did not have time to interfere because they were so engaged in learning mathematics.

  18. Trainee-Associated Factors and Proficiency at Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Kazem Aghamir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is a complicated procedure for urology trainees. This study was designed to investigate the effect of trainees’ ages and previous experience, as well as the number of operated cases, on proficiency at PNL by using patient outcomes. A cross sectional observational study was designed during a five-year period. Trainees in PNL fellowship programs were included. At the end of the program, the trainees’ performance in PNL was assessed regarding five competencies and scored 1-5. If the overall score was 4 or above, the trainee was considered as proficient. The trainees’ age at the beginning of the program and the years passed from their residency graduation were asked and recorded. Also, the number of PNL cases operated by each trainee was obtained via their logbooks. The age, years passed from graduation, and number of operated cases were compared between two groups of proficient and non-proficient trainees. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the effect of aforementioned variables on the occurrence of the proficiency. Forty-two trainees were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation for the overall score were 3.40 (out of 5 and 0.67, respectively. Eleven trainees (26.2% recognized as proficient in performing PNL. Univariate regression analysis indicated that each of three variables (age, years passed from graduation and number of operated cases had statistically significant effect on proficiency. However, the multivariate regression analysis revealed that just the number of cases had significant effect on achieving proficiency. Although it might be assumed that trainees’ age negatively correlates with their scores, in fact, it is their amount of practice that makes a difference. A certain number of cases is required to be operated by a trainee in order to reach the desired competency in PNL.

  19. Trainee-Associated Factors and Proficiency at Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamir, Seyed Mohammad Kazem; Behtash, Negar; Hamidi, Morteza; Farahmand, Hasan; Salavati, Alborz; Mortaz Hejri, Sara

    2017-07-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is a complicated procedure for urology trainees. This study was designed to investigate the effect of trainees' ages and previous experience, as well as the number of operated cases, on proficiency at PNL by using patient outcomes. A cross sectional observational study was designed during a five-year period. Trainees in PNL fellowship programs were included. At the end of the program, the trainees' performance in PNL was assessed regarding five competencies and scored 1-5. If the overall score was 4 or above, the trainee was considered as proficient. The trainees' age at the beginning of the program and the years passed from their residency graduation were asked and recorded. Also, the number of PNL cases operated by each trainee was obtained via their logbooks. The age, years passed from graduation, and number of operated cases were compared between two groups of proficient and non-proficient trainees. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the effect of aforementioned variables on the occurrence of the proficiency. Forty-two trainees were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation for the overall score were 3.40 (out of 5) and 0.67, respectively. Eleven trainees (26.2%) recognized as proficient in performing PNL. Univariate regression analysis indicated that each of three variables (age, years passed from graduation and number of operated cases) had statistically significant effect on proficiency. However, the multivariate regression analysis revealed that just the number of cases had significant effect on achieving proficiency. Although it might be assumed that trainees' age negatively correlates with their scores, in fact, it is their amount of practice that makes a difference. A certain number of cases is required to be operated by a trainee in order to reach the desired competency in PNL.

  20. Language proficiency and the international postgraduate student experience

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, M

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly competitive environment, with reduced government funding, full fee-paying international students are an important source of revenue for higher education institutions (HEIs). Although many previous studies have focused on the role of English language proficiency on academic success, there is little known about the extent to which levels of English language proficiency affect these non-native English speaking students’ overall course experience. There have been a wealth of st...

  1. Image-based Exploration of Large-Scale Pathline Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2014-01-01

    structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathlines segments. With this view-dependent method it is possible to filter, color-code and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination

  2. Critique of a language enrichment programme for Grade 4 ESL learners with limited English proficiency: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Neli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Some Grade 4 educators have expressed feelings of ineptitude regarding the support of ESL (English Second Language learners with limited English proficiency as they do not know how to support these learners effectively. Their litany emphasises ESL educators' need for supportive and preventive intervention. A Story-based Language Enrichment Programme (SLEP was compiled to suit the needs of educators teaching Grade 4 ESL learners with limited English proficiency. The programme was designed to maintain or improve the English proficiency of ESL learners. An intervention research method was followed to test the efficacy of SLEP. Forty teachers implemented SLEP over a six-week period. Thirty-nine teachers provided constructive feedback at the end of this period. Between 92% and 100% of the participants rated SLEP positively. Rural participants suggested some refinements to the programme. The overall conclusion was that SLEP makes a useful contribution to ESL practice.

  3. Fully predictive simulation of real-scale cable tray fire based on small-scale laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beji, Tarek; Merci, Bart [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics; Bonte, Frederick [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based modelling strategy for real-scale cable tray fires. The challenge was to perform fully predictive simulations (that could be called 'blind' simulations) using solely information from laboratory-scale experiments, in addition to the geometrical arrangement of the cables. The results of the latter experiments were used (1) to construct the fuel molecule and the chemical reaction for combustion, and (2) to estimate the overall pyrolysis and burning behaviour. More particularly, the strategy regarding the second point consists of adopting a surface-based pyrolysis model. Since the burning behaviour of each cable could not be tracked individually (due to computational constraints), 'groups' of cables were modelled with an overall cable surface area equal to the actual value. The results obtained for one large-scale test (a stack of five horizontal trays) are quite encouraging, especially for the peak Heat Release Rate (HRR) that was predicted with a relative deviation of 3 %. The time to reach the peak is however overestimated by 4.7 min (i.e. 94 %). Also, the fire duration is overestimated by 5 min (i.e. 24 %). These discrepancies are mainly attributed to differences in the HRRPUA (heat release rate per unit area) profiles between the small-scale and large-scale. The latter was calculated by estimating the burning area of cables using video fire analysis (VFA).

  4. Psychometric analysis of two new scales: the evidence-based practice nursing leadership and work environment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryse, Yvette; McDaniel, Anna; Schafer, John

    2014-08-01

    Those in nursing have been charged with practicing to the full extent of their education and training by the Institute of Medicine. Therefore, evidence-based practice (EBP) has never been more important to nursing than in the current healthcare environment. Frequently the burden of EBP is the responsibility of the bedside practitioner, but has been found to be a process that requires leadership and organizational support. A key underlying component of a strong EBP environment includes effective communications and collaboration among staff and nursing leadership. Developing measurement tools that examine the milieu and nursing leadership in which the staff nurse practices is an important component of understanding the factors that support or hinder EBP. The aim of this study is to report on the development and analysis of two new scales designed to explore leadership and organizational support for EBP. The EBP Nursing Leadership Scale (10 items) examines the staff nurses perception of support provided by the nurse manager for EBP, and the EBP Work Environment Scale (8 items) examines organizational support for EBP. Staff nurses who worked at least .5 FTE in direct patient care, from two inner city hospitals (n = 422) completed the scales. The scales were evaluated for internal consistency reliability with the Cronbach alpha technique, content validity using a panel of experts, and construct validity by The content validity index computed from expert rankings was .78 to 1.0 with an average of.96. Cronbach's alpha was .96 (n = 422) for the EBP Nursing Leadership Scale and .86 (n = 422) for the EBP Work Environment Scale. Factor analysis confirmed that each scale measured a unidimensional construct (p organizational influences on EBP. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Scale and the Evolutionarily Based Approximate Number System: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cesar; Jones, M. Gail; You, Hye Sun; Robertson, Laura; Chesnutt, Katherine; Halberda, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Crosscutting concepts such as "scale, proportion, and quantity" are recognised by U.S. science standards as a potential vehicle for students to integrate their scientific and mathematical knowledge; yet, U.S. students and adults trail their international peers in scale and measurement estimation. Culturally based knowledge of scale such…

  6. Multi-scale sustainability assessments for biomass-based and coal-based fuels in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Xiao, Honghua; Cai, Wei; Yang, Siyu

    2017-12-01

    Transportation liquid fuels production is heavily depend on oil. In recent years, developing biomass based and coal based fuels are regarded as promising alternatives for non-petroleum based fuels in China. With the rapid growth of constructing and planning b biomass based and coal based fuels production projects, sustainability assessments are needed to simultaneously consider the resource, the economic, and the environmental factors. This paper performs multi-scale analyses on the biomass based and coal based fuels in China. The production cost, life cycle cost, and ecological life cycle cost (ELCC) of these synfuels are investigated to compare their pros to cons and reveal the sustainability. The results show that BTL fuels has high production cost. It lacks of economic attractiveness. However, insignificant resource cost and environmental cost lead to a substantially lower ELCC, which may indicate better ecological sustainability. CTL fuels, on the contrary, is lower in production cost and reliable for economic benefit. But its coal consumption and pollutant emissions are both serious, leading to overwhelming resource cost and environmental cost. A shifting from petroleum to CTL fuels could double the ELCC, posing great threat to the sustainability of the entire fuels industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Visualisation of Proficiency Test Exercise by Means of Kiri Plots. Informatics Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Trinidad, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the visualisation procedure of the proficiency tests by means of Kiri Plots, based on three tests: z-score, zeta-score and the relative uncertainty outlier. The results assessment of the intercomparison exercises and proficiency tests among Spanish environmental radioactivity laboratories and Spanish Nuclear Power Plants Laboratories is performed by Environmental Radioactivity and Radiological Surveillance Unit following the ISO-43 e ISO/ IUPAC standards and applying the z-score test. The application of new graphics methods and tests to a better evaluation of uncertainties reported by Labs is described in this paper. An informatics programme has been developed in Visual Basic for applications that allows the graphic representation of Tables and Figures automatically in an excel-sheet and later statistical simulations changing the ratios between the reference value uncertainties and the concentration activities values from the participants laboratories. (Author) 26 refs.

  8. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  9. Observed hierarchy of student proficiency with period, frequency, and angular frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T. Young

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a generic harmonic oscillator, we investigated students’ accuracy in determining the period, frequency, and angular frequency from mathematical and graphical representations. In a series of studies including interviews, free response tests, and multiple choice tests developed in an iterative process, we assessed students in both algebra-based and calculus-based, traditionally instructed university-level introductory physics courses. Using the results, we categorized nine skills necessary for proficiency in determining period, frequency, and angular frequency. Overall results reveal that, postinstruction, proficiency is quite low: only about 20%–40% of students mastered most of the nine skills. Next, we used a semiquantitative, intuitive method to investigate the hierarchical structure of the nine skills. We also employed the more formal item tree analysis method to verify this structure and found that the skills form a multilevel, nonlinear hierarchy, with mastery of some skills being prerequisite for mastery in other skills. Finally, we implemented a targeted, 30-min group-work activity to improve proficiency in these skills and found a 1 standard deviation gain in accuracy. Overall, the results suggest that many students currently lack these essential skills, targeted practice may lead to required mastery, and that the observed hierarchical structure in the skills suggests that instruction should especially attend to the skills lower in the hierarchy.

  10. Scaling root processes based on plant functional traits (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenstat, D. M.; McCormack, M. L.; Gaines, K.; Adams, T.

    2013-12-01

    There are great challenges to scaling root processes as variation across species and variation of a particular species over different spatial and temporal scales is poorly understood. We have examined tree species variation using multispecies plantings, often referred to by ecologists as 'common gardens'. Choosing species with wide variation in growth rate, root morphology (diameter, branching intensity) and root chemistry (root N and Ca concentration), we found that variation in root lifespan was well correlated with plant functional traits across 12 species. There was also evidence that localized liquid N addition could increase root lifespan and localized water addition diminished root lifespan over untreated controls, with effects strongest in the species of finest root diameter. In an adjacent forest, we have also seen tree species variation in apparent depth of rooting using water isotopes. In particular species of wood anatomy that was ring porous (e.g. oaks) typically had the deepest rooting depth, whereas those that had either diffuse-porous sapwood (maples) or tracheid sapwood (pines) were shallower rooted. These differences in rooting depth were related to sap flux of trees during and immediately after periods of drought. The extent that the patterns observed in central Pennsylvania are modulated by environment or indicative of other plant species will be discussed.

  11. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency. This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency. These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency.

  12. English language proficiency and smoking prevalence among California's Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Shimizu, Robin; Chen, Moon S

    2005-12-15

    The authors documented California's tobacco control initiatives for Asian Americans and the current tobacco use status among Asian subgroups and provide a discussion of the challenges ahead. The California Tobacco Control Program has employed a comprehensive approach to decrease tobacco use in Asian Americans, including ethnic-specific media campaigns, culturally competent interventions, and technical assistance and training networks. Surveillance of tobacco use among Asian Americans and the interpretation of the results have always been a challenge. Data from the 2001 The California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed to provide smoking prevalence estimates for all Asian Americans and Asian-American subgroups, including Korean, Filipino, Japanese, South Asian, Chinese, and Vietnamese. Current smoking prevalence was analyzed by gender and by English proficiency level. Cigarette smoking prevalence among Asian males in general was almost three times of that among Asian females. Korean and Vietnamese males had higher cigarette smoking prevalence rates than males in other subgroups. Although Asian females in general had low smoking prevalence rates, significant differences were found among Asian subgroups, from 1.1% (Vietnamese) to 12.7% (Japanese). Asian men who had high English proficiency were less likely to be smokers than men with lower English proficiency. Asian women with high English proficiency were more likely to be smokers than women with lower English proficiency. Smoking prevalence rates among Asian Americans in California differed significantly on the basis of ethnicity, gender, and English proficiency. English proficiency seemed to have the effect of reducing smoking prevalence rates among Asian males but had just the opposite effect among Asian females. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.

  13. Do Perceptions of Competence Mediate The Relationship Between Fundamental Motor Skill Proficiency and Physical Activity Levels of Children in Kindergarten?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Jeff R; Naylor, Patti J; Cook, Ryan; Temple, Viviene A

    2015-07-01

    Perceptions of competence mediate the relationship between motor skill proficiency and physical activity among older children and adolescents. This study examined kindergarten children's perceptions of physical competence as a mediator of the relationship between motor skill proficiency as a predictor variable and physical activity levels as the outcome variable; and also with physical activity as a predictor and motor skill proficiency as the outcome. Participants were 116 children (mean age = 5 years 7 months, 58% boys) from 10 schools. Motor skills were measured using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and physical activity was monitored through accelerometry. Perceptions of physical competence were measured using The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children, and the relationships between these variables were examined using a model of mediation. The direct path between object control skills and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significant and object control skills predicted perceived physical competence. However, perceived competence did not mediate the relationship between object control skills and MVPA. The significant relationship between motor proficiency and perceptions of competence did not in turn influence kindergarten children's participation in physical activity. These findings support concepts of developmental differences in the structure of the self-perception system.

  14. The Effects of an Extensive Reading Program on Improving English as Foreign Language Proficiency in University Level Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzu'bi, Mohammad Akram

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact of extensive reading on improving reading proficiency. The study tried to find the effect of ER on EFL student's reading, vocabulary and grammar. The researcher designed two instruments; a program based on the extensive reading strategy and general test. Forty-one university students who study English…

  15. Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices with Children Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeel, Lorri S.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews existing measures related to evidence-based practices with children and self-efficacy and describes the development and psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices With Children Efficacy Scale. This scale was developed to assess students' and clinicians' self-efficacy in their abilities to use…

  16. An exploratory study of proficient undergraduate Chemistry II students' application of Lewis's model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sumudu R.

    This exploratory study was based on the assumption that proficiency in chemistry must not be determined exclusively on students' declarative and procedural knowledge, but it should be also described as the ability to use variety of reasoning strategies that enrich and diversify procedural methods. The study furthermore assumed that the ability to describe the structure of a molecule using Lewis's model and use it to predict its geometry as well as some of its properties is indicative of proficiency in the essential concepts of covalent bonding and molecule structure. The study therefore inquired into the reasoning methods and procedural techniques of proficient undergraduate Chemistry II students when solving problems, which require them to use Lewis's model. The research design included an original survey, designed by the researcher for this study, and two types of interviews, with students and course instructors. The purpose of the survey was two-fold. First and foremost, the survey provided a base for the student interview selection, and second it served as the foundation for the inquiry into the strategies the student use when solving survey problems. Twenty two students were interviewed over the course of the study. The interview with six instructors allowed to identify expected prior knowledge and skills, which the students should have acquired upon completion of the Chemistry I course. The data, including videos, audios, and photographs of the artifacts produced by students during the interviews, were organized and analyzed manually and using QSR NVivo 10. The research found and described the differences between proficient and non-proficient students' reasoning and procedural strategies when using Lewis's model to describe the structure of a molecule. One of the findings clearly showed that the proficient students used a variety of cues to reason, whereas other students used one memorized cue, or an algorithm, which often led to incorrect representations in

  17. SIMON: Remote collaboration system based on large scale simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Akihiro; Kishimoto, Yasuaki

    2003-01-01

    Development of SIMON (SImulation MONitoring) system is described. SIMON aims to investigate many physical phenomena of tokamak type nuclear fusion plasma by simulation and to exchange information and to carry out joint researches with scientists in the world using internet. The characteristics of SIMON are followings; 1) decrease load of simulation by trigger sending method, 2) visualization of simulation results and hierarchical structure of analysis, 3) decrease of number of license by using command line when software is used, 4) improvement of support for using network of simulation data output by use of HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language), 5) avoidance of complex built-in work in client part and 6) small-sized and portable software. The visualization method of large scale simulation, remote collaboration system by HTML, trigger sending method, hierarchical analytical method, introduction into three-dimensional electromagnetic transportation code and technologies of SIMON system are explained. (S.Y.)

  18. Knowledge Management for Large Scale Condition Based Maintenance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This presentation will review the use of knowledge management in the development and support of Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) systems for complex systems with...

  19. Recombinant methods for screening human DNA excision repair proficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athas, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A method for measuring DNA excision repair in response to ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage has been developed, validated, and field-tested in cultured human lymphocytes. The methodology is amenable to population-based screening and should facilitate future epidemiologic studies seeking to investigate associations between excision repair proficiency and cancer susceptibility. The impetus for such endeavors derives from the belief that the high incidence of skin cancer in the genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) primarily is a result of the reduced capacity of patients cells to repair UV-induced DNA damage. For assay, UV-irradiated non-replicating recombinant plasmid DNA harboring a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) indicator gene is introduced into lymphocytes using DEAE-dextran short-term transfection conditions. Exposure to UV induces transcriptionally-inactivating DNA photoproducts in the plasmid DNA which inactivate CAT gene expression. Excision repair of the damaged CAT gene is monitored indirectly as a function of reactivated CAT enzyme activity following a 40 hour repair/expression incubation period

  20. Use of proficiency samples to assess diagnostic laboratories in France performing a Trichinella digestion assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Isabelle; Macé, Pauline; Forbes, Lorry; Scandrett, Brad; Durand, Benoit; Gajadhar, Alvin; Boireau, Pascal

    2007-07-01

    Routine diagnosis of animal trichinellosis for food safety and trade relies on a method of artificial digestion to free Trichinella muscle larvae from meat for subsequent identification by microscopy. As part of a quality control system, the French National Reference Laboratory (NRL) initiated ring trials to determine the sensitivity of the test performed in the 72 routine diagnostic laboratories in France. A method was devised to obtain calibrated meat samples containing known numbers of capsules with Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. This method was based on an incomplete artificial digestion of Trichinella-infected mice carcasses to allow the collection of intact Trichinella capsules. Capsules were placed into a meatball of 100 +/- 2 g of pork and horsemeat to produce proficiency samples. Three categories of samples were prepared: small (3 to 5 capsules), medium (7 to 10), and large (12 to 15). The sensitivity was expressed as the percentage of muscle larvae recovered from each proficiency sample. Reproducibility was tested with ring trials organized between two NRLs (France and Canada), and a reference sensitivity of 84.9% was established. National ring trials were then organized in France, with the 72 routine diagnostic laboratories each receiving four proficiency samples per session. After five sessions, an improvement in the digest test sensitivity was observed. Results at the fifth session indicated sensitivities of 78.60% +/- 23.70%, 81.19% +/- 19.59%, and 80.52% +/- 14.71% muscle larvae for small, medium, and large samples, respectively. This study supports the use of proficiency samples to accurately evaluate the performance of routine diagnostic laboratories that conduct digestion tests for animal trichinellosis diagnosis.

  1. Measuring Oral Proficiency in Distance, Face-to-Face, and Blended Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Blake

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the foreign-language profession routinely stresses the importance of technology for the curriculum, many teachers still harbor deep-seated doubts as to whether or not a hybrid course, much less a completely distance-learning class, could provide L2 learners with a way to reach linguistic proficiency, especially with respect to oral language skills. In this study, we examine the case of Spanish Without Walls (SWW, a first-year language course offered at the University of California - Davis in both hybrid and distance-learning formats. The SWW curriculum includes materials delivered via CD-ROM/DVD programs, online content-based web pages, and synchronous bimodal chat that includes sound and text. The contribution of each of these components is evaluated in the context of a successful technologically assisted course. To address the issue of oral proficiency, we compare the results from both classroom and distance-learning students who took the 20-minute Versant for Spanish test, delivered by phone and automatically graded. The data generated by this instrument shows that classroom, hybrid, and distance L2 learners reach comparable levels of oral proficiency during their first year of study. Reference is also made to two other ongoing efforts to provide distance-learning courses in Arabic and Punjabi, two languages where special difficulties in their writing systems have an impact on the design of the distant-learning format. The rationale for offering language courses in either a hybrid or distance-learning format is examined in light of increasing societal pressures to help L2 learners reach advanced proficiency, especially in less commonly taught languages (LCTLs.

  2. Gender impacts on motor skill proficiency-physical activity relationship in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Samara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Physical activity is the greatest contributor to achievement of adequate physical activity. Children performing adequate daily physical activity will get positive benefits from their activity. Several studies indicate a difference in motor skills between boys and girls. To understand the development of motor skill proficiency and physical activity in boys and girls, a study was conducted to determine the role of gender on motor skill proficiency and physical activity in children aged 6-12 years. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted and a total of 162 children were included at a primary school in the Grogol area, West Jakarta. Data collection was by questionnaire-based interviews, covering age, gender, and physical activity (watching TV, playing games, and outdoor play. Assessment of motor skills was performed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test–Second Edition (BOT-2. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows release 17.0 and level of significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS Multiple linear regression results showed that in boys the strength subset was the most influential factor on TV watching activity, with the higher scores for strength indicating a lower TV watching activity (â=-0.125;p=0.021. Age was the most influential factor on outdoor playing activity in girls, with older girls having lower outdoor playing activity (â=-0.375;p=0.016. CONCLUSIONS This study revealed that gender difference impacts on motor skills and physical activity in children. Higher motor proficiency increases outdoor playing activity only in boys. Primary school pupils should be given opportunities for performing outdoor playing activities to improve their motor proficiency.

  3. Gender impacts on motor skill proficiency-physical activity relationship in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Samara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Physical activity is the greatest contributor to achievement of adequate physical activity. Children performing adequate daily physical activity will get positive benefits from their activity. Several studies indicate a difference in motor skills between boys and girls. To understand the development of motor skill proficiency and physical activity in boys and girls, a study was conducted to determine the role of gender on motor skill proficiency and physical activity in children aged 6-12 years. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted and a total of 162 children were included at a primary school in the Grogol area, West Jakarta. Data collection was by questionnaire-based interviews, covering age, gender, and physical activity (watching TV, playing games, and outdoor play. Assessment of motor skills was performed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test–Second Edition (BOT-2. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows release 17.0 and level of significance was set at 0.05. Results Multiple linear regression results showed that in boys the strength subset was the most influential factor on TV watching activity, with the higher scores for strength indicating a lower TV watching activity (â=-0.125;p=0.021. Age was the most influential factor on outdoor playing activity in girls, with older girls having lower outdoor playing activity (â=-0.375;p=0.016. Conclusions This study revealed that gender difference impacts on motor skills and physical activity in children. Higher motor proficiency increases outdoor playing activity only in boys. Primary school pupils should be given opportunities for performing outdoor playing activities to improve their motor proficiency.

  4. Relationship between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency in first-grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibe Soltaninejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Phonological awareness (consisting of phoneme, syllable and intra-syllable awareness is an important part of receptive and expressive language; it facilitates reading and writing skills through phonological re-coding. Multiple studies in several languages have studied the relationship between phonological awareness and dictation. This research is based on a study of the relationship between phonological skill and spelling score in first-grade Persian students.Methods: Four hundred first-grade students participated in the study, including 209 girls and 191 boys. A phonological awareness test was individually administered for each student and then a spelling exam was administered in groups. The correlation between the two tests was studied using a simple regression model. The comparison of mean scores of girls and boys was evaluated employing an independent t-test.Results: A correlation coefficient of 0.82 was obtained between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency (p<0.001. Phonological skill sub-tests also showed a significant correlation with spelling proficiency (highest for phoneme awareness r=0.34 and lowest for rhyme awareness r=0.12. The mean scores of girls and boys differed significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: There is a strong positive association between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency. Therefore, if phonological skill is improved, spelling score can be enhanced.

  5. Recommending a minimum English proficiency standard for entry-level nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Thomas R; Tannenbaum, Richard J; Tiffen, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    When nurses who are educated internationally immigrate to the United States, they are expected to have English language proficiency in order to function as a competent nurse. The purpose of this research was to provide sufficient information to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) to make a defensible recommended passing standard for English proficiency. This standard was based upon the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A large panel of nurses and nurse regulators (N = 25) was convened to determine how much English proficiency is required to be minimally competent as an entry-level nurse. Two standard setting procedures, the Simulated Minimally Competent Candidate (SMCC) procedure and the Examinee Paper Selection Method, were combined to produce recommendations for each panelist. In conjunction with collateral information, these recommendations were reviewed by the NCSBN Examination Committee, which decided upon an NCSBN recommended standard, a TOEFL score of 220. Because the adoption of this standard rests entirely with the individual state, NCSBN has little more to do with implementing the standard, other than answering questions and providing documentation about the standard.

  6. Mismatch repair proficiency is not required for radioenhancement by gemcitabine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bree, Chris van; Rodermond, Hans M.; Vos, Judith de; Haveman, Jaap; Franken, Nicolaas

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Mismatch repair (MMR) proficiency has been reported to either increase or decrease radioenhancement by 24-h incubations with gemcitabine. This study aimed to establish the importance of MMR for radioenhancement by gemcitabine after short-exposure, high-dose treatment and long-exposure, low-dose treatment. Methods and Materials: Survival of MMR-deficient HCT116 and MMR-proficient HCT116 + 3 cells was analyzed by clonogenic assays. Mild, equitoxic gemcitabine treatments (4 h, 0.1 μM vs. 24 h, 6 nM) were combined with γ-irradiation to determine the radioenhancement with or without recovery. Gemcitabine metabolism and cell-cycle effects were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and bivariate flow cytometry. Results: Radioenhancement after 4 h of 0.1 μM of gemcitabine was similar in both cell lines, but the radioenhancement after 24 h of 6 nM of gemcitabine was reduced in MMR-proficient cells. No significant differences between both cell lines were observed in the gemcitabine metabolism or cell-cycle effects after these treatments. Gemcitabine radioenhancement after recovery was also lower in MMR-proficient cells than in MMR-deficient cells. Conclusion: Mismatch repair proficiency decreases radioenhancement by long incubations of gemcitabine but does not affect radioenhancement by short exposures to a clinically relevant gemcitabine dose. Our data suggest that MMR contributes to the recovery from gemcitabine treatment

  7. Believability in simplifications of large scale physically based simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Donghui; Hsu, Shu-wei; McNamara, Ann; Keyser, John

    2013-01-01

    We verify two hypotheses which are assumed to be true only intuitively in many rigid body simulations. I: In large scale rigid body simulation, viewers may not be able to perceive distortion incurred by an approximated simulation method. II: Fixing objects under a pile of objects does not affect the visual plausibility. Visual plausibility of scenarios simulated with these hypotheses assumed true are measured using subjective rating from viewers. As expected, analysis of results supports the truthfulness of the hypotheses under certain simulation environments. However, our analysis discovered four factors which may affect the authenticity of these hypotheses: number of collisions simulated simultaneously, homogeneity of colliding object pairs, distance from scene under simulation to camera position, and simulation method used. We also try to find an objective metric of visual plausibility from eye-tracking data collected from viewers. Analysis of these results indicates that eye-tracking does not present a suitable proxy for measuring plausibility or distinguishing between types of simulations. © 2013 ACM.

  8. Large-Scale Constraint-Based Pattern Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feida

    2009-01-01

    We studied the problem of constraint-based pattern mining for three different data formats, item-set, sequence and graph, and focused on mining patterns of large sizes. Colossal patterns in each data formats are studied to discover pruning properties that are useful for direct mining of these patterns. For item-set data, we observed robustness of…

  9. First year evaluation of EPA's radon contractor proficiency (RCP) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a voluntary program to evaluate radon reduction contractors and provide this information to the public, as part of activities mandated by the Indoor Radon Abatement Act (IRAA) of 1988. The Radon Contractor Proficiency Program consists of several elements that collectively help to ensure the proficiency of radon mitigators and give the public greater confidence in their capability. Contractors who participate in the program must pass a written examination, adhere to mitigation guidelines, keep records of work, meet continuing education requirements and pass a re-examination every two years. Upon meeting the program's requirements, mitigators are listed in EPA's National RCP Proficiency Report. The first Report released on May 15, 1990 listed 636 contractors. The second Report, to be release in August, will list 895 contractors, representing an increase of 40 per cent

  10. Physical activity and movement skills proficiency of young Filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M; Sit, Cindy H P; Eguia, Kathlynne F; Abernethy, Bruce

    2014-08-01

    Recent reports indicate an increasing prevalence of overweight among Filipino children. Considering the known association of physical activity (PA) with obesity, this study reports the findings of an objective monitoring of PA in a sample of Filipino children. The study also explores the relationship of PA with fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency. Thirty-two children (6.54 ± 2.45 years old) wore an accelerometer for 7 days of PA monitoring and were assessed on five FMS (throw, catch, kick, run, jump). The children met the World Health Organization's recommendation of 60 min of PA per day, with more active time being accrued during weekdays than weekends. Children with greater FMS proficiency were found to spend more time in PA than those who were less skillful during weekends. Further research is recommended to examine PA and FMS proficiency associations, exploring the role of social interactions on weekends and weekdays. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Estimation of Handgrip Force from SEMG Based on Wavelet Scale Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xianmin; Ota, Jun; Huang, Yanjiang

    2018-02-24

    This paper proposes a nonlinear correlation-based wavelet scale selection technology to select the effective wavelet scales for the estimation of handgrip force from surface electromyograms (SEMG). The SEMG signal corresponding to gripping force was collected from extensor and flexor forearm muscles during the force-varying analysis task. We performed a computational sensitivity analysis on the initial nonlinear SEMG-handgrip force model. To explore the nonlinear correlation between ten wavelet scales and handgrip force, a large-scale iteration based on the Monte Carlo simulation was conducted. To choose a suitable combination of scales, we proposed a rule to combine wavelet scales based on the sensitivity of each scale and selected the appropriate combination of wavelet scales based on sequence combination analysis (SCA). The results of SCA indicated that the scale combination VI is suitable for estimating force from the extensors and the combination V is suitable for the flexors. The proposed method was compared to two former methods through prolonged static and force-varying contraction tasks. The experiment results showed that the root mean square errors derived by the proposed method for both static and force-varying contraction tasks were less than 20%. The accuracy and robustness of the handgrip force derived by the proposed method is better than that obtained by the former methods.

  12. Integration, Provenance, and Temporal Queries for Large-Scale Knowledge Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge bases that summarize web information in RDF triples deliver many benefits, including support for natural language question answering and powerful structured queries that extract encyclopedic knowledge via SPARQL. Large scale knowledge bases grow rapidly in terms of scale and significance, and undergo frequent changes in both schema and content. Two critical problems have thus emerged: (i) how to support temporal queries that explore the history of knowledge bases or flash-back to th...

  13. Length scale and manufacturability in density-based topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Since its original introduction in structural design, density-based topology optimization has been applied to a number of other fields such as microelectromechanical systems, photonics, acoustics and fluid mechanics. The methodology has been well accepted in industrial design processes where it can...... provide competitive designs in terms of cost, materials and functionality under a wide set of constraints. However, the optimized topologies are often considered as conceptual due to loosely defined topologies and the need of postprocessing. Subsequent amendments can affect the optimized design...

  14. Topologically-based visualization of large-scale volume data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshima, Y.; Tokunaga, M.; Fujishiro, I.; Takahashi, S.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the recent progress in the performance of computing/measurement environments and the advent of ITBL environments, volume datasets have become larger and more complicated. Although computer visualization is one of the tools to analyze such datasets effectively, it is almost impossible to adjust the visualization parameter value by trial and error without taking the feature of a given volume dataset into consideration. In this article, we introduce a scheme of topologically-based volume visualization, which is intended to choose appropriate visualization parameter values automatically through topological volume skeletonization. (author)

  15. Connotations of pixel-based scale effect in remote sensing and the modified fractal-based analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guixiang; Ming, Dongping; Wang, Min; Yang, Jianyu

    2017-06-01

    Scale problems are a major source of concern in the field of remote sensing. Since the remote sensing is a complex technology system, there is a lack of enough cognition on the connotation of scale and scale effect in remote sensing. Thus, this paper first introduces the connotations of pixel-based scale and summarizes the general understanding of pixel-based scale effect. Pixel-based scale effect analysis is essentially important for choosing the appropriate remote sensing data and the proper processing parameters. Fractal dimension is a useful measurement to analysis pixel-based scale. However in traditional fractal dimension calculation, the impact of spatial resolution is not considered, which leads that the scale effect change with spatial resolution can't be clearly reflected. Therefore, this paper proposes to use spatial resolution as the modified scale parameter of two fractal methods to further analyze the pixel-based scale effect. To verify the results of two modified methods (MFBM (Modified Windowed Fractal Brownian Motion Based on the Surface Area) and MDBM (Modified Windowed Double Blanket Method)); the existing scale effect analysis method (information entropy method) is used to evaluate. And six sub-regions of building areas and farmland areas were cut out from QuickBird images to be used as the experimental data. The results of the experiment show that both the fractal dimension and information entropy present the same trend with the decrease of spatial resolution, and some inflection points appear at the same feature scales. Further analysis shows that these feature scales (corresponding to the inflection points) are related to the actual sizes of the geo-object, which results in fewer mixed pixels in the image, and these inflection points are significantly indicative of the observed features. Therefore, the experiment results indicate that the modified fractal methods are effective to reflect the pixel-based scale effect existing in remote sensing

  16. REAL-TIME VIDEO SCALING BASED ON CONVOLUTION NEURAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    S Safinaz; A V Ravi Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, video super resolution techniques becomes mandatory requirements to get high resolution videos. Many super resolution techniques researched but still video super resolution or scaling is a vital challenge. In this paper, we have presented a real-time video scaling based on convolution neural network architecture to eliminate the blurriness in the images and video frames and to provide better reconstruction quality while scaling of large datasets from lower resolution frames t...

  17. An Empirical Study on the Moderate Scale of Food-production-based Family Farm in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaogui WU

    2016-01-01

    The moderate scale family farm is the future agricultural business entity in China,and the scale of family farm is a key factor affecting its development.With Guigang City in Guangxi as a point for the study,from the perspective of maximizing income of rural households,this paper uses production function model to calculate the moderate scale of food-production-based family farm at 5.7 ha,and makes policy recommendations.

  18. Scaling up Evidence-Based Practices: Strategies from Investing in Innovation (i3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWire, Tom; McKithen, Clarissa; Carey, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    What can the Investing in Innovation (i3) grantees tell us about scaling innovative educational practices? The newly released white paper "Scaling Up Evidence-Based Practices: Strategies from Investing in Innovation (i3)" captures the experiences of nine grantees whose projects collectively have reached over 1.2 million students across…

  19. The research of selection model based on LOD in multi-scale display of electronic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinming; You, Xiong; Liu, Yingzhen

    2008-10-01

    This paper proposes a selection model based on LOD to aid the display of electronic map. The ratio of display scale to map scale is regarded as a LOD operator. The categorization rule, classification rule, elementary rule and spatial geometry character rule of LOD operator setting are also concluded.

  20. Power Scaling of Laser Oscillators and Amplifiers Based on Nd:YVO4

    OpenAIRE

    Yarrow, Michael James

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a strategy for power and brightness scaling in diode-end-pumped, master-oscillator-power-amplifier laser systems, based on Nd:YVOIssues relating to further power and brightness scaling are discussed as well as the potential applications of these laser sources as pump sources for frequency conversion in optical parametric devices.

  1. Vocabulary Use by Low, Moderate, and High ASL-Proficient Writers Compared to Hearing ESL and Monolingual Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Jenny L; Morgan, Dianne; DiGello, Elizabeth; Wiles, Jill; Rivers, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The written English vocabulary of 72 deaf elementary school students of various proficiency levels in American Sign Language (ASL) was compared with the performance of 60 hearing English-as-a-second-language (ESL) speakers and 61 hearing monolingual speakers of English, all of similar age. Students were asked to retell "The Tortoise and the Hare" story (previously viewed on video) in a writing activity. Writing samples were later scored for total number of words, use of words known to be highly frequent in children's writing, redundancy in writing, and use of English function words. All deaf writers showed significantly lower use of function words as compared to their hearing peers. Low-ASL-proficient students demonstrated a highly formulaic writing style, drawing mostly on high-frequency words and repetitive use of a limited range of function words. The moderate- and high-ASL-proficient deaf students' writing was not formulaic and incorporated novel, low-frequency vocabulary to communicate their thoughts. The moderate- and high-ASL students' performance revealed a departure from findings one might expect based on previous studies with deaf writers and their vocabulary use. The writing of the deaf writers also differed from the writing of hearing ESL speakers. Implications for deaf education and literacy instruction are discussed, with special attention to the fact that ASL-proficient, deaf second-language learners of English may be approaching English vocabulary acquisition in ways that are different from hearing ESL learners.

  2. Retinal Identification Based on an Improved Circular Gabor Filter and Scale Invariant Feature Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Xi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Retinal identification based on retinal vasculatures in the retina provides the most secure and accurate means of authentication among biometrics and has primarily been used in combination with access control systems at high security facilities. Recently, there has been much interest in retina identification. As digital retina images always suffer from deformations, the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT, which is known for its distinctiveness and invariance for scale and rotation, has been introduced to retinal based identification. However, some shortcomings like the difficulty of feature extraction and mismatching exist in SIFT-based identification. To solve these problems, a novel preprocessing method based on the Improved Circular Gabor Transform (ICGF is proposed. After further processing by the iterated spatial anisotropic smooth method, the number of uninformative SIFT keypoints is decreased dramatically. Tested on the VARIA and eight simulated retina databases combining rotation and scaling, the developed method presents promising results and shows robustness to rotations and scale changes.

  3. Using a generalized linear mixed model approach to explore the role of age, motor proficiency, and cognitive styles in children's reach estimation accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caçola, Priscila M; Pant, Mohan D

    2014-10-01

    The purpose was to use a multi-level statistical technique to analyze how children's age, motor proficiency, and cognitive styles interact to affect accuracy on reach estimation tasks via Motor Imagery and Visual Imagery. Results from the Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis (GLMM) indicated that only the 7-year-old age group had significant random intercepts for both tasks. Motor proficiency predicted accuracy in reach tasks, and cognitive styles (object scale) predicted accuracy in the motor imagery task. GLMM analysis is suitable to explore age and other parameters of development. In this case, it allowed an assessment of motor proficiency interacting with age to shape how children represent, plan, and act on the environment.

  4. Empirical Validation of Listening Proficiency Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Troy L.; Clifford, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Because listening has received little attention and the validation of ability scales describing multidimensional skills is always challenging, this study applied a multistage, criterion-referenced approach that used a framework of aligned audio passages and listening tasks to explore the validity of the ACTFL and related listening proficiency…

  5. Online Assessment of Oral Proficiency for Intercultural Professional Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2012-01-01

    Rusman, E., & Stoyanov, S. (2011, 18 May). Online Assessment of Oral Proficiency for Intercultural Professional Communication. Presentation about the CEFcult project (www.cefcult.eu) at the workshop ‘Crossing borders’ organised by the Talenacademie, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University in the

  6. Cultutal Factors Affecting English Proficiency in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ler, Ee Chop

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the rural "cultural" problems and to determine their effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools…

  7. Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

  8. Pathways from Toddler Information Processing to Adolescent Lexical Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation of 3-year core information-processing abilities to lexical growth and development. The core abilities covered four domains--memory, representational competence (cross-modal transfer), processing speed, and attention. Lexical proficiency was assessed at 3 and 13 years with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)…

  9. Determinants of Second Language Proficiency among Refugees in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tubergen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the language acquisition of refugees in Western countries. This study examines how pre- and post-migration characteristics of refugees are related to their second language proficiency. Data are from a survey of 3,500 refugees, who were born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia and Somalia, and who resided in the…

  10. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Herrmann, Susan Strange

    2009-01-01

    A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos...

  11. Reading Processing Skills among EFL Learners in Different Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Yamada, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand how EFL learners in different reading proficiency levels comprehend L2 texts, using five-component skills involving measures of (1) vocabulary knowledge, (2) drawing inferences and predictions, (3) knowledge of text structure and discourse organization, (4) identifying the main idea and summarizing skills, and (5)…

  12. Determinants of second language proficiency among refugees in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, F.A. van

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the language acquisition of refugees in Western countries. This study examines how pre- and post-migration characteristics of refugees are related to their second language proficiency. Data are from a survey of 3,500 refugees, who were born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former

  13. A new role of proficiency testing in nuclear analytical work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The most recent definition of measurement result requires a statement of uncertainty whenever results obtained by nuclear or other quantitative methods of analysis are reported. Proficiency testing (PT) therefore must include the ability of laboratories to present not only unbiased quantity values...

  14. The Effects of Elementary Departmentalization on Mathematics Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Buckner, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics education in the elementary schools has experienced many changes in recent decades. With the curriculum becoming more complex as a result of each modification, immense pressure has been put on schools to increase student proficiency. The Common Core State Standards is the latest example of this. These revisions to the mathematics…

  15. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  16. Beyond Host Language Proficiency: Coping Resources Predicting International Students' Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Anita S.; Bodycott, Peter; Ramburuth, Prem

    2015-01-01

    As international students navigate in a foreign educational environment, having higher levels of coping or stress-resistance resources--both internal and external--could be related to increased satisfaction with personal and university life. The internal coping resources examined in this study were host language proficiency, self-esteem,…

  17. Developing Autonomous Learning for Oral Proficiency Using Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SoHee

    2014-01-01

    Since online educational technology can support a ubiquitous language learning environment, there are many ways to develop English learners' autonomy through self-access learning. This study investigates whether English as a second language (ESL) learners can improve their oral proficiency through independent study by using online self-study…

  18. Advisory Working Alliance, Perceived English Proficiency, and Acculturative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Du, Yi; Lin, Shu-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the moderators of (a) general or cross-cultural advisory working alliances and (b) perceived English proficiency on the association between acculturative stress and psychological distress. A total of 143 East Asian international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression…

  19. The Education Consequences of Language Proficiency for Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5-6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys' language test scores. In

  20. The educational consequences of language proficiency for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5–6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys’ language test scores. In

  1. Teaching Mathematical Problem Solving to Students with Limited English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rochelle G.; Patino, Rodrigo A.

    Many mainstreamed students with limited English proficiency continue to face the difficulty of learning English as a second language (ESL) while studying mathematics and other content areas framed in the language of native speakers. The difficulty these students often encounter in mathematics classes and their poor performance on subsequent…

  2. Naming Abilities in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in second language (L2) learning are often associated with recognizable learning difficulties in native language (L1), such as in dyslexia. However, some individuals have low L2 proficiency but intact L1 reading skills. These L2 learners experience frequent tip-of-the-tongue states while naming in L1, which indicates that they have a…

  3. Differential Effects of Learning Games on Mathematics Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mido; Evans, Michael A.; Kim, Sunha; Norton, Anderson; Samur, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a learning game, [The Math App] on the mathematics proficiency of middle school students. For the study, researchers recruited 306 students, Grades 6-8, from two schools in rural southwest Virginia. Over a nine-week period, [The Math App] was deployed as an intervention for investigation. Students were assigned…

  4. Listening and Reading Proficiency Levels of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirner, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines listening and reading proficiency levels of U.S. college foreign language students at major milestones throughout their undergraduate career. Data were collected from more than 3,000 participants studying seven languages at 21 universities and colleges across the United States. The results show that while listening…

  5. Impact of English Proficiency on Academic Performance of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson

    2015-01-01

    Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…

  6. Linguistic Proficiency and Strategies on Reading Performance in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Seyed Hassan

    2015-01-01

    General English (L2) proficiency and reading strategies are believed to be highly effective in successful reading performance. However, available studies rarely investigated the combined effects of these two variables on successful reading. To fill this gap, 78 university students were divided into four groups of different degrees of these two…

  7. Music Teachers in Turkey: Their Proficiency, Working Environments and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otacioglu, Sena Gursen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was the collection of data concerning Turkish music teachers' proficiency and their place in the primary and secondary education system. In addition, information was collected regarding the teachers' working environment and professional complications. A total of 200 music teachers' opinions were compiled for the determination…

  8. Foreign Language Teachers' Language Proficiency and Their Language Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling,…

  9. Rater Judgment and English Language Speaking Proficiency. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    The paper investigates whether there is a shared perception of speaking proficiency among raters from different English speaking countries. More specifically, this study examines whether there is a significant difference among English language learning (ELL) teachers, residing in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the USA when rating speech samples of…

  10. P-2 Years Targeted to Achieve Grade 3 Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In a bid to help more students read proficiently in 3rd grade--a skill considered critical to their future educational success--new laws and initiatives springing up around the country require educators to step up their efforts to identify and help struggling readers even before they enter kindergarten. It's not unusual for states or school…

  11. Trends in Teacher Certification: Equipping Teachers to Prepare Proficient Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring that students are reading proficiently by third grade is a key component of keeping students on track to graduate high school and pursue college and careers. Because of the magnitude of this academic milestone, states typically pursue policies that promote early identification and intervention for struggling readers. However, teachers are…

  12. Statistical analysis of nematode counts from interlaboratory proficiency tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den W.; Hartsema, O.; Nijs, Den J.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    A series of proficiency tests on potato cyst nematode (PCN; n=29) and free-living stages of Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus (n=23) were investigated to determine the accuracy and precision of the nematode counts and to gain insights into possible trends and potential improvements. In each test, each

  13. A retrospective evaluation of proficiency testing, and rapid HIV test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proficiency testing (PT) has been implemented as a form of External Quality Assurance (EQA) by the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Kenya since 2007 in order to monitor and improve on the quality of HIV testing and counselling HTC services. Objective: To compare concordance between National HIV ...

  14. Geo-spatial Cognition on Human's Social Activity Space Based on Multi-scale Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAI Weixin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Widely applied location aware devices, including mobile phones and GPS receivers, have provided great convenience for collecting large volume individuals' geographical information. The researches on the human's society behavior space has attracts an increasingly number of researchers. In our research, based on location-based Flickr data From 2004 to May, 2014 in China, we choose five levels of spatial grids to form the multi-scale frame for investigate the correlation between the scale and the geo-spatial cognition on human's social activity space. The HT-index is selected as the fractal inspired by Alexander to estimate the maturity of the society activity on different scales. The results indicate that that the scale characteristics are related to the spatial cognition to a certain extent. It is favorable to use the spatial grid as a tool to control scales for geo-spatial cognition on human's social activity space.

  15. 76 FR 66318 - Announcement of Funding Awards; Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program (LEPI), Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... limited English proficiency (LEP), and develop and implement a system to provide those services so LEP... Awards; Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program (LEPI), Fiscal Year 2010/2011 AGENCY: Office of... (NOFA) for the Limited English Proficiency Initiative (LEPI) Program for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010/2011...

  16. Comparing Examinee Attitudes Toward Computer-Assisted and Other Oral Proficiency Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Dorry M.; Malabonga, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward taking different formats of oral proficiency assessments across three languages: Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese. Students were administered both the tape-mediated Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI) and a new Computerized Oral Proficiency Instrument (COPI). Questionnaire responses showed examinees, particularly…

  17. Measures for Determining English Language Proficiency and the Resulting Implications for Instructional Provision and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Craig A.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Boals, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Although numerous English language proficiency (ELP) measures currently exist, many were developed prior to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). These pre-NCLB measures typically focused on social language proficiency, whereas post-NCLB measures are linked to ELP standards and focus on academic language proficiency (ALP). ELP measures are…

  18. Ebola Preparedness: Diagnosis Improvement Using Rapid Approaches for Proficiency Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine A; Theis, Torsten; Gray, Joanna; Rawlinson, William D

    2017-03-01

    The unprecedented 2015 Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa was declared a public health emergency, making diagnosis and quality of testing a global issue. The accuracy of laboratory diagnostic capacity for EBOV was assessed in 2014 to 2016 using a proficiency testing (PT) strategy developed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs (RCPAQAP) in Biosecurity. Following a literature search, EBOV-specific gene targets were ranked according to the frequency of their use in published methods. The most commonly used gene regions (nucleoprotein [NP], glycoprotein [GP], and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [L]) were selected for the design of in vitro RNA transcripts to be included in the simulated EBOV specimens used for EBOV detection with PCR-based assays. Specimens were tested for stability and found to be stable on long-term storage (1 year) at -80°C and on shorter-term storage in lyophilized form (1 week at ambient temperature and a subsequent week at -80°C). These specimens were used in three EBOV PTs offered from April 2014 to March 2016. In the first and third PTs, all laboratories (3/3 and 9/9, respectively) correctly identified specimens containing EBOV RNA transcripts, while in the second PT, all but one laboratory (5/6) correctly confirmed the presence of EBOV. The EBOV PT panel was useful for ensuring the competency of laboratories in detecting EBOV in the absence of readily available clinical samples. The simulated EBOV specimen was safe, stable, and reliable and can be used in lyophilized form for future EBOV PT programs, allowing simplicity of transport. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Proficient brain for optimal performance: the MAP model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertollo, Maurizio; di Fronso, Selenia; Filho, Edson; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio; Bortoli, Laura; Comani, Silvia; Robazza, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background. The main goal of the present study was to explore theta and alpha event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) activity during shooting performance. We adopted the idiosyncratic framework of the multi-action plan (MAP) model to investigate different processing modes underpinning four types of performance. In particular, we were interested in examining the neural activity associated with optimal-automated (Type 1) and optimal-controlled (Type 2) performances. Methods. Ten elite shooters (6 male and 4 female) with extensive international experience participated in the study. ERD/ERS analysis was used to investigate cortical dynamics during performance. A 4 × 3 (performance types × time) repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to test the differences among the four types of performance during the three seconds preceding the shots for theta, low alpha, and high alpha frequency bands. The dependent variables were the ERD/ERS percentages in each frequency band (i.e., theta, low alpha, high alpha) for each electrode site across the scalp. This analysis was conducted on 120 shots for each participant in three different frequency bands and the individual data were then averaged. Results. We found ERS to be mainly associated with optimal-automatic performance, in agreement with the "neural efficiency hypothesis." We also observed more ERD as related to optimal-controlled performance in conditions of "neural adaptability" and proficient use of cortical resources. Discussion. These findings are congruent with the MAP conceptualization of four performance states, in which unique psychophysiological states underlie distinct performance-related experiences. From an applied point of view, our findings suggest that the MAP model can be used as a framework to develop performance enhancement strategies based on cognitive and neurofeedback techniques.

  20. Proficient brain for optimal performance: the MAP model perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Bertollo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The main goal of the present study was to explore theta and alpha event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS activity during shooting performance. We adopted the idiosyncratic framework of the multi-action plan (MAP model to investigate different processing modes underpinning four types of performance. In particular, we were interested in examining the neural activity associated with optimal-automated (Type 1 and optimal-controlled (Type 2 performances. Methods. Ten elite shooters (6 male and 4 female with extensive international experience participated in the study. ERD/ERS analysis was used to investigate cortical dynamics during performance. A 4 × 3 (performance types × time repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to test the differences among the four types of performance during the three seconds preceding the shots for theta, low alpha, and high alpha frequency bands. The dependent variables were the ERD/ERS percentages in each frequency band (i.e., theta, low alpha, high alpha for each electrode site across the scalp. This analysis was conducted on 120 shots for each participant in three different frequency bands and the individual data were then averaged. Results. We found ERS to be mainly associated with optimal-automatic performance, in agreement with the “neural efficiency hypothesis.” We also observed more ERD as related to optimal-controlled performance in conditions of “neural adaptability” and proficient use of cortical resources. Discussion. These findings are congruent with the MAP conceptualization of four performance states, in which unique psychophysiological states underlie distinct performance-related experiences. From an applied point of view, our findings suggest that the MAP model can be used as a framework to develop performance enhancement strategies based on cognitive and neurofeedback techniques.

  1. Proficiency training on a virtual reality robotic surgical skills curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bric, Justin; Connolly, Michael; Kastenmeier, Andrew; Goldblatt, Matthew; Gould, Jon C

    2014-12-01

    The clinical application of robotic surgery is increasing. The skills necessary to perform robotic surgery are unique from those required in open and laparoscopic surgery. A validated laparoscopic surgical skills curriculum (Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery or FLS™) has transformed the way surgeons acquire laparoscopic skills. There is a need for a similar skills training and assessment tool for robotic surgery. Our research group previously developed and validated a robotic training curriculum in a virtual reality (VR) simulator. We hypothesized that novice robotic surgeons could achieve proficiency levels defined by more experienced robotic surgeons on the VR robotic curriculum, and that this would result in improved performance on the actual daVinci Surgical System™. 25 medical students with no prior robotic surgery experience were recruited. Prior to VR training, subjects performed 2 FLS tasks 3 times each (Peg Transfer, Intracorporeal Knot Tying) using the daVinci Surgical System™ docked to a video trainer box. Task performance for the FLS tasks was scored objectively. Subjects then practiced on the VR simulator (daVinci Skills Simulator) until proficiency levels on all 5 tasks were achieved before completing a post-training assessment of the 2 FLS tasks on the daVinci Surgical System™ in the video trainer box. All subjects to complete the study (1 dropped out) reached proficiency levels on all VR tasks in an average of 71 (± 21.7) attempts, accumulating 164.3 (± 55.7) minutes of console training time. There was a significant improvement in performance on the robotic FLS tasks following completion of the VR training curriculum. Novice robotic surgeons are able to attain proficiency levels on a VR simulator. This leads to improved performance in the daVinci surgical platform on simulated tasks. Training to proficiency on a VR robotic surgery simulator is an efficient and viable method for acquiring robotic surgical skills.

  2. Proficiency in condom use among migrant workers

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H. Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed betwe...

  3. A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON SEGMENTATION SCALE SPACE AND RANDOM FOREST CLASSIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hadavand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new object-based framework is developed for automate scale selection in image segmentation. The quality of image objects have an important impact on further analyses. Due to the strong dependency of segmentation results to the scale parameter, choosing the best value for this parameter, for each class, becomes a main challenge in object-based image analysis. We propose a new framework which employs pixel-based land cover map to estimate the initial scale dedicated to each class. These scales are used to build segmentation scale space (SSS, a hierarchy of image objects. Optimization of SSS, respect to NDVI and DSM values in each super object is used to get the best scale in local regions of image scene. Optimized SSS segmentations are finally classified to produce the final land cover map. Very high resolution aerial image and digital surface model provided by ISPRS 2D semantic labelling dataset is used in our experiments. The result of our proposed method is comparable to those of ESP tool, a well-known method to estimate the scale of segmentation, and marginally improved the overall accuracy of classification from 79% to 80%.

  4. Summary of microsatellite instability test results from laboratories participating in proficiency surveys: proficiency survey results from 2005 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Theresa A; Bridge, Julia A; Sabatini, Linda M; Nowak, Jan A; Vasalos, Patricia; Jennings, Lawrence J; Halling, Kevin C

    2014-03-01

    The College of American Pathologists surveys are the largest laboratory peer comparison programs in the world. These programs allow laboratories to regularly evaluate their performance and improve the accuracy of the patient test results they provide. Proficiency testing is offered twice a year to laboratories performing microsatellite instability testing. These surveys are designed to emulate clinical practice, and some surveys have more challenging cases to encourage the refinement of laboratory practices. This report summarizes the results and trends in microsatellite instability proficiency testing from participating laboratories from the inception of the program in 2005 through 2012. We compiled and analyzed data for 16 surveys of microsatellite instability proficiency testing during 2005 to 2012. The number of laboratories participating in the microsatellite instability survey has more than doubled from 42 to 104 during the 8 years analyzed. An average of 95.4% of the laboratories correctly classified each of the survey test samples from the 2005A through 2012B proficiency challenges. In the 2011B survey, a lower percentage of laboratories (78.4%) correctly classified the specimen, possibly because of overlooking subtle changes of microsatellite instability and/or failing to enrich the tumor content of the specimen to meet the limit of detection of their assay. In general, laboratories performed well in microsatellite instability testing. This testing will continue to be important in screening patients with colorectal and other cancers for Lynch syndrome and guiding the management of patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

  5. Advanced Proficiency EHR Training: Effect on Physicians’ EHR Efficiency, EHR Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastagir, M. Tariq; Chin, Homer L.; McNamara, Michael; Poteraj, Kathy; Battaglini, Sarah; Alstot, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The best way to train clinicians to optimize their use of the Electronic Health Record (EHR) remains unclear. Approaches range from web-based training, class-room training, EHR functionality training, case-based training, role-based training, process-based training, mock-clinic training and “on the job” training. Similarly, the optimal timing of training remains unclear--whether to engage in extensive pre go-live training vs. minimal pre go-live training followed by more extensive post go-live training. In addition, the effectiveness of non-clinician trainers, clinician trainers, and peer-trainers, remains unclearly defined. This paper describes a program in which relatively experienced clinician users of an EHR underwent an intensive 3-day Peer-Led EHR advanced proficiency training, and the results of that training based on participant surveys. It highlights the effectiveness of Peer-Led Proficiency Training of existing experienced clinician EHR users in improving self-reported efficiency and satisfaction with an EHR and improvements in perceived work-life balance and job satisfaction. PMID:23304282

  6. Advanced proficiency EHR training: effect on physicians' EHR efficiency, EHR satisfaction and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastagir, M Tariq; Chin, Homer L; McNamara, Michael; Poteraj, Kathy; Battaglini, Sarah; Alstot, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The best way to train clinicians to optimize their use of the Electronic Health Record (EHR) remains unclear. Approaches range from web-based training, class-room training, EHR functionality training, case-based training, role-based training, process-based training, mock-clinic training and "on the job" training. Similarly, the optimal timing of training remains unclear--whether to engage in extensive pre go-live training vs. minimal pre go-live training followed by more extensive post go-live training. In addition, the effectiveness of non-clinician trainers, clinician trainers, and peer-trainers, remains unclearly defined. This paper describes a program in which relatively experienced clinician users of an EHR underwent an intensive 3-day Peer-Led EHR advanced proficiency training, and the results of that training based on participant surveys. It highlights the effectiveness of Peer-Led Proficiency Training of existing experienced clinician EHR users in improving self-reported efficiency and satisfaction with an EHR and improvements in perceived work-life balance and job satisfaction.

  7. The Suicidal Ideation Attributes Scale (SIDAS): Community-Based Validation Study of a New Scale for the Measurement of Suicidal Ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spijker, B.A.J.; Batterham, P.J.; Calear, A.L.; Farrer, L.; Christensen, H.; Reynolds, J.; Kerkhof, A.

    2014-01-01

    While suicide prevention efforts are increasingly being delivered using technology, no scales have been developed specifically for web-based use. The Suicidal Ideation Attributes Scale (SIDAS) was developed and validated as a brief, web-based measure for severity of suicidal ideation, using an

  8. SNR enhancement for downhole microseismic data based on scale classification shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Ji, Shuo; Li, Yue; Qian, Zhihong; Lu, Weili

    2018-06-01

    Shearlet transform (ST) can be effective in 2D signal processing, due to its parabolic scaling, high directional sensitivity, and optimal sparsity. ST combined with thresholding has been successfully applied to suppress random noise. However, because of the low magnitude and high frequency of a downhole microseismic signal, the coefficient values of valid signals and noise are similar in the shearlet domain. As a result, it is difficult to use for denoising. In this paper, we present a scale classification ST to solve this problem. The ST is used to decompose noisy microseismic data into serval scales. By analyzing the spectrum and energy distribution of the shearlet coefficients of microseismic data, we divide the scales into two types: low-frequency scales which contain less useful signal and high-frequency scales which contain more useful signal. After classification, we use two different methods to deal with the coefficients on different scales. For the low-frequency scales, the noise is attenuated using a thresholding method. As for the high-frequency scales, we propose to use a generalized Gauss distribution model based a non-local means filter, which takes advantage of the temporal and spatial similarity of microseismic data. The experimental results on both synthetic records and field data illustrate that our proposed method preserves the useful components and attenuates the noise well.

  9. Antisocial and Schizoid Personality Disorder Scales: Conceptual bases and preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octav - Sorin Căndel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the development and validation of two scales which can be used in evaluating schizoid and antisocial personality disorders. Both scales were developed relying on descriptions from DSM 5 and ICD 10. For validation, the scales have been tested on 125 subjects, together with two well-known psychometric instruments, DA12profile Personality Inventory, and SCL-90. Internal consistency is calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Schizoid Scale contains 20 items and shows a good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .77 and Antisocial Scale contains 22 items and has excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .91. The correlations between the scores of the two scales and the scores of DA12profile Personality Inventory and SCL-90 are statistically significant. The factorial analysis reveals that the two scales and DA12profile Personality Inventory sub-scales are clustered in four factors, explaining 68.31 % of the variance. Based on these results, we discussed the importance the scales have for psychological research and for psycho-diagnostic, their limitations and our future directions of research.

  10. Proficiency tests for evaluation of the 99Tcm measurements in the nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Nicoli, Ieda Gomes; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    This work performs the performance evaluation of 55 Brazilian nuclear medicine services in activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical containing 99 Tc m . Proficiency tests based on the acceptance criteria of the Regulation ISO/IEC Guide 43-1 and on the accuracy of the brazilian Regulation CNEN-NN-3.05 were applied in 63 results of activity measurements in radionuclide calibrators used by those services. The performance services has shown that the criteria of the ISO/IEC 43-1, nevertheless to be more restrictive, presents results very consistent with the accuracy criteria requested by the Brazilian regulation

  11. Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scales Based on Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Paul D; Hersey, Denise P; Leder, Steven B

    2016-06-01

    Identification of pharyngeal residue severity located in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses has always been a primary goal during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Pharyngeal residue is a clinical sign of potential prandial aspiration making an accurate description of its severity an important but difficult challenge. A reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scale for FEES would be beneficial. A systematic review of the published English language literature since 1995 was conducted to determine the quality of existing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales based on FEES. Databases were searched using controlled vocabulary words and synonymous free text words for topics of interest (deglutition disorders, pharyngeal residue, endoscopy, videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic technology, aspiration, etc.) and outcomes of interest (scores, scales, grades, tests, FEES, etc.). Search strategies were adjusted for syntax appropriate for each database/platform. Data sources included MEDLINE (OvidSP 1946-April Week 3 2015), Embase (OvidSP 1974-2015 April 20), Scopus (Elsevier), and the unindexed material in PubMed (NLM/NIH) were searched for relevant articles. Supplementary efforts to identify studies included checking reference lists of articles retrieved. Scales were compared using qualitative properties (sample size, severity definitions, number of raters, and raters' experience and training) and psychometric analyses (randomization, intra- and inter-rater reliability, and construct validity). Seven articles describing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales met inclusion criteria. Six of seven scales had insufficient data to support their use as evidenced by methodological weaknesses with both qualitative properties and psychometric analyses. There is a need for qualitative and psychometrically reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scales that are anatomically specific, image-based

  12. The effect of Web-based Braden Scale training on the reliability and precision of Braden Scale pressure ulcer risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Morris A; Maklebust, Joann

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of Web-based Braden Scale training on the reliability and precision of pressure ulcer risk assessments made by registered nurses (RN) working in acute care settings. Pretest-posttest, 2-group, quasi-experimental design. Five hundred Braden Scale risk assessments were made on 102 acute care patients deemed to be at various levels of risk for pressure ulceration. Assessments were made by RNs working in acute care hospitals at 3 different medical centers where the Braden Scale was in regular daily use (2 medical centers) or new to the setting (1 medical center). The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk was used to guide pressure ulcer risk assessments. A Web-based version of the Detroit Medical Center Braden Scale Computerized Training Module was used to teach nurses correct use of the Braden Scale and selection of risk-based pressure ulcer prevention interventions. In the aggregate, RN generated reliable Braden Scale pressure ulcer risk assessments 65% of the time after training. The effect of Web-based Braden Scale training on reliability and precision of assessments varied according to familiarity with the scale. With training, new users of the scale made reliable assessments 84% of the time and significantly improved precision of their assessments. The reliability and precision of Braden Scale risk assessments made by its regular users was unaffected by training. Technology-assisted Braden Scale training improved both reliability and precision of risk assessments made by new users of the scale, but had virtually no effect on the reliability or precision of risk assessments made by regular users of the instrument. Further research is needed to determine best approaches for improving reliability and precision of Braden Scale assessments made by its regular users.

  13. Students with Non-Proficient Information Seeking Skills Greatly Over-Estimate Their Abilities. A Review of: Gross, Melissa, and Don Latham.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The objective of this study is an investigation of the relationship between students’ self-assessment of their information literacy skills and their actual skill level, as well as an analysis of whether library anxiety is related to information skill attainment. Design – Quantitative research design (Information Literacy Test (ILT, Library Anxiety Scale (LAS, pre and post surveys.Setting – Florida State University, United States.Subjects – Students, incoming freshmen.Methods – Information literacy skills were measured using the Information Literacy Test (ILT, presenting subjects with 65 multiple choice items designed around four of the five ACRL information literacy standards, in which students were expectedto: 1 determine the nature and extent of the information needed; 2 access needed information effectively and efficiently; 3 evaluate information and its sources critically and incorporates selected information into his/her knowledge base system; 4 understand many of the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses information ethically and legally. The ILT categorized participant scores as non-proficient(Main Results – The main aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that students who test non-proficient on an information literacy test tend to overestimate their competency to a higher degree than proficient and advanced students. In the pre- and post-surveys, the students were asked to estimate their performance onthe ILT in terms of the expected percentage of questions they would answer correctly, the number of questions they expected to answer correctly, and how their performance on the ILT would compare toothers taking the test (in percentage. The results of the study show that all students overestimate their abilities, both in terms of performance and relative performance, in the pre-survey. The estimated percentage correct answers for the whole group was 75%, but

  14. Study on the millimeter-wave scale absorber based on the Salisbury screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Dai, Fei; Xu, Yonggang; Zhang, Yuan

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem on the millimeter-wave scale absorber, the Salisbury screen absorber is employed and designed based on the RL. By optimizing parameters including the sheet resistance of the surface resistive layer, the permittivity and the thickness of the grounded dielectric layer, the RL of the Salisbury screen absorber could be identical with that of the theoretical scale absorber. An example is given to verify the effectiveness of the method, where the Salisbury screen absorber is designed by the proposed method and compared with the theoretical scale absorber. Meanwhile, plate models and tri-corner reflector (TCR) models are constructed according to the designed result and their scattering properties are simulated by FEKO. Results reveal that the deviation between the designed Salisbury screen absorber and the theoretical scale absorber falls within the tolerance of radar Cross section (RCS) measurement. The work in this paper has important theoretical and practical significance in electromagnetic measurement of large scale ratio.

  15. Corrosion and Scaling Potential in Drinking Water Distribution of Babol, Northern Iran Based on the Scaling and Corrosion Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoliman Amouei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Corrosion and scaling play undesirable effects on transmission and distribution system of drinking water. The aim of this study was to assess the corrosion and scaling potential of drinking water resources in Babol city, Iran. Materials and Methods: Totally, 54 water samples were collected from 27 wells in spring and autumn. Calcium hardness, pH, total alkalinity, total dissolved solids, and temperature were measured, using standard methods. The Langelier, Rayzner, Puckhorius, Larson and aggressive indices were calculated and data were analyzed by SPSS 19. To compare the mean values of each index, the results were analyzed using t-test. Results: The range of temperature, pH, TDS, total alkalinity and calcium hardness were 16-24°c; 6.8-7.89; 445-1331 mg/l; 322.9-396 mg/l and 250.50-490 mg/l, respectively. The mean of Langelier and Ryznar indices in drinking water samples in spring and autumn was 0.14, 0.15; 7.28 and 7.35, respectively. The mean of Puckhorius and Larson indices in these seasons was 11.9, 11.95 and 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. The mean of aggressive index was 6.17 and 6.27, respectively. Overall, 82.2%, 100%, 94.6%, 100% and 85.7% of water samples were corrosive based on the Langelier, Ryznar, Puckhorius, Larson and aggressive indices, respectively. Conclusion: According to these results, drinking water of Babol city has corrosion potential. Therefore, the water quality should be controlled based on pH, alkalinity and hardness parameters, along with the use of corrosion resisting materials and pipes in drinking water distribution systems.

  16. Medical language proficiency: A discussion of interprofessional language competencies and potential for patient risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Melodie

    2016-02-01

    In increasingly multilingual healthcare environments worldwide, ensuring accurate, effective communication is requisite. Language proficiency is essential, particularly medical language proficiency. Medical language is a universal construct in healthcare, the shared language of health and allied health professions. It is highly evolved, career-specific, technical and cultural-bound-a language for specific purposes. Its function differs significantly from that of a standard language. Proficiency requires at minimum, a common understanding of discipline-specific jargon, abstracts, euphemisms, abbreviations; acronyms. An optimal medical language situation demands a level of competency beyond the superficial wherein one can convey or interpret deeper meanings, distinguish themes, voice opinion, and follow directions precisely. It necessitates the use of clarity, and the ability to understand both lay and formal language-characteristics not essential to standard language. Proficiency influences professional discourse and can have the potential to positively or negatively affect patient outcomes. While risks have been identified when there is language discordance between care provider and patient, almost nothing has been said about this within care teams themselves. This article will do so in anticipation that care providers, regulators, employers, and researchers will acknowledge potential language-based communication barriers and work towards resolutions. This is predicated on the fact that the growing interest in language and communication in healthcare today appears to be rested in globalization and increasingly linguistically diverse patient populations. Consideration of the linguistically diverse healthcare workforce is absent. An argument will be posited that if potential risks to patient safety exist and there are potentials for disengagement from care by patients when health providers do not speak their languages then logically these language-based issues can

  17. Personalized versus Normal Practice of L2 Speaking on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Rahmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Personalized learning is a self-initiated, self-directed or self-prioritized pursuit which gives the learner a degree of choice about the process of learning i.e. what to learn, how to learn and when to learn. Of course personalized learning does not indicate unlimited choice; because, L2 learners will still have targets to be met. However, it provides learners with the opportunity to learn in ways that suit their individual learning styles. The L2 learner should have the opportunity to freely choose a series of activities, already predisposed by the teacher, to improve and develop L2 proficiency. This is because human beings have different ways to learn and process information; and, these different ways of learning are independent of each other. In other words, learning styles and techniques differ across individuals; thus, personalized learning provides L2 learners to freely choose the activities they enjoy the most. So it is a student-centered learning method in which the interests and the preferences of the learner is taken into account.The present study is an investigation of a personalized versus normal practice of L2 proficiency. For this purpose an OPT (Oxford Placement Test was given to a total of 80 Iranian EFL learners. Then, 40 of them who were considered as intermediate learners were selected for the purpose of the study. The participants were randomly divided into two groups i.e. an experimental group and a control group. Both groups were pretested prior to the study. Then, the experimental group received the treatment in the form of personalized learning (games-based learning, songs, music, stories, English tongue twisters and the materials that the subjects were most interested in for ten sessions while the control group received a normal practice of speaking proficiency (based on New Interchange course books. After ten sessions, both groups were post tested. Then the results of the posttests were subjects of statistical analysis

  18. Construction of Orthonormal Piecewise Polynomial Scaling and Wavelet Bases on Non-Equally Spaced Knots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Astruc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mathematical framework of multiresolution analysis based on irregularly spaced knots sequence. Our presentation is based on the construction of nested nonuniform spline multiresolution spaces. From these spaces, we present the construction of orthonormal scaling and wavelet basis functions on bounded intervals. For any arbitrary degree of the spline function, we provide an explicit generalization allowing the construction of the scaling and wavelet bases on the nontraditional sequences. We show that the orthogonal decomposition is implemented using filter banks where the coefficients depend on the location of the knots on the sequence. Examples of orthonormal spline scaling and wavelet bases are provided. This approach can be used to interpolate irregularly sampled signals in an efficient way, by keeping the multiresolution approach.

  19. Large-scale computer networks and the future of legal knowledge-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenes, R.E.; Svensson, Jorgen S.; Hage, J.C.; Bench-Capon, T.J.M.; Cohen, M.J.; van den Herik, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relation between legal knowledge-based systems and large-scale computer networks such as the Internet. On the one hand, researchers of legal knowledge-based systems have claimed huge possibilities, but despite the efforts over the last twenty years, the number of

  20. Cloud-based computation for accelerating vegetation mapping and change detection at regional to national scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Gregory; Zhiqiang Yang; David M. Bell; Warren B. Cohen; Sean Healey; Janet L. Ohmann; Heather M. Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Mapping vegetation and landscape change at fine spatial scales is needed to inform natural resource and conservation planning, but such maps are expensive and time-consuming to produce. For Landsat-based methodologies, mapping efforts are hampered by the daunting task of manipulating multivariate data for millions to billions of pixels. The advent of cloud-based...

  1. The English Proficiency of the Academics of the Teacher Training and Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saukah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing the general English proficiency level of the academics of Teacher Training and Education Institutions (LPTK's as indicated by their TOEFL scores. Specifically, the study is focused on finding out whether there is any difference among the academics' English proficiencies when they are grouped in terms of the geographic regions of their institutions and their fields of study. This study is also intended to reveal any possible relationship between the academics' English proficiency and their age. The results indicate that the English proficiency of the academics on the average is far below the average of that of the international students. The academics in West Java are the highest in their English proficiency, and the English group, as expected, has the best English proficiency. In addition, there is a negative correlation between English proficiency and age

  2. Localization Algorithm Based on a Spring Model (LASM for Large Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A navigation method for a lunar rover based on large scale wireless sensornetworks is proposed. To obtain high navigation accuracy and large exploration area, highnode localization accuracy and large network scale are required. However, thecomputational and communication complexity and time consumption are greatly increasedwith the increase of the network scales. A localization algorithm based on a spring model(LASM method is proposed to reduce the computational complexity, while maintainingthe localization accuracy in large scale sensor networks. The algorithm simulates thedynamics of physical spring system to estimate the positions of nodes. The sensor nodesare set as particles with masses and connected with neighbor nodes by virtual springs. Thevirtual springs will force the particles move to the original positions, the node positionscorrespondingly, from the randomly set positions. Therefore, a blind node position can bedetermined from the LASM algorithm by calculating the related forces with the neighbornodes. The computational and communication complexity are O(1 for each node, since thenumber of the neighbor nodes does not increase proportionally with the network scale size.Three patches are proposed to avoid local optimization, kick out bad nodes and deal withnode variation. Simulation results show that the computational and communicationcomplexity are almost constant despite of the increase of the network scale size. The time consumption has also been proven to remain almost constant since the calculation steps arealmost unrelated with the network scale size.

  3. UP-scaling of inverted small molecule based organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Bhushan Ramesh; Madsen, Morten

    Organic solar cells (OSC), in spite of being a promising technology, still face challenges regarding large-scale fabrication. Although efficiencies of up to 12 % has been reached for small molecule OSC, their performance, both in terms of device efficiency and stability, is significantly reduced...... during up-scaling processes. The work presented here is focused on an approach towards up-scaling of small molecule based OSC with inverted device configuration. Bilayer OSC from Tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) and Fullerenes (C70), as electron donor and acceptor respectively, with cell area...

  4. Multi-scale learning based segmentation of glands in digital colonrectal pathology images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Liu, William; Arjun, Shipra; Zhu, Liangjia; Ratner, Vadim; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2016-02-01

    Digital histopathological images provide detailed spatial information of the tissue at micrometer resolution. Among the available contents in the pathology images, meso-scale information, such as the gland morphology, texture, and distribution, are useful diagnostic features. In this work, focusing on the colon-rectal cancer tissue samples, we propose a multi-scale learning based segmentation scheme for the glands in the colon-rectal digital pathology slides. The algorithm learns the gland and non-gland textures from a set of training images in various scales through a sparse dictionary representation. After the learning step, the dictionaries are used collectively to perform the classification and segmentation for the new image.

  5. Fast Simulation of Large-Scale Floods Based on GPU Parallel Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Liu; Yi Qin; Guodong Li

    2018-01-01

    Computing speed is a significant issue of large-scale flood simulations for real-time response to disaster prevention and mitigation. Even today, most of the large-scale flood simulations are generally run on supercomputers due to the massive amounts of data and computations necessary. In this work, a two-dimensional shallow water model based on an unstructured Godunov-type finite volume scheme was proposed for flood simulation. To realize a fast simulation of large-scale floods on a personal...

  6. 3D deblending of simultaneous source data based on 3D multi-scale shaping operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Shaohuan; Zhou, Hui; Mao, Weijian; Gong, Fei; Huang, Weilin

    2018-04-01

    We propose an iterative three-dimensional (3D) deblending scheme using 3D multi-scale shaping operator to separate 3D simultaneous source data. The proposed scheme is based on the property that signal is coherent, whereas interference is incoherent in some domains, e.g., common receiver domain and common midpoint domain. In two-dimensional (2D) blended record, the coherency difference of signal and interference is in only one spatial direction. Compared with 2D deblending, the 3D deblending can take more sparse constraints into consideration to obtain better performance, e.g., in 3D common receiver gather, the coherency difference is in two spatial directions. Furthermore, with different levels of coherency, signal and interference distribute in different scale curvelet domains. In both 2D and 3D blended records, most coherent signal locates in coarse scale curvelet domain, while most incoherent interference distributes in fine scale curvelet domain. The scale difference is larger in 3D deblending, thus, we apply the multi-scale shaping scheme to further improve the 3D deblending performance. We evaluate the performance of 3D and 2D deblending with the multi-scale and global shaping operators, respectively. One synthetic and one field data examples demonstrate the advantage of the 3D deblending with 3D multi-scale shaping operator.

  7. The effect of Web-based Braden Scale training on the reliability of Braden subscale ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Morris A; Maklebust, JoAnn

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Web-based Braden Scale training on the reliability of Braden Scale subscale ratings made by nurses working in acute care hospitals. A secondary purpose was to describe the distribution of reliable Braden subscale ratings before and after Web-based Braden Scale training. Secondary analysis of data from a recently completed quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, interrater reliability study. A convenience sample of RNs working at 3 Michigan medical centers voluntarily participated in the study. RN participants included nurses who used the Braden Scale regularly at their place of employment ("regular users") as well as nurses who did not use the Braden Scale at their place of employment ("new users"). Using a pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental design, pretest interrater reliability data were collected to identify the percentage of nurses making reliable Braden subscale assessments. Nurses then completed a Web-based Braden Scale training module after which posttest interrater reliability data were collected. The reliability of nurses' Braden subscale ratings was determined by examining the level of agreement/disagreement between ratings made by an RN and an "expert" rating the same patient. In total, 381 RN-to-expert dyads were available for analysis. During both the pretest and posttest periods, the percentage of reliable subscale ratings was highest for the activity subscale, lowest for the moisture subscale, and second lowest for the nutrition subscale. With Web-based Braden Scale training, the percentage of reliable Braden subscale ratings made by new users increased for all 6 subscales with statistically significant improvements in the percentage of reliable assessments made on 3 subscales: sensory-perception, moisture, and mobility. Training had virtually no effect on the percentage of reliable subscale ratings made by regular users of the Braden Scale. With Web-based Braden Scale training the

  8. Polymer density functional theory approach based on scaling second-order direct correlation function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi

    2006-06-01

    A second-order direct correlation function (DCF) from solving the polymer-RISM integral equation is scaled up or down by an equation of state for bulk polymer, the resultant scaling second-order DCF is in better agreement with corresponding simulation results than the un-scaling second-order DCF. When the scaling second-order DCF is imported into a recently proposed LTDFA-based polymer DFT approach, an originally associated adjustable but mathematically meaningless parameter now becomes mathematically meaningful, i.e., the numerical value lies now between 0 and 1. When the adjustable parameter-free version of the LTDFA is used instead of the LTDFA, i.e., the adjustable parameter is fixed at 0.5, the resultant parameter-free version of the scaling LTDFA-based polymer DFT is also in good agreement with the corresponding simulation data for density profiles. The parameter-free version of the scaling LTDFA-based polymer DFT is employed to investigate the density profiles of a freely jointed tangent hard sphere chain near a variable sized central hard sphere, again the predictions reproduce accurately the simulational results. Importance of the present adjustable parameter-free version lies in its combination with a recently proposed universal theoretical way, in the resultant formalism, the contact theorem is still met by the adjustable parameter associated with the theoretical way.

  9. Proficiency of virtual reality simulator training in flexible retrograde ureteroscopy renal stone management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian-liang; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Guo-feng; Li, Ning-chen; Yuan, Xue-li; Na, Yan-qun

    2013-10-01

    Minimally invasive flexible ureteroscopy techniques have widely adopted in the management of patients with renal stones. We performed this study to investigate the value of virtual reality simulator training in retrograde flexible ureteroscopy renal stone treatment for catechumen. Thirty catechumen, included 17 attending physicians and 13 associate chief physicians, were selected for study. The trainees first underwent 1-hour basic training to get familiar with the instrument and basic procedures, then followed by 4-hour practice on virtual reality simulators. Before and after the 4-hour training, all trainees undertake an assessment with task 7 program (right low pole calyces stone management). We documented for each trainee the total time of procedure, time of progressing from the orifice to stone, stone translocation and fragmentation time, laser operate proficiency scale, total laser energy, maximal size of residual stone fragments, number of trauma from the scopes and tools, damage to the scope and global rating scale (GRS). The proficiency of this training program was analyzed by the comparison of the first and second assessment outcomes. Significant improvement was observed in retrograde flexible ureteroscopy management of renal stone on virtual reality simulators after finishing the 4 hour special-purpose training. This was demonstrated by improvement in total procedure time ((18.37±2.59) minutes vs. (38.67±1.94) minutes), progressing time from the orifice to stone ((4.00±1.08) minutes vs. (13.80±2.01) minutes), time of stone translocation ((1.80±0.71) minutes vs. (6.57±1.01) minutes), fragmentation time ((4.43±1.25) minutes vs. (13.53±1.46) minutes), laser operate proficiency scale (8.47±0.73 vs. 3.77±0.77), total laser energy ((3231.6±401.4) W vs. (5329.8±448.9) W), maximal size of residual stone fragments ((2.66±0.39) mm vs. (5.77±0.63) mm), number of trauma from the scopes and tools (3.27±1.01 vs. 10.37±3.02), damage to the scope (0 vs

  10. First Language Proficiency and Successful Foreign Language Learning: The Case of High School Students Learning French as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnintedem, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a correlation between first language proficiency as measured by the Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT II) Reading and Language Arts and foreign language proficiency as measured by the French Language Proficiency Test. Data for the independent variable, first language proficiency, was collected from the…

  11. Samoan Philosophy of Nursing: a basis for culturally proficient care and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoka, I S; Petrini, M A; Turale, S

    2014-09-01

    To explore nurses' perspectives about the Samoan Philosophy of Nursing, and determine its feasibility for nursing care of Samoans internationally. This philosophy is the conceptual cultural framework for nursing law, practice, education and research in Samoa, and was developed by Samoan nurses who recognized the need for guidance to deliver quality, culturally competent and proficient health care. A mixed method study, employing a questionnaire and ethnographic methods. The Samoan Philosophy of Nursing Questionnaire sought demographic data and aspects about the philosophy from 95 registered nurse clinicians, administrators and educators throughout Samoa during 2012. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Additionally, 19 focus groups (5-6 participants each) and 19 in-depth interviews were held to further explore these aspects, as well as participant observations. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data, and Spradley's ethnographic method was adopted for analysing the qualitative data. Of 95 questionnaires analysed, 70% of participants reported using the philosophy all the time, and 30% most of the time. They placed a high satisfaction rate, value and importance on this philosophy. From the ethnography, six major themes emerged: valuable framework of learning; conceptual framework for holistic assessment; benchmark for regulating and monitoring practice improving interaction and culturally proficient practice; potential use for Samoans overseas; and maintaining quality health and the dignity of people. This first-time study evaluated the Samoan Philosophy of Nursing and adds to nursing knowledge. Findings confirmed its usefulness as a culturally based conceptual framework to facilitate, regulate and monitor education, research and practice for sustainable health outcomes in Samoa, and for Samoans living abroad. It is important that Samoans living abroad receive culturally proficient care, but this requires the support of

  12. Supporting Elementary Education in-Service Teachers' Proficiency in Planning STEM-Centric Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Sharon W.

    The purpose of this study was to explore the McDaniel College Elementary STEM Instructional Leader (ESIL) pilot cohort's ability to proficiently plan lessons that incorporated the Maryland State STEM Standards of Practice (SOP), targeting integration of STEM content, inquiry learning, students' abilities to collaborate as a STEM team and students' strategic application of technology. Data collection, in the form of reviewing and analyzing study participants' lesson plans and self-reflections, was completed by three independent assessors. The researcher examined the interrater reliability among the three assessors using the Fleiss' kappa statistic. A 0.91 proportion of agreement consensus was documented among the three assessors. A test of hypothetical value was conducted using the nonparametric Wilcoxonsigned- rank Test. Interpretation of the Wilcoxon-signed-rank Test results suggest that the sample population demonstrated proficient planning abilities for the four targeted Maryland State STEM SOP. Findings from this research add to the field's knowledge of elements in the promotion of graduate coursework that leads to elementary in-service teachers' proficiency in planning STEM-centric lessons, however the findings also have broader implications for teacher education at large. The McDaniel College ESIL model could frame K-12 teacher education for both preservice and in-service teachers. The pragmatic, hybrid experience maximizes flexibility, promotes analytical thinking and self-reflection and builds communication skills. The introduction and development of inquiry and design-based learning through the 7E Learning Cycle develops the teachers' understanding of practices promoted not only within the Maryland State STEM SOP, but also within the Next Generation Science Standards. The McDaniel College ESIL model also builds upon the collective efforts of academia, a non-profit STEM research facility, and local school divisions to align efforts that may lead to

  13. Nordic proficiency test for whole body counting facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Risco Norrlid, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (Sweden)); Halldorsson, O. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, GR (Iceland)); Holm, S. (Copenhagen Univ. Hospital. NM and PET (Denmark)); Huikari, J. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Isaksson, M. (Goeteborg Univ., Dep. Radiation Physics Sahlgren Academy (Sweden)); Lind, B. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway))

    2012-01-15

    The PIANOLIB activity aims to harmonize the calibrations of the measurement equipment in the region and to evaluate the quality of this kind of measurement by means of a proficiency test exercise. In this report the results of the proficiency test are presented. The exercise consisted in determining the activity of a phantom filled with two sets of certified radioactive materials, K-40 and Cs-137, in radioactive rods, uniformly spaced inside of the phantom. Most of the participants were able to quantify correctly the activities of K-40 and Cs-137 and by comparison with the results of a previous exercise of this kind, the overall performance is equally good. The problems experienced by laboratories which submitted non-acceptable results could generally be attributed to the calibration of their systems. It is important to keep the practice of intercomparison and NKS continues to be the best framework for supporting this kind of activity. (Author)

  14. Language proficiency and health status: are bilingual immigrants healthier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ariela; Kimbro, Rachel T; Gorman, Bridget K

    2012-03-01

    Bilingual immigrants appear to have a health advantage, and identifying the mechanisms responsible for this is of increasing interest to scholars and policy makers in the United States. Utilizing the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS; n = 3,264), we investigate the associations between English and native-language proficiency and usage and self-rated health for Asian and Latino U.S. immigrants from China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. The findings demonstrate that across immigrant ethnic groups, being bilingual is associated with better self-rated physical and mental health relative to being proficient in only English or only a native language, and moreover, these associations are partially mediated by socioeconomic status and family support but not by acculturation, stress and discrimination, or health access and behaviors.

  15. Linguistic Proficiency and Strategies on Reading Performance in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Talebi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available General English (L2 proficiency and reading strategies are believed to be highly effective in successful reading performance. However, available studies rarely investigated the combined effects of these two variables on successful reading. To fill this gap, 78 university students were divided into four groups of different degrees of these two variables in L2 and given a reading test in English and an interview for assessing how much of the problems in L2 reading among the four groups were rooted in linguistic competence and/or strategic competence. Findings evinced that the high general proficiency level coupled with high awareness and use of reading strategies would result in best performance and that the pattern of answers to different components of reading question is different in different groups. It is concluded that both of the variables should be emphasized simultaneously for the best performance in reading comprehension.

  16. Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program methods and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.; Hoornbeek, J.; Jalbert, P.; Sensintaffar, E.; Hopper, R.

    1991-01-01

    The US EPA developed the voluntary Radon Measurement Proficiency Program in 1986 in response to a Federal and State need for measurement services firms to demonstrate their proficiency with radon measurement methods and devices. Since that time, the program has set basic standards for the radon measurement industry. The program has grown dramatically since its inception. In 1986, fewer than 50 companies participated in the program. By 1989, more than 5,000 companies were participating. Participants represent firms with an analytical capability as well as firms that rely upon another firm for analysis service. Since the beginning of the RMP Program, the Agency has learned a great deal about radon measurement methods and devices. This paper reviews the measurement devices used in the program and what the EPA has learned about them since the program's inception. Performance data from the RMP Program are used to highlight relevant findings

  17. Use of a novel virus inactivation method for a multicenter avian influenza real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction proficiency study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L

    2005-01-01

    Proficiency assessments are important elements in quality control for diagnostic laboratories. Traditionally, proficiency testing for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays has involved the use of clinical samples, samples "spiked" with live agents or DNA plasmids. Because of government regulations and biosecurity concerns, distribution of live high-consequence pathogens of livestock and poultry, such as avian influenza, is not possible, and DNA plasmids are not technically suitable for evaluating RNA virus detection. Therefore, a proficiency testing panel using whole avian influenza in a diluent containing a phenolic disinfectant that inactivates the virus while preserving the RNA for at least 8 weeks at -70 C was developed and used in a multicenter proficiency assessment for a type A influenza real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR test. The test, which was highly standardized, except for variation in the real-time RT-PCR equipment used, was shown to be highly reproducible by proficiency testing in 12 laboratories in the United States, Canada, and Hong Kong. Variation in cycle threshold values among 35 data sets and 490 samples was minimal (CV = 5.19%), and sample identifications were highly accurate (96.7% correct identifications) regardless of real-time PCR instrumentation.

  18. Using Complementary Learning Clusters in Studying Literature to Enhance Students' Medical Humanities Literacy, Critical Thinking, and English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether students studying literature in complementary learning clusters would show more improvement in medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency compared to those in conventional learning clusters. Ninety-three students participated in the study (M age = 18.2 years, SD = 0.4; 36 men, 57 women). A quasi-experimental design was used over 16 weeks, with the control group (n = 47) working in conventional learning clusters and the experimental group (n = 46) working in complementary learning clusters. Complementary learning clusters were those in which individuals had complementary strengths enabling them to learn from and offer assistance to other cluster members, hypothetically facilitating the learning process. Measures included the Medical Humanities Literacy Scale, Critical Thinking Disposition Assessment, English proficiency tests, and Analytic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric. The results showed that complementary learning clusters have the potential to improve students' medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Right frontal pole cortical thickness and social competence in children with chronic traumatic brain injury: cognitive proficiency as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, Ashley; Baxter, Leslie; Kirwan, C Brock; Black, Garrett; Gale, Shawn D

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between right frontal pole cortical thickness, social competence, and cognitive proficiency in children participants with a history of chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Twenty-three children (65% male; M age = 12.8 years, SD = 2.3 years) at least 1 year post-injury (M = 3.3 years, SD = 1.7 years) were evaluated with the Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition, and their caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Social competence was evaluated with the Social Competence and Social Problems subscales from the Child Behavior Checklist. Right frontal pole cortical thickness was calculated via FreeSurfer from high-resolution 3-dimensional T1 magnetic resonance imaging scans. Direct effect of right frontal pole cortical thickness on social competence was significant (β = 14.09, SE = 4.6, P Right frontal pole cortical thickness significantly predicted CPI (β = 18.44, SE = 4.9, P right frontal lobe cortical integrity and social competence in pediatric participants with chronic TBI may be mediated through cognitive proficiency.

  20. Quantification of organ motion based on an adaptive image-based scale invariant feature method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, piazza L. Da Vinci 32, Milano 20133 (Italy); Peroni, Marta [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, piazza L. Da Vinci 32, Milano 20133, Italy and Paul Scherrer Institut, Zentrum für Protonentherapie, WMSA/C15, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Italy); Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, piazza L. Da Vinci 32, Milano 20133, Italy and Bioengineering Unit, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, strada Campeggi 53, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The availability of corresponding landmarks in IGRT image series allows quantifying the inter and intrafractional motion of internal organs. In this study, an approach for the automatic localization of anatomical landmarks is presented, with the aim of describing the nonrigid motion of anatomo-pathological structures in radiotherapy treatments according to local image contrast.Methods: An adaptive scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was developed from the integration of a standard 3D SIFT approach with a local image-based contrast definition. The robustness and invariance of the proposed method to shape-preserving and deformable transforms were analyzed in a CT phantom study. The application of contrast transforms to the phantom images was also tested, in order to verify the variation of the local adaptive measure in relation to the modification of image contrast. The method was also applied to a lung 4D CT dataset, relying on manual feature identification by an expert user as ground truth. The 3D residual distance between matches obtained in adaptive-SIFT was then computed to verify the internal motion quantification with respect to the expert user. Extracted corresponding features in the lungs were used as regularization landmarks in a multistage deformable image registration (DIR) mapping the inhale vs exhale phase. The residual distances between the warped manual landmarks and their reference position in the inhale phase were evaluated, in order to provide a quantitative indication of the registration performed with the three different point sets.Results: The phantom study confirmed the method invariance and robustness properties to shape-preserving and deformable transforms, showing residual matching errors below the voxel dimension. The adapted SIFT algorithm on the 4D CT dataset provided automated and accurate motion detection of peak to peak breathing motion. The proposed method resulted in reduced residual errors with respect to standard SIFT

  1. Evidence-based adaptation and scale-up of a mobile phone health information service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly; Plourde, Kate F; Zan, Trinity

    2017-01-01

    The research base recommending the use of mobile phone interventions for health improvement is growing at a rapid pace. The use of mobile phones to deliver health behavior change and maintenance interventions in particular is gaining a robust evidence base across geographies, populations, and health topics. However, research on best practices for successfully scaling mHealth interventions is not keeping pace, despite the availability of frameworks for adapting and scaling health programs. m4RH-Mobile for Reproductive Health-is an SMS, or text message-based, health information service that began in two countries and over a period of 7 years has been adapted and scaled to new population groups and new countries. Success can be attributed to following key principles for scaling up health programs, including continuous stakeholder engagement; ongoing monitoring, evaluation, and research including extensive content and usability testing with the target audience; strategic dissemination of results; and use of marketing and sustainability principles for social initiatives. This article investigates how these factors contributed to vertical, horizontal, and global scale-up of the m4RH program. Vertical scale of m4RH is demonstrated in Tanzania, where the early engagement of stakeholders including the Ministry of Health catalyzed expansion of m4RH content and national-level program reach. Ongoing data collection has provided real-time data for decision-making, information about the user base, and peer-reviewed publications, yielding government endorsement and partner hand-off for sustainability of the m4RH platform. Horizontal scale-up and adaptation of m4RH has occurred through expansion to new populations in Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania, where best practices for design and implementation of mHealth programs were followed to ensure the platform meets the needs of target populations. m4RH also has been modified and packaged for global scale-up through licensing and toolkit

  2. Nesting, Subsidiarity, and Community-based environmental Governance beyond the Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Marshall

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Community-based approaches to environmental management have become widely adopted over the last two decades. From their origins in grassroots frustrations with governmental inabilities to solve local environmental problems, these approaches are now sponsored frequently by governments as a way of dealing with such problems at much higher spatial levels. However, this 'up-scaling' of community-based approaches has run well ahead of knowledge about how they might work. This article explores how Elinor Ostrom's 'nesting principle' for robust common property governance of large-scale common-pool resources might inform future up-scaling efforts. In particular, I consider how the design of nested governance systems for large-scale environmental problems might be guided by the principle of subsidiarity. The challenges of applying this principle are illustrated by Australia's experience in up-scaling community-based natural resource management from local groups comprising 20-30 members to regional bodies representing hundreds of thousands of people. Seven lessons are distilled for fostering community-based environmental governance as a multi-level system of nested enterprises.

  3. Fan-out Estimation in Spin-based Quantum Computer Scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thien; Hill, Charles D; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; James, Matthew R

    2017-10-17

    Solid-state spin-based qubits offer good prospects for scaling based on their long coherence times and nexus to large-scale electronic scale-up technologies. However, high-threshold quantum error correction requires a two-dimensional qubit array operating in parallel, posing significant challenges in fabrication and control. While architectures incorporating distributed quantum control meet this challenge head-on, most designs rely on individual control and readout of all qubits with high gate densities. We analysed the fan-out routing overhead of a dedicated control line architecture, basing the analysis on a generalised solid-state spin qubit platform parameterised to encompass Coulomb confined (e.g. donor based spin qubits) or electrostatically confined (e.g. quantum dot based spin qubits) implementations. The spatial scalability under this model is estimated using standard electronic routing methods and present-day fabrication constraints. Based on reasonable assumptions for qubit control and readout we estimate 10 2 -10 5 physical qubits, depending on the quantum interconnect implementation, can be integrated and fanned-out independently. Assuming relatively long control-free interconnects the scalability can be extended. Ultimately, the universal quantum computation may necessitate a much higher number of integrated qubits, indicating that higher dimensional electronics fabrication and/or multiplexed distributed control and readout schemes may be the preferredstrategy for large-scale implementation.

  4. Proficiency Testing Activities of Frequency Calibration Laboratories in Taiwan, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    cht.com.tw Abstract In order to meet the requirements of ISO 17025 and the demand of TAF (Taiwan Accreditation Foundation) for calibration inter... IEC 17025 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. The proficiency testing results are then important...on-site evaluation, an assessment team is organized to examine the technical competence of the labs and their compliance with the requirements of ISO

  5. Multidimensional scaling analysis of financial time series based on modified cross-sample entropy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiayi; Shang, Pengjian; Xiong, Hui

    2018-06-01

    Stocks, as the concrete manifestation of financial time series with plenty of potential information, are often used in the study of financial time series. In this paper, we utilize the stock data to recognize their patterns through out the dissimilarity matrix based on modified cross-sample entropy, then three-dimensional perceptual maps of the results are provided through multidimensional scaling method. Two modified multidimensional scaling methods are proposed in this paper, that is, multidimensional scaling based on Kronecker-delta cross-sample entropy (MDS-KCSE) and multidimensional scaling based on permutation cross-sample entropy (MDS-PCSE). These two methods use Kronecker-delta based cross-sample entropy and permutation based cross-sample entropy to replace the distance or dissimilarity measurement in classical multidimensional scaling (MDS). Multidimensional scaling based on Chebyshev distance (MDSC) is employed to provide a reference for comparisons. Our analysis reveals a clear clustering both in synthetic data and 18 indices from diverse stock markets. It implies that time series generated by the same model are easier to have similar irregularity than others, and the difference in the stock index, which is caused by the country or region and the different financial policies, can reflect the irregularity in the data. In the synthetic data experiments, not only the time series generated by different models can be distinguished, the one generated under different parameters of the same model can also be detected. In the financial data experiment, the stock indices are clearly divided into five groups. Through analysis, we find that they correspond to five regions, respectively, that is, Europe, North America, South America, Asian-Pacific (with the exception of mainland China), mainland China and Russia. The results also demonstrate that MDS-KCSE and MDS-PCSE provide more effective divisions in experiments than MDSC.

  6. Proficiency in condom use among migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed between condom use skilled and unskilled groups and level of condom use skills between African Americans and Hispanics. African Americans showed better skills in using condoms, and participants in the condom-use skilled group used condoms more frequently. Finally, a logistic regression was conducted to find predictors of condom use skills. Significant predictors were ethnicity, language, and assistance-related social support (obtaining advice from people who could provide tangible assistance). Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Proficiency Forms and Vocational Pedagogical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglar, Tron

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on research on experiential learning and vocational teachers. The author describes his analysis of curricula for the vocational teacher education and explains the education´s purpose, content, and methods. In 1975, education dramatically changed from an academic tradition with dissemination of many disciplines to a holistic…

  8. GE Fanuc推出Proficy Historian 3.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    GE基础设施旗下的GE Fanuc自动化美洲公司推出了全新的ProficyTM Historian版本3.0个全新的厂级数据历史库版本。ProficyTM Historian 3.0能采集、归档并发布所有的实时现场生产数据,使用起来非常方便,可用性很高。凭藉Proficy Historian,制造商可以有效地从多个数据源采集并聚合实时工厂数据。对于诸如因设备故障和产品质量存在问题而造成的非满意事件,它能快速找出根本原因以实现最佳绩效。

  9. Cell Phone Use and Child and Adolescent Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between cell phone use, including minutes spent talking and number of text messages sent, and two measures of children’s reading proficiency — tests of word decoding and reading comprehension — in the United States. Data were drawn from the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative survey of 1,147 children 10–18 in 2009. Children whose parents were better educated, who had higher family incomes, who had fewer siblings, and who lived in urban areas were more likely to own or share a cell phone. Among those with access to a phone, children who spent more time talking on the phone were less proficient at word decoding, whereas children who spent more time sending text messages had greater reading comprehension. Although girls spent more time texting than did boys, there were no gender differences in the association between time spent talking or number of text messages sent with achievement. In spite of racial/ethnic differences in cell phone use levels, there were no racial/ethnic differences in the association between cell phone use and reading proficiency. PMID:27683624

  10. Progressive Amalgamation of Building Clusters for Map Generalization Based on Scaling Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjin He

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Map generalization utilizes transformation operations to derive smaller-scale maps from larger-scale maps, and is a key procedure for the modelling and understanding of geographic space. Studies to date have largely applied a fixed tolerance to aggregate clustered buildings into a single object, resulting in the loss of details that meet cartographic constraints and may be of importance for users. This study aims to develop a method that amalgamates clustered buildings gradually without significant modification of geometry, while preserving the map details as much as possible under cartographic constraints. The amalgamation process consists of three key steps. First, individual buildings are grouped into distinct clusters by using the graph-based spatial clustering application with random forest (GSCARF method. Second, building clusters are decomposed into scaling subgroups according to homogeneity with regard to the mean distance of subgroups. Thus, hierarchies of building clusters can be derived based on scaling subgroups. Finally, an amalgamation operation is progressively performed from the bottom-level subgroups to the top-level subgroups using the maximum distance of each subgroup as the amalgamating tolerance instead of using a fixed tolerance. As a consequence of this step, generalized intermediate scaling results are available, which can form the multi-scale representation of buildings. The experimental results show that the proposed method can generate amalgams with correct details, statistical area balance and orthogonal shape while satisfying cartographic constraints (e.g., minimum distance and minimum area.

  11. Analyzing data from a fuzzy rating scale-based questionnaire. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, María Ángeles; Lubiano, María Asunción; de la Rosa de Sáa, Sara; Sinova, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The fuzzy rating scale was introduced to cope with the imprecision of human thought and experience in measuring attitudes in many fields of Psychology. The flexibility and expressiveness of this scale allow us to properly describe the answers to many questions involving psychological measurement. Analyzing the responses to a fuzzy rating scale-based questionnaire is indeed a critical problem. Nevertheless, over the last years, a methodology is being developed to analyze statistically fuzzy data in such a way that the information they contain is fully exploited. In this paper, a summary review of the main procedures is given. The methods are illustrated by their application on the dataset obtained from a case study with nine-year-old children. In this study, children replied to some questions from the well-known TIMSS/PIRLS questionnaire by using a fuzzy rating scale. The form could be filled in either on the computer or by hand. The study indicates that the requirements of background and training underlying the fuzzy rating scale are not too demanding. Moreover, it is clearly shown that statistical conclusions substantially often differ depending on the responses being given in accordance with either a Likert scale or a fuzzy rating scale.

  12. Development and Validation of an Adolescent Gender-Based Violence Scale (ESVIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Penado-Abilleira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the construction of a new scale to estimate adolescent gender-based violence. The scale is specifically designed for this population and incorporates new forms of violence, such as cyberviolence. The sample consisted of 701 students aged between 13 and 18 years. The internal consistency of the scale showed a high reliability value in the overall scale (α = .965, as well as in the subscales of violence committed (α = .935 and violence suffered (α = .929. The results would suggest that the new scale is not only concise and useful, but also adapted to the current reality of adolescents. With a reduction in the number of items compared to the scales currently available (it has 13 bidirectional statements and a factorial structure with five types of violence (cyber-violence, verbal, physical, psychological, and sexual violence, the scale provides an up-to-date measure of the occurrence of this type of behavior in teen dating relationships.

  13. Almera Proficiency Test Determination of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Phosphogypsum and Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is generated as a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry. The discharge of phosphogypsum on earth surface deposits is a potential source of enhanced natural radiation and heavy metals, and the resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. A reliable determination of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with the radiation protection and environmental regulations. This proficiency test (PT) is one of the series of the ALMERA network proficiency tests organised on a regular basis by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory. These proficiency tests are designed to identify analytical problems, to support Member States laboratories to maintain their preparedness and to provide rapid and reliable analytical results. In this PT, the test item set consisted of six samples: one phosphogypsum (the IAEA-434 reference material) and five water samples spiked with natural radionuclides. The main task of the participating laboratories was to identify and quantify the activity levels of radionuclides present in these matrices. The tasks of IAEA were to prepare and distribute the samples to the participating laboratories, to collect and interpret analysis results and to compile a comprehensive report. The certified massic activity values of all radionuclides used in this PT were fulfilling the requirements of metrological traceability to international standards of radioactivity. In this PT, 306 test items (reference materials) were prepared and distributed to 52 participants from 40 countries in November 2008. The deadline for receiving the results from the participants was set to15 May 2009. For gross alpha/beta results the deadline was one working day from the date of sample delivery. The participating laboratories were requested to analyse Ra-226, U-234 and U-238 in water

  14. Proficiency testing of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) labs in Brazil by measurement comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimarães, Jorge Vallim; Dias, Maurício Henrique Costa; Dos Santos, José Carlos Araujo

    2009-01-01

    This work reports the analysis and main results of a recently concluded proficiency testing round with the major electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) laboratories in Brazil. Seven labs conducted radiated emission measurements at their test facilities under the coordination of an independent third party supervised by the Brazilian accreditation body, INMETRO. Six of them are currently the only labs accredited on EMC measurements in Brazil. The guidelines of international standards such as ISO/IEC Guide 43 and ISO 13528 were followed, while the scope of the tests focused on EMC compliance of information technology devices, based on CISPR 22. A multi-tone signal generator was specifically designed and assembled for the present proficiency testing conditions. Statistical metrics such as z-score and normalized error have been adopted to assess global and individual performances of the participant laboratories. The normalized error indicated 10 unacceptable results out of 35 results, while only 3 out of 35 z-scores were out of the acceptance range. Considering that the participant labs are actually only for test measurements (not for calibration), the overall performance may be taken as satisfactory, based on the fact that the z-score should be used in this case

  15. Model-based strategy for cell culture seed train layout verified at lab scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Simon; Platas-Barradas, Oscar; Pörtner, Ralf; Frahm, Björn

    2016-08-01

    Cell culture seed trains-the generation of a sufficient viable cell number for the inoculation of the production scale bioreactor, starting from incubator scale-are time- and cost-intensive. Accordingly, a seed train offers potential for optimization regarding its layout and the corresponding proceedings. A tool has been developed to determine the optimal points in time for cell passaging from one scale into the next and it has been applied to two different cell lines at lab scale, AGE1.HN AAT and CHO-K1. For evaluation, experimental seed train realization has been evaluated in comparison to its layout. In case of the AGE1.HN AAT cell line, the results have also been compared to the formerly manually designed seed train. The tool provides the same seed train layout based on the data of only two batches.

  16. Proposed Empirical Entropy and Gibbs Energy Based on Observations of Scale Invariance in Open Nonequilibrium Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Adrian F

    2017-09-07

    There is no widely agreed definition of entropy, and consequently Gibbs energy, in open systems far from equilibrium. One recent approach has sought to formulate an entropy and Gibbs energy based on observed scale invariances in geophysical variables, particularly in atmospheric quantities, including the molecules constituting stratospheric chemistry. The Hamiltonian flux dynamics of energy in macroscopic open nonequilibrium systems maps to energy in equilibrium statistical thermodynamics, and corresponding equivalences of scale invariant variables with other relevant statistical mechanical variables such as entropy, Gibbs energy, and 1/(k Boltzmann T), are not just formally analogous but are also mappings. Three proof-of-concept representative examples from available adequate stratospheric chemistry observations-temperature, wind speed and ozone-are calculated, with the aim of applying these mappings and equivalences. Potential applications of the approach to scale invariant observations from the literature, involving scales from molecular through laboratory to astronomical, are considered. Theoretical support for the approach from the literature is discussed.

  17. A Matrix-Based Structure for Vario-Scale Vector Representation over a Wide Range of Map Scales : The Case of River Network Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, L.; Ai, Tinghua; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Yan, Xiongfeng; Yang, Min

    2017-01-01

    The representation of vector data at variable scales has been widely applied in geographic information systems and map-based services. When the scale changes across a wide range, a complex generalization that involves multiple operations is required to transform the data. To present such complex

  18. Enabling Large-Scale IoT-Based Services through Elastic Publish/Subscribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavassori, Sergio; Soriano, Javier; Fernández, Rafael

    2017-09-19

    In this paper, we report an algorithm that is designed to leverage the cloud as infrastructure to support Internet of Things (IoT) by elastically scaling in/out so that IoT-based service users never stop receiving sensors' data. This algorithm is able to provide an uninterrupted service to end users even during the scaling operation since its internal state repartitioning is transparent for publishers or subscribers; its scaling operation is time-bounded and depends only on the dimension of the state partitions to be transmitted to the different nodes. We describe its implementation in E-SilboPS, an elastic content-based publish/subscribe (CBPS) system specifically designed to support context-aware sensing and communication in IoT-based services. E-SilboPS is a key internal asset of the FIWARE IoT services enablement platform, which offers an architecture of components specifically designed to capture data from, or act upon, IoT devices as easily as reading/changing the value of attributes linked to context entities. In addition, we discuss the quantitative measurements used to evaluate the scale-out process, as well as the results of this evaluation. This new feature rounds out the context-aware content-based features of E-SilboPS by providing, for example, the necessary middleware for constructing dashboards and monitoring panels that are capable of dynamically changing queries and continuously handling data in IoT-based services.

  19. The reward-based eating drive scale: a self-report index of reward-based eating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa S Epel

    Full Text Available Why are some individuals more vulnerable to persistent weight gain and obesity than are others? Some obese individuals report factors that drive overeating, including lack of control, lack of satiation, and preoccupation with food, which may stem from reward-related neural circuitry. These are normative and common symptoms and not the sole focus of any existing measures. Many eating scales capture these common behaviors, but are confounded with aspects of dysregulated eating such as binge eating or emotional overeating. Across five studies, we developed items that capture this reward-based eating drive (RED. Study 1 developed the items in lean to obese individuals (n = 327 and examined changes in weight over eight years. In Study 2, the scale was further developed and expert raters evaluated the set of items. Study 3 tested psychometric properties of the final 9 items in 400 participants. Study 4 examined psychometric properties and race invariance (n = 80 women. Study 5 examined psychometric properties and age/gender invariance (n = 381. Results showed that RED scores correlated with BMI and predicted earlier onset of obesity, greater weight fluctuations, and greater overall weight gain over eight years. Expert ratings of RED scale items indicated that the items reflected characteristics of reward-based eating. The RED scale evidenced high internal consistency and invariance across demographic factors. The RED scale, designed to tap vulnerability to reward-based eating behavior, appears to be a useful brief tool for identifying those at higher risk of weight gain over time. Given the heterogeneity of obesity, unique brief profiling of the reward-based aspect of obesity using a self-report instrument such as the RED scale may be critical for customizing effective treatments in the general population.

  20. Large-scale derived flood frequency analysis based on continuous simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Nguyen, Viet; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Guse, Björn; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing need for spatially consistent flood risk assessments at the regional scale (several 100.000 km2), in particular in the insurance industry and for national risk reduction strategies. However, most large-scale flood risk assessments are composed of smaller-scale assessments and show spatial inconsistencies. To overcome this deficit, a large-scale flood model composed of a weather generator and catchments models was developed reflecting the spatially inherent heterogeneity. The weather generator is a multisite and multivariate stochastic model capable of generating synthetic meteorological fields (precipitation, temperature, etc.) at daily resolution for the regional scale. These fields respect the observed autocorrelation, spatial correlation and co-variance between the variables. They are used as input into catchment models. A long-term simulation of this combined system enables to derive very long discharge series at many catchment locations serving as a basic for spatially consistent flood risk estimates at the regional scale. This combined model was set up and validated for major river catchments in Germany. The weather generator was trained by 53-year observation data at 528 stations covering not only the complete Germany but also parts of France, Switzerland, Czech Republic and Australia with the aggregated spatial scale of 443,931 km2. 10.000 years of daily meteorological fields for the study area were generated. Likewise, rainfall-runoff simulations with SWIM were performed for the entire Elbe, Rhine, Weser, Donau and Ems catchments. The validation results illustrate a good performance of the combined system, as the simulated flood magnitudes and frequencies agree well with the observed flood data. Based on continuous simulation this model chain is then used to estimate flood quantiles for the whole Germany including upstream headwater catchments in neighbouring countries. This continuous large scale approach overcomes the several

  1. Efficient graph-based dynamic load-balancing for parallel large-scale agent-based traffic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.; Cai, W.; Aydt, H.; Lees, M.; Tolk, A.; Diallo, S.Y.; Ryzhov, I.O.; Yilmaz, L.; Buckley, S.; Miller, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the issues of parallelizing large-scale agent-based traffic simulations is partitioning and load-balancing. Traffic simulations are dynamic applications where the distribution of workload in the spatial domain constantly changes. Dynamic load-balancing at run-time has shown better efficiency

  2. Micro scale CHP based on biomass intelligent heat transfer with thermoelectric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, W.; Aigenbauer, S.; Heckmann, M.; Friedl, G. (Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Wieselburg (Austria)); Hofbauer, H. (Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology (Austria))

    2007-07-01

    Pellet burners need auxiliary electrical power to provide CO{sub 2} balanced heat in a comfortable and environment friendly way. The idea is to produce this and some extra electricity within the device in order to save resources and to gain operation reliability and independency. An option for micro scale CHP is the usage of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). They allow direct conversion of heat into electrical power. They have the advantage of a long maintenance free durability and noiseless operation without moving parts or any working fluid. The useful heat remains almost unaffected and can still be used for heating. TEGs are predestined for the use in micro scale CHP based on solid biomass. In this paper the first results from the fully integrated prototype are presented. The performance of the TEG was observed for different loads and operating conditions in order to realise an optimised micro scale CHP based on solid biomass. (orig.)

  3. Grey Language Hesitant Fuzzy Group Decision Making Method Based on Kernel and Grey Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingsheng; Diao, Yuzhu; Gong, Zaiwu; Hu, Aqin

    2018-03-02

    Based on grey language multi-attribute group decision making, a kernel and grey scale scoring function is put forward according to the definition of grey language and the meaning of the kernel and grey scale. The function introduces grey scale into the decision-making method to avoid information distortion. This method is applied to the grey language hesitant fuzzy group decision making, and the grey correlation degree is used to sort the schemes. The effectiveness and practicability of the decision-making method are further verified by the industry chain sustainable development ability evaluation example of a circular economy. Moreover, its simplicity and feasibility are verified by comparing it with the traditional grey language decision-making method and the grey language hesitant fuzzy weighted arithmetic averaging (GLHWAA) operator integration method after determining the index weight based on the grey correlation.

  4. Scaling-based prediction of magnetic anisotropy in grain-oriented steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najgebauer Mariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the scaling-based approach to analysis and prediction of magnetic anisotropy in grain-oriented steels. Results of the anisotropy scaling indicate the existence of two universality classes. The hybrid approach to prediction of magnetic anisotropy, combining the scaling analysis with the ODFs method, is proposed. This approach is examined in prediction of angular dependencies of magnetic induction as well as magnetization curves for the 111-35S5 steel. It is shown that it is possible to predict anisotropy of magnetic properties based on measurements in three arbitrary directions for φ = 0°, 60° and 90°. The relatively small errors between predicted and measured values of magnetic induction are obtained.

  5. IELTS as a Literacy-Based Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Purwanto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory case study aimed at investigating whether or not International English Language Testing Systems (IELTS scores correspond with literacy levels. During the 2011-2012 academic year, 20 first semester students in the English Literature Program in the Faculty of Language and Cultural Studies (Fakultas Bahasa dan Ilmu Budaya at Universitas Stikubank (UNISBANK were randomly selected to take the IELTS. Results were matched against predetermined criteria for literacy levels (Hammond, et al. 1992 in order to classify them into the appropriate levels of literacy. Findings indicate that all students (100 percent were at the performative level of literacy with respect to their overall IELTS scores. Only 25 percent of the students on the speaking subtest and 20 percent of the students on the reading subtest managed to test at the functional level. It is therefore recommended that action research be conducted in Central Java level to upgrade the level of literacy from the performative level up to the informative level. As well, similar research may be conducted with a multi-disciplinary approach employing a correlational study between IELTS band scores with literacy levels.

  6. Studies on combined model based on functional objectives of large scale complex engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuting, Wang; Jingchun, Feng; Jiabao, Sun

    2018-03-01

    As various functions were included in large scale complex engineering, and each function would be conducted with completion of one or more projects, combined projects affecting their functions should be located. Based on the types of project portfolio, the relationship of projects and their functional objectives were analyzed. On that premise, portfolio projects-technics based on their functional objectives were introduced, then we studied and raised the principles of portfolio projects-technics based on the functional objectives of projects. In addition, The processes of combined projects were also constructed. With the help of portfolio projects-technics based on the functional objectives of projects, our research findings laid a good foundation for management of large scale complex engineering portfolio management.

  7. Mechanistically-Based Field-Scale Models of Uranium Biogeochemistry from Upscaling Pore-Scale Experiments and Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tim Scheibe; Alexandre Tartakovsky; Brian Wood; Joe Seymour

    2007-01-01

    Effective environmental management of DOE sites requires reliable prediction of reactive transport phenomena. A central issue in prediction of subsurface reactive transport is the impact of multiscale physical, chemical, and biological heterogeneity. Heterogeneity manifests itself through incomplete mixing of reactants at scales below those at which concentrations are explicitly defined (i.e., the numerical grid scale). This results in a mismatch between simulated reaction processes (formulated in terms of average concentrations) and actual processes (controlled by local concentrations). At the field scale, this results in apparent scale-dependence of model parameters and inability to utilize laboratory parameters in field models. Accordingly, most field modeling efforts are restricted to empirical estimation of model parameters by fitting to field observations, which renders extrapolation of model predictions beyond fitted conditions unreliable. The objective of this project is to develop a theoretical and computational framework for (1) connecting models of coupled reactive transport from pore-scale processes to field-scale bioremediation through a hierarchy of models that maintain crucial information from the smaller scales at the larger scales; and (2) quantifying the uncertainty that is introduced by both the upscaling process and uncertainty in physical parameters. One of the challenges of addressing scale-dependent effects of coupled processes in heterogeneous porous media is the problem-specificity of solutions. Much effort has been aimed at developing generalized scaling laws or theories, but these require restrictive assumptions that render them ineffective in many real problems. We propose instead an approach that applies physical and numerical experiments at small scales (specifically the pore scale) to a selected model system in order to identify the scaling approach appropriate to that type of problem. Although the results of such studies will

  8. Mechanistically-Based Field-Scale Models of Uranium Biogeochemistry from Upscaling Pore-Scale Experiments and Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Scheibe; Alexandre Tartakovsky; Brian Wood; Joe Seymour

    2007-04-19

    Effective environmental management of DOE sites requires reliable prediction of reactive transport phenomena. A central issue in prediction of subsurface reactive transport is the impact of multiscale physical, chemical, and biological heterogeneity. Heterogeneity manifests itself through incomplete mixing of reactants at scales below those at which concentrations are explicitly defined (i.e., the numerical grid scale). This results in a mismatch between simulated reaction processes (formulated in terms of average concentrations) and actual processes (controlled by local concentrations). At the field scale, this results in apparent scale-dependence of model parameters and inability to utilize laboratory parameters in field models. Accordingly, most field modeling efforts are restricted to empirical estimation of model parameters by fitting to field observations, which renders extrapolation of model predictions beyond fitted conditions unreliable. The objective of this project is to develop a theoretical and computational framework for (1) connecting models of coupled reactive transport from pore-scale processes to field-scale bioremediation through a hierarchy of models that maintain crucial information from the smaller scales at the larger scales; and (2) quantifying the uncertainty that is introduced by both the upscaling process and uncertainty in physical parameters. One of the challenges of addressing scale-dependent effects of coupled processes in heterogeneous porous media is the problem-specificity of solutions. Much effort has been aimed at developing generalized scaling laws or theories, but these require restrictive assumptions that render them ineffective in many real problems. We propose instead an approach that applies physical and numerical experiments at small scales (specifically the pore scale) to a selected model system in order to identify the scaling approach appropriate to that type of problem. Although the results of such studies will

  9. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  10. Large-scale agent-based social simulation : A study on epidemic prediction and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale agent-based social simulation is gradually proving to be a versatile methodological approach for studying human societies, which could make contributions from policy making in social science, to distributed artificial intelligence and agent technology in computer science, and to theory

  11. Sustainable Manufacturing via Multi-Scale, Physics-Based Process Modeling and Manufacturing-Informed Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-04-01

    This factsheet describes a project that developed and demonstrated a new manufacturing-informed design framework that utilizes advanced multi-scale, physics-based process modeling to dramatically improve manufacturing productivity and quality in machining operations while reducing the cost of machined components.

  12. PathlinesExplorer — Image-based exploration of large-scale pathline fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.; Hadwiger, Markus; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan

    2015-01-01

    -accessing the original huge data. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathline segments. With this view-dependent method, it is possible to filter, color-code, and explore large-scale flow

  13. Optimization and large scale computation of an entropy-based moment closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristopher Garrett, C.; Hauck, Cory; Hill, Judith

    2015-12-01

    We present computational advances and results in the implementation of an entropy-based moment closure, MN, in the context of linear kinetic equations, with an emphasis on heterogeneous and large-scale computing platforms. Entropy-based closures are known in several cases to yield more accurate results than closures based on standard spectral approximations, such as PN, but the computational cost is generally much higher and often prohibitive. Several optimizations are introduced to improve the performance of entropy-based algorithms over previous implementations. These optimizations include the use of GPU acceleration and the exploitation of the mathematical properties of spherical harmonics, which are used as test functions in the moment formulation. To test the emerging high-performance computing paradigm of communication bound simulations, we present timing results at the largest computational scales currently available. These results show, in particular, load balancing issues in scaling the MN algorithm that do not appear for the PN algorithm. We also observe that in weak scaling tests, the ratio in time to solution of MN to PN decreases.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Bi2Te3-Based Chip-Scale Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, Jane; Chen, Baoxing; Haidar, Samer; Berney, Helen; McGuinness, Pat; Lane, Bill; Gao, Yuan; He, Yifan; Sun, Nian; Dunham, Marc; Asheghi, Mehdi; Goodson, Ken; Yuan, Yi; Najafi, Khalil

    2017-05-01

    Thermoelectric energy harvesters convert otherwise wasted heat into electrical energy. As a result, they have the potential to play a critical role in the autonomous wireless sensor network signal chain. In this paper, we present work carried out on the development of Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric chip-scale energy harvesting devices. Process flow, device demonstration and characterization are highlighted.

  15. Lattice Boltzmann based multicomponent reactive transport model coupled with geochemical solver for scale simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, R.A.; Perko, J.; Jaques, D.; De Schutter, G.; Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.

    2013-01-01

    A Lattice Boltzmann (LB) based reactive transport model intended to capture reactions and solid phase changes occurring at the pore scale is presented. The proposed approach uses LB method to compute multi component mass transport. The LB multi-component transport model is then coupled with the

  16. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speth, D.R.; Zandt, M.H. in 't; Guerrero Cruz, S.; Dutilh, B.E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is

  17. An enhanced hierarchical control strategy for the Internet of Things-based home scale microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    As the intelligent control and detection technology improving, more and more smart devices/sensors can be used to increase the living standard. In order to integrate the Internet of Things (IoT) with microgrid (MG), an enhanced hierarchical control strategy for IoT-based home scale MG is proposed...

  18. GeneRecon Users' Manual — A coalescent based tool for fine-scale association mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2006-01-01

    GeneRecon is a software package for linkage disequilibrium mapping using coalescent theory. It is based on Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for fine-scale linkage-disequilibrium gene mapping using high-density marker maps. GeneRecon explicitly models the genealogy of a sample of th...

  19. Evaluation of modal pushover-based scaling of one component of ground motion: Tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) is now increasingly used for performance-based seismic design of tall buildings. Required for nonlinear RHAs is a set of ground motions selected and scaled appropriately so that analysis results would be accurate (unbiased) and efficient (having relatively small dispersion). This paper evaluates accuracy and efficiency of recently developed modal pushover–based scaling (MPS) method to scale ground motions for tall buildings. The procedure presented explicitly considers structural strength and is based on the standard intensity measure (IM) of spectral acceleration in a form convenient for evaluating existing structures or proposed designs for new structures. Based on results presented for two actual buildings (19 and 52 stories, respectively), it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided a highly accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs), accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. In addition, the MPS procedure is shown to be superior to the scaling procedure specified in the ASCE/SEI 7-05 document.

  20. Using micro-contexts to describe a writing process in Estonian as a second language across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pastuhhova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the writing process of native Russian‑speaking students in Estonian as a second language. 34 participants were given the assignment of writing a text in the L2. The written texts were then rated as being at levels from A2 to C1 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. The data were collected by computer keystroke logging and analysed based on the concept of a ‘micro-context’. Micro-contexts were analysed according to their frequency and duration and were compared across proficiency levels. The results show that writing in the L2 is not a smooth process. The longest transitions in micro-contexts reveal that the most cognitive effort is made between paragraphs and sentences and when deletions are involved. The growing number of consecutive deletions demonstrates that even with developing proficiency, the linear production text is subject to constant revision, correction and modification.

  1. Effective strategies for scaling up evidence-based practices in primary care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Charif, Ali; Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; LeBlanc, Annie; Langlois, Léa; Wolfenden, Luke; Yoong, Sze Lin; Williams, Christopher M; Lépine, Roxanne; Légaré, France

    2017-11-22

    While an extensive array of existing evidence-based practices (EBPs) have the potential to improve patient outcomes, little is known about how to implement EBPs on a larger scale. Therefore, we sought to identify effective strategies for scaling up EBPs in primary care. We conducted a systematic review with the following inclusion criteria: (i) study design: randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, before-and-after (with/without control), and interrupted time series; (ii) participants: primary care-related units (e.g., clinical sites, patients); (iii) intervention: any strategy used to scale up an EBP; (iv) comparator: no restrictions; and (v) outcomes: no restrictions. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from database inception to August 2016 and consulted clinical trial registries and gray literature. Two reviewers independently selected eligible studies, then extracted and analyzed data following the Cochrane methodology. We extracted components of scaling-up strategies and classified them into five categories: infrastructure, policy/regulation, financial, human resources-related, and patient involvement. We extracted scaling-up process outcomes, such as coverage, and provider/patient outcomes. We validated data extraction with study authors. We included 14 studies. They were published since 2003 and primarily conducted in low-/middle-income countries (n = 11). Most were funded by governmental organizations (n = 8). The clinical area most represented was infectious diseases (HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria, n = 8), followed by newborn/child care (n = 4), depression (n = 1), and preventing seniors' falls (n = 1). Study designs were mostly before-and-after (without control, n = 8). The most frequently targeted unit of scaling up was the clinical site (n = 11). The component of a scaling-up strategy most frequently mentioned was human resource-related (n = 12). All

  2. Effective strategies for scaling up evidence-based practices in primary care: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ben Charif

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While an extensive array of existing evidence-based practices (EBPs have the potential to improve patient outcomes, little is known about how to implement EBPs on a larger scale. Therefore, we sought to identify effective strategies for scaling up EBPs in primary care. Methods We conducted a systematic review with the following inclusion criteria: (i study design: randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, before-and-after (with/without control, and interrupted time series; (ii participants: primary care-related units (e.g., clinical sites, patients; (iii intervention: any strategy used to scale up an EBP; (iv comparator: no restrictions; and (v outcomes: no restrictions. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from database inception to August 2016 and consulted clinical trial registries and gray literature. Two reviewers independently selected eligible studies, then extracted and analyzed data following the Cochrane methodology. We extracted components of scaling-up strategies and classified them into five categories: infrastructure, policy/regulation, financial, human resources-related, and patient involvement. We extracted scaling-up process outcomes, such as coverage, and provider/patient outcomes. We validated data extraction with study authors. Results We included 14 studies. They were published since 2003 and primarily conducted in low-/middle-income countries (n = 11. Most were funded by governmental organizations (n = 8. The clinical area most represented was infectious diseases (HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria, n = 8, followed by newborn/child care (n = 4, depression (n = 1, and preventing seniors’ falls (n = 1. Study designs were mostly before-and-after (without control, n = 8. The most frequently targeted unit of scaling up was the clinical site (n = 11. The component of a scaling-up strategy most frequently mentioned was

  3. The consumer-based brand equity inventory: Scale construct and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Schivinski, Bruno; Dabrowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to meet the need for a refinement of the consumer-based brand equity scale and to address the limitations of the previous research on the subject. Based on previous measurements of brand equity, CBBE is conceptualized in this study as a four-dimensional model consisting of brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, and brand loyalty. A sample of 1874 Polish consumers was used to test the proposed dimensions. To measure the construct, we used a combination of...

  4. Articulating training methods using Job Task Analysis (JTA) - determined proficiency levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The INPO task analysis process, as well as that of many utilities, is based on the approach used by the US Navy. This is undoubtedly due to the Navy nuclear background of many of those involved in introducing the systems approach to training to the nuclear power industry. This report outlines an approach, used by a major North-Central utility, which includes a process developed by the Air Force. Air Force task analysis and instructional system development includes the use of a proficiency code. The code includes consideration of three types of learning - task performance, task knowledge, and subject knowledge - and four levels of competence for each. The use of this classification system facilitates the identification of desired competency levels at the completion of formal training in the classroom and lab, and of informal training on the job. By using the Air Force's proficiency code. The utility's program developers were able to develop generic training for its main training facility and site-specific training at its nuclear plants, using the most efficiency and cost-effective training methods

  5. The impact of teachers' limited english proficiency on english second language learners in South African schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Nel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the role of language in teacher education programmes and in children's learning is crucial. This study focuses on the use of English as the language of learning and teaching and its impact on the language development of English second language (ESL student teachers and ESL learners. Against the background of major theories in second language (L2 acquisition and learning, this topic is contextualized within the South African education system. An empirical inquiry was carried out in which portfolios (evidence of practical teaching including lesson plans and learners' work submitted by final year student teachers enrolled at a large distance teaching university for the Advanced Certificate in Education: Inclusive Education were scrutinised. A comparison of teacher and learner written errors was made. Based on the findings, a questionnaire was designed to determine the extent of the impact of teachers' limited English proficiency on learners' English proficiency. The findings of the questionnaire responses are presented. Recommendations are made on how student teachers can improve their teaching practice to ensure quality ESL teacher input and ESL learner performance.

  6. [An experimental proficiency test for ability to screen 104 residual pesticides in agricultural products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Yukari; Ishimitsu, Susumu; Otaki, Kayo; Uchimi, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Daba, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Tetsu; Ukyo, Masaho; Tonogai, Yasuhide

    2003-10-01

    An experimental proficiency test program for ability to screen 104 residual pesticides in agricultural products has been conducted. Eight Japanese laboratories joined the program. Items tested in the present study were limit of detection, internal proficiency test (self spike) and external proficiency test (blind spike). All 104 pesticides were well detected and recovered from agricultural foods in the internal proficiency test. However, the results of the external proficiency test did not completely agree with those of the internal proficiency tests. After 5 rounds of the blind spike test, the ratio of the number of correctly detected pesticides to that of actually contained ones (49 total) ranged from 65% to 100% among laboratories. The numbers of mistakenly detected pesticides by a laboratory were 0 to 15. Thus, there was a great difference among the laboratories in the ability to screen multiresidual pesticides.

  7. Theory-based scaling of the SOL width in circular limited tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, F.D.; Ricci, P.; Labit, B.; Furno, I.; Jolliet, S.; Loizu, J.; Mosetto, A.; Arnoux, G.; Silva, C.; Gunn, J.P.; Horacek, J.; Kočan, M.; LaBombard, B.

    2013-01-01

    A theory-based scaling for the characteristic length of a circular, limited tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) is obtained by considering the balance between parallel losses and non-linearly saturated resistive ballooning mode turbulence driving anomalous perpendicular transport. The SOL size increases with plasma size, resistivity, and safety factor q. The scaling is verified against flux-driven non-linear turbulence simulations, which reveal good agreement within a wide range of dimensionless parameters, including parameters closely matching the TCV tokamak. An initial comparison of the theory against experimental data from several tokamaks also yields good agreement. (letter)

  8. The Psychometric Properties of the Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csibi, Sándor; Griffiths, Mark D; Cook, Brian; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Szabo, Attila

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the study was to validate the English version of the Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS; Csibi et al. 2016), which is a short and easy-to-use tool for screening the risk of smartphone application-based addiction. Another aim was to identify the most frequently used smartphone applications and their perceived importance by the participants. Data were collected online from 240 English-speaking volunteers, aged 18 to 69 years. The instruments used were the SABAS, the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q), the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS), the Deprivation Sensation Scale (DSS), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Participants also ranked the importance of their most frequently used smartphone applications. The six items of the SABAS yielded one component, which accounted for 52.38% of the total variance. The internal reliability of the scale was good (Cronbach's alpha 0.81). NMP-Q was a significant predictor of SABAS, explaining 17.6% of the total variance. The regression analysis, with SABAS score as the dependent variable and NMP-Q, DSS, PHQ-9, and BSSS scores as predictors, indicated that approximately 47% of the variance in SABAS was accounted for by the predictors ( R 2  = 0.47). The English version of the SABAS appears to be a valid and reliable ultra-brief tool for a quick and easy assessment of smartphone application-based addiction symptoms.

  9. Smart materials-based actuators at the micronano-scale characterization, control, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Smart Materials-Based Actuators at the Micro/Nano-Scale: Characterization, Control, and Applications gives a state of the art of emerging techniques to the characterization and control of actuators based on smart materials working at the micro/nano scale. The book aims to characterize some commonly used structures based on piezoelectric and electroactive polymeric actuators and also focuses on various and emerging techniques employed to control them. This book also includes two of the most emerging topics and applications: nanorobotics and cells micro/nano-manipulation. This book: Provides both theoretical and experimental results Contains complete information from characterization, modeling, identification, control to final applications for researchers and engineers that would like to model, characterize, control and apply their own micro/nano-systems Discusses applications such as microrobotics and their control, design and fabrication of microsystems, microassembly and its automation, nanorobotics and thei...

  10. Robust Face Recognition via Multi-Scale Patch-Based Matrix Regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Gao

    Full Text Available In many real-world applications such as smart card solutions, law enforcement, surveillance and access control, the limited training sample size is the most fundamental problem. By making use of the low-rank structural information of the reconstructed error image, the so-called nuclear norm-based matrix regression has been demonstrated to be effective for robust face recognition with continuous occlusions. However, the recognition performance of nuclear norm-based matrix regression degrades greatly in the face of the small sample size problem. An alternative solution to tackle this problem is performing matrix regression on each patch and then integrating the outputs from all patches. However, it is difficult to set an optimal patch size across different databases. To fully utilize the complementary information from different patch scales for the final decision, we propose a multi-scale patch-based matrix regression scheme based on which the ensemble of multi-scale outputs can be achieved optimally. Extensive experiments on benchmark face databases validate the effectiveness and robustness of our method, which outperforms several state-of-the-art patch-based face recognition algorithms.

  11. pH buffers for sea water media based on the total hydrogen ion concentration scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Andrew G.

    1993-01-01

    Published e.m.f. values measured using the cell ? where p° = 101.325 kPa, and BH + and B are the conjugate acid-base pairs of 2-aminopyridine, 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol (tris), tetrahydro-1,4-isoxazine (morpholine), and 2-amino-2-methyl-1, 3-propanediol (bis), have been re-evaluated to assign pH values based on the "total" hydrogen ion concentration scale to equimolal ( m =0.04 mol kg -1) buffer solutions based on these compounds. These pH values are consistent with the best available equilibrium constants for acid-base processes in sea water and such pH buffers can be used as pH calibration standards to measure accurate values for oceanic pH on the "total" hydrogen ion pH scale. In addition, the published e.m.f. results for these various amine bases have been used to calculate their respective acidity constants on this pH scale.

  12. Proficiency Test SYKE 8/2012. Volatile organic compounds in water and soil

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen-Ylönen, Kaija; Nuutinen, Jari; Leivuori, Mirja; Ilmakunnas, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Proftest SYKE carried out the proficiency test for analysis of volatile organic compounds from water and soil in October 2012. One artificial sample and one river water sample and one soil sample were distributed. In total, 15 laboratories participated in the proficiency test. Either the calculated concentration or the robust mean value was chosen to be the assigned value for the measurement. The performance of the participants was evaluated by using z scores. In this proficiency test 72 % of...

  13. Next-Generation Summative English Language Proficiency Assessments for English Learners: Priorities for Policy and Research. Research Report. ETS RR-16-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Hauck, Maurice Cogan

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series concerning English language proficiency (ELP) assessments for K-12 English learners (ELs). The series, produced from Educational Testing Service (ETS), is intended to provide theory- and evidence-based principles and recommendations for improving next-generation ELP assessment systems, policies, and practices…

  14. "To Whom It May Concern": A Study on the Use of Lexical Bundles in Email Writing Tasks in an English Proficiency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Volkov, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Lexical bundles are worthy of attention in both teaching and testing writing as they function as basic building blocks of discourse. This corpus-based study focuses on the rated writing responses to the email tasks in the Canadian English Language Proficiency Index Program® General test (CELPIP-General) and explores the extent to which lexical…

  15. Creating a Next-Generation System of K-12 English Learner Language Proficiency Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-16-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Maurice Cogan; Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Mislevy, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series from Educational Testing Service (ETS) concerning English language proficiency (ELP) assessments for K-12 English learners (ELs). The goal of this paper, and the series, is to present research-based ideas, principles, and recommendations for consideration by those who are conceptualizing, developing, and…

  16. Percolation through voids around overlapping spheres: A dynamically based finite-size scaling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priour, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The percolation threshold for flow or conduction through voids surrounding randomly placed spheres is calculated. With large-scale Monte Carlo simulations, we give a rigorous continuum treatment to the geometry of the impenetrable spheres and the spaces between them. To properly exploit finite-size scaling, we examine multiple systems of differing sizes, with suitable averaging over disorder, and extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit. An order parameter based on the statistical sampling of stochastically driven dynamical excursions and amenable to finite-size scaling analysis is defined, calculated for various system sizes, and used to determine the critical volume fraction ϕc=0.0317±0.0004 and the correlation length exponent ν =0.92±0.05.

  17. Fuzzy Matching Based on Gray-scale Difference for Quantum Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, GaoFeng; Zhou, Ri-Gui; Liu, XingAo; Hu, WenWen; Luo, Jia

    2018-05-01

    Quantum image processing has recently emerged as an essential problem in practical tasks, e.g. real-time image matching. Previous studies have shown that the superposition and entanglement of quantum can greatly improve the efficiency of complex image processing. In this paper, a fuzzy quantum image matching scheme based on gray-scale difference is proposed to find out the target region in a reference image, which is very similar to the template image. Firstly, we employ the proposed enhanced quantum representation (NEQR) to store digital images. Then some certain quantum operations are used to evaluate the gray-scale difference between two quantum images by thresholding. If all of the obtained gray-scale differences are not greater than the threshold value, it indicates a successful fuzzy matching of quantum images. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that the proposed scheme performs fuzzy matching at a low cost and also enables exponentially significant speedup via quantum parallel computation.

  18. Ancillary Frequency Control of Direct Drive Full-Scale Converter Based Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Fang, Jiakun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of a wind power plant based on a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter developed in the simulation tool of DIgSILENT Power Factory. Three different kinds of ancillary frequency control strategies, namely inertia...... control strategies are effective means for providing ancillary frequency control of variable speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters....... emulation, primary frequency control and secondary frequency control, are proposed in order to improve the frequency stability of power systems. The modified IEEE 39-bus test system with a large-scale wind power penetration is chosen as the studied power system. Simulation results show that the proposed...

  19. Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility in Gambling Industry: Multi-Items Stakeholder Based Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ming Luo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Macau gambling companies included Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR information in their annual reports and websites as a marketing tool. Responsible Gambling (RG had been a recurring issue in Macau’s chief executive report since 2007 and in many of the major gambling operators’ annual report. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement scale on CSR activities in Macau. Items on the measurement scale were based on qualitative research with data collected from employees in Macau’s gambling industry and academic literature. First and Second Order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were used to verify the reliability and validity of the measurement scale. The results of this study were satisfactory and were supported by empirical evidence. This study provided recommendations to gambling stakeholders, including practitioners, government officers, customers and shareholders, and implications to promote CSR practice in Macau gambling industry.

  20. An adaptive scaling and biasing scheme for OFDM-based visible light communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaocheng; Wang, Qi; Chen, Sheng; Hanzo, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) has been widely used in visible light communication systems to achieve high-rate data transmission. Due to the nonlinear transfer characteristics of light emitting diodes (LEDs) and owing the high peak-to-average-power ratio of OFDM signals, the transmitted signal has to be scaled and biased before modulating the LEDs. In this contribution, an adaptive scaling and biasing scheme is proposed for OFDM-based visible light communication systems, which fully exploits the dynamic range of the LEDs and improves the achievable system performance. Specifically, the proposed scheme calculates near-optimal scaling and biasing factors for each specific OFDM symbol according to the distribution of the signals, which strikes an attractive trade-off between the effective signal power and the clipping-distortion power. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly improves the performance without changing the LED's emitted power, while maintaining the same receiver structure.

  1. An Analysis of the Connectedness to Nature Scale Based on Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, Laura; Aragonés, Juan I; Coello, María T

    2017-01-01

    The Connectedness to Nature Scale (CNS) is used as a measure of the subjective cognitive connection between individuals and nature. However, to date, it has not been analyzed at the item level to confirm its quality. In the present study, we conduct such an analysis based on Item Response Theory. We employed data from previous studies using the Spanish-language version of the CNS, analyzing a sample of 1008 participants. The results show that seven items presented appropriate indices of discrimination and difficulty, in addition to a good fit. The remaining six have inadequate discrimination indices and do not present a good fit. A second study with 321 participants shows that the seven-item scale has adequate levels of reliability and validity. Therefore, it would be appropriate to use a reduced version of the scale after eliminating the items that display inappropriate behavior, since they may interfere with research results on connectedness to nature.

  2. A New Functional Health Literacy Scale for Japanese Young Adults Based on Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubakita, Takashi; Kawazoe, Nobuo; Kasano, Eri

    2017-03-01

    Health literacy predicts health outcomes. Despite concerns surrounding the health of Japanese young adults, to date there has been no objective assessment of health literacy in this population. This study aimed to develop a Functional Health Literacy Scale for Young Adults (funHLS-YA) based on item response theory. Each item in the scale requires participants to choose the most relevant term from 3 choices in relation to a target item, thus assessing objective rather than perceived health literacy. The 20-item scale was administered to 1816 university students and 1751 responded. Cronbach's α coefficient was .73. Difficulty and discrimination parameters of each item were estimated, resulting in the exclusion of 1 item. Some items showed different difficulty parameters for male and female participants, reflecting that some aspects of health literacy may differ by gender. The current 19-item version of funHLS-YA can reliably assess the objective health literacy of Japanese young adults.

  3. Multi-scale Drivers of Variations in Atmospheric Evaporative Demand Based on Observations and Physically-based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, L.; Sheffield, J.; Li, D.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key link between the availability of water resources and climate change and climate variability. Variability of ET has important environmental and socioeconomic implications for managing hydrological hazards, food and energy production. Although there have been many observational and modeling studies of ET, how ET has varied and the drivers of the variations at different temporal scales remain elusive. Much of the uncertainty comes from the atmospheric evaporative demand (AED), which is the combined effect of radiative and aerodynamic controls. The inconsistencies among modeled AED estimates and the limited observational data may originate from multiple sources including the limited time span and uncertainties in the data. To fully investigate and untangle the intertwined drivers of AED, we present a spectrum analysis to identify key controls of AED across multiple temporal scales. We use long-term records of observed pan evaporation for 1961-2006 from 317 weather stations across China and physically-based model estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET). The model estimates are based on surface meteorology and radiation derived from reanalysis, satellite retrievals and station data. Our analyses show that temperature plays a dominant role in regulating variability of AED at the inter-annual scale. At the monthly and seasonal scales, the primary control of AED shifts from radiation in humid regions to humidity in dry regions. Unlike many studies focusing on the spatial pattern of ET drivers based on a traditional supply and demand framework, this study underlines the importance of temporal scales when discussing controls of ET variations.

  4. Students' proficiency scores within multitrait item response theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present a series of item response models of data collected using the Force Concept Inventory. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was designed to poll the Newtonian conception of force viewed as a multidimensional concept, that is, as a complex of distinguishable conceptual dimensions. Several previous studies have developed single-trait item response models of FCI data; however, we feel that multidimensional models are also appropriate given the explicitly multidimensional design of the inventory. The models employed in the research reported here vary in both the number of fitting parameters and the number of underlying latent traits assumed. We calculate several model information statistics to ensure adequate model fit and to determine which of the models provides the optimal balance of information and parsimony. Our analysis indicates that all item response models tested, from the single-trait Rasch model through to a model with ten latent traits, satisfy the standard requirements of fit. However, analysis of model information criteria indicates that the five-trait model is optimal. We note that an earlier factor analysis of the same FCI data also led to a five-factor model. Furthermore the factors in our previous study and the traits identified in the current work match each other well. The optimal five-trait model assigns proficiency scores to all respondents for each of the five traits. We construct a correlation matrix between the proficiencies in each of these traits. This correlation matrix shows strong correlations between some proficiencies, and strong anticorrelations between others. We present an interpretation of this correlation matrix.

  5. Coupling Fine-Scale Root and Canopy Structure Using Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady S. Hardiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy LiDAR (PCL and ground penetrating radar (GPR along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence (i.e., correlation in the frequency of spatial variation at multiple spatial scales ≤10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more becoming even vertically as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5–4 m, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing LiDAR and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure.

  6. On the Large-Scaling Issues of Cloud-based Applications for Earth Science Dat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, H.

    2016-12-01

    Next generation science data systems are needed to address the incoming flood of data from new missions such as NASA's SWOT and NISAR where its SAR data volumes and data throughput rates are order of magnitude larger than present day missions. Existing missions, such as OCO-2, may also require high turn-around time for processing different science scenarios where on-premise and even traditional HPC computing environments may not meet the high processing needs. Additionally, traditional means of procuring hardware on-premise are already limited due to facilities capacity constraints for these new missions. Experiences have shown that to embrace efficient cloud computing approaches for large-scale science data systems requires more than just moving existing code to cloud environments. At large cloud scales, we need to deal with scaling and cost issues. We present our experiences on deploying multiple instances of our hybrid-cloud computing science data system (HySDS) to support large-scale processing of Earth Science data products. We will explore optimization approaches to getting best performance out of hybrid-cloud computing as well as common issues that will arise when dealing with large-scale computing. Novel approaches were utilized to do processing on Amazon's spot market, which can potentially offer 75%-90% costs savings but with an unpredictable computing environment based on market forces.

  7. The Relationship between Fundamental Motor Skill Proficiency and Participation in Organized Sports and Active Recreation in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C. Field

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor skill proficiency in middle childhood is associated with higher physical activity levels at that age and is predictive of adolescent physical activity levels. Much of the previous research in this area has used accelerometry in determining these relationships, and as a result, little is known about what physical activities the children are engaging in. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine rates of participation in physical activities, the relationships between motor proficiency and how often children participate, and if there were gender-based differences in participation, motor skills, or the relationship between these variables. Participants were 400 boys and girls (Mean age = 9 years 6 months in grade 4. Motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2 and physical activity participation was measured using the Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared analyses, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were used to examine activity patterns and whether these patterns differed by gender. Correlation coefficients were used to estimate the relationships between fundamental motor skill proficiency and participation. The boys and girls participated in many of the same activities, but girls were more likely to participate in most of the informal physical activities. More boys than girls participated in team sports, boys participated more frequently in team sports, and the boys’ object control and locomotor skill proficiency were significantly associated with participation in team sports. There were some significant associations between motor skills and participation in specific activities; however it is not clear if participation is developing skillfulness or those who are more skilled are engaging and persisting with particular activities.

  8. Scientific issues related to the cytology proficiency testing regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prey Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The member organizations of the Cytology Education and Technology Consortium believe there are significant flaws in current cytology proficiency testing regulations. The most immediate needed modifications include lengthening the required testing interval, utilizing stringently validated and continuously monitored slides, changing the grading scheme, and changing the focus of the test from the individual to laboratory level testing. Integration of new computer-assisted and located-guided screening technologies into the testing protocols is necessary for the testing protocol to be compliant with the law.

  9. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests to detect viral fish diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahns, Søren; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Skall, Helle Frank

    An inter-laboratory proficiency test has ben provided by the European Community Laboratory (CRL) for Fish Diseases every year since 1996. The test is provided to all European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) that are obliged to participate and to a limited number of non-European NRLs, making......) but also to assess their ability to differentiate other fish viruses as spring viraemia of carp virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, perch rhabdovirus etc. Five coded ampoules are provided to participants containing lyophilised supernatant from infected cell cultures. The CRL collect the data...

  10. Culture, identity and difference relationship and the proficiency exam EPPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Petian Anchieta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work discusses how aspects such as identity, culture and difference are important aspects in for language teaching and learning environments. Using Woodward's (2011 definition that identity is marked by difference, we considered these aspects in foreign language teaching and learning contexts when we learn the laguage of others. In addition, we present a proficiency exam called EPPLE, aimed at language teachers, and we suggest the implementation of a task that addresses cultural issues, because we need to prepare language teachers that search not only for their linguistic and pedagogical knowledge construction, but also for their understanding about culture, identity and difference.

  11. Worldwide proficiency test for X ray fluorescence laboratories PTXRFIAEA/05 determination of minor and trace elements in marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The proficiency test (code PTXRFIAEA05) was the fifth worldwide exercise organized by the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratories in order to assist X ray fluorescence laboratories in assessment and improvement of their analytical performance. The test was carried out within the IAEA Project 1.4.3.4 (D.3.03) on Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of the project was to enhance capability of interested Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health, agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluation of environmental pollution. Marine sediment test samples with established homogeneity and well characterized known target values of the mass fractions of analytes were distributed to participating laboratories. The laboratories were requested to analyze the sample using established techniques following their analytical procedures. Based on the results of the proficiency test presented in the report each participating laboratory should assess its analytical performance results by using the specified criteria and, if appropriate, to identify discrepancies, and to correct relevant analytical procedures. The next proficiency test exercise will be executed in 2009

  12. Language proficiency among immigrants and the establishment of interethnic relations: a comparative analysis of Bilbao, Lisbon and Rotterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Esteves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing interest in exploring language proficiency among immigrants as a quintessential element for their economic integration in the host country, less attention has been devoted to the social impacts that destination-language proficiency may have on enhancing interethnic contacts between immigrants and the native population. This research aims to shed light on this latter topic, discussing if being a native-speaker immigrant in the host country or, for those immigrants who are non-native speakers, having a stronger command of the destination-language may increase their likelihood of interacting with the native population. Moreover, we question if there are significant differences in the interaction patterns between these two groups and the natives, presenting the cities of Bilbao, Lisbon and Rotterdam as a territorial frame. The analysis is based on data gathered through the GEITONIES survey. The results obtained indicate that native-speaker immigrants generally tend to show more interaction with the natives. Nevertheless, for immigrants not sharing such cultural similarity, those with a higher level of second-language proficiency clearly show stronger bonds with the native population; in both cases this can also be related to individual, group or place related variables.

  13. English language proficiency and academic performance: A study of a medical preparatory year program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad

    2015-01-01

    All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level.

  14. Generating clustered scale-free networks using Poisson based localization of edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, İlker

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a variety of network models using a Poisson-based edge localization strategy, which result in clustered scale-free topologies. We first verify the success of our localization strategy by realizing a variant of the well-known Watts-Strogatz model with an inverse approach, implying a small-world regime of rewiring from a random network through a regular one. We then apply the rewiring strategy to a pure Barabasi-Albert model and successfully achieve a small-world regime, with a limited capacity of scale-free property. To imitate the high clustering property of scale-free networks with higher accuracy, we adapted the Poisson-based wiring strategy to a growing network with the ingredients of both preferential attachment and local connectivity. To achieve the collocation of these properties, we used a routine of flattening the edges array, sorting it, and applying a mixing procedure to assemble both global connections with preferential attachment and local clusters. As a result, we achieved clustered scale-free networks with a computational fashion, diverging from the recent studies by following a simple but efficient approach.

  15. Transport simulations TFTR: Theoretically-based transport models and current scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Cummings, J.C.; Bush, C.E.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hahm, T.S.; Hill, K.W.; Johnson, D.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.; Scott, S.D.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.J.; Tang, W.M.; Taylor, G.

    1991-12-01

    In order to study the microscopic physics underlying observed L-mode current scaling, 1-1/2-d BALDUR has been used to simulate density and temperature profiles for high and low current, neutral beam heated discharges on TFTR with several semi-empirical, theoretically-based models previously compared for TFTR, including several versions of trapped electron drift wave driven transport. Experiments at TFTR, JET and D3-D show that I p scaling of τ E does not arise from edge modes as previously thought, and is most likely to arise from nonlocal processes or from the I p -dependence of local plasma core transport. Consistent with this, it is found that strong current scaling does not arise from any of several edge models of resistive ballooning. Simulations with the profile consistent drift wave model and with a new model for toroidal collisionless trapped electron mode core transport in a multimode formalism, lead to strong current scaling of τ E for the L-mode cases on TFTR. None of the theoretically-based models succeeded in simulating the measured temperature and density profiles for both high and low current experiments

  16. REAL-TIME VIDEO SCALING BASED ON CONVOLUTION NEURAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Safinaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, video super resolution techniques becomes mandatory requirements to get high resolution videos. Many super resolution techniques researched but still video super resolution or scaling is a vital challenge. In this paper, we have presented a real-time video scaling based on convolution neural network architecture to eliminate the blurriness in the images and video frames and to provide better reconstruction quality while scaling of large datasets from lower resolution frames to high resolution frames. We compare our outcomes with multiple exiting algorithms. Our extensive results of proposed technique RemCNN (Reconstruction error minimization Convolution Neural Network shows that our model outperforms the existing technologies such as bicubic, bilinear, MCResNet and provide better reconstructed motioning images and video frames. The experimental results shows that our average PSNR result is 47.80474 considering upscale-2, 41.70209 for upscale-3 and 36.24503 for upscale-4 for Myanmar dataset which is very high in contrast to other existing techniques. This results proves our proposed model real-time video scaling based on convolution neural network architecture’s high efficiency and better performance.

  17. Betweenness-based algorithm for a partition scale-free graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bai-Da; Wu Jun-Jie; Zhou Jing; Tang Yu-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Many real-world networks are found to be scale-free. However, graph partition technology, as a technology capable of parallel computing, performs poorly when scale-free graphs are provided. The reason for this is that traditional partitioning algorithms are designed for random networks and regular networks, rather than for scale-free networks. Multilevel graph-partitioning algorithms are currently considered to be the state of the art and are used extensively. In this paper, we analyse the reasons why traditional multilevel graph-partitioning algorithms perform poorly and present a new multilevel graph-partitioning paradigm, top down partitioning, which derives its name from the comparison with the traditional bottom—up partitioning. A new multilevel partitioning algorithm, named betweenness-based partitioning algorithm, is also presented as an implementation of top—down partitioning paradigm. An experimental evaluation of seven different real-world scale-free networks shows that the betweenness-based partitioning algorithm significantly outperforms the existing state-of-the-art approaches. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Fast Simulation of Large-Scale Floods Based on GPU Parallel Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Computing speed is a significant issue of large-scale flood simulations for real-time response to disaster prevention and mitigation. Even today, most of the large-scale flood simulations are generally run on supercomputers due to the massive amounts of data and computations necessary. In this work, a two-dimensional shallow water model based on an unstructured Godunov-type finite volume scheme was proposed for flood simulation. To realize a fast simulation of large-scale floods on a personal computer, a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU-based, high-performance computing method using the OpenACC application was adopted to parallelize the shallow water model. An unstructured data management method was presented to control the data transportation between the GPU and CPU (Central Processing Unit with minimum overhead, and then both computation and data were offloaded from the CPU to the GPU, which exploited the computational capability of the GPU as much as possible. The parallel model was validated using various benchmarks and real-world case studies. The results demonstrate that speed-ups of up to one order of magnitude can be achieved in comparison with the serial model. The proposed parallel model provides a fast and reliable tool with which to quickly assess flood hazards in large-scale areas and, thus, has a bright application prospect for dynamic inundation risk identification and disaster assessment.

  19. Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology scale up based on cos-theta coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, F.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    After successful testing of a 1 m long dipole mirror magnet and three dipole models based on two-layer Nb 3 Sn coils, Fermilab has started a Nb 3 Sn technology scale-up program using the dipole mirror design and the developed Nb 3 Sn coil fabrication technology based on the wind-and-react method. The scale-up will be performed in several steps starting from a 2 m long coil made of Powder-in-Tube (PIT) strand. This will be followed by 4 m long Nb 3 Sn coils made of PIT and RRP strands that will be fabricated into dipole mirror magnets and tested. This paper presents a summary of Fermilab's wind-and-react short model program. It includes details on the 2 m and 4 m long, 2 layer Nb 3 Sn dipole mirror magnet design, mechanical structure, and fabrication infrastructure

  20. Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology scale up based on cos-theta coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, F.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    After successful testing of a 1 m long dipole mirror magnet and three dipole models based on two-layer Nb{sub 3}Sn coils, Fermilab has started a Nb{sub 3}Sn technology scale-up program using the dipole mirror design and the developed Nb{sub 3}Sn coil fabrication technology based on the wind-and-react method. The scale-up will be performed in several steps starting from a 2 m long coil made of Powder-in-Tube (PIT) strand. This will be followed by 4 m long Nb{sub 3}Sn coils made of PIT and RRP strands that will be fabricated into dipole mirror magnets and tested. This paper presents a summary of Fermilab's wind-and-react short model program. It includes details on the 2 m and 4 m long, 2 layer Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole mirror magnet design, mechanical structure, and fabrication infrastructure.

  1. Analysis of Scaling Law and Figure of Merit of Fiber-Based Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Teng Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a normalized transmitted signal (NTS of a fiber-based sensor using gold nanorods as the plasmon excitation medium of the evanescent wave. The NTS and the refractive index (RI sensitivity is calculated as a function of the gold aspect ratio (R, the RI of the sensing medium, and a scaling parameter given by the ratio of the fiber length and its diameter. Finally, the optimal value of gold aspect ratio is calculated to be R = (3.0–4.0 for maximum figure of merits (FOMs defined by the ratio of the refractive index sensitivity and the full width at half maximum. The scaling laws and the FOM presented in this paper may serve as the guidelines for optimal designs in fiber-based nanosensors.

  2. PathlinesExplorer — Image-based exploration of large-scale pathline fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2015-10-25

    PathlinesExplorer is a novel image-based tool, which has been designed to visualize large scale pathline fields on a single computer [7]. PathlinesExplorer integrates explorable images (EI) technique [4] with order-independent transparency (OIT) method [2]. What makes this method different is that it allows users to handle large data on a single workstation. Although it is a view-dependent method, PathlinesExplorer combines both exploration and modification of visual aspects without re-accessing the original huge data. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathline segments. With this view-dependent method, it is possible to filter, color-code, and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination and deferred shading are applied, which further improves the performance and scalability of our approach.

  3. Constructing large scale SCI-based processing systems by switch elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, B.; Kristiansen, E.; Skaali, B.; Bogaerts, A.; Divia, R.; Mueller, H.

    1993-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to study some of the design criteria for the switch elements to form the interconnection of large scale SCI-based processing systems. The approved IEEE standard 1596 makes it possible to couple up to 64K nodes together. In order to connect thousands of nodes to construct large scale SCI-based processing systems, one has to interconnect these nodes by switch elements to form different topologies. A summary of the requirements and key points of interconnection networks and switches is presented. Two models of the SCI switch elements are proposed. The authors investigate several examples of systems constructed for 4-switches with simulations and the results are analyzed. Some issues and enhancements are discussed to provide the ideas behind the switch design that can improve performance and reduce latency. 29 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Acquisition of Skill Proficiency Over Multiple Sessions of a Novel Rover Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, S. L.; DeDios,Y. E.; MacDougall, H. G.; Moore, S. T.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Following long-duration exploration transits, adaptive changes in sensorimotor function may impair the crew's ability to safely perform manual control tasks such as operating pressurized rovers. Postflight performance will also be influenced by the level of preflight skill proficiency they have attained. The purpose of this study was to characterize the acquisition of skills in a motion-based rover simulation over multiple sessions, and to investigate the effects of varying the simulation scenarios. METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects were tested in 5 sessions, with 1-3 days between sessions. Each session consisted of a serial presentation of 8 discrete tasks to be completed as quickly and accurately as possible. Each task consisted of 1) perspective-taking, using a map that defined a docking target, 2) navigation toward the target around a Martian outpost, and 3) docking a side hatch of the rover to a visually guided target. The simulator utilized a Stewart-type motion base (CKAS, Australia), single-seat cabin with triple scene projection covering 150 deg horizontal by 50 deg vertical, and joystick controller. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (tasks identical in the first 4 sessions) or a varied-practice group. The dependent variables for each task included accuracy toward the target and time to completion. RESULTS: The greatest improvements in time to completion occurred during the docking phase. The varied-practice group showed more improvement in perspective-taking accuracy. Perspective-taking accuracy was also affected by the relative orientation of the rover to the docking target. Skill acquisition was correlated with self-ratings of previous gaming experience. DISCUSSION: Varying task selection and difficulty will optimize the preflight acquisition of skills when performing novel operational tasks. Simulation of operational manual control will provide functionally relevant evidence regarding the impact of sensorimotor adaptation on early

  5. Application and comparison of the SCS-CN-based rainfall-runoff model in meso-scale watershed and field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, L.; Wang, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) based hydrologic model, has widely been used for agricultural watersheds in recent years. However, there will be relative error when applying it due to differentiation of geographical and climatological conditions. This paper introduces a more adaptable and propagable model based on the modified SCS-CN method, which specializes into two different scale cases of research regions. Combining the typical conditions of the Zhanghe irrigation district in southern part of China, such as hydrometeorologic conditions and surface conditions, SCS-CN based models were established. The Xinbu-Qiao River basin (area =1207 km2) and the Tuanlin runoff test area (area =2.87 km2)were taken as the study areas of basin scale and field scale in Zhanghe irrigation district. Applications were extended from ordinary meso-scale watershed to field scale in Zhanghe paddy field-dominated irrigated . Based on actual measurement data of land use, soil classification, hydrology and meteorology, quantitative evaluation and modifications for two coefficients, i.e. preceding loss and runoff curve, were proposed with corresponding models, table of CN values for different landuse and AMC(antecedent moisture condition) grading standard fitting for research cases were proposed. The simulation precision was increased by putting forward a 12h unit hydrograph of the field area, and 12h unit hydrograph were simplified. Comparison between different scales show that it’s more effectively to use SCS-CN model on field scale after parameters calibrated in basin scale These results can help discovering the rainfall-runoff rule in the district. Differences of established SCS-CN model's parameters between the two study regions are also considered. Varied forms of landuse and impacts of human activities were the important factors which can impact the rainfall-runoff relations in Zhanghe irrigation district.

  6. DNA electronic circular dichroism on the inter-base pair scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Meo, Florent; Nørby, Morten Steen; Rubio-Magnieto, Jenifer

    2015-01-01

    A successful elucidation of the near-ultraviolet electronic circular dichroism spectrum of a short double-stranded DNA is reported. Time-dependent density functional theory methods are shown to accurately predict spectra and assign bands on the microscopic base-pair scale, a finding that opens...... the field for using circular dichroism spectroscopy as a sensitive nanoscale probe of DNA to reveal its complex interactions with the environment. (Chemical Equation Presented)....

  7. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    OpenAIRE

    Speth, D.R.; Zandt, M.H. in 't; Guerrero Cruz, S.; Dutilh, B.E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete d...

  8. Automated Bug Assignment: Ensemble-based Machine Learning in Large Scale Industrial Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Leif; Borg, Markus; Broman, David; Sandahl, Kristian; Eldh, Sigrid; Runeson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Bug report assignment is an important part of software maintenance. In particular, incorrect assignments of bug reports to development teams can be very expensive in large software development projects. Several studies propose automating bug assignment techniques using machine learning in open source software contexts, but no study exists for large-scale proprietary projects in industry. The goal of this study is to evaluate automated bug assignment techniques that are based on machine learni...

  9. A Real-Time Analysis Method for Pulse Rate Variability Based on Improved Basic Scale Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Chou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Base scale entropy analysis (BSEA is a nonlinear method to analyze heart rate variability (HRV signal. However, the time consumption of BSEA is too long, and it is unknown whether the BSEA is suitable for analyzing pulse rate variability (PRV signal. Therefore, we proposed a method named sliding window iterative base scale entropy analysis (SWIBSEA by combining BSEA and sliding window iterative theory. The blood pressure signals of healthy young and old subjects are chosen from the authoritative international database MIT/PhysioNet/Fantasia to generate PRV signals as the experimental data. Then, the BSEA and the SWIBSEA are used to analyze the experimental data; the results show that the SWIBSEA reduces the time consumption and the buffer cache space while it gets the same entropy as BSEA. Meanwhile, the changes of base scale entropy (BSE for healthy young and old subjects are the same as that of HRV signal. Therefore, the SWIBSEA can be used for deriving some information from long-term and short-term PRV signals in real time, which has the potential for dynamic PRV signal analysis in some portable and wearable medical devices.

  10. An approach for classification of hydrogeological systems at the regional scale based on groundwater hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaf, Ezra; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    When assessing hydrogeological conditions at the regional scale, the analyst is often confronted with uncertainty of structures, inputs and processes while having to base inference on scarce and patchy data. Haaf and Barthel (2015) proposed a concept for handling this predicament by developing a groundwater systems classification framework, where information is transferred from similar, but well-explored and better understood to poorly described systems. The concept is based on the central hypothesis that similar systems react similarly to the same inputs and vice versa. It is conceptually related to PUB (Prediction in ungauged basins) where organization of systems and processes by quantitative methods is intended and used to improve understanding and prediction. Furthermore, using the framework it is expected that regional conceptual and numerical models can be checked or enriched by ensemble generated data from neighborhood-based estimators. In a first step, groundwater hydrographs from a large dataset in Southern Germany are compared in an effort to identify structural similarity in groundwater dynamics. A number of approaches to group hydrographs, mostly based on a similarity measure - which have previously only been used in local-scale studies, can be found in the literature. These are tested alongside different global feature extraction techniques. The resulting classifications are then compared to a visual "expert assessment"-based classification which serves as a reference. A ranking of the classification methods is carried out and differences shown. Selected groups from the classifications are related to geological descriptors. Here we present the most promising results from a comparison of classifications based on series correlation, different series distances and series features, such as the coefficients of the discrete Fourier transform and the intrinsic mode functions of empirical mode decomposition. Additionally, we show examples of classes

  11. Manufacturing Cost Analysis for YSZ-Based FlexCells at Pilot and Full Scale Production Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Robin Kimbrell; Kellie Chenault

    2011-05-01

    Significant reductions in cell costs must be achieved in order to realize the full commercial potential of megawatt-scale SOFC power systems. The FlexCell designed by NexTech Materials is a scalable SOFC technology that offers particular advantages over competitive technologies. In this updated topical report, NexTech analyzes its FlexCell design and fabrication process to establish manufacturing costs at both pilot scale (10 MW/year) and full-scale (250 MW/year) production levels and benchmarks this against estimated anode supported cell costs at the 250 MW scale. This analysis will show that even with conservative assumptions for yield, materials usage, and cell power density, a cost of $35 per kilowatt can be achieved at high volume. Through advancements in cell size and membrane thickness, NexTech has identified paths for achieving cell manufacturing costs as low as $27 per kilowatt for its FlexCell technology. Also in this report, NexTech analyzes the impact of raw material costs on cell cost, showing the significant increases that result if target raw material costs cannot be achieved at this volume.

  12. Uncertainty evaluation in 2008 IAEA proficiency test using phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabiana F.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Geraldo, Bianca; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth M.B.

    2009-01-01

    LAPOC participated in the 2008 IAEA ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) Proficiency Test (PT) for phosphogypsum, which is a NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) derived from phosphate industry, an abundant solid waste of low cost. Its reutilization would avoid environmental impact in large areas where the product is stored. Research involving possible uses for phosphogypsum is ever more important, from economic, technological, and environmental points of view. This paper describes results from this Proficiency Test (measured radionuclides: 234 U, 238 U, 226 Ra, 230 Th, and 210 Pb), as well as a short description of the nuclear analytical techniques emphasizing sources of uncertainty, such as Alpha Spectrometry (Alpha Analyst, Canberra, surface barrier detectors) and Gamma Spectrometry (Canberra, Hyper Pure Germanium Detector with 45 % efficiency). Corrections for decay, reference date, and recovery were applied. As an example, results obtained for 210 Pb through the use of a specific uncertainty calculation software are presented below. Each parameter whose uncertainty is quantified was carefully described, with appropriate numerical value and unit, to determine its partial contribution to the combined total uncertainty. Results from PTs provide independent information on performance of a Laboratory and have an important role in method validation; especially because it allows the assessment of the method performance over an entire range of concentrations and matrices. PTs are an important tool to demonstrate equivalence of measurements, if not their metrological comparability, and to promote education and improvement of Laboratory practice. (author)

  13. Laboratory competence evaluation through proficiency testing - mycotoxins in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torović Ljilja D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory for analysis of mycotoxins in food at the Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina (Novi Sad, Serbia participated in 15 proficiency testing schemes in period 2012-2016, comprising 22 determinations of regulated mycotoxins: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenone, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin, in different food commodities: wheat, corn, barley, breakfast cereals, infant food, milk, wine and fruit juice. Analyses were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (patulin, deoxynivalenol or fluorescence detection (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone using o-phthalaldehyde precolumn derivatization (fumonisins or UV postcolumn derivatization (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, following clean-up on immunoaffinity columns with specific antibodies, except in case of patulin when solvent extraction and solid-phase C-18 clean-up were used. Laboratory performance assessed in terms of z scores showed all satisfactory results. In depth evaluation revealed following distribution of z scores (absolute values: 59.1% up to 0.5, 36.4% between 0.5 and 1.0, and 4.5% above 1.0. Analysis of trends performed for multiple determinations of individual mycotoxins showed several changes of z score to better or worse rank. Overall assessment of the performance in proficiency testing demonstrated laboratory competence for analysis of mycotoxins in food.

  14. Proficiency evaluation of maintenance personnel: Training equivalency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear industry has recognized the importance of safe, quality, productive maintenance practices and has taken a number of initiatives that have generally improved maintenance programs. Because proficient maintenance practices are critical to plant safety and reliability, most plants have also recognized the need for reliable, valid testing techniques that demonstrate and assure the competence of their maintenance personnel. Until now, resource demands were too great to develop in-plant testing programs. In the past, maintenance supervisors have exempted personnel from training, using informal judgment of the employees' previous training and experience and informal observation of the employee on the job. While this procedure may have some degree of validity, it fails to provide the documentation for training equivalency that is required to satisfy the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations and Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) guidelines. To assess and demonstrate the proficiency levels of personnel, Calvert Cliffs needed to establish an objective, reliable, time-saving, and valid system to evaluate the competency levels of personnel. This was done in a joint effort with the Electric Power Research Institute

  15. The Relationship between Actual Fundamental Motor Skill Proficiency, Perceived Motor Skill Confidence and Competence, and Physical Activity in 8–12-Year-Old Irish Female Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlagh Farmer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between actual fundamental motor skill (FMS proficiency, perceived motor confidence and competence, and physical activity (PA among female children (n= 160; mean age = 10.69 ± 1.40 years. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD-2 was used to assess seven FMSs (locomotor, object-control, and stability. Motor confidence and competence were assessed using a valid skill-specific scale, and a modified version of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. PA levels were assessed using self-report (PA Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C and classified as low, moderate, and high active. One-way and two-way ANOVAs (post-hoc honest significant difference (HSD and correlation coefficients were used to analyse the data. Findings indicate that the majority of youth (71.8% were not meeting the minimum 60 min of daily PA recommended for health, and that 98.1% did not achieve the FMS proficiency expected for their age. While there were high levels of perceived physical self-confidence (PSC reported within FMS skill-specific tasks, there was no significant correlation observed between actual FMS proficiency and perceived PSC among the cohort. Results show that low, moderately, and highly active female participants differ significantly in terms of their overall FMS (p = 0.03 and locomotor (LOC control scores (p = 0.03. Results from a two-way between-groups analysis of variance also revealed no statistically significant interaction effect between PA grouping and physical performance self-concept (PPSC on overall FMS proficiency levels. Results of a multiple linear regression indicate that perceived PSC is a significant predictor (beta = 0.183 of participants’ overall PA levels. Data show a need for targeting low levels of PA, and low FMS proficiency in female youth, and for developing interventions aiming to enhance perceived PSC levels.

  16. Ultrafast, laser-based, x-ray science: the dawn of atomic-scale cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barty, C.P.J.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification systems are reviewed. Application of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification to the generation of femtosecond, incoherent, 8-keV line radiation is outlined and the use of femtosecond laser-based, x-rays for novel time-resolved diffraction studies of crystalline dynamics with sub-picosecond temporal resolution and sub-picometer spatial resolution is reviewed in detail. Possible extensions of laser-based, x-ray technology and evaluation of alternative x-ray approaches for time-resolved studies of the atomic scale dynamics are given. (author)

  17. Using Agent Base Models to Optimize Large Scale Network for Large System Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameldin, Ramez Ahmed; Bowling, Shannon R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to use Agent Base Models (ABM) to optimize large scale network handling capabilities for large system inventories and to implement strategies for the purpose of reducing capital expenses. The models used in this paper either use computational algorithms or procedure implementations developed by Matlab to simulate agent based models in a principal programming language and mathematical theory using clusters, these clusters work as a high performance computational performance to run the program in parallel computational. In both cases, a model is defined as compilation of a set of structures and processes assumed to underlie the behavior of a network system.

  18. QR code based noise-free optical encryption and decryption of a gray scale image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shuming; Zou, Wenbin; Li, Xia

    2017-03-01

    In optical encryption systems, speckle noise is one major challenge in obtaining high quality decrypted images. This problem can be addressed by employing a QR code based noise-free scheme. Previous works have been conducted for optically encrypting a few characters or a short expression employing QR codes. This paper proposes a practical scheme for optically encrypting and decrypting a gray-scale image based on QR codes for the first time. The proposed scheme is compatible with common QR code generators and readers. Numerical simulation results reveal the proposed method can encrypt and decrypt an input image correctly.

  19. Ultrafast, laser-based, x-ray science: the dawn of atomic-scale cinematography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, C.P.J. [University of California, Department of Applied Mechanics and Engineering Science, Urey Hall, Mali Code 0339, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2000-03-01

    The characteristics of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification systems are reviewed. Application of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification to the generation of femtosecond, incoherent, 8-keV line radiation is outlined and the use of femtosecond laser-based, x-rays for novel time-resolved diffraction studies of crystalline dynamics with sub-picosecond temporal resolution and sub-picometer spatial resolution is reviewed in detail. Possible extensions of laser-based, x-ray technology and evaluation of alternative x-ray approaches for time-resolved studies of the atomic scale dynamics are given. (author)

  20. Occupational health and safety experiences among self-identified immigrant workers living or working in Somerville, MA by ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M

    2012-12-06

    In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu.

  1. Occupational Health and Safety Experiences among Self-Identified Immigrant Workers Living or Working in Somerville, MA by Ethnicity, Years in the US, and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A.; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu. PMID:23222180

  2. Development and validation of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andrée L; Sabiston, Catherine M; Crocker, Peter R E; Mack, Diane E

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of shame, guilt, authentic pride, and hubristic pride for use in body and appearance contexts. In Study 1, 41 potential items were developed and assessed for item quality and comprehension. In Study 2, a panel of experts (N=8; M=11, SD=6.5 years of experience) reviewed the scale and items for evidence of content validity. Participants in Study 3 (n=135 males, n=300 females) completed the BASES and various body image, personality, and emotion scales. A separate sample (n=155; 35.5% male) in Study 3 completed the BASES twice using a two-week time interval. The BASES subscale scores demonstrated evidence for internal consistency, item-total correlations, concurrent, convergent, incremental, and discriminant validity, and 2-week test-retest reliability. The 4-factor solution was a good fit in confirmatory factor analysis, reflecting body-related shame, guilt, authentic and hubristic pride subscales of the BASES. The development and validation of the BASES may help advance body image and self-conscious emotion research by providing a foundation to examine the unique antecedents and outcomes of these specific emotional experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and initial validation of a cognitive-based work-nonwork conflict scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedeen, Souha R; Swiercz, Paul M

    2007-06-01

    Current research related to work and life outside work specifies three types of work-nonwork conflict: time, strain, and behavior-based. Overlooked in these models is a cognitive-based type of conflict whereby individuals experience work-nonwork conflict from cognitive preoccupation with work. Four studies on six different groups (N=549) were undertaken to develop and validate an initial measure of this construct. Structural equation modeling confirmed a two-factor, nine-item scale. Hypotheses regarding cognitive-based conflict's relationship with life satisfaction, work involvement, work-nonwork conflict, and work hours were supported. The relationship with knowledge work was partially supported in that only the cognitive dimension of cognitive-based conflict was related to extent of knowledge work. Hypotheses regarding cognitive-based conflict's relationship with family demands were rejected in that the cognitive dimension correlated positively rather than negatively with number of dependent children and perceived family demands. The study provides encouraging preliminary evidence of scale validity.

  4. Integrating macro and micro scale approaches in the agent-based modeling of residential dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Sara

    2018-06-01

    With the advancement of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) methods as well as data collection technologies, urban dynamics modeling substantially improved over the last several decades. The complex urban dynamics processes are most effectively modeled not at the macro-scale, but following a bottom-up approach, by simulating the decisions of individual entities, or residents. Agent-based modeling (ABM) provides the key to a dynamic M&S framework that is able to integrate socioeconomic with environmental models, and to operate at both micro and macro geographical scales. In this study, a multi-agent system is proposed to simulate residential dynamics by considering spatiotemporal land use changes. In the proposed ABM, macro-scale land use change prediction is modeled by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and deployed as the agent environment and micro-scale residential dynamics behaviors autonomously implemented by household agents. These two levels of simulation interacted and jointly promoted urbanization process in an urban area of Tehran city in Iran. The model simulates the behavior of individual households in finding ideal locations to dwell. The household agents are divided into three main groups based on their income rank and they are further classified into different categories based on a number of attributes. These attributes determine the households' preferences for finding new dwellings and change with time. The ABM environment is represented by a land-use map in which the properties of the land parcels change dynamically over the simulation time. The outputs of this model are a set of maps showing the pattern of different groups of households in the city. These patterns can be used by city planners to find optimum locations for building new residential units or adding new services to the city. The simulation results show that combining macro- and micro-level simulation can give full play to the potential of the ABM to understand the driving

  5. The compare psychological profiles of people based on MMPI-2’s scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Habibi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of screening and identifying people at risk of mental disorders in order to determine the prevalence of mental disorders and carry out activities to the prevention and treatment, the present study aimed to compare psychological profiles of people based on MMPI-2’s scales according to birth order, age and educational level in general population of 18-80 years old. Current study is analytical- cross sectional. Statistical population included all Iranian people between 18 to 80 years old who had minimum 8 classes of education and had no history of mental illness or brain injury. Among this population, 1418 individuals were selected by ratio sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Mashhad, Tabriz and Shiraz cities and they were assessed by Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI-2. Results showed there is significant difference between people according to their age in scales of L (Lying, D (Depression, Ma (Mania, Pt (Psychastenia, Sc(Schizophrenia, and Si(Social Introversion, and there was significant difference based on level of education in scales of F (Infrequency, K (Defensiveness, Pa (Paranoia, Pt (Psychastenia, Sc (Schizophrenia and Si (Social Introversion. However, there was no significant differences between individuals based on birth order in validity and clinical scale of MMPI-2. Education and age are important factors which can influence mental health. It can be inferred that people with high level of education in comparison of people with low educational level have fewer mental disorders and higher mental wellbeing. Furthermore, people of different ages show different patterns of mental disorders.

  6. Road network selection for small-scale maps using an improved centrality-based algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Weiss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The road network is one of the key feature classes in topographic maps and databases. In the task of deriving road networks for products at smaller scales, road network selection forms a prerequisite for all other generalization operators, and is thus a fundamental operation in the overall process of topographic map and database production. The objective of this work was to develop an algorithm for automated road network selection from a large-scale (1:10,000 to a small-scale database (1:200,000. The project was pursued in collaboration with swisstopo, the national mapping agency of Switzerland, with generic mapping requirements in mind. Preliminary experiments suggested that a selection algorithm based on betweenness centrality performed best for this purpose, yet also exposed problems. The main contribution of this paper thus consists of four extensions that address deficiencies of the basic centrality-based algorithm and lead to a significant improvement of the results. The first two extensions improve the formation of strokes concatenating the road segments, which is crucial since strokes provide the foundation upon which the network centrality measure is computed. Thus, the first extension ensures that roundabouts are detected and collapsed, thus avoiding interruptions of strokes by roundabouts, while the second introduces additional semantics in the process of stroke formation, allowing longer and more plausible strokes to built. The third extension detects areas of high road density (i.e., urban areas using density-based clustering and then locally increases the threshold of the centrality measure used to select road segments, such that more thinning takes place in those areas. Finally, since the basic algorithm tends to create dead-ends—which however are not tolerated in small-scale maps—the fourth extension reconnects these dead-ends to the main network, searching for the best path in the main heading of the dead-end.

  7. Change Analysis and Decision Tree Based Detection Model for Residential Objects across Multiple Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Liyan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Change analysis and detection plays important role in the updating of multi-scale databases.When overlap an updated larger-scale dataset and a to-be-updated smaller-scale dataset,people usually focus on temporal changes caused by the evolution of spatial entities.Little attention is paid to the representation changes influenced by map generalization.Using polygonal building data as an example,this study examines the changes from different perspectives,such as the reasons for their occurrence,their performance format.Based on this knowledge,we employ decision tree in field of machine learning to establish a change detection model.The aim of the proposed model is to distinguish temporal changes that need to be applied as updates to the smaller-scale dataset from representation changes.The proposed method is validated through tests using real-world building data from Guangzhou city.The experimental results show the overall precision of change detection is more than 90%,which indicates our method is effective to identify changed objects.

  8. Multi-Repeated Projection Lithography for High-Precision Linear Scale Based on Average Homogenization Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Ren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-repeated photolithography method for manufacturing an incremental linear scale using projection lithography is presented. The method is based on the average homogenization effect that periodically superposes the light intensity of different locations of pitches in the mask to make a consistent energy distribution at a specific wavelength, from which the accuracy of a linear scale can be improved precisely using the average pitch with different step distances. The method’s theoretical error is within 0.01 µm for a periodic mask with a 2-µm sine-wave error. The intensity error models in the focal plane include the rectangular grating error on the mask, static positioning error, and lithography lens focal plane alignment error, which affect pitch uniformity less than in the common linear scale projection lithography splicing process. It was analyzed and confirmed that increasing the repeat exposure number of a single stripe could improve accuracy, as could adjusting the exposure spacing to achieve a set proportion of black and white stripes. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of the multi-repeated photolithography method is confirmed to easily realize a pitch accuracy of 43 nm in any 10 locations of 1 m, and the whole length accuracy of the linear scale is less than 1 µm/m.

  9. Affordable, automatic quantitative fall risk assessment based on clinical balance scales and Kinect data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagiorgio, P; Romano, F; Sardi, F; Moraschini, M; Sozzi, A; Bejor, M; Ricevuti, G; Buizza, A; Ramat, S

    2014-01-01

    The problem of a correct fall risk assessment is becoming more and more critical with the ageing of the population. In spite of the available approaches allowing a quantitative analysis of the human movement control system's performance, the clinical assessment and diagnostic approach to fall risk assessment still relies mostly on non-quantitative exams, such as clinical scales. This work documents our current effort to develop a novel method to assess balance control abilities through a system implementing an automatic evaluation of exercises drawn from balance assessment scales. Our aim is to overcome the classical limits characterizing these scales i.e. limited granularity and inter-/intra-examiner reliability, to obtain objective scores and more detailed information allowing to predict fall risk. We used Microsoft Kinect to record subjects' movements while performing challenging exercises drawn from clinical balance scales. We then computed a set of parameters quantifying the execution of the exercises and fed them to a supervised classifier to perform a classification based on the clinical score. We obtained a good accuracy (~82%) and especially a high sensitivity (~83%).

  10. Multi-Scale Pixel-Based Image Fusion Using Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed ur Rehman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel scheme to perform the fusion of multiple images using the multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD algorithm is proposed. Standard multi-scale fusion techniques make a priori assumptions regarding input data, whereas standard univariate empirical mode decomposition (EMD-based fusion techniques suffer from inherent mode mixing and mode misalignment issues, characterized respectively by either a single intrinsic mode function (IMF containing multiple scales or the same indexed IMFs corresponding to multiple input images carrying different frequency information. We show that MEMD overcomes these problems by being fully data adaptive and by aligning common frequency scales from multiple channels, thus enabling their comparison at a pixel level and subsequent fusion at multiple data scales. We then demonstrate the potential of the proposed scheme on a large dataset of real-world multi-exposure and multi-focus images and compare the results against those obtained from standard fusion algorithms, including the principal component analysis (PCA, discrete wavelet transform (DWT and non-subsampled contourlet transform (NCT. A variety of image fusion quality measures are employed for the objective evaluation of the proposed method. We also report the results of a hypothesis testing approach on our large image dataset to identify statistically-significant performance differences.

  11. Multi-scale individual-based model of microbial and bioconversion dynamics in aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Joao B; De Kreuk, Merle K; Picioreanu, Cristian; Van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2007-09-15

    Aerobic granular sludge is a novel compact biological wastewater treatment technology for integrated removal of COD (chemical oxygen demand), nitrogen, and phosphate charges. We present here a multiscale model of aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors (GSBR) describing the complex dynamics of populations and nutrient removal. The macro scale describes bulk concentrations and effluent composition in six solutes (oxygen, acetate, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate). A finer scale, the scale of one granule (1.1 mm of diameter), describes the two-dimensional spatial arrangement of four bacterial groups--heterotrophs, ammonium oxidizers, nitrite oxidizers, and phosphate accumulating organisms (PAO)--using individual based modeling (IbM) with species-specific kinetic models. The model for PAO includes three internal storage compounds: polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), poly phosphate, and glycogen. Simulations of long-term reactor operation show how the microbial population and activity depends on the operating conditions. Short-term dynamics of solute bulk concentrations are also generated with results comparable to experimental data from lab scale reactors. Our results suggest that N-removal in GSBR occurs mostly via alternating nitrification/denitrification rather than simultaneous nitrification/denitrification, supporting an alternative strategy to improve N-removal in this promising wastewater treatment process.

  12. Auto-Scaling of Geo-Based Image Processing in an OpenStack Cloud Computing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sanggoo Kang; Kiwon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing is a base platform for the distribution of large volumes of data and high-performance image processing on the Web. Despite wide applications in Web-based services and their many benefits, geo-spatial applications based on cloud computing technology are still developing. Auto-scaling realizes automatic scalability, i.e., the scale-out and scale-in processing of virtual servers in a cloud computing environment. This study investigates the applicability of auto-scaling to geo-bas...

  13. Traffic Flow Prediction Model for Large-Scale Road Network Based on Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the efficiency and precision of large-scale road network traffic flow prediction, a genetic algorithm-support vector machine (GA-SVM model based on cloud computing is proposed in this paper, which is based on the analysis of the characteristics and defects of genetic algorithm and support vector machine. In cloud computing environment, firstly, SVM parameters are optimized by the parallel genetic algorithm, and then this optimized parallel SVM model is used to predict traffic flow. On the basis of the traffic flow data of Haizhu District in Guangzhou City, the proposed model was verified and compared with the serial GA-SVM model and parallel GA-SVM model based on MPI (message passing interface. The results demonstrate that the parallel GA-SVM model based on cloud computing has higher prediction accuracy, shorter running time, and higher speedup.

  14. Atomic scale properties of magnetic Mn-based alloys probed by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Mn-based alloys are characterized by a wealth of properties, which are of interest both from fundamental physics point of view and particularly attractive for different applications in modern technology: from magnetic storage to sensing and spin-based electronics. The possibility to tune their magnetic properties through post-growth thermal processes and/or stoichiometry engineering is highly important in order to target different applications (i.e. Mn$_{x}$Ga) or to increase their Curie temperature above room temperature (i.e. off-stoichiometric MnSi). In this project, the Mössbauer effect will be applied at $^{57}$Fe sites following implantation of radioactive $^{57}$Mn, to probe the micro-structure and magnetism of Mn-based alloys on the atomic-scale. The proposed experimental plan is devoted to establish a direct correlation between the local structure and bulk magnetism (and other physical properties) of Mn-based alloys.

  15. Development and initial validation of primary care provider mental illness management and team-based care self-efficacy scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Danielle F; Crane, Lori A; Leister, Erin; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Ludman, Evette; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Kline, Danielle M; Smith, Meredith; deGruy, Frank V; Nease, Donald E; Dickinson, L Miriam

    Develop and validate self-efficacy scales for primary care provider (PCP) mental illness management and team-based care participation. We developed three self-efficacy scales: team-based care (TBC), mental illness management (MIM), and chronic medical illness (CMI). We developed the scales using Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory as a guide. The survey instrument included items from previously validated scales on team-based care and mental illness management. We administered a mail survey to 900 randomly selected Colorado physicians. We conducted exploratory principal factor analysis with oblique rotation. We constructed self-efficacy scales and calculated standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficients to test internal consistency. We calculated correlation coefficients between the MIM and TBC scales and previously validated measures related to each scale to evaluate convergent validity. We tested correlations between the TBC and the measures expected to correlate with the MIM scale and vice versa to evaluate discriminant validity. PCPs (n=402, response rate=49%) from diverse practice settings completed surveys. Items grouped into factors as expected. Cronbach's alphas were 0.94, 0.88, and 0.83 for TBC, MIM, and CMI scales respectively. In convergent validity testing, the TBC scale was correlated as predicted with scales assessing communications strategies, attitudes toward teams, and other teamwork indicators (r=0.25 to 0.40, all statistically significant). Likewise, the MIM scale was significantly correlated with several items about knowledge and experience managing mental illness (r=0.24 to 41, all statistically significant). As expected in discriminant validity testing, the TBC scale had only very weak correlations with the mental illness knowledge and experience managing mental illness items (r=0.03 to 0.12). Likewise, the MIM scale was only weakly correlated with measures of team-based care (r=0.09 to.17). This validation study of MIM and TBC self-efficacy scales

  16. The modulatory role of second language proficiency on performance monitoring: evidence from a saccadic countermanding task in high and low proficient bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh K

    2014-01-01

    We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 proficiency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR) task (Experiment1) and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR) task (Experiment 2). In the redirect task, typically a target is presented and the subject is required to make a saccade (no-step trials), unless a new target appears on a different location after some delay from the first target onset (step trials). On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first target and programme a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT), the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target as a measure of response inhibition and post-step slowing as a measure of performance monitoring. The results showed the high proficient bilinguals displayed more post-step slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals for both VGR and MGR versions of the task. Secondly, both the high and low proficient bilinguals exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR task, showing no modulatory effects of language proficiency on the response inhibition. These results suggest that language proficiency may have an effect on performance monitoring, but not the inhibitory control per se. Thus, we infer that higher proficiency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility and an ability to adjust behavior that facilitates the attainment of the cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems.

  17. Incorporation of proficiency criteria for basic laparoscopic skills training: How does it work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Verdaasdonk (Egg); J. Dankelman (Jenny); J.F. Lange (Johan); L.P. Stassen (Laurents)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: It is desirable that surgical trainees are proficient in basic laparoscopic motor skills (eye-hand coordination). The present study evaluated the use of predefined proficiency criteria on a basic virtual reality (VR) simulator in preparation for a laparoscopic course on

  18. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  19. English Proficiency and Acculturation among Chinese Immigrant Youth in Canada: A Reciprocal Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fanli; Gottardo, Alexandra; Chen, Xi; Koh, Pohwee; Pasquarella, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to refine our understanding of the link between English proficiency and mainstream acculturation in adolescent Chinese immigrants. The sample consisted of 112 adolescents in grades 7-12 living in urban areas in southern Ontario, Canada. English proficiency was assessed individually using standardised tests of…

  20. L2-proficiency-dependent laterality shift in structural connectivity of brain language pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, H.; Leeuwen, T.M. van; Dediu, D.; Roberts, L.; Norris, D.; Hagoort, P.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests

  1. Understanding the Relationship between Language Proficiency, Language Impairment and Rehabilitation: Evidence from a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Iakupova, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to address the relationship between language proficiency, language impairment and rehabilitation in bilingual Russian-English individuals with aphasia. As a first step, we examined two Russian-English patients' pre-stroke language proficiency using a detailed and comprehensive language use and history questionnaire and…

  2. ELL High School Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategy Use and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Nam, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the metacognitive awareness and reading strategies use of high school-­aged English language learners (ELLs) and the relationship between ELL reading strategy use and reading proficiency as measured by a standardized reading test and self-­rated reading proficiency. Results reveal that participants reported moderate use of…

  3. Volunteer Administration Leadership Proficiency and Leadership Styles: Perceptions of Southern Region 4-H County Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Nicole L. P.; Rudd, Rick D.

    2005-01-01

    Volunteers play an integral role in supporting the mission of 4-H programs in the southern region. For this reason their proficiency in volunteer administration competence and perceived leadership style is important. The researchers sought to examine both the perceived proficiency of 4-H faculty in the southern region in seven competencies…

  4. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  5. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  6. Hi-LAB: A New Measure of Aptitude for High-Level Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linck, Jared A.; Hughes, Meredith M.; Campbell, Susan G.; Silbert, Noah H.; Tare, Medha; Jackson, Scott R.; Smith, Benjamin K.; Bunting, Michael F.; Doughty, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Few adult second language (L2) learners successfully attain high-level proficiency. Although decades of research on beginning to intermediate stages of L2 learning have identified a number of predictors of the rate of acquisition, little research has examined factors relevant to predicting very high levels of L2 proficiency. The current study,…

  7. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G.; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests

  8. The application of data from proficiency testing to laboratory accreditation according to ISO 17025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    Current methods of testing laboratories for their proficiency in reporting correct measurement results are liable to substantial errors of the 2nd kind. This means that laboratories with deflated uncertainties are accepted as proficient, even though their reported measurement results pave the way...

  9. A Blueprint for Developing Culturally Proficient/Responsive School Administrators in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Jeffrey P.; Smith, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the important topic of culturally proficient/responsive school administrators for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with learning disabilities (LD). Culturally proficient/responsive school administrators with knowledge and strong leadership skills in multicultural education are essential to impact school…

  10. Self-Efficacy Ratings of Technology Proficiency among Teachers in Mexico and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Cesareo; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda

    2008-01-01

    The Technology Proficiency Self-Assessment (TPSA) questionnaire was administered to 978 elementary and middle school teachers from Mexico City, and 932 elementary and middle school teachers from the Dallas, Texas, metroplex in the USA, in order to examine self-efficacy similarities and differences for technology proficiency self-appraisals in a…

  11. The Reading Habits of Developmental College Students at Different Levels of Reading Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorey, Ravi; Mokhtari, Kouider

    1994-01-01

    Examines differences in reading habits of developmental college students with varying levels of reading proficiency. Finds that subjects spent an unusually low amount of time on academic reading and even less time on nonacademic reading. Finds no significant differences between high- and low-proficient readers with regard to amount of time spent…

  12. Reading Habits of University ESL Students at Different Levels of English Proficiency and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Sheorey, Ravi

    1994-01-01

    Examines the degree to which the levels of English proficiency (high vs. low) and education (graduate vs. undergraduate) of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students were associated with differences in their reading behaviors. Finds that the subjects' level of education and English proficiency were associated with their reading behavior…

  13. Non-Discriminatory Assessment: Formal and Informal Assessment of Limited English Proficient Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sharon

    PEOPLE (Pruebas de Expresion Oral y Percepcion de la Lengua Espanol) was developed as a test to help distinguish between a language difference and a language deficit in non English proficient (NEP) and limited English proficient (LEP) elementary Hispanic students. PEOPLE was developed, pilot tested in 14 school districts in Los Angeles County with…

  14. Self-Assessment, Preparation and Response Time on a Computerized Oral Proficiency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Carpenter, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Two studies investigated technical aspects of a computer-mediated test, the Computerized Oral Proficiency Instrument (COPI), particularly in contrast to a similar tape-mediated test, the Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI). The first study investigated how examinees used self-assessment to choose an appropriate starting level on the COPI.…

  15. Technological Proficiency as a Key to Job Security. Trends and Issues Alert No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    Although not all current jobs require basic computer skills, technological advances in society have created new jobs and changed the ways many existing jobs are performed. Clearly, workers who are proficient in technology have a greater advantage in the current workplace and the need for technologically proficient workers will only continue to…

  16. Prospects of luminescence based molecular scale logic gates and logic circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speiser, Shammai, E-mail: speiser@technion.ac.il

    2016-01-15

    In recent years molecular electronics has emerged as a rapidly growing research field. The aim of this review is to introduce this subject as a whole with special emphasis on molecular scale potential devices and applications. As a particular example we will discuss all optical molecular scale logic gates and logic circuits based on molecular fluorescence and electronic excitation transfer processes. Charge and electronic energy transfers (ET and EET) are well-studied examples whereby different molecules can signal their state from one (the donor, D) to the other (the acceptor, A). We show how a half-adder logic circuit can be implemented on one molecule that can communicate its logic output as input to another half-adder molecule. This is achieved as an electronic energy transfer from a donor to an acceptor, thus implementing a molecular full adder. We discuss a specific pair, the rhodamine–azulene, for which there is considerable spectroscopic data, but the scheme is general enough to allow a wide choice of D and A pairs. We present results based on this pair, in which, for the first time, an all optical half-adder and full-adder logic circuits are implemented. - Highlights: • Molecular scale logic • Photoquenching • Full adder.

  17. A multi-objective constraint-based approach for modeling genome-scale microbial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinich, Marko; Bourdon, Jérémie; Larhlimi, Abdelhalim; Eveillard, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Interplay within microbial communities impacts ecosystems on several scales, and elucidation of the consequent effects is a difficult task in ecology. In particular, the integration of genome-scale data within quantitative models of microbial ecosystems remains elusive. This study advocates the use of constraint-based modeling to build predictive models from recent high-resolution -omics datasets. Following recent studies that have demonstrated the accuracy of constraint-based models (CBMs) for simulating single-strain metabolic networks, we sought to study microbial ecosystems as a combination of single-strain metabolic networks that exchange nutrients. This study presents two multi-objective extensions of CBMs for modeling communities: multi-objective flux balance analysis (MO-FBA) and multi-objective flux variability analysis (MO-FVA). Both methods were applied to a hot spring mat model ecosystem. As a result, multiple trade-offs between nutrients and growth rates, as well as thermodynamically favorable relative abundances at community level, were emphasized. We expect this approach to be used for integrating genomic information in microbial ecosystems. Following models will provide insights about behaviors (including diversity) that take place at the ecosystem scale.

  18. Prospects of luminescence based molecular scale logic gates and logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speiser, Shammai

    2016-01-01

    In recent years molecular electronics has emerged as a rapidly growing research field. The aim of this review is to introduce this subject as a whole with special emphasis on molecular scale potential devices and applications. As a particular example we will discuss all optical molecular scale logic gates and logic circuits based on molecular fluorescence and electronic excitation transfer processes. Charge and electronic energy transfers (ET and EET) are well-studied examples whereby different molecules can signal their state from one (the donor, D) to the other (the acceptor, A). We show how a half-adder logic circuit can be implemented on one molecule that can communicate its logic output as input to another half-adder molecule. This is achieved as an electronic energy transfer from a donor to an acceptor, thus implementing a molecular full adder. We discuss a specific pair, the rhodamine–azulene, for which there is considerable spectroscopic data, but the scheme is general enough to allow a wide choice of D and A pairs. We present results based on this pair, in which, for the first time, an all optical half-adder and full-adder logic circuits are implemented. - Highlights: • Molecular scale logic • Photoquenching • Full adder

  19. Differential standard deviation of log-scale intensity based optical coherence tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weisong; Gao, Wanrong; Chen, Chaoliang; Yang, Victor X D

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a differential standard deviation of log-scale intensity (DSDLI) based optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is presented for calculating microvascular images of human skin. The DSDLI algorithm calculates the variance in difference images of two consecutive log-scale intensity based structural images from the same position along depth direction to contrast blood flow. The en face microvascular images were then generated by calculating the standard deviation of the differential log-scale intensities within the specific depth range, resulting in an improvement in spatial resolution and SNR in microvascular images compared to speckle variance OCT and power intensity differential method. The performance of DSDLI was testified by both phantom and in vivo experiments. In in vivo experiments, a self-adaptive sub-pixel image registration algorithm was performed to remove the bulk motion noise, where 2D Fourier transform was utilized to generate new images with spatial interval equal to half of the distance between two pixels in both fast-scanning and depth directions. The SNRs of signals of flowing particles are improved by 7.3 dB and 6.8 dB on average in phantom and in vivo experiments, respectively, while the average spatial resolution of images of in vivo blood vessels is increased by 21%. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A multi-objective constraint-based approach for modeling genome-scale microbial ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Budinich

    Full Text Available Interplay within microbial communities impacts ecosystems on several scales, and elucidation of the consequent effects is a difficult task in ecology. In particular, the integration of genome-scale data within quantitative models of microbial ecosystems remains elusive. This study advocates the use of constraint-based modeling to build predictive models from recent high-resolution -omics datasets. Following recent studies that have demonstrated the accuracy of constraint-based models (CBMs for simulating single-strain metabolic networks, we sought to study microbial ecosystems as a combination of single-strain metabolic networks that exchange nutrients. This study presents two multi-objective extensions of CBMs for modeling communities: multi-objective flux balance analysis (MO-FBA and multi-objective flux variability analysis (MO-FVA. Both methods were applied to a hot spring mat model ecosystem. As a result, multiple trade-offs between nutrients and growth rates, as well as thermodynamically favorable relative abundances at community level, were emphasized. We expect this approach to be used for integrating genomic information in microbial ecosystems. Following models will provide insights about behaviors (including diversity that take place at the ecosystem scale.

  1. Ear Detection under Uncontrolled Conditions with Multiple Scale Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ear detection is an important step in ear recognition approaches. Most existing ear detection techniques are based on manually designing features or shallow learning algorithms. However, researchers found that the pose variation, occlusion, and imaging conditions provide a great challenge to the traditional ear detection methods under uncontrolled conditions. This paper proposes an efficient technique involving Multiple Scale Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (Faster R-CNN to detect ears from 2D profile images in natural images automatically. Firstly, three regions of different scales are detected to infer the information about the ear location context within the image. Then an ear region filtering approach is proposed to extract the correct ear region and eliminate the false positives automatically. In an experiment with a test set of 200 web images (with variable photographic conditions, 98% of ears were accurately detected. Experiments were likewise conducted on the Collection J2 of University of Notre Dame Biometrics Database (UND-J2 and University of Beira Interior Ear dataset (UBEAR, which contain large occlusion, scale, and pose variations. Detection rates of 100% and 98.22%, respectively, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Quantifying multi-dimensional attributes of human activities at various geographic scales based on smartphone tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu; Li, Dongying

    2018-05-09

    Advancement in location-aware technologies, and information and communication technology in the past decades has furthered our knowledge of the interaction between human activities and the built environment. An increasing number of studies have collected data regarding individual activities to better understand how the environment shapes human behavior. Despite this growing interest, some challenges exist in collecting and processing individual's activity data, e.g., capturing people's precise environmental contexts and analyzing data at multiple spatial scales. In this study, we propose and implement an innovative system that integrates smartphone-based step tracking with an app and the sequential tile scan techniques to collect and process activity data. We apply the OpenStreetMap tile system to aggregate positioning points at various scales. We also propose duration, step and probability surfaces to quantify the multi-dimensional attributes of activities. Results show that, by running the app in the background, smartphones can measure multi-dimensional attributes of human activities, including space, duration, step, and location uncertainty at various spatial scales. By coordinating Global Positioning System (GPS) sensor with accelerometer sensor, this app can save battery which otherwise would be drained by GPS sensor quickly. Based on a test dataset, we were able to detect the recreational center and sports center as the space where the user was most active, among other places visited. The methods provide techniques to address key issues in analyzing human activity data. The system can support future studies on behavioral and health consequences related to individual's environmental exposure.

  3. Psychometric Properties and U.S. National Norms of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Cafri, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) assesses mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practices. Scores on the EBPAS derive from 4 subscales (i.e., Appeal, Requirements, Openness, and Divergence) as well as the total scale, and preliminary studies have linked EBPAS scores to clinic structure…

  4. Outdoor Class Project: the Potential Benefits to Foster EFL Students’ Language Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Fajaria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are such myriad ideas upon English teaching-learning process. Everybody can share each fabulous idea through various media. One of fun English learnings that can motivate EFL students’ eagerness to practice English easily is an outdoor class activity. This project could sometimes deals with an outbound activities which provide the numerous contextualized values to shape more students’ character and their language proficiency as well. Moreover, nowadays the development of technology can be also integrated into the EFL classrooms. Therefore, the outdoor class project is potentially implemented through the technology-enhanced teaching. The most crucial materials that is urgently to be prepared are the tutorial models & methods, and the thermalized subject based on the objective itself.

  5. Using the TOEFL to measure the reading proficiency levels of deaf college applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMaglio, L J

    1991-07-01

    The TOEFL is widely used by colleges and universities in the United States and Canada to measure the English language proficiency levels of hearing international applicants. At the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a faculty committee recommended that this popular test instrument be used to measure the English reading skills of deaf international applicants to the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. This study examined the merits of using the TOEFL to measure the English reading ability of hearing post-secondary international students seeking admission to English-based colleges and universities. Forty-one hearing foreign students were tested in the fall of 1989 at the English Language Institute at SUNY Buffalo. The instruments chosen were both the TOEFL and the California Achievement Test of reading ability. The majority of the research subjects who scored between 400 and 500 on the TOEFL achieved a grade level of less than 8.0 on the California Achievement Test.

  6. Multi-scale calculation based on dual domain material point method combined with molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakal, Tilak Raj [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-27

    This dissertation combines the dual domain material point method (DDMP) with molecular dynamics (MD) in an attempt to create a multi-scale numerical method to simulate materials undergoing large deformations with high strain rates. In these types of problems, the material is often in a thermodynamically non-equilibrium state, and conventional constitutive relations are often not available. In this method, the closure quantities, such as stress, at each material point are calculated from a MD simulation of a group of atoms surrounding the material point. Rather than restricting the multi-scale simulation in a small spatial region, such as phase interfaces, or crack tips, this multi-scale method can be used to consider non-equilibrium thermodynamic e ects in a macroscopic domain. This method takes advantage that the material points only communicate with mesh nodes, not among themselves; therefore MD simulations for material points can be performed independently in parallel. First, using a one-dimensional shock problem as an example, the numerical properties of the original material point method (MPM), the generalized interpolation material point (GIMP) method, the convected particle domain interpolation (CPDI) method, and the DDMP method are investigated. Among these methods, only the DDMP method converges as the number of particles increases, but the large number of particles needed for convergence makes the method very expensive especially in our multi-scale method where we calculate stress in each material point using MD simulation. To improve DDMP, the sub-point method is introduced in this dissertation, which provides high quality numerical solutions with a very small number of particles. The multi-scale method based on DDMP with sub-points is successfully implemented for a one dimensional problem of shock wave propagation in a cerium crystal. The MD simulation to calculate stress in each material point is performed in GPU using CUDA to accelerate the

  7. Design of optimal input–output scaling factors based fuzzy PSS using bat algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Sambariya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a fuzzy logic based power system stabilizer (FPSS is designed by tuning its input–output scaling factors. Two input signals to FPSS are considered as change of speed and change in power, and the output signal is considered as a correcting voltage signal. The normalizing factors of these signals are considered as the optimization problem with minimization of integral of square error in single-machine and multi-machine power systems. These factors are optimally determined with bat algorithm (BA and considered as scaling factors of FPSS. The performance of power system with such a designed BA based FPSS (BA-FPSS is compared to that of response with FPSS, Harmony Search Algorithm based FPSS (HSA-FPSS and Particle Swarm Optimization based FPSS (PSO-FPSS. The systems considered are single-machine connected to infinite-bus, two-area 4-machine 10-bus and IEEE New England 10-machine 39-bus power systems for evaluating the performance of BA-FPSS. The comparison is carried out in terms of the integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE, integral of absolute error (IAE and integral of square error (ISE of speed response for systems with FPSS, HSA-FPSS and BA-FPSS. The superior performance of systems with BA-FPSS is established considering eight plant conditions of each system, which represents the wide range of operating conditions.

  8. Iterative learning-based decentralized adaptive tracker for large-scale systems: a digital redesign approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jason Sheng-Hong; Du, Yan-Yi; Huang, Pei-Hsiang; Guo, Shu-Mei; Shieh, Leang-San; Chen, Yuhua

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a digital redesign methodology of the iterative learning-based decentralized adaptive tracker is proposed to improve the dynamic performance of sampled-data linear large-scale control systems consisting of N interconnected multi-input multi-output subsystems, so that the system output will follow any trajectory which may not be presented by the analytic reference model initially. To overcome the interference of each sub-system and simplify the controller design, the proposed model reference decentralized adaptive control scheme constructs a decoupled well-designed reference model first. Then, according to the well-designed model, this paper develops a digital decentralized adaptive tracker based on the optimal analog control and prediction-based digital redesign technique for the sampled-data large-scale coupling system. In order to enhance the tracking performance of the digital tracker at specified sampling instants, we apply the iterative learning control (ILC) to train the control input via continual learning. As a result, the proposed iterative learning-based decentralized adaptive tracker not only has robust closed-loop decoupled property but also possesses good tracking performance at both transient and steady state. Besides, evolutionary programming is applied to search for a good learning gain to speed up the learning process of ILC. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A KPI-based process monitoring and fault detection framework for large-scale processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Shardt, Yuri A W; Chen, Zhiwen; Yang, Xu; Ding, Steven X; Peng, Kaixiang

    2017-05-01

    Large-scale processes, consisting of multiple interconnected subprocesses, are commonly encountered in industrial systems, whose performance needs to be determined. A common approach to this problem is to use a key performance indicator (KPI)-based approach. However, the different KPI-based approaches are not developed with a coherent and consistent framework. Thus, this paper proposes a framework for KPI-based process monitoring and fault detection (PM-FD) for large-scale industrial processes, which considers the static and dynamic relationships between process and KPI variables. For the static case, a least squares-based approach is developed that provides an explicit link with least-squares regression, which gives better performance than partial least squares. For the dynamic case, using the kernel representation of each subprocess, an instrument variable is used to reduce the dynamic case to the static case. This framework is applied to the TE benchmark process and the hot strip mill rolling process. The results show that the proposed method can detect faults better than previous methods. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of global stellarator confinement: Status of the international stellarator confinement scaling data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinklage, A.; Beidler, C.D.; Dose, V.; Geiger, J.; Kus, A.; Preuss, R.; Ascasibar, E.; Tribaldos, V.; Harris, J.H.; Murakami, S.; Sano, F.; Okamura, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Yamada, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Stroth, U.; Talmadge, J.

    2005-01-01

    Different stellarator/heliotron devices along with their respective flexibility cover a large magnetic configuration space. Since the ultimate goal of stellarator research aims at an alternative fusion reactor concept, the exploration of the most promising configurations requires a comparative assessment of the plasma performance and how different aspects of a 3D configuration influence it. Therefore, the International Stellarator Confinement Database (ISCDB) has been re- initiated in 2004 and the ISS95 database has been extended to roughly 3000 discharges from eight different devices. Further data-sets are continuously added. A revision of a data set restricted to comparable scenarios lead to the ISS04 scaling law which confirmed ISS95 but also revealed clearly the necessity to incorporate configuration descriptive parameters. In other words, an extension beyond the set of regression parameters used for ISS95/ISS04 appears to be necessary and candidates, such as the elongation are investigated. Since grouping of data is a key-issue for deriving ISS04, basic assumptions are revised, e.g. the dependence on the heating scheme. Moreover, an assessment of statistical approaches is investigated with respect to their impact on the scaling. A crucial issue is the weighting of data groups which is discussed in terms of error-in-variable techniques and Bayesian model comparison. The latter is employed for testing scaling ansatzes depending on scaling invariance principles hence allowing the assessment of applicability of theory-based scaling laws on stellarator confinement. 1. ISCDB resources are jointly hosted by NIFS and IPP, see http://iscdb.nifs.ac.jp and http://www.ipp.mpg.de/ISS. (author)

  11. Classification of Suicide Attempts through a Machine Learning Algorithm Based on Multiple Systemic Psychiatric Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihoon Oh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Classification and prediction of suicide attempts in high-risk groups is important for preventing suicide. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the information from multiple clinical scales has classification power for identifying actual suicide attempts. Patients with depression and anxiety disorders (N = 573 were included, and each participant completed 31 self-report psychiatric scales and questionnaires about their history of suicide attempts. We then trained an artificial neural network classifier with 41 variables (31 psychiatric scales and 10 sociodemographic elements and ranked the contribution of each variable for the classification of suicide attempts. To evaluate the clinical applicability of our model, we measured classification performance with top-ranked predictors. Our model had an overall accuracy of 93.7% in 1-month, 90.8% in 1-year, and 87.4% in lifetime suicide attempts detection. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC was the highest for 1-month suicide attempts detection (0.93, followed by lifetime (0.89, and 1-year detection (0.87. Among all variables, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire had the highest contribution, and the positive and negative characteristics of the scales similarly contributed to classification performance. Performance on suicide attempts classification was largely maintained when we only used the top five ranked variables for training (AUROC; 1-month, 0.75, 1-year, 0.85, lifetime suicide attempts detection, 0.87. Our findings indicate that information from self-report clinical scales can be useful for the classification of suicide attempts. Based on the reliable performance of the top five predictors alone, this machine learning approach could help clinicians identify high-risk patients in clinical settings.

  12. Classification of Suicide Attempts through a Machine Learning Algorithm Based on Multiple Systemic Psychiatric Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jihoon; Yun, Kyongsik; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Classification and prediction of suicide attempts in high-risk groups is important for preventing suicide. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the information from multiple clinical scales has classification power for identifying actual suicide attempts. Patients with depression and anxiety disorders ( N  = 573) were included, and each participant completed 31 self-report psychiatric scales and questionnaires about their history of suicide attempts. We then trained an artificial neural network classifier with 41 variables (31 psychiatric scales and 10 sociodemographic elements) and ranked the contribution of each variable for the classification of suicide attempts. To evaluate the clinical applicability of our model, we measured classification performance with top-ranked predictors. Our model had an overall accuracy of 93.7% in 1-month, 90.8% in 1-year, and 87.4% in lifetime suicide attempts detection. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was the highest for 1-month suicide attempts detection (0.93), followed by lifetime (0.89), and 1-year detection (0.87). Among all variables, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire had the highest contribution, and the positive and negative characteristics of the scales similarly contributed to classification performance. Performance on suicide attempts classification was largely maintained when we only used the top five ranked variables for training (AUROC; 1-month, 0.75, 1-year, 0.85, lifetime suicide attempts detection, 0.87). Our findings indicate that information from self-report clinical scales can be useful for the classification of suicide attempts. Based on the reliable performance of the top five predictors alone, this machine learning approach could help clinicians identify high-risk patients in clinical settings.

  13. Pilot-scale equipment development for lithium-based reduction of spent oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1998-01-01

    An integral function of the electrometallurgical conditioning of DOE spent nuclear fuel is the standardization of waste forms. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical conditioning of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in uranium, ceramic waste, and metal waste forms. Engineering studies are underway at ANL in support of pilot-scale equipment development, which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel and likewise demonstrate the application of electrometallurgical conditioning to such non-metallic fuels. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel conditioning with existing electrometallurgical processes. Additionally, technical bases for engineering activities to support a scale up of an oxide reduction process are described

  14. Sample preparation for large-scale bioanalytical studies based on liquid chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Bacalum, Elena; David, Victor

    2018-01-01

    Quality of the analytical data obtained for large-scale and long term bioanalytical studies based on liquid chromatography depends on a number of experimental factors including the choice of sample preparation method. This review discusses this tedious part of bioanalytical studies, applied to large-scale samples and using liquid chromatography coupled with different detector types as core analytical technique. The main sample preparation methods included in this paper are protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, derivatization and their versions. They are discussed by analytical performances, fields of applications, advantages and disadvantages. The cited literature covers mainly the analytical achievements during the last decade, although several previous papers became more valuable in time and they are included in this review. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Properties of small-scale interfacial turbulence from a novel thermography based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnieders, Jana; Garbe, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Oceans cover nearly two thirds of the earth's surface and exchange processes between the Atmosphere and the Ocean are of fundamental environmental importance. At the air-sea interface, complex interaction processes take place on a multitude of scales. Turbulence plays a key role in the coupling of momentum, heat and mass transfer [2]. Here we use high resolution infrared imagery to visualize near surface aqueous turbulence. Thermographic data is analized from a range of laboratory facilities and experimental conditions with wind speeds ranging from 1ms-1 to 7ms-1 and various surface conditions. The surface heat pattern is formed by distinct structures on two scales - small-scale short lived structures termed fish scales and larger scale cold streaks that are consistent with the footprints of Langmuir Circulations. There are two key characteristics of the observed surface heat patterns: (1) The surface heat patterns show characteristic features of scales. (2) The structure of these patterns change with increasing wind stress and surface conditions. We present a new image processing based approach to the analysis of the spacing of cold streaks based on a machine learning approach [4, 1] to classify the thermal footprints of near surface turbulence. Our random forest classifier is based on classical features in image processing such as gray value gradients and edge detecting features. The result is a pixel-wise classification of the surface heat pattern with a subsequent analysis of the streak spacing. This approach has been presented in [3] and can be applied to a wide range of experimental data. In spite of entirely different boundary conditions, the spacing of turbulent cells near the air-water interface seems to match the expected turbulent cell size for flow near a no-slip wall. The analysis of the spacing of cold streaks shows consistent behavior in a range of laboratory facilities when expressed as a function of water sided friction velocity, u*. The scales

  16. Integrated fringe projection 3D scanning system for large-scale metrology based on laser tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui; Chen, Xiaobo; Zhou, Dan; Guo, Gen; Xi, Juntong

    2017-10-01

    Large scale components exist widely in advance manufacturing industry,3D profilometry plays a pivotal role for the quality control. This paper proposes a flexible, robust large-scale 3D scanning system by integrating a robot with a binocular structured light scanner and a laser tracker. The measurement principle and system construction of the integrated system are introduced. And a mathematical model is established for the global data fusion. Subsequently, a flexible and robust method and mechanism is introduced for the establishment of the end coordination system. Based on this method, a virtual robot noumenon is constructed for hand-eye calibration. And then the transformation matrix between end coordination system and world coordination system is solved. Validation experiment is implemented for verifying the proposed algorithms. Firstly, hand-eye transformation matrix is solved. Then a car body rear is measured for 16 times for the global data fusion algorithm verification. And the 3D shape of the rear is reconstructed successfully.

  17. Nanometer-scale patterning of high-Tc superconductors for Josephson junction-based digital circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, J.R.; Plut, T.A.; Corless, R.F.; Martens, J.S.; Berkowitz, S.; Char, K.; Johansson, M.; Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A straightforward method for nanometer-scale patterning of high-T c superconductor thin films is discussed. The technique combines direct-write electron beam lithography with well-controlled aqueous etches and is applied to the fabrication of Josephson junction nanobridges in high-quality, epitaxial thin-film YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . We present the results of our studies of the dimensions, yield, uniformity, and mechanism of the junctions along with the performance of a representative digital circuit based on these junctions. Direct current junction parameter statistics measured at 77 K show critical currents of 27.5 μA±13% for a sample set of 220 junctions. The Josephson behavior of the nanobridge is believed to arise from the aggregation of oxygen vacancies in the nanometer-scale bridge

  18. WAMS Based Intelligent Operation and Control of Modern Power System with large Scale Renewable Energy Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain

    security limits. Under such scenario, progressive displacement of conventional generation by wind generation is expected to eventually lead a complex power system with least presence of central power plants. Consequently the support from conventional power plants is expected to reach its all-time low...... system voltage control responsibility from conventional power plants to wind turbines. With increased wind penetration and displaced conventional central power plants, dynamic voltage security has been identified as one of the challenging issue for large scale wind integration. To address the dynamic...... security issue, a WAMS based systematic voltage control scheme for large scale wind integrated power system has been proposed. Along with the optimal reactive power compensation, the proposed scheme considers voltage support from wind farms (equipped with voltage support functionality) and refurbished...

  19. Alternative chemical-based synthesis routes and characterization of nano-scale particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocchi, E.A.; Motta, M.S.; Solorzano, I.G.; Jena, P.K.; Moura, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Different nano-scale particles have been synthesized by alternative routes: nitrates dehydratation and oxide, or co-formed oxides, reduction by hydrogen. Chemical-based synthesis routes are described and thermodynamics studies and kinetics data are presented to support the feasibility for obtaining single-phase oxides and co-formed two-phase oxides. In addition, the reduction reaction has been applied to successfully produce metal/ceramic nanocomposites. Structural characterization has been carried out by means of X-ray diffraction and, more extensively, transmission electron microscopy operating in conventional diffraction contrast mode (CTEM) and high-resolution mode (HRTEM). Nano-scale size distribution of oxide particles is well demonstrated together with their defect-free structure in the lower range, around 20 nm, size. Structural features related to the synthesized nano-composites are also presented

  20. Reproducible, large-scale production of thallium-based high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Stelman, D.; Newcomb, J.C.; Grantham, L.F.; Schnittgrund, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a large scale spray-calcination technique generic to the preparation of ceramic high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) powders. Among the advantages of the technique is that of producing uniformly mixed metal oxides on a fine scale. Production of both yttrium and thallium-based HTSCs has been demonstrated using this technique. In the spray calciner, solutions of the desired composition are atomized as a fine mist into a hot gas. Evaporation and calcination are instantaneous, yielding an extremely fine, uniform oxide powder. The calciner is 76 cm in diameter and can produce metal oxide powder at relatively large rates (approximately 100 g/h) without contamination