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Sample records for proficiency part iii

  1. Characteristics of Limited English Proficient Hispanic Students Served in Programs for the Speech and Language Handicapped: Implications for Policy, Practice and Research. Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alba A.; And Others

    This document is Part III of a research study examining special education service delivery for limited English proficient (LEP) Hispanic students who have been placed in programs for the learning-disabled, speech handicapped, and mentally retarded. The objectives of Part III of this study were: (1) identify the characteristics of Hispanic students…

  2. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  3. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate...... of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself....

  4. Nuclear emergency plan, Part III: Bruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan parts I through VIII were developed pursuant to Section 8 of the Emergency Plans Act, 1983. This part III prescribes measures to be taken to deal with a nuclear emergency caused by the Bruce Nuclear Power Development. This plan deals mainly with actions at the provincial level and should be supplemented by the appropriate municipal plan from the Townships of Bruce and Kincardine and the Village of Tiverton. This document gives details on the plan data and organization and measures to be taken for internal and external notification, operations in general and for liquid emissions, and the provision of emergency information and public direction. Appendices detail response sector boundaries, alerting and lead times, outline plan and times for evacuation, the location of emergency facilities, and communications through television, radio and telephone.

  5. English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…

  6. Introduction to Part III: Application of LCA in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2018-01-01

    While Part II of this book presents the theoretical foundation and methodology of LCA, Part III is dedicated to a comprehensive discussion of how this methodology has been adapted and applied in practice. The chapters of Part III provide an easily readable and accessible introduction to different...... fields of LCA application with their specific decision situations, user competences and stakeholder needs, and associated methodological challenges and adaptations....

  7. Searching Lexis and Westlaw: Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Carl

    1986-01-01

    This last installment in a three-part series covers several important areas in the searching of legal information: online (group) training and customer service, documentation (search manuals and other aids), account representatives, microcomputer software, and pricing. Advantages and drawbacks of both the LEXIS and WESTLAW databases are noted.…

  8. Ayurvedic literature in Urdu part-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, S A; Bhatnagar, Vinod Kumar

    2002-01-01

    The present article is the continuation of the second part of the previous work published with the same title in the Bulletin of Indian Institute of History of medicine, Vol. XXIX. No. 2 in 1999. This work has ben initiated to introduce the books written in recent past, the period in which Urdu language had a prominent role in preserving the knowledge of old arts and sciences.

  9. Proficiency testing of skin prick testers as part of a quality assurance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Allesen-Holm, Pernille; Karved, Lisbeth Sys

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test is an important diagnostic procedure in clinical allergy but documentation of the quality is often missing. METHODS: We describe a proficiency system to evaluate staff members in relation to the international recommended reproducibility in terms of coefficient...

  10. BETTY FREUND: A NURSE IN FRANCE - PART III

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BETTY FREUND: A NURSE IN FRANCE - PART III. Compiled and edited by Betty Hugo. From this date onwards most of Betty's letters were written from Cannes and since the focal point of her 'story' is her experiences as a nurse during the Great War the letters that follow will be presented as excerpts. One of the wards at ...

  11. The Universal Arrow of Time III-IV:(Part III) Nonquantum gravitation theory (Part IV) Quantum gravitation theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    The paper consists of the two independent papers - the first one about Nonquantum Gravitation theory, the second one about Quantum Gravitation theory (Part III: Nonquantum Gravitation theory) The first paper is dealing with the analysis of general relativity theory (theory of gravitation) from the point of view of thermodynamic time arrow. Within this framework "informational paradox" for black holes and "paradox with the grandfather" for time travel "wormholes" are resolved. (Part IV: Quantu...

  12. Performing arts medicine - instrumentalist musicians: part III - case histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2010-04-01

    In parts I and II of this article series, the basic principles of examining musicians in a healthcare setting were reviewed [Dommerholt, J. Performing arts medicine - instrumentalist musicians: part I: general considerations. J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther., in press-a; Dommerholt, J. Performing arts medicine - instrumentalist musicians: part II: the examination. J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther., in press-b]. Part III describes three case reports of musicians with hand pain, interfering with their ability to play their instruments. The musicians consulted with a performing arts physiotherapist. Neither musician had a correct medical diagnosis if at all, when they first contacted the physiotherapist. Each musician required an individualized approach not only to establish the correct diagnosis, but also to develop a specific treatment program. The treatment programs included ergonomic interventions, manual therapy, trigger point therapy, and patient education. All musicians returned to playing their instruments without any residual pain or dysfunction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An appraisal of the literature on centric relation. Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshvad, A; Winstanley, R B

    2001-01-01

    The literature directly and indirectly related to centric relation (CR) has been reviewed chronologically. More than 300 papers and quoted sections of books have been divided into three sections. The first two parts are related to CR. Studies in this group mainly compared, either the position of the mandibular condyle or the mandible itself in different CR recordings. Various tools were discussed for this purpose. The third part of the paper is about CR-centric occlusion (CO) discrepancy. CR still remains one of the controversial issues in prosthodontics and orthodontics. Debates such as mounting casts on the articulator by reproducible records for orthodontic treatment planning and end results, and whether or not orthodontic treatment based on CO causes TMJ dysfunction, remain unsolved. The references are listed at the end of Part III.

  14. Leveraging business intelligence to make better decisions: Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Accounts receivable and scheduling datasets have been available to medical practices since the 1990s, and discrete medical records data have become available over the past few years. But the frustrations that arose from the difficulties in reporting data grew with each keyboard stroke and mouse click. With reporting mandated to meet changing payment models, measuring quality of care and medical outcomes, practice managers must find more efficient and effective methods of extracting and compiling the data they have in their systems. Taming the reporting beast and learning to effectively apply business intelligence (BI) tools will become an expected managerial proficiency in the next few years. Practice managers' roles are changing quickly, and they will be required to understand the meaning of their practice's data and craft ways to leverage that data toward a strategic advantage.

  15. Tanzania 1895-1920 : Part III: 1914-1920s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    An earlier version of this African Postal Heritage Paper was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 119 / 2015: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies; III Deutsch Ostafrika / German East Africa", written by Ton Dietz.

  16. Inteligencia Artificial y Neurología. (III Parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available

    De acuerdo con mi anuncio esta III Parte estaría constituida por los mecanismos cerebrales susceptibles de extrapolación tal como fueron enumerados por mí: control de input-output para realizar conductas, y de inteligencia y aprendizaje, de los cuales por razón de espacio sólo se publica la mitad en esta edición de Medicina. Se trata de una presentación esquemática, auncuando ahora encuentro quizás más atractivo el enfoque de J’urgen Ruech expuesto en el Capítulo Comunicación y Psiquiatría de la obra extensa de Freedman (1 así: Input = percepción; análisis de datos = reconocimiento; procesamiento de datos = pensamiento; almacenamiento de datos = memoria; output = expresión y acción. A mi modo de ver se completaría este encuadre funcional con el tópico aprendizaje, proceso contiguo al de la memoria. Antes de entrar en materia hago unas consideraciones preliminares. En la primera me refiero a otro enfoque del concepto de LA. no incluido anteriormente. Se trata de Schank Roger y Hunter Larry (2 para quienes las indagaciones a que conduce el trasegar acerca de lA son las más atrevidas de nuestra existencia: ¿cuál es la naturaleza de la mente, qué pasa cuando estamos pensando, sintiendo, viendo o entendiendo? ¿Es posible comprender cómo trabaja nuestra mente realmente? Preguntas milenarias en cuyas respuestas no se ha registrado progreso. La lA ofrece una nueva herramienta para avanzar en este sentido: el computador.

    Las teorías sobre la mente han consistido en procesos descriptivos. Y los planteamientos iníciales hechos sobre lA por los investigadores han sido enfocados hacia lo que ellos mismos consideraron como manifestaciones de alta inteligencia: problemas matemáticos, ajedrez, rompecabezas complejos, etc.; gran cantidad de energía fue dedicada y se encontraron técnicas computacionales exitosas. Pero se comprendió que las técnicas desarrolladas no eran las mismas que emplea el cerebro, por lo cual se

  17. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates (i) English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii) how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as linguistic proficiency develops; and (iii) the extent to which receptive knowledge of ...

  18. 46 CFR Appendix III to Part 150 - Testing Procedures for Determining Exceptions to the Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Chart III Appendix III to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Procedures for Determining Exceptions to the Chart experimental procedure for evaluating binary chemical... is joined, while the other wire of each is connected to a strip-chart recorder. The thermocouple...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. III Appendix III to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation Suppose that a manufacturer called Mizer...

  20. Prerequisites for Affective Signal Processing (ASP) - Part III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Janssen, Joris H.; van der Zwaag, Marjolein D.; Healey, Jennifer A.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2010-01-01

    This is the third part in a series on prerequisites for affective signal processing (ASP). So far, six prerequisites were identified: validation (e.g., mapping of constructs on signals), triangulation, a physiology-driven approach, and contributions of the signal processing community (van den Broek

  1. Toward a Model of Vocational Persistence Among Seminarians: Part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James L.

    1970-01-01

    Assumptions underlying model rely on Cartwright and Harary's (1960) definition of Heider's cognitive balance theory and Festinger's (1957) cognitive dissonance theory. Diagrams illustrate degree of balance between personal and reference group (curch authorities, classmates, family) attitudes. Parts I and II in earlier issues. (CJ)

  2. Antipsychotics and Sexual Dysfunction: Sexual Dysfunction - Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Satisfying sexual experience is an essential part of a healthy and enjoyable life for most people. Antipsychotic drugs are among the various factors that affect optimal sexual functioning. Both conventional and novel antipsychotics are associated with significant sexual side effects. This review has presented various studies comparing different antipsychotic drugs. Dopamine antagonism, increased serum prolactin, serotonergic, adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms are all proposed to be the mechanisms for sexual dysfunction. Drug treatment for this has not given satisfactory long-term results. Knowledge of the receptor pharmacology of an individual antipsychotic will help to determine whether it is more or less likely to cause sexual side effects and its management.

  3. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation of... CODE AND ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL-PART III WATER QUALITY REGULATIONS § 410.1 Basin regulations—Water Code and Administrative Manual—Part III Water Quality Regulations. (a) The Water Code of the Delaware River...

  4. Scary gas: intravascular, intracranial, and intraspinal ectopic gas (part III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Claire K; Osman, Sherif F; Linnau, Ken F

    2017-08-01

    While ectopic gas can be a sign of dangerous disease requiring immediate medical or surgical intervention, it can also be an incidental and benign finding. Intravenous gas and spinal vacuum gas are common and almost always benign. Intravascular gas is most often related to instrumentation and, if intraarticular, can cause end-organ ischemia; however, treatment is usually supportive. Pneumocephalus arises from a communication with paranasal sinuses or mastoids more often than from meningeal infection and can usually be managed nonoperatively. In part 3 of this series, the different causes of ectopic gas in the vessels, skull, and spine are reviewed, as are the imaging features that can help to narrow the differential diagnosis.

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart III of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart III of Part 63... malfunction plan. § 63.6 (f)-(g) YES § 63.6(h) NO Subpart III does not require opacity and visible emission...

  6. PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS - PART III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E.; Edwards, T.

    2010-12-09

    The liquid waste chemistry control program is designed to reduce the pitting corrosion occurrence on tank walls. The chemistry control program has been implemented, in part, by applying engineering judgment safety factors to experimental data. However, the simple application of a general safety factor can result in use of excessive corrosion inhibiting agents. The required use of excess corrosion inhibitors can be costly for tank maintenance, waste processing, and in future tank closure. It is proposed that a probability-based approach can be used to quantify the risk associated with the chemistry control program. This approach can lead to the application of tank-specific chemistry control programs reducing overall costs associated with overly conservative use of inhibitor. Furthermore, when using nitrite as an inhibitor, the current chemistry control program is based on a linear model of increased aggressive species requiring increased protective species. This linear model was primarily supported by experimental data obtained from dilute solutions with nitrate concentrations less than 0.6 M, but is used to produce the current chemistry control program up to 1.0 M nitrate. Therefore, in the nitrate space between 0.6 and 1.0 M, the current control limit is based on assumptions that the linear model developed from data in the <0.6 M region is applicable in the 0.6-1.0 M region. Due to this assumption, further investigation of the nitrate region of 0.6 M to 1.0 M has potential for significant inhibitor reduction, while maintaining the same level of corrosion risk associated with the current chemistry control program. Ongoing studies have been conducted in FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to evaluate the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm and to assess the minimum nitrite concentrations to inhibit pitting in ASTM A537 carbon steel below 1.0 molar nitrate. The experimentation from FY08 suggested a non-linear model known as the mixture/amount model could be used to predict

  7. A French Speaking Proficiency Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimsleur, Paul

    An attempt to test students objectively in a five-part, French, speaking proficiency test is described and discussed. Concrete nouns, abstract words, pronunciation, syntax, and fluency are tested with a combination of tape and picture stimuli. Reliability, validity, and practical questions are raised; and previous aural-oral testing procedures are…

  8. 34 CFR 300.27 - Limited English proficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited English proficient. 300.27 Section 300.27... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.27 Limited English proficient. Limited English proficient has the meaning given the term in section 9101(25) of the ESEA. (Authority: 20...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride Terrain...

  10. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.

  11. Clinical biomechanic correlates for cervical function: Part III. Intermittent secondary movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorro, J; Johnston, W L; Hubbard, R P

    1991-02-01

    Parts I and II of this study compared kinematic and myoelectric data for two groups of asymptomatic subjects classified as having symmetric or asymmetric motor response to a palpatory test for cervical sidebending. Kinematic data revealed that asymmetric subjects had limited mobility for primary and secondary motions. Myoelectric activity was slow to be initiated in the asymmetric subjects, and reduced in time and strength of contraction. Part III addresses additional specific kinematic data concerning three-dimensional orientations of the head; however, these data were accumulated throughout the paths of movement, not just at their end points as in our previous work. Although asymmetric subjects had demonstrated significantly reduced range of motion, paths of the more minor secondary axes did not differ significantly between groups. As with previous data (Part I and II), active and passive movements were undifferentiated; this degree of likeness in even minor aspects of the motor performance continues to indicate the remarkable similarities that can exist between primary movements directed and guided by trained physicians and those actively controlled by patients themselves. Part III completes a study of cervical motor behavior in which a passive gross motion test distinguished an asymmetric group with subclinical motor behavior that has measurable kinematic and myoelectric correlates.

  12. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III: victims of the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate neuroscientists survived Nazi concentration camps, but most were murdered. We discuss the circumstances and environment which stripped these neuroscientists of their profession, then of their personal rights and freedom, and then of their lives. We include a background analysis of anti-Semitism and Nazism in their various countries, then discuss in depth seven exemplary neuroscientist Holocaust victims; including Germans Ludwig Pick, Arthur Simons, and Raphael Weichbrodt, Austrians Alexander Spitzer and Viktor Frankl, and Poles Lucja Frey and Wladyslaw Sterling. by recognizing and remembering these victims of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself.

  13. Issues in Assessing English Language Learners: English Language Proficiency Measures and Accommodation Uses. Literature Review (Part 1 of 3). CRESST Report 731

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Kao, Jenny; Herman, Joan; Bachman, Lyle F.; Bailey, Alison; Bachman, Patina L.; Farnsworth, Tim; Chang, Sandy M.

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has made a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency (ELP), as well as content knowledge and skills. Although states have…

  14. Recommendations for Assessing English Language Learners: English Language Proficiency Measures and Accommodation Uses. Recommendations Report (Part 3 of 3). CRESST Report 737

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Herman, Joan L.; Bachman, Lyle F.; Bailey, Alison L.; Griffin, Noelle

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB, 2002) has had a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency, as well as content knowledge and skills. While states…

  15. Premios Nobel de Quimica y Filatelia. Parte III: polimeros, coloides, quimica aplicada, quimica inorganica y premios siglo XXI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Reina, Marlon; Amado-Gonzalez, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    En Premios Nobel de Quimica y Filatelia, Parte III, se hace una revision de los sellos postales emitidos en diferentes paises para conmemorar los Premios Nobel en polimeros, coloides, quimica aplicada...

  16. Language Proficiency and Cross-cultural Adaptation as Part of Cross-cultural Communication Competence : A Study of an Ethnically Diverse Team in a Multinational Company in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Farah, Deqa; Vuniqi, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose is to study how language proficiency and cross-cultural adaptation affect ethnically diverse teams in their cross-cultural communication competence. Methodology: The data was collected through six interviews of team members working in a product development project in a multinational company. The interviews were conducted in March of 2012. The data analysis followed an interpretative thematic analysis inspired by Boyatzis (1998). To analyze the data we have utilized some s...

  17. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  18. Mumps Virus Induces Protein-Kinase-R-Dependent Stress Granules, Partly Suppressing Type III Interferon Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are cytoplasmic granular aggregations that are induced by cellular stress, including viral infection. SGs have opposing antiviral and proviral roles, which depend on virus species. The exact function of SGs during viral infection is not fully understood. Here, we showed that mumps virus (MuV induced SGs depending on activation of protein kinase R (PKR. MuV infection strongly induced interferon (IFN-λ1, 2 and 3, and IFN-β through activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 via retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS pathway. MuV-induced IFNs were strongly upregulated in PKR-knockdown cells. MuV-induced SG formation was suppressed by knockdown of PKR and SG marker proteins, Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3-domain-binding protein 1 and T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1, and significantly increased the levels of MuV-induced IFN-λ1. However, viral titer was not altered by suppression of SG formation. PKR was required for induction of SGs by MuV infection and regulated type III IFN (IFN-λ1 mRNA stability. MuV-induced SGs partly suppressed type III IFN production by MuV; however, the limited suppression was not sufficient to inhibit MuV replication in cell culture. Our results provide insight into the relationship between SGs and IFN production induced by MuV infection.

  19. Physiotherapy and low back pain - part iii: outcomes research utilising the biosychosocial model: psychosocial outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Bardin

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of low back pain (LBPhas evolved that necessitates the use of a biopsychosocial model, focusing on illness rather than disease and incorporating the biological, psychological and social aspects that are important to understand and to study LBP in its chronic form. Traditional outcome measures that measure elements within the biological component are limited to assess the spectrum of impacts caused by chronic low back pain (CLBP and the validity, reliability and sensitivity of some of these measures has been questioned.Few physiologic tests of spine function are clinically meaningful to patients, objective physical findings can be absent, and in CLBP disability and activity intolerance are often disproportional to the original injury. Biological outcomes should be complemented by outcomes of the psychosocial aspects of back pain that measure the considerable functional and emotional impact on the quality of life of patients experiencing low back dysfunction. Outcomes research is an analysis of clinical practice as it actually occurs and can  make a valuable contribution to understanding the multidimensional impact of LBP. Psychosocial aspects of the biopsychosocial model for outcomes research are discussed in part III: functional status/disability, psychological impairment, patient satisfaction, health related quality of life

  20. A Study of Low-Wage Workers and Their Response to High Intensity Training. Volume III, Part 1 and Part 2: Appendices B 1-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Earl E.

    This document is the last of a three-volume study designed to examine low-wage, low-skilled workers, within the context of their work environment, and to develop ways of measuring the effects of skill advancement training upon the program participants. Volume III, Parts I and II, contains modified employee pre- and post-test interview schedules…

  1. Relationship between Language Proficiency and Growth during Reading Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Frederick, Amy; Helman, Lori; Pulles, Sandra M.; McComas, Jennifer J.; Aguilar, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Many English language learners (ELLs) experience difficulties with basic English reading due in part to low language proficiency. The authors examined the relationship between English language proficiency and growth during reading interventions for ELLs. A total of 201 second- and third-grade students with a variety of home languages participated.…

  2. Communication Strategies: An Interplay between Proficiency and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Hussein; Angameh, Farzad

    2008-01-01

    This paper is intended to investigate the interplay between proficiency and gender in the use of communication strategies. Sixty Iranian university male and female subjects studying English took part in the experiment and performed two tasks: word recognition and picture-story narration. The results indicate that proficiency had a more perceptible…

  3. Proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Jong, de J.; Lee, van der M.K.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The here described proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed was organised by RIKILT, Wageningen UR in accordance with ISO 17043. RIKILT Wageningen UR has an ISO/IEC 17043 accreditation for proficiency tests of residues in products of animal origin. However, this specific test is not part

  4. Facets of Speaking Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants--181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch--performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel of judges and formed the dependent variable in…

  5. Evaluation by Proficiency Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerby, Dale

    1977-01-01

    Albuquerque Technical-Vocational Institute's system for grading business courses by proficiency certification in place of the traditional A through F system is described. A certificate is developed for each course, with evaluation of student performance in each area. This system requires a greater volume of paper work and skill analysis but it is…

  6. Facets of speaking proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N.H.; Steinel, M.P.; Florijn, A.F.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants—181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch—performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel

  7. Bilingual Education and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, California instituted a statewide test measuring English proficiency for English learners, students who are not proficient in English. In 2003 and 2004, nearly 500,000 English learners in grades 1-5 took this test each year. The relationship between bilingual education receipt and English proficiency is estimated using value-added…

  8. Collisions of Small Drops in a Turbulent Flow. Part III: Relative Droplet Fluxes and Swept Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, M. B.; Khain, A. P.; Grits, B.; Shapiro, M.

    2006-08-01

    Swept volumes of cloud droplets with radii below 20 μm are calculated under conditions typical of atmospheric cloud turbulence characterized by enormous values of Reynolds numbers, high turbulent intermittency, and characteristic values of the dissipation rate. To perform the calculations, the motion equation for small droplets proposed by Maxey is generalized for Stokes numbers St > 0.1, which allows one to simulate relative droplet motion even for very high turbulence intensities typical of deep cumulus clouds. Analytical considerations show that droplet motion is fully determined by turbulent shears and the Lagrangian accelerations.A new statistical representation of a turbulent flow has been proposed based on the results of the scale analysis of turbulence characteristics and those related to the droplet motion. According to the method proposed, statistical properties of turbulent flow are represented by a set of noncorrelated samples of turbulent shears and Lagrangian accelerations. Each sample can be assigned to a certain point of the turbulent flow. Each such point can be surrounded by a small “elementary” volume with linear length scales of the Kolmogorov length scale, in which the Lagrangian acceleration and turbulent shears can be considered as uniform in space and invariable in time.This present study (Part III) investigates the droplet collisions in a turbulent flow when hydrodynamic droplet interaction (HDI) is disregarded. Using a statistical model, long series of turbulent shears and accelerations were generated, reproducing probability distribution functions (PDF) at high Reynolds numbers, as they were obtained in recent laboratory and theoretical studies. Swept volumes of droplets are calculated for each sample of an acceleration shear pair, and the PDF of swept volumes is calculated for turbulent parameters typical of cloud turbulence. The effect of turbulent flow intermittency manifests itself in two aspects: 1) an increase of swept volume

  9. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part III. Determining which practices are most effective and installing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic manual. Subjects covered in Part III are: determining which practices are most efficient and economical; installing energy-saving materials; and improving efficiency of equipment.

  10. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part I. Cultural Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Delmues (or Swiss Bob) Well where there was a station, then west across Dry Lake Valley toward Coyote Spring to another station (Lloyd, 1980). The line...in the recorded surface assemblages of the temporary camps. Further investigations may $ Etag E-TR-48-III-I 120 clarify the specific nature of the

  11. Water Ingestion into Axial Flow Compressors. Part III. Experimental Results and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    specifications, or other data, is not to be re- garded by implication or otherwise as in any manner licensing the holder or any other person or corporation , or...arises a large change In gas phase and liquid phase (a) mass flow and (b) temperatura and also a change in gas phase composition. In regime (iii) one

  12. A systematic review of the Indo-Australian Zosteropidae (Part III)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1969-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction .................. 4 Acknowledgements................. 5 Systematic part.................. 7 Zosterops (concluded)................ 7 Tephrozosterops................. 167 Madanga................... 169 Lophozosterops................. 171 Oculocincta.................. 204

  13. Intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws: A clinicopathologic review. Part III: Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolgar, J.A.; Triantafyllou, A.; Ferlito, A.; Devaney, K.O.; Lewis Jr., J.S.; Rinaldo, A.; Slootweg, P.J.; Barnes, L.

    2013-01-01

    This is the third part of a review of the clinicopathologic features of intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws (IOCJ). In parts 1 and 2, we discussed metastatic and salivary-type and odontogenic carcinomas, respectively. This part deals with primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma. Again, based on

  14. PIO I-II tendencies. Part 2. Improving the pilot modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is conceived in two parts and aims to get some contributions to the problem ofPIO aircraft susceptibility analysis. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the mainsteps of deriving a complex model of human pilot. The current Part II of the paper considers a properprocedure of the human pilot mathematical model synthesis in order to analyze PIO II typesusceptibility of a VTOL-type aircraft, related to the presence of position and rate-limited actuator.The mathematical tools are those of semi global stability theory developed in recent works.

  15. Taxonomic classification of phytoplankton with multivariate optical computing, part III: demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Megan R; Swanstrom, Joseph A; Bruckman, Laura S; Richardson, Tammi L; Shaw, Timothy J; Sosik, Heidi M; Myrick, Michael L

    2013-06-01

    We describe the automatic analysis of fluorescence tracks of phytoplankton recorded with a fluorescence imaging photometer. The optical components and construction of the photometer were described in Part I and Part II of this series in this issue. An algorithm first isolates tracks corresponding to a single phytoplankter transit in the nominal focal plane of a flow cell. Then, the fluorescence streaks in the track that correspond to individual optical elements on the filter wheel are identified. The fluorescence intensity of each streak is integrated and used to calculate ratios. This approach was tested using 853 fluorescence measurements of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi and the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Average intensity ratios for the two classes closely follow those predicted in Part I of this series, with a distribution of ratios in each class that is consistent with the signal-to-noise ratio calculations in Part II for single cells. No overlap of the two class ratios was observed, yielding perfect classification.

  16. The Marine Mollusca of Suriname (Dutch Guiana) Holocene and recent Part III. Gastropoda and Cephalopoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1975-01-01

    CONTENTS 1. Introduction, systematic survey and page references....... 3 2. Gastropoda and Cephalopoda............. 8 3. List of corrections of and additions to Part II......... 89 4. References.................. 92 5. Plates ................... 100 1. INTRODUCTION, SYSTEMATIC SURVEY AND PAGE

  17. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part III - Abdominal Treatment Procedures (Long Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Lorentzen, T.; Appelbaum, L.

    2016-01-01

    The third part of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS) assesses the evidence for ultrasound-guided and assisted interventions in abdominal treatment procedures. Recommendations for clinical practice...

  18. SYKE Proficiency Test 10/2014 Phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorio, Kristiina; Björklöf, Katarina; Kuosa, Harri; Jokipii, Reija; Järvinen, Marko; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Leivuori, Mirja; Niemelä, Maija; Väisänen, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) organized in 2014 the fourth virtual phytoplankton proficiency test based on filmed material. A total of 39 analysts from 27 organizations and eight countries took part the test. The test material represented phytoplankton that typically occurs in boreal lakes and in the northern Baltic Sea. The test included three components: 1) phytoplankton species identification test, 2) phytoplankton counting test and 3) phytoplankton measurement of cell dimens...

  19. Antibacterianos de acción sistémica: Parte III. Sulfonamidas y tetraciclinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cué Brugueras

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se presenta la tercera parte de una revisión bibliográfica sobre los antibacterianos de elección, en la cual se abordan los grupos sulfonamidas y tetraciclinas; además, se incluye un cuadro resumen con los antibióticos tratados en las tres partes, así como sus vías de administración y nombres comerciales que se utilizan en Cuba. Se hacen algunas consideraciones sobre la manera de enfrentar la gran variedad de antibióticos y el costo de la antibióticoterapia por parte de los países en vías de desarrollo, tomando como referencia algunas recomendaciones hechas por la OPS/OMSSummary: The third part of a bibliographic review on the elective antibacterials in which the groups of sulfonamides and tetracyclines are approached is presented. It is also included a summary picture with the antibiotics dealt with in the three parts, the routes of administration, and the trade names used in Cuba. Some considerations are made on the way to face the wide range of antibiotics and the cost of antibiotic therapy in the developing countries, taking into account some recommendations made by the PAHO/WHO

  20. Clinical Wisdom among Proficient Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Hall, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    This paperexamines clinical wisdom which has emerged from a broader study anout nurse managers´influence on proficient registered nurse turnover and retention. The purpose of the study was to increase understanding of proficient nurses´experience and clinical practice by giving voice to the nurses...

  1. LEXICOGRAPHY. HISTORY OF ENGLISH, PART ONE. LANGUAGE CURRICULUM III, STUDENT VERSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    AN OUTLINE OF THE NEED FOR AND USES OF LEXICOGRAPHY AND A HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, PART 1, WERE COMBINED IN THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR NINTH-GRADE STUDENTS. THE FIRST SECTION, THE OUTLINE ON LEXICOGRAPHY, GAVE A BRIEF HISTORY OF DICTIONARY COMPILATION AND DESCRIBED THE NEED FOR DICTIONARIES AND THEIR USES. WAYS WERE SUGGESTED FOR STUDENTS…

  2. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part III: Behaviour and quality of the radiation measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohsiek, W.; Liebethal, C.; Foken, T.; Vogt, R.; Oncley, S.P.; Bernhofer, C.; Debruin, H.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    An important part of the Energy Balance Experiment (EBEX-2000) was the measurement of the net radiation and its components. Since the terrain, an irrigated cotton field, could not be considered homogeneous, radiation measurements were made at nine sites using a variety of radiation instruments,

  3. CBIOS Science Sessions - 2016 - Part I and III National Symposium on Nanoscience and Biomedical Nanotechnology - Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Monteiro Rodrigues, et al.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available CBiOS Science Sessions - 2016 – Part 1 New methods to explore efficacy and safety of natural origin products; Stefânia Duz Delsin Effectiveness of Hypopressive Exercises in women with pelvic floor dysfunctions; Beatriz Navarro Brazález Indoor air quality in baby rooms: a study about VOC levels; Raquel Rodrigues dos Santos, Ana Sofia Fernandes e Liliana Mendes A medicinal chemistry approach for the development of novel anti-tumor agentes; Maria M. M. Santos Isolation, modelling and phytosome forms of antibacterial and anti-proliferative compounds from Plectranthus spp; Diogo Matias Intellectual Property – Patenting Propriedade Intelectual – Patenteamento Rui Gomes Biomarkers in wastewater; Álvaro Lopes A Contribution for a Better Comprehension of Donkey Dentistry: the Importance of Dental Care; João Brandão Rodrigues Characterization of Lusitano’s Pure Blood Pressure Centers using two pressure plates; Pequito M.; Gomes-Costa M.; Prazeres J.; Bragança M.; Roupa I.; Fonseca R.G.; Abrantes J. Application of photoplethysmography to monitor heart rate in dogs; Rui Assunção, Henrique Silva, João Requicha, Luis Lobo, Luis Monteiro Rodrigues Looking into the oscillatory properties of the laser Doppler flowmetry signal in human microcirculation; Henrique Silva, Hugo Ferreira, Marie-Ange Renault, Alain-Pierre Gadeau, Julia Buján, LM Rodrigues III Symposium of Nanoscience and Biomedical Nanotechnology – Proceedings April 15/04/2016 Lisboa - Universidade Lusófona Honor Commitee /Comissão de Honra Magnífico Reitor da Universidade Lusófona, Mário Moutinho Presidente do Conselho de Administração da Universidade Lusófona, Manuel de Almeida Damásio Sr. Bastonário da Ordem dos Engenheiros, Carlos Matias Ramos Sr. Bastonário da Ordem dos Médicos, José Silva Vice-presidente do Conselho de Enfermagem, Maria José Costa Dias Presidente da Associação Nacional de Farmácias, Paulo Cleto Duarte Presidente da Sociedade Portuguesa de Ci

  4. LHC Beam Dump Design Study - Part III : Off-normal operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, L; Ross, M; Sala, P

    2000-01-01

    The LHC beam dump design study has been preliminarily substantiated by energy deposition simulations (Part I) and heat transfer analyses (Part II). The present report is devoted to the abnormal operating conditions induced by a malfunction of the beam diluters. A general approach to the analysis of off-normal operation is presented, which is derived from standard design norms adopted in the nuclear industry. Attention is focused mainly on the carbon core, which is longitudinally split into segments of different density in order to better distribute the deposited energy. The maximum energy density it absorbs decreases by at least 33%, compared to a uniform standard density carbon core. This structure may sustain any partial sweep failure without major damage, up to the ultimate beam intensity and energy. To minimise the risks inherent in a fully unswept beam, a sacrificial graphite mandrel will be placed on the core axis, surrounded by a thick high strength carbon-carbon composite tube. With this arrangement, ...

  5. CBIOS Science Sessions - 2016 - Part I and III National Symposium on Nanoscience and Biomedical Nanotechnology - Proceedings

    OpenAIRE

    L. Monteiro Rodrigues, et al.

    2016-01-01

    CBiOS Science Sessions - 2016 – Part 1 New methods to explore efficacy and safety of natural origin products; Stefânia Duz Delsin Effectiveness of Hypopressive Exercises in women with pelvic floor dysfunctions; Beatriz Navarro Brazález Indoor air quality in baby rooms: a study about VOC levels; Raquel Rodrigues dos Santos, Ana Sofia Fernandes e Liliana Mendes A medicinal chemistry approach for the development of novel anti-tumor agentes; Maria M. M. Santos Isolation, modelling ...

  6. PIO I-II tendencies case study. Part 1. Mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a study is performed from the perspective of giving a method to reduce the conservatism of the well known PIO (Pilot-Induced Oscillation criteria in predicting the susceptibility of an aircraft to this very harmful phenomenon. There are three interacting components of a PIO – the pilot, the vehicle, and the trigger (in fact, the hazard. The study, conceived in two parts, aims to underline the importance of human pilot model involved in analysis. In this first part, it is shown, following classical sources, how the LQG theory of control and estimation is used to obtain a complex model of human pilot. The approach is based on the argument, experimentally proved, that the human behaves “optimally” in some sense, subject to his inherent psychophysical limitations. The validation of such model is accomplished based on the experimental model of a VTOL-type aircraft. Then, the procedure of inserting typical saturation nonlinearities in the open loop transfer function is presented. A second part of the paper will illustrate PIO tendencies evaluation by means of a grapho-analytic method.

  7. Cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP): part III--the protocol in brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatajko, H J; Mandich, A D; Missiuna, C; Miller, L T; Macnab, J J; Malloy-Miller, T; Kinsella, E A

    2001-01-01

    Parts I and II of this series introduced the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP), a new approach to intervention that is based on the premise that cognition plays an important role in the acquisition of occupational skills and the development of occupational competency. Developed for use with children who have occupational performance deficits, CO-OP is an individualized, client-centred approach focused on strategy-based skill acquisition. This third paper in this series presents a brief description of the actual CO-OP protocol including its objectives, prerequisites and key features.

  8. Slag-metal reactions during welding: Part III. Verification of the Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, U.; Eagar, T. W.

    1991-02-01

    A previously developed kinetic model of alloy transfer (Part II)[1] is tested experimentally for transfer of Mn, Si, Cr, P, S, Ni, Cu, and Mo. The results show very good agreement between theory and experiment. The transfer of carbon and oxygen is also discussed. It is shown that the transfer of oxygen into the weld metal occurs in the zone of droplet reactions, whereas oxygen is lost by formation and separation of inclusions in the solidifying weld pool. Methods of applying this analysis to multipass welds and active fluxes containing ferroalloy additions are also described.

  9. Models for Quarks and Elementary Particles. Part III: What is the Nature of the Gravitational Field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann U. K. W.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The first two parts of this article series dealt with the questions: What is a quark? and What is mass? While the present models lead to a physical idea of the mass, the geometrical theory of the general relativity only shows the effect of mass. From the physical idea of mass, from the idea of the resultant vector (EV as electric flux and from the ideas relating to the magnetic monopole (MMP it follows that the gravitational field is an electrical field. The share of the electrical gravitational flux on the entire electrical flux of a quark is determined from Newton’s empirical gravitational constant G . The superposition of the < fluxes of two quark collectives produces the gravitational force effect between two quark collectives. Gravitational fields reach infinitely far according to our current ideas. Connected with the quark oscillations hinted in the Parts I and II this results in the idea of the < - < flux spreading with infinite speed, having enormous consequences.

  10. Managing the multicultural laboratory, Part III: Putting the cross-cultural tools to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, S M

    1993-01-01

    This third article provides two case studies that enable laboratory managers to see how the cross-cultural model postulated by Dr. Geert Hofstede can be practically applied to two important issues--staff training and conflict resolution between employees. In addition, the opinions of several managers from a variety of industries are presented to add realism and perspective. This encourages laboratory managers to step outside the laboratory environment and learn from other managers who have years of experience supervising culturally diverse groups of employees. Part I of this series explained what is meant by "culture" and featured the research-based model set forth by Dutch social psychologist and management consultant, Dr. Geert Hofstede. His four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Masculinity/Femininity, Individualism/Collectivism, and Uncertainty Avoidance) provide a useful framework for understanding the different values, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by those of different cultural backgrounds. Part II presented advice in the form of 13 anecdotes from experienced cross-cultural managers. Issues of performance management, interpersonal skills, and language and safety were explored in light of the four dimensions. In this third article, abbreviated reference tables adapted from Hofstede's research are presented that make these cross-cultural data more useful for management decision making. Laboratory managers will receive practical, "real world" advice that will help them to positively resolve conflicts and to take full advantage of staff training opportunities.

  11. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part III. Renormalization equations and their solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I and II of this series of papers all elements have been introduced to extend, to two loops, the set of renormalization procedures which are needed in describing the properties of a spontaneously broken gauge theory. In this paper, the final step is undertaken and finite renormalization is discussed. Two-loop renormalization equations are introduced and their solutions discussed within the context of the minimal standard model of fundamental interactions. These equations relate renormalized Lagrangian parameters (couplings and masses) to some input parameter set containing physical (pseudo-)observables. Complex poles for unstable gauge and Higgs bosons are used and a consistent setup is constructed for extending the predictivity of the theory from the Lep1 Z-boson scale (or the Lep2 WW scale) to regions of interest for LHC and ILC physics. (orig.)

  12. Dental caries: A complete changeover, PART III: Changeover in the treatment decisions and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2010-10-01

    Comprehensive management of dental caries should involve the management of disease as well as the lesion. Current decision making process in cariology is influenced by numerous factors such as the size/ depth/ activity of the carious lesion and age/ the caries risk status of the patient. Treatment decisions should involve planning the non-operative/ preventive treatment for non-cavitated or early cavitated lesions and also formulating operative treatment for cavitated lesions. Apart from these two responsibilities, a clinician should also be knowledgeable enough to decide when not to interfere in the caries dynamics and how frequently to recall the patient for follow-ups. The non-operative treatment prescriptions vary in dose, intensity and mode of delivery according to the caries risk status. Minimal invasion and maximal conservation of tooth structure has become the essence of current operative treatments. This part of the series elaborates on the paradigm shift in the management of dental caries.

  13. Dental caries: A complete changeover, PART III: Changeover in the treatment decisions and treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive management of dental caries should involve the management of disease as well as the lesion. Current decision making process in cariology is influenced by numerous factors such as the size/ depth/ activity of the carious lesion and age/ the caries risk status of the patient. Treatment decisions should involve planning the non-operative/ preventive treatment for non-cavitated or early cavitated lesions and also formulating operative treatment for cavitated lesions. Apart from these two responsibilities, a clinician should also be knowledgeable enough to decide when not to interfere in the caries dynamics and how frequently to recall the patient for follow-ups. The non-operative treatment prescriptions vary in dose, intensity and mode of delivery according to the caries risk status. Minimal invasion and maximal conservation of tooth structure has become the essence of current operative treatments. This part of the series elaborates on the paradigm shift in the management of dental caries. PMID:21217948

  14. A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of its wide coverage over much of the globe, biomass burning has been widely studied in the context of direct radiative forcing. Such study is warranted as smoke particles scatter and at times absorb solar radiation efficiently. Further, as much of what is known about smoke transport and impacts is based on remote sensing measurements, the optical properties of smoke particles have far reaching effects into numerous aspects of biomass burning studies. Global estimates of direct forcing have been widely varying, ranging from near zero to −1 W m-2. A significant part of this difference can be traced to varying assumptions on the optical properties of smoke. This manuscript is the third part of four examining biomass-burning emissions. Here we review and discuss the literature concerning measurement and modeling of optical properties of biomass-burning particles. These include available data from published sensitivity studies, field campaigns, and inversions from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET of Sun photometer sites. As a whole, optical properties reported in the literature are varied, reflecting both the dynamic nature of fires, variations in smoke aging processes and differences in measurement technique. We find that forward modeling or ''internal closure'' studies ultimately are of little help in resolving outstanding measurement issues due to the high degree of degeneracy in solutions when using ''reasonable'' input parameters. This is particularly notable with respect to index of refraction and the treatment of black carbon. Consequently, previous claims of column closure may in fact be more ambiguous. Differences between in situ and retrieved ωo values have implications for estimates of mass scattering and mass absorption efficiencies. In this manuscript we review and discuss this community dataset. Strengths and lapses are pointed out, future research topics are prioritized, and best estimates and uncertainties of key

  15. The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM: the Theory (Part III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Western medical science lacks a solid philosophical and theoretical approach to disease cognition and therapeutics. My first two articles provided a framework for a humane medicine based on Modern Biophysics. Its precepts encompass modern therapeutics and CAM. Modern Biophysics and its concepts are presently missing in medicine, whether orthodox or CAM, albeit they probably provide the long sought explanation that bridges the abyss between East and West. Key points that differentiate Systemic from other systems' approaches are ‘Intelligence’, ‘Energy’ and the objective ‘to survive’. The General System Theory (GST) took a forward step by proposing a departure from the mechanistic biological concept—of analyzing parts and processes in isolation—and brought us towards an organismic model. GST examines the system's components and results of their interaction. However, GST still does not go far enough. GST assumes ‘Self-Organization’ as a spontaneous phenomenon, ignoring a causative entity or central controller to all systems: Intelligence. It also neglects ‘Survive’ as the directional motivation common to any living system, and scarcely assigns ‘Energy’ its true inherent value. These three parameters, Intelligence, Energy and Survive, are vital variables to be considered, in our human quest, if we are to achieve a unified theory of life. PMID:16136205

  16. The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM: the Theory (Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Olalde Rangel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Western medical science lacks a solid philosophical and theoretical approach to disease cognition and therapeutics. My first two articles provided a framework for a humane medicine based on Modern Biophysics. Its precepts encompass modern therapeutics and CAM. Modern Biophysics and its concepts are presently missing in medicine, whether orthodox or CAM, albeit they probably provide the long sought explanation that bridges the abyss between East and West. Key points that differentiate Systemic from other systems' approaches are ‘Intelligence’, ‘Energy’ and the objective ‘to survive’. The General System Theory (GST took a forward step by proposing a departure from the mechanistic biological concept—of analyzing parts and processes in isolation—and brought us towards an organismic model. GST examines the system's components and results of their interaction. However, GST still does not go far enough. GST assumes ‘Self-Organization’ as a spontaneous phenomenon, ignoring a causative entity or central controller to all systems: Intelligence. It also neglects ‘Survive’ as the directional motivation common to any living system, and scarcely assigns ‘Energy’ its true inherent value. These three parameters, Intelligence, Energy and Survive, are vital variables to be considered, in our human quest, if we are to achieve a unified theory of life.

  17. History of clubfoot treatment; part III (twentieth century): back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Clubfoot is one of the most common congenital orthopaedic anomalies and was described by Hippocrates in the year 400 BC. From manipulation in antiquity to splint and plaster in the Renaissance the treatment had improved before tenotomy. Many surgical treatments were tested during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and will be explained in this manuscript; however, the pathology still continues to challenge the paediatric orthopedic surgeon as it has a notorious tendency to relapse, irrespective of whether the foot is treated with conservative or operative means. Part of the reason that the foot relapses is the surgeon's failure to recognize the underlying pathoanatomy. Clubfoot is often automatically assumed to be an equinovarus deformity, however, other permutations and combinations, such as calcaneovalgus, equinovalgus and calcaneovarus, are possible. Out of these combinations, calcaneovalgus occurs most frequently, followed by equinovarus deformity. In more than 90% of the cases, calcaneovalgus responds to conservative treatment, which involves passive manipulation and usually does not require casting or operative intervention as has been demonstrated by Ponseti.

  18. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part III. Chemistry of the color, aroma, and pungency stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1986-01-01

    The spice capsicum, the fruits of the genus Capsicum (Family Solanaceae), is a very popular food additive in many parts of the world, valued for the important sensory attributes of color, pungency, and aroma. A large number of varieties are widely cultivated and traded. The characteristic carotenoids of the bright red paprika and cayenne-type chillies, the high character impact aroma stimuli, the methoxy pyrazine of green bell capsicum, the esters of ripe tabasco and the highly potent pungency stimuli, and the capsaicinoids of African and other Asian varieties of chillies, have been of great interest to chemists and biochemists. Research workers in other disciplines such as genetics and breeding, agriculture, and technology have been interested in this spice to develop new varieties with combinations of different optimal levels of the stimuli for the sensory attributes and to maximize production of storable products for specific end uses. Physiologists have been intensely studying the action of the highly potent pungency stimuli and social psychologists the curious aspect of growing acceptance and preference for the initially unacceptable pungency sensation. In the sequential review of all these aspects of the fruit spice Capsicum, the earlier two parts covered history, botany, cultivation and primary processing, and processed products, standards, world production, and trade. In Part III, the chemistry, the compositional variations, synthesis and biosynthesis of the functional components, the carotenoids, the volatiles, and the capsaicinoids are comprehensively reviewed.

  19. AICRG, Part III: The influence of antibiotic use on the survival of a new implant design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Harold F; Ochi, Shigeru; Plezia, Richard; Gilbert, Harry; Dent, C Daniel; Pikulski, James; Lambert, Paul M

    2004-01-01

    The American College of Surgeons guidelines suggest that complex oral surgery may benefit from prophylactic antibiotic coverage. The use of preoperative antibiotics, postoperative antibiotics, or both during implant placement is a widely accepted practice in the United States, whereas dentists in other countries rarely use antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to determine if antibiotic coverage at the time of implant placement improves the survival of the Ankylos implant. As part of a comprehensive, multicentered, multidisciplinary, prospective, independent, international clinical study, designed and coordinated in the United States by the Ankylos Implant Clinical Research Group (AICRG), the use of preoperative (several regimens) and postoperative antibiotics (yes/no) were carefully documented to assess their influence on improving survival. A total of 1500 Ankylos implants were placed and followed for a period of 3 to 5 years. The decision to use antibiotics and the regimen to be employed was made by the treating surgeon. Failure was defined as removal of the implant for any reason. All data were entered into a computerized database for analysis. The use of preoperative antibiotics produced no significant improvement (P = .21, Fisher's exact test) in survival compared with those placed without antibiotic coverage. There was no significant difference between the regimens defined as AHA-1990, AHA-1997, and Peterson's recommendations. The results of this study suggest that there was little or no advantage to providing antibiotic coverage when placing this implant. These findings also suggest that the use of antibiotics for implant placement may not be as beneficial as once believed. If validated by other studies, the elimination of this practice for routine implant placement would represent a small but significant step forward in the reduction of unnecessary antibiotic use.

  20. Dispersion of a Passive Scalar Fluctuating Plume in a Turbulent Boundary Layer. Part III: Stochastic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marro, Massimo; Salizzoni, Pietro; Soulhac, Lionel; Cassiani, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the reliability of the Lagrangian stochastic micromixing method in predicting higher-order statistics of the passive scalar concentration induced by an elevated source (of varying diameter) placed in a turbulent boundary layer. To that purpose we analyze two different modelling approaches by testing their results against the wind-tunnel measurements discussed in Part I (Nironi et al., Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 2015, Vol. 156, 415-446). The first is a probability density function (PDF) micromixing model that simulates the effects of the molecular diffusivity on the concentration fluctuations by taking into account the background particles. The second is a new model, named VPΓ, conceived in order to minimize the computational costs. This is based on the volumetric particle approach providing estimates of the first two concentration moments with no need for the simulation of the background particles. In this second approach, higher-order moments are computed based on the estimates of these two moments and under the assumption that the concentration PDF is a Gamma distribution. The comparisons concern the spatial distribution of the first four moments of the concentration and the evolution of the PDF along the plume centreline. The novelty of this work is twofold: (i) we perform a systematic comparison of the results of micro-mixing Lagrangian models against experiments providing profiles of the first four moments of the concentration within an inhomogeneous and anisotropic turbulent flow, and (ii) we show the reliability of the VPΓ model as an operational tool for the prediction of the PDF of the concentration.

  1. Color stability and colorant effect on maxillofacial elastomers. Part III: weathering effect on color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, S P; Andres, C J; Moore, B K

    1999-04-01

    Maxillofacial prostheses are serviceable for approximately 6 months, after which they need to be refabricated because of the deterioration of color and physical properties. This third article in a 3-part series evaluated the color stability of commonly used colorant-elastomer combinations as a result of exposure to weathering. Fifteen specimens were fabricated for each of the 3 elastomers (Silastic medical adhesive type A, Silastic 4-4210, and Silicone A-2186) and 6 colorants (dry earth pigments, rayon fiber flocking, artist's oil paints, kaolin, liquid cosmetics, and no colorant) for a total of 270 specimens (18 groups of 15 specimens). The 15 specimens of each elastomer-colorant combination were separated into 3 test condition groups (control, time passage, and natural weathering) of 5 specimens per test condition group. Control specimens were evaluated within 1 month of fabrication. The time passage group was sealed in glass containers and kept in the dark for 6 months before testing. The natural weathering groups were placed on the roof of the dental school for 6 months and exposed to sunlight and weathering. Color and optical density data for each elastomer-colorant combination were subjected to a 1-way analysis of variance to examine effects among test conditions (control, time passage, and weathering). When significant differences were observed, the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test was performed to identify differences in elastomer-colorant combinations among each test condition at a significance level of .05. Changes in color, as a result of weathering, were noted in many of the colorant-elastomer combinations. Also, color change occurred not only to the colored, but also to uncolored materials over time without exposure to weathering. Clinically, the addition of colorants could have a stabilizing effect on the elastomer color when it is exposed to weathering.

  2. Ultrasound assessment of selected peripheral nerve pathologies. Part III: Injuries and postoperative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Kowalska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The previous articles of the series devoted to ultrasound diagnostics of peripheral nerves concerned the most common nerve pathologies, i.e. entrapment neuropathies. The aim of the last part of the series is to present ultrasound possibilities in the postoperative control of the peripheral nerves as well as in the diagnostics of the second most common neuropathies of peripheral nerves, i.e. posttraumatic lesions. Early diagnostics of posttraumatic changes is of fundamental importance for the course of treatment and its long-term effects. It aids surgeons in making treatment decisions (whether surgical or conservative. When surgical treatment is necessary, the surgeon, based on US findings, is able to plan a given type of operative method. In certain cases, may even abandon the corrective or reconstructive surgery of the nerve trunk (when there are extensive defects of the nerve trunks and instead, proceed with muscle transfers. Medical literature proposes a range of divisions of the kinds of peripheral nerve injuries depending on, among others, the mechanism or degree of damage. However, the most important issue in the surgeon-diagnostician communication is a detailed description of stumps of the nerve trunks, their distance and location. In the postoperative period, ultrasound is used for monitoring the operative or conservative treatment effects including the determination of the causes of a persistent or recurrent neuropathy. It facilitates decision-making concerning a repeated surgical procedure or assuming a wait-and-see attitude. It is a difficult task for a diagnostician and it requires experience, close cooperation with a clinician and knowledge concerning surgical techniques. Apart from a static assessment, a dynamic assessment of possible adhesions constitutes a crucial element of postoperative examination. This feature distinguishes ultrasound scanning from other methods used in the diagnostics of peripheral neuropathies.

  3. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System-Part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wichgersm Joel M.; Haynes, Brian; Roy, Aloke

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present progress made in the studies and describe the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified as part of the study. NASA's NextGen Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project integrates solutions for a safe, efficient and high-capacity airspace system through joint research efforts and partnerships with other government agencies. The CTD Project is one of two within NASA's Airspace Systems Program and is managed by the NASA Ames Research Center. Research within the CTD Project is in support the 2011 NASA Strategic Plan Sub-Goal 4.1: Develop innovative solutions and advanced technologies, through a balanced research portfolio, to improve current and future air transportation. The focus of CTD is on developing capabilities in traffic flow management, dynamic airspace configuration, separation assurance, super density operations and airport surface operations. Important to its research is the development of human/automation information requirements and decisionmaking guidelines for human-human and human-machine airportal decision-making. Airborne separation, oceanic intrail climb/descent and interval management applications depend on location and intent information of surrounding aircraft. ADS-B has been proposed to provide the information exchange, but other candidates such as satellite-based receivers, broadband or airborne internet, and cellular communications are possible candidate's.

  4. Proficiency Effect on L2 Pragmatic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This paper synthesizes cross-sectional studies of the effect of proficiency on second language (L2) pragmatics to answer the synthesis question: Does proficiency affect adult learners' pragmatic competence? Findings have revealed an overall positive proficiency effect on pragmatic competence, and in most cases higher proficiency learners have…

  5. Standing on shaky ground- US patent-eligibility of isolated DNA and genetic diagnostics after AMP v. USPTO - Part III (unsolved questions & subsequent case law)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David

    2012-01-01

    review (5). Why a potential Supreme Court review of AMP v. USPTO would indeed be a much welcomed and necessary development is now analyzed in Part III. This part will elaborate on the myriad of unsolved questions raised by both AMP v. USPTO and a bulk of subsequent case law addressing the patent...

  6. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part III. Innovativeness, applications, economy, development scenarios, politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    important role of ET is combined with the existence in the society of an adequate infrastructure which recreates the full development cycle of high technology embracing: people, institutions, finances and logistics, in this also science, higher education, education, continuous training, dissemination and outreach, professional social environment, legal basis, political support and lobbying, innovation structures, applications, industry and economy. The digest of chosen development tendencies in ET was made here from the academic perspective, in a wider scale and on this background the national one, trying to situate this branch in the society, determine its changing role to build a new technical infrastructure of a society based on knowledge, a role of builder of many practical gadgets facilitating life, a role of a big future integrator of today's single bricks into certain more useful unity. This digest does not have a character of a systematic analysis of ET. It is a kind of an arbitrary utterance of the authors inside their field of competence. The aim of this paper is to take an active part in the discussion of the academic community in this country on the development strategy of ET, choice of priorities for cyclically rebuilding economy, in competitive environments. The review paper was initiated by the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences and was published in Polish as introductory chapter of a dedicated expertise, printed in a book format. This version makes the included opinions available for a wider community.

  7. Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    When two or more languages are part of a child's world, we are presented with a rich opportunity to learn something about language in general and about how the mind works. In this book, Norbert Francis examines the development of bilingual proficiency and the different kinds of competence that come together in making up its component parts. In…

  8. Computer proficiency questionnaire: assessing low and high computer proficient seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D; Mitzner, Tracy; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran

    2015-06-01

    Computers and the Internet have the potential to enrich the lives of seniors and aid in the performance of important tasks required for independent living. A prerequisite for reaping these benefits is having the skills needed to use these systems, which is highly dependent on proper training. One prerequisite for efficient and effective training is being able to gauge current levels of proficiency. We developed a new measure (the Computer Proficiency Questionnaire, or CPQ) to measure computer proficiency in the domains of computer basics, printing, communication, Internet, calendaring software, and multimedia use. Our aim was to develop a measure appropriate for individuals with a wide range of proficiencies from noncomputer users to extremely skilled users. To assess the reliability and validity of the CPQ, a diverse sample of older adults, including 276 older adults with no or minimal computer experience, was recruited and asked to complete the CPQ. The CPQ demonstrated excellent reliability (Cronbach's α = .98), with subscale reliabilities ranging from .86 to .97. Age, computer use, and general technology use all predicted CPQ scores. Factor analysis revealed three main factors of proficiency related to Internet and e-mail use; communication and calendaring; and computer basics. Based on our findings, we also developed a short-form CPQ (CPQ-12) with similar properties but 21 fewer questions. The CPQ and CPQ-12 are useful tools to gauge computer proficiency for training and research purposes, even among low computer proficient older adults. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  10. Nature of L2 Grammatical Proficiency: A Multi-Dimensional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Samani, Behrouz Nouri

    2011-01-01

    This is a study with descriptive hypothesis-testing design investigating the true nature of L2 grammatical proficiency via focusing on its component parts. It examines the performance of 60 female EFL learners between 19 and 30 years of age at 2 proficiency levels using 2 types of computerized Grammaticality Judgement tasks in different orders…

  11. RF thermal and new cold part design studies on TTF-III input coupler for Project-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Shilun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Adolphsen, Chris E. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Li, Zenghai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Solyak, Nikolay A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gonin, Ivan V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-05-15

    An RF power coupler is one of the key components in a superconducting (SC) linac. It provides RF power to the SC cavity and interconnects different temperature layers (1.8 K, 4.2 K, 70 K and 300 K). The TTF-III coupler is one of the most promising candidates for the High Energy (HE) linac of Project X, but it cannot meet the average power requirements because of the relatively high temperature rise on the warm inner conductor, so some design modifications will be required. In this paper, we describe our simulation studies on the copper coating thickness on the warm inner conductor with RRR values of 10 and 100. Our purpose is to rebalance the dynamic and static loads, and finally lower the temperature rise along the warm inner conductor. Additionally, to get stronger coupling, better power handling and less multipacting probability, one new cold part design was proposed using a 60 mm coaxial line; the corresponding multipacting simulation studies have also been investigated.

  12. Language proficiency and nursing registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    This discussion paper focuses on English proficiency standards for nursing registration in Australia, how Australia has dealt with the issue of language proficiency, and the factors which have led to the establishment of the current language standards. Also, this paper will provide a comparison of the two language tests that are currently accepted in Australia (OET and IELTS), including the appropriateness of these tests and the minimum standards used. The paper will also examine the use of educational background as an indicator of language proficiency. Finally, communication-based complaints in the post-registration environment will be explored, and some discussion will be provided about why pre-registration measures might have failed to prevent such problematic situations from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Miscellaneous, Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Miscellaneous, part III section of the proceedings contains the following 11 papers: "The Relationship between Health and Fitness Magazine Reading and Eating-Disordered Weight-Loss Methods among High School Girls" (Steven R. Thomsen, Michelle M. Weber, and Lora Beth Brown); "A Practical Exercise for Teaching Ethical Decision…

  14. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part III--Practitioners and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, David; Martinez, David; Aenchbacher, Amy; Aiello, Rocco; Doyle, Mike; Hilgenbrinck, Linda; Busse, Sean; Cappuccio, Jim

    2013-01-01

    In Part III of the feature, physical educators and adapted physical educators offer current best practices as models of implementation for readers. Contributions included are: (1) Answer to the Dear Colleague Letter from the Anchorage School District's Adapted Sport Program (David Poulin); (2) Georgia's Adapted Physical Educators Response to the…

  15. The Feasibility of Administering a Practical Clinical Examination in Podiatry at a College of Podiatric Medicine: Results of a Field Trial Under Simulated Part III Test Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Valletta, Michael

    1978-01-01

    The results of a practical clinical examination in podiatric medicine administered to fourth-year students are presented. The examination could become the prototype of a Part III practical clinical examination under the auspices of the National Board of Podiatry Examiners. Its feasibility is established and problems and issues are discussed.…

  16. Identity processing styles and language proficiency among Persian learners of English as a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Neissi, Sina

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between identity processing styles and language proficiency in English as foreign language (EFL) was investigated among the Persian EFL learners. 266 Persian candidates taking part in a Ph.D. examination at Shiraz University took part. The Language Proficiency Test was used to measure language proficiency in English. The Identity Styles Inventory was used to measure normative, informational, and diffuse-avoidant identity processing styles. Relationships between normative and informational styles and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were positive and significant. Negative relationships between diffuse-avoidant style and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were observed. There were significant sex differences for diffuse-avoidant style and for vocabulary.

  17. Evaluation of Mycology Laboratory Proficiency Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Andrew A.; Salkin, Ira F.; McGinnis, Michael R.; Gromadzki, Sally; Pasarell, Lester; Kemna, Maggi; Higgins, Nancy; Salfinger, Max

    1999-01-01

    Changes over the last decade in overt proficiency testing (OPT) regulations have been ostensibly directed at improving laboratory performance on patient samples. However, the overt (unblinded) format of the tests and regulatory penalties associated with incorrect values allow and encourage laboratorians to take extra precautions with OPT analytes. As a result OPT may measure optimal laboratory performance instead of the intended target of typical performance attained during routine patient testing. This study addresses this issue by evaluating medical mycology OPT and comparing its fungal specimen identification error rates to those obtained in a covert (blinded) proficiency testing (CPT) program. Identifications from 188 laboratories participating in the New York State mycology OPT from 1982 to 1994 were compared with the identifications of the same fungi recovered from patient specimens in 1989 and 1994 as part of the routine procedures of 88 of these laboratories. The consistency in the identification of OPT specimens was sufficient to make accurate predictions of OPT error rates. However, while the error rates in OPT and CPT were similar for Candida albicans, significantly higher error rates were found in CPT for Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and other common pathogenic fungi. These differences may, in part, be due to OPT’s use of ideal organism representatives cultured under optimum growth conditions. This difference, as well as the organism-dependent error rate differences, reflects the limitations of OPT as a means of assessing the quality of routine laboratory performance in medical mycology. PMID:10364601

  18. Proficiency and the Bilingual Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, Mirjam; And Others

    A study investigated lexical decision-making among Dutch-English bilinguals in the auditory modality. Subjects, bilinguals at three proficiency levels (intermediate, high, and near-native) were presented with 40 cognate and 40 non-cognate word pairs, a similar number of English and Dutch distractors, and a similar number of nonsense words in each…

  19. Second Language Proficiency Assessment and Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    A discussion of the role of second language proficiency assessment in the evaluation of language programs argues that for four reasons, the use of proficiency is inappropriate as a central element in evaluation. The reasons are: (1) the construct of proficiency has not been operationalized in a way that enables it to be used usefully; (2)…

  20. Professor's Page: Is Understanding a Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The everyday use of "proficient" carries connotations of having reached a level of expertise. One would not describe someone stumbling through a rendition of "Chopsticks" as a proficient piano player; but novice pianists work on musical proficiencies--practicing scales or playing a polka--in parallel. They do not put off…

  1. Information technology in chemistry research and education: Part I. Ab initio studies on the hydrolysis of aromatic diazonium ions. Part II. Theoretical study and molecular modeling of non-covalent interactions. Part III. Applying information technology in chemistry education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengyu

    Part I of this dissertation studies the bonding in chemical reactions, while Part II studies the bonding related to inter- and intra-molecular interactions. Part III studies the application of IT technology in chemistry education. Part I of this dissertation (chapter 1 and chapter 2) focuses on the theoretical studies on the mechanism of the hydrolysis reactions of benzenediazonium ion and guaninediazonium ion. The major conclusion is that in hydrolysis reactions the "unimolecular mechanism" actually has to involve the reacting solvent molecule. Therefore, the unimolecular pathway can only serve as a conceptual model but will not happen in the reality. Chapter I concludes that the hydrolysis reaction of benzenediazonium ion takes the direct SN2Ar mechanism via a transition state but without going through a pre-coordination complex. Chapter 2 concludes that the formation of xanthine from the dediazoniation reaction of guaninediazonium ion in water takes the SN2Ar pathway without a transition state. And oxanine might come from an intermediate formed by the bimolecular deprotonation of the H atom on N3 of guaninediazonium ion synchronized with the pyrimidine ring opening reaction. Part II of this dissertation includes chapters 3, 4, and 5. Chapter 3 studies the quadrupole moment of benzene and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions. We concluded that the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction is important in the arene-arene interactions. Our study shows the most stable structure of benzene dimer is the point-to-face T-shaped structure. Chapter 4 studies the intermolecular interactions that result in the disorder of the crystal of 4-Chloroacetophenone-(4-methoxyphenylethylidene). We analyzed all the nearest neighbor interactions within that crystal and found that the crystal structure is determined by its thermo-dynamical properties. Our calculation perfectly reproduced the percentage of parallel-alignment of the crystal. Part III of this dissertation is focused on the

  2. German design approaches for activated sludge process with regard to nitrogen removal : part three: sensibility design analyses; Approcci tedeschi al dimensionamento dei sistemi a fanghi attivi per la rimozione dell`azoto : parte III: analisi di sensibilita` progettuale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatano, F. [Milan Politecnico (Italy). Sez. Ambientale

    1996-04-01

    The paper describes and analyzes the most recent German static or steady state design criteria of the sludge process with regard to nitrogen removal. Design sensibility analyses of the HSG criterion and the Kayser criterion are developed in this Part III.

  3. Proficiency test in the accreditation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.

    2008-08-01

    In the accreditation process of a radioactivity measurements laboratory, according to ISO standard 17025, proficiency tests play a fundamental role. These PTs constitute an irreplaceable tool for the validation of measuring methods. In the case of Spain, ENAC, which is the Spanish accreditation national body, requires that the laboratory has to take part in a PT for each one of the accredited measuring methods in the period of time between two reassessments of the accreditation, what happens every 4-5 years. In specific areas of determination procedures, among which radioactive measurements could be included, the number of methods which can be accredited is very large. The purpose of the present work is to establish a classification into families of the different radioactivity measurement procedures, as well as to establish complementary actions that guarantee that carrying out periodically proficiency-tests on any of the included procedures in each family, every measurement procedure include in that family is controlled, complying with the criteria established by ENAC.

  4. Compensation of skeletal Class III malocclusion by isolated extraction of mandibular teeth: Part 2: Skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue parameters in comparison with nonextraction Class III therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Bernd; Gaida, Sarah; Dathe, Henning

    2016-03-01

    To retrospectively compare two compensatory approaches taken in skeletal Class III patients during the main treatment stage, including a study group of multiband treatment plus isolated extraction of mandibular teeth and a control group of multiband treatment without extraction of teeth. The extraction group included 22 (12 female, 10 male) patients receiving compensatory multiband treatment for a mean of 3.47 ± 1.14 years and 16.22 ± 1.92 years old at debonding. The nonextraction group included 24 (14 female, 10 male) patients undergoing multiband treatment for 2.76 ± 1.28 years and 15.38 ± 1.46 years old at debonding. Lateral cephalograms obtained at baseline and upon completion of active treatment were traced for skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue parameters. Welch and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze intergroup differences (initial values, final values, initial-to-final changes) and within-group differences (p < 0.05). Upon completion of active treatment, the only significant intergroup differences were noted for U1NA and L1ML. Significant within-group changes over the courses of treatment were seen for SNB, MLNL, U1NA, U1NL, L1NB, L1ML, H-angle, ULipEL, and LLipEL (extraction group) or for SNB, ANB, individual ANB, Wits appraisal, U1NA, U1NL, H-angle, Naslab-a, ULipEL, and LLipEL (nonextraction group). Parameters that changed by significantly different amounts in both groups included Wits appraisal, L1NB, L1ML, and LLipEL. The added value of isolated extraction therapy basically lies in increasing the potential for retruding the lower incisor inclinations, so that compensatory treatment becomes an option even in selected patients presenting with adverse occlusal situations that would otherwise require orthognathic surgery. Given the successful outcomes in both groups, which had been established by Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) scores, it was possible to define the skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue characteristics of successful treatment more

  5. Motor Proficiency in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Fotini Venetsanou; Antonis Kambas

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine motor proficiency in young children, focusing on potential gender differences. For that purpose, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP-LF) was administered to 540 children (272 boys), 4½ to 6 years old. First, the 2 (sex) × 4 (age groups) ANOVA computed on children’s total BOTMP-LF scores showed that age had a statistically significant effect, whereas gender did ...

  6. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part II. Cultural Resources Survey, Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    including horse, camel, mammoth, Ertm E-TR-48-III-II 20 musk ox, and certain species of bison, goat, and bear, which had previously inhabited the marsh and...34 - - -9,$.. 𔄃 Im I I I Si to * Location lype/Contents Affiliation 42B@644 rid e over cr ek - P/J depression, cleared areas, Fr elon (f4-5-18-92) ground

  7. Identification of d-Galactan-III As Part of the Lipopolysaccharide of Klebsiella pneumoniae Serotype O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Katarina; Szijártó, Valéria; Kaszowska, Marta; Niedziela, Tomasz; Hartl, Katharina; Nagy, Gábor; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta

    2017-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, ubiquitous bacterium capable of causing severe nosocomial infections in individuals with impaired immune system. Emerging multi-drug resistant strains of this species and particularly carbapenem-resistant strains pose an urgent threat to public health. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen is the main surface antigen. It contributes to the virulence of this species and determines the O-serotype of K. pneumoniae isolates. Among the nine main O-serotypes of K. pneumoniae, O1-and O2-type pathogens are causative agents of over 50% of all infections. Serotype O1, the most common O-serotype, expresses complex LPS consisting of d-galactan-I (a polymer built of → 3)-β-d-Galf-(1 → 3)-α-d-Galp-(1 → repeating units) capped by d-galactan-II (built of [ → 3)-α-d-Galp-(1 → 3)-β-d-Galp-(1 →] repeating units). Galactan-I is present as the sole polymer in O2 serotype. Recently, in case of serotype O2, conversion of galactan-I to galactan-III (→ 3)-β-d-Galf-(1 → 3)-[α-d-Galp-(1 → 4)]-α-d-Galp-(1 →) was reported. Substitution of → 3)-α-d-Galp by a branching terminal α-d-Galp was dependent on the presence of the gmlABC operon and had a major impact on the antigenicity of the galactan polymer. Genetic analysis indicated that 40% of the O1 clinical isolates also carry the gmlABC locus; therefore we aimed to characterize the corresponding phenotype of LPS O-antigens. The presence of galactan-III among O1 strains was proven using galactan-III-specific monoclonal antibodies and confirmed by structural analyses performed using sugar and methylation analysis as well as classical and high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. By using an isogenic mutant pair, we demonstrated that galactan-III expression was dependent on the presence of glycosyltransferases encoded by gmlABC, as was shown previously for the O2 serotype. Furthermore, the galactan-II structures in O1gml+ strains remained unaffected

  8. Identification of d-Galactan-III As Part of the Lipopolysaccharide of Klebsiella pneumoniae Serotype O1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Lukasiewicz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, ubiquitous bacterium capable of causing severe nosocomial infections in individuals with impaired immune system. Emerging multi-drug resistant strains of this species and particularly carbapenem-resistant strains pose an urgent threat to public health. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS O-antigen is the main surface antigen. It contributes to the virulence of this species and determines the O-serotype of K. pneumoniae isolates. Among the nine main O-serotypes of K. pneumoniae, O1-and O2-type pathogens are causative agents of over 50% of all infections. Serotype O1, the most common O-serotype, expresses complex LPS consisting of d-galactan-I (a polymer built of → 3-β-d-Galf-(1 → 3-α-d-Galp-(1 → repeating units capped by d-galactan-II (built of [ → 3-α-d-Galp-(1 → 3-β-d-Galp-(1 →] repeating units. Galactan-I is present as the sole polymer in O2 serotype. Recently, in case of serotype O2, conversion of galactan-I to galactan-III (→ 3-β-d-Galf-(1 → 3-[α-d-Galp-(1 → 4]-α-d-Galp-(1 → was reported. Substitution of → 3-α-d-Galp by a branching terminal α-d-Galp was dependent on the presence of the gmlABC operon and had a major impact on the antigenicity of the galactan polymer. Genetic analysis indicated that 40% of the O1 clinical isolates also carry the gmlABC locus; therefore we aimed to characterize the corresponding phenotype of LPS O-antigens. The presence of galactan-III among O1 strains was proven using galactan-III-specific monoclonal antibodies and confirmed by structural analyses performed using sugar and methylation analysis as well as classical and high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. By using an isogenic mutant pair, we demonstrated that galactan-III expression was dependent on the presence of glycosyltransferases encoded by gmlABC, as was shown previously for the O2 serotype. Furthermore, the galactan-II structures in O1gml+ strains remained unaffected

  9. Academic Proficiency (Language and Content) and the Role of Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This report continues the work of Krashen and Brown (2007), developing and evaluating a set of hypotheses for the development of academic proficiency. That article defined academic proficiency as having two components: academic language proficiency and knowledge of academic content.

  10. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, the hemispheric dominance of the Brodmann area (BA) 6-temporal pathway (mainly along the arcuate fasciculus) shifted from the left to the right hemisphere. With further increased proficiency, however, lateralization dominance was again found in the left BA6-temporal pathway. This result is consistent with reports in the literature that imply a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in L2 processing especially for less proficient L2 speakers. This is the first time that an L2 proficiency-dependent laterality shift in the structural connectivity of language pathways during L2 acquisition has been observed to shift from left to right and back to left hemisphere dominance with increasing L2 proficiency. The authors additionally find that changes in fractional anisotropy values after the course are related to the time elapsed between the two scans. The results suggest that structural connectivity in (at least part of) the perisylvian language network may be subject to fast dynamic changes following language learning.

  11. [The influence of proficiency level of foreign language on the activation patterns of language areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryll, Amira; Binder, Marek; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The of aim of the present study was the estimation of the influence of proficiency level of the second language on activation patterns of language areas. 30 volunteers participated in the experiment (15 females and 15 males) from 18 to 40 years of age. Mean age was 28 years. All participants were divided by linguist into two groups according to their proficiency level of the foreign language: high proficiency group (HP) and low proficiency group (LP). Block design method was used in the performed experiment. The experimental task was speech production in the form of sentences, the control tusk was silence. The experiment was performed using 1,5 T MR system. Functional data analysis was performed using SPM2 software (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Great Britain). In low proficiency group (LP) stronger activation was found in right inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris) incuding insula and in the left hemisphere on the border of supramarginal and superior temporal gyrus. In high proficiency group (HP) more activated in second language (L2) was the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris), and a small part of left middle frontal gyrus. Proficiency level of the second language influences the pattern of activation of language areas.

  12. NCES Finds States Lowered "Proficiency" Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    With 2014 approaching as the deadline by which states must get all their students up to "proficient" levels on state tests, a study released last week by the U.S. Department of Education's top statistics agency suggests that some states may have lowered student-proficiency standards on such tests in recent years. For the 47-state study,…

  13. Proficiency test for aflatoxin in pig feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  14. Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

  15. Intelligibility and Perceptions of English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooy, Susan Coetzee-Van

    2009-01-01

    More and more learners of English from the Expanding Circle are travelling to Outer Circle contexts to learn English or to improve their English proficiency. This is also the case for some Korean families who moved to Potchefstroom, South Africa. This phenomenon poses challenges in terms of assessment of English proficiency, and emphasizes the…

  16. Language proficiency: Current strategies, future remedies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language proficiency among young South Africans is low. This is true not only of mother tongue speakers of English and Afrikaans, but also, and especially, of non-mother tongue speakers of English, among whom language proficiency levels raise serious concern. Some examples are given to illustrate the importance of ...

  17. 14 CFR 61.98 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.98 Section 61.98... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Recreational Pilots § 61.98 Flight proficiency... and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation of this section that apply...

  18. 14 CFR 61.187 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.187 Section 61.187... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.187 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who is applying for a...

  19. 14 CFR 61.107 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.107 Section 61.107... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Private Pilots § 61.107 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who applies for a private pilot certificate must receive and log ground and flight...

  20. French RSE-M and RCC-MR code appendices for flaw analysis: Presentation of the fracture parameters calculation-Part III: Cracked pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, S. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S/SEMT/LISN, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: stephane.marie@cea.fr; Chapuliot, S.; Kayser, Y. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S/SEMT/LISN, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Lacire, M.H. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DDIN, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Drubay, B. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S/SEMT/LISN, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Barthelet, B. [EDF/EPN, Site Cap Ampere, 1 place Pleyel 93207, Saint Denis Cedex 1 (France); Le Delliou, P. [EDF Pole Industrie-Division R and D, Site des Renardieres, Route de Sens, Ecuelles, 77250 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France); Rougier, V. [EDF/UTO SIS/GAM, 6, avenue Montaigne, 93192 Noisy le Grand (France); Naudin, C. [EDF/SEPTEN, 12-14, Avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Gilles, P.; Triay, M. [AREVA ANP, Tour AREVA, 92084 Paris La Defense Cedex 16 (France)

    2007-10-15

    French nuclear codes include flaw assessment procedures: the RSE-M Code 'Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components' and the RCC-MR code 'Design and Construction rules for mechanical components of FBR nuclear islands and high-temperature applications'. An important effort of development of these analytical methods has been made for the last 10 years in the frame of collaboration between CEA, EDF and AREVA-NP, and in the frame of R and D actions involving CEA and IRSN. These activities have led to a unification of the common methods of the two codes. The calculation of fracture mechanics parameters, and in particular the stress-intensity factor K{sub I} and the J integral, has been widely developed for industrial configurations. All the developments have been integrated in the 2005 edition of the RSE-M and in the 2007 edition of the RCC-MR. This series of articles is composed of 5 parts: the first part presents an overview of the methods proposed in the RCC-MR and RSE-M codes. Parts II-IV provide compendia for specific components. The geometries are plates (part II), pipes (part III) and elbows (part IV). Part V presents validation, with details on the accuracy of the proposed analytical method. This third part in the series presents details of the stress intensity factor and J calculations for cracked pipes. General data applicable for all defect geometries are first presented, and then, compendia for K{sub I} and {sigma}{sub ref} calculations are provided for specific cases.

  1. Schinus terebinthifolius countercurrent chromatography (Part III): Method transfer from small countercurrent chromatography column to preparative centrifugal partition chromatography ones as a part of method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves Costa, Fernanda; Hubert, Jane; Borie, Nicolas; Kotland, Alexis; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2017-03-03

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) are support free liquid-liquid chromatography techniques sharing the same basic principles and features. Method transfer has previously been demonstrated for both techniques but never from one to another. This study aimed to show such a feasibility using fractionation of Schinus terebinthifolius berries dichloromethane extract as a case study. Heptane - ethyl acetate - methanol -water (6:1:6:1, v/v/v/v) was used as solvent system with masticadienonic and 3β-masticadienolic acids as target compounds. The optimized separation methodology previously described in Part I and II, was scaled up from an analytical hydrodynamic CCC column (17.4mL) to preparative hydrostatic CPC instruments (250mL and 303mL) as a part of method development. Flow-rate and sample loading were further optimized on CPC. Mobile phase linear velocity is suggested as a transfer invariant parameter if the CPC column contains sufficient number of partition cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Kowalska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonographic examination is currently increasingly used in imaging peripheral nerves, serving to supplement the physical examination, electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive and well-tolerated by patients. The typical ultrasonographic picture of peripheral nerves as well as the examination technique have been discussed in part I of this article series, following the example of the median nerve. Part II of the series presented the normal anatomy and the technique for examining the peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part of the article series focuses on the anatomy and technique for examining twelve normal peripheral nerves of the lower extremity: the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, the pudendal, sciatic, tibial, sural, medial plantar, lateral plantar, common peroneal, deep peroneal and superficial peroneal nerves. It includes diagrams showing the proper positioning of the sonographic probe, plus USG images of the successively discussed nerves and their surrounding structures. The ultrasonographic appearance of the peripheral nerves in the lower limb is identical to the nerves in the upper limb. However, when imaging the lower extremity, convex probes are more often utilized, to capture deeply-seated nerves. The examination technique, similarly to that used in visualizing the nerves of upper extremity, consists of locating the nerve at a characteristic anatomic reference point and tracking it using the “elevator technique”. All 3 parts of the article series should serve as an introduction to a discussion of peripheral nerve pathologies, which will be presented in subsequent issues of the “Journal of Ultrasonography”.

  3. From University to Work III Part 1 : Sociological Mechanisms of Determinants of Job Opportunities for Non-Selective College Students

    OpenAIRE

    苅谷, 剛彦; 平沢, 和司; 本田, 由紀; 中村, 高康; 小山, 治

    2007-01-01

    During 1990s, job markets for university graduates faced drastic changes. On the one hand, the number of appropriate jobs for college graduates reduced greatly. Part time or temporal jobs increased and the number of graduates who had no jobs upon graduation increased. On the other hand, the supply side of new school graduates'job market changed. The main source of supply became college and university graduates because the number of work-bound high school graduates reduced and college-bound st...

  4. Protocol Outlines for Parts 1 and 2 of the Prospective Endoscopy III Study for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Wilhelmsen, Michael; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2016-01-01

    concepts, particularly when combinations of the various components appear to lead to significant improvements. OBJECTIVES: The protocol described in this paper focuses on the validation of concepts based on biomarkers in blood in a major population screened by FIT. METHODS: In Part 1, participants...... sensitivity for detection of participants with non-symptomatic CRC. Therefore, research approaches have been initiated to develop screening concepts based on biomarkers in blood. Preliminary results show that protein, genetic, epigenetic, and metabolomic components may be valuable in blood-based screening...

  5. Taxonomy of 'Euconnus complex'. Part III. Morphology of Euconnus subgenus Napochus and revision of the Australian species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2015-02-26

    Morphological structures of the type species of Euconnus (Napochus) are described and illustrated, and compared with those of Euconnus s. str. Napochus is maintained as a subgenus of Euconnus, and its revised diagnosis is given. Australian species of Napochus are revised: E. palmwoodianus Franz and E. pisoniae Franz are redescribed, and E. setiphallus sp. n., E. yadhaigana sp. n., E. microlaminatus sp. n, E. feeneyi sp. n. (with a subspecies E. feeneyi parallelilaminatus ssp. n.) are described. An unusual variability in body size and proportions of body parts found in E. feeneyi is analyzed and discussed.

  6. Macro-mechanical modeling of blast-wave mitigation in foams. Part III: verification of the models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britan, A.; Shapiro, H.; Liverts, M.; Ben-Dor, G.

    2014-05-01

    Three different approaches to macro-mechanical modeling of blast-wave mitigation in foam namely: the single-phase effective gas flow model, the two-phase mixture model and the single bubble/shock wave interaction model are critically reviewed. The nature and extent of the approximations inherent in the formulation of the first two models were examined in Part I of this study. In this part, the applicability of the aforementioned approaches is verified based on a comparison of experimental pressure records obtained in shock tube tests with the results of numerical predictions that used the models under consideration. Deficiencies and inconsistencies that are found during this comparison are clarified and possible improvements are suggested. It is emphasized that both the single-phase and the two-phase approaches predict well the refraction of the incident shock at the air/foam interface while they do not uniquely determine the relaxation process and the shape of the transmitted shock wave front. Various flexibilities that are exploited to better describe the inter-phase interactions do not improve the results significantly. The single bubble model is examined with particular attention paid to the manner in which it predicts the shape of the shock wave front. Connections between the flow viscosity and the transient dynamics of the bubble compression that occur at scales of the shock wave front thickness are explored.

  7. Metal-ligand interaction of lanthanides with coumarin derivatives. Part I. Complexation of 3-(1-aminoethylidene)-2H-chromene-2,4(3H)-dione with La(III), Ce(III), Nd(III) and Ho(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatek, Mirosława; Kufelnicki, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    Solutions of lanthanum(III), cerium(III), neodymium(III) and holmium(III) nitrates with 3-(1-aminoethylidene)-2H-chromene-2,4(3H)-dione (1) in 10% v/v dioxane-water medium were used. Coordination modes of 1 with the selected lanthanides have been examined. Hydroxo-complexes with deprotonated water molecules from the inner coordination sphere have been stated in basic medium. Stability constants of the forming complex species were determined by potentiometric titrations using Superquad and Hyperquad2003 programs. The most stable complexes are formed with La(III). The UV-Vis spectra of the Nd(III)-1 system confirmed the L:M = 1:1 stoichiometry evaluated potentiometrically.

  8. Dental compensation for skeletal Class III malocclusion by isolated extraction of mandibular teeth. Part 1: Occlusal situation 12 years after completion of active treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Bernd; Schenk-Kazan, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to statistically evaluate the outcomes achieved by isolated extraction of mandibular teeth (second premolars or first molars) for Class III compensation. Part A of the study dealt with the quality of outcomes at the end of active treatment, using weighted Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) scores determined on the basis of casts for 25 (14 female and 11 male) consecutive patients aged 16 ± 1.7 years at the time of debonding. These results were compared to the scores in a randomly selected control group of 25 (14 female and 11 male) patients who were 14.7 ± 1.9 years old at debonding. Part B evaluated the long-term stability of the outcomes based on 12 (all of them female) patients available for examination after a mean of 11.8 years. The mean weighted PAR scores obtained in both study parts were analyzed for statistical differences using a two-tailed paired Student's t-test at a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Mean weighted PAR scores of 4.76 ± 3.94 and 3.92 ± 3.44 were obtained in the Class III extraction group and the control group, respectively, at the end of active treatment. This difference was not significant (p = 0.49). Among the 12 longitudinal patients, the mean score increased from 4 ± 3.46 at debonding to 6.25 ± 3.67 by the end of the 11.8-year follow-up period. This difference was significant (p = 0.0008). Treatment of Class III anomalies by isolated extraction of lower premolars or molars can yield PAR scores similar to those achieved by standard therapies. These scores, while increasing significantly, remained at a clinically acceptable level over 11.8 years. Hence this treatment modality--intended for cases that border on requiring orthognathic surgery--may also be recommended from a long-term point of view.

  9. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part III: Cyanotic Heart Diseases and Complex Congenital Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Venkatraman; Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-07-01

    From the stand point of radiographic analysis most of the complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD), can be divided into those associated with decreased or increased pulmonary vascularity. Combination of a specific cardiac configuration and status of lung vasculature in a clinical context allows plain film diagnosis to be predicted in some CHD. Correlation of the position of the cardiac apex in relation to the visceral situs is an important information that can be obtained from the plain film. This information helps in gathering information about the atrio-ventricular, ventricular arterial concordance or discordance. Categorization of the cyanotic heart disease based on vascularity is presented below. Thorough understanding of cardiac anatomy by different imaging methods is essential in understanding and interpreting complex cardiac disease. Basic anatomical details and background for interpretation are provided in the previous parts of this presentation.

  10. Study of irradiated bone: Part III. /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate autoradiographic changes. [X rays; rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.A.; Corriveau, O.; Casarett, G.W.; Weber, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The macroautoradiographic and microautoradiographic localization of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/TcPPi) was studied in x-irradiated bone of rabbits up to one year post-irradiation. In cortical bone, /sup 99m/TcPPi was concentrated on bone surfaces near vasculature. Both forming and resorbing bone surfaces were comparably labeled at 2 hrs post-injection. Uptake on the surface of sites of haversian bone remodeling was observed to be at least part of the increased /sup 99m/TcPPi observed in irradiated bone in camera images. In irradiated trabecular bone 12 months following irradiation, a patchy decrease in /sup 99m/TcPPi uptake was correlated with localized decreases in vasculature.

  11. Associations and communities of cereal crops of the Łuków Plain. Part III. Intermediate and impoverished communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Rzymowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the third and final part of a study attempting to analyse associations and communities in cereal crops of the Łuków Plain. It contains a description of intermediate and impoverished communities established in cereal crops of the Łuków Plain. Patches with phytocenoses without the combination of species characteristic of cereal associations were frequently observed. Impoverished communities of the alliance Aperion spicae-venti established in winter cereal crops. In turn, in spring cereal crops phytocenoses including species characteristic of tuber and root crops were found; they represented either a community with species characteristic of Panico-Setarion or an intermediate community with species characteristic of Aperion spicae-venti and Polygono-Chenopodion. Such communities are established, among others, because of production intensification which changes habitat conditions. Some patches found in the study area were intermediate between the two most frequently observed associations Arnoserido-Scleranthetum and Vicietum tetraspermae.

  12. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2016-06-01

    plant called Chinese taro ([i]Alocasia cucullata[/i], and a grass called onion couch ([i]Arrhenatherum elatius[/i]. Some plant-pathogenic strains of [i]P. agglomerans[/i] are tumourigenic, inducing gall formation on table beet, an ornamental plant gypsophila ([i]Gypsophila paniculata[/i], wisteria, Douglas-fir and cranberry. Recently, a [i]Pantoea[/i] species closely related to [i]P. agglomerans[/i] has been identified as a cause of bacterial blight disease in the edible mushroom [i]Pleurotus eryngii[/i] cultivated in China. The genetically governed determinants of plant pathogenicity in [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] include such mechanisms as the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp system, phytohormones, the quorum-sensing (QS feedback system and type III secretion system (T3SS injecting the effector proteins into the cytosol of a plant cell.

  13. 14 CFR 61.127 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Commercial Pilots § 61.127 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who applies for a commercial pilot certificate must receive and log ground and...

  14. Limited english proficiency accessibility program : demonstration program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In 2006, the Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon (TriMet) secured grant funding from the Federal Transit Administration : (FTA) that enabled the agency to launch a creative and ambitious Limited English Proficiency (LEP) demonst...

  15. Use of rumination and activity monitoring for the identification of dairy cows with health disorders: Part III. Metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Caixeta, L S; Al-Abri, M A; Giordano, J O

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the performance of an automated health-monitoring system (AHMS) to identify cows with metritis based on an alert system (health index score, HIS) that combines rumination time and physical activity; (2) the number of days between the first HIS alert and clinical diagnosis (CD) of metritis by farm personnel; and (3) the daily rumination time, physical activity, and HIS patterns around CD. In this manuscript, the overall performance of HIS to detect cows with all disorders of interest in this study [ketosis, displaced abomasum, indigestion (companion paper, part I), mastitis (companion paper, part II), and metritis] is also reported. Holstein cattle (n=1,121; 451 nulliparous and 670 multiparous) were fitted with a neck-mounted electronic rumination and activity monitoring tag (HR Tags, SCR Dairy, Netanya, Israel) from at least -21 to 80 d in milk (DIM). Raw data collected in 2-h periods were summarized per 24 h as daily rumination and activity. An HIS (0 to 100 arbitrary units) was calculated daily for individual cows with an algorithm that used rumination and activity. A positive HIS outcome was defined as an HIS of cows (n=459) at -11±3, -4±3, 0, 3±1, 7±1, 14±1, and 28±1 DIM. The overall sensitivity of HIS was 55% for all cases of metritis (n=349), but it was greater for cows with metritis and another disorder (78%) than for cows with metritis only (53%). Cows diagnosed with metritis and flagged based on HIS had substantial alterations in their rumination, activity, and HIS patterns around CD, alterations of blood markers of metabolic and health status around calving, reduced milk production, and were more likely to exit the herd than cows not flagged based on the HIS and cows without disease, suggesting that cows flagged based on the HIS had a more severe episode of metritis. Including all disorders of interest for this study, the overall sensitivity was 59%, specificity was 98%, positive predictive value was

  16. Controlled production of camembert-type cheeses: part III role of the ripening microflora on free fatty acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, Marie-Noëlle; Corrieu, Georges; Spinnler, Henry-Eric

    2007-05-01

    Phenomena generating FFAs, important flavour precursors, are significant in cheese ripening. In Camembert-like cheeses, it was intended to establish the relationships between the dynamics of FFA concentrations changes and the succession of ripening microflora during ripening. Experimental Camembert-type cheeses were prepared in duplicate from pasteurised milk inoculated with Kluyveromyces lactis, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum under aseptic conditions. For each cheese and each cheesy medium, concentrations of FFAs with odd-numbered carbons, except for 9:0 and 13:0, did not change over time. For long-chain FFAs, concentrations varied with the given cheese part (rind or core). K. lactis produced only short or medium-chain FFAs during its growth and had a minor influence on caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids in comparison with G. candidum, the most lipolytic of the strains used here. It generated all short or medium-chain FFAs (4:0-12:0) during its exponential and slowdown growth periods and only long-chain ones (14:0-18:0) during its stationary phase. Pen. camemberti produced more long-chain FFAs (14:0-18:0) during its sporulation. Brev. aurantiacum did not generate any FFAs. The evidence of links between specific FFAs and the growth of a given microorganism is shown.

  17. Prevention of infection in patients with chronic kidney disease part III: surveillance and auditing in a renal care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, Sheila; Redmond, Avril; McCann, Margaret; Einarsdottir, Hildur

    2011-09-01

    This third paper, in a three-part CE series on the preventions of infection in patients with chronic kidney disease, focuses on surveillance and auditing of healthcare-associated infections within the renal care environment. The last decade has seen an increased awareness of the threat to patient safety from healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and the emergence of multi-drug resistance organisms. Effective HCAI prevention strategies include adequate governance structures, access to expert advice, adherence to standard and transmission-based precautions, minimising the use of invasive medical devices, and surveillance. Surveillance data can be collected using outcome (e.g. infection) and/or process (e.g. hand hygiene compliance audit) measures. Establishing a surveillance programme requires: commitment from senior management and the multidisciplinary team, prompt feedback of the data to clinical managers resulting in action been taken if necessary, to address specific areas of concern. While many renal units have access to infection prevention and control expertise to assist in the development of such a programme, units without such expertise should also have a surveillance programme in place. © 2011 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  18. "Why Not Stoichiometry" versus "Stoichiometry—Why Not?" Part III: Extension of GATES/GEB on Complex Dynamic Redox Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Toporek, Marcin; Asuero, Agustin G

    2015-01-01

    In the third part of a series of articles issued under a common title, some examples of complex dynamic redox systems are presented and considered from analytical and physico-chemical viewpoints; the analysis is a leitmotiv for detailed, physico-chemical considerations. All attainable physico-chemical knowledge is involved in algorithms applied for resolution of the systems, realized with use of iterative computer programs. The first redox system (System I) is related to titration of FeSO4 + H2C2O4 with KMnO4 solution in acidic (H2SO4) medium, where simultaneous determination of both analytes from a single curve of potentiometric titration is possible. The possibility of the formation of precipitates (FeC2O4 and/or MnC2O4) in this system is taken into considerations. The second system (System II) relates to the complete analytical procedure involved in the iodometric determination of Cu; four consecutive steps of this analysis are considered. As a reasonable tool for explanation of processes occurring during simulated redox titration, speciation diagrams are suggested. This explanation is based on graphical presentation of results obtained from the calculations. The calculations made for this purpose are performed in accordance with principles of the generalized approach to electrolytic systems (GATES) with generalized electron balance (GEB) or GATES/GEB and realized with use of iterative computer programs offered by MATLAB. The reactions proceeding in this system can be formulated, together with their efficiencies, at any stage of the titration. Stoichiometry is considered as the derivative concept when put in context with GATES/GEB. The article illustrates the enormous possibilities and advantages offered by GATES/GEB.

  19. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of 3-aryl-2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)acrylonitriles. Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Antonio; Sanna, Paolo; Palomba, Michele; Vargiu, Laura; La Colla, Massimiliano; Loddo, Roberta

    2002-11-01

    A new series of 30 3-aryl-2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)acrylonitriles were synthesized and tested for biological activity as part of our research in the antimicrobial and antitumor fields. In particular, title compounds were evaluated in vitro against representative strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (S. aureus, Salmonella spp), mycobacteria (M. fortuitum, M. smegmatis ATCC 19420 and M. tuberculosis ATCC 27294), yeast and mould (C. albicans ATCC 10231 and A. fumigatus). Furthermore, their antiretroviral activity against HIV-1 was determined in MT-4 cells together with cytotoxicity. In these assays title compounds and 47 additional derivatives described previously (P. Sanna, A. Carta, M.E. Rahbar Nikookar, Eur. J. Med. Chem. 35 (2000) 535-543; P. Sanna, A. Carta, L. Gherardini, M.E. Rahbar Nikookar, Farmaco 57 (2002) 79-87) were tested for their capability to prevent MT-4 cell growth. All compounds resulted devoid of antibacterial, antifungal and anti-HIV-1 activity. In anti-mycobacterial assays several compounds resulted active (MIC(50)=6.0-70 microM) against M. tuberculosis. However, since they showed cytotoxicity against MT-4 cells at lower concentrations (CC(50)=0.05-25 microM), their anti-mycobacterial activity was not selective. For this reason, the most cytotoxic compounds were also evaluated for antiproliferative activity against a panel of human cell lines derived from both hematological and solid tumors. Compound 34 resulted the most potent compound against the above human tumor-derived cell lines.

  20. Culling of dairy cows. Part III. Effects of diseases, pregnancy status and milk yield on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gröhn, Y T

    1999-08-23

    The effects of 15 diseases, pregnancy status and milk yield on culling were studied in 39727 Finnish Ayrshire cows that calved in 1993 and were followed until culling or next calving. Survival analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model, was performed with diseases, pregnancy status and milk yield as time-dependent covariates. Effects of parity, calving season and herd were also accounted for. Pregnancy status was the single most influential factor affecting culling decisions, followed by milk yield. Several diseases also had a significant effect on culling, the most influential ones being mastitis, lameness, teat injuries, and milk fever. The effects of all of these factors varied according to the stage of lactation. Milk yield had a significant effect on culling decisions, depending on the stage of lactation. At the beginning of lactation, milk production did not have any effect on culling decisions, but later on, the highest producers were at the lowest risk of being culled and the lowest producers had the highest risk. Adjusting for milk yield modified the effects of parity, most diseases and also pregnancy status on culling. Effects of parity increased after including milk yield in the model, indicating that milk yield and parity are interrelated in their effects on culling. The effects of pregnancy status also increased towards the end of lactation when milk yield was accounted for in the model. The effects of mastitis, teat injuries and lameness decreased after adjusting for milk production. These diseases lower milk yield and thus, part of their effect on culling was mediated through milk production. The effects of anestrus and ovarian cysts were mainly modified by pregnancy status, but not by milk yield. The effects of milk fever on culling increased at the beginning of lactation after including milk yield in the model. This suggests that even though cows with milk fever tend to be higher producers, it is the disease as such that triggers the

  1. a Psycholinguistic Model for Simultaneous Translation, and Proficiency Assessment by Automated Acoustic Analysis of Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Hussein M.

    Two separate but related issues are addressed: how simultaneous translation (ST) works on a cognitive level and how such translation can be objectively assessed. Both of these issues are discussed in the light of qualitative and quantitative analyses of a large corpus of recordings of ST and shadowing. The proposed ST model utilises knowledge derived from a discourse analysis of the data, many accepted facts in the psychology tradition, and evidence from controlled experiments that are carried out here. This model has three advantages: (i) it is based on analyses of extended spontaneous speech rather than word-, syllable-, or clause -bound stimuli; (ii) it draws equally on linguistic and psychological knowledge; and (iii) it adopts a non-traditional view of language called 'the linguistic construction of reality'. The discourse-based knowledge is also used to develop three computerised systems for the assessment of simultaneous translation: one is a semi-automated system that treats the content of the translation; and two are fully automated, one of which is based on the time structure of the acoustic signals whilst the other is based on their cross-correlation. For each system, several parameters of performance are identified, and they are correlated with assessments rendered by the traditional, subjective, qualitative method. Using signal processing techniques, the acoustic analysis of discourse leads to the conclusion that quality in simultaneous translation can be assessed quantitatively with varying degrees of automation. It identifies as measures of performance (i) three content-based standards; (ii) four time management parameters that reflect the influence of the source on the target language time structure; and (iii) two types of acoustical signal coherence. Proficiency in ST is shown to be directly related to coherence and speech rate but inversely related to omission and delay. High proficiency is associated with a high degree of simultaneity and

  2. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part III. Effectively effecting and sustaining change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    Reaping the optimal rewards from any quality improvement project mandates sustainability after the initial implementation. In Part III of this three-part ATS Seminars series, we discuss strategies to create a culture for change, improve cooperation and interaction between multidisciplinary teams of clinicians, and position the intensive care unit (ICU) optimally within the hospital environment. Coaches are used throughout other industries to help professionals assess and continually improve upon their practice; use of this strategy is as of yet infrequent in health care, but would be easily transferable and potentially beneficial to ICU managers and clinicians alike. Similarly, activities focused on improving teamwork are commonplace outside of health care. Simulation training and classroom education about key components of successful team functioning are known to result in improvements. In addition to creating an ICU environment in which individuals and teams of clinicians perform well, ICU managers must position the ICU to function well within the hospital system. It is important to move away from the notion of a standalone ("siloed") ICU to one that is well integrated into the rest of the institution. Creating a "pull-system" (in which participants are active in searching out needed resources and admitting patients) can help ICU managers both provide better care for the critically ill and strengthen relationships with non-ICU staff. Although not necessary, there is potential upside to creating a unified critical care service to assist with achieving these ends.

  3. Does Wechsler Intelligence Scale administration and scoring proficiency improve during assessment training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Tyson L; Zachar, Peter; Ray, Glen E; Lobello, Steven G; Underhill, Andrea T

    2007-04-01

    Studies have found that Wechsler scale administration and scoring proficiency is not easily attained during graduate training. These findings may be related to methodological issues. Using a single-group repeated measures design, this study documents statistically significant, though modest, error reduction on the WAIS-III and WISC-III during a graduate course in assessment. The study design does not permit the isolation of training factors related to error reduction, or assessment of whether error reduction is a function of mere practice. However, the results do indicate that previous study findings of no or inconsistent improvement in scoring proficiency may have been the result of methodological factors. Implications for teaching individual intelligence testing and further research are discussed.

  4. ASIST 2003: Part III: Posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIST Annual Meeting, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-three posters address topics including access to information; metadata; personal information management; scholarly information communication; online resources; content analysis; interfaces; Web queries; information evaluation; informatics; information needs; search effectiveness; digital libraries; diversity; automated indexing; e-commerce;…

  5. MicroVent (part III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreau, Jerome Le; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    This study aims at using the InVentilate unit in the cooling case, without heat recovery. It results in a relatively low inlet air temperature. Different solutions have been tested to decrease the risk of draught in the occupied zone: ‐ Using a mixer (2 designs) ‐ Using an inlet grille ‐ Using...

  6. Designing screened enclosures: Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearpark, Jon

    2006-04-01

    The engineer will be able to design a successful screened enclosure using careful selection of materials, gaskets and, if necessary, screened optical windows. Many of the techniques covered in this series of articles can be employed during the research and development stage to arrive at a cost-effective solution that offers the required mechanical, aesthetical, environmental and electrical properties.

  7. Beyond English proficiency: rethinking immigrant integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S; Frank, Reanne

    2014-05-01

    We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyond English Proficiency: Rethinking Immigrant Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S.; Frank, Reanne

    2014-01-01

    We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. PMID:24576636

  9. Factors Affecting Result in Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK Level 6: Reading Section and Preparation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the author’s personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  10. Uptake of iron (III)-ethylenediamine-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid complex by phosphatidylcholine lipid film. Part II. Effect of film curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Masumi; Tanaka, Mihoko; Saito, Natsumi; Sakamoto, Hiroyasu; Hayami, Yoshiteru

    2018-01-01

    Mixed micelles formed in a ternary-solute aqueous solution of NaOH, iron (III)-ethylenediamine-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid complex (Fe-EDTA) and 1,2-diheptanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl choline (DHPC) were studied and compared with the mixed adsorbed film reported in Part I of this series to clarify the effect of the curvature of molecular assemblies on the interactions between their Fe-EDTA and DHPC constituents. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs), surface tension at the CMC, and solution pH were measured as functions of the mole fractions of NaOH and DHPC. Rigorous thermodynamic equations were derived, in which the overall proton dissociation equilibria of Fe-EDTA and DHPC were taken into consideration, and applied to experimental data to obtain phase diagrams of micelle formation and the micelle-adsorbed film equilibrium. It was found that when the bulk solution was strongly acidic, Fe-EDTA was incorporated in the micelles. However, the adsorbed film was more Fe-EDTA-enriched than the micelle. These findings imply that a flat cell membrane is more permeable to an iron complex than a cell membrane with positive curvature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of environmental factors on larval development of marine invertebrates: Annual progress report. Part III. Regeneration as an indicator of environmental stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costlow, J.D.

    1988-08-26

    Megalopae of the mud crab, Rithropanopeus harriii, within the control series were maintained with both chelae intact, as well as with one chela autotomized, in 20 parts per thousand seawater and in the ''acetone control.'' Percent survival to crab III for larvae of the control series, and larvae maintained in four concentrations of the herbicide, Alachlor is presented. As the concentration of Alachlor increases, the percent survival decreases. A comparison of these same levels of concentration of Alachlor as they relate to the time of ecdysis is shown. There is no statistically significant impact on molting. The interval between crab I and crab II was also unaffected by the levels of Alachlor used. Normal regeneration of the autotomized claw of the megalopa in the control series occurred in 100% of the larvae. As the larvae were exposed to Alachlor of different concentrtions, the percent normal regenertion decreased and the percent abnormal regeneration increased. The process of regeneration can be used as an extremely sensitive indicator of sublethal levels for a varity of contaminants. A second aspect of the research as originally planned was to determine the effect of carbamates on regeneration of chelae in megalopa and early juveniles of the mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii.

  12. Simultaneous and Successive Cognitive Processing and Writing Skills: Relationships Between Proficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Muriel; Wachs, Mary

    1986-01-01

    Investigated relationships between individual differences in (1) levels of writing skills and (2) proficiencies at simultaneous and successive cognitive processing. Correlated students' writings with the following word and sentence level problems: spelling errors, missing or inappropriate punctuation of sentence parts, missing noun and verb…

  13. Seeking out Challenges to Develop L2 Self-Confidence: A Language Learner's Journey to Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwads, Emily; Roger, Peter Stewart

    2015-01-01

    As one constituent of second language (L2) motivation, L2 "self-­confidence" has been shown to be a significant predictor of language proficiency. More recently, L2 self-­confidence has been studied as part of the "willingness to communicate" (WTC) construct. Less is known, however, about the processes by which learners develop…

  14. A La Buena: Living Better. Bilingual Adult Proficiency Level Materials for Everyday Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip D., Jr.; And Others

    These bilingual English/Spanish Adult Proficiency Materials comprise three adult education courses in these areas: consumer education, health, and nutrition. Part 1, Consumer Education, covers these topics: money management, credit, frauds, consumer complaints, housing, utility bills, saving energy, banking, insurance (car, health, life), buying a…

  15. Effective Use of the Native Language with English in Vocational Education for Limited English Proficiency Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, Patricia A.; Kelly, Michael G.

    Vocational education for limited English proficiency (LEP) students at Waubonsee Community College, Illinois, which includes a vocational English as a second language (VESL) course, is described, with examples from the tool training program. With state funding, the Waubonsee's LEP project for vocational education offers short-term, part-time…

  16. The Factors Affecting The Succes In English Proficiency Exams And Possible Contrubitions of The Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Hakki MIRICI

    2003-01-01

    It is a widely known fact that today, language proficiency exams are indispensable parts of our academic life. Especially, those who aim to achieve the objectives in an educational system are in need of declaring and proving that they have a good command of at least one foreign language-most commonly English. English proficiency exams such as FCE, CAE, IELTS and TOEFL are some of the most well-known commercial tests that assess four language skills and language competence of language users. I...

  17. The English proficiency and academic language skills of Australian bilingual children during the primary school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennaoui, Kamelia; Nicholls, Ruth Jane; O'Connor, Meredith; Tarasuik, Joanne; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Goldfeld, Sharon

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that early proficiency in the language of school instruction is an important predictor of academic success for bilingual children. This study investigated whether English-proficiency at 4-5 years of age predicts academic language and literacy skills among Australian bilingual children at 10-11 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children ( LSAC, 2012 ). The LSAC comprises a nationally representative clustered cross-sequential sample of Australian children. Data were analysed from a sub-sample of 129 bilingual children from the LSAC Kindergarten cohort (n = 4983), for whom teachers completed the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) checklist (a population measure of early childhood development) and the Academic Rating Scale (ARS) language and literacy subscale. Linear regression analyses revealed that bilingual children who commenced school with stronger English proficiency had higher academic language and literacy scores at the end of primary school (β = 0.45). English proficiency remained a significant predictor, even when accounting for gender and socio-economic disadvantage (β = 0.38). The findings indicate that bilingual children who begin school without English proficiency are at risk of difficulties with academic language and literacy, even after 6 years of schooling. Risk factors need to be identified so early support can be targeted towards the most vulnerable children.

  18. Reflecting Equity and Diversity. Part I: Guidelines and Procedure for Evaluating Bias in Instructional Materials. Part II: Bias Awareness Training Worksheets. Part III: Bias Awareness and Procedure Training Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebermeyer, Jim; Edmond, Mary, Ed.

    Reflecting a need to prepare students for working in diverse organizations, this document was developed to increase school officials' awareness of bias in instructional materials and help them select bias-free materials. A number of the examples illustrate situations dealing with diversity in the workplace. The guide is divided into three parts:…

  19. ESL Proficiency and a Word Frequency Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlech-Jones, Brian

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)

  20. Discrepancies between perceptions of English proficiency and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical data that indicate a discrepancy between perceptions and scores on English tests among South African participants (1998-2011) are reported. A discrepancy between perceptions of English proficiency and scores on English tests is important because of its potential impact on language learner motivation. It will be ...

  1. Measuring Task Proficiency with Tailored Response Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Herbert George; And Others

    Tailored Response Testing (TRT) is a new type of test that has demonstrated its applicability to the evaluation of human performance in a wide variety of occupations and work settings. The Navy is using TRT to measure the technical proficiency of job incumbents in three of its jobs. The methodology holds great promise for testing aboard ships as…

  2. Crime Laboratory Proficiency Testing Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph L.; And Others

    A three-year research effort was conducted to design a crime laboratory proficiency testing program encompassing the United States. The objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility of preparation and distribution of different classes of physical evidence; (2) assess the accuracy of criminalistics laboratories in the processing of selected…

  3. One Hundred Percent Proficiency: A Mission Impossible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Eric; Wilson, Glen; Cobb, Casey; Rallis, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Applying microeconomic theory to No Child Left Behind predicts that its use of significant consequences for schools that do not reach 100% proficiency on rigorous standardized tests by 2014 will likely prevent most, if not all schools, from providing a high-quality education for their students. The central problem is cost. Quality assurance models…

  4. Current Proficiency Testing: A Reflection of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine-Niakaris, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Looks at the washback effect in language testing, using as an example the new University of Michigan Examination for Certificate of Competency (ECCE), designed for intermediate- to upper-intermediate level learners. The ECCE can be considered an example of the movement toward achievement-oriented proficiency tests. (Author/VWL)

  5. 14 CFR 61.157 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.157 Section 61.157... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.157 Flight... and log ground and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation under this...

  6. Moving Readers from Struggling to Proficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    If we want to move children from struggling to read to being proficient readers, we must address the disparate ways that teachers respond to readers with varying abilities. Restorative practices, akin to restorative justice, build relationships, make connections, and foster a reader's sense of ownership and empowerment. What would happen if…

  7. 5 CFR 9901.364 - Foreign language proficiency pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901... Foreign Language Proficiency Pay (FLPP) if they are certified as proficient in a foreign language the... annual list of foreign languages necessary for national security interests and to establish overall...

  8. Time to English Reading Proficiency. Research Brief. RB 1201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneyderman, Aleksandr; Froman, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The time it takes for an English Language Learner (ELL) to reach reading proficiency in English depends on the grade level of entry into the English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) program and on the student's initial English proficiency level. The summary table below presents the average years to English proficiency across different grade…

  9. Profiles in Bilingualism: Factors Influencing Kindergartners' Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Wu, Shuang; Daraghmeh, Ahlam

    2012-01-01

    Three common assumptions concerning bilingual children's language proficiency are: (1) their proficiency in two languages is usually unbalanced; (2) low socioeconomic status (SES) indicates low proficiency in both languages; and (3) encouraging parents to speak some societal language at home will promote its development. Examining the vocabulary…

  10. Segmentation and accuracy-based scores for the automatic assessment of oral proficiency for proficient L2 speakers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Febe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the automatic assessment of oral proficiency for advanced second language speakers. A spoken dialogue system is used to guide students through an oral test and to record their answers. Indicators of oral proficiency...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 121 - Proficiency Check Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... characteristics, runway length, surface conditions, wind direction and velocity, brake heat energy, and any other...) Airborne radar devices B (f) Any other systems, devices, or aids available B (g) Hydraulic and electrical... and procedures may be performed in an airplane simulator with a visual system (visual simulator), an...

  12. A consistent and conservative scheme for incompressible MHD flows at a low magnetic Reynolds number. Part III: On a staggered mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ming-Jiu; Li, Jun-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The consistent and conservative scheme developed on a rectangular collocated mesh [M.-J. Ni, R. Munipalli, N.B. Morley, P. Huang, M.A. Abdou, A current density conservative scheme for incompressible MHD flows at a low magnetic Reynolds number. Part I: on a rectangular collocated grid system, Journal of Computational Physics 227 (2007) 174-204] and on an arbitrary collocated mesh [M.-J. Ni, R. Munipalli, P. Huang, N.B. Morley, M.A. Abdou, A current density conservative scheme for incompressible MHD flows at a low magnetic Reynolds number. Part II: on an arbitrary collocated mesh, Journal of Computational Physics 227 (2007) 205-228] has been extended and specially designed for calculation of the Lorentz force on a staggered grid system (Part III) by solving the electrical potential equation for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) at a low magnetic Reynolds number. In a staggered mesh, pressure ( p) and electrical potential ( φ) are located in the cell center, while velocities and current fluxes are located on the cell faces of a main control volume. The scheme numerically meets the physical conservation laws, charge conservation law and momentum conservation law. Physically, the Lorentz force conserves the momentum when the magnetic field is constant or spatial coordinate independent. The calculation of current density fluxes on cell faces is conducted using a scheme consistent with the discretization for solution of the electrical potential Poisson equation, which can ensure the calculated current density conserves the charge. A divergence formula of the Lorentz force is used to calculate the Lorentz force at the cell center of a main control volume, which can numerically conserve the momentum at constant or spatial coordinate independent magnetic field. The calculated cell-center Lorentz forces are then interpolated to the cell faces, which are used to obtain the corresponding velocity fluxes by solving the momentum equations. The "conservative" is an important property of

  13. Medical training and English language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, S C; Farnill, D

    1993-01-01

    Concern is often expressed about the English language proficiency (ELP) of students engaged in professional training. This report assesses the ELP of the 1990 and 1991 intakes into medicine at the University of Sydney. A quick screening test and individual in-depth tests were used in a two-stage design. Admission to the course is highly competitive and most students are selected from the top 0.75% of Higher School Certificate results but 15% and 19% of the year cohorts were found to be below average in ELP. English proficiency was found to be consistently correlated with first- and second-year university results. Initiatives taken to support students with language disadvantages and to ensure that graduates will be able to communicate effectively with patients are outlined.

  14. Investigating Language Proficiency and Learning Style Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bradford; Pirotto, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences (ID) among language learners (e.g. language aptitude or motivation), are variables that are theorized to affect the degree of success one will have in acquiring a second language (L2). This study sought to add to the body of literature on learning style. 225first year students (divided into two groups based on English proficiency) at a private Japanese university were surveyed to determine their preferred learning style(s). The data obtained were then examined in relati...

  15. Further Characterization of a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) and of a New Effector Protein from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas Hydrophila - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A type III secretion system (T3SS)-associated cytotoxin, AexT, with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa bifuncational toxins ExoT/S, was recently identified from a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. In this study, we reported the molecular cha...

  16. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring the Games Influence on Improving English Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Dwi Pertiwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available English is now used as an international language, so that every person in order to communicate at the international level are required this language. To improving english proficiency, people used native speaker, course, story book, film game and etc. Games or better known as PC gaming is another alternative in improving the English proficiency. Beside this is fun, player required to read and listen the story game to finish the game. So that player can improve English proficiency while the player play game. In this paper, author present what game are fun and not boring also can improving English proficiency. The measuring improving English proficiency is observed from reading,writing, listening and grammar Keyword: English, Game, improving ,Proficiency

  18. Investigating the Relationship Between Metalinguistic Knowledge and L2 Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    飯田, 毅; Tsuyoshi, IIDA; Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have examined the relationship between metalinguistic knowledge and L2 proficiency, this relationship has not been sufficiently clarified yet. The present study examined the relationship between metalinguistic knowledge and L2 proficiency among different groups of learners. Also, it clarified to what extent metalinguistic knowledge contributes to L2 proficiency. The participants were 50 Japanese undergraduates comprising instructed-only EFL learners, returnees who ha...

  19. Geology of quadrangles H-12, H-13, and parts of I-12 and I-13, (zone III) in northeastern Santander Department, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dwight Edward; Goldsmith, Richard; Cruz, Jaime B.; Restrepo, Hernan A.

    1974-01-01

    A program of geologic mapping and mineral investigation in Colombia was undertaken cooperatively by the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Geologico-Mineras (formerly known as the Inventario Minero Nacional), and the U. S. Geological Survey; by the Government of Colombia and the Agency for International Development, U. S. Department of State. The purpose was to study, and evaluate mineral resources (excluding of petroleum, coal, emeralds, and alluvial gold) of four selected areas, designated Zones I to IV, that total about 70,000 km2. The work in Zone III, in the Cordillera Oriental, was done from 1965 to 1968. The northeast trend of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia swings abruptly to north-northwest in the area of this report, and divides around the southern end of the Maracaibo Basin. This section of the Cordillera Oriental is referred to as the Santander Massif. Radiometric age determinations indicate that the oldest rocks of the Santander massif are Precambrian and include high-grade gneiss, schist, and migmatite of the Bucaramanga Formation. These rocks were probably part of the Precambrian Guayana Shield. Low- to medium-grade metamorphic rocks of late Precambrian to Ordovician age .include phyllite, schist, metasiltstone, metasandstone, and marble of the Silgara Formation, a geosynclinal series of considerable extent in the Cordillera Oriental and possibly the Cordillera de Merida of Venezuela. Orthogneiss ranging from granite to tonalite is widely distributed in the high- and medium-grade metamorphic rocks of the central core of the massif and probably represents rocks of two ages, Precambrian and Ordovician to Early Devonian. Younger orthogneiss and the Silgara are overlain by Middle Devonian beds of the Floresta Formation which show a generally low but varying degree of metamorphism. Phyllite and argillite are common, and infrequent marble and other calcareous beds are fossiliferous. Except for recrystallization in limestones of !the

  20. Validating English Language Proficiency Assessment Uses for English Learners: Academic Language Proficiency and Content Assessment Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Faulkner-Bond, Molly

    2016-01-01

    States use standards-based English language proficiency (ELP) assessments to inform relatively high-stakes decisions for English learner (EL) students. Results from these assessments are one of the primary criteria used to determine EL students' level of ELP and readiness for reclassification. The results are also used to evaluate the…

  1. Differences in Less Proficient and More Proficient ESL College Writing in the Philippine Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustilo, Leah E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at characterizing what skilled or more proficient ESL college writing is in the Philippine setting through a contrastive analysis of three groups of variables identified from previous studies: resources, processes, and performance of ESL writers. Based on Chenoweth and Hayes' (2001; 2003) framework, the resource level…

  2. Music proficiency and quantification of absolute pitch: a large-scale study among Brazilian musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Bender Chagas Leite

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch (AP is the ability to identify and name the pitch of a sound without external reference. Often, accuracy and speed at naming isolated musical pitches are correlated with demographic, biological and acoustical parameters to gain insight into the genesis and evolution of this ability in specific cohorts. However, the majority of those studies were conducted in North America, Europe or Asia. To fill this gap, here we investigated the pitch-naming performance in a large population of Brazilian conservatory musicians (N = 200. As previously shown, we found that the population performance was rather a continuum than an all-or-none ability. By comparing the observed distribution of correct responses to a theoretical binomial distribution, we estimated the prevalence of AP as being 18% amongst regular music students. High accuracy thresholds (e.g., 85% of correct responses yielded a prevalence of 4%, suggesting that AP might have been underestimated in previous reports. Irrespective of the threshold used, AP prevalence was higher in musicians who started their musical practice and formal musical education early in life. Finally, we compared the performance of those music students (average proficiency group with another group of students selected to take part in the conservatory orchestra (high proficiency group, N = 30. Interestingly, the prevalence of AP was higher in the later in comparison to the former group. In addition, even when the response was incorrect, the mean absolute deviation from the correct response was smaller in the high proficiency group compared to the average proficiency group (Glass's Δ: 0.5. Taken together, our results show that the prevalence of AP in Brazilian students is similar to other non-tonal language populations, although this measure is highly dependent on the scoring threshold used. Despite corroborating that early involvement with musical practice and formal education can foster AP ability, the present

  3. Music Proficiency and Quantification of Absolute Pitch: A Large-Scale Study among Brazilian Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Raphael B C; Mota-Rolim, Sergio A; Queiroz, Claudio M T

    2016-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify and name the pitch of a sound without external reference. Often, accuracy and speed at naming isolated musical pitches are correlated with demographic, biological, and acoustical parameters to gain insight into the genesis and evolution of this ability in specific cohorts. However, the majority of those studies were conducted in North America, Europe, or Asia. To fill this gap, here we investigated the pitch-naming performance in a large population of Brazilian conservatory musicians (N = 200). As previously shown, we found that the population performance was rather a continuum than an "all-or-none" ability. By comparing the observed distribution of correct responses to a theoretical binomial distribution, we estimated the prevalence of AP as being 18% amongst regular music students. High accuracy thresholds (e.g., 85% of correct responses) yielded a prevalence of 4%, suggesting that AP might have been underestimated in previous reports. Irrespective of the threshold used, AP prevalence was higher in musicians who started their musical practice and formal musical education early in life. Finally, we compared the performance of those music students (average proficiency group) with another group of students selected to take part in the conservatory orchestra (high proficiency group, N = 30). Interestingly, the prevalence of AP was higher in the latter in comparison to the former group. In addition, even when the response was incorrect, the mean absolute deviation from the correct response was smaller in the high proficiency group compared to the average proficiency group (Glass's Δ: 0.5). Taken together, our results show that the prevalence of AP in Brazilian students is similar to other non-tonal language populations, although this measure is highly dependent on the scoring threshold used. Despite corroborating that early involvement with musical practice and formal education can foster AP ability, the present data

  4. Variables Affecting Proficiency in English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Josefina C.; García-Santillán, Arturo; Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena

    2017-01-01

    This study explores different variables leading to proficiency in English as a second language. Level of English on a placement exam taken upon entering a private university in Mexico was correlated to several variables. Additionally, participants (N = 218) were asked their perception of their own proficiency. A linear regression and a one-factor…

  5. The Relationship between Cognitive Development and Foreign Language Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Everett Franklin, Jr.

    Based on research relating William Perry's scheme of cognitive development to foreign language proficiency, a developmental hypothesis concerning language ability is proposed. This approach suggests that lower developmental stages in the cognitive domain retard the achievement of communicative language proficiency, while higher developmental…

  6. 285 Teachers‟ Experience and Students‟ Numerical Proficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... Five null hypotheses were formed and tested at 5% level of significance. Results show that numerical proficiency of students taught by experienced teachers were better than those taught by less experienced teachers. There was no significant difference in the numerical proficiency of male and female ...

  7. Piano Proficiency: The Perfect Accompaniment for Successful Music Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobetsky, Victor V.

    2004-01-01

    Do prospective music teachers with piano proficiency have an advantage in the job market? Can playing the piano well help practicing teachers achieve greater success in the classroom? In this article, the author stresses that piano proficiency is a necessary survival tool for music teachers regardless of their primary instrument or vocal specialty…

  8. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  9. Proficiency test for tropane alkaloids in food en feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  10. Test Reviews: GEPT--General English Proficiency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Carsten; Pan, Yi-Ching

    2008-01-01

    The General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) was developed in 1999, commissioned by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan. The purpose of the test is to provide individuals with a gauge of their English language proficiency and assist employers and educational institutions in selection and placement. Also, it aims to encourage the study of English…

  11. Restructuring a Traditional Foreign Language Program for Oral Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara-Norman, Filisha; And Others

    The restructuring of the Romance language program at Howard University to improve oral proficiency involved modification of goals, syllabi, classroom activities, and testing. Goals were adapted to American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)/Educational Testing Service (ETS) guidelines for oral proficiency. Assessment of French…

  12. The correlation between motor proficiency and physical activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: One of the risks associated with low physical activity levels is the insufficient development of motor proficiency, which in turn has an impact on participation in physical activity and sport during adolescence. Objectives: To determine the relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity levels in ...

  13. Measuring Language Dominance and Bilingual Proficiency Development of Tarahumara Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciotto, Carla

    This paper examines the language dominance and oral bilingual proficiency of Tarahumara-Spanish speaking students from Chihuahua, Mexico, within the framework of Cummins' model of bilingual proficiency development. Cummins' model distinguishes between basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency…

  14. Proficiency-Based Curriculum Design: Principles Derived from Government Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Describes principles for designing a proficiency-based course to prepare students for the ACTFL/ETS Advanced Plus/Superior level according to Interagency Language Roundtable guidelines. Proposes ways to combine grammatical and "functional/notional" syllabuses with a proficiency approach. Examines the implications of these principles for…

  15. Across the Threshold: A Call for ILR Proficiency Descriptor Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Don

    2017-01-01

    Whereas the Interagency Language Roundtable Language Skill Level Descriptions broke new ground for assessing proficiency in foreign languages, the need for user-oriented (rather than assessment-oriented) proficiency scales has led, especially in Europe, to the creation of scales consisting of positively formulated "can-do" statements,…

  16. Knowledge and Processes That Predict Proficiency in Digital Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, Monica E.; Mayer, Richard E.; Metzger, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency in digital literacy refers to the ability to read and write using online sources, and includes the ability to select sources relevant to the task, synthesize information into a coherent message, and communicate the message with an audience. The present study examines the determinants of digital literacy proficiency by asking 150…

  17. Teaching English through English: Proficiency, Pedagogy and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the world's English language teachers speak English as a second or third language rather than as their first language. For many, their level of proficiency in English may not reach benchmarks established by their employers, raising the issue that is the focus of this article, namely, what kind of proficiency in English is necessary to be…

  18. Second Language Proficiency and Cross-Language Lexical Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hell, Janet G.; Tanner, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Although research has consistently shown that a bilingual's two languages interact on multiple levels, it is also well-established that bilinguals can vary considerably in their proficiency in the second language (L2). In this paper we review empirical studies that have examined how differences in L2 proficiency modulate cross-language…

  19. The Development of ESL Proficiency and Pragmatic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Carsten; Al-Gahtani, Saad

    2015-01-01

    ESL learners can find it challenging to use English in a way that is pragmatically appropriate to the situation and interlocutor. In this article, we explore the impact of increased proficiency on learners' pragmatic performance. ESL learners in Australia at four proficiency levels completed three role plays, and we analysed how the learners…

  20. Second Language Grammatical Proficiency and Third Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtadi, Laleh; Koosha, Mansour; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The main concern of the present study was to investigate the probable correlation between the bilinguals' second language grammatical proficiency level and their third language grammatical proficiency level. The current study was implemented on selecting a total of 100 Iranian female high school students studying at second grade from two…

  1. On the Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the present study was to examine the strength of the relationship between language proficiency in English and the 9 types of intelligences. As such, the objectives of this study were three-folded. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences and language proficiency among the…

  2. Communication Anxiety and Its Effect on Oral Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurshberger, Lisa

    A study investigated the bipolar tension/relaxation factors that affect a second language learner's oral proficiency. While the traditional assumption in the field of second language acquisition is that negative attitudes toward communicative interaction naturally predicate low proficiency, the data gathered from 50 subjects studying English as a…

  3. Examining the Relationship between Math Scores and English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Denfield L.; Nistor, Nicolae; Baltes, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies propose that English proficiency dictates English language learners' (ELLs) performances on mathematics assessments. The current study investigates the predictive power of English proficiency on mathematics scores, while controlling for gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and grade level among ELLs at a south Florida elementary…

  4. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  5. Thermoanalytical study of linkage isomerism in coordination compounds. Part III: A DSC study on the effect of counterion on the solid state isomerization of nitro and nitrito linkage isomers of pentaamminecobalt(III) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami, Abbas, E-mail: eslami@umz.ac.ir; Hasani, Nahid

    2014-01-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The effect of counterion on solid state thermal isomerization of nitro and nitrito linkage isomers of pentaamminecobalt(III) complexes studied by DSC. • The different prepared salts of both isomers are in metastable state at room temperature which convert to an equilibrium stale state upon heating. • Change of the counterion affects thermodynamic parameters of the isomerization reaction, but the nitro isomer is always more stable than the nitrito one. • The kinetic parameters of the linkage isomerization depend significantly on the nature of the counterion. - Abstract: Solid state thermal interconversion of [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}NO{sub 2}]X{sub 2} (nitro isomer) and [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}ONO]X{sub 2} (nitrito isomer) complexes (X = Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, I{sup −}, PF{sub 6}{sup −}) was studied by DSC at several heating rates. The isomerization of pure sample of both isomers leads to an equilibrium stable state in which nitro and nitrito isomers are major and minor components, respectively. Change of the counterion affects thermodynamic parameters of the isomerization reaction, but the nitro isomer is always more stable than the nitrito one. The equilibrium constant (nitro to nitrito molar ratio) increases in the series Cl{sup −} ≈ Br{sup −} < PF{sub 6}{sup −} < I{sup −}. The kinetic parameters of isomerization of both isomers were determined by Kissinger method. It was founded that the rate of interconversion of different salts of both isomers decreases in the series Cl{sup −} > Br{sup −} > PF{sub 6}{sup −} > I{sup −}. The negative activation entropy supports an associative mechanism with a seven coordinate transition state in solid state.

  6. Recurrent Word Combinations in EAP Test-Taker Writing: Differences between High- and Low-Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Randy; Wood, David

    2016-01-01

    The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…

  7. Large-Scale Assessment of Language Proficiency: Theoretical and Pedagogical Reflections on the Use of Multiple-Choice Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles Álvarez, Irina

    2013-01-01

    The new requirement placed on students in tertiary settings in Spain to demonstrate a B1 or a B2 proficiency level of English, in accordance with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL), has led most Spanish universities to develop a program of certification or accreditation of the required level. The first part of this…

  8. The Effect of early physiotherapy on the recovery of mandibular function after orthognathic surgery for Class III correction: part I--jaw-motion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Terry Te-Yi; Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Huang, Chiung Shing; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to compare the mandibular range of motion in Class III patients with and without early physiotherapy after orthognathic surgery (OGS). This study consisted of 63 Class III patients who underwent 2-jaw OGS. The experimental group comprised 31 patients who received early systematic physical rehabilitation. The control group consisted of 32 patients who did not have physical rehabilitation. Twelve variables of 3-dimensional (3D) jaw-motion analysis (JMA) were recorded before surgery (T1) and 6 weeks (T2) and 6 months (T3) after surgery. A 2-sample t test was conducted to compare the JMA results between the two groups at different time points. At T2, the JMA data were measured to be 77.5%-145.7% of presurgical values in the experimental group, and 60.3%-90.6% in the control group. At T3, the measurements were 112.2%-179.2% of presurgical values in the experimental group, and 77.6%-157.2% in the control group. The patients in the experimental group exhibited more favorable recovery than did those in the control group, from T1 to T2 and T1 to T3. However, after termination of physiotherapy, no significant difference in the extent of recovery was observed between groups up to 6 months after OGS. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Investigation of School Psychologists' Assessment Practices of Language Proficiency with Bilingual and Limited-English-Proficient Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Salvador Hector; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of the language proficiency assessment practices of 859 school psychologists, when working with bilingual or limited English proficient students, found that 62 percent of school psychologists conducted their own assessments and most often used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised or the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody.…

  10. Arthroscopic proficiency: methods in evaluating competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The current paradigm of arthroscopic training lacks objective evaluation of technical ability and its adequacy is concerning given the accelerating complexity of the field. To combat insufficiencies, emphasis is shifting towards skill acquisition outside the operating room and sophisticated assessment tools. We reviewed (1) the validity of cadaver and surgical simulation in arthroscopic training, (2) the role of psychomotor analysis and arthroscopic technical ability, (3) what validated assessment tools are available to evaluate technical competency, and (4) the quantification of arthroscopic proficiency. Methods The Medline and Embase databases were searched for published articles in the English literature pertaining to arthroscopic competence, arthroscopic assessment and evaluation and objective measures of arthroscopic technical skill. Abstracts were independently evaluated and exclusion criteria included articles outside the scope of knee and shoulder arthroscopy as well as original articles about specific therapies, outcomes and diagnoses leaving 52 articles citied in this review. Results Simulated arthroscopic environments exhibit high levels of internal validity and consistency for simple arthroscopic tasks, however the ability to transfer complex skills to the operating room has not yet been established. Instrument and force trajectory data can discriminate between technical ability for basic arthroscopic parameters and may serve as useful adjuncts to more comprehensive techniques. There is a need for arthroscopic assessment tools for standardized evaluation and objective feedback of technical skills, yet few comprehensive instruments exist, especially for the shoulder. Opinion on the required arthroscopic experience to obtain proficiency remains guarded and few governing bodies specify absolute quantities. Conclusions Further validation is required to demonstrate the transfer of complex arthroscopic skills from simulated environments to the

  11. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part III; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  12. Language awareness and communication as part of teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language awareness and communication as part of teacher education at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. ... Journal for Language Teaching ... Teacher language proficiency is central to learner success – where a teacher is not proficient in the medium of instruction the likelihood of a learner experiencing success is ...

  13. Richard III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"......Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"...

  14. Howard Gardner: Aportes de la investigación psicológica a la educación actual : Parte III

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, María Florencia

    2016-01-01

    Como afirmamos en las publicaciones previas del tema de este mes, Howard Gardner es hoy un especialista citado en distintos posts, comentarios, presentaciones e infografías sobre el uso de recursos tecnológicos en educación. En esta parte presentaremos su estudio sobre la App Generation.

  15. Proficiency test of gamma spectrometry laboratories in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelic, G., E-mail: gpantelic@nadlanu.co [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health Dr Dragomir Karajovic, Deligradska 29, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia, Autoput 3, 11070 Belgrade (Serbia); Vuletic, V. [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health Dr Dragomir Karajovic, Deligradska 29, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrovic, R. [Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia, Autoput 3, 11070 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents the statistical evaluation of results from the analysis of 8 radionuclides in water samples within the frame of the First Proficiency Test of gamma spectrometry Laboratories in Serbia organized in 2008. The water samples used in this proficiency test were prepared using certified radioactive solution containing gamma emitting radionuclides. This solution was diluted and used as a master solution for preparation of test samples. The overall performance evaluation showed that 64.7% of all reported results met the individual proficiency test criteria, where 26.5% of all reported results did not pass the overall PT acceptance criterion.

  16. Uptake of iron (III)-ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid complex by phosphatidylcholine lipid film: Part I. Effect of bulk pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Masumi; Tanaka, Mihoko; Saito, Natsumi; Sakamoto, Hiroyasu; Hayami, Yoshiteru

    2017-12-06

    We studied a ternary solutes aqueous solution of NaOH, iron (III)-ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid complex (Fe-edta), and 1,2-diheptanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC)/air interface system to clarify the interactions between iron complexes and lipids with a phosphatidylcholine head group. The solution surface tension and pH were measured as functions of the total molality of NaOH, Fe-edta and DHPC, and the mole fractions of NaOH and DHPC. Rigorous thermodynamic equations were derived, in which the overall proton dissociation equilibria of Fe-edta and DHPC were taken into consideration, and applied to experimental data to obtain phase diagram of adsorption. It was found that (1) adsorption of Fe-edta at the solution/air interface with a DHPC monolayer was about 50-130 times higher than that without a DHPC monolayer and (2) when the bulk mole fraction of NaOH was high, Fe-edta tended to be expelled from the adsorbed film. The last finding suggests that the ambient pH significantly affects passive transport of the iron complex through a phospholipid-containing membrane into the cell interior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulación de la fluencia en caliente de un acero microaleado con un contenido medio de carbono. III parte. Ecuaciones constitutivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, J. M.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the part 1 of this work the constitutive equations of the hot flow behaviour of a commercial microalloyed steel have been obtained. For this purpose, the uniaxial hot compression tests described in the part 2 were employed. Tests were carried out over a range of 5 orders of magnitude in strain rate and 300 °C of temperature. Experimental results are compared with the theoretical model introduced in the first part of this study. It is concluded that deviations between experimental and theoretical curves are lower than 10 %. It is shown that the classical hiperbolic sine constitutive equation described accurately the experimental behaviour provided that stresses are normalized by the Young's modulus and strain rates by the self-diffusion coefficient. An internal stress must also be introduced in the latter equation when the initial grain size is fine enough.

    Siguiendo el planteamiento teórico efectuado en la I parte de este trabajo, se determinaron las ecuaciones constitutivas del comportamiento a la deformación en caliente de un acero comercial microaleado con un contenido medio de carbono. Para este objetivo se emplearon los ensayos de compresión uniaxial en caliente ya descritos en la II parte, los cuales se efectuaron en un rango de cinco órdenes de magnitud en velocidad de deformación y 300 °C de temperatura. Se comparan los resultados experimentales con el modelo teórico introducido en la I parte y se verifica que el error es inferior al 10 %. Se comprobó que la clásica ecuación del seno hiperbólico podía describir con precisión el comportamiento observado siempre y cuando las tensiones se normalicen por el módulo de Young, las velocidades de deformación por el coeficiente de autodifusión de la austenita, y se considere un efecto adicional sobre la tensión cuando el tamaño de grano inicial sea suficientemente fino.

  18. Good practice criteria and improving infrastructure for leisure-time physical activity in the local arena - the Impala project, part iii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vašíčková

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This project is aimed at unifying information about local infrastructure for leisure-time physical activity (LTPA in twelve European countries. This is due to the exchange of information about national strategies, policies, and mechanism at working meetings. This also includes their improvement with regard to social inequalities, inter-sectoral cooperation and participation. AIM: The aim of the third part of the IMPALA project is to summarize the results of the project into certain fundamental criteria that can be used by regional and local policy and stakeholders who can participate in planning, financing, building or managing of infrastructure for LTPA. METHODS: Based on identification of national strategies and policies (1st part of the project as well as mechanisms (2nd part of the project, we identified examples of positive practice in each of the participating countries in the sphere of LTPA infrastructures. To find out this information we used qualitative methods, namely structured interviews, focus group method, and brainstorming among relevant people who were involved into the project on national levels. RESULTS: The main outcome of the project are the guidelines that are drawn up as a list of criteria for evaluation of contemporary situations within the sphere of policy, planning, financing, building and managing of LTPA infrastructures. Another integral part that follows evaluation criteria are proposals for improving the mentioned spheres regarding to equality of approaches, inter-sectoral cooperation and participation of concerned parties. The appendix contains examples of practice that were chosen within the project from all of the participating countries and represent a certain sphere such as planning, building, financing or management. CONCLUSION: The main results of the project are: relevance of infrastructure and public physical activity connectivity; searching for the possibility to widely use the existing

  19. The effect of early physiotherapy on the recovery of mandibular function after orthognathic surgery for class III correction. Part II: electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Teng, Terry Te-Yi; Huang, Chiung Shing; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of early physical rehabilitation by comparing the differences of surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles after surgical correction of skeletal class III malocclusion. The prospective study included 63 patients; the experimental groups contained 31 patients who received early systematic physical rehabilitation; the control group (32 patients) did not receive physiotherapy. The amplitude of sEMG in the masticatory muscles reached 72.6-121.3% and 37.5-64.6% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively at 6 weeks after orthognathic surgery (OGS). At 6 months after OGS, the sEMG reached 135.1-233.4% and 89.6-122.5% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively. Most variables in the sEMG examination indicated that recovery of the masticatory muscles in the experimental group was better than the control group as estimated in the early phase (T1 to T2) and the total phase (T1 to T3); there were no significant differences between the mean recovery percentages in the later phase (T2 to T3). Early physical rehabilitative therapy is helpful for early recovery of muscle activity in masticatory muscles after OGS. After termination of physical therapy, no significant difference in recovery was indicated in patients with or without early physiotherapy. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protocol Outlines for Parts 1 and 2 of the Prospective Endoscopy III Study for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer: Validation of a Concept Based on Blood Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Wilhelmsen, Michael; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Andersen, Jens; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Rasmussen, Morten; Hendel, Jakob W; Madsen, Mogens R; Vilandt, Jesper; Hillig, Thore; Klærke, Michael; Münster, Anna-Marie Bloch; Andersen, Lars M; Andersen, Berit; Hornung, Nete; Erlandsen, Erland J; Khalid, Ali; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2016-09-13

    Programs for population screening of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been implemented in several countries with fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) as the preferred platform. However, the major obstacle for a feces-based testing method is the limited compliance that reduces the clinical sensitivity for detection of participants with non-symptomatic CRC. Therefore, research approaches have been initiated to develop screening concepts based on biomarkers in blood. Preliminary results show that protein, genetic, epigenetic, and metabolomic components may be valuable in blood-based screening concepts, particularly when combinations of the various components appear to lead to significant improvements. The protocol described in this paper focuses on the validation of concepts based on biomarkers in blood in a major population screened by FIT. In Part 1, participants will be identified and included through the Danish CRC Screening Program comprising initial FIT and subsequent colonoscopy to those with a positive result. Blood samples will be collected from 8000 FIT-positive participants, who are offered subsequent colonoscopy. Findings and interventions at colonoscopy together with personal data including co-morbidity will be recorded. Blood samples and data will also be collected from 6000 arbitrarily chosen participants with negative FIT. In Part 2, blood samples and data will be collected from 30,000 FIT-negative participants three times within 4 years. The blood samples will be analyzed using various in-house and commercially available manual and automated analysis platforms. We anticipate Part 1 to terminate late August 2016 and Part 2 to terminate late September 2022. The results from Parts 1 and 2 will be presented within 12 to 18 months from termination. The purpose of this study is to improve the efficacy of identifying participants with neoplastic bowel lesions, to identify false negative participants, to identify participants at risk of interval neoplastic lesions

  1. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part IV: Chromium(III)/H+ /Lewatit SP112; La eliminación de metales tóxicos presentes en efluentes líquidos mediante resinas de cambio iónico. Parte IV: cromo(III)/H+/Lewatit SP112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguacil, F.J.

    2017-09-01

    This investigation presented results on the removal of chromium(III), from aqueous solution in the 0-5 pH range, using Lewatit SP112 cationic exchange resin. Several aspects affecting the ion exchange process were evaluated, including: the influence of the stirring speed, temperature, pH of the solution, resin dosage and aqueous ionic strength. The selectivity of the system was tested against the presence of other metals in the aqueous solution, whereas the removal of chromium(III) from solutions was compared with results obtained using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents. From the batch experimental data, best fit of the results is obtained with the Langmuir model, whereas the ion exchange process is best explained by the pseudo-second order model, moreover, experimental data responded well to the film-diffusion controlled model. Elution of the chromium(III) loaded into the resin is well accomplished by the use of sodium hydroxide solutions. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la eliminación de cromo(III) de disoluciones acuosas (pH 0-5) mediante la resina de intercambio catiónico Lewatit SP112. Se han investigado algunas variables que pueden afectar al sistema: influencia de la agitación, temperatura, pH y fuerza iónica del medio acuoso y cantidad de resina; también se ha investigado acerca de la selectividad del sistema cuando otros metales están presentes en el medio acuoso, comparándose los resultados de la eliminación del cromo(III) usando la resina con los resultados obtenidos cuando se emplea otro adsorbente como son los nanotubos de carbono de pared múltiple. Los resultados experimentales indican que la carga del cromo(III) en la resina responde mejor al modelo de Langmuir, mientras que los modelos cinéticos indican que la carga del metal en la resina responde al modelo de pseudo-segundo orden y difusión en la capa límite. La elución del cromo(III) se realiza con disoluciones de hidróxid.

  2. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  3. Language proficiency among hospitalized immigrant psychiatric patients in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Baldessarini, Ross J; Iuso, Salvatore; La Torre, Antonella; D'Onghia, Antonio; La Salandra, Michela; Mazza, Maristella; Bellomo, Antonello

    2014-05-01

    and aim: Lack of cultural adaptation may risk or worsen mental illness among immigrants, and interfere with assessment and treatment. Language proficiency (LP) seems essential for access to foreign environments, and the limited research concerning its effects on mental health care encouraged this preliminary study. We reviewed clinical records of all immigrant psychiatric patients hospitalized at the University of Foggia in 2004-09 (N = 85), and compared characteristics of patients with adequate versus inadequate LP. Subjects (44 men, 41 women; aged 35.7±10.0 years) represented 3.62±0.94% of all hospitalizations in six years. (2004-09). Most (60.0%) had emigrated from other European countries. Many were diagnosed with a DSM-IV unspecified psychosis (40.0%) or adjustment disorder (18.8%), and 45.9% were in first-lifetime episodes. Average comprehension and spoken LP was considered adequate in 62.4% and inadequate in 37.6%. In multivariate modelling, adequate LP was more prevalent among women, emigration from another European country, receiving more psychotropic drugs at hospitalization, and having entered Italy legally. Findings support an expected importance of LP among immigrant psychiatric inpatients, and encourage language assessment and training as part of the comprehensive support of such patients, especially men.

  4. Relationship between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency in first-grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibe Soltaninejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Phonological awareness (consisting of phoneme, syllable and intra-syllable awareness is an important part of receptive and expressive language; it facilitates reading and writing skills through phonological re-coding. Multiple studies in several languages have studied the relationship between phonological awareness and dictation. This research is based on a study of the relationship between phonological skill and spelling score in first-grade Persian students.Methods: Four hundred first-grade students participated in the study, including 209 girls and 191 boys. A phonological awareness test was individually administered for each student and then a spelling exam was administered in groups. The correlation between the two tests was studied using a simple regression model. The comparison of mean scores of girls and boys was evaluated employing an independent t-test.Results: A correlation coefficient of 0.82 was obtained between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency (p<0.001. Phonological skill sub-tests also showed a significant correlation with spelling proficiency (highest for phoneme awareness r=0.34 and lowest for rhyme awareness r=0.12. The mean scores of girls and boys differed significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: There is a strong positive association between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency. Therefore, if phonological skill is improved, spelling score can be enhanced.

  5. Application of Statistics to Evaluate Iranian Analytical Laboratories Proficiency: Case of Aflatoxins in Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fotouhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a proficiency testing program among limited number of local laboratories as an alternative to the IUPAC/CITAC guide on proficiency testing with a limited number of participants, specially where international schemes are not accessible. As a sample scheme we planned to determine aflatoxins (B1, G1, B2, G2, total in Iranian pistachio matrix. A part of naturally contaminated pistachio sample was tested for sufficient homogeneity by a competent laboratory and then homogenized sub-samples were distributed among participants all across the country. The median of participants’ results was selected as assigned value. Student t-test was applied to show there is no significant difference between assigned and mean values of homogeneity test results obtained by the competent laboratory. Calculated z-scores showed that 6 out of 8 results in aflatoxin B1, 7 out of 8 results in aflatoxin B2, 5 out of 8 results in aflatoxin G1, 7 out of 8 results in aflatoxin G2 and 6 out of 9 results in aflatoxin total were in satisfactory range. Together our studies indicate that the approach described here is highly cost efficient and applicable for quality assurance of test results when there is no access to international proficiency testing providers.

  6. Trainee-Associated Factors and Proficiency at Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Kazem Aghamir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is a complicated procedure for urology trainees. This study was designed to investigate the effect of trainees’ ages and previous experience, as well as the number of operated cases, on proficiency at PNL by using patient outcomes. A cross sectional observational study was designed during a five-year period. Trainees in PNL fellowship programs were included. At the end of the program, the trainees’ performance in PNL was assessed regarding five competencies and scored 1-5. If the overall score was 4 or above, the trainee was considered as proficient. The trainees’ age at the beginning of the program and the years passed from their residency graduation were asked and recorded. Also, the number of PNL cases operated by each trainee was obtained via their logbooks. The age, years passed from graduation, and number of operated cases were compared between two groups of proficient and non-proficient trainees. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the effect of aforementioned variables on the occurrence of the proficiency. Forty-two trainees were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation for the overall score were 3.40 (out of 5 and 0.67, respectively. Eleven trainees (26.2% recognized as proficient in performing PNL. Univariate regression analysis indicated that each of three variables (age, years passed from graduation and number of operated cases had statistically significant effect on proficiency. However, the multivariate regression analysis revealed that just the number of cases had significant effect on achieving proficiency. Although it might be assumed that trainees’ age negatively correlates with their scores, in fact, it is their amount of practice that makes a difference. A certain number of cases is required to be operated by a trainee in order to reach the desired competency in PNL.

  7. Trainee-Associated Factors and Proficiency at Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamir, Seyed Mohammad Kazem; Behtash, Negar; Hamidi, Morteza; Farahmand, Hasan; Salavati, Alborz; Mortaz Hejri, Sara

    2017-07-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is a complicated procedure for urology trainees. This study was designed to investigate the effect of trainees' ages and previous experience, as well as the number of operated cases, on proficiency at PNL by using patient outcomes. A cross sectional observational study was designed during a five-year period. Trainees in PNL fellowship programs were included. At the end of the program, the trainees' performance in PNL was assessed regarding five competencies and scored 1-5. If the overall score was 4 or above, the trainee was considered as proficient. The trainees' age at the beginning of the program and the years passed from their residency graduation were asked and recorded. Also, the number of PNL cases operated by each trainee was obtained via their logbooks. The age, years passed from graduation, and number of operated cases were compared between two groups of proficient and non-proficient trainees. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the effect of aforementioned variables on the occurrence of the proficiency. Forty-two trainees were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation for the overall score were 3.40 (out of 5) and 0.67, respectively. Eleven trainees (26.2%) recognized as proficient in performing PNL. Univariate regression analysis indicated that each of three variables (age, years passed from graduation and number of operated cases) had statistically significant effect on proficiency. However, the multivariate regression analysis revealed that just the number of cases had significant effect on achieving proficiency. Although it might be assumed that trainees' age negatively correlates with their scores, in fact, it is their amount of practice that makes a difference. A certain number of cases is required to be operated by a trainee in order to reach the desired competency in PNL.

  8. Level up : Language proficiency and gamification in upper secondaryschool

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Gamification is a new but upcoming feature in classrooms that has grown with the digitalisation in Swedish homes and schools. The aim of this literature review is to research how gamification can influence upper secondary students’ language proficiency in English as a foreign language. Five sources were analysed, four journals and one conference paper, and the results show that gamification could increase language proficiency if it is used in a moderate amount and that the summative assessmen...

  9. PROFICIENT CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT THROUGH FOCUSED MATHEMATIC TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Samuelsson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A not entirely unusual position among teachers is that they believe that they must first establish a peaceful classroom before they can begin to teach the subject. This research, shows how a proficient mathematics teacher teaches his subject and thereby creates a quiet and focused classroom and exerts effective leadership, just by teaching mathematics. The researchers observed a male mathematics teacher for almost half a year, i.e. one semester. The results of research present several patterns that the researchers saw during the observations of his teaching. The teacher showed an interest in each student’s mathematical thinking and expressed explicitly how students were expected to learn mathematics. He also directed students’ attention to mathematics and established a culture where all solutions were important in the teaching process. In the teaching process, he used multiple representations to motivate students and a lot of supportive expressions that made them feel that they were able to learn mathematics. He worked patiently to establish structures, and there was almost no disruptive behaviour. Students simply did not have time to interfere because they were so engaged in learning mathematics.

  10. Shaping the breast in aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery: an easy three-step principle. Part III--reconstruction following breast conservative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, Phillip N; Hijjawi, John; Depypere, Herman; Roche, Nathalie; Van Landuyt, Koenraad

    2009-07-01

    Of the relatively few studies that exist regarding the cosmetic satisfaction of patients following breast conservation therapy, several indicate significant dissatisfaction in many patients. Breast conservation often results in some of the most challenging and complex reconstructive problems. Indeed, even defining the problem or analyzing the defect can be difficult for the junior surgeon. For the more seasoned reconstructive surgeon, analyzing the problem and applying solutions may be less difficult, but clearly communicating the defects typically seen after an aggressive lumpectomy and radiotherapy can be difficult, especially with trainees or junior surgeons. The goal of this article, the third in a four-part series, is to provide a template for the analysis and surgical reconstruction of defects resulting from breast conservation therapy utilizing a systematic three-step method. Part I of this series described the three main anatomical features of the breast--the footprint, the conus of the breast, and the skin envelope--and how they interact. By systematically analyzing the breast with this three-step method, a "problem list" based in specific anatomic traits of the breast can be generated, allowing the surgeon to then generate an appropriate surgical plan for reconstruction. Surgical approaches based on the percentage of breast parenchyma resected are suggested, with a focus on glandular rearrangement, breast reduction techniques, and locoregional flaps. The three-step method of breast analysis, evaluating the anatomical deformation of the breast footprint, conus, and skin envelope, remains the fundamental "fall-back" principle of this approach.

  11. STRATEGIES OF MAINTAINING PROFICIENCY BY TEACHERS OF ENGLISH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.

  12. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Composites. Part III; Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Ramsey, Jack; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the third part of a three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce ceramic matrix composite materials and aircraft engine components by the binder jet process. Different SiC powders with median sizes ranging from 9.3 to 53.0 microns were investigated solely and in powder blends in order to maximize powder packing. Various infiltration approaches were investigated to include polycarbosilane (SMP-10), phenolic, and liquid silicon. Single infiltrations of SMP-10 and phenolic only slightly filled in the interior. When the SMP-10 was loaded with sub-micron sized SiC powders, the infiltrant gave a much better result of filling in the interior. Silicon carbide fibers were added to the powder bed to make ceramic matrix composite materials. Microscopy showed that the fibers were well distributed with no preferred orientation on the horizontal plane and fibers in the vertical plane were at angles as much as 45deg. Secondary infiltration steps were necessary to further densify the material. Two to three extra infiltration steps of SMP-10 increased the density by 0.20 to 0.55 g/cc. However, the highest densities achieved were 2.10 to 2.15 g/cc. Mechanical tests consisting of 4 point bend tests were conducted. Samples from the two CMC panels had higher strengths and strains to failure than the samples from the two nonfiber reinforced panels. The highest strengths were from Set N with 65 vol% fiber loading which had an average strength of 66 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surfaces did not reveal pullout of the reinforcing fibers. Blunt fiber failure suggested that there was not composite behavior. The binder jet additive manufacturing method was used to also demonstrate the fabrication of turbine engine vane components of two different designs and sizes. The

  13. Segmentation and accuracy-based scores for the automatic assessment of oral proficiency for proficient L2 speakers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Febe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available . Results indicate that, both for segmentation as well as accuracy-based scores, the most simple scores correlate best with the humans’ opinion on the students’ proficiency. Combining different scores using multiple linear regression leads to marginally...

  14. The model SIRANE for atmospheric urban pollutant dispersion. PART III: Validation against NO2 yearly concentration measurements in a large urban agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulhac, L.; Nguyen, C. V.; Volta, P.; Salizzoni, P.

    2017-10-01

    We present a validation study of an updated version of the SIRANE model, whose results have been systematically compared to concentrations of nitrogen dioxide collected over the whole urban agglomeration of Lyon. We model atmospheric dispersion of nitrogen oxides emitted by road traffic, industries and domestic heating. The meteorological wind field is computed by a pre-processor using data collected at a ground level monitoring station. Model results are compared with hourly concentrations measured at 15 monitoring stations over the whole year (2008). Further 75 passive diffusion samplers were used during 3 periods of 2 weeks to get a detailed spatial distribution over the west part of the city. An analysis of the model results depending on the variability of the meteorological input allows us to identify the causes for peculiar bad performances of the model and to identify possible improvements of the parameterisations implemented in it.

  15. TLC-MS versus TLC-LC-MS fingerprints of herbal extracts. Part III. Application of the reversed-phase liquid chromatography systems with C18 stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajewicz, Mieczysław; Staszek, Dorota; Natic, Maja; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Kowalska, Teresa

    2011-08-01

    In the previous paper from this series, we proposed mass spectrometric fingerprinting of complex botanical samples upon the examples of the pharmacologically important phenolic acids and flavonoids selectively extracted from Salvia lavandulifolia. In this study, we explore fingerprinting efficiency with a novel two-dimensional analytical system composed of the reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography and the reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (2D RP-TLC-RP-LC-MS). We also compare its efficiency with that of the one-dimensional analytical system (the reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography with mass spectrometric detection; 1D RP-TLC-MS). As our present study is basically focused on the method development, we considered it as justified to carry out our comparison with the phenolic acid extracts selectively derived from the Salvia lavandulifolia species, similar as it was done in Part II from this series. Upon the results obtained, it was established that the 1D RP-TLC-MS mode and the 2D RP-TLC-RP-LC-MS mode can be applied to fingerprinting of herbal extracts, and that the 2D RP-TLC-RP-LC mode can provide a more abundant information than that originating from the 1D RP-TLC mode.

  16. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  17. Proficiency testing for psychoactive substances in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, S D; Brusini, G; Maietti, S; Frison, G; Castagna, F; Allevi, S; Menegus, A M; Tedeschi, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the general design and main results of the Italian proficiency testing program for the analysis of psychoactive substances in urine, a long-term initiative created in 1995 on an educational basis and characterized by an innovative internet-based service for data exchange between laboratories and the organizing body. Batches of six urine samples, validated by reference laboratories, are sent every 3 months to participating laboratories, which may choose which classes of substances to test from those planned by the program panel and, within those classes, which type of analytical commitment to work on: identification of just one class (Option 1), identification of single substances (Option 2), or identification and quantification of single substances (Option 3). Comprehensive periodical reports and annual reports are provided to participants with evaluation of their performance and an annual workshop is organized to discuss technical-scientific topics related to clinical, forensic and analytical toxicology. About 200 laboratories currently participate in the program and a total of 67,059 analyses have been carried out since 1995. The mean percentage of correct results was 96.8%, with a yearly improvement of about 0.4%. The best average false positive and false negative rates were obtained for methadone (0.2% and 2.1% respectively) and cocaine (0.3% and 2.2%). The worst average false positive rates were obtained for amphetamines and opiates (3.2% and 5.0%) and worst average false negative rates for amphetamines, barbiturates and cannabinoids (17.4%, 30.7% and 19.9%).

  18. The relationship between motor proficiency and mental health outcomes in young adults: A test of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, D; Kane, R T; Mancini, V; Thornton, A; Licari, M; Hands, B; McIntyre, F; Piek, J

    2017-06-01

    Growing evidence has highlighted the importance of motor proficiency in relation to psychosocial outcomes including self-perceived competence in various domains, perceived social support, and emotional areas such as anxiety and depression. The Environmental Stress Hypothesis-elaborated (Cairney, Rigoli, & Piek, 2013) is a proposed theoretical framework for understanding these relationships and recent studies have begun examining parts of this model using child and adolescent populations. However, the extent to which the relationships between these areas exist, persist or change during early adulthood is currently unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the Environmental Stress Hypothesis in a sample of 95 young adults aged 18-30years and examined the mediating role of physical self-worth and perceived social support in the relationship between motor proficiency and internalising symptoms. The McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (McCarron, 1997) was used to assess motor proficiency, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) provided a measure of internalising symptoms, and the Physical Self Perceptions Profile (Fox & Corbin, 1989) and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet, & Farley, 1988) were used to investigate the possible mediating role of physical self-worth and perceived social support respectively. Potential confounding variables such as age, gender and BMI were also considered in the analysis. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that perceived social support mediated the relationship between motor proficiency and internalising symptoms, whereas, the mediating role of physical self-worth was non-significant. The current results provide support for part of the model pathways as described in the Environmental Stress Hypothesis and suggest an important relationship between motor proficiency and psychosocial outcomes in young adults. Specifically, the results support previous

  19. A lean methane premixed laminar flame doped with components of diesel fuel part III: Indane and comparison between n-butylbenzene, n-propylcyclohexane and indane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pousse, E.; Tian, Z.Y.; Glaude, P.A.; Fournet, R.; Battin-Leclerc, F. [Laboratoire des Reactions et de Genie des Procedes, CNRS, Nancy Universite, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 NANCY Cedex (France)

    2010-07-15

    To better understand the chemistry of the combustion of components of diesel fuel, the structure of a laminar lean premixed methane flame doped with indane has been investigated. The inlet gases contained 7.1% (molar) of methane, 36.8% of oxygen and 0.9% of indane corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 0.67 and a ratio C{sub 10}H{sub 14}/CH{sub 4} of 12.8%. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa (50 Torr) using argon as diluent, with a gas velocity at the burner of 49.1 cm s{sup -1} at 333 K. Quantified species included the usual methane C{sub 0}-C{sub 2} combustion products, but also 16 C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} non-aromatic hydrocarbons, 6 C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} non-aromatic oxygenated compounds, as well as 22 aromatic products, namely benzene, toluene, xylenes, phenylacetylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, propenylbenzene, allylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, methylstyrenes, ethyltoluenes, trimethylbenzenes, n-butylbenzene, dimethylethylbenzene, indene, methylindenes, methylindane, benzocyclobutene, naphthalene, phenol, benzaldehyde, and benzofuran. A new mechanism for the oxidation of indane was proposed whose predictions were in satisfactory agreement with measured species profiles in both flames and jet-stirred reactor experiments. The main reaction pathways of consumption of indane have been derived from flow rate analyses in the two types of reactors. A comparison of the effect of the addition of three components of diesel fuel, namely indane, n-butylbenzene and n-propylcyclohexane (parts I and II of this series of paper), on the structure of a laminar lean premixed methane flame is also presented. (author)

  20. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency. This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency. These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency.

  1. A Study of the Relationship between Type of Dictionary Used and Lexical Proficiency in Writings of Iranian EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereidoon Vahdany

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the relationship between types of dictionaries used and lexical proficiency in writing. Eighty TOEFL students took part in responding to two Questionnaires collecting information about their dictionary type preferences and habits of dictionary use, along with an interview for further in-depth responses. They were also asked to write a composition to be evaluated on their lexical proficiency. According to the results, the most frequently used dictionary type was Bilingual (E-P Desk Dictionary (BDD and the least favored dictionaries were Bilingual (P-E Desk Dictionary (BDD2 and Bilingual (P-E Mobile Dictionary (BMD. Referring to dictionaries in search of meaning during reading-writing, and after speaking-listening were the most common habits of students. Additionally, a significant relationship between the type of dictionary and lexical proficiency in participant’s writing was found. There was also a correlation between skill in dictionary use and lexical proficiency in writing. These finding entail some pedagogical benefits to enhance learners’ lexical competence by modifying the type of learners’ preferred dictionary and their habits in dictionary use.

  2. Sleep improvement for restless legs syndrome patients. Part III: effect of treatment assignment belief on sleep improvement in restless legs syndrome patients. A mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbank F

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fred Burbank Director, Salt Creek International Women's Health Foundation, San Clemente, CA, USA Purpose: Two parallel-design, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trials were conducted to study the safety and efficacy of vibratory stimulation (VS on restless legs syndrome (RLS patients (Part I of this series of articles. Pooled data from the two studies was retroactively analyzed to compare the relative effects of actual pad assignment with therapeutic pad assignment belief on sleep improvement for patients with RLS. Patients and methods: One hundred fifty-eight patients with at least moderately severe RLS, as measured by a score of 15 points or greater on the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group rating scale (IRLS, were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment (patient-controlled vibration or sham (patient-controlled sound or light-emitting pads. Patients and clinicians were blinded to pad assignment. The pad was placed under the patient's legs while in bed at night and activated during an RLS episode. Improvements in Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Problems Index II (MOS-II scores from baseline to week 4 were examined as a function of pad assignment (independent variable and therapeutic pad assignment belief held by each patient (mediator variable through mediation analysis. Results: Therapeutic pad assignment belief influenced change in MOS-II scores more than actual pad assignment. Patients who believed they had been assigned a therapeutic pad had substantially greater sleep improvement than those who concluded the opposite. When a patient believed that a therapeutic pad had been assigned, sleep improvement was comparable in magnitude, independent of the type of pad assigned (vibrating or sham. Patients assigned vibrating pads believed that they had been assigned a therapeutic pad 2.6 times more frequently than patients assigned sham pads. Consequently, vibrating pads were more efficient at improving

  3. Assessing the Training and Operational Proficiency of China’s Aerospace Forces: Selections from the Inaugural Conference of the China Aerospace Studies Institute (CASI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Edmund J. Burke, Astrid Stuth Cevallos, Mark R. Cozad, Timothy R. Heath Assessing the Training and Operational Proficiency of China’s Aerospace ...Forces Selections from the Inaugural Conference of the China Aerospace Studies Institute (CASI) C O R P O R A T I O N Limited Print and Electronic...iii Preface On June 22, 2015, the China Aerospace Studies Institute (CASI), in conjunction with Headquarters, Air Force, held a day-long

  4. The proficiency testing of determination of dioxins in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, R.; Tsutsumi, T.; Maitani, T. [National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Jissen Womens Univ., Hino (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Food intake is the main route of human dioxin exposure, making the determination of dioxins in food indispensable for risk assessment and risk management of dioxins. The uncertainty of analytical results, however, can be very great because of the low concentration of the analytes and complicated cleanup procedures. The risk assessment of dioxins based on analytical results also suffers from a similar degree of uncertainty. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan has published ''Guideline for the Determination of Dioxins in Food'' to standardize the analytical procedures. The guideline contains the quality assurance procedures to obtain reliable analytical results and recommends participation in the relevant proficiency testing scheme. The proficiency testing provides the fair evaluation of the analytical results. The central science laboratory in England and the food and drug safety center in Japan offer the proficiency testing on food. The National Institute of Health Sciences of Japan (NIHS) also has carried out proficiency testing of dioxins in food since 1998 to assure the quality of analytical results for dioxins. In this presentation we will show the results of 5 rounds of proficiency testing.

  5. Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: parte 1 Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucelma Vilela Pieri

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio anual da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III. METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino, com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selecionada em uma clínica particular, em São Paulo, Brasil. Havia 118 Classe I, 151 Classe II e 31 Classe III. Todas as 600 radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram obtidas no mesmo aparelho de raios-x. As análises de Ricketts e Schwarz modificadas por Faltin foram usadas. As medidas lineares (Ba-Na, CC-Na, CC-Ba e CF-Po foram feitas pelo mesmo examinadora em T1 e T2. Os tipos faciais e de relacionamentos foram estudados juntos com a amostragem total e subdividida por gêneros. Os testes de Levene e t de Student foram aplicados. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os resultados confirmaram os valores de Langlade, porém mostraram dimorfismo sexual, com o gênero masculino crescendo significativamente mais que o feminino. Este estudo será de grande aplicação para a previsão de crescimento, prognóstico e o plano de tratamento de pacientes em crescimento.AIM: to assess the cranial base annual mean growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship. METHODS: a random sample of 300 Brazilian Caucasian patients (131 males, 169 females, with 10 years and 2 months (mixed dentition initial mean age, 14 years and 8 months (second molar occlusion final mean age and 4 years and 5 months mean observation time was selected at a private clinic in São Paulo - Brazil. There were 118 Class I, 151 Class II and 31 Class III. All 600 lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken using the same x-rays equipment. Ricketts and

  6. Manufacturing Industry Employers’ Perception of Graduates’ English Language Skills Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Proficiency in English language skills among graduates that create advantages for the organization is preferred by prospective employers as one of the main criteria for employability.  This article provides an overview of undergraduates in higher education and also workplace literacy from the perspective of the employers in the manufacturing industry. The result from the research demonstrates that Malaysian manufacturing industry employers perceive that the graduate employees’ English language proficiency skills are still below their expectations. Therefore, this study recommends that there is a need for intervention into language teaching to improve the English language syllabus level of English proficiency at primary, secondary and tertiary level. At the same time, emphasis on the importance of English in everyday use should be inculcated without neglecting the national language of Malaysia.  This will ensure that the teaching of English will be in line with globalization and current workplace demands.

  7. Pathways From Toddler Information Processing to Adolescent Lexical Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation of 3-year core information-processing abilities to lexical growth and development. The core abilities covered four domains-memory, representational competence (cross-modal transfer), processing speed, and attention. Lexical proficiency was assessed at 3 and 13 years with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and verbal fluency. The sample (N = 128) consisted of 43 preterms (toddler information processing and language proficiency and, independent of stability in language, direct predictive links between (a) 3-year cross-modal ability and 13-year PPVT and (b) 3-year processing speed and both 13-year measures, PPVT and verbal fluency. Thus, toddler information processing was related to growth in lexical proficiency from 3 to 13 years. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Language anxiety and proficiency in a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R L; Ganschow, L; Artzer, M; Siebenhar, D; Plageman, M

    1997-10-01

    Study examined the extent to which there would be differences in oral and written proficiency in a foreign language among groups of low-, average-, and high-anxious high school students. Participants were 60 girls attending a single-sex, college-preparatory high school and completing the second year of a foreign language course. Analysis showed over-all differences on measures of proficiency in the foreign language among the three groups. The results support the hypothesis that anxiety about foreign language learning is likely to represent students' differences in language learning.

  9. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Part III. Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of the FT-IR spectrometer in analyses that were previously avoided. Examines some of the applications of this spectroscopy with aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope. (TW)

  10. [Medicine in notafilia--Part III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Rade R; Babić, Gordana Stanković

    2013-01-01

    Notafilia is the study of paper money. Only a few countries in the world have issued banknotes with portraits of well-known scientists who brought international fame to their own people and medicine. PORTRAITS OF SCIENTISTS ON THE BANKNOTES OF YUGOSLAVIA, SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO AND SERBIA. Nikola Tesla and Mihailo Pupin Idvorski were the ingenious inventors and scientists of our time who made special contributions to radiology. Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) pioneered the use of X-rays for medical purposes, thus effectively laying the foundations of radiology and radiography, and revealed the existence of harmful effects of X-rays on the human body. Mihailo Pupin Idvorski (1854-1935) was worldwide famous for applying physics in practice, as well as in the basis of telephone and telegraph transmissions. He also studied the nature of X-rays and contributed to establishing of radiology. PORTRAITS OF SCIENTISTS ON THE BANKNOTES OF THE WORLD: Maria Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) was the first woman to gain the academic title of the Academy of Medicine, Paris. Together with her husband Pierre Curie (1859-1906) she gave an outstanding contribution to science and medicine. The discovery of the radioactive elements introduced the concept of "radioactivity" into physics and "radiotherapy" as a new discipline in medicine, thus creating the conditions for the development of nuclear medicine, oncology, and mobile diagnostic radiology. This paper presents the banknotes featuring the portraits of Nikola Tesla, Mihailo Pupin Idvorski, Maria Sklodowska Curie and Pierre Curie, the world renowned scientists, who made enormous contributions to medicine and laid the foundation for radiology.

  11. Part III. Ultrasound in rheumatology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Borisovna Demina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On 23–25 May 2013, the Karolinska Institute (Stockholm, Sweden with the support of MSD company held a meeting on a Clinical Observational Program for rheumatologists, which was attended by the well-known rheumatologists and leading specialists of the Institute Prof. R. van Vollenhoven, Prof. L. Klareskog, Dr. E. af Klint, and Dr. C. Carlens. The reports and interactive sessions discussed the problems of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, including early RA (pathology, pathogenesis, and treatment, registers of with rheumatic diseases; ultrasound diagnosis of inflammatory locomotor diseases; biological therapy for rheumatic diseases; organization of work in the research immunological laboratory, outpatient/day hospital units of a rheumatology clinic. The Program was also attended by physicians from different European countries (Sweden, Germany, Russia, Spain, Greece, etc.. Below is given an overview of the proceedings of the Clinical Observational Program.

  12. Topics in Finance Part III--Leverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates operating and financial leverage from the perspective of the financial manager, accenting the relationships to stockholder wealth maximization (SWM), risk and return, and potential agency problems. It also covers some of the pertinent literature related specifically to the implications of operating and financial risk and…

  13. Acardiac twin pregnancies part III : Model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Martin J C; Ross, Michael G.; Nikkels, Peter G J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074234692; Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M van den

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acardiac monochorionic twins lack cardiac function but grow by passive perfusion of the pump twin's deoxygenated arterial blood through placental arterioarterial (AA) and venovenous (VV) anastomoses and by hypoxia-mediated neovascularization. Pump twins therefore must continuously

  14. Projekt Kitae Part I-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, William Dr.

    Fokuserer på udfordringerne omkring nuværende militære C2 organisation med henblik på at maksimere kamppladsens "smidighed" (Agility). Dette ord er i studiet defineret ved "C2 strukturens evne til at facilitere transformationen af indhentet kendskab fra den komplekse kampplads i en rettidig tidsr...

  15. Listening and Reading Proficiency Levels of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirner, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines listening and reading proficiency levels of U.S. college foreign language students at major milestones throughout their undergraduate career. Data were collected from more than 3,000 participants studying seven languages at 21 universities and colleges across the United States. The results show that while listening…

  16. Developing a Psychometrically Sound Measure of Collegiate Teaching Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Donald C.; Engelland, Brian T.; Matherine, Curtis F.; Martin, William C.; Orgeron, Craig P.; Ring, J. Kirk; Smith, Gregory R.; Williams, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    While student evaluation of teaching (SET) has become a common practice on most college campuses, research suggests that weaknesses exist in many of the common instruments employed for this assessment. This study lays the groundwork for the development of an improved psychometrically sound measure of teaching proficiency that can be used in a…

  17. Oral proficiency assessment: the use of automatic speech ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and assessment of oral proficiency and listening comprehension is one of the most problematic aspects in language teaching, especially when the majority of testtakers are non-standard users of English. The main problems concern the feasibility of such testing and the need for reliable scoring. As far as ...

  18. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency of Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.; Arroyo, Alan A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between language learning strategy (LLS) preferences and English proficiency among Chinese university students. Oxford's (1990), Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an institutional version (ITP) of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) were administered to 168 third-year English…

  19. Assessing Critical Thinking Skills in Students with Limited English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Marianne; Bochner, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a procedure that has been used successfully to evaluate the critical thinking (CT) abilities of a population of undergraduates having limited proficiency in the English language. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to obtain reliable evaluations of CT skills in undergraduates who…

  20. Advisory Working Alliance, Perceived English Proficiency, and Acculturative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Du, Yi; Lin, Shu-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the moderators of (a) general or cross-cultural advisory working alliances and (b) perceived English proficiency on the association between acculturative stress and psychological distress. A total of 143 East Asian international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression…

  1. Masked translation priming effects with low proficient bilinguals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dimitropoulou, Maria; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    ... (Experimental Psychology 56:173–179). In a series of masked translation priming lexical decision experiments we examined whether the same pattern of effects would emerge with late and low proficient Greek (L1)–Spanish (L2) bilinguals...

  2. Online Assessment of Oral Proficiency for Intercultural Professional Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2012-01-01

    Rusman, E., & Stoyanov, S. (2011, 18 May). Online Assessment of Oral Proficiency for Intercultural Professional Communication. Presentation about the CEFcult project (www.cefcult.eu) at the workshop ‘Crossing borders’ organised by the Talenacademie, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University in the

  3. A retrospective evaluation of proficiency testing, and rapid HIV test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proficiency testing (PT) has been implemented as a form of External Quality Assurance (EQA) by the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Kenya since 2007 in order to monitor and improve on the quality of HIV testing and counselling HTC services. Objective: To compare concordance between National HIV ...

  4. Mismatch repair proficiency is not required for radioenhancement by gemcitabine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bree, Chris; Rodermond, Hans M.; de Vos, Judith; Haveman, Jaap; Franken, Nicolaas A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Mismatch repair (MMR) proficiency has been reported to either increase or decrease radioenhancement by 24-h incubations with gemcitabine. This study aimed to establish the importance of MMR for radioenhancement by gemcitabine after short-exposure, high-dose treatment and long-exposure,

  5. Internet Behaviours as Predictors of Reading Proficiency of Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two instruments were validated and used for data collection: Students' Internet Behaviour Questionnaire r=.87) and Reading Proficiency Test (r=.79). Frequency counts, percentages and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse data. The results which were interpreted at 0.05 level of significance show students' ...

  6. Vocabulary and Reading Performances of Redesignated Fluent English Proficient Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin Kyoung; Lawrence, Joshua Fahey; Collins, Penelope; Snow, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the researchers examined general vocabulary, academic vocabulary, and reading comprehension growth trajectories of adolescent redesignated fluent English proficient (RFEP) students using individual growth modeling analysis. The sample included 1,226 sixth- to eighth-grade RFEP students from six middle schools in an urban school…

  7. Fundamental movement skill proficiency of South African girls from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency can contribute to a decrease in participation in energy-expending recreational and sporting endeavours. Against the backdrop of the increasing obesity epidemic, ensuring that these foundational motor skills are established in childhood is justified. The purpose of this ...

  8. Convergent and Discriminant Validation of Oral Language Proficiency Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; Palmer, Adrian S.

    In a study designed to validate oral language proficiency tests, it is planned to administer a series of tests to 100 native Mandarin Chinese-speaking subjects (foreign students and their spouses). The tests will measure communicative competence in speaking (ability to speak, exhibiting control of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and pragmatic rules;…

  9. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Herrmann, Susan Strange

    2009-01-01

    A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos-methyl,...

  10. Determinants of second language proficiency among refugees in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, F.A. van

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the language acquisition of refugees in Western countries. This study examines how pre- and post-migration characteristics of refugees are related to their second language proficiency. Data are from a survey of 3,500 refugees, who were born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former

  11. Conversion to a Proficiency Oriented Curriculum at the University Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carmen Villegas; And Others

    A state grant to the Department of Romance Languages of the University of Tennessee in Knoxville has allowed development of a proficiency-based curriculum for first- and second-year French and Spanish. Most of the effort to date has been preparation of the syllabus based on specified goals and objectives, or student outcomes, focusing on allowing…

  12. The educational consequences of language proficiency for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5–6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys’ language test scores. In

  13. The Education Consequences of Language Proficiency for Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Yuxin; Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the educational consequences of language proficiency by investigating the relationship between dialect-speaking and academic performance of 5-6 year old children in the Netherlands. We find that dialect-speaking has a modestly negative effect on boys' language test scores. In

  14. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  15. Impact of English Proficiency on Academic Performance of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson

    2015-01-01

    Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…

  16. Developing Autonomous Learning for Oral Proficiency Using Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SoHee

    2014-01-01

    Since online educational technology can support a ubiquitous language learning environment, there are many ways to develop English learners' autonomy through self-access learning. This study investigates whether English as a second language (ESL) learners can improve their oral proficiency through independent study by using online self-study…

  17. Second Language Proficiency and Cross-Language Lexical Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, J.G. van; Tanner, D.

    2012-01-01

    Although research has consistently shown that a bilingual's two languages interact on multiple levels, it is also well-established that bilinguals can vary considerably in their proficiency in the second language (L2). In this paper we review empirical studies that have examined how differences in

  18. Are antibiotic screening approaches sufficiently adequate? A proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A proficiency test including the screening analysis of antibiotics in beef using cryogenicly minced materials was organized by RIKILT in 2009. The test included blank beef samples and beef samples spiked with either flumequine or a combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin around the maximum

  19. Reduced Frontal Activation with Increasing 2nd Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Lehmann, Christoph; Wiest, Roland; Strik, Werner; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The factors influencing the degree of separation or overlap in the neuronal networks responsible for the processing of first and second language are still subject to investigation. This longitudinal study investigates how increasing second language proficiency influences activation differences during lexico-semantic processing of first and second…

  20. Music Teachers in Turkey: Their Proficiency, Working Environments and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otacioglu, Sena Gursen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was the collection of data concerning Turkish music teachers' proficiency and their place in the primary and secondary education system. In addition, information was collected regarding the teachers' working environment and professional complications. A total of 200 music teachers' opinions were compiled for the determination…

  1. English-for-Teaching: Rethinking Teacher Proficiency in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Donald; Katz, Anne; Garcia Gomez, Pablo; Burns, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of English teaching in state education systems places increasing demands on English language teachers and how they are trained. A major thrust of these efforts has focused on improving teachers' English language proficiency. This expectation is manifested in policy and pedagogical directives that teachers "teach English in…

  2. Proficiency in English as a second official language (ESOL) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper first presents a background to English as the international and global language and the second official language as well as the medium of instruction in Lesotho. It further discusses the meaning of proficiency in English and the rationale for teaching and learning English as well as using English as the medium of ...

  3. Automated Assembly of Pre-equated Language Proficiency Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Grant; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an automated language proficiency test assembly system at an air force base English Language Center. The study focuses on the equivalence of mean score difficulty, total score variance, and intercorrelation covariance across test norms and finds a high level of test-form equivalence and internal consistency. (nine…

  4. The Relationship Between Foreign Language Proficiency and Various Psychological Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, Mats

    A large-scale test development project at the Language Teaching Research Center of the University of Gothenburg aims to develop tests in English as a foreign language for use in various areas of business and public administration. After testing, certificates stating current proficiency level in each of the four language skills (listening, reading,…

  5. Beyond Host Language Proficiency: Coping Resources Predicting International Students' Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Anita S.; Bodycott, Peter; Ramburuth, Prem

    2015-01-01

    As international students navigate in a foreign educational environment, having higher levels of coping or stress-resistance resources--both internal and external--could be related to increased satisfaction with personal and university life. The internal coping resources examined in this study were host language proficiency, self-esteem,…

  6. Learning Disabled Children's Syntactic Proficiency on a Communicative Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Mavis; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The syntactic proficiency of 67 learning disabled children was evaluated during a task requiring them to convey information to a listener. Learning disabled children in all grades were found to produce shorter mean main clauses than nondisabled children even on this relatively simple communicative task. (Author/SEW)

  7. Equine-assisted therapy as intervention for motor proficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Equine-assisted therapy as intervention for motor proficiency in children with autism spectrum disorder: Case studies. ... EAT interventions could provide a suitable alternative approach for children on this spectrum who experience impairments in low muscle tone, repetitive motor movements, poor motor planning, postural ...

  8. The Impact of Second Language Proficiency in Dyadic Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David; Mills, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback is widely used in second and foreign language writing contexts. While second language (L2) proficiency is likely to be an important factor in determining peers' ability to give and utilize feedback, its contribution has been relatively under-researched. In the present study, 54 undergraduates in a foreign language writing context…

  9. Determinants of Second Language Proficiency among Refugees in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tubergen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the language acquisition of refugees in Western countries. This study examines how pre- and post-migration characteristics of refugees are related to their second language proficiency. Data are from a survey of 3,500 refugees, who were born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia and Somalia, and who resided in the…

  10. Comparison of Critical Listening Proficiency of Teacher Candidates in Terms of Several Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazu, Hilal; Demiralp, Demet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The research has been designed to determine the level of critical listening proficiency of the teacher candidates. It aims at finding answers to the following questions: (1) What is the level of critical listening proficiency of teacher candidates? (2) Do the teacher candidates' levels of critical listening proficiency indicate a…

  11. Production of Routines in L2 English: Effect of Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of proficiency and study abroad experience on L2 learners' ability to produce routines. Participants were 64 Japanese students in an English-medium university in Japan. They were divided into three groups: Group 1 had lower proficiency with no study abroad experience, Group 2 had higher proficiency but no…

  12. Language Proficiency and Language Policy in South Africa: Findings from New Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posel, Dorrit; Casale, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This study explores new data from 2008 on language proficiency and labour market outcomes in the context of South Africa's language-in-education policy. We show that the economic returns to English language proficiency are large and higher than those to home language proficiency for the majority of employed South Africans. This helps explain why…

  13. English language proficiency in South Africa at the turn of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper utilises the World Englishes paradigm to explore the issue of language proficiency: what type of English language proficiency will be most appropriate to South Africa at the start of the millennium? Three broad aspects of proficiency are proposed for further investigation, and in each case one particular area of ...

  14. 25 CFR 39.134 - How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient....134 How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student? A student is identified as limited English proficient (LEP) by using a nationally recognized scientifically research-based test. ...

  15. O tratamento da Classe III: revisão sistemática - Parte I. Magnitude, direção e duração das forças na protração maxilar The treatment of Class III: systematic review - Part I. Magnitude, direction and duration of the forces in the maxillary protraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Rocha Perrone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: para o tratamento da Classe III durante o crescimento, a protração maxilar é a terapia mais relatada na literatura. Durante o tratamento, é requerida especial atenção à mecânica utilizada para a correção do problema. OBJETIVO: sintetizar as informações relativas à magnitude, direção e tempo diário da aplicação das forças, por meio de uma revisão sistemática. MÉTODOS: estudos foram identificados a partir de uma pesquisa eletrônica no Medline database - Entrez PubMed (178 artigos e Bireme (550 artigos, no período de janeiro de 1983 a dezembro de 2008. Após um criterioso processo de inclusão e exclusão, 56 estudos primários foram selecionados e submetidos a um segundo processo de seleção, restando 39 artigos. Foram calculados a média e o desvio-padrão, bem como os valores mínimos e máximos para a magnitude, a direção e a quantidade de horas de uso das forças de protração maxilar. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: as médias de magnitude, direção e duração das forças de protração maxilar foram de, respectivamente, 447,8 gramas, 27,5 graus de inclinação em relação ao Plano Oclusal, e 15,2 horas por dia.INTRODUCTION: For the treatment of Class III during growth, maxillary protraction therapy is the most reported in the literature. During the treatment is required special attention to the mechanics used to fix the problem. AIM: To synthesize informations about the magnitude, direction and time of daily application of forces, through a systematic review. METHODS: Studies were identified from an electronic search on Medline database - Entrez PubMed (178 articles and Bireme (550 articles, from January 1983 until December 2008. After rigorous process of inclusion and exclusion 56 primary studies were selected and subjected to a second selection process, remaining 39 articles. It was calculated the average and standard deviation, and the minimum and maximum values for magnitude, direction and usage

  16. Can Higher-Proficiency L2 Learners Benefit from Working with Lower-Proficiency Partners in Peer Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shulin; Hu, Guangwei

    2017-01-01

    Informed by Vygotsky's conceptualization of the Zone of Proximal Development, this case study investigated the benefits of peer feedback on second language (L2) writing for students with high L2 proficiency and the factors that may influence their learning in peer feedback in the Chinese English-as-a-foreign-language context. Specifically, the…

  17. The relationship between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency of prospective teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M (Mary Grosser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the relationships that exist between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency ofa group of first-year prospective teachers at a South African university (n = 89. The results revealed the nature of the critical thinking skills as well as the academic language proficiency of the students. Significant correlations between academic language proficiency and making inferences, as well as between academic language proficiency and critical thinking as a general competency, were noted. The article concludes with recommendations on how to enhance critical thinking and language proficiency in the teacher-training curriculum.

  18. Aspectos da Reologia e da Estabilidade de Suspensões Cerâmicas. Parte III: Mecanismo de Estabilização Eletroestérica de Suspensões com Alumina Aspects of Rheology and Stability of Ceramic Suspensions. Part III: Electrosteric Stabilization Mechanism of Alumina Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Ortega

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta terceira e última parte da revisão sobre os aspectos reológicos e de estabilização de suspensões com pós cerâmicos vem reunir a aplicação dos conhecimentos adquiridos nas primeiras duas partes publicadas anteriormente. Aqui, os fenômenos eletrostático devido à dupla camada elétrica, e estérico, relacionado à adsorção de moléculas poliméricas, são combinados para explicar o mecanismo eletroestérico de estabilização de suspensões cerâmicas. Os defloculantes que atuam através desse mecanismo abrangem uma classe específica de polímero denominada polieletrólitos, a qual é constituída por macromoléculas ionizáveis quando em solução. O estudo da forma com que os polieletrólitos atuam justifica-se devido à larga utilização desta classe de polímeros na indústria cerâmica. Os ácidos poliacrílico (PAA e polimetacrílico (PMAA são exemplos de polieletrólitos amplamente utilizados no processo de materiais à base de alumina. Dá-se destaque à influência do pH do meio e da presença de íons, sendo novamente aqui importante o conceito de força iônica da suspensão. Como aplicação prática, apresenta-se a estabilidade do sistema alumina-PMAA, reportando-se sobre o comportamento da viscosidade e da efetiva defloculação da suspensão. Este estudo é concluído apresentando resultados do efeito do peso molecular sobre a viscosidade, chamando atenção para o fato de que não basta definir apenas a classe de polímero a ser usada, sendo também fundamental especificar o peso molecular médio do polímero selecionado.The third and last part of this review about stabilization and rheological aspects of ceramic suspension gathers the knowledge in the two parts previously published. Here, the electrostatic and steric phenomena, related to the electrical double layer and polymeric molecules adsorption, respectively, are combined to explain the electrosteric stabilization mechanism of ceramic suspensions. The

  19. The English Proficiency of the Academics of the Teacher Training and Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saukah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing the general English proficiency level of the academics of Teacher Training and Education Institutions (LPTK's as indicated by their TOEFL scores. Specifically, the study is focused on finding out whether there is any difference among the academics' English proficiencies when they are grouped in terms of the geographic regions of their institutions and their fields of study. This study is also intended to reveal any possible relationship between the academics' English proficiency and their age. The results indicate that the English proficiency of the academics on the average is far below the average of that of the international students. The academics in West Java are the highest in their English proficiency, and the English group, as expected, has the best English proficiency. In addition, there is a negative correlation between English proficiency and age

  20. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Part 324 RIN 3064-AD95 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III... Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions...

  1. First Language Proficiency and Successful Foreign Language Learning: The Case of High School Students Learning French as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnintedem, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a correlation between first language proficiency as measured by the Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT II) Reading and Language Arts and foreign language proficiency as measured by the French Language Proficiency Test. Data for the independent variable, first language proficiency, was collected from the…

  2. Clinical teachers' perceptions of medical students' English language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chur-Hansen, A; Vernon-Roberts, J

    1998-07-01

    Medical educators from the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Adelaide, South Australia, have expressed reservations about the adequacy of some undergraduate medical students' English language proficiency for satisfactory academic and clinical performance. This study explores the occurrence and nature of the comments made in writing by clinical teachers about the English language proficiency of 568 students over a period of 4 years. The frequency and nature of the comments made by clinicians have important implications for the planning and implementation of pedagogical strategies to support non-English-speaking background medical students experiencing difficulties with their course due to language. Although the University of Adelaide has introduced initiatives in response to some of the problems that have been identified, it is recommended that any teaching interventions require careful evaluation through a longitudinal research design to ensure that their aims are being achieved.

  3. Theory and practice: Science for undergraduates of limited English proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Judith W.

    1993-06-01

    Between 1980 and 1990, the total number of Asian, Hispanic, American Indian, and foreign undergraduates increased by more than 50% at public and private, four-year and two-year colleges. Many of these students may be of limited English proficiency, suggesting that the traditional science lecture/lab format may need modification to incorporate the theory of second language acquisition as it pertains to the practice of content instruction. Various methods exist to improve science instruction for limited English proficient undergraduates. These included the adjunct and tutorial models, sheltered or bridge science instruction, faculty development, and science instruction in the students' native language. Any plan for science education reform at the collegiate level or for increasing minority participation in science must address the needs of the growing population of undergraduates who speak English as a second language.

  4. Fluctuation analysis of proficient and dysgraphic handwriting in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, S.; Roman, H. E.

    2009-03-01

    We analyze handwriting records from several school children with the aim of characterizing the fluctuating behavior of the writing speed. It will be concluded that remarkable differences exist between proficient and dysgraphic handwritings which were unknown so far. It is shown that in the case of proficient handwriting, the variations in handwriting speed are strongly autocorrelated within times corresponding to the completion of a single character or letter, while become uncorrelated at longer times. In the case of dysgraphia, such correlations persist on longer time scales and the autocorrelation function seems to display algebraic time decay, indicating the presence of strong anomalies in the handwriting process. Applications of the results in educational/clinical programs are envisaged.

  5. Specific aspects of cognitive and language proficiency account for variability in neural indices of semantic and syntactic processing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton Wray, Amanda; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2013-07-01

    The neural activity mediating language processing in young children is characterized by large individual variability that is likely related in part to individual strengths and weakness across various cognitive abilities. The current study addresses the following question: How does proficiency in specific cognitive and language functions impact neural indices mediating language processing in children? Thirty typically developing seven- and eight-year-olds were divided into high-normal and low-normal proficiency groups based on performance on nonverbal IQ, auditory word recall, and grammatical morphology tests. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited by semantic anomalies and phrase structure violations in naturally spoken sentences. The proficiency for each of the specific cognitive and language tasks uniquely contributed to specific aspects (e.g., timing and/or resource allocation) of neural indices underlying semantic (N400) and syntactic (P600) processing. These results suggest that distinct aptitudes within broader domains of cognition and language, even within the normal range, influence the neural signatures of semantic and syntactic processing. Furthermore, the current findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of developmental studies of ERPs indexing language processing, and they highlight the need to take into account cognitive abilities both within and outside the classic language domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Manufacturing Industry Employers’ Perception of Graduates’ English Language Skills Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh; Julie Chuah Suan Choo

    2012-01-01

    Proficiency in English language skills among graduates that create advantages for the organization is preferred by prospective employers as one of the main criteria for employability.  This article provides an overview of undergraduates in higher education and also workplace literacy from the perspective of the employers in the manufacturing industry. The result from the research demonstrates that Malaysian manufacturing industry employers perceive that the graduate employees’ English languag...

  7. A Study on Listening Anxiety and Listening Proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ju-hong

    2015-01-01

    Three instruments are adopted including the Foreign Language Listening Anxiety Scales (FLLAS), a listening metacog⁃nitive strategy-use questionnaire and a CET-4 listening test. The results indicate that a large proportion of students report experi⁃encing listening anxiety. There is significantly negative correlation between listening anxiety and listening proficiency and there is significant difference in the use of metacognitive strategies across three listening anxiety levels.

  8. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz; Arshad Abd Samad; Ismi Arif bin Ismail; Nooreen Noordin

    2014-01-01

    Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, co...

  9. Pronunciation proficiency and musical aptitude in Spanish as a foreign language: results of an experimental research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Vangehuchten

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the correlation between musical aptitude and pronunciation proficiency in an experiment with 29 university students of Spanish as a foreign language. The 29 participants took a test in Spanish pronunciation and prosody as well as in musicality. The pronunciation and prosody test consisted of two parts. The first part was a receptive phonemic discrimination test and the second part was a productive test in which they had to repeat words and sentences chosen for their prosodic characteristics. The musical aptitude test also consisted of a receptive part on musicality in general, as well as a productive part, which included the reproduction of tones, tone intervals, rhythms and the singing of a melody. The statistical analysis with Pearson’s correlation-coefficients revealed a positive correlation (although not for all aspects between the musical and foreign language pronunciation proficiency aptitudes. The results are commented on in the discussion. Relevant teaching implications are included in the conclusion.

  10. Cell Phone Use and Child and Adolescent Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between cell phone use, including minutes spent talking and number of text messages sent, and two measures of children’s reading proficiency — tests of word decoding and reading comprehension — in the United States. Data were drawn from the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative survey of 1,147 children 10–18 in 2009. Children whose parents were better educated, who had higher family incomes, who had fewer siblings, and who lived in urban areas were more likely to own or share a cell phone. Among those with access to a phone, children who spent more time talking on the phone were less proficient at word decoding, whereas children who spent more time sending text messages had greater reading comprehension. Although girls spent more time texting than did boys, there were no gender differences in the association between time spent talking or number of text messages sent with achievement. In spite of racial/ethnic differences in cell phone use levels, there were no racial/ethnic differences in the association between cell phone use and reading proficiency. PMID:27683624

  11. Resenha: Measuring L2 Proficiency: Perspectives from SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Scholl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O livro Measuring L2 Proficiency: Perspectives from SLA traz contribuições de autores de diferentes áreas da pesquisa sobre Aquisição de Segunda Língua para a discussão sobre o que significa ser proficiente em uma segunda língua. Essa publicação tem como objetivo principal diminuir a lacuna existente entre a pesquisa de aquisição de segunda língua e o ensino de línguas, trazendo ideias concretas sobre a identificação e a avaliação de proficiência linguística para aplicação em pesquisa ou sala de aula. Assim, a leitura dos artigos que compõem o volume pode contribuir com pesquisadores e professores que em seu trabalho lidem com o conceito de proficiência ou com a sua avaliação.

  12. Does a peer model's task proficiency influence children's solution choice and innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lara A; Kendal, Rachel L; Flynn, Emma G

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether 4- to 6-year-old children's task solution choice was influenced by the past proficiency of familiar peer models and the children's personal prior task experience. Peer past proficiency was established through behavioral assessments of interactions with novel tasks alongside peer and teacher predictions of each child's proficiency. Based on these assessments, one peer model with high past proficiency and one age-, sex-, dominance-, and popularity-matched peer model with lower past proficiency were trained to remove a capsule using alternative solutions from a three-solution artificial fruit task. Video demonstrations of the models were shown to children after they had either a personal successful interaction or no interaction with the task. In general, there was not a strong bias toward the high past-proficiency model, perhaps due to a motivation to acquire multiple methods and the salience of other transmission biases. However, there was some evidence of a model-based past-proficiency bias; when the high past-proficiency peer matched the participants' original solution, there was increased use of that solution, whereas if the high past-proficiency peer demonstrated an alternative solution, there was increased use of the alternative social solution and novel solutions. Thus, model proficiency influenced innovation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Disparities in Hypertension Associated with Limited English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Taekyu; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Rose, Adam J; Hanchate, Amresh D

    2017-06-01

    Limited English proficiency (LEP) is associated with poor health status and worse outcomes. To examine disparities in hypertension between National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) respondents with LEP versus adequate English proficiency. Retrospective analysis of multi-year survey data. Adults 18 years of age and older who participated in the NHANES survey during the period 2003-2012. We defined participants with LEP as anyone who completed the NHANES survey in a language other than English or with the support of an interpreter. Using logistic regression, we estimated the odds ratio for undiagnosed or uncontrolled hypertension (systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > 90 mmHg) among LEP participants relative to those with adequate English proficiency. We adjusted for sociodemographic, acculturation-related, and hypertension-related variables. Fourteen percent (n = 3,269) of the participants had limited English proficiency: 12.4% (n = 2906) used a Spanish questionnaire and 1.6% (n = 363) used an interpreter to complete the survey in another language. Those with LEP had higher odds of elevated blood pressure on physical examination (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.47 [1.07-2.03]). This finding persisted among participants using an interpreter (AOR = 1.88 [1.15-3.06]) but not among those using the Spanish questionnaire (AOR = 1.32 [0.98-1.80]). In a subgroup analysis, we found that the majority of uncontrolled hypertension was concentrated among individuals with a known diagnosis of hypertension (AOR = 1.80 [1.16-2.81]) rather than those with undiagnosed hypertension (AOR = 1.14 [0.74-1.75]). Interpreter use was associated with increased odds of uncontrolled hypertension, especially among patients who were not being medically managed for hypertension (AOR = 6.56 [1.30-33.12]). In a nationally representative sample, participants with LEP were more likely to have poorly

  14. An inter- laboratory proficiency testing exercise for rabies diagnosis in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, Alfonso; Freire de Carvalho, Mary H; Orciari, Lillian A; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Ellison, James A; Greenberg, Lauren; Yager, Pamela A; Green, Douglas B; Vigilato, Marco A; Cosivi, Ottorino; Del Rio-Vilas, Victor J

    2017-04-01

    The direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA), is performed in all rabies reference laboratories across Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Despite DFA being a critical capacity in the control of rabies, there is not a standardized protocol in the region. We describe the results of the first inter-laboratory proficiency exercise of national rabies laboratories in LAC countries as part of the regional efforts towards dog-maintained rabies elimination in the American region. Twenty three laboratories affiliated to the Ministries of Health and Ministries of Agriculture participated in this exercise. In addition, the laboratories completed an online questionnaire to assess laboratory practices. Answers to the online questionnaire indicated large variability in the laboratories throughput, equipment used, protocols availability, quality control standards and biosafety requirements. Our results will inform actions to improve and harmonize laboratory rabies capacities across LAC in support for the regional efforts towards elimination of dog-maintained rabies.

  15. The Opinions of Nursing Students Regarding the Nursing Process and Their Levels of Proficiency in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskın Yilmaz, Feride; Sabanciogullari, Selma; Aldemir, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nursing process, as a scientific method of nursing practice, is an important tool for putting nursing knowledge into practice which increases the quality of nursing care. The study was aimed to determine the opinions of nursing students regarding the nursing process and their levels of proficiency. Methods: A total of 44 nursing students participated in this descriptive study. Data were collected by a three-part questionnaire including the opinion of students on nursing process, Gordon’s functional health patterns model and the NANDA diagnoses. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Most of the students (65.9%) believed that the nursing process was necessary. half of the students explained the diagnosis, 58.3% explained the planning, 41.3% explained the implementation, and 43.6% explained the evaluation sufficiently. Conclusion: It is suggested for instructors to use different teaching methods in order to develop critical thinking while teaching the nursing process. PMID:26744726

  16. The Opinions of Nursing Students Regarding the Nursing Process and Their Levels of Proficiency in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Taskın Yilmaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing process, as a scientific method of nursing practice, is an important tool for putting nursing knowledge into practice which increases the quality of nursing care. The study was aimed to determine the opinions of nursing students regarding the nursing process and their levels of proficiency. Methods: A total of 44 nursing students participated in this descriptive study. Data were collected by a three-part questionnaire including the opinion of students on nursing process, Gordon’s functional health patterns model and the NANDA diagnoses. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Most of the students (65.9% believed that the nursing process was necessary. half of the students explained the diagnosis, 58.3% explained the planning, 41.3% explained the implementation, and 43.6% explained the evaluation sufficiently. Conclusion: It is suggested for instructors to use different teaching methods in order to develop critical thinking while teaching the nursing process.

  17. Effects of proficiency and age of language acquisition on working memory performance in bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vejnović Dušan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined language proficiency and age of language acquisition influences on working memory performance in bilinguals. Bilingual subjects were administered reading span task in parallel versions for their first and second language. In Experiment 1, language proficiency effect was tested by examination of low and highly proficient second language speakers. In Experiment 2, age of language acquisition was examined by comparing the performance of proficient second language speakers who acquired second language either early or later in their lives. Both proficiency and age of language acquisition were found to affect bilingual working memory performance, and the proficiency effect was observed even at very high levels of language competence. The results support the notion of working memory as a domain that is influenced both by a general pool of resources and certain domain specific factors.

  18. Balloon Borne Soundings of Water Vapor, Ozone and Temperature in the Upper Tropospheric and Lower Stratosphere as Part of the Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voemel, Holger

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of our work was to provide in situ water vapor and ozone profiles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere as reference measurements for the validation of SAGE III water vapor and ozone retrievals. We used the NOAA/CMDL frost point hygrometer and ECC ozone sondes on small research balloons to provide continuous profiles between the surface and the mid stratosphere. The NOAA/CMDL frost point hygrometer is currently the only lightweight balloon borne instrument capable of measuring water vapor between the lower troposphere and middle stratosphere. The validation measurements were based in the arctic region of Scandinavia for northern hemisphere observations and in New Zealand for southern hemisphere observations and timed to coincide with overpasses of the SAGE III instrument. In addition to SAGE III validation we also tried to coordinate launches with other instruments and studied dehydration and transport processes in the Arctic stratospheric vortex.

  19. Does English proficiency impact on health outcomes for inpatients undergoing stroke rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah E; Dodd, Karen J; Tu, April; Zucchi, Emiliano; Zen, Stefania; Hill, Keith D

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether English proficiency and/or the frequency of interpreter use impacts on health outcomes for inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Retrospective case-control study. People admitted for inpatient stroke rehabilitation. A high English proficiency group comprised people with native or near native English proficiency (n = 80), and a low English proficiency group comprised people who preferred a language other than English (n = 80). Length of stay (LOS), discharge destination and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The low English proficiency group showed a greater improvement in FIM from admission to discharge (p = 0.04). No significant differences were found between groups in LOS, discharge destination and number of encounters with allied health professionals. Increased interpreter usage improved FIM efficiency but did not significantly alter other outcomes. English proficiency does not appear to impact on health outcomes in inpatient rehabilitation with a primarily in-house professional interpreter service. However, there is a need for a larger powered study to confirm these findings. Implications for rehabilitation People with low English proficiency undergoing inpatient stroke rehabilitation in a setting with a primarily in-house professional interpreter service, achieved similar outcomes to those with high English proficiency irrespective of frequency of interpreter usage. A non-significant increase of 4 days length of stay was observed in the low English proficiency group compared to the high English proficiency group. For patients with low English proficiency, greater change in Functional Independence Measure efficiency scores was observed for those with higher levels of interpreter use relative to those with low interpreter use. Clinicians should optimise use of interpreters with patients with low English proficiency when possible.

  20. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  1. Communication With Limited English-Proficient Families in the PICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurca, Adrian D; Fisher, Kiondra R; Flor, Remigio J; Gonzalez-Marques, Catalina D; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I; October, Tessie W

    2017-01-01

    Health care disparities have been described for children of limited English-proficient (LEP) families compared with children of English-proficient (EP) families. Poor communication with the medical team may contribute to these worse health outcomes. Previous studies exploring communication in the PICU have excluded LEP families. We aimed to understand communication experiences and preferences in the 3 primary communication settings in the PICU. We also explored LEP families' views on interpreter use in the PICU. EP and Spanish-speaking LEP families of children admitted to the PICU of a large tertiary pediatric hospital completed surveys between 24 hours and 7 days of admission. A total of 161 of 184 families were surveyed (88% response rate); 52 were LEP and 109 EP. LEP families were less likely to understand the material discussed on rounds (odds ratio [OR] 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.90), to report that PICU nurses spent enough time speaking with them (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.05-0.41), and to report they could rely on their nurses for medical updates (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.02-0.25) controlling for covariates, such as education, insurance type, presence of a chronic condition, PICU length of stay, and mortality index. LEP families reported 53% of physicians and 41% of nurses used an interpreter "often." Physician and nurse communication with LEP families is suboptimal. Communication with LEP families may be improved with regular use of interpreters and an increased awareness of the added barrier of language proficiency. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. The role of ESP courses in general English proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Cigan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is the study of the interaction between learning English for Specific Purposes (ESP, in particular, English for the Financial Sector, and general English proficiency. The research examines the effects of an ESP course being taught for a year on the students' general English proficiency.Two sets of tests were prepared for that purpose and administered to 30 first-year students of finance and law. The students took the placement test twice, at the beginning and at the end of the school year. To monitor test performance over a research period, a parallel form measuring the same competences was administered at the beginning of the second semester. In the test development process a special consideration has been paid to the level of difficulty and its relation to the students' prior educational context. Drawing on the National State Matura exams the test is set at Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR Level B2. As regards its content the test is comprised of reading comprehension tasks (multiple matching, multiple-choice cloze, gapped text and grammar tasks aiming to examine lexical and grammatical competence.There were two major assumptions in this study: 1 Learning ESP can improve students' general English proficiency, and 2 There is a more substantial improvement in lexical competence as compared to the improvement in grammatical competence.There is strong evidence in support of the first hypothesis, whereas for the second one the results were ambiguous. After major findings are presented and discussed, implications for ESP teaching are given in closing.

  3. Telephone triage utilization among patients with limited English proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane W. Njeru

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication between patients with limited English proficiency (LEP and telephone triage services has not been previously explored. The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization characteristics of a primary care triage call center by patients with LEP. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of the utilization of a computer-aided, nurse-led telephone triage system by English proficiency status of patients empaneled to a large primary care practice network in the Midwest United States. Interpreter Services (IS need was used as a proxy for LEP. Results Call volumes between the 587 adult patients with LEP and an age-frequency matched cohort of English-Proficient (EP patients were similar. Calls from patients with LEP were longer and more often made by a surrogate. Patients with LEP received recommendations for higher acuity care more frequently (49.4% versus 39.0%; P < 0.0004, and disagreed with recommendations more frequently (30.1% versus 20.9%; P = 0.0004. These associations remained after adjustment for comorbidities. Patients with LEP were also less likely to follow recommendations (60.9% versus 69.4%; P = 0.0029, even after adjusting for confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49, 0.85; P < 0.001. Conclusion Patients with LEP who utilized a computer-aided, nurse-led telephone triage system were more likely to receive recommendations for higher acuity care compared to EP patients. They were also less likely to agree with, or follow, recommendations given. Additional research is needed to better understand how telephone triage can better serve patients with LEP.

  4. 17 CFR Table III to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES..., Table III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code...

  5. Proficiency examination in English language: Needs analysis and methodological proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elizete Luz Saes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to provide tools for reflections on some learning difficulties presented by students when they are submitted to English proficiency examinations, as well as to suggest some methodological proposals that can be implemented among didactic support groups, monitoring or in classrooms, by means of face-to-face or distance learning activities. The observations resulting from the performance presented by the students have motivated the preparation of this paper, whose theoretical assumptions are based on the needs analysis of the target audience, the exploration of oral and written discursive genres and the possibilities of interaction provided by technological mediation.

  6. A critical evaluation of subtalar joint arthrosis associated with middle facet talocalcaneal coalition in 21 surgically managed patients: a retrospective computed tomography review. Investigations involving middle facet coalitions-part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernbach, Klaus J; Barkan, Howard; Blitz, Neal M

    2010-01-01

    Symptomatic middle facet talocalcaneal coalition is frequently associated with rearfoot arthrosis that is often managed surgically with rearfoot fusion. However, no objective method for classifying the extent of subtalar joint arthrosis exists. No study has clearly identified the extent of posterior facet arthrosis present in a large cohort treated surgically for talocalcaneal coalition through preoperative computerized axial tomography. The authors conducted a retrospective review of 21 patients (35 feet) with coalition who were surgically treated over a 12-year period for coalition on at least 1 foot. Using a predefined original staging system, the extent of the arthrosis was categorized into normal or mild (Stage I), moderate (Stage II), and severe (Stage III) arthrosis. The association of stage and age is statistically significant. All of the feet with Stage III arthrosis had fibrous coalitions. No foot with osseous coalition had Stage III arthrosis. The distribution of arthrosis staging differs between fibrous and osseous coalitions. Only fibrous coalitions had the most advanced arthrosis (Stage III), whereas osseous coalitions did not. This suggests that osseous coalitions may have a protective effect in the prevention of severe degeneration of the subtalar joint. Concomitant subtalar joint arthrosis severity progresses with age; surgeons may want to consider earlier surgical intervention to prevent arthrosis progression in patients with symptomatic middle facet talocalcaneal coalition.

  7. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beurden Eric

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competence (Physical Self-Perception Profile, physical activity (Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire and cardiorespiratory fitness (Multistage Fitness Test. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine whether perceived sports competence mediated between childhood object control skill proficiency (composite score of kick, catch and overhand throw, and subsequent adolescent self-reported time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results Of 928 original intervention participants, 481 were located in 28 schools and 276 (57% were assessed with at least one follow-up measure. Slightly more than half were female (52.4% with a mean age of 16.4 years (range 14.2 to 18.3 yrs. Relevant assessments were completed by 250 (90.6% students for the Physical Activity Model and 227 (82.3% for the Fitness Model. Both hypothesised mediation models had a good fit to the observed data, with the Physical Activity Model accounting for 18% (R2 = 0.18 of physical activity variance and the Fitness Model accounting for 30% (R2 = 0.30 of fitness variance. Sex did not act as a moderator in either model. Conclusion Developing a high perceived sports competence through object control skill development in childhood is important for both boys and girls in determining adolescent physical activity participation and fitness. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to target and improve the perceived sports competence of youth.

  8. Automatic failure in gynecologic cytology proficiency testing. Results from the College of American Pathologists proficiency testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Ann T; Crothers, Barbara A; Bentz, Joel S; Souers, Rhona J; Fatheree, Lisa A; Wilbur, David C

    2009-11-01

    Automatic failure in gynecologic cytology proficiency testing occurs when a high-grade lesion or carcinoma (HSIL+, Category D) is misinterpreted as negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (Category B). To document the automatic failure rate in 2006 and 2007 from the College of American Pathologists proficiency testing program (PAP PT) and compare them to projected values from 2004. Identify automatic failures from PAP PT in 2006 and 2007 and compare the rates of failure regarding participant and preparation type to validated slides in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in 2004. There were 65 264 participant responses for HSIL+ slides included in this analysis from 2006 and 2007. Overall, 1% (666 of 65 264) of the HSIL+ responses were classified as negative, resulting in automatic failure for the participant. There were significantly fewer automatic failures in 2007 as compared with either 2006 or projected from 2004 data (P < .001). Conventional preparations had a lower automatic failure rate than liquid-based preparations but only for 2006. Both pathologists and cytotechnologists interpreting liquid-based preparations faired better than projected from 2004 data. The automatic failure rate in PAP PT is lower than expected based on 2004 data from the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program. Automatic failures are a relatively small component (1% or less) of proficiency testing failures. The rate of automatic failure decreased from 2006 to 2007 and may be due to loss of poor performers in the testing pool, the test-taking environment, or removal of less robust slides from the program.

  9. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part III: Preliminary results on physicochemical model performance using two "clean air mass" reference scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hellmuth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Paper I of four papers, a revised columnar high-order model to investigate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL was proposed. In Paper II, the model capability to predict first-, second- and third-order moments of meteorological variables in the CBL was demonstrated using available observational data. In the present Paper III, the high-order modelling concept is extended to sulphur and ammonia chemistry as well as to aerosol dynamics. Based on the previous CBL simulation, a feasibility study is performed using two "clean air mass" scenarios with an emission source at the ground but low aerosol background concentration. Such scenarios synoptically correspond to the advection of fresh post-frontal air in an anthropogenically influenced region. The aim is to evaluate the time-height evolution of ultrafine condensation nuclei (UCNs and to elucidate the interactions between meteorological and physicochemical variables in a CBL column. The scenarios differ in the treatment of new particle formation (NPF, whereas homogeneous nucleation according to the classical nucleation theory (CNT is considered. The first scenario considers nucleation of a binary system consisting of water vapour and sulphuric acid (H2SO4 vapour, the second one nucleation of a ternary system additionally involving ammonia (NH3. Here, the two synthetic scenarios are discussed in detail, whereas special attention is payed to the role of turbulence in the formation of the typical UCN burst behaviour, that can often be observed in the surface layer. The intercomparison of the two scenarios reveals large differences in the evolution of the UCN number concentration in the surface layer as well as in the time-height cross-sections of first-order moments and double correlation terms. Although in both cases the occurrence of NPF bursts could be simulated, the burst characteristics and genesis of the bursts are completely different. It is demonstrated

  10. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer - first results from a feasibility study Part III: Preliminary results on physicochemical model performance using two "clean air mass" reference scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, O.

    2006-09-01

    In Paper I of four papers, a revised columnar high-order model to investigate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL) was proposed. In Paper II, the model capability to predict first-, second- and third-order moments of meteorological variables in the CBL was demonstrated using available observational data. In the present Paper III, the high-order modelling concept is extended to sulphur and ammonia chemistry as well as to aerosol dynamics. Based on the previous CBL simulation, a feasibility study is performed using two "clean air mass" scenarios with an emission source at the ground but low aerosol background concentration. Such scenarios synoptically correspond to the advection of fresh post-frontal air in an anthropogenically influenced region. The aim is to evaluate the time-height evolution of ultrafine condensation nuclei (UCNs) and to elucidate the interactions between meteorological and physicochemical variables in a CBL column. The scenarios differ in the treatment of new particle formation (NPF), whereas homogeneous nucleation according to the classical nucleation theory (CNT) is considered. The first scenario considers nucleation of a binary system consisting of water vapour and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) vapour, the second one nucleation of a ternary system additionally involving ammonia (NH3). Here, the two synthetic scenarios are discussed in detail, whereas special attention is payed to the role of turbulence in the formation of the typical UCN burst behaviour, that can often be observed in the surface layer. The intercomparison of the two scenarios reveals large differences in the evolution of the UCN number concentration in the surface layer as well as in the time-height cross-sections of first-order moments and double correlation terms. Although in both cases the occurrence of NPF bursts could be simulated, the burst characteristics and genesis of the bursts are completely different. It is demonstrated, that

  11. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 147 - Curriculum Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Curriculum Requirements A Appendix A to... to Part 147—Curriculum Requirements This appendix defines terms used in appendices B, C, and D of this part, and describes the levels of proficiency at which items under each subject in each curriculum...

  12. SYNCHRONOUS CMC, WORKING MEMORY, AND L2 ORAL PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Payne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002. Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989 model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC and second language (L2 speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002 with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

  13. Investigating elementary school pupils’ proficiency in mastering English vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Achmad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available English has been taught at elementary schools as one of the local content subjects. It is necessary to study English from an early age in order to achieve good mastery in it. To master English means to master the four skills in it and also the language aspects, including vocabulary. As one of the language aspects, vocabulary plays an important role in language learning. This study reports on pupils’ proficiency in mastering English vocabulary after three years of studying in elementary school. The writer chose 55 grade-four pupils of SD Methodist Banda Aceh as a sample for this study. They were given a vocabulary test related to reading and writing skills consisting of 26 items. The test was to be done in 20 minutes. After calculating the data, it was found that the mean score (x of the pupils was 69.5, with the highest score at 92.3 and the lowest score at 26.9. More than 50% of the pupils could answer the questions correctly in less than 20 minutes. Only 4 out of the 55 pupils answered the questions less than 50% correctly and no one answered 100% correct. According to these results, this study showed that the pupils achieved good proficiency in vocabulary.

  14. Circadian differences in hemisphere-linked spelling proficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, L L; Diubaldo, D

    1995-03-01

    Male and female adolescents (N = 113) were assigned randomly to spelling instruction in either morning or afternoon groups for a school year. A spelling list (100 words) was administered at the beginning of the school year to obtain a sample of error responses and estimate proficiency. Although equally proficient, subjects tested in the afternoon showed more phonetically inappropriate errors, while those tested in the morning showed more phonetically appropriate errors. This error pattern is viewed as support for a more engaged left hemisphere in the morning. There were no differences on two types of visual errors. Subjects then received instruction in spelling for nine months in either morning or afternoon settings. Time-of-day effects were not evident on the word list and there were too few errors to conduct a posttest error analysis. However, standardized test results for a subgroup revealed that subjects receiving morning instruction made greater gains on phonetically regular words compared to phonetically irregular words--an effect consistent with a circadian-linked higher level of left hemisphere engagement early in the day. The findings are of a pilot nature, but implications for education and further research are discussed.

  15. Sintassi e Tassonomia: Teoria della valenza e lessico-grammatica in tedesco e in italiano (III) (Syntax and Taxonomy: Theory of Valence and Lexical Grammar in German and Italian, Part 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Maria Teresa

    1987-01-01

    In this article, the author concludes a three-part series in which she analyzes verb complements in German and Italian. Parts 1 and 2 of the series appear in volume 18, numbers 2 and 3, respectively. (CFM)

  16. The Relationship between the Critical Thinking Skills and the Academic Language Proficiency of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, M. M.; Nel, Mirna

    2013-01-01

    We report on the relationships that exist between the critical thinking skills and the academic language proficiency of a group of first-year prospective teachers at a South African university (n = 89). The results revealed the nature of the critical thinking skills as well as the academic language proficiency of the students. Significant…

  17. Effects of reading proficiency on embedded stem priming in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Grainger, Jonathan; Casalis, Séverine; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2015-11-01

    Prior evidence from masked morphological priming has revealed conflicting findings regarding the acquisition of morpho-orthographic segmentation mechanisms in developing readers. Here, we examined changes in masked morphological priming across grade within a large sample of French primary school children (n = 191, Grades 2-5) and how these effects are modulated by individual differences in reading proficiency, spelling proficiency, and morphological awareness. Target words were preceded by either (a) a suffixed word prime (e.g., tristesse-TRISTE), (b) a suffixed nonword prime (e.g., tristerie-TRISTE), (c) a non-suffixed nonword prime (e.g., tristald-TRISTE), or (d) an unrelated prime (e.g., direction-TRISTE) using very short prime durations (50 ms). Moreover, a frequency manipulation was included for suffixes and non-suffixes. The results revealed robust suffixed word priming across all children independent of grade and proficiency. On the other hand, priming in the suffixed and non-suffixed nonword conditions was modulated by reading proficiency, with high-proficiency children showing facilitation and low-proficiency children showing inhibition. The effects of suffix and non-suffix frequency were modulated by grade, with decreasing effects as grade increased. None of the observed priming effects were modulated by grade, spelling proficiency, or morphological awareness. The results suggest that reading proficiency is an important predictor for embedded stem activation mechanisms in primary school children, which we discuss in the context of recent theories of morphological processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Strategy Use, Listening Problems, and Motivation of High- and Low-Proficiency Chinese Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kit-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Building on previous listening strategy research, the author aimed to explore the differences between Chinese high-proficiency listeners (HLs) and low-proficiency listeners (LLs) on their strategy use, problems, and motivation in native language (L1) listening. It involved 1,290 Grade 7 and 1,515 Grade 9 students. Both quantitative and qualitative…

  19. Motor proficiency profile of Grade 1 learners in the North West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for developmental problems associated with inadequate motor skills and should consequently be addressed, especially during the preschool years and the initial years of the primary school phase. Key words: Motor proficiency; School beginner; Gender; Race; Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 Short Form.

  20. Hi-LAB: A New Measure of Aptitude for High-Level Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linck, Jared A.; Hughes, Meredith M.; Campbell, Susan G.; Silbert, Noah H.; Tare, Medha; Jackson, Scott R.; Smith, Benjamin K.; Bunting, Michael F.; Doughty, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Few adult second language (L2) learners successfully attain high-level proficiency. Although decades of research on beginning to intermediate stages of L2 learning have identified a number of predictors of the rate of acquisition, little research has examined factors relevant to predicting very high levels of L2 proficiency. The current study,…

  1. Defining English Language Proficiency for Malaysian Tertiary Education: Past, Present and Future Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Chan Swee

    2012-01-01

    Any attempt to define English language proficiency can never be divorced from the theories that describe the nature of language, language acquisition and human cognition. By virtue of such theories being socially constructed, the descriptions are necessarily value-laden. Thus, a definition of language proficiency can only, at best, be described as…

  2. Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment (WELPA). Form C 2015. Interpretation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment" (WELPA) is a No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-compliant instrument that is used in Grades K-12 as a formal and standardized method of measuring language proficiency. The test results provide important information for classifying English Language Learners (ELLs) and subsequently for…

  3. The Interplay of Processing Task, Text Type, and Proficiency in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mami

    2012-01-01

    This study was an investigation of how particular processing tasks influence L2 reading in relation to text type effects and L2 reading proficiency. Two groups of Japanese university EFL students (N = 103), varying in English reading proficiency, read a narrative passage and an expository passage in one of three task conditions: outlining,…

  4. Non-Discriminatory Assessment: Formal and Informal Assessment of Limited English Proficient Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sharon

    PEOPLE (Pruebas de Expresion Oral y Percepcion de la Lengua Espanol) was developed as a test to help distinguish between a language difference and a language deficit in non English proficient (NEP) and limited English proficient (LEP) elementary Hispanic students. PEOPLE was developed, pilot tested in 14 school districts in Los Angeles County with…

  5. The Impact of the Oral Proficiency Interview on One Foreign Language Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissau, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) has been increasingly used in academia. However, while multiple studies have documented the growth in OPI implementation across the United States and the proficiency rates of its completers, few have focused specifically on foreign language teacher candidates, and even fewer have investigated the impact that…

  6. 76 FR 66318 - Announcement of Funding Awards; Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program (LEPI), Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards; Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program (LEPI... funding under the Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Limited English Proficiency Initiative... INFORMATION: Executive Order 13166 signed in August 2000 requires all federal agencies to improve access to...

  7. The influence of non-native language proficiency on speech perception perfomance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilman, L.; Zekveld, A.A.; Hallgren, M.; Ronnberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent proficiency in a non-native language influences speech perception in noise. We explored how English proficiency affected native (Swedish) and non-native (English) speech perception in four speech reception threshold (SRT) conditions, including two energetic

  8. Validating the Technology Proficiency Self-Assessment Questionnaire for 21st Century Learning (TPSA C-21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Accurately measuring levels of technology proficiency in current and future classroom teachers are an important first step toward enhancing comfort level and confidence in integrating technology into the educational environment. The original Technology Proficiency Self-Assessment (TPSA) survey has maintained respectable psychometric properties for…

  9. Definitions and Approaches to Measuring Reading Proficiency. CEELO FastFact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors-Tadros, Lori

    2014-01-01

    A state contacted the Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) for guidance in developing a definition of "reading proficiency" and what it means to "read on grade level by third grade." The state also requested information on how national sources or states define and measure proficiency. The state was particularly…

  10. Proficiency Assessment Standards in Second Language Acquisition Research: "Clozing" the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Annie

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to sensitize SLA researchers to the importance of documenting and controlling for their participants' proficiency in the target language, with the goal of establishing more robust proficiency assessment standards in experimental research. First, this article presents a survey of recent (2000-2008) foreign and second-language…

  11. Proficiency and Working Memory Based Explanations for Nonnative Speakers' Sensitivity to Agreement in Sentence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Caitlin E.; Tremblay, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the roles of proficiency and working memory (WM) capacity in second-/foreign-language (L2) learners' processing of agreement morphology. It investigates the processing of grammatical and ungrammatical short- and long-distance number agreement dependencies by native English speakers at two proficiencies in French, and the…

  12. The Effect of English Proficiency and Ethnicity on Academic Performance and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-local ethnicity or nationality and lower English proficiency have been linked with poor performance in health professional education. This study sought to compare the relative contributions of ethnicity and English proficiency, and to do so in a context where students had not been selected via interviews or some other proxy for language…

  13. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  14. The application of data from proficiency testing to laboratory accreditation according to ISO 17025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    Current methods of testing laboratories for their proficiency in reporting correct measurement results are liable to substantial errors of the 2nd kind. This means that laboratories with deflated uncertainties are accepted as proficient, even though their reported measurement results pave the way...

  15. Modeling the development of L1 and EFL writing proficiency of secondary school students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; van Gelderen, A.; Stoel, R.D.; Hulstijn, J.; de Glopper, K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed

  16. Modeling the Development of L1 and EFL Writing Proficiency of Secondary School Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, Rob; van Gelderen, Amos; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Hulstijn, Jan; de Glopper, Cornelis

    This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed

  17. Empirical Profiles of Academic Oral English Proficiency from an International Teaching Assistant Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikkyu

    2017-01-01

    Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…

  18. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  19. The Evaluation of Communicative Language Proficiency: A Critique of the ACTFL Oral Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle; Savignon, Sandra J.

    1986-01-01

    Current ACTFL (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages) Oral Language Proficiency Guidelines are based on an overly narrow view of communicative language proficiency. However, the guidelines do provide a basis for the development of effective teaching and testing methods. (CB)

  20. An Examination of Some Language Proficiency Tests from a Communicative Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.

    A theoretical framework that distinguishes the knowledge, or competence, aspect of language proficiency from the skills aspect is outlined, and the factors in the language testing situation that affect performance on language tests are examined. The model is intended for use in assessing the construct validity of tests of language proficiency and…

  1. ELL High School Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategy Use and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Nam, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the metacognitive awareness and reading strategies use of high school-­aged English language learners (ELLs) and the relationship between ELL reading strategy use and reading proficiency as measured by a standardized reading test and self-­rated reading proficiency. Results reveal that participants reported moderate use of…

  2. The Effect of Reading Proficiency on Student Success in Online Credit Recovery Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisoc, Randolph P.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study applied the theory that reading skills are predictive of high school graduation to examine the impact that reading proficiency has on student success in online credit recovery programs for credit deficient students, many of whom struggle with reading. Since reading proficiency impacts academic achievement in general, this…

  3. Exploring Oral Proficiency Profiles of Heritage Speakers of Russian and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swender, Elvira; Martin, Cynthia L.; Rivera-Martinez, Mildred; Kagan, Olga E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic profiles of heritage speakers of Russian and Spanish. Data from the 2009-2013 ACTFL-UCLA NHLRC Heritage Language Project included biographical information as well as speech samples that were elicited using the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview-computer and were rated according to the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines…

  4. Does Language Proficiency Modulate Oculomotor Control? Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Though many previous studies have reported enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals, few have investigated if such control is modulated by language proficiency. Here, we examined the inhibitory control of high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on an oculomotor Stroop task. Subjects were asked to make a saccade as fast as possible towards…

  5. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Blumenfeld, Henrike K

    2015-06-01

    Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Speech movements of 29 native English speakers with low or high proficiency in Spanish were recorded while producing simple and syntactically complex sentences in English and Spanish. Sentences were loaded with cognate (e.g., baby-bebé) or noncognate (e.g., dog-perro) words. Effects of proficiency, lexicality (cognate vs. noncognate), and syntactic complexity on maximum speed, range of movement, duration, and speech movement variability were examined. In general, speakers with lower L2 proficiency differed in their speech motor control and performance from speakers with higher L2 proficiency. Speakers with higher L2 proficiency generally had less speech movement variability, shorter phrase durations, greater maximum speeds, and greater ranges of movement. In addition, lexicality and syntactic complexity affected speech motor control and performance. L2 proficiency, lexicality, and syntactic complexity influence speech motor control and performance in adult L2 learners. Information about relationships between speech motor control, language proficiency, and cognitive-linguistic demands may be used to assess and treat bilingual clients and language learners.

  6. Who's Coming to My Party? Peer Talk as a Bridge to Oral Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Megan

    2012-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I investigate heterogeneous-language peer interactions in an English-only kindergarten classroom. English Learners and English Proficient students co-created language necessary to build an argument, one discourse valued in schools. Students developed complex oral language proficiency skills but were viewed as engaging…

  7. Video Analysis of Athletic Training Student Performance: Changing Educational Competency into Clinical Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Jeffrey K.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Assessing clinical proficiency and documenting learning over time is quite challenging. Educators must look for unique ways to effectively examine students' performance and archive evidence of their academic progress. Objective: To discuss the use of video analysis to bridge the gap from educational competency to clinical proficiency, and…

  8. Assessing Second-Language Oral Proficiency for Research: The Spanish Elicited Imitation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Harriet Wood

    2016-01-01

    Proficiency is a key variable in late second language (L2) learning, but one that is undermeasured in current research. This study investigates whether L2 oral proficiency can be quickly and reliably assessed via the Spanish "elicited imitation task" (EIT; Ortega, Iwashita, Rabie, & Norris, 1999). Thirty-seven L2 learners of Spanish…

  9. Technological Proficiency as a Key to Job Security. Trends and Issues Alert No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    Although not all current jobs require basic computer skills, technological advances in society have created new jobs and changed the ways many existing jobs are performed. Clearly, workers who are proficient in technology have a greater advantage in the current workplace and the need for technologically proficient workers will only continue to…

  10. EFL Proficiency in Language Learning and Learner Autonomy Perceptions of Turkish Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Süleyman; Çeliköz, Nadir; Sari, Irfan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationships of Turkish-English Language Teaching (ELT) learners' perceptions of learner autonomy with ELT learner's proficiency level in language learning. Particularly, the study aimed at investigating to what extent ELT learners' autonomy perceptions are affected by proficiency level of learners.…

  11. Disclosure of Information about English Proficiency: Preservice Teachers' Presumptions about English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Wodrich, David L.; Kasai, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this analog study was to determine if increased access to information about a hypothetical English Language Learner (ELL) students' language proficiency increased preservice teachers' recognition that limited English proficiency is the likely cause of student difficulties. We find that the provision of increasing levels of…

  12. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  13. Dynamics in intention to stay and changes in language proficiency of recent migrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, P.G.; Lubbers, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on consequences of changes in intention to stay for Dutch language proficiency of recent migrants. It is anticipated that migrants who decide at a later instance to stay longer in the Netherlands have made less language investments and therefore have a lower proficiency than

  14. The Great Leap Forward: Stepping Cautiously into the Proficiency-Based Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovik, Thomas A.

    As with any other development in foreign language education, it is critical that the elements of proficiency teaching be transferred to practitioners so that past mistakes, such as those made with the audiolingual method, are not repeated. Proficiency teaching must be carefully analyzed and critically presented to the next generation of teachers.…

  15. A Blueprint for Developing Culturally Proficient/Responsive School Administrators in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Jeffrey P.; Smith, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the important topic of culturally proficient/responsive school administrators for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with learning disabilities (LD). Culturally proficient/responsive school administrators with knowledge and strong leadership skills in multicultural education are essential to impact school…

  16. Secrets of Their Success: A Multiple Case Study of Mathematically Proficient Homeschool Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Betty Roberts

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple case study was to explain how mathematically proficient homeschool graduates acquired their proficiency. Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1999) ecological and Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) models were used as theoretical frameworks to analyze the development of the graduates in the homeschool environment. The National…

  17. Digital Games and the US National Research Council's Science Proficiency Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garza, Mario; Clark, Douglas B.; Nelson, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    This review synthesises research on digital games and science learning as it supports the goals for science proficiency outlined in the report by the US National Research Council on science education reform. The review is organised in terms of these research-based goals for science proficiency in light of their alignment with current science…

  18. The Influence of Textbook Format on Postsecondary Proficient and Remedial Readers: Designing Information Using Visual Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetlan, W. Lou

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the design of textbook material affects comprehension and memory of textbook material under certain cognitive conditions for proficient and remedial readers. Using quantitative and qualitative research methods, format was found to significantly affect comprehension and memory. Proficient Male scored significantly…

  19. The relationship between automatic assessment of oral proficiency and other indicators of first year students' linguistic abilities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Febe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Academic literacy proficiency is key to the success of a student at university. Currently, the large-scale assessment of language proficiency, particularly at higher education levels, is dominated by reading and writing tests because listening...

  20. The relationship between fundamental movement skill proficiency and physical self-confidence among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Bronagh; Belton, Sarahjane; Powell, Danielle; Issartel, Johann

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to assess fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency, physical self-confidence levels, and the relationship between these variables and gender differences among adolescents. Three hundred and ninety five adolescents aged 13.78 years (SD = ±1.2) from 20 schools were involved in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD), TGMD-2 and Victorian Skills Manual were used to assess 15 FMS. Participants' physical self-confidence was also assessed using a valid skill-specific scale. A significant correlation was observed between FMS proficiency and physical self-confidence for females only (r = 0.305, P self-confidence levels than females (P = 0.001). Males scored significantly higher than females in FMS proficiency (P self-confidence group were significantly less proficient at FMS than the medium (P self-confidence groups (P self-confidence and FMS proficiency.

  1. Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: Parte 2 (Crescimento médio de Ba-Na, CC-Na e CC-Ba Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: Part 2 (Mean growth of Ba-Na, CC-Na and CC-Ba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucelma Vilela Pieri

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais e de relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos.METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino, com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selecionada em uma clínica particular, em São Paulo, Brasil. Havia 118 Classe I, 151 Classe II e 31 Classe III. Todas as 600 radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram obtidas no mesmo aparelho de raios-x. As análises de Ricketts e Schwarz modificadas por Faltin foram usadas. As medidas lineares (Ba-Na, CC-Na e CC-Ba foram feitas manualmente pelo mesmo examinador em T1 e T2. Os relacionamentos foram estudados juntos e separadamente, considerando tipo facial e gênero. O teste t-pareado e ANOVA foram aplicados. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o tipo facial retrovertido cresceu significantemente mais em CC-Na na Classe II, sendo a sua correção desfavorável no gênero feminino; com tendência favorável na Classe III e crescimento dentro do esperado na Classe I. O neutrovertido cresceu significantemente mais em CC-Na nas Classes I e II, sendo desfavorável na Classe II; com crescimento eqüitativo de CC-Na e CC-Ba na Classe III e levemente acima do esperado na Classe I. O provertido teve crescimento eqüitativo em todas as Classes, sendo significantemente favorável na Classe II mandibular; com tendência favorável na Classe III e crescimento médio acima do esperado na Classe I.AIM: This retrospective study evaluated the cranial base mean growth in different facial types and orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship. METHODS: A random sample of 300 Brazilian Caucasian patients (131 males, 169 females, initial and final mean age (10 years 2 months-mixed dentition; 14 years 8 months

  2. An Exploration of Academic Reading Proficiency at the University Level: A Cross-Sectional Study of 848 Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzycki, Meg; Howard, Pamela; Allen, Diane; Desa, Geoffrey; Rosegard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Academic reading proficiently is characterized by the ability to perform cognitive tasks associated with interpreting text. Researchers developed an externally validated Informal Academic Reading Proficiency Test to gauge undergraduates' academic reading proficiency. A cross-sectional study of 23 classes completed the reading test in 2014. This…

  3. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  4. Influence of L2 Proficiency on Speech Movement Variability: Production of Prosodic Contrasts by Bengali-English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of age of immersion and proficiency in a second language on speech movement consistency in both a first and a second language. Ten monolingual speakers of English and 20 Bengali-English bilinguals (10 with low L2 proficiency and 10 with high L2 proficiency) participated. Lip movement variability was assessed based…

  5. Selectivity of bis-triazinyl bipyridine ligands for americium(III) in Am/Eu separation by solvent extraction. Part 1. Quantum mechanical study on the structures of BTBP complexes and on the energy of the separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutt, Jerzy; Oziminski, Wojciech P

    2012-12-21

    Theoretical studies were carried out on two pairs of americium and europium complexes formed by tetra-N-dentate lipophilic BTBP ligands, neutral [ML(NO(3))(3)] and cationic [ML(2)](3+) where M = Am(III) or Eu(III), and L = 6,6'-bis-(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine (C2-BTBP). Molecular structures of the complexes have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and total energies of the complexes in various media were estimated using single point calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and MP2/6-311G(d,p) levels of theory. In the calculations americium and europium ions were treated using pseudo-relativistic Stuttgart-Dresden effective core potentials and the accompanying basis sets. Selectivity in solvent extraction separation of two metal ions is a co-operative function of contributions from all extractable metal complexes, which depend on physico-chemical properties of each individual complex and on its relative amount in the system. Semi-quantitative analysis of BTBP selectivity in the Am/Eu separation process, based on the contributions from the two pairs of Am(III) and Eu(III) complexes, has been carried out. To calculate the energy of Am/Eu separation, a model of the extraction process was used, consisting of complex formation in water and transfer of the formed complex to the organic phase. Under the assumptions discussed in the paper, this simple two-step model results in reliable values of the calculated differences in the energy changes for each pair of the Am/Eu complexes in both steps of the process. The greater thermodynamic stability (in water) of the Am-BTBP complexes, as compared with the analogous Eu species, caused by greater covalency of the Am-N than Eu-N bonds, is most likely the main reason for BTBP selectivity in the separation of the two metal ions. The other potential reason, i.e. differences in lipophilic properties of the analogous complexes of Am and Eu, is less important with regard to this selectivity.

  6. Improving Students' English Speaking Proficiency in Saudi Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Awadh Alharbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In English as a foreign language (EFL contexts, the absence of authentic language learning situations outside the classroom presents a significant challenge to improving students' English communication skills. Specific obstacles in the learning environment can also result in students’ limited use of English inside the classroom. These issues ultimately affect students’ English speaking capacity. Focusing on the Saudi EFL context, this paper attempted to identify the causes of Saudi students’ low proficiency in English communication and provide some recommendations to address these issues. The most significant findings of the paper were: (1 reforming specific Ministry of Education and Higher Education policies in Saudi Arabia is crucial; (2 the Saudi education system should reinforce the use of contemporary approaches to teaching that emphasise problem solving and critical thinking skills and put students in charge of their own learning; and (3 the ministry should consider converting some Saudi public schools into bilingual schools.

  7. Scientific issues related to the cytology proficiency testing regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The member organizations of the CETC feel strongly that there are significant flaws associated with the proposed proficiency test and its implementation. The most immediate modifications include lengthening the required testing interval, utilizing stringently validated and continuously monitored slides, changing the grading scheme and changing the focus of the test from individuals to laboratory level testing, as described above. Integration of new computer-assisted and location-guided screening technologies into the testing protocol is necessary for the testing program to be compliant with the current CLIA law. The regulation also needs to be flexible enough to accommodate new technologies that are implemented in laboratory practice, education and administration of the test. The changes recommended in this document address the most immediate technical and scientific concerns with the current implementation of PT for gynecologic cytology. The CETC will be submitting a subsequent document, following full review of the current regulations, with recommendations for changes, justifications and impact.

  8. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests to detect viral fish diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahns, Søren; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Skall, Helle Frank

    An inter-laboratory proficiency test has ben provided by the European Community Laboratory (CRL) for Fish Diseases every year since 1996. The test is provided to all European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) that are obliged to participate and to a limited number of non-European NRLs, making...... the total number of participating laboratories 35. The test is primarily designed to assess the ability of participating laboratories to identify and quantify the notifiable non-exotic fish pathogenic viruses: Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious haematopietic necrosis virus (IHNV......) but also to assess their ability to differentiate other fish viruses as spring viraemia of carp virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, perch rhabdovirus etc. Five coded ampoules are provided to participants containing lyophilised supernatant from infected cell cultures. The CRL collect the data...

  9. Proficiency test for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Nícoli, Ieda Gomes; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho dos calibradores de radionuclídeos de 55 serviços de medicina nuclear brasileiros em medição de atividade de radiofármaco contendo 99Tc m. Testes de proficiência foram aplicados em 63 resultados originados do programa de comparação promovido pelo Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes do Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O desempenho foi avaliado em relação ao critério de aceitação de ±10% de exatidão exigido pela...

  10. Visible and near-infrared intense luminescence from water-soluble lanthanide [Tb(III), Eu(III), Sm(III), Dy(III), Pr(III), Ho(III), Yb(III), Nd(III), Er(III)] complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quici, Silvio; Cavazzini, Marco; Marzanni, Giovanni; Accorsi, Gianluca; Armaroli, Nicola; Ventura, Barbara; Barigelletti, Francesco

    2005-02-07

    The synthesis of a new ligand (1) containing a single phenanthroline (phen) chromophore and a flexibly connected diethylenetriamine tetracarboxylic acid unit (DTTA) as a lanthanide (Ln) coordination site is reported [1 is 4-[(9-methyl-1,10-phenantrol-2-yl)methyl]-1,4,7-triazaheptane-1,1,7,7-tetraacetic acid]. From 1, an extended series of water-soluble Ln.1 complexes was obtained, where Ln is Eu(III), Tb(III), Gd(III), Sm(III), Dy(III), Pr(III), Ho(III), Yb(III), Nd(III), and Er(III). The stoichiometry for the association was found 1:1, with an association constant K(A) > or = 10(7) s(-1) as determined by employing luminescence spectroscopy. The luminescence and photophysical properties of the series of lanthanide complexes were investigated in both H2O and D2O solutions. High efficiencies for the sensitized emission, phi(se), in air-equilibrated water were observed for the Ln.1 complexes of Eu(III) and Tb(III) in the visible region (phi(se) = 0.24 and 0.15, respectively) and of Sm(III), Dy(III), Pr(III), Ho(III), Yb(III), Nd(III), and Er(III) in the vis and/or near-infrared region [phi(se) = 2.5 x 10(-3), 5 x 10(-4), 3 x 10(-5), 2 x 10(-5), 2 x 10(-4), 4 x 10(-5), and (in D2O) 4 x 10(-5), respectively]. For Eu.1 and Tb.1, luminescence data for water and deuterated water allowed us to estimate that no solvent molecules (q) are bound to the ion centers (q = 0). Luminescence quenching by oxygen was investigated in selected cases.

  11. AND Dy(III)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL. ACTIVITIES OF Sm(III) AND Dy(III) COMPLEXES WITH SCHIFF BASE DERIVED FROM. 2-HYDROXY-1-NAPHTHALDEHYDE AND 2-AMINOBENZOIC ACID. 1Bashir, S.S. and Abdulhadi, A. 1Department of Chemistry, Rabi'u Musa Kwankwaso ...

  12. Transition metal complexes with thiosemicarbazide-based ligands. Part46. Synthesis and physico-chemical characterization of mixed ligand cobalt(III-complexes with salicylaldehyde semi-, thiosemi- and isothiosemicarbazone and pyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VUKADIN M. LEOVAC

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed ligand octahedral cobalt(III complexes with the tridentate salicylaldehyde semi-, thiosemi- and isothiosemicarbazone and pyridine of general formula [CoIII(L11-3(py3]X (H2L1 = salicylaldehyde semicarbazone, X = [CoIICl3(py]-, ClO4- . H2O, I- . 0.5 I2; H2L2 = salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, X = [CoIICl3(py]-, [CoIIBr3(py]-, ClO4- . H2O, I3-; H2L3 = salicylaldehyde S-methylisothiosemicarbazone, X = [ CoIIBr3(py ]-, ClO4- . H2O, BF4- were synthesized. The tridentate coordination of all the three dianionic forms of the ligands involves the phenol oxygen, hydrazine nitrogen and the chalcogen (O or S in case of salicylaldehyde semi-, thiosemicarbazone and the terminal nitrogen atom in the case of isothiosemicarbazone. For all the complexes, a meridial octahedral arrangement is proposed, which is a consequence of the planarity of the chelate ligand. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, IR and electronic absorption spectra. The thermal decomposition of the complexes was investigated by thermogravimetry, coupled TG-MS measurements and DSC.

  13. Exploring EFL Learners’ Experience of Foreign Language Proficiency Maintenance: A Phenomenological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Ostovar-Namaghi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Having developed foreign language proficiency, a large number of EFL learners experience some degrees of foreign language loss later in life since English has no social function in many EFL contexts including Iran. However, there are some language learners who actively maintain and develop their proficiency long after they leave language education programs. This study aims at uncovering techniques applied by this minority group in maintaining their foreign language proficiency. Participants who were willing to share their experience of proficiency maintenance were selected through purposive and snowball sampling and verbalizations of their experience were then analyzed in line with phenomenology research design. Abstraction and thematic analysis of the participants’ experiences revealed that they actively create conditions that are conducive to proficiency maintenance such as reviewing previously learned materials, watching target language movies and actively manipulating subtitles, reading for pleasure, attending discussion groups, and using internet to communicate in the target language. While proficiency loss and attrition is the norm in EFL contexts, maintenance is an exception; hence, the findings of this study have clear and immediate implications for both foreign language teachers and learners since they provide them with down-to-earth, data-driven techniques of proficiency maintenance.

  14. Fundamental movement skills proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder: does physical self-concept matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sit, Cindy H P; Capio, Catherine M; Burnett, Angus; Ha, Amy S C; Huang, Wendy Y J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) examine differences in fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency, physical self-concept, and physical activity in children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and (2) determine the association of FMS proficiency with physical self-concept while considering key confounding factors. Participants included 43 children with DCD and 87 age-matched typically developing (TD) children. FMS proficiency was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development - second edition. Physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed using self-report questionnaires. A two-way (group by gender) ANCOVA was used to determine whether between-group differences existed in FMS proficiency, physical self-concept, and physical activity after controlling for age and BMI. Partial correlations and hierarchical multiple regression models were used to examine the relationship between FMS proficiency and physical self-concept. Compared with their TD peers, children with DCD displayed less proficiency in various components of FMS and viewed themselves as being less competent in physical coordination, sporting ability, and physical health. Physical coordination was a significant predictor of ability in object control skills. DCD status and gender were significant predictors of FMS proficiency. Future FMS interventions should target children with DCD and girls, and should emphasize improving object control skills proficiency and physical coordination. Children with DCD tend to have not only lower FMS proficiency than age-matched typically developing children but also lower physical self-concept. Self-perceptions of physical coordination by children with DCD are likely to be valuable contributors to development of object control skills. This may then help to develop their confidence in performing motor skills. Children with DCD need supportive programs that facilitate the development of object control skills. Efficacy of training

  15. Reducing fatalities and severe injuries on Florida's high-speed multi-lane arterial corridors : part III, county level and roadway level GIS safety analysis of state multilane corridors in Florida, final report, April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-28

    This part of the study examines the locations of high trends of severe crashes (incapacitating and fatal crashes) on multilane corridors in the state of Florida at two levels, county level and roadway level. The Geographic Information System (GIS) to...

  16. Carlos III en el CSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Biblioteca Tomás Navarro Tomás (CCHS-CSIC)

    2017-01-01

    En 2016 se celebra el tercer centenario del nacimiento de Carlos III, un rey ilustrado de cuyas medidas se benefició la organización política y social de España, y muy especialmente la ciudad de Madrid. A lo largo del año se han realizado numerosos reconocimientos en forma de exposiciones, presentaciones de libros, etc. La biblioteca Tomás Navarro Tomás quiere unirse a estas celebraciones con un portal web que destaque una parte de su colección bibliográfica y documental relacionada con Carlo...

  17. Results of the Proficiency Test, PT1 and PT2, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Christophersen, Maj-Britt

    A comparative test of diagnostic procedures was provided by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Fish Diseases. The test was divided into proficiency test 1 (PT1) and proficiency test 2 (PT2). The number of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) participating in PT1 and PT2 was 43. ....... The tests were sent from the EURL in the beginning of September 2012. Both PT1 and PT2 are accredited by DANAK under registration number 515 for proficiency testing according to the quality assurance standard DS/EN ISO/IEC 17043....

  18. EFL Speech Production: Exploring the relationship between working memory capacity and proficiency level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicele Vergine Vieira Prebianca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available : The present study explores the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC and proficiency level in EFL1 speech production. Forty-one participants performed two WMC tests – the Speaking Span Test in L1 and in L2. The statistical analysis indicated both a variation on WMC scores in L2 as a function of proficiency as well as a difference between WMC scores in L1 and in L2. Findings are explained mainly in respect to the interplay between automatic and controlled processes on memory retrieval and on the development of L2 proficiency

  19. EFL Speech Production: Exploring the relationship between working memory capacity and proficiency level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicele Vergine Vieira PREBIANCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC and proficiency level in EFL1 speech production. Forty-one participants performed two WMC tests – the Speaking Span Test in L1 and in L2. The statistical analysis indicated both a variation on WMC scores in L2 as a function of proficiency as well as a difference between WMC scores in L1 and in L2. Findings are explained mainly in respect to the interplay between automatic and controlled processes on memory retrieval and on the development of L2 proficiency.

  20. The Interplay among Emotional Intelligence, Classroom Management, and Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the interplay among Iranian EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence, classroom management, and their general English language proficiency. The result of the data analysis showed that: 1 there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the classroom management of Iranian EFL teachers, 2 there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, and 3 there was a statistically significant relationship between the classroom management and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers. Teacher trainers, researchers in teacher education, and language teachers may benefit from the findings of the present research.

  1. Interaction of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with mucin. A key component of the human mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the potential health risks caused by the ingestion of lanthanides (Ln) and actinides (An), investigations into the chemical behavior of these metals in the human gastrointestinal tract are necessary. Mucin is an important part of the protective mucosa layer in the digestive system. We have recently reported that mucin interacts strongly with Eu(III) and Cm(III), representatives of Ln(III) and An(III), respectively, under in vivo conditions. In order to investigate the complexation behavior of this protein with Ln(III)/An(III), TRLFS measurements were performed on Eu(III)/Cm(III)-mucin solutions with different protein concentrations and at different pH. The results indicate the formation of at least two independent mucin species. At higher pH, the formation of hydroxide species was also observed.

  2. Excess Polθ functions in response to replicative stress in homologous recombination-proficient cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Goullet de Rugy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available DNA polymerase theta (Polθ is a specialized A-family DNA polymerase that functions in processes such as translesion synthesis (TLS, DNA double-strand break repair and DNA replication timing. Overexpression of POLQ, the gene encoding Polθ, is a prognostic marker for an adverse outcome in a wide range of human cancers. While increased Polθ dosage was recently suggested to promote survival of homologous recombination (HR-deficient cancer cells, it remains unclear whether POLQ overexpression could be also beneficial to HR-proficient cancer cells. By performing a short interfering (siRNA screen in which genes encoding druggable proteins were knocked down in Polθ-overexpressing cells as a means to uncover genetic vulnerabilities associated with POLQ overexpression, we could not identify genes that were essential for viability in Polθ-overexpressing cells in normal growth conditions. We also showed that, upon external DNA replication stress, Polθ expression promotes cell survival and limits genetic instability. Finally, we report that POLQ expression correlates with the expression of a set of HR genes in breast, lung and colorectal cancers. Collectively, our data suggest that Polθ upregulation, besides its importance for survival of HR-deficient cancer cells, may be crucial also for HR-proficient cells to better tolerate DNA replication stress, as part of a global gene deregulation response, including HR genes.

  3. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2017.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  4. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M

    2016-01-01

    .... This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors...

  5. Five year results of an international proficiency testing programme for measurement of antifungal drug concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lempers, V.J.C.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Touw, D.J.; Burger, D.M.; Uges, D.R.A.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Brüggemann, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since 2007 the Dutch Association for Quality Assessment in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (KKGT) has organized an international interlaboratory proficiency testing (PT) programme for measurement of antifungal drugs in plasma. We describe the 5 year results of the laboratories' performance.

  6. EMPLOYERS’ VIEWS ON IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH PROFICIENCY AND COMMUNICATION SKILL FOR EMPLOYABILITY IN MALAYSIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Su-Hie Ting; Ernisa Marzuki; Kee-Man Chuah; Jecky Misieng; Collin Jerome

    2017-01-01

    Employability of graduates is a concern in many countries, including Malaysia, and the high unemployment rate among graduates is often attributed to their lack of English proficiency and communication skills...

  7. Online Assessment of Oral Proficiency for Intercultural Professional Communication: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2012-01-01

    Rusman, E., & Stoyanov, S. (2011). Online Assessment of Oral Proficiency for Intercultural Professional Communication: An introduction. Presentation about the CEFcult project (www.cefcult.eu) as an introduction to various personal interviews held with stakeholders, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open

  8. 76 FR 81958 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English Proficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English... translated materials and other programs that support the assistance of persons with limited English... Following Information Title of Proposal: Limited English Proficiency Initiative (LEPI) Program. OMB Approval...

  9. Interações sociais e proficiência motora em escolares do ensino fundamental Social interactions and motor proficiency in pupils attending elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Akemi Miyabayashi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo discute características de crianças que ingressam no ensino fundamental. Mais especificamente, o objetivo do estudo foi analisar a proficiência motora dessas crianças em relação com o nível socioeconômico e as interações sociais. O trabalho foi realizado com 30 crianças, as quais foram analisadas a partir do cruzamento de dados provenientes de teste de proficiência motora, questionário socioeconômico, observação direta e sociograma. Os resultados apontam que existe significância entre índices maiores de renda e sociabilidade com proficiência motora. Entretanto, o estudo também aponta para os desvios em relação à tendência encontrada, refletindo sobre a necessidade em se analisar os fatores macroscópicos do desenvolvimento sem recorrer a determinismos.This study discusses the characteristics of Brazilian children enrolled in elementary schools. Namely, the main focus of the investigation was to analyze the motor proficiency of pupils attending the first year of primary education in relation to their socioeconomic status and their social interaction at school. The study was conducted with 30 children, who were analyzed based on crossing data obtained from sources such as motor proficiency tests, socioeconomic questionnaire, direct observation and a sociogram. Results showed significance when comparing indexes of high income and sociability with motor proficiency. Nevertheless, the study also points out to some deviation in relation to the trend observed, thus showing that there is a need for analyzing the macroscopic factors of development, instead of just recurring to determinism.

  10. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A saxitoxin (STX proficiency test (PT was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  11. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Luginbühl, Werner; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Burrell, Stephen; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-11-25

    A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories' capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  12. Proteomic profiling of ATM kinase proficient and deficient cell lines upon blockage of proteasome activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Valeria; Santini, Simonetta; Rossi, Claudia; Zucchelli, Mirco; D'Alessandro, Annamaria; Marchetti, Carlo; Mingardi, Michele; Stagni, Venturina; Barilà, Daniela; Urbani, Andrea

    2012-08-03

    Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) protein kinase is a key effector in the modulation of the functionality of some important stress responses, including DNA damage and oxidative stress response, and its deficiency is the hallmark of Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T), a rare genetic disorder. ATM modulates the activity of hundreds of target proteins, essential for the correct balance between proliferation and cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the phenotypic adaptation at the protein level both in basal condition and in presence of proteasome blockage in order to identify the molecules whose level and stability are modulated through ATM expression. We pursued a comparative analysis of ATM deficient and proficient lymphoblastoid cells by label-free shotgun proteomic experiments comparing the panel of proteins differentially expressed. Through a non-supervised comparative bioinformatic analysis these data provided an insight on the functional role of ATM deficiency in cellular carbohydrate metabolism's regulation. This hypothesis has been demonstrated by targeted metabolic fingerprint analysis SRM (Selected Reaction Monitoring) on specific thermodynamic checkpoints of glycolysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Proteomics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Proteomic profiling of ATM kinase proficient and deficient cell lines upon blockage of proteasome activity☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Valeria; Santini, Simonetta; Rossi, Claudia; Zucchelli, Mirco; D'Alessandro, Annamaria; Marchetti, Carlo; Mingardi, Michele; Stagni, Venturina; Barilà, Daniela; Urbani, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) protein kinase is a key effector in the modulation of the functionality of some important stress responses, including DNA damage and oxidative stress response, and its deficiency is the hallmark of Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T), a rare genetic disorder. ATM modulates the activity of hundreds of target proteins, essential for the correct balance between proliferation and cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the phenotypic adaptation at the protein level both in basal condition and in presence of proteasome blockage in order to identify the molecules whose level and stability are modulated through ATM expression. We pursued a comparative analysis of ATM deficient and proficient lymphoblastoid cells by label-free shotgun proteomic experiments comparing the panel of proteins differentially expressed. Through a non-supervised comparative bioinformatic analysis these data provided an insight on the functional role of ATM deficiency in cellular carbohydrate metabolism's regulation. This hypothesis has been demonstrated by targeted metabolic fingerprint analysis SRM (Selected Reaction Monitoring) on specific thermodynamic checkpoints of glycolysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Proteomics. PMID:22641158

  14. HISTORY OF EMPLOYMENT AND MANPOWER POLICY IN THE UNITED STATES. PARTS III AND IV, LOOKING AHEAD TO THE POSTWAR ECONOMY AND THE CONCEPT OF FULL EMPLOYMENT IN CONGRESS. SELECTED READINGS IN EMPLOYMENT AND MANPOWER, VOLUME 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    THE SELECTED READINGS WERE COMPILED TO PROVIDE SUBCOMMITTEE MEMBERS WITH A BROAD BACKGROUND OF DEVELOPMENTS LEADING TO THE EMPLOYMENT ACT OF 1946 AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE FORMULATION OF U.S. EMPLOYMENT POLICIES FOLLOWING WORLD WAR II. PARTS I AND II (VT 004 819) PROVIDE THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND FROM THE LATE 1920'S THROUGH THE GREAT DEPRESSION.…

  15. Virtual phacoemulsification surgical simulation using visual guidance and performance parameters as a feasible proficiency assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chee Kiang; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Sulaiman, Mohd Nazri; Qamarruddin, Fazilawati A

    2016-06-14

    Computer based surgical training is believed to be capable of providing a controlled virtual environment for medical professionals to conduct standardized training or new experimental procedures on virtual human body parts, which are generated and visualised three-dimensionally on a digital display unit. The main objective of this study was to conduct virtual phacoemulsification cataract surgery to compare performance by users with different proficiency on a virtual reality platform equipped with a visual guidance system and a set of performance parameters. Ten experienced ophthalmologists and six medical residents were invited to perform the virtual surgery of the four main phacoemulsification cataract surgery procedures - 1) corneal incision (CI), 2) capsulorhexis (C), 3) phacoemulsification (P), and 4) intraocular lens implantation (IOL). Each participant was required to perform the complete phacoemulsification cataract surgery using the simulator for three consecutive trials (a standardized 30-min session). The performance of the participants during the three trials was supported using a visual guidance system and evaluated by referring to a set of parameters that was implemented in the performance evaluation system of the simulator. Subjects with greater experience obtained significantly higher scores in all four main procedures - CI1 (ρ = 0.038), CI2 (ρ = 0.041), C1 (ρ = 0.032), P2 (ρ = 0.035) and IOL1 (ρ = 0.011). It was also found that experience improved the completion times in all modules - CI4 (ρ = 0.026), C4 (ρ = 0.018), P6 (ρ = 0.028) and IOL4 (ρ = 0.029). Positive correlation was observed between experience and anti-tremor - C2 (ρ = 0.026), P3 (ρ = 0.015), P4 (ρ = 0.042) and IOL2 (ρ = 0.048) and similarly with anti-rupture - CI3 (ρ = 0.013), C3 (ρ = 0.027), P5 (ρ = 0.021) and IOL3 (ρ = 0.041). No significant difference was observed between the groups with regards to

  16. Development of a proficiency-based virtual reality simulation training curriculum for laparoscopic appendicectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirimanna, Pramudith; Gladman, Marc A

    2017-10-01

    Proficiency-based virtual reality (VR) training curricula improve intraoperative performance, but have not been developed for laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA). This study aimed to develop an evidence-based training curriculum for LA. A total of 10 experienced (>50 LAs), eight intermediate (10-30 LAs) and 20 inexperienced (training and assessment tool. Consequently, the first evidence-based internationally applicable training curriculum for LA was constructed, which facilitates skill acquisition to proficiency. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  17. Test Anxiety and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety in a Reading-Proficiency Test

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Chin Tsai; Yi-Chih Li

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assesse...

  18. Predictors and Outcomes of Early vs. Later English Language Proficiency Among English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children’s growth and development. PMID:22389551

  19. THE OBSERVATION OF TEACHER CANDIDATE RELATED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TEACHER'S PROFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    BAHŞİ, Muammer; TURAN, Mehmet; YILAYAZ, Ömer

    2009-01-01

    In this study it is evaluated science and tecnology teacher's proficiency based on students insights of science and tecnology education students in education faculty. It was used Standarts for Teacher Proficiency which is prepared from Ministry of National Education. The research was conducted on 85 Science and Tecnology students (4th classes) studying at the education faculty of Firat University. Data from results of study was analysed by using SPSS.

  20. English Language Proficiency and Early School Attainment Among Children Learning English as an Additional Language

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteside, K; Gooch, Deborah; Norbury, CF

    2016-01-01

    Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4?5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6?7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL...

  1. Proficiency test for gamma spectroscopic analysis with a simulated fission product reference spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhu, P; De Geer, L-E; McWilliams, E; Plenteda, R; Werzi, R

    2006-01-01

    Within the proficiency test programme for the radionuclide laboratories supporting the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, a simulated gamma spectrum with the characteristics of an atmospheric nuclear test was used as reference material. The spectrum was produced by the MCNP-based Virtual Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory (VGSL), using analysis results of a historical measurement of nuclear weapons debris as input. The method was found suitable for a proficiency test assessing laboratories' gamma spectroscopic analysis.

  2. The Interplay among Emotional Intelligence, Classroom Management, and Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Hamidi; Mohammad Khatib

    2016-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the interplay among Iranian EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence, classroom management, and their general English language proficiency. The result of the data analysis showed that: 1) there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the classroom management of Iranian EFL teachers, 2) there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the language proficiency of Iran...

  3. The use of TOEFL to measure a change in English proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ockey, Gary J.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the use of TOEFL as an instrument for measuring change in English language proficiency of graduate students at the International University of Japan. The data, which was analyzed, included entry and exit TOEFL scores of 181 students who participated in the nine-week Intensive English Program during one of the summers between 1994 and 1997. The results suggest that TOEFL scores can be used to show a change in English language proficiency for the students as a group, but...

  4. Relating input factors and dual language proficiency in French-English bilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The input factors that may cause variation in bilingual proficiency were investigated in 38 French-English bilinguals aged six to eight, of middle to high socio-economic status, attending an international state school in France. Data on children’s current and cumulative language exposure and family background were collected through questionnaires given to parents and children. Language proficiency was measured using the standardised French and English versions of the P...

  5. The Pre-attentive L2 Orthographic Perception Mechanism Utilized by Bilinguals with Different Proficiency Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Liang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Language proficiency is predicted to modulate orthographic-semantic association in second language (L2 vocabulary acquisition, in accordance with the assumptions of the Developmental Bilingual Interactive-Activation model (BIA-d (Grainger et al., 2010. The current study explored this modulation during pre-attentive L2 orthographic perception. ERPs were recorded from Chinese–English bilinguals with different L2 proficiency during their pre-attentive response to deviant and standard stimuli arranged in the oddball paradigm. Two stimulus types were investigated separately: L2 orthography and L1 orthography. In the L2 orthography condition, a MMN-N400 complex (i.e., deviancy effect was found in the high L2 proficiency bilinguals, but only a marginally significant reduced negativity in an early time window was found in the low L2 proficiency bilinguals. In the L1 orthography condition, the high and low L2 proficiency bilinguals showed similar deviancy effect in the form of MMN-P3a-LPC complex. The current findings suggest that proficiency modulates pre-attentive L2 orthographic perception, such that the high L2 proficiency bilinguals activate the associated semantic representation instantly upon orthographic decoding, while the orthographic-semantic connection is not activated for the low L2 proficiency bilinguals. This is probably due to their difference in the strength of orthographic-semantic association. These findings contribute to the understanding of orthographic processing by bilinguals at the pre-attentive level and provide supporting evidence for the BIA-d model.

  6. Evidence-based dentistry: assessment to document progression to proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T A; Straub-Morarend, C L; Guzmán-Armstrong, S; Handoo, N

    2017-11-01

    The integration of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) into pre-doctoral dental curricula requires the identification of desired outcomes, development of curricular content and design of assessment strategies which guide student performance whilst documenting achievement of desired curricular outcomes. Models for developing EBD curriculums have been described in the literature; however, the logistics of designing assessment instruments to progressively document student performance have received less attention. The objective of this article is to describe the University of Iowa's College of Dentistry's development and implementation of assessment strategies to guide student learning of EBD knowledge, application and assimilation to serve as a model for other institutions developing EBD assessment protocols. Desired EBD knowledge and behaviour outcomes guided the development of curricular content and progressive formative and summative assessment strategies. Vertically and horizontally integrated educational activities enabling students to demonstrate EBD knowledge whilst modelling desired behaviours were identified, whilst assessment principles guided development of learning guides and assessment instruments to document achievement of desired outcomes. Consistent EBD language and educational activities are utilised throughout the 4-year interdisciplinary curriculum with stepwise assessment protocols matched to the curriculum. Examples of student learning guides and assessment instruments are provided. Curricular design guides development of assessment strategies. Assessment protocols provide consistent formative and summative feedback to enable continuous student growth to become proficient EBD practitioners. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH AND CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMION MINODORA OTILIA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The technological development, the growing economic globalization and the majordemographic shifts have brought about the need for a global language. In international business, travel, scienceand technology, education, immigration, academia, diplomacy and entertainment, English is the dominantlanguage, being spoken by over one billion people. English is used inside and outside the professionalenvironment, both for communication in global business and for communication in social networks, butproficiency in English can definitely enhance people’s career opportunities both if they look for a job in thecountry or plan to go abroad to find employment. It may determine a division among those who have access toinformation and prosperity and those who don’t. In the future not just wealth but also the way it is created willhave a great impact on people’s increasing communicative needs of international languages. It is obvious thenthat more and more people will need proficiency in English ,both as a language for international communicationand as the basis for constructing cultural identities .

  8. Mismatch repair proficiency and in vitro response to 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carethers, J M; Chauhan, D P; Fink, D; Nebel, S; Bresalier, R S; Howell, S B; Boland, C R

    1999-07-01

    The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system recognizes certain DNA adducts caused by alkylation damage in addition to its role in recognizing and directing repair of interstrand nucleotide mismatches and slippage mistakes at microsatellite sequences. Because defects in the MMR system can confer tolerance to acquired DNA damage and, by inference, the toxic effects of certain chemotherapeutic agents, we investigated the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on colon cancer cell lines. We determined growth selection by cell enrichment assay and cloning efficiency after treatment with 5 micromol/L 5-FU, assayed nucleic 3H-5-FU incorporation, and analyzed the cell cycle by flow cytometry. 5-FU treatment provided a growth advantage for MMR-deficient cell lines, indicating a relative degree of tolerance to 5-FU by the MMR-deficient cell lines. Enhanced survival was statistically significant after 5 days of growth, and a 28-fold reduction in survival was noted in the MMR-proficient cells by clonagenic assays after 10 days of growth. Differences in nucleotide uptake of 5-FU did not account for the observed growth differences, and specific cell cycle checkpoint arrest was not detected. Intact DNA MMR seems to recognize 5-FU incorporated into DNA but may do so in a different manner than other types of alkylation damage. Defective DNA MMR might be one mechanism for tumor resistance to 5-FU.

  9. Improving Assessment of Foreign Language Proficiency in Internationally Majoring Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina L. Kobiakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the issues related to the development of the theoretical platform and the methodology for a model used to control and evaluate educational achievements at the Russian-based university-level foreign-language using such foreign practices as merit point system, testing technology and traditional controls. Having analyzed European practices of control and evaluation of students' foreign language proficiency, in particular, the experience of France, she advocates for the adoption by the national university system of the best available foreign methodology in the field. The article depicts the proprietary model for the comprehensive assessment of the educational outcomes of the internationally majoring students in the French language. The model, customized for Russian universities, is based on the professionally oriented competence-based practical course of the French language for internationally majoring students designed by the author. With the regard to that content and basing on DELF, DALF and TCF language tests and exercise systems for the French language studies by European and Russian practitioners, she advances her own testing, communication and translation exercises toolbox. That comprehensive evaluation model was successful tested at the MGIMO. In the course of that experiment, national testing techniques and the content of linguistic tests and didactic tools were streamlined with the European requirements.

  10. Leishmania spp.: proficiency of drug-resistant parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natera, Sonimar; Machuca, Claudia; Padrón-Nieves, Maritza; Romero, Amarilis; Díaz, Emilia; Ponte-Sucre, Alicia

    2007-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by at least 17 different species of protozoan Leishmania parasites and currently affects around 12 million people living mostly in tropical and subtropical areas. Failure to treat leishmaniasis successfully is often due to drug resistance. However, there are no cellular and molecular markers of chemoresistance against leishmanicidal drugs and the only reliable method for monitoring resistance of individual isolates is the in vitro amastigote/macrophage model. It is thus necessary to find cellular and molecular markers that can be used systematically to identify the drug-resistant phenotype of the infecting parasites. Until now, whether drug resistance in Leishmania compromises parasite proficiency, e.g. in terms of infectivity or metabolism, has not been systematically evaluated. Therefore, here we examine whether the physiological changes expressed by drug-resistant Leishmania reflect a modification of parasite vitality in drug-resistant compared with drug-sensitive parasites. Finally, the clinical implications of drug resistance in Leishmania are also discussed.

  11. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Proficiency of English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Filiz Yalçın Tılfarlıoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to examine L2 learners’ VLS use habits and the relationship of VLS with their vocabulary proficiency levels. In addition, language learners’ beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness were also studied to understand L2 learners’ VLS use habits more deeply. To examine these matters, a descriptive research design was employed. The participants included 252 preparatory students from different proficiency groups (Upper-Intermediate, Intermediate, Pre-Intermediate, Beginner at Gaziantep University Higher School of Foreign Languages. To collect the related data, they were given “Vocabulary Learning Strategies Questionnaire” and “Vocabulary Levels Test”. The data analyses were conducted by descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the study showed that the participants used a wide range of VLS, and there was an overlap between their beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness and how often they used them to a large extent. Secondly, Memory Strategies correlated positively with the participants’ academic and general vocabulary proficiency levels. However, there were also some differences among the proficiency groups about which specific VLS are correlated with their vocabulary proficiency levels. As to the regression analysis results, none of the VLS predicted participants’ vocabulary proficiency levels.

  12. The influence of non-native language proficiency on speech perception performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilman, Lisa; Zekveld, Adriana; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent proficiency in a non-native language influences speech perception in noise. We explored how English proficiency affected native (Swedish) and non-native (English) speech perception in four speech reception threshold (SRT) conditions, including two energetic (stationary, fluctuating noise) and two informational (two-talker babble Swedish, two-talker babble English) maskers. Twenty-three normal-hearing native Swedish listeners participated, age between 28 and 64 years. The participants also performed standardized tests in English proficiency, non-verbal reasoning and working memory capacity. Our approach with focus on proficiency and the assessment of external as well as internal, listener-related factors allowed us to examine which variables explained intra- and interindividual differences in native and non-native speech perception performance. The main result was that in the non-native target, the level of English proficiency is a decisive factor for speech intelligibility in noise. High English proficiency improved performance in all four conditions when the target language was English. The informational maskers were interfering more with perception than energetic maskers, specifically in the non-native target. The study also confirmed that the SRT's were better when target language was native compared to non-native.

  13. Fine motor skill proficiency in typically developing children: On or off the maturation track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, David; Issartel, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Fine motor skill proficiency is an essential component of numerous daily living activities such as dressing, feeding or playing. Poor fine motor skills can lead to difficulties in academic achievement, increased anxiety and poor self-esteem. Recent findings have shown that children's gross motor skill proficiency tends to fall below established developmental norms. A question remains: do fine motor skill proficiency levels also fall below developmental norms? The aim of this study was to examine the current level of fine motor skill in Irish children. Children (N=253) from 2nd, 4th and 6th grades (mean age=7.12, 9.11 and 11.02 respectively) completed the Fine Motor Composite of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd Edition (BOT-2). Analysis revealed that only 2nd grade children met the expected level of fine motor skill proficiency. It was also found that despite children's raw scores improving with age, children's fine motor skill proficiency was not progressing at the expected rate given by normative data. This leads us to question the role and impact of modern society on fine motor skills development over the past number of decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fe (III) complex of mefloquine hydrochloride: Synthesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of the ongoing research for more effective antimalarial drug, Fe (III) complex of mefloquine hydrochloride (antimalarial drug) was synthesized using template method. Mefloquine was tentatively found to have coordinated through the hydroxyl and the two nitrogen atoms in the quinoline and piperidine in the structure, ...

  15. Mathematics for engineers III vector calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    This book is part of a four-volume textbook on Engineering Mathematics for undergraduates. Volume III treats vector calculus and differential equations of higher order. The text uses Mathematica as a tool to discuss and to solve examples from mathematics. The basic use of this language is demonstrated by examples.

  16. SAGE III aerosol extinction validation in the Arctic winter: comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Thomason

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use of potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased of the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10–20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020 nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of ~30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that SAGE II and POAM III data sets are not well correlated at and below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.

  17. Complexes of 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferenc, W.; Bernat, M.; Sarzyński, J.; Głuchowska, H.

    2010-01-01

    The complexes of 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III) have been synthesized as polycrystalline hydrated solids, and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, magnetic studies and also by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric measurements. The analysed complexes have the following colours: violet for Nd(III), white for Gd(III) and cream for Ho(III) compounds. The carboxylate groups bind as bidentate chelating (Ho) or bridging ligands (Nd, Gd). On heating to 1173K ...

  18. Lutetium(III cyclotetraphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïcha Mbarek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compound, tetralutetium(III tris(cyclotetraphosphate, Lu4(P4O123, were obtained by solid-state reaction. The cubic structure is isotypic with its AlIII and ScIII analogues and is built up from four-membered (P4O124− phosphate ring anions (overline{4} symmetry, isolated from each other and further linked through isolated LuO6 octahedra (.3. symmetry via corner sharing. Each LuO6 octahedron is linked to six (P4O124− rings, while each (P4O124− ring is linked to eight LuO6 octahedra.

  19. Science Proficiency and Course Taking in High School: The Relationship of Science Course-Taking Patterns to Increases in Science Proficiency between 8th and 12th Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Timothy

    This analysis uses data on science achievement and transcript reports of science course taking patterns of students from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) to estimate the relationship between science course taking and the change in science proficiency levels between 8th and 12th grades. It also explores the extent to…

  20. Measuring Second Language Proficiency with EEG Synchronization: How Functional Cortical Networks and Hemispheric Involvement Differ as a Function of Proficiency Level in Second Language Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterer, Susanne; Pereda, Ernesto; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the question of whether university-based high-level foreign language and linguistic training can influence brain activation and whether different L2 proficiency groups have different brain activation in terms of lateralization and hemispheric involvement. The traditional and prevailing theory of hemispheric involvement in…

  1. III-V microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nougier, JP

    1991-01-01

    As is well known, Silicon widely dominates the market of semiconductor devices and circuits, and in particular is well suited for Ultra Large Scale Integration processes. However, a number of III-V compound semiconductor devices and circuits have recently been built, and the contributions in this volume are devoted to those types of materials, which offer a number of interesting properties. Taking into account the great variety of problems encountered and of their mutual correlations when fabricating a circuit or even a device, most of the aspects of III-V microelectronics, from fundamental p

  2. Influence of exercise on skill proficiency in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Kingsley, Michael

    2011-07-01

    The ability to maintain technical performances (i.e. skills) throughout soccer match-play is considered to be crucial in determining the outcome of competitive fixtures. Consequently, coaches dedicate a large proportion of time to practicing isolated skills, such as passing, shooting and dribbling. Unlike other elements that contribute to team-sport performances, it is unusual for coaches to use methods other than observations to assess changes resulting from technical training. Researchers have employed various tests to measure isolated soccer skills; however, reliance on outcome measures that include number of contacts (ball juggling tasks), time (dribbling tasks) and points scored (criterion-based passing and shooting tests) means that the outcomes are difficult for coaches to interpret. Skill tests that use video-analysis techniques to measure ball speed, precision and success of soccer skills offer valid and reliable alternatives. Although equivocal results are published, skill performances can be affected by assorted factors that threaten homeostasis, including match-related fatigue, dehydration and reductions in blood glucose concentrations. While acknowledging methodological constraints associated with using skill tests with limited ecological validity and cognitive demands, the effects of these homeostatic disturbances might vary according to the type of skill being performed. Shooting performances appear most susceptible to deterioration after exercise. Strategies such as aerobic training, fluid-electrolyte provision and acute carbohydrate supplementation have been found to improve proficiency in technical actions performed after soccer-specific exercise. However, mechanisms that cause deterioration in skill during soccer-specific exercise remain to be fully elucidated and strategies to optimize technical performance throughout match-play are warranted.

  3. 20 CFR Appendix III to Subpart C... - Benefit Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Part 404 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Pt. 404, Subpt. C, App. III Appendix III to... their benefit computed from this table. However, the minimum benefit provision was repealed for other...

  4. Attention control and ability level in a complex cognitive skill: attention shifting and second-language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalowitz, Norman; Frenkiel-Fishman, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between attention control and proficiency in a complex cognitive skill. The participants were English-French bilinguals with varying degrees of second-language (French) proficiency. Proficiency was operationalized as efficiency of lexical access in an animacy judgment task, as reflected in the coefficient of variability of response time adjusted for first-language performance on the same task. Attention control was operationalized as the shift cost obtained in a linguistic version of the alternating runs task-switching paradigm. Hierarchical regression revealed that, overall, attention control accounted for 59% of the variance of proficiency and that second-language attention control alone accounted for 32% of the unique variance of proficiency, indicating a high degree of skill domain (second language) specificity in the relationship between attention control and proficiency. The results speak to issues regarding the development of expertise, second-language acquisition, and a cognitive linguistic approach to language and attention.

  5. The 2010 Global Proficiency Study of Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Vaccinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Carina; Forslund, Ola; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Zhou, Tiequn

    2012-01-01

    Accurate and internationally comparable human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA genotyping is essential both for evaluation of HPV vaccines and for effective monitoring and implementation of vaccination programs. The World Health Organization (WHO) HPV Laboratory Network (LabNet) regularly issues international proficiency studies. The 2010 HPV genotyping proficiency panel for HPV vaccinology contained 43 coded samples composed of purified plasmids of 16 HPV types (HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68a and 68b) and 3 coded extraction controls. Proficient typing was defined as detection in both single and multiple infections of 50 international units (IU) of HPV type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 DNA and 500 genome equivalents (GE) for the other 14 HPV types. Ninety-eight laboratories worldwide submitted a total of 132 data sets. Twenty-four different HPV genotyping assay methods were used, with Linear Array being the most commonly used. Other major assays used were a line blot assay (Inno-LiPa), CLART, type-specific real-time PCR, PCR Luminex, and different microarray assays. Altogether, 72 data sets were proficient for detection of more than 1 type, and only 26 data sets proficiently detected all 16 HPV types. The major oncogenic HPV types, 16 and 18, were proficiently detected in 95.0% (114/120) and 87.0% (94/108) of data sets, respectively. Forty-six data sets reported multiple false-positive results and were considered nonproficient. A trend toward increased sensitivity of assays was seen for the 41 laboratories that participated in both 2008 and 2010. In conclusion, continued global proficiency studies will be required for establishing comparable and reliable HPV genotyping services for vaccinology worldwide. PMID:22535980

  6. El Patronato «Juan de la Cierva» (1939-1960. III Parte: La investigación científica y tecnológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López García, Santiago

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Not available.El presente artículo es el último de una trilogía cuyas partes precedentes han sido publicadas en los números anteriores de Arbor. Ya hemos tratado los orígenes, la organización y la financiación del Patronato. Ahora, nos fijaremos en la investigación científica y tecnológica que se llevó a cabo en el periodo de la «autarquía económica» (epígrafe 5. Al final, exponemos las conclusiones y los apéndices y bibliografía comunes a los tres escritos.

  7. Tempo, idade e cultura: uma contribuição à psicopatologia da depressão no idoso. Parte III: A depressão, o tempo e a cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lyra Bastos

    Full Text Available Procuramos aqui relacionar dois aspectos fundamentais das intuições culturais sobre a passagem do tempo - a temporalidade cíclica e a contínua - com a terapêutica médica e especialmente com a psicopatologia, numa visão crítica do constructo moderno da depressão no idoso. Inspirado em perspectivas de natureza antropológica, o texto se apoia na experiência clínica cotidiana e na atitude fenomenológica que orienta essa prática. Nas concepções culturais que tendem a perceber a passagem do tempo de forma predominantemente cíclica, o envelhecer é parte de um movimento eterno e a família se perpetua em seus descendentes, nas suas tradições, no vínculo com a terra ou no exercício do ofício familiar. As transformações culturais que têm proporcionado a passagem para enfoques mais direcionais do tempo vão destacando cada vez mais o papel individual na história social. Quanto mais difícil for a passagem de Weltanschauungen tradicionais, de tendência circular, fatalista, repetitiva e eterna para outras de tendência individualizante, burocratizante, planejadora e sucessiva, maiores as dificuldades para uma senectude satisfatória e maior a tendência à medicalização desse fracasso. Esta é a terceira parte de uma série de três artigos.

  8. Health Literacy and the Disenfranchised: The Importance of Collaboration Between Limited English Proficiency and Health Literacy Researchers

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Michael M.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate health literacy and limited English proficiency are associated with poor health care access and outcomes. Despite what appears to be an interaction phenomenon—whereby the rate of inadequate health literacy is particularly high among limited English proficiency populations—researchers in health literacy and limited English proficiency rarely collaborate. As a result, few health literacy instruments and interventions have been developed or validated for smaller linguistic populations...

  9. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family a...

  10. BANANAS III (ARTIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Key words: Cross-Retaliation, Justiciability, EC-Bananas III, Countermeasure. 1. Introduction. The World Trade Organisation (WTO) as an international legal personality regulates the World. Trading System to ensure smooth, free, fair and predictable flow of international trade. It is. “the only International Organisation dealing ...

  11. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    . 2 radicals ... Crystal structure of the complex was determined by X-ray diffraction and is reported elsewhere. 5. The complex is stable towards hydrolysis at least for 10 h as checked by its ..... served in Co(III) aquo-ammonia complexes where.

  12. [The development of modern Japanese pharmaceutical industry (Part 4). From 1906 to 1920, coinciding with the era between the institution and issue of Japanese Pharmacopoeia Third Edition with Fourth Edition (JP III-JP IV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H

    1994-01-01

    The publishing of the Third Edition of Japanese Pharmacopoeia was performed after Russo-Japanese War, on July 2, 1906. In those times, the military and economical power of Japan advanced toward East Asia, and thus gradually, Japan had become one of the powerful force in the world, partly because due to the unexpected victory in the War. Thereafter, in the second decade of the twentieth century, Japan was involved in the World War I, from July, 1914 to November, 1918, which ceased the fire by the defeat of Germanic Allied Countries. In Japan, the next revise of the pharmacopoeia was performed and the Fourth Edition of it was published on December 15, 1920. The Japanese pharmaceutical industry developed remarkably in those times, during the big war and confusion in the market, by accompanying with the suitable and tentative pharmaceutical legislations by the government and the supportive aids to the civilian enterprises in the productions, supplies and distributions of the materials and medicinal products.

  13. INFLUENCE OF STUDENT ENGLISH UTILITY AND TEACHER EFFICACY ON ENGLISH PROFICIENCY OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. ORTEGA-DELA CRUZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning second language considers a number of factors that influence the manner in which the language is taught. Understanding of the learners’ goals and motivation for learning is one. Using descriptive-correlational research design, this study determined the influence of student English utility and teacher efficacy on the students’ English proficiency. A total of 101 students from first year to fourth year level served as the respondents of the study. The study quantified the students’ perception towards English utility and their evaluation of English teacher efficacy which employed a researcher-made survey questionnaire. Results revealed high positive perceptions of students towards English utility. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the perceptions of high school students on the efficacy of their English teachers. Correlation coefficients indicated a positive linear relationship among the given variables. The p-value revealed significant relationship of teacher efficacy (r = .691, p-value = .000 and English utility (r = .467, p-value = .000 to students’ English proficiency. Results of regression statistics revealed that English utility has no significant influence on the student English proficiency. Therefore, the main factor that must still be considered then should be the teacher. Finally, there is an explicit indication that high level of teachers’ efficacy performing in teaching has much powerful influence on the English proficiency of high school students. Thus improving the methods of teaching English provides a better way of motivating students to achieve higher levels of proficiency in the future.

  14. Language proficiency modulates the recruitment of non-classical language areas in bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K Leonard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilingualism provides a unique opportunity for understanding the relative roles of proficiency and order of acquisition in determining how the brain represents language. In a previous study, we combined magnetoencephalography (MEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to examine the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing in a group of Spanish-English bilinguals who were more proficient in their native language. We found that from the earliest stages of lexical processing, words in the second language evoke greater activity in bilateral posterior visual regions, while activity to the native language is largely confined to classical left hemisphere fronto-temporal areas. In the present study, we sought to examine whether these effects relate to language proficiency or order of language acquisition by testing Spanish-English bilingual subjects who had become dominant in their second language. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether activity in bilateral visual regions was related to the presentation of written words in our previous study, so we presented subjects with both written and auditory words. We found greater activity for the less proficient native language in bilateral posterior visual regions for both the visual and auditory modalities, which started during the earliest word encoding stages and continued through lexico-semantic processing. In classical left fronto-temporal regions, the two languages evoked similar activity. Therefore, it is the lack of proficiency rather than secondary acquisition order that determines the recruitment of non-classical areas for word processing.

  15. Students’ Perceived Level of English Proficiency in Secondary Schools in Dodoma, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Ndiku Makewa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper looked at students’ perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky’s theory of value. Correlation design was used to describe the association between the student and teacher-related factors and students’ perceived level of English proficiency. Purposive sampling was used to select 300 form three students. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the participants. Reliability of the research instrument was determined by conducting a pilot study. Pearson Descriptive statistics and Kendall’s Tau-b were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that the students’ perceived level of proficiency in spoken English was average. The findings indicated a significant positive correlation between perceived English proficiency and attitude toward the English language, classroom activities, teacher motivation, and classroom environment. It is suggested that further studies integrate qualitative research methods to the research design in order to get an in-depth understanding of students’ perception on English proficiency.

  16. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Iranian EFL Learners’ Speaking Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loghman Ansarian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of problem-based learning through cognition-based tasks on speaking proficiency of Iranian intermediate EFL learners in comparison to the effect of objective-based tasks. To this end, a true experimental research design was employed. Ninety five (N=95 language learners studying at a language institute in the city of Esfahan, Iran were given an IELTS listening and speaking test as the proficiency test and 75 learners were selected. In the next phase of the study, a second IELTS speaking test was administered as the homogeneity test and the pre-test to seventy five (N=75 learners chosen from the population and forty-eight (N=48 homogeneous intermediate learners were selected for the study (i.e., 24 learners in control group and 24 in experimental one. The results of an independent-sample t-test gained from the study proved that not only does implementation of problem-based learning through cognition-based tasks significantly increased intermediate participants’ speaking proficiency, but also it had more positive effect in comparison to objective-based tasks on participants’ speaking proficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that problem-based learning ought to be taken into account by educational scholars, those in charge of syllabus, material producers, language teachers and language learners. Keywords: Cognition-Based Tasks, Objective-Based Tasks, EFL Learners, Speaking Proficiency, Problem-Based Learning

  17. Do proficiency testing participants learn from their mistakes? Experience from the EXCEL throat culture module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Robert W

    2002-02-01

    Participation in proficiency testing is required under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988. Although the primary purpose of this testing is evaluation of current laboratory performance, a major secondary benefit of such testing is postulated to be progressive improvement in laboratory performance over time as laboratories learn from their previous experiences and feedback. To test the hypothesis that a secondary result of proficiency testing is improvement over time of laboratory performance. The performance of participants in a large proficiency testing program (EXCEL), designed for clinic and office laboratories, on a specific problematic competence, the ability to differentiate group A streptococcus from group C streptococci, was monitored during a 6-year period (1996-2001) for changes in participant performance. With each testing cycle, feedback on performance relative to peers and an educational discussion analyzing performance and suggesting best practices was submitted to participants. Despite consistent feedback, there was no significant change in participant performance throughout the period studied. In a large, stable proficiency testing program, a significant throat culture competence, which demonstrated less than optimal performance, did not improve over time, suggesting that current utilization of proficiency testing results in laboratory improvement programs is suboptimal.

  18. Evaluating the spoken English proficiency of graduates of foreign medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, J R; van Zanten, M; McKinley, D W; Gary, N E

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather additional evidence for the validity and reliability of spoken English proficiency ratings provided by trained standardized patients (SPs) in high-stakes clinical skills examination. Over 2500 candidates who took the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates' (ECFMG) Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) were studied. The CSA consists of 10 or 11 timed clinical encounters. Standardized patients evaluate spoken English proficiency and interpersonal skills in every encounter. Generalizability theory was used to estimate the consistency of spoken English ratings. Validity coefficients were calculated by correlating summary English ratings with CSA scores and other external criterion measures. Mean spoken English ratings were also compared by various candidate background variables. The reliability of the spoken English ratings, based on 10 independent evaluations, was high. The magnitudes of the associated variance components indicated that the evaluation of a candidate's spoken English proficiency is unlikely to be affected by the choice of cases or SPs used in a given assessment. Proficiency in spoken English was related to native language (English versus other) and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The pattern of the relationships, both within assessment components and with external criterion measures, suggests that valid measures of spoken English proficiency are obtained. This result, combined with the high reproducibility of the ratings over encounters and SPs, supports the use of trained SPs to measure spoken English skills in a simulated medical environment.

  19. Opportunities-to-Learn at Home: Profiles of Students With and Without Reaching Science Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Whitford, Melinda

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between opportunity-to-learn (OTL) at home and students' attainment of science proficiency. The data set used was the 2006 PISA science US national sample. Data mining was used to create patterns of association between home OTL variables and student attainment of science proficiency. It was found that students who failed to reach science proficiency are characterized by having fewer than 100 books at home; these students are also found to take out-of-school individual or group lessons with their teachers or with other teachers. On the other hands, students who reached science proficiency are characterized by having more than 100 books at home, not taking any out-of-school lessons, and having a highest parent level of graduate education. In addition to the above common characteristics, other home characteristics (e.g. computer and internet at home and language spoke at home) are also identified in profiles of students who have reached science proficiency. We explain the above findings in terms of current social-cultural theories. We finally discuss implications of the above findings for future studies and for improving science education policy and practice.

  20. Proficient beyond borders: assessing non-native speakers in a native speakers’ framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Fleckenstein

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background English language proficiency is considered a basic skill that students from different language backgrounds are expected to master, independent of whether they are native or non-native speakers. Tests that measure language proficiency in non-native speakers are typically linked to the common European framework of reference for languages. Such tests, however, often lack the criteria to define a practically relevant degree of proficiency in English. We approach this deficit by assessing non-native speakers’ performance within a native speakers’ framework. Method Items from two English reading assessments—the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA and the National Assessment (NA for English as a foreign language in Germany—were administered to N = 427 German high school students. Student abilities were estimated by drawing plausible values in a two-dimensional Rasch model. Results Results show that non-native speakers of English generally underperformed compared to native speakers. However, academic track students in the German school system achieved satisfactory levels of proficiency on the PISA scale. Linking the two scales showed systematic differences in the proficiency level classifications. Conclusion The findings contribute to the validation and international localization of NA standards for English as a foreign language. Practical implications are discussed with respect to policy-defined benchmarks for the successful participation in a global English-speaking society.

  1. Topoisomerase-1 and -2A gene copy numbers are elevated in mismatch repair-proficient colorectal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderstrup, Ida Marie Heeholm; Nygård, Sune Boris; Poulsen, Tim Svenstrup

    2015-01-01

    . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Test cohort: FISH analysis with an in-house TOP1/CEN20 probe mix and a commercially available TOP2A/CEN17 (Dako, Glostrup, Denmark) probe mix was performed on archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from 18 patients with proficient MMR (pMMR) CRC and 18...... patients with deficient MMR (dMMR) CRC. TOP1 and TOP2A gene copy numbers and their ratios per nucleus were correlated with MMR status using the Mann-Whitney test. Validation cohort: FFPE samples from 154 patients with primary stage III CRC (originally included in the RANX05 study) were classified according...... to MMR status by immunohistochemical analysis using validated antibodies for MLH1, MLH2, MSH6 and PMS2, and information on TOP1, CEN20, TOP2A and CEN17 status was previously published for this cohort. RESULTS: The observed TOP1 gene copy numbers in the 36 CRC test cohort were significantly greater (p

  2. Teaching and assessing technical proficiency in surgical subspecialty fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Susan L; Wang, Ming-Hsien; Gilson, Marta M; Chen, Belinda; Kern, David E

    2012-01-01

    To determine how programs are teaching and assessing procedural skills, and their perceived success. Cross-sectional survey. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) approved training programs in pediatric urology and colorectal surgery. Program directors and recent graduates (2007-2009). Thirty-nine program directors (60%), and 57 graduates (64%) responded; 89.5% of graduates and 94.9% of program directors felt training occurred successfully for the procedures that trainees were performing in their present practice. Nearly 90% of trainees and all program directors reported that there was no formal assessment of procedural competency at the beginning of training, although 66.7% of program directors reported that trainees were assessed "informally." Both program directors and trainees reported dialogue with faculty was the most frequent method used in preparing for operative procedures. Other methods (textbook/atlas, journals, web-based programs, videos) were used less frequently. Program directors with shorter tenure were more likely to use web-based and video methods; younger trainees were less likely to use textbooks/atlases. Faculty feedback on clinical decision-making and postprocedural review were perceived by both program directors and trainees as the most effective assessment methods for improving performance; however, trainees were more likely than program directors to report that postprocedure reviews were not included in their training (15.8% vs 9%, p = 0.045). Patient outcomes, written feedback from peers, and self-assessment were included in most programs, but valued less. Simulation was used in only about half the programs and was valued more highly by trainees than program directors (p = 0.011). Training in procedural proficiency was viewed as successful by both program directors and graduates. Dialogue with, assessment by, and feedback from faculty were frequently used and most valued; stressing the importance of the facilitator

  3. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part III: Evaluating Variables that Promoted Regional Twitter Use for At-risk Populations During the 2013 Hattiesburg F4 Tornado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-06-29

    Study goals attempt to identify the variables most commonly associated with successful tweeted messages and determine which variables have the most influence in promoting exponential dissemination of information (viral spreading of the message) and trending (becoming popular) in the given disaster affected region. Part II describes the detailed extraction and triangulation filtration methodological approach to acquiring twitter data for the 2013 Hattiesburg Tornado. The data was then divided into two 48 hour windows before and after the tornado impact with a 2 hour pre-tornado buffer to capture tweets just prior to impact. Criteria-based analysis was completed for Tweets and users. The top 100 pre-Tornado and post-Tornado retweeted users were compared to establish the variability among the top retweeted users during the 4 day span.  Pre-Tornado variables that were correlated to higher retweeted rates include total user tweets (0.324), and total times message retweeted (0.530).  Post-Tornado variables that were correlated to higher retweeted rates include total hashtags in a retweet (0.538) and hashtags #Tornado (0.378) and #Hattiesburg (0.254). Overall hashtags usage significantly increased during the storm. Pre-storm there were 5,763 tweets with a hashtag and post-storm there was 13,598 using hashtags. Twitter's unique features allow it to be considered a unique social media tool applicable for emergency managers and public health officials for rapid and accurate two way communication.  Additionally, understanding how variables can be properly manipulated plays a key role in understanding how to use this social media platform for effective, accurate, and rapid mass information communication.

  4. A review of radiation countermeasures focusing on injury-specific medicinals and regulatory approval status: part III. Countermeasures under early stages of development along with 'standard of care' medicinal and procedures not requiring regulatory approval for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay K; Hanlon, Briana K; Santiago, Paola T; Seed, Thomas M

    2017-09-01

    Terrorist attacks, with their intent to maximize psychological and economic damage as well as inflicting sickness and death on given targeted populations, are an ever-growing worldwide concern in government and public sectors as they become more frequent, violent, and sensational. If given the chance, it is likely that terrorists will use radiological or nuclear weapons. To thwart these sinister efforts, both physical and medical countermeasures against these weapons are currently being researched and developed so that they can be utilized by the first responders, military, and medical providers alike. This is the third article of a three-part series in which we have reviewed additional radiation countermeasures that are currently under early preclinical phases of development using largely animal models and have listed and discussed clinical support measures, including agents used for radiation-induced emesis, as well as countermeasures not requiring Food and Drug Administration approval. Despite the significant progress that has been made in this area during the last several years, additional effort is needed in order to push promising new agents, currently under development, through the regulatory pipeline. This pipeline for new promising drugs appears to be unreasonably slow and cumbersome; possible reasons for this inefficiency are briefly discussed. Significant and continued effort needs to be afforded to this research and development area, as to date, there is no approved radioprotector that can be administered prior to high dose radiation exposure. This represents a very significant, unmet medical need and a significant security issue. A large number of agents with potential to interact with different biological targets are under development. In the next few years, several additional radiation countermeasures will likely receive Food and Drug Administration approval, increasing treatment options for victims exposed to unwanted ionizing irradiation.

  5. Ecological validity of the German Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinçon, Sabine; Green, Dido; Blank, Rainer; Jenetzky, Ekkehart

    2017-06-01

    The diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is based on poor motor coordination in the absence of other neurological disorders. In order to identify the presence of movement difficulties, a standardised motor assessment is recommended to determine the extent of movement problems which may contribute to deficits in daily task performance. A German version of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (German BOT-2) was recently published. This study aimed to determine the ecological validity of the German BOT-2 by considering the relationship between assessment of fundamental motor skills with the BOT-2 and performance of everyday motor activities as evaluated by parents. This study used data obtained from the German BOT-2 standardisation study (n=1.177). Subtests were compared with theoretically corresponding tasks via parental ratings of overall fine and gross motor abilities and performance in six typical motor activities. Non-parametric Jonckheere Terpstra test was used to identify differences in ordered contrasts. Subtests reflecting 'Strength', 'Running Speed and Agility', 'Upper-Limb Coordination', 'Balance', and 'Fine Motor Precision' were associated with parental evaluation of gross motor skills (parts and crafts (p<0.001). Gross motor subtests of 'Bilateral Coordination' and 'Balance' showed no relationship to bike riding or performance in sports. Subtests of 'Upper-Limb Coordination' and 'Strength' showed significant correlations with sports, ball games and cycling. The results of this study suggest that the closer the proximity in the nature of the motor skills assessed in the German BOT-2 to daily motor tasks, the stronger the relationship between the clinical test and parental report of everyday performance of their child. The body functions tested in the German BOT-2, and hypothesized to underpin certain skills, were not automatically relevant for specific activities undertaken by German children. Future research

  6. Calculus III essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus III includes vector analysis, real valued functions, partial differentiation, multiple integrations, vector fields, and infinite series.

  7. High second-language proficiency protects against the effects of reverberation on listening comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Hurtig, Anders; Ljung, Robert; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation Among U.S. Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Chin, Aimee

    2010-01-01

    Are U.S. immigrants' English proficiency and social outcomes the result of their cultural preferences, or of more fundamental constraints? Using 2000 Census microdata, we relate immigrants' English proficiency, marriage, fertility and residential location variables to their age at arrival in the U.S., and in particular whether that age fell within the "critical period" of language acquisition. We interpret the differences between younger and older arrivers as effects of English-language skills and construct an instrumental variable for English-language skills. Two-stage-least-squares estimates suggest that English proficiency increases the likelihood of divorce and intermarriage. It decreases fertility and, for some, ethnic enclave residence. (JEL J24, J12, J13, J61).

  9. Conscience in Language Teaching and its Relationship with Language Proficiency and Emotional Intelligence of EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Jalili Kalangestani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the relationship among Iranian EFL teachers’ language teaching conscience, language proficiency, and emotional intelligence. To this purpose, 82 homogenized language teachers, M.A. students and M.A. holders in TEFL, English literature, and English translation, both males and females, were taken as the participants.  The result of the data analysis showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between the language teaching conscience and the emotional intelligence of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .83, p < .05, 2. There was also a statistically significant relationship between the language teaching conscience and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .59, p < .05. And finally, there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .52, p < .05. Teacher trainers, researchers in teacher education, and language teachers can benefit from the findings of this study.

  10. The relationship between uncinate fasciculus white matter integrity and verbal memory proficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, David J; Krafft, Cynthia E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Chi, Lingxi; Rodrigue, Amanda L; Pierce, Jordan E; Allison, Jerry D; Yanasak, Nathan E; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2014-08-20

    During childhood, verbal learning and memory are important for academic performance. Recent functional MRI studies have reported on the functional correlates of verbal memory proficiency, but few have reported the underlying structural correlates. The present study sought to test the relationship between fronto-temporal white matter integrity and verbal memory proficiency in children. Diffusion weighted images were collected from 17 Black children (age 8-11 years) who also completed the California Verbal Learning Test. To index white matter integrity, fractional anisotropy values were calculated for bilateral uncinate fasciculus. The results revealed that low anisotropy values corresponded to poor verbal memory, whereas high anisotropy values corresponded to significantly better verbal memory scores. These findings suggest that a greater degree of myelination and cohesiveness of axonal fibers in uncinate fasciculus underlie better verbal memory proficiency in children.

  11. Food security during infancy: implications for attachment and mental proficiency in toddlerhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslow, Martha; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Capps, Randolph; Horowitz, Allison; Moore, Kristin A; Weinstein, Debra

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between household food security (access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food) during infancy and attachment and mental proficiency in toddlerhood. Data from a longitudinal nationally representative sample of infants and toddlers (n = 8944) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-9-month (2001-2002) and 24-month (2003-2004) surveys were used. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect associations between food insecurity at 9 months, and attachment and mental proficiency at 24 months. Food insecurity worked indirectly through depression and parenting practices to influence security of attachment and mental proficiency in toddlerhood. Social policies that address the adequacy and predictability of food supplies in families with infants have the potential to affect parental depression and parenting behavior, and thereby attachment and cognitive development at very early ages.

  12. Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-efficacy and Its Relation to ESL Writing Proficiency and Academic Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Raoofi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Writing is an essential skill for academic development within any disciplinary area. Despite the rapidly growing body of research on the various aspects of second language writing, research on writing self-efficacy remains scarce. This study investigated the relationship the between writing self-efficacy and writing proficiency in English as a second language. In this cross-sectional study, 304 Malaysian undergraduate students completed a writing self-efficacy questionnaire. The participants’ writing proficiency was assessed using two different writing tasks. The results showed that there was a significant difference in writing self-efficacy among the three writing proficiency groups. It was also found that science students had significantly higher writing self-efficacy than those in social sciences. Limitations of the study and Implications for second language writing instruction are also discussed.

  14. WEB-BASED LANGUAGE CLUB AFFECTING EFL LEARNERS’ PROFICIENCY: A CASE OF IRANIAN LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ashraf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Language clubs have been reported to be effective in learning languages, increasing motivation and independence (Gao, 2009. The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of a web-based language club on the language proficiency of Iranian EFL learners. A number of pre-intermediate learners form two universities (118 were selected among 154 through a test of proficiency (TOEFL PBL, then they were put into experimental and control groups. The participants in experimental group got on line and acted as a member of a virtual language club for a period of 6 months. They got involved with activities like emailing, chatting, and weblogging. Data were collected through TOEFL PBL. The analyzed data from the test of proficiency indicated the outperformance of those in experimental group. Consequently, it might be proposed that web-based language clubs can make language learning easier and more efficient.

  15. Effect of Patternmaker’s Proficiency On the Creation of Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyoungok

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the patternmaker’s proficiency on the creation of clothing was investigated by the observation of the patternmaking process for clothing that satisfies the designer. We asked Japanese and French patternmakers to make a clothing pattern for the same design. The reasons for the differences in resultant clothing patterns and toiles made by the two patternmakers are discussed. Although the patternmaking processes used by the proficient patternmakers were similar, the resultant patterns were different owing to different recognition of the design. In particular, the shape and size of the collar that the designer emphasized in the illustration were different in the resultant patterns. Differences in patternmaking originated from differences in the patternmakers′ levels of expertise in terms of education, experience, and proficiency. However, the designer was satisfied with both patterns.

  16. Does Student Proficiency on Local Reading Assessment Measures Align with State Mandated Reading Proficiency Standards? An Investigation of the Relationship between the Developmental Reading Assessment, Reading Curriculum Based Measurement, and Maze, with the New York State English Language Arts Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschler, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Data from three reading assessment tools--the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA), Reading Curriculum Based Measurement (R-CBM), and Maze--were compiled from 61 fourth grade and 59 fifth grade students across Fall and Spring administrations in order to determine how proficiency on these measures was associated with proficiency on the New York…

  17. An Investigation of Vocabulary Learning Strategies by Iranian EFL Students in Different Proficiency Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Jafari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out the various strategies used in learning vocabularies among Iranian EFL learners in three different proficiency levels (beginner, intermediate and advanced in Zanjan province. The vocabulary learning strategies which have been used in this research include determination, social, memory, cognitive, and meta-cognitive which follow Schmitt’s taxonomy. 110 students were randomly selected from two language institutes in Zanjan. Schmitt’s (1997 Vocabulary Learning Strategies’ questionnaire was administered to the learners with three proficiency levels. Then, descriptive statistics and Anova were utilized to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics revealed that the participants of the study regardless of their proficiency levels were generally medium strategy users who used all these strategies moderately except for the determination strategies that were used in high level. In addition, basic learners used all different types of strategies more frequently than intermediate and advanced learners. By comparing two other proficiency levels, advanced learners used determination strategies and meta-cognitive strategies more frequently than intermediate learners, while social, memory and cognitive strategies were used more frequently by Intermediates. In order to perceive if the results were statistically significant, Anova for between group mean differences was conducted. It revealed the fact that there is no significant difference among learners with different proficiency levels in application of determination and meta-cognitive strategies while the learners with lower proficiency level used social, memory and cognitive strategies more frequently, that is, these three strategies were used more frequently by basic, intermediate and advanced learners respectively.

  18. Local and Global Task Switching Costs in Bilinguals Who Vary in Second Language Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relationship between bilinguals' second language (L2) proficiency and their performance on a Stroop switching task, in which a color word (e.g., GREEN) appeared in a congruent ink color (e.g., green) or an incongruent ink color (e.g., red). Participants either read aloud the color word in the word-reading trials or named the ink color in the color-naming trials. Bilinguals who varied in L2 proficiency received 2 pure blocks, consisting of word-reading trials and color-naming trials, respectively, and 1 mixed block, consisting of intermixed word-reading and color-naming trials in an alternating-runs pattern. Comparing performance in nonswitch trials in the mixed block and the pure block provides a measure of global switch costs, whereas differences on switch trials and nonswitch trials in the mixed block reflect local switch costs. Bilinguals with higher L2 proficiency showed a marginally smaller Stroop effect in color naming, a smaller local switch cost in word reading (but not in color naming), and a smaller word-reading versus color-naming task set asymmetry in local switch costs. The latter result was consistent with the language switching finding that the L1/L2 switch cost asymmetry decreased as a function of bilinguals' L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings support the facilitative role of L2 proficiency in bilinguals' task set switching: Those with higher L2 proficiency have better task set shifting and reconfiguration and updating abilities when they switch from a more difficult task set (color naming) to an easier task set (word reading) in a task-switching paradigm.

  19. Performance Monitoring and Response Inhibition in a Saccadic Countermanding Task in High and Low proficient bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika eSingh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 fluency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR task (Experiment1 and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR task (Experiment 2. In this task typically a target is presented to which subject must make saccade (No step trials, unless a new target appears on the other location after some delay from the first target onset (Step trials. On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first instead program a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT, which is the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target, as a measure of response inhibition, and post-stop slowing as a measure of performance monitoring, we observed two important results. It was found that high proficiency bilinguals showed more post-stop slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficiency bilinguals for both VGR and MGR. Secondly, high and low proficiency bilingual exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR, showing no altering effect of language proficiency on the response inhibition in bilinguals. These results suggest that bilingualism impacts performance monitoring which is modulated by language proficiency if not the inhibitory control system. Higher fluency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility, and ability to adjust behaviour that facilitates attainment of cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems.

  20. Preparation, characterization and use of a reference material to proficiency testing for determination of metals in fish tissue in natura; Preparo, caracterizacao e uso de um material de referencia para ensaios de proficiencia para determinacao de metais em tecido de peixe in natura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Luciana Vieira de

    2013-07-01

    The proficiency tests are widely used to evaluate the analytical capacity of laboratories and also as part of the accreditation process. For this reason, are important tools for the control of the quality of the analytical results obtained in the laboratories that work directly with seafood companies. In Brazil there are no providers of proficiency testing for metals potentially toxic in fish tissues. In this work will be described all steps used for the production of reference materials to be used in a proficiency testing pilot study for As, Cd, Pb and Hg in fish tissue following the recommendations of the ISO Guide 35. He preparation scheme consisted in selecting the individuals, cleaning, grinding, homogenization and fortification with As, Cd and Pb in two concentration levels. The preparation resulted in 164 sachets of 10 g each. In order to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation in the samples conservation 52 sachets were irradiated with {sup 60}Co (10.00 {+-} 1.05 kGy) in a gamma cell. This material with others non irradiated 52 sachets were used for the homogeneity and stability studies. The remaining 60 were used for the proficiency testing. The results demonstrated that both materials were homogeneous and presented good stability (during a period of 45 days). However, the irradiated material present better integrity, concerning biological degradation, when stored in ambient temperature. For this reason they were used to the proficiency testing pilot program. Ten laboratories participated in the proficiency testing pilot study and the results were evaluated using the following tests: z-score, confidence ellipse and En numbers. This work demonstrates the capability of the laboratory to produce reference materials as well as to organize and conduct proficiency testing. (author)

  1. The Effects of Type and Quantity of Input on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Language Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hassanzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the written texts on foreign language learning, a group of studies has stressed the function of learning context and learning chances for learners’ language input. The present thesis had two main goals: on the one hand, different types of input to which Iranian grade four high school EFL learners’ are exposed were looked at; on the other hand, the possible relationship between types and quantity of input and Iranian EFL learners’ oral proficiency was investigated. It was supposed that EFL learners who have access to more input will show better oral proficiency than those who do not have. Instruments used in the present study for the purpose of data collation included  PET test, researcher- made questionnaire, oral language proficiency test and face- to -face interview. Data were gathered from 50 Iranian female grade four high school foreign language learners who were selected from among 120 students whose score on PET test were +1SD from the mean score. The results of the Spearman rank –order correlation test for the types of input and oral language proficiency scores, showed that the participants’ oral proficiency score significantly correlated with the intended four sources of input including spoken (rho= 0.416, sig=0.003, written (rho= 0.364, sig=0.009, aural (rho= 0.343, sig=0.015 and visual or audio-visual types of input (rho= 0.47, sig=0.00. The findings of Spearman rank –order correlation test for the quantity of input and oral language proficiency scores also showed a significant relationship between quantity of input and oral language proficiency (rho= 0.543, sig= 0.00. The findings showed that EFL learners’ oral proficiency is significantly correlated with efficient and effective input. The findings may also suggest  answers to the question why most Iranian English learners fail to speak English fluently, which might be due to  lack of effective input. This may emphasize the importance of the types and quantity of

  2. How noise and language proficiency influence speech recognition by individual non-native listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Xie, Lingli; Li, Yongjun; Chatterjee, Monita; Ding, Nai

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how speech recognition in noise is affected by language proficiency for individual non-native speakers. The recognition of English and Chinese sentences was measured as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in sixty native Chinese speakers who never lived in an English-speaking environment. The recognition score for speech in quiet (which varied from 15%-92%) was found to be uncorrelated with speech recognition threshold (SRTQ/2), i.e. the SNR at which the recognition score drops to 50% of the recognition score in quiet. This result demonstrates separable contributions of language proficiency and auditory processing to speech recognition in noise.

  3. Recommending a minimum English proficiency standard for entry-level nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Thomas R; Marks, Casey; Wendt, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to provide sufficient information to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) to make a defensible recommended passing standard for English proficiency. This standard was based upon the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A large panel of nurses and nurse regulators (N = 25) was convened to determine how much English proficiency is required to be minimally competent as an entry-level nurse. Two standard setting procedures were combined to produce recommendations for each panelist. In conjunction with collateral information, these recommendations were reviewed by the NCSBN Examination Committee, which decided upon an NCSBN recommended standard, a TOEFL score of 220.

  4. Quality control of the analysis of histamine in fish by proficiency test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Warlley P.; Tette, Patrícia A. S.; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of histamine is required by the European Union for the importation of tuna and other Scombroid fish. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of the analysis of histamine in fish, by means of reference material (RM) and of proficiency test (PT). Sample analysis carried out using RM provided 89.4% recovery. During the proficiency test, the histamine content of the sample was 311.9 mg/kg and the z-score was zero. These results assure the good performance of the laboratory in the analysis of histamine in fish, asuring reliability of results to clients.

  5. Proficiency testing in the light of a new rationale in metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The novel proposed definition of measurement result in the international metrology vocabulary requires a revision of standards and guidelines for proficiency testing (PT), and a new approach to processing proficiency data is needed to test the ability of laboratories to present not only unbiased...... to an accepted reference value that fully reflects the uncertainties reported by participants in a PT scheme and permits calculation of En-numbers to distinguish whether or not measurement results are consistent with the accepted definition of the measurand. The strategy is applied to PT data from a recent...

  6. Results of LLNL's Participation in the 16th OPCW Proficiency Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, H R; Alcaraz, A

    2005-01-24

    The Sixteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test started in October 2004. The samples were prepared by scientists affiliated with the Forensic Science Center at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, USA. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy. The test scenario and the spiking and background chemicals were discussed and agreed in advance with the OPCW. The samples were prepared in accordance with ''Work Instruction for the Preparation of Test Samples for OPCW Proficiency Tests'' (Document No.: QDOC/LAB/WI/PT2). The preparation of the test samples and their analysis are described in this report.

  7. A review of the TAEA proficiency test on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides activities in black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeltepe, E; Şahin, N K; Aslan, N; Hult, M; Özçayan, G; Wershofen, H; Yücel, Ü

    2017-10-07

    A proficiency test amongst 15 Turkish laboratories with participation of 5 non-Turkish laboratories was organized to determine the 137 Cs, 40 K and 90 Sr massic activities in black tea powder samples. The bulk material, consisting of tea produced in 2014, was mixed with contaminated tea that was withdrawn from the market after the Chernobyl accident. Nineteen laboratories reported 41 results. The evaluation of the results was based on the accuracy and precision criteria adopted by the IAEA Proficiency Testing Group and resulted in 49% acceptable results, 19% acceptable with warning and 32% were found to be not acceptable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Relationship between L2 Proficiency and Lexical and Grammatical Features in Japanese EFL Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuya, KASHIWAGI; Kitakyushu University

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted which focus on interlanguage features in second language (L2) development of EFL learners. Although contribution of the first language (L1) to L2 development is considered to be such a feature, research into how an EFL learner's L2 proficiency moderates L1 influence on written features is limited. In order to probe the relationship between Japanese EFL learners' L2 proficiency and the degree of L1 influence on their products in second language (L2) writing, th...

  9. Determinants of English proficiency among Mexican migrants to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, K E; Massey, D S

    1997-01-01

    "We replicate prior research into the determinants of English language proficiency among immigrants using a dataset that controls for potential biases stemming from selective emigration, omitted variables, and the mismeasurement of key constructs. In general, we reproduce the results of earlier work, leading us to conclude that despite inherent methodological problems, research based on cross-sectional censuses and surveys yields fundamentally accurate conclusions. In particular, we find unambiguous evidence that English proficiency rises with exposure to U.S. society, and we reaffirm earlier work showing a clear pattern of language assimilation among Mexican migrants to the United States." excerpt

  10. Gynecologic cytology proficiency testing failures: what have we learned?: observations from the college of american pathologists gynecologic cytology proficiency testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatman, Barbara S; Bentz, Joel S; Fatheree, Lisa A; Souers, Rhona; Ostrowski, Saula; Moriarty, Ann T; Henry, Michael; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Booth, Christine N; Wilbur, David C

    2011-11-01

    In 2006, the first gynecologic cytology proficiency tests were offered by the College of American Pathologists. Four years of data are now available using field-validated slides, including conventional and liquid-based Papanicolaou tests. To characterize the pattern of error types that resulted in initial proficiency-test failure for cytotechnologists, primary screening pathologists, and secondary pathologists (those whose slides are prescreened by cytotechnologists). The results of 37 029 initial College of American Pathologists Papanicolaou proficiency tests were reviewed from 4 slide-set modules: conventional, ThinPrep, SurePath, or a module containing all 3 slide types. During this 4-year period, cytotechnologists were least likely to fail the initial test (3.4%; 614 of 18 264), followed by secondary pathologists (ie, those reviewing slides already screened by a cytotechnologist) with a failure rate of 4.2% (728 of 17 346), and primary pathologists (ie, those screening their own slides) having the highest level of failure (13.7%; 194 of 1419). Failure rates have fallen for all 3 groups over time. Pathologists are graded more stringently on proficiency tests, and more primary pathologists would have passed if they had been graded as cytotechnologists. There were no significant differences among performances using different types of slide sets. False-positive errors were common for both primary (63.9%; 124 of 194 errors) and secondary (55.6%; 405 of 728 errors) pathologists, whereas automatic failures were most common for cytotechnologists (75.7%; 465 of 614 errors). The failure rate is decreasing for all participants. The failures for primary pathologist screeners are due to false-positive responses. Primary screening cytotechnologists and secondary pathologists have automatic failures more often than do primary screening pathologists.

  11. Student Engagement in Long-Term Collaborative EFL Storytelling Activities: An Analysis of Learners with English Proficiency Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Yin; Liu, Chen-Chung; Wang, Yu; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Hung-Ming

    2017-01-01

    English proficiency difference among students is a challenging pedagogical issue in EFL classrooms worldwide. Collaborative digital storytelling has been adopted in language learning settings to increase motivation and engagement, especially for young learners. However, it remains unknown whether students of different proficiency levels can…

  12. The Development and Validation of a Spanish Elicited Imitation Test of Oral Language Proficiency for the Missionary Training Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    The Missionary Training Center (MTC), affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, needs a reliable and cost effective way to measure the oral language proficiency of missionaries learning Spanish. The MTC needed to measure incoming missionaries' Spanish language proficiency for training and classroom assignment as well as to…

  13. Do Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience Affect Speech Act Production? Analysis of Appropriateness, Accuracy, and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the effect of general proficiency and study-abroad experience in production of speech acts among learners of L2 English. Participants were 25 native speakers of English and 64 Japanese college students of English divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 22) had lower proficiency and no study-abroad experience.…

  14. Second language fluency: speaking style or proficiency? Correcting measures of second language fluency for first language behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N.H.; Groenhout, R.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    In second language (L2) research and testing, measures of oral fluency are used as diagnostics for proficiency. However, fluency is also determined by personality or speaking style, raising the question to what extent L2 fluency measures are valid indicators of L2 proficiency. In this study, we

  15. The Influence of Subject Knowledge and Second Language Proficiency on the Reading Comprehension of Scientific and Technical Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tim; Berry, Vivien

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of background knowledge and second language proficiency in relation to two sets of specific reading materials. One came from an IELTS reading module related to science and technology; the other was from a highly-specific popular science text. Results showed that both language proficiency and background knowledge predicted…

  16. Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales: Results from the 2013 NAEP Reading and Mathematics Assessments. NCES 2015-046

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira de Mello, V.; Bohrnstedt, G.; Blankenship, C.; Sherman, D.

    2015-01-01

    Under the 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, states developed their own assessments and set their own proficiency standards to measure student achievement. This has resulted in a great deal of variation among the states, both in their proficiency standards and in their student assessments (NCES 2008-475).…

  17. Mapping State Proficiency Standards Onto NAEP Scales: 2005-2007. Research and Development Report. NCES 2010-456

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira de Mello, Victor; Blankenship, Charles; McLaughlin, Don

    2009-01-01

    Since 2003, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has compared each state's standard for proficient performance in reading and mathematics by placing the state standards onto the NAEP scale. The procedure, "mapping," allows the level of achievement required for proficient performance in one state to be compared with the…

  18. Lexical noun phrases in texts written by deaf children and adults with different proficiency levels in sign language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, E.M. van; Hell, J.G. van

    2010-01-01

    We report an analysis of lexical noun phrases (NPs) in narrative and expository texts written by Dutch deaf individuals from a bimodal bilingual perspective. Texts written by Dutch deaf children and adults who are either proficient in Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) or low-proficient in SLN

  19. Improving English proficiency of post-graduate international nursing students seeking further qualifications and continuing education in foreign countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Vico; Crickmore, Barbara-Lee

    2009-07-01

    Post-graduate international nursing students who seek continuing education are accepted by nursing programs in a number of Western countries. Teaching experience from an Australian school of nursing program reflected that although these students demonstrated the minimum English proficiency required by the university, advanced English and communication proficiency related to clinical practice was required when they received clinical placements in an unfamiliar environment.

  20. Socio-Demographic and Practice-Oriented Factors Related to Proficiency in Problem Solving: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…